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Sample records for monitor selected uv

  1. MONITORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF UV DISINFECTION OF AEROMONAS SPP. USING SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was initiated to determine the sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. to ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Aeromonas hydrophila is a contaminant listed on the USEPA's 1998 CCL. Three different Aeromonas spp. (A. hydrophila, A. sobria and A. caviae) were tested using membrane fi...

  2. The Austrian UV monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumthaler, Mario; Klotz, Barbara; Schwarzmann, Michael; Schreder, Josef

    2017-02-01

    The Austrian UV Monitoring network is operational since 1998 providing a large data set of erythemally weighted UV irradiance recorded with broadband UV biometer at 12 stations distributed all over Austria. In order to obtain high quality data all biometer are recalibrated once a year, the detectors are checked regularly for humidity and quality control is done routinely. The collected data are processed and then published on the website http://www.uv-index.at where the UV-Index of all measurement sites is presented in near real time together with a map of the distribution of the UV-Index over Austria. These UV-Index data together with measurements of global radiation and ozone levels from OMI are used to study long term trends for the stations of the monitoring network. Neither for all weather conditions nor for clear sky conditions is a statistically significant trend found for the UV-Index (with one exception) and for ozone. Furthermore, the radiation amplification factor (RAF) is determined experimentally from the power law correlation between UV-Index and ozone level for the site Innsbruck (577 m above sea level, 47.26°N, 11.38°E) for 19°solar elevation. A value of 0.91 ± 0.05 is found for the RAF for clear sky days with low ground albedo and a value of 1.03 ± 0.08 for days with high ground albedo (snow cover).

  3. Quantitative analysis of UV-A shock and short term stress using iTRAQ, pseudo selective reaction monitoring (pSRM) and GC-MS based metabolite analysis of the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wase, Nishikant; Pham, Trong Khoa; Ow, Saw Yen; Wright, Phillip C

    2014-09-23

    A quantitative proteomics and metabolomics analysis was performed using iTRAQ, HPLC and GC-MS in the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 to understand the effect of short and long term UV-A exposure. Changes in the proteome were measured for short-term stress (4-24h) using iTRAQ. Changes in the photosynthetic pigments and intracellular metabolites were observed at exposures of up to 7days (pigments) and up to 11days (intracellular metabolites). To assess iTRAQ measurement quality, pseudo selected reaction monitoring (pSRM) was used, with this confirming underestimation of protein abundance levels by iTRAQ. Our results suggest that short term UV-A radiation lowers the abundance of PS-I and PS-II proteins. We also observed an increase in abundance of intracellular redox homeostasis proteins and plastocyanin. Additionally, we observed statistically significant changes in scytonemin, Chlorophyll A, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene. Assessment of intracellular metabolites showed significant changes in several, suggesting their potential role in the Nostoc's stress mitigation strategy. Cyanobacteria under UV-A radiation have reduced growth due to intensive damage to essential functions, but the organism shows a defense response by remodeling bioenergetics pathway, induction of the UV protection compound scytonemin and increased levels of proline and tyrosine as a mitigation response. The effect of UV-A radiation on the proteome and intracellular metabolites of N. punctiforme ATCC 29133 including photosynthetic pigments has been described. We also verify the expression of 13 iTRAQ quantified protein using LC-pSRM. Overall we observed that UV-A radiation has a drastic effect on the photosynthetic machinery, photosynthetic pigments and intracellular amino acids. As a mitigation strategy against UV-A radiation, proline, glycine, and tyrosine were accumulated. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Direct chemical-analysis of uv laser-ablation products of organic polymers by using selective ion monitoring mode in gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yirang; Lee, H.W.; Fountain, S.T.; Lubman, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Trace quantities of laser ablated organic polymers were analyzed by using commercial capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; the instrument was modified so that the laser ablation products could be introduced into the capillary column directly and the constituents of each peak in the chromatogram were identified by using a mass spectrometer. The present study takes advantage of the selective ion monitoring mode for significantly improving the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer as a detector, which is critical in analyzing the trace quantities and confirming the presence or absence of the species of interest in laser ablated polymers. The initial composition of the laser ablated polymers was obtained by using an electron impact reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the possible structure of the fragments observed in the spectra was proposed based on the structure of the polymers.

  5. Atmospheric trace gases monitoring by UV-vis spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pinhua; Li, Ang; Wu, Fengcheng; Qin, Min; Hu, Rezhi; Xu, Jin; Si, Fuqi; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Wenqing

    2016-04-01

    Due to rapidly economic development, air pollution has become an important issue in China. Phenomena such as regional haze in winter and high O3 concentration in summer are strongly related to increasing trace species. For better understanding the air pollution formation, it is necessary to know spatial and temporal distribution of trace species in the atmosphere. UV-vis spectroscopic techniques are of great advantages for trace species monitoring to meet several requirements, e.g. versatility, high sensitivity, good temporal resolution and field applicability. We have studied and developed various trace gases monitoring techniques and instruments based on UV-vis spectroscopic technique for in-situ measurements and remote sensing, e.g. LP-DOAS, IBBCEAS, CRDS, MAX-DOAS and mobile DOAS for NO2, SO2, HCHO, HONO, NO3, and N2O5 etc. The principle, instrumentation and inversion algorithm are presented. As typical applications of these techniques, investigation of the evolution of HONO and NO3 radicals over Beijing area, measurements of regional pollution in NCP and YRD are discussed in the aspects of HONO and nocturnal NO3 radical characteristics, trace gases (NO2, SO2 etc.) temporal and spatial distribution, pollution transport pathway, emission sources.

  6. Design of the Mexico City UV monitoring network: UV-B measurements at ground level in the urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, L. R.; Evans, W. F. J.

    2000-02-01

    Although there is concern for future stratospheric ozone depletion, several large urban populations are already being exposed to very high UV levels due to geographical factors. In Mexico City, ultraviolet radiation (UV) plays an important role in the generation of high levels of tropospheric ozone and other photochemical pollutants. The measurement of ultraviolet-B radiation in Mexico began in the spring 1993, as a pilot project for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) monitoring and as support for the first Hispanic public information program on the UV index through the Televisa (Mexican television network, which covers the Spanish speaking world). In 1996, based on our preliminary measurements, the Mexico City government commissioned the authors to design the Valley of Mexico UV-monitoring Network. The design of the network is presented. The preliminary measurements show that biologically active (UV-B) solar radiation can reach levels above 5 minimum erythemal dose (MED/hour) or 12 UV index units during spring and summer months. Annual UV measurements have shown seasonal variations of 40% between winter and summer months. Strong attenuation of UV-B radiation at ground level in the urban troposphere has been detected under polluted conditions. Measurements of the morphology of UV-B radiation have been taken at downtown and suburban monitoring stations, over diurnal, monthly and yearly periods. The network measurements show that the downtown UV-B levels are 20% lower than suburban levels on a seasonal basis, but differences can be greater than 40% on polluted days. The relationship between the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) total ozone column and tropospheric ozone concentrations in Mexico City is also discussed.

  7. Monitoring of environmental UV radiation by biological dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, G; Berces, A; Grof, P; Fekete, A; Kerekgyarto, T; Gaspar, S; Stick, C

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion biological systems can be damaged due to increased UV-B radiation. The aim of biological dosimetry is to establish a quantitative basis for the risk assessment of the biosphere. DNA is the most important target molecule of biological systems having special sensitivity against short wavelength components of the environmental radiation. Biological dosimeters are usually simple organisms, or components of them, modeling the cellular DNA. Phage T7 and polycrystalline uracil biological dosimeters have been developed and used in our laboratory for monitoring the environmental radiation in different radiation conditions (from the polar to equatorial regions). Comparisons with Robertson-Berger (RB) meter data, as well as with model calculation data weighted by the corresponding spectral sensitivities of the dosimeters are presented. Suggestion is given how to determine the trend of the increase in the biological risk due to ozone depletion. c2001 COSPAR Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Advantages of the Use of Ion- Selective Potentiometry in Relation to UV/VIS Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Bratovčić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Electro analytical methods have a long history of development. Ion-selective potentiometry is one of the electro analytical methods. There are some advantages of the use of Ion selective potentiometry (ISP which is accurate, fast, economic and sensitive in relation to the standard method, UV/VIS spectroscopy. The development of potentiometric ion-selective electrodes is a very interesting field because it has a wide range of applications in determining ions in water and other mediums. The use of ion-selective electrodes enables the determination of ion species in a trace. Ion-selective electrodes are suitable for analysis in industry, for control processes, for physiological measurements and environmental monitoring. In recent years it was used for the determination of many ions in the food industry such as determination of calcium in milk products, fruit juice and different kinds of vegetables. In our experiment measurement of bottled water using ISP showed lower level of fluoride compared to measurement by UV/ VIS spectroscopy. This results confirmed higher sensitivity of ISE in reference to UV/VIS spectroscopy. By our experimental data we can conclude that the concentration in examined sample was within the allowed concentration according to World Health Organisation

  9. UV laser mediated cell selective destruction by confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangrande Angela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analysis of cell-cell interactions, cell function and cell lineages greatly benefits selective destruction techniques, which, at present, rely on dedicated, high energy, pulsed lasers and are limited to cells that are detectable by conventional microscopy. We present here a high resolution/sensitivity technique based on confocal microscopy and relying on commonly used UV lasers. Coupling this technique with time-lapse enables the destruction and following of any cell(s in any pattern(s in living animals as well as in cell culture systems.

  10. UV and X-ray monitoring of CPD -28 2561

    CERN Document Server

    Naze, Yael; Fullerton, Alex W; ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A; Rauw, Gregor; Walborn, Nolan R

    2015-01-01

    The Of?p star CPD -28 2561 was monitored at high energies with XMM-Newton and HST. In X-rays, this magnetic oblique rotator displays bright and hard emission that varies by ~55% with rotational phase. These changes occur in phase with optical variations, as expected for magnetically confined winds; there are two maxima and two minima in X-rays during the 73d rotational period of CPD -28 2561. However, contrary to previously studied cases, no significant hardness variation is detected between minima and maxima, with the exception of the second minimum which is slightly distinct from the first one. In the UV domain, broad-band fluxes remain stable while line profiles display large variations. Stronger absorptions at low velocities are observed when the magnetic equator is seen edge-on, which can be reproduced by a detailed 3D model. However, a difference in absorption at high velocities in the CIV and NV lines is also detected for the two phases where the confined wind is seen nearly pole-on. This suggests the ...

  11. The Norwegian UV-monitoring program. Period 1995/96 to 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Bjoern; Mikkelborg, Oddbjoern; Hannevik, Merete; Nilsen, Lill Tove; Saxeboel, Gunnar; Blaasaas, Karl Gerhard

    2002-07-01

    The report describes the program and results obtained during the period 1995 to 2001. The UV monitoring is performed at 8 locations between 58 {sup o} N and 79 {sup o} N. The experiments with the network implementation and operation are very good. Calibrations are traceable to several European UV networks, through the Nordic Intercomparison of UV and total ozone instruments in Sweden 2000. The measurements have been validated and found consistent. Six years of complete series of daily integrated erythemally effective UV-radiation (denoted UV-doses for short) and UV-indices are available for public and scientific use. The measurement series are yet too short to infer any trend in the UV-radiation. The Norwegian Institute provides UV-forecasts for air research (Author)

  12. Uveka: a UV exposure monitoring system using autonomous instruments network for Reunion Island citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébastien, Nicolas; Cros, Sylvain; Lallemand, Caroline; Kurzrock, Frederik; Schmutz, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Reunion Island is a French oversea territory located in the Indian Ocean. This tropical Island has about 840,000 inhabitants and is visited every year by more than 400,000 tourists. On average, 340 sunny days occurs on this island in a whole year. Beyond these advantageous conditions, exposure of the population to ultraviolet radiation constitutes a public health issue. The number of hospitalisations for skin cancer increased by 50% between 2005 and 2010. Health insurance reimbursements due to ophthalmic anomalies caused by the sun is about two million Euros. Among the prevention measures recommended by public health policies, access to information on UV radiation is one of the basic needs. Reuniwatt, supported by the Regional Council of La Reunion, is currently developing the project Uveka. Uveka is a solution permitting to provide in real-time and in short-term forecast (several hours), the UV radiation maps of the Reunion Island. Accessible via web interface and smartphone application, Uveka informs the citizens about the UV exposure rate and its risk according to its individual characteristics (skin phototype, past exposure to sun etc.). The present work describes this initiative through the presentation of the UV radiation monitoring system and the data processing chain toward the end-users. The UV radiation monitoring system of Uveka is a network of low cost UV sensors. Each instrument is equipped with a solar panel and a battery. Moreover, the sensor is able to communicate using the 3G telecommunication network. Then, the instrument can be installed without AC power or access to a wired communication network. This feature eliminates a site selection constraint. Indeed, with more than 200 microclimates and a strong cloud cover spatial variability, building a representative measurement site network in this island with a limited number of instruments is a real challenge. In addition to these UV radiation measurements, the mapping of the surface solar radiation

  13. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  14. Improving radiation data quality of USDA UV-B monitoring and research program and evaluating UV decomposition in DayCent and its ecological impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maosi

    Solar radiation impacts many aspects of the Earth's atmosphere and biosphere. The total solar radiation impacts the atmospheric temperature profile and the Earth's surface radiative energy budget. The solar visible (VIS) radiation is the energy source of photosynthesis. The solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation impacts plant's physiology, microbial activities, and human and animal health. Recent studies found that solar UV significantly shifts the mass loss and nitrogen patterns of plant litter decomposition in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. The potential mechanisms include the production of labile materials from direct and indirect photolysis of complex organic matters, the facilitation of microbial decomposition with more labile materials, and the UV inhibition of microbes' population. However, the mechanisms behind UV decomposition and its ecological impacts are still uncertain. Accurate and reliable ground solar radiation measurements help us better retrieve the atmosphere composition, validate satellite radiation products, and simulate ecosystem processes. Incorporating the UV decomposition into the DayCent biogeochemical model helps to better understand long-term ecological impacts. Improving the accuracy of UV irradiance data is the goal of the first part of this research and examining the importance of UV radiation in the biogeochemical model DayCent is the goal of the second part of the work. Thus, although the dissertation is separated into two parts, accurate UV irradiance measurement links them in what follows. In part one of this work the accuracy and reliability of the current operational calibration method for the (UV-) Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), which is used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP), is improved. The UVMRP has monitored solar radiation in the 14 narrowband UV and VIS spectral channels at 37 sites across U.S. since 1992. The improvements in the quality of the data result

  15. Air pollution effects field research facility: 3. UV-B exposure and monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvers, J.A.; Hileman, M.S.; Edwards, N.T.

    1993-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Outdoor UltraViolet-B (UV-B) Exposure and Monitoring Facility was developed in 1980 to provide well-controlled and -monitored exposure of specific terrestrial plant. species to elevated levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The introduction of various anthropogenic agents into the earth`s stratosphere has resulted in a decrease in the volume of ozone (O{sub 3}) present here. The decrease in O{sub 3} has resulted in an increase in the level of UV radiation reaching thee earth`s surface. Of particular interest is the level of UV-B, because it has the most detrimental effect on living tissue. A thorough understanding of the effects of elevated levels of UV-B on living tissue is critical to the formulation of economic policy regarding production of such agents and alternative strategies. The UV region of interest is referred to as UV-B and corresponds to radiation with a wavelength of 290 to 320 nm. Design, operation, and performance of the automated generation, exposure, and monitoring system are described. The system has proved to be reliable and easy to maintain and operate, and it provides significant flexibility in exposure programs. The system software is described, and detailed listings are provided. The ability to expose plants to controlled set point percentages of UV-B above the ambient level was developed.

  16. GaN ultraviolet detector based demonstrator board for UV-index monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Man; Xie, Feng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Tanglin; Guo, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Currently, various types of III nitride-based materials have been successfully used for short-wavelength optoelectronic devices. The GaN ultraviolet detector has been wildly used for UV-Index(UVI) monitoring, UV curing and water disinfection. The global solar UVI describes the levels of solar UV radiation at the Earth's surface. The higher the UVI value, the greater the potential damage to the skin and eyes. The UVI monitoring demonstrator board with GaN detector is briefly introduced in this paper.

  17. Design and Fabrication of an Integrated Circuit for Monitoring UV Radiation for Health Physics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazififard, Mohammad; Faghihi, Reyhaneh [Kashan Univ., Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Champiri, Afshin Mahmoudieh [Shahid Chamran Univ., Ahwaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norov, Enkhbat [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A particularly important term in the clinical photobiology is the standard erythemal dose (SED), which is a measure of the erythemal effectiveness of a UV exposure. However, both the quality and quantity of the UV radiation are important factors for the UV monitoring. This paper aims to introduce and investigate a UV radiation meter in order to establish its applicability for non-ionizing radiation detection. The ultraviolet (UV) radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The biological effects of UV radiation vary enormously with wavelength and for this reason the UV spectrum is further divided into three regions: UVA, UVB, and UVC. There is increasing evidence that long wave UV radiation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of photo-dermatoses such as polymorphous light eruption as well as photo-aging. UVA, UVB, and UVC can all damage collagen fibers and, therefore, accelerate aging of the skin. Both UVA and UVB destroy vitamin A in the skin, which may cause further damage. The quantities of the UV radiation are generally expressed using the radiometric terminology.

  18. Swift Monitoring of NGC 4151: Evidence for a Second X-Ray/UV Reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, R.; Gelbord, J.; Cackett, E.; Connolly, S.; Done, C.; Fausnaugh, M.; Gardner, E.; Gehrels, N.; Goad, M.; Horne, K.; McHardy, I.; Peterson, B. M.; Vaughan, S.; Vestergaard, M.; Breeveld, A.; Barth, A. J.; Bentz, M.; Bottorff, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Crawford, S. M.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Evans, P.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Ferland, G.; Grupe, D.; Joner, M.; Kennea, J.; Korista, K. T.; Krimm, H. A.; Kriss, G.; Leonard, D. C.; Mathur, S.; Netzer, H.; Nousek, J.; Page, K.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Siegel, M.; Starkey, D. A.; Treu, T.; Vogler, H. A.; Winkler, H.; Zheng, W.

    2017-05-01

    Swift monitoring of NGC 4151 with an ˜6 hr sampling over a total of 69 days in early 2016 is used to construct light curves covering five bands in the X-rays (0.3-50 keV) and six in the ultraviolet (UV)/optical (1900-5500 Å). The three hardest X-ray bands (>2.5 keV) are all strongly correlated with no measurable interband lag, while the two softer bands show lower variability and weaker correlations. The UV/optical bands are significantly correlated with the X-rays, lagging ˜3-4 days behind the hard X-rays. The variability within the UV/optical bands is also strongly correlated, with the UV appearing to lead the optical by ˜0.5-1 days. This combination of ≳3 day lags between the X-rays and UV and ≲1 day lags within the UV/optical appears to rule out the “lamp-post” reprocessing model in which a hot, X-ray emitting corona directly illuminates the accretion disk, which then reprocesses the energy in the UV/optical. Instead, these results appear consistent with the Gardner & Done picture in which two separate reprocessings occur: first, emission from the corona illuminates an extreme-UV-emitting toroidal component that shields the disk from the corona; this then heats the extreme-UV component, which illuminates the disk and drives its variability.

  19. WF/PC2 Cycle 6 Photometric CAL Monitor Uv/opt Std

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1996-07-01

    A UV spectrophotometric standard star is observed in a variety of filters and cameras to monitor the photometric stability and quantum efficiency of WFPC2 from the FUV to near-IR; the F555W PC image will provide a focus monitor. Throughput of the filters will be measured via aperture photometry and tracked over time, to monitor the long term performance of the instrument, check for changes, and verify the success of the decontamination.

  20. WF/PC2 Cycle 5 Photometric CAL Monitor Uv/opt Std

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Christopher

    1995-07-01

    A UV spectrophotometric standard star is observed in a variety of filters and cameras to monitor the photometric stability and quantum efficiency of WFPC2 from the FUV to near-IR; the F555W PC image will provide a focus monitor. Throughput of the filters will be measured via aperture photometry and tracked over time, to monitor the long term performance of the instrument, check for changes, and verify the success of the decontamination.

  1. WF/PC2 Cycle 7 Photometric Monitor Uv/opt Std

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1997-07-01

    A UV spectrophotometric standard star is observed in a variety of filters and cameras to monitor the photometric stability and quantum efficiency of WFPC2 from the FUV to near-IR; the F555W, F439W, and F814W PC images will provide a focus monitor. Throughput of the filters will be measured via aperture photometry and tracked over time, to monitor the long term performance of the instrument, check for changes, and verify the success of the decontamination.

  2. WF/PC2 Cycle 4 Photometric CAL Monitor 1: Uv/opt Std.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    1994-01-01

    A UV spectrophotometric standard star (GRW+70d5824) is observed using the photometric (F336W, F439W, F555W, F675W and F814W), and UV (F160BW, F170W, F218W and F255W) filter sets, to monitor the photometric stability and quantum efficiency of WFPC2 from the FUV to near-IR. The observations are to be scheduled once every four weeks.

  3. WF/PC2 Cycle 4 Photometric CAL Monitor 1: Uv/opt Std - Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    1994-01-01

    A UV spectrophotometric standard star (GRW+70d5824) is observed using the photometric (F336W, F439W, F555W, F675W and F814W), and UV (F160BW, F170W, F218W and F255W) filter sets, to monitor the photometric stability and quantum efficiency of WFPC2 from the FUV to near-IR. The observations are to be scheduled once every four weeks.

  4. UV radiation impacts body weight, oxygen consumption, and shelter selection in the intertidal vertebrate Girella laevifrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgar, José; Waldisperg, Melany; Galbán-Malagón, Cristóbal; Maturana, Diego; Pulgar, Victor M; Aldana, Marcela

    2017-02-01

    The amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the earth's surface has increased due to ozone layer depletion, and this fact represents an opportunity to evaluate the physiological and behavioral responses of animals to this global-scale stressor. The transitory fish Girella laevifrons inhabits pools in the upper intertidal zone, which is characterized by exposure to a wide range of stressors, including UV radiation. We documented the field magnitude and the impact of UV radiation on oxygen consumption, body mass variations, and shelter (rocky and algae) selection by G. laevifrons. UV-exposed animals showed increased oxygen consumption, slower body weight increase, and active rocky shelter selection. Control fish showed increased body weight and no evident shelter selection. The results indicated that UV exposure affects fish energetic balance and habitat selection to favor greater protection against radiation. Increased UV exposure in transitory intertidal animals at levels observed in upper intertidal pools may alter the residency time of fish before leaving for the subtidal zone. Therefore, UV-induced energetic changes may determine animal performance and ontogenetic physiological itineraries, whereas shelter quality might determine habitat use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spectroscopic follow-up of UV-excess objects selected from the UVEX survey

    CERN Document Server

    Verbeek, Kars; Scaringi, Simone; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Spikings, Ben; Østensen, Roy H; Drew, Janet; Steeghs, Danny; Casares, Jorge; Corral-Santana, Jesus M; Corradi, Romano; Deacon, Niall; Drake, Jeremy; Gansicke, Boris T; González-Solares, Eduardo; Greimel, Robert; Heber, Ulrich; Irwin, Mike; Knigge, Christian; Nelemans, Gijs

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of the first spectroscopic follow-up of 132 optically blue UV-excess sources selected from the UV-excess survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (UVEX). The UV-excess spectra are classified into different populations and grids of model spectra are fit to determine spectral types, temperatures, surface gravities and reddening. From this initial spectroscopic follow-up 95% of the UV-excess candidates turn out to be genuine UV-excess sources such as white dwarfs, white dwarf binaries, subdwarfs type O and B, emission line stars and QSOs. The remaining sources are classified as slightly reddened main-sequence stars with spectral types later than A0V. The fraction of DA white dwarfs is 47% with reddening smaller than E(B-V)17 and Galactic latitude smaller than |b|<4 compared to main-sequence stars, blue horizontal branch stars and subdwarfs.

  6. UV-induced changes in antioxidant capacities of selected carotenoids toward lecithin in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan [Faculty of Technology, University of Nish, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia); Markovic, Dejan [Faculty of Technology, University of Nish, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia)], E-mail: markovic57@info-net.co.yu

    2008-01-15

    Antioxidant action of four selected carotenoids (two carotenes, {beta}-carotene and lycopene, and two xanthophylls, lutein and neoxanthin) on UV-induced lecithin lipid peroxidation in aqueous solution has been studied by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. TBA test is based on absorbance measurements of complex formed between malondialdehyde, secondary product of lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid, at 532 nm. The antioxidant capacities of investigated carotenoids appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. High energy input of the involved UV-photons plays major governing role, though a certain impact of the carotenoid structures cannot be neglected. The results suggest a minor remained contribution of selected carotenoids to prevention of lecithin peroxidation in the studied system as a result of UV-irradiation.

  7. UV-induced changes in antioxidant capacities of selected carotenoids toward lecithin in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan; Markovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant action of four selected carotenoids (two carotenes, β-carotene and lycopene, and two xanthophylls, lutein and neoxanthin) on UV-induced lecithin lipid peroxidation in aqueous solution has been studied by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. TBA test is based on absorbance measurements of complex formed between malondialdehyde, secondary product of lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid, at 532 nm. The antioxidant capacities of investigated carotenoids appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. High energy input of the involved UV-photons plays major governing role, though a certain impact of the carotenoid structures cannot be neglected. The results suggest a minor remained contribution of selected carotenoids to prevention of lecithin peroxidation in the studied system as a result of UV-irradiation.

  8. On-line sensor monitoring for chemical contaminant attenuation during UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hye-Weon; Anumol, Tarun; Park, Minkyu; Pepper, Ian; Scheideler, Jens; Snyder, Shane A

    2015-09-15

    A combination of surrogate parameters and indicator compounds were measured to predict the removal efficiency of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) using low pressure (LP)-UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP), engaged with online sensor-based monitoring system. Thirty-nine TOrCs were evaluated in two distinct secondary wastewater effluents in terms of estimated photochemical reactivity, as a function of the rate constants of UV direct photolysis (kUV) and hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation (kOH). The selected eighteen TOrCs were classified into three groups that served as indicator compounds: Group 1 for photo-susceptible TOrCs but with minor degradation by OH oxidation (diclofenac, fluoxetine, iohexol, iopamidol, iopromide, simazine and sulfamethoxazole); Group 2 for TOrCs susceptible to both direct photolysis and OH oxidation (benzotriazole, diphenhydramine, ibuprofen, naproxen and sucralose); and Group 3 for photo-resistant TOrCs showing dominant degradation by OH oxidation (atenolol, carbamazepine, DEET, gemfibrozil, primidone and trimethoprim). The results indicate that TOC (optical-based measurement), UVA254 or UVT254 (UV absorbance or transmittance at 254 nm), and total fluorescence can all be used as suitable on-line organic surrogate parameters to predict the attenuation of TOrCs. Furthermore, the automated real-time monitoring via on-line surrogate sensors and equipped with the developed degradation profiles between sensor response and a group of TOrCs removal can provide a diagnostic tool for process control during advanced treatment of reclaimed waters.

  9. Validity of satellite measurements used for the monitoring of UV radiation risk on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jégou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to test the validity of ultraviolet index (UVI satellite products and UVI model simulations for general public information, intercomparison involving three satellite instruments (SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2, the Chemistry and Transport Model, Modélisation de la Chimie Atmosphérique Grande Echelle (MOCAGE, and ground-based instruments was performed in 2008 and 2009. The intercomparison highlighted a systematic high bias of ~1 UVI in the OMI clear-sky products compared to the SCIAMACHY and TUV model clear-sky products. The OMI and GOME-2 all-sky products are close to the ground-based observations with a low 6 % positive bias, comparable to the results found during the satellite validation campaigns. This result shows that OMI and GOME-2 all-sky products are well appropriate to evaluate the UV-risk on health. The study has pointed out the difficulty to take into account either in the retrieval algorithms or in the models, the large spatial and temporal cloud modification effect on UV radiation. This factor is crucial to provide good quality UV information. OMI and GOME-2 show a realistic UV variability as a function of the cloud cover. Nevertheless these satellite products do not sufficiently take into account the radiation reflected by clouds. MOCAGE numerical forecasts show good results during periods with low cloud covers, but are actually not adequate for overcast conditions; this is why Météo-France currently uses human-expertised cloudiness (rather than direct outputs from Numerical Prediction Models together with MOCAGE clear-sky UV indices for its operational forecasts. From now on, the UV monitoring could be done using free satellite products (OMI, GOME-2 and operational forecast for general public by using modelling, as long as cloud forecasts and the parametrisation of the impact of cloudiness on UV radiation are adequate.

  10. UV-Visible Spectroscopic Method and Models for Assessment and Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    2000-01-01

    The development of an enhanced predictive and early warning capability for the occurrence and impact of harmful algal blooms (HABs) would be of great benefit to coastal communities. A critical issue for early detection and monitoring of HABs is the need to detect harmful algal species within a mixed-species phytoplankton assemblage. Possession of UV-absorbing compounds called mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) may be one factor that allows HAB species to out-compete their phytoplankton neighbors. Possession of MAAs, which we believe can be inferred from strong UV-absorption signals in phytoplankton absorption coefficients, can be used as a flag for potential HAB outbreak. The goal of this project was to develop a solar simulating UV-visible incubator to grow HAB dinoflagellates, to begin MAA analysis of samples collected on global cruises, and to carry out initial experiments on HAB dinoflagellate species in pure culture. Our scientific objectives are to quantify MAA production and spectral induction mechanisms in HAB species, to characterize spectral absorption of MAAs, and to define the ecological benefit of MAAs (i.e. photoprotection). Data collected on cruises to the global oceans will be used to parameterize phytoplankton absorption in the UV region, and this parameterization could be incorporated into existing models of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region. Data collected in this project were used for graduate fellowship applications by Elizabeth Frame. She has been awarded an EPA STAR fellowship to continue the work initiated by this project.

  11. Monitoring of rain events with a submersible UV/VIS spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maribas, Aurélien; Laurent, Nadège; Battaglia, Philippe; do Carmo Lourenço da Silva, Maria; Pons, Marie-Noële; Loison, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    A submersible UV/VIS spectrophotometer has been implemented on the pre-treatment unit of a large-scale wastewater treatment plant (350,000 person-equivalent) to monitor the rapid changes in total Suspended Solids and total Chemical Oxygen Demand occurring during rain events as well as injections of reject water from the sludge treatment train or wasted activated sludge. Calibration has been proven to be difficult for fast composition-varying streams but the device is able to monitor qualitatively sudden quality changes, in spite of the noise affecting the signal.

  12. Selective removal of composite sealants with near-UV laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Tiffany M.; Jones, Robert S.; Sarma, Anupama V.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    It is often necessary to replace pit and fissure sealants and composite restorations. This task is complicated by the necessity for complete removal of the remaining composite to enable suitable adhesion of new composite. Previous studies have shown that lasers pulses from a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser (355-nm) can selectively remove residual composite after orthodontic bracket removal on enamel surfaces. UV laser light is preferentially absorbed by polymeric resins and the organic content of the tooth enamel. The objective of this study was to determine if such laser pulses are suitable for selective removal of the old composite from pit and fissure sealants and restorations without damaging surrounding sound tissues. Optical coherence tomography was used to acquire optical cross sections of the occlusal topography and peripheral tooth structure non-destructively before application of the sealants, after sealant application, and after sealant removal with 355-nm laser pulses with intensities ranging from 0-10 J/cm2. Thermocouples were used to monitor the temperature in the pulp chamber during composite removal under clinically relevant ablation rates, i.e., 30 Hz and 30 mJ per laser pulse. At an irradiation intensity of 1.3 J/cm2 pit and fissure sealants were completely removed without visible damage to the underlying enamel. At intensities above 1.5 J/cm2, the laser removes the resin layer while at the same time preferentially etching the surface of the enamel. Temperature excursions in the pulp chamber of extracted teeth was limited to less than 5°C if air-cooling was used during the rapid removal (1-2 min) of sealants, water-cooling was not needed. This is the first presentation of a method for the selective removal of composite restorative materials without damage to the underlying sound tooth structure.

  13. Vitamin D Synthesis by UV Radiation: the Importance of Ozone Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, W. J.; Moore, M. R.; Kimlin, M. G.

    2006-12-01

    The majority of humans rely on incidental sun exposure to maintain vitamin D sufficiency. Depending on where thresholds of vitamin D "sufficiency" are defined, it was recently stated that up to one billion people worldwide have suboptimal vitamin D levels (Bouillon, R., University of Leuven). Even in sunny southeast Queensland, the world's skin cancer capital, a 2006 study uncovered deficiency rates of up to 78% (at a threshold of 75 nmol/L of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D). Vitamin D regulates calcium absorption and inadequate levels are proven to result in osteomalacia, osteoporosis, rickets, bone pain and general skeletal weakness. Recent evidence also suggests vitamin D plays a preventative role in autoimmune diseases including numerous cancers, diabetes, schizophrenia, coronary heart disease, depression and other disorders. The most promising means of alleviating the worldwide burden of vitamin D deficiency seems to be by increased UV exposure. However, a much more mature understanding of UV exposures encountered in everyday life is required. This understanding is fundamentally founded in geophysics. UV exposures are strongly influenced by season/time of year, time of day, climate, location, pollution, aerosols and, importantly, ozone. In this work, we use computer simulations to obtain daily totals of vitamin D producing UV at numerous latitudes during one year. The ozone concentration is varied from 260 DU to 360 DU to determine the role of ozone variability on the ambient levels of vitamin D UV. Vitamin D synthesis is highly dependent on UVB. In our results, we demonstrate that this has important implications. Namely, vitamin D is strongly affected by ozone variability, since ozone filters UVB more strongly than UVA. Moreover, since erythema (sunburn) can occur at UVA wavelengths, ozone variation will more strongly affect vitamin D synthesis than erythema. Our results highlight that ozone monitoring is essential for understanding appropriate UV exposures

  14. A UV to mid-IR study of AGN selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Mi; Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Assef, Roberto [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hickox, Ryan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We classify the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 431,038 sources in the 9 deg{sup 2} Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS). There are up to 17 bands of data available per source, including ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (NDWFS), near-IR (NEWFIRM), and mid-infrared (IRAC and MIPS) data, as well as spectroscopic redshifts for ∼20,000 objects, primarily from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. We fit galaxy, active galactic nucleus (AGN), stellar, and brown dwarf templates to the observed SEDs, which yield spectral classes for the Galactic sources and photometric redshifts and galaxy/AGN luminosities for the extragalactic sources. The photometric redshift precision of the galaxy and AGN samples are σ/(1 + z) = 0.040 and σ/(1 + z) = 0.169, respectively, with the worst 5% outliers excluded. On the basis of the χ{sub ν}{sup 2} of the SED fit for each SED model, we are able to distinguish between Galactic and extragalactic sources for sources brighter than I = 23.5 mag. We compare the SED fits for a galaxy-only model and a galaxy-AGN model. Using known X-ray and spectroscopic AGN samples, we confirm that SED fitting can be successfully used as a method to identify large populations of AGNs, including spatially resolved AGNs with significant contributions from the host galaxy and objects with the emission line ratios of 'composite' spectra. We also use our results to compare with the X-ray, mid-IR, optical color, and emission line ratio selection techniques. For an F-ratio threshold of F > 10, we find 16,266 AGN candidates brighter than I = 23.5 mag and a surface density of ∼1900 AGN deg{sup –2}.

  15. All-inkjet-printed flexible ZnO micro photodetector for a wearable UV monitoring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van-Thai; Wei, Yuefan; Yang, Hongyi; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Du, Hejun

    2017-03-01

    Fabrication of small-sized patterns of inorganic semiconductor onto flexible substrates is a major concern when manufacturing wearable devices for measuring either biometric or environmental parameters. In this study, micro-sized flexible ZnO UV photodetectors have been thoroughly prepared by a facile inkjet printing technology and followed with heat treatments. A simple ink recipe of zinc acetate precursor solution was investigated. It is found that the substrate temperature during zinc precursor ink depositing has significant effects on ZnO pattern shape, film morphology, and crystallization. The device fabricated from the additive manufacturing approach has good bendability, Ohmic contact, short response time as low as 0.3 s, and high on/off ratio of 3525. We observed the sensor’s dependence of response/decay time by the illuminating UV light intensity. The whole process is based on additive manufacturing which has many benefits such as rapid prototyping, saving material, being environmentally friendly, and being capable of creating high-resolution patterns. In addition, this method can be applied to flexible substrates, which makes the device more applicable for applications requiring flexibility such as wearable devices. The proposed all-inkjet-printing approach for a micro-sized ZnO UV photodetector would significantly simplify the fabrication process of micro-sized inorganic semiconductor-based devices. A potential application is real-time monitoring of UV light exposure to warn users about unsafe direct sunlight to implement suitable avoidance solutions.

  16. Artificial neural network associated to UV/Vis spectroscopy for monitoring bioreactions in biopharmaceutical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Maria Beatriz; Leme, Jaci; Caricati, Celso Pereira; Tonso, Aldo; Fernández Núñez, Eutimio Gustavo; Rocha, José Celso

    2015-06-01

    Currently, mammalian cells are the most utilized hosts for biopharmaceutical production. The culture media for these cell lines include commonly in their composition a pH indicator. Spectroscopic techniques are used for biopharmaceutical process monitoring, among them, UV-Vis spectroscopy has found scarce applications. This work aimed to define artificial neural networks architecture and fit its parameters to predict some nutrients and metabolites, as well as viable cell concentration based on UV-Vis spectral data of mammalian cell bioprocess using phenol red in culture medium. The BHK-21 cell line was used as a mammalian cell model. Off-line spectra of supernatant samples taken from batches performed at different dissolved oxygen concentrations in two bioreactor configurations and with two pH control strategies were used to define two artificial neural networks. According to absolute errors, glutamine (0.13 ± 0.14 mM), glutamate (0.02 ± 0.02 mM), glucose (1.11 ± 1.70 mM), lactate (0.84 ± 0.68 mM) and viable cell concentrations (1.89 10(5) ± 1.90 10(5) cell/mL) were suitably predicted. The prediction error averages for monitored variables were lower than those previously reported using different spectroscopic techniques in combination with partial least squares or artificial neural network. The present work allows for UV-VIS sensor development, and decreases cost related to nutrients and metabolite quantifications.

  17. One-step surface selective modification of UV-curable hard coatings with photochemical metal organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Kwang; Park, Chang-Sun; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2016-12-01

    An organic-inorganic hybrid bi-layer film with a selective distribution of inorganic components was synthesized from a one-pot process of UV irradiation. A photochemical metal oxide precursor (Sr 2-ethylhexanoate) varying from 0 to 4 wt% was dispersed in UV-curable coating materials. Under UV exposure, the bi-layer started reacting simultaneously but at different rates due to differences in the two UV-condensable components' reactivity. The effects of the dispersed inorganic component on the surface morphology and mechanical properties were investigated by atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation, respectively. The reaction process and rates were studied from linkage change using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at various UV exposure times (0-30 min). The elemental distribution and the interface on the coating layer were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from Ar etching, revealing continuous and gradual composition changes in depth. The results showed that a flattened and surface-selectively hardened SrO containing the coating film could be obtained by this simple process. Consequently, a small ratio of photochemical metal oxide reinforced the organic hard coating film's mechanical properties through the formation of an effective SrO top layer.

  18. First Derivative UV Spectra of Surface Water as a Monitor of Chlorination in Drinking Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zitko

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries require the presence of free chlorine at about 0.1 mg/l in their drinking water supplies. For various reasons, such as cast-iron pipes or long residence times in the distribution system, free chlorine may decrease below detection limits. In such cases it is important to know whether or not the water was chlorinated or if nonchlorinated water entered the system by accident. Changes in UV spectra of natural organic matter in lakewater were used to assess qualitatively the degree of chlorination in the treatment to produce drinking water. The changes were more obvious in the first derivative spectra. In lakewater, the derivative spectra have a maximum at about 280 nm. This maximum shifts to longer wavelengths by up to 10 nm, decreases, and eventually disappears with an increasing dose of chlorine. The water treatment system was monitored by this technique for over 1 year and changes in the UV spectra of water samples were compared with experimental samples treated with known amounts of chlorine. The changes of the UV spectra with the concentration of added chlorine are presented. On several occasions, water, which received very little or no chlorination, may have entered the drinking water system. The results show that first derivative spectra are potentially a tool to determine, in the absence of residual chlorine, whether or not surface water was chlorinated during the treatment to produce potable water.

  19. Kinetics of cyclobutane thymine dimer splitting by DNA photolyase directly monitored in the UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Viruthachalam; Byrdin, Martin; Eker, André P M; Müller, Pavel; Brettel, Klaus

    2011-06-07

    CPD photolyase uses light to repair cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) formed between adjacent pyrimidines in UV-irradiated DNA. The enzyme harbors an FAD cofactor in fully reduced state (FADH(-)). The CPD repair mechanism involves electron transfer from photoexcited FADH(-) to the CPD, splitting of its intradimer bonds, and electron return to restore catalytically active FADH(-). The two electron transfer processes occur on time scales of 10(-10) and 10(-9) s, respectively. Until now, CPD splitting itself has only been poorly characterized by experiments. Using a previously unreported transient absorption setup, we succeeded in monitoring cyclobutane thymine dimer repair in the main UV absorption band of intact thymine at 266 nm. Flavin transitions that overlay DNA-based absorption changes at 266 nm were monitored independently in the visible and subtracted to obtain the true repair kinetics. Restoration of intact thymine showed a short lag and a biexponential rise with time constants of 0.2 and 1.5 ns. We assign these two time constants to splitting of the intradimer bonds (creating one intact thymine and one thymine anion radical T(∘-)) and electron return from T(∘-) to the FAD cofactor with recovery of the second thymine, respectively. Previous model studies and computer simulations yielded various CPD splitting times between < 1 ps and < 100 ns. Our experimental results should serve as a benchmark for future efforts to model enzymatic photorepair. The technique and methods developed here may be applied to monitor other photoreactions involving DNA.

  20. A Novel Acetate Selective UV-Vis Chemosensor Containing a Tripodal Benzaldehydic-phenylhydrazone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Yan-Hong; LIN Hai; SHAO Jie; LIN Hua-Kuan

    2008-01-01

    A new colorimetric chemosensor 1 based on a tripodal benzaldehydic-phenylhydrazone selectively sensing acetate ion has been synthesized. The highly selective binding ability of receptor I to acetate ion over other studied anions was demonstrated by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy in DMSO. Compared with other anions studied, its sorption spectrum change has occurred when receptor 1 was treated with other different guest anions (F-, Cl-, Br-,I-, H2PO4- and OH-). The Kass of receptor 1 binding with acetate ion is 1.69×104.

  1. [Experimental research of turbidity influence on water quality monitoring of COD in UV-visible spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Wei, Biao; Wu, De-Cao; Mi, De-Ling; Zhao, Jing-Xiao; Feng, Peng; Jiang, Shang-Hai; Mao, Ben-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Eliminating turbidity is a direct effect spectroscopy detection of COD key technical problems. This stems from the UV-visible spectroscopy detected key quality parameters depend on an accurate and effective analysis of water quality parameters analytical model, and turbidity is an important parameter that affects the modeling. In this paper, we selected formazine turbidity solution and standard solution of potassium hydrogen phthalate to study the turbidity affect of UV--visible absorption spectroscopy detection of COD, at the characteristics wavelength of 245, 300, 360 and 560 nm wavelength point several characteristics with the turbidity change in absorbance method of least squares curve fitting, thus analyzes the variation of absorbance with turbidity. The results show, In the ultraviolet range of 240 to 380 nm, as the turbidity caused by particle produces compounds to the organics, it is relatively complicated to test the turbidity affections on the water Ultraviolet spectra; in the visible region of 380 to 780 nm, the turbidity of the spectrum weakens with wavelength increases. Based on this, this paper we study the multiplicative scatter correction method affected by the turbidity of the water sample spectra calibration test, this method can correct water samples spectral affected by turbidity. After treatment, by comparing the spectra before, the results showed that the turbidity caused by wavelength baseline shift points have been effectively corrected, and features in the ultraviolet region has not diminished. Then we make multiplicative scatter correction for the three selected UV liquid-visible absorption spectroscopy, experimental results shows that on the premise of saving the characteristic of the Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectrum of water samples, which not only improve the quality of COD spectroscopy detection SNR, but also for providing an efficient data conditioning regimen for establishing an accurate of the chemical measurement methods.

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for on-line control of selective removal of cobalt binder from tungsten carbide hardmetal by pulsed UV laser surface ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiejun; Lou, Qihong; Wei, Yunrong; Huang, Feng; Dong, Jingxing; Liu, Jingru

    2001-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was successfully used in on-line control of selective removal of cobalt from tungsten carbide hardmetal by pulsed UV laser surface ablation. The dependence of LIBS on number of laser shots was investigated at different laser fluences. The optimal laser fluence of 2.5 J/cm 2 suited for selective removal of cobalt from surface layer of hardmetal was confirmed. The result sample was also subject to different post-examinations to evaluate the feasibility of the application of LIBS in this laser ablation process. It was demonstrated that, monitoring of the emission intensity of cobalt lines could be used as a control parameter for selective removal of cobalt from surface layer of hardmetal by pulsed UV laser. The on-line implementation of the spectroscopic technique LIBS to the surface-ablation process provided important information about the optimal-ablation parameters.

  3. Optofluidic UV-Vis spectrophotometer for online monitoring of photocatalytic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Zhao, Yu; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Fan, Xudong; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-06-01

    On-chip integration of optical detection units into the microfluidic systems for online monitoring is highly desirable for many applications and is also well in line with the spirit of optofluidics technology–fusion of optics and microfluidics for advanced functionalities. This paper reports the construction of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer on a microreactor, and demonstrates the online monitoring of the photocatalytic degradations of methylene blue and methyl orange under different flow rates and different pH values by detecting the intensity change and/or the peak shift. The integrated device consists of a TiO2-coated glass substrate, a PDMS micro-sized reaction chamber and two flow cells. By comparing with the results of commercial equipment, we have found that the measuring range and the sensitivity are acceptable, especially when the transmittance is in the range of 0.01–0.9. This integrated optofluidic device can significantly cut down the test time and the sample volume, and would provide a versatile platform for real-time characterization of photochemical performance. Moreover, its online monitoring capability may enable to access the usually hidden information in biochemical reactions like intermediate products, time-dependent processes and reaction kinetics.

  4. Monitoring exocytosis and release from individual mast cells by capillary electrophoresis and UV imaging microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeung, E.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Lillard, S.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); McCloskey, M.A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The complex temporal evolution of on-column exocytotic release of serotonin from individual peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) was monitored by using capillary electrophoresis and UV imaging microscopy. Laser-induced native fluorescence detection with 275-nm excitation was used, and a detection limit of 1.7 amol (S/N = 3; rms) was obtained for serotonin. A physiological running buffer was used to ensure that the cell remained viable throughout. The secretagogue was polymyxin B sulfate (Pmx). Following the injection of a single mast cell into the capillary, electromigration of Pmx toward and past the cell induced degranulation and release of serotonin. The time course of release was registered in the electropherograms with subsecond resolution. Subsequent introduction of SDS caused the cell to lyse completely and allowed the residual serotonin to be quantified. The average amount of serotonin observed per RPMC was 1.6 {+-} 0.6 fmol; the average percentage of serotonin released was 28 {+-} 14%. Events that are consistent with released serontonin from single submicron granules (250 aL each) were evident, each of which contained an average amount of 5.9 {+-} 3 amol. Alternatively, UV movies can be taken of the entire event to provide temporal and spatial information.

  5. Applications of a rapid endospore viability assay for monitoring UV inactivation and characterizing arctic ice cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaat, Hannah S; Ponce, Adrian

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a rapid endospore viability assay (EVA) in which endospore germination serves as an indicator for viability and applied it to (i) monitor UV inactivation of endospores as a function of dose and (ii) determine the proportion of viable endospores in arctic ice cores (Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 [GISP2] cores; 94 m). EVA is based on the detection of dipicolinic acid (DPA), which is released from endospores during germination. DPA concentrations were determined using the terbium ion (Tb3+)-DPA luminescence assay, and germination was induced by L-alanine addition. The concentrations of germinable endospores were determined by comparison to a standard curve. Parallel EVA and phase-contrast microscopy experiments to determine the percentage of germinable spores yielded comparable results (54.3% +/- 3.8% and 48.9% +/- 4.5%, respectively), while only 27.8% +/- 7.6% of spores produced CFU. EVA was applied to monitor the inactivation of spore suspensions as a function of UV dose, yielding reproducible correlations between EVA and CFU inactivation data. The 90% inactivation doses were 2,773 J/m2, 3,947 J/m2, and 1,322 J/m2 for EVA, phase-contrast microscopy, and CFU reduction, respectively. Finally, EVA was applied to quantify germinable and total endospore concentrations in two GISP2 ice cores. The first ice core contained 295 +/- 19 germinable spores/ml and 369 +/- 36 total spores/ml (i.e., the percentage of germinable endospores was 79.9% +/- 9.3%), and the second core contained 131 +/- 4 germinable spores/ml and 162 +/- 17 total spores/ml (i.e., the percentage of germinable endospores was 80.9% +/- 8.8%), whereas only 2 CFU/ml were detected by culturing.

  6. Are dusty galaxies blue? Insights on UV attenuation from dust-selected galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, C. M.; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Scoville, N. Z. [California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sanders, D. B.; Lee, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); De Zotti, G. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fu, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Le Floc' h, E. [CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, bât. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ilbert, O. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Takeuchi, T. T. [Nagoya University, Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Galaxies' rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties are often used to directly infer the degree to which dust obscuration affects the measurement of star formation rates (SFRs). While much recent work has focused on calibrating dust attenuation in galaxies selected at rest-frame ultraviolet wavelengths, locally and at high-z, here we investigate attenuation in dusty, star forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected at far-infrared wavelengths. By combining multiwavelength coverage across 0.15-500 μm in the COSMOS field, in particular making use of Herschel imaging, and a rich data set on local galaxies, we find an empirical variation in the relationship between the rest-frame UV slope (β) and the ratio of infrared-to-ultraviolet emission (L {sub IR}/L {sub UV} ≡ IRX) as a function of infrared luminosity, or total SFR. Both locally and at high-z, galaxies above SFR ≳ 50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} deviate from the nominal IRX-β relation toward bluer colors by a factor proportional to their increasing IR luminosity. We also estimate contamination rates of DSFGs on high-z dropout searches of <<1% at z ≲ 4-10, providing independent verification that contamination from very dusty foreground galaxies is low in Lyman-break galaxy searches. Overall, our results are consistent with the physical interpretation that DSFGs, e.g., galaxies with >50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, are dominated at all epochs by short-lived, extreme burst events, producing many young O and B stars that are primarily, yet not entirely, enshrouded in thick dust cocoons. The blue rest-frame UV slopes of DSFGs are inconsistent with the suggestion that most DSFGs at z ∼ 2 exhibit steady-state star formation in secular disks.

  7. Amarginal contribution of selected carotenoids to the supression of UV-irradiation-induced lecithin peroxidation in hexane solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN CVETKOVIC

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the anticipated antioxidant role of four selected carotenoids in mixtures with lecithin lipoidal compounds in hexane solution, under continuous UV-irradiation in three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C. Two carotenes (b-carotene and licopene and two xantophylls (lutein and neoxanthin were employed to control the lipid peroxidation process generated by UV-irradiation, by scavenging the involved free radicals. The results show that while carotenoids undergo a substantial, structural dependent destruction (bleaching, which is highly dependent on energy of the UV-photons, their contribution to the expected suppression of lecithin peroxidation is of marginal importance, not exceeding a maximum of 20%. The marginal antioxidant behaviour has been attributed to a highly unordered hexane solution, where the scavenging action of the carotenoids becomes less competitive.

  8. Automated drug dissolution monitor that uses a UV-visible diode array spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, S C; Donahue, S M; Brown, C W

    1993-04-01

    A method for performing multicomponent analysis in drug dissolution testing without chromatographic separation is presented. Aliquots from dissolution vessels are automatically transferred to a UV-visible diode array spectrophotometer, spectra are measured, and the aliquots are returned to the testing vessels. A full-spectrum calibration method based on principal-component regression is used to simultaneously determine the concentrations of active ingredients and to account for interferences due to excipients in a tablet formulation. The system was evaluated with two commercial pharmaceutical formularies; the first contained pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and chlorpheniramine maleate, whereas the second was a mixture of phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride and chlorpheniramine maleate. The selections of standard mixtures for calibration and validation were based on a factorial design.

  9. Characterization and monitoring of selected rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... The nodule occupancy of selected strains in forest soil condition was investigated by ... Colony form-ing was observed every day ..... gram of nodA PCR- product analysis (Figure 1) show- ..... Phylogeny of root and stem-.

  10. Personal-UV-monitoring in outdoor workplaces - a base for well-balanced regulations in heath prevention and care; UV-Monitoring an Arbeitsplaetzen im Freien - eine Basis fuer ausgewogene Richtlinien zum Gesundheitsschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unverricht, I.; Knuschke, P. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Janssen, M.; Ott, G. [Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin Dortmund (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The effects of UV-radiation on the skin and the eyes are the same - independent if the UV-exposure was during work time or during spare time. The actual individual UVexposure depends on one hand on the special profession activities on the other hand on the spare time and holiday behaviour. Therefore, the relations between the different outdoor professions in times being outside and further objective and subjective influences on the individual UV-exposure should be investigated by personal-UV-monitoring in the course of the year (BAuA(Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) research project F1777). The investigation should be compared with former results of an analogous personal-UVmonitoring in indoor workers. Guidelines on occupational safety and health for outdoor workplaces cannot be based on the ICNIRP-Guidelines for UV-exposed indoor workplaces. These guidelines refer to unexposed skin e.g. in Wintertime. The skin of outdoor workers builts up an internal self-protection (increased cornea thickness; pigmentation). Therefore, well-balanced regulations for outdoor workplaces should be based on an acceptable UV-exposure level above that of indoor workers. (orig.)

  11. Solar UV exposure at eye is different from environmental UV: diurnal monitoring at different rotation angles using a manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liwen; Gao, Qian; Gao, Na; Liu, Guangcong; Wang, Yang; Gong, Huizhi; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) promotes pterygium and cataract development in the human eye. When outdoors, people are subject to varying ocular UVR exposure intensity depending on time of day and orientation to the sun. To assess this variability, a manikin eye was exposed to solar UVR at 12 rotation angles relative to the sun with a solar elevation angle (SEA) ranging from 24.6° to 88.2°. At rotation angles of 0°, 30°, and 330°, the diurnal variation of ocular UVR exposure intensity showed a bimodal distribution that peaked at a SEA of about 40°, which was 3 to 4 hr both before and after noon. This timing differed from peak environmental UVR exposure intensity. At the other rotation angles, diurnal variations in ocular UV exposure exhibited unimodal curves, with maximum intensity around noon, the same as for environmental UVR. Thus, the idea that UVR exposure is most intense at midday is true for skin surfaces positioned somewhat horizontally but not for the eyes in a 60° arc with a centerline toward the sun (i.e., ranging 30° clockwise or counter-clockwise from the centerline). Maintaining certain orientations relative to the sun's position (for example, being clockwise or counter-clockwise by 30° from the sun) should effectively reduce ocular UVR exposure, especially at times when the SEA is 40°.

  12. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 Solar Mass/yr. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar Mass/yr for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  13. Monitoring of slaughterhouse wastewater biodegradation in a SBR using fluorescence and UV-Visible absorbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvet, J N; Homeky, B; Casellas, M; Pons, M N; Dagot, C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the effectiveness of slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by activated sludge could be enhanced through the use of optical techniques, such as UV-Visible absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, to estimate the hydraulic retention time necessary to remove the biodegradable chemical oxygen demand (COD). Two experiments were conducted. First, a batch aerobic degradation was performed on four wastewater samples collected from four different cattle processing sites in order to study the changes in the spectroscopic properties of wastewater during biodegradation. Second, a sequencing batch reactor was used in order to confirm that the wastewater fluorescence could be successfully used to monitor wastewater biodegradation in a pilot-scale experiment. Residual blood was the main source of organic matter in the wastewater samples. The absorbance at 416 nm, related to porphyrins, was correlated to the COD during wastewater biodegradation. The tryptophan-like/fulvic-like fluorescence intensity ratio was related to the extent of biodegradation. The COD removal efficiency ranged from 74% to 94% with an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 23 h. A ratio of tryptophan-like/fulvic-like fluorescence intensities higher than 1.2 indicated incomplete biodegradation of the wastewater and the need to increase the HRT.

  14. Single and joint ecotoxicity data estimation of organic UV filters and nanomaterials toward selected aquatic organisms. Urban groundwater risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2016-02-01

    The hazardous potential of organic UV filters (UV-Fs) is becoming an issue of great concern due to the widespread application of these compounds in most daily-use goods, such as hygiene and beauty products. Nanomaterials (NMs) have also been used in personal care products (PCPs) for many years. Nowadays, both classes of chemicals are considered environmental emerging contaminants. Despite some studies performed in vitro and in vivo reported adverse effects of many UV-Fs on the normal development of organisms, there is scarce data regarding acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of the present study was to determine the EC50 values of selected UV-Fs using standardised toxicity assays on three aquatic species i.e. Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata and Vibrio fischeri. EC50 values obtained were in the mgl(-1) range for all the species. The estimated toxicity data allowed us to assess the environmental risk posed by selected UV-Fs in urban groundwater from Barcelona (Spain). The calculated ecological risk indicated a negligible impact on the aquifer. Giving the increasing importance of studying mixtures of pollutants and due to the widespread presence of nanomaterials (NMs) in the aquatic environment, other objective of this work was to explore the response on D. magna after exposure to both binary combinations of UV-Fs among them and UV-F with NMs. In all cases but the nano-silver mixtures, joint toxicity was mitigated or even eradicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. UV-effects on antioxidant activity of selected carotenoids in the presence of lecithin estimated by DPPH test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN CVETKOVIC

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ultraviolet radiation (UV on the antioxidant action of three selected carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene and lutein in the presence of a lipoidal lecithin mixture were studied by the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl test. The test is based on the measurement of the decrease of the free DPPH radical absorbance at 517 nm caused by the antioxidant action of carotenoids, which appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. The high-energy input of the involved UV-photons plays a major governing role.

  16. Survival of the fittest before the beginning of life: selection of the first oligonucleotide-like polymers by UV light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherepanov Dmitry A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key event in the origin of life on this planet has been formation of self-replicating RNA-type molecules, which were complex enough to undergo a Darwinian-type evolution (origin of the "RNA world". However, so far there has been no explanation of how the first RNA-like biopolymers could originate and survive on the primordial Earth. Results As condensation of sugar phosphates and nitrogenous bases is thermodynamically unfavorable, these compounds, if ever formed, should have undergone rapid hydrolysis. Thus, formation of oligonucleotide-like structures could have happened only if and when these structures had some selective advantage over simpler compounds. It is well known that nitrogenous bases are powerful quenchers of UV quanta and effectively protect the pentose-phosphate backbones of RNA and DNA from UV cleavage. To check if such a protection could play a role in abiogenic evolution on the primordial Earth (in the absence of the UV-protecting ozone layer, we simulated, by using Monte Carlo approach, the formation of the first oligonucleotides under continuous UV illumination. The simulations confirmed that UV irradiation could have worked as a selective factor leading to a relative enrichment of the system in longer sugar-phosphate polymers carrying nitrogenous bases as UV-protectors. Partial funneling of the UV energy into the condensation reactions could provide a further boost for the oligomerization. Conclusion These results suggest that accumulation of the first polynucleotides could be explained by their abiogenic selection as the most UV-resistant biopolymers.

  17. Biological and physical dosimeters for monitoring solar UV-B light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Y; Suzuki, K; Sasaki, M

    1990-06-01

    A biological dosimetry system for measuring solar UV-B light was established using bacteriophage T1 with E. coli Bs-1 as the host cell. Also a new physical UV-B dosimeter was developed which can specifically detect the UV spectral region related to inactivation of phage T1. Phage T1 is very stable in liquid suspension and it has adequate sensitivity to measure the intensity of solar UV-B. In addition, the survival of phage T1 responded linearly to UV fluences when plotted semi-logarithmic ally. Thus T1 seemed to have characteristic features making it suitable material as a biological dosimeter for sunlight. Outdoor experiments throughout one year showed that the mean amount of solar UV light in summer was about 6 fold larger than that in winter at Isehara (139.5 degrees E, 35.5 degrees N), Japan. A novel physical dosimeter which responds faithfully to UV-B light under atmospheric conditions on the ground was developed as well. The spectral response was very close to that of biological materials. Readings of this UV-B dosimeter could be converted into the efficiency of sunlight upon biological materials. This instrument is compact; it can also be used as an erythemal dosimeter.

  18. Lyman break and UV-selected galaxies at z ~ 1: II. PACS-100um/160um FIR detections

    CERN Document Server

    Oteo, I; Bongiovanni, Á; Pérez-García, A M; Cepa, J; Cedrés, B; Ederoclite, A; Sánchez-Portal, M; Aguerri, J A L; Alfaro, E J; Altieri, B; Andreani, P; Aparicio-Villegas, T; Aussel, H; itez, N Ben\\'; Berta, S; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Caño, J; Castander, F J; Cerviño, M; Cimatti, A; Cristobal-Hornillos, D; Daddi, E; Elbaz, D; Fernandez-Soto, A; Schreiber, N Förster; Genzel, R; Gonzalez-Delgado, R M; Husillos, C; Infante, L; Floc'h, E Le; Lutz, D; Magnelli, B; Maiolino, R; arquez, I M\\'; inez, V J Mart\\'; Masegosa, J; Matute, I; Moles, M; Molino, A; del Olmo, A; Perea, J; inez, R P\\' erez-Mart\\'; Pintos-Castro, I; Poglitsch, A; Polednikova, J; Popesso, P; Pović, M; Pozzi, F; Prada, F; Quintana, J M; Riguccini, L; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L; Valtchanov, I; Viironen, K

    2013-01-01

    We report the PACS-100um/160um detections of a sample of 42 GALEX-selected and FIR-detected Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 1 located in the COSMOS field and analyze their ultra-violet (UV) to far-infrared (FIR) properties. The detection of these LBGs in the FIR indicates that they have a dust content high enough so that its emission can be directly detected. According to a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting with stellar population templates to their UV-to-near-IR observed photometry, PACS-detected LBGs tend to be bigger, more massive, dustier, redder in the UV continuum, and UV-brighter than PACS-undetected LBGs. PACS-detected LBGs at z ~ 1 are mostly disk-like galaxies and are located over the green-valley and red sequence of the color-magnitude diagram of galaxies at their redshift. By using their UV and IR emission, we find that PACS-detected LBGs tend to be less dusty and have slightly higher total star-formation rates (SFRs) than other PACS-detected UV-selected galaxies within their same reds...

  19. Climatology of Ultra Violet(UV) Irradiance at the Surface of the Earth as Measured by the Belgian UV Radiation Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Praveen; Gillotay, Didier; Depiesse, Cedric

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we describe the network of ground-based ultraviolet (UV) radiation monitoring stations in Belgium. The evolution of the entire network, together with the details of measuring instruments is given. The observed cumulative irradiations -UVB, UVA and total solar irradiation (TSI)- over the course of measurement for three stations -a northern (Ostende), central (Uccle) and a southern (Redu)- are shown. The longest series of measurement shown in this study is at Uccle, Brussels, from 1995 till 2014. Thus, the variation of the UV index, together with the variation of irradiations during summer and winter months at Uccle are shown as a part of this climatological study. The trend of UVB irradiance over the above mentioned three stations is shown. This UVB trend is studied in conjunction with the long-term satellite-based total column ozone value over Belgium, which shows two distinct trends marked by a change point. The total column ozone trend following the change point is positive. It is also seen that the UVB trend is positive for the urban/sub-urban sites: Uccle and Redu. Whereas the UVB trend at Ostende, which is a coastal site, is not positive. A possible explanation of this relation between total column ozone and UVB trend could be associated with aerosols, which is shown in this paper by means of a radiative transfer model based study -as a part of a preliminary investigation. It is seen that the UVI is influenced by the type of aerosols.

  20. Kinematics of Interstellar Gas in Nearby UV-selected Galaxies Measured with HST STIS Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C. M.; Martin, C. L.; Chandar, R.; Leitherer, C.; Heckman, T. M.; Oey, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    We measure Doppler shifts of interstellar absorption lines in HST STIS spectra of individual star clusters in nearby UV-selected galaxies. Values for systemic velocities, which are needed to quantify outflow speeds, are taken from the literature and verified with stellar lines. We detect outflowing gas in 8 of 17 galaxies via low-ionization lines (e.g., C II, Si II, Al II), which trace cold and/or warm gas. The starbursts in our sample are intermediate in luminosity (and mass) to dwarf galaxies and luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), and we confirm that their outflow speeds (ranging from -100 to nearly -520 km s-1, with an accuracy of ~80 km s-1) are intermediate to those previously measured in dwarf starbursts and LIRGs. We do not detect the outflow in high-ionization lines (such as C IV or Si IV); higher quality data will be needed to empirically establish how velocities vary with the ionization state of the outflow. We do verify that the low-ionization UV lines and optical Na I doublet give roughly consistent outflow velocities, solidifying an important link between studies of galactic winds at low and high redshift. To obtain a higher signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we create a local average composite spectrum and compare it to the high-z Lyman break composite spectrum. It is surprising that the low-ionization lines show similar outflow velocities in the two samples. We attribute this to a combination of weighting toward higher luminosities in the local composite, as well as both samples being, on average, brighter than the ``turnover'' luminosity in the v-SFR relation. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-9036.

  1. Benchtop monitoring of reaction progress via visual recognition with a handheld UV lamp: in situ monitoring of boronic acids in the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barder, Timothy E; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2007-01-04

    [reaction: see text] Although boronic acids are widely used in metal-catalyzed reactions, it is difficult to assay their consumption. As such, we developed a reversible fluorescent sensor that is activated upon binding a boronic acid. The sensor can be used to monitor consumption of a boronic acid in Suzuki-Miyaura reactions. Importantly, only a standard handheld long-wave UV lamp (365 nm) is required and fluorescence is easily detectable with the naked eye without disturbing the reaction mixture.

  2. X-ray properties of UV-selected star forming galaxies at z~1 in the Hubble Deep Field North

    CERN Document Server

    Laird, E S; Adelberger, K L; Steidel, C C; Reddy, N A

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray emission from a large sample of ultraviolet (UV) selected, star forming galaxies with 0.74UV and X-ray is expected to be predominantly due to star formation. Stacking the X-ray flux from 216 galaxies in the soft and hard bands produces significant detections. The derived mean 2-10 keV rest-frame luminosity is 2.97+/-0.26x10^(40) erg/s, corresponding to an X-ray derived star formation rate (SFR) of 6.0+/-0.6 Msolar/yr. Comparing the X-ray value with the mean UV derived SFR, uncorrected for attenuation, we find that the average UV attenuation correction factor is \\~3. By binning the galaxy sample according to UV magnitude and colour, correlations between UV and X-ray emission are also examined. We find a strong positive correlation between ...

  3. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, M., E-mail: monica@dictfa.unige.it [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Oliveri, P.; Casolino, C. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Sinelli, N. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Food Science and Technology, Via Celoria, 2 - I-20133 Milan (Italy); Zunin, P.; Armanino, C.; Forina, M.; Lanteri, S. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between non-selective (UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy among spectroscopic techniques, by the fusion of the respective spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the olive oils. - Abstract: An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil

  4. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, M; Oliveri, P; Casolino, C; Sinelli, N; Zunin, P; Armanino, C; Forina, M; Lanteri, S

    2012-01-27

    An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. SINFONI Integral Field Spectroscopy of z~2 UV-selected Galaxies: Rotation Curves and Dynamical Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Förster-Schreiber, N M; Bouche, N; Davies, R; Eisenhauer, F; Erb, D K; Genzel, R; Gilbert, A; Gillessen, S; Lehnert, M D; Lutz, D; Nesvadba, N; Shapley, A E; Steidel, C C; Sternberg, A; Tacconi, L J; Verma, A

    2006-01-01

    We present 0.5" resolution near-IR integral field spectroscopy of the Ha line emission of 14 z~2 UV-selected BM/BX galaxies obtained with SINFONI at ESO/VLT. The mean Ha half-light radius r_1/2 is about 4kpc and line emission is detected over > ~20kpc in several sources. In 9 sources, we detect spatially-resolved velocity gradients, from 40 to 410 km/s over ~10kpc. The observed kinematics of the larger systems are consistent with orbital motions. Four galaxies are well described by rotating disks with clumpy morphologies and we extract rotation curves out to radii > ~10kpc. One or two galaxies exhibit signatures more consistent with mergers. Analyzing all 14 galaxies in the framework of rotating disks, we infer mean inclination- and beam-corrected maximum circular velocities v_c of 180+-90 km/s and dynamical masses of (0.5-25)x10^10 Msun within r_1/2. On average, the dynamical masses are consistent with photometric stellar masses assuming a Chabrier/Kroupa IMF but too small for a 0.1-100 Msun Salpeter IMF. Th...

  6. UV spectrophotometry for monitoring the performance of a yeast-based deoxygenation process to treat ships' ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Éloïse; de Lafontaine, Yves; Thomas, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the usefulness of UV spectrophotometry for the monitoring of a yeast-based deoxygenation process proposed for ships' ballast water treatment to prevent the transfer of aquatic invasive species. Ten-day laboratory experiments using three treatment concentrations and different water types were conducted and resulted in complete oxygen depletion of treated waters. The treatment performance and quality of treated waters were determined by measuring the UV-visible absorbance spectra of water samples taken over time. Samples were also used for laboratory analysis of water quality properties. The UV absorbance spectra values were strongly correlated (r = 0.96) to yeast cell density in treated waters. The second-order derivative (D (2)) of the spectra varied greatly over time, and the spectrum profiles could be divided into two groups corresponding to the oxygenated and anoxic phases of the treatment. The D (2) value at 215 nm was strongly correlated (r = 0.94) to ammonia levels, which increased over time. The D (2) value at 225 nm was strongly correlated (r > 0.97) to DO concentration. Our results showed that UV spectrophotometry may provide a rapid assessment of the behavior and performance of the yeast bioreactor over time by quantifying (1) the density of yeast cells, (2) the time at which anoxic conditions were reached, and (3) a water quality index of the treated water related to the production of ammonia. We conclude that the rapidity of the technique confers a solid advantage over standard methods used for water quality analysis in laboratory and would permit the direct monitoring of the treatment performance on-board ships.

  7. UV-excess sources with a red/IR-counterpart: low-mass companions, debris disks and QSO selection

    CERN Document Server

    Verbeek, Kars; Scaringi, Simone; Casares, Jorge; Corral-Santana, Jesus M; Deacon, Niall; Drew, Janet E; Gänsicke, Boris T; González-Solares, Eduardo; Greimel, Robert; Heber, Ulrich; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Østensen, Roy H; Steeghs, Danny; Wright, Nicholas J; Zijlstra, Albert

    2013-01-01

    We present the result of the cross-matching between UV-excess sources selected from the UV-excess survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (UVEX) and several infrared surveys (2MASS, UKIDSS and WISE). From the position in the (J-H) vs. (H-K) colour-colour diagram we select UV-excess candidate white dwarfs with an M-dwarf type companion, candidates that might have a lower mass, brown-dwarf type companion, and candidates showing an infrared-excess only in the K-band, which might be due to a debris disk. Grids of reddened DA+dM and sdO+MS/sdB+MS model spectra are fitted to the U,g,r,i,z,J,H,K photometry in order to determine spectral types and estimate temperatures and reddening. From a sample of 964 hot candidate white dwarfs with (g-r)<0.2, the spectral energy distribution fitting shows that ~2-4% of the white dwarfs have an M-dwarf companion, ~2% have a lower-mass companion, and no clear candidates for having a debris disk are found. Additionally, from WISE 6 UV-excess sources are selected as candidate Quasi-...

  8. Oligophenylenevinylenes in spatially confined nanochannels: Monitoring intermolecular interactions by UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aloshyna, Mariya; Medina, Begona Milian; Poulsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    -guest interactions are elucidated by UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy. The impact of the local environment of the chromophore on the optical and photophysical properties is discussed in light of quantum-chemical calculations. In stark contrast to thin films where preferential side-by-side orientation leads to quenching...

  9. Strain dependent UV degradation of Escherichia coli DNA monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Cristina M; Lapusan, Alexandra; Mihaiu, Liora; Stefan, Razvan

    2014-01-05

    In this work we present a method for detection of DNA isolated from nonpathogenic Escherichia coli strains, respectively. Untreated and UV irradiated bacterial DNAs were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy, to investigate their screening characteristic features and their structural radiotolerance at 253.7nm. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 800-1800cm(-1). FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Also, UV damage at the DNA molecular level is of interest. Strain dependent UV degradation of DNA from E. coli has been observed. Particularly, alterations in nucleic acid bases, base pairing and base stacking have been found. Also changes in the DNA conformation and deoxyribose were detected. Based on this work, specific E. coli DNA-ligand interactions, drug development and vaccine design for a better understanding of the infection mechanism caused by an interference between pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria and for a better control of disease, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Besides, understanding the pathways for UV damaged DNA response, like nucleic acids repair mechanisms is appreciated.

  10. Selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO2/SiO2 under UV-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Guang; Ye, Feiyan; Wu, Luoming; Ren, Xiaoling; Xiao, Jing; Li, Zhong; Wang, Haihui

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO2/SiO2 under UV-irradiation. The TiO2/SiO2 adsorbents were prepared and then characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption isotherms, selectivity and kinetics of TiO2/SiO2 were measured in a UV built-in batch reactor. It was concluded that (a) with the employment of UV-irradiation, high organosulfur uptake of 5.12 mg/g was achieved on the optimized 0.3TiO2/0.7SiO2 adsorbent at low sulfur concentration of 15 ppmw-S, and its adsorption selectivity over naphthalene was up to 325.5; (b) highly dispersed TiO2 served as the photocatalytic sites for DBT oxidation, while SiO2 acted as the selective adsorption sites for the corresponding oxidized DBT using TiO2 as a promoter, the two types of active sites worked cooperatively to achieve the high adsorption selectivity of TiO2/SiO2; (c) The kinetic rate-determining step for the UV photocatalysis-assisted adsorptive desulfurization (PADS) over TiO2/SiO2 was DBT oxidation; (d) consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles suggested that the 0.3TiO2/0.7SiO2 adsorbent can be regenerated by acetonitrile washing followed with oxidative air treatment. This work demonstrated an effective PADS approach to greatly enhance adsorption capacity and selectivity of thiophenic compounds at low concentrations for deep desulfurization under ambient conditions.

  11. Quantitative monitoring of an activated sludge reactor using on-line UV-visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Paulo, Ana; Alves, Madalena M; Dias, Ana M A; Lopes, João A; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2009-10-01

    The performance of an activated sludge reactor can be significantly enhanced through use of continuous and real-time process-state monitoring, which avoids the need to sample for off-line analysis and to use chemicals. Despite the complexity associated with wastewater treatment systems, spectroscopic methods coupled with chemometric tools have been shown to be powerful tools for bioprocess monitoring and control. Once implemented and optimized, these methods are fast, nondestructive, user friendly, and most importantly, they can be implemented in situ, permitting rapid inference of the process state at any moment. In this work, UV-visible and NIR spectroscopy were used to monitor an activated sludge reactor using in situ immersion probes connected to the respective analyzers by optical fibers. During the monitoring period, disturbances to the biological system were induced to test the ability of each spectroscopic method to detect the changes in the system. Calibration models based on partial least squares (PLS) regression were developed for three key process parameters, namely chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate concentration (N-NO(3)(-)), and total suspended solids (TSS). For NIR, the best results were achieved for TSS, with a relative error of 14.1% and a correlation coefficient of 0.91. The UV-visible technique gave similar results for the three parameters: an error of approximately 25% and correlation coefficients of approximately 0.82 for COD and TSS and 0.87 for N-NO(3)(-) . The results obtained demonstrate that both techniques are suitable for consideration as alternative methods for monitoring and controlling wastewater treatment processes, presenting clear advantages when compared with the reference methods for wastewater treatment process qualification.

  12. Ozone and UV research at Finnish Meteorological Inst.: review of selected results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P.; Koskela, T.; Damski, J.; Supperi, A. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E. [Finnish Meteorologican Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory; Ginzburg, M. [Servicio Meteorologico Nacional, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dijkhuis, J.L. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). EUMETSAT

    1995-12-31

    Ozone and UV radiation research have become an important part of atmospheric research at Finnish Meteorological Institute after the discovery of chlorine based ozone loss in the Antarctic stratosphere

  13. Degradation of 40 selected pharmaceuticals by UV/H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wols, B A; Hofman-Caris, C H M; Harmsen, D J H; Beerendonk, E F

    2013-10-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in source waters is increasing. Although UV advanced oxidation is known to be an effective barrier against micropollutants, degradation rates are only available for limited amounts of pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the degradation of a large group of pharmaceuticals has been studied in this research for the UV/H2O2 process under different conditions, including pharmaceuticals of which the degradation by UV/H2O2 was never reported before (e.g., metformin, paroxetine, pindolol, sotalol, venlafaxine, etc.). Monochromatic low pressure (LP) and polychromatic medium pressure (MP) lamps were used for three different water matrices. In order to have well defined hydraulic conditions, all experiments were conducted in a collimated beam apparatus. Degradation rates for the pharmaceuticals were determined. For those compounds used in this research that are also reported in literature, measured degradation results are in good agreement with literature data. Pharmaceutical degradation for only photolysis with LP lamps is small, which is increased by using a MP lamp. Most of the pharmaceuticals are well removed when applying both UV (either LP or MP) and H2O2. However, differences in degradation rates between pharmaceuticals can be large. For example, ketoprofen, prednisolone, pindolol are very well removed by UV/H2O2, whereas metformin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide are very little removed by UV/H2O2.

  14. Selective ablation of photovoltaic materials with UV laser sources for monolithic interconnection of devices based on a-Si:H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molpeceres, C. [Centro Laser UPM, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: carlos.molpeceres@upm.es; Lauzurica, S.; Garcia-Ballesteros, J.J.; Morales, M.; Guadano, G.; Ocana, J.L. [Centro Laser UPM, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, S.; Gandia, J.J. [Dept. de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villar, F.; Nos, O.; Bertomeu, J. [CeRMAE Dept. Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Lasers are essential tools for cell isolation and monolithic interconnection in thin-film-silicon photovoltaic technologies. Laser ablation of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), amorphous silicon structures and back contact removal are standard processes in industry for monolithic device interconnection. However, material ablation with minimum debris and small heat affected zone is one of the main difficulty is to achieve, to reduce costs and to improve device efficiency. In this paper we present recent results in laser ablation of photovoltaic materials using excimer and UV wavelengths of diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser sources. We discuss results concerning UV ablation of different TCO and thin-film silicon (a-Si:H and nc-Si:H), focussing our study on ablation threshold measurements and process-quality assessment using advanced optical microscopy techniques. In that way we show the advantages of using UV wavelengths for minimizing the characteristic material thermal affection of laser irradiation in the ns regime at higher wavelengths. Additionally we include preliminary results of selective ablation of film on film structures irradiating from the film side (direct writing configuration) including the problem of selective ablation of ZnO films on a-Si:H layers. In that way we demonstrate the potential use of UV wavelengths of fully commercial laser sources as an alternative to standard backscribing process in device fabrication.

  15. Monitoring ultraviolet (UV) radiation inactivation of Cronobacter sakazakii in dry infant formula using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiaonan; Swanson, Barry G; Rasco, Barbara A; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen associated with dry infant formula presenting a high risk to low birth weight neonates. The inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula by ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone and combined with hot water treatment at temperatures of 55, 60, and 65 °C were applied in this study. UV radiation with doses in a range from 12.1 ± 0.30 kJ/m² to 72.8 ± 1.83 kJ/m² at room temperature demonstrated significant inactivation of C. sakazakii in dry infant formula (P radiation combining 60 °C hot water treatment increased inactivation of C. sakazakii cells significantly (P radiation on C. sakazakii inactivation kinetics (D value) were not observed in infant formula reconstituted in 55 and 65 °C water (P > 0.05). The inactivation mechanism was investigated using vibrational spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy detected significant stretching mode changes of macromolecules on the basis of spectral features, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. Minor changes on cell membrane composition of C. sakazakii under UV radiation could be accurately and correctly monitored by infrared spectroscopy coupled with 2nd derivative transformation and principal component analysis.

  16. Development of variable pathlength UV-vis spectroscopy combined with partial-least-squares regression for wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD) monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baisheng; Wu, Huanan; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2014-03-01

    To overcome the challenging task to select an appropriate pathlength for wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD) monitoring with high accuracy by UV-vis spectroscopy in wastewater treatment process, a variable pathlength approach combined with partial-least squares regression (PLSR) was developed in this study. Two new strategies were proposed to extract relevant information of UV-vis spectral data from variable pathlength measurements. The first strategy was by data fusion with two data fusion levels: low-level data fusion (LLDF) and mid-level data fusion (MLDF). Predictive accuracy was found to improve, indicated by the lower root-mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) compared with those obtained for single pathlength measurements. Both fusion levels were found to deliver very robust PLSR models with residual predictive deviations (RPD) greater than 3 (i.e. 3.22 and 3.29, respectively). The second strategy involved calculating the slopes of absorbance against pathlength at each wavelength to generate slope-derived spectra. Without the requirement to select the optimal pathlength, the predictive accuracy (RMSEP) was improved by 20-43% as compared to single pathlength spectroscopy. Comparing to nine-factor models from fusion strategy, the PLSR model from slope-derived spectroscopy was found to be more parsimonious with only five factors and more robust with residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 3.72. It also offered excellent correlation of predicted and measured COD values with R(2) of 0.936. In sum, variable pathlength spectroscopy with the two proposed data analysis strategies proved to be successful in enhancing prediction performance of COD in wastewater and showed high potential to be applied in on-line water quality monitoring.

  17. Real-time activity monitoring of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 in living bacterial cells by UV-Vis spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke-Wu; Zhou, Yajun; Ge, Ying; Zhang, Yuejuan

    2017-07-13

    We report an UV-Vis method for monitoring the hydrolysis of the β-lactam antibiotics inside living bacterial cells. Cell-based studies demonstrated that the hydrolysis of cefazolin was inhibited by three known NDM-1 inhibitors. This approach can be applied to the monitoring of reactions in a complex biological system, for instance in medical testing.

  18. Evaluating, selecting and relevance software tools in technology monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Fernando Castellanos Domínguez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The current setting for industrial and entrepreneurial development has posed the need for incorporating differentiating elements into the production apparatus leading to anticipating technological change. Technology monitoring (TM emerges as a methodology focused on analysing these changes for identifying challenges and opportunities (being mainly supported by information technology (IT through the search for, capture and analysis of data and information. This article proposes criteria for choosing and efficiently using software tools having different characteristics, requirements, capacity and cost which could be used in monitoring. An approach is made to different TM models, emphasising the identification and analysis of different information sources for coving and supporting information and access monitoring. Some evaluation, selection and analysis criteria are given for using these types of tools according to each production system’s individual profile and needs. Some of the existing software packages are described which are available on the market for carrying out monitoring prolects, relating them to their complexity, process characteristics and cost.

  19. Late-time X-Ray, UV and Optical Monitoring of Supernova 1979C

    OpenAIRE

    Immler, Stefan; Fesen, Robert A.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Weiler, Kurt W.; Petre, Robert; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Pooley, David; Pietsch, Wolfgang; Aschenbach, Bernd; Hammell, Molly C.; Rudie, Gwen C.

    2005-01-01

    We present results from observations of SN 1979C with XMM-Newton in X-rays and in the UV, archival X-ray and HST data, and follow-up ground-based optical imaging. The XMM-Newton MOS spectrum shows two-temperature thermal plasma emission characteristics of both the forward (4.1 keV) and reverse shock (0.78 keV) with no intrinsic absorption. The long-term X-ray lightcurve of SN 1979C shows no sign of a decline over 16-23 yrs after its outburst. The high X-ray luminosity (8 x 10^38 ergs/s) is ca...

  20. Responsivity measurements of 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for UV light monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, G.; Agrò, D.; Stivala, S.; Parisi, A.; Curcio, L.; Andò, A.; Tomasino, A.; Giaconia, C.; Busacca, A. C.; Mazzillo, M. C.; Sanfilippo, D.; Fallica, P. G.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the design and the electro-optical characterization of a novel class of 4H-SiC vertical Schottky UV detectors, based on the pinch-off surface effect and obtained employing Ni2Si interdigitated strips. We have measured, in dark conditions, the forward and reverse I-V characteristics as a function of the temperature and the C-V characteristics. Responsivity measurements of the devices, as a function of the wavelength (in the 200 - 400 nm range), of the package temperature and of the applied reverse bias are reported. We compared devices featured by different strip pitch size, and found that the 10 μm device pitch exhibits the best results, being the best compromise in terms of full depletion and space-strip width ratio.

  1. Strategy Developed for Selecting Optimal Sensors for Monitoring Engine Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Sensor indications during rocket engine operation are the primary means of assessing engine performance and health. Effective selection and location of sensors in the operating engine environment enables accurate real-time condition monitoring and rapid engine controller response to mitigate critical fault conditions. These capabilities are crucial to ensure crew safety and mission success. Effective sensor selection also facilitates postflight condition assessment, which contributes to efficient engine maintenance and reduced operating costs. Under the Next Generation Launch Technology program, the NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power, has developed a model-based procedure for systematically selecting an optimal sensor suite for assessing rocket engine system health. This optimization process is termed the systematic sensor selection strategy. Engine health management (EHM) systems generally employ multiple diagnostic procedures including data validation, anomaly detection, fault-isolation, and information fusion. The effectiveness of each diagnostic component is affected by the quality, availability, and compatibility of sensor data. Therefore systematic sensor selection is an enabling technology for EHM. Information in three categories is required by the systematic sensor selection strategy. The first category consists of targeted engine fault information; including the description and estimated risk-reduction factor for each identified fault. Risk-reduction factors are used to define and rank the potential merit of timely fault diagnoses. The second category is composed of candidate sensor information; including type, location, and estimated variance in normal operation. The final category includes the definition of fault scenarios characteristic of each targeted engine fault. These scenarios are defined in terms of engine model hardware parameters. Values of these parameters define engine simulations that generate

  2. In-line ATR-UV and Raman Spectroscopy for Monitoring API Dissolution Process During Liquid-Filled Soft-Gelatin Capsule Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Boyong; Zordan, Christopher A; Lu, Xujin; McGeorge, Gary

    2016-10-01

    Complete dissolution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is critical in the manufacturing of liquid-filled soft-gelatin capsules (SGC). Attenuated total reflectance UV spectroscopy (ATR-UV) and Raman spectroscopy have been investigated for in-line monitoring of API dissolution during manufacturing of an SGC product. Calibration models have been developed with both techniques for in-line determination of API potency. Performance of both techniques was evaluated and compared. The ATR-UV methodology was found to be able to monitor the dissolution process and determine the endpoint, but was sensitive to temperature variations. The Raman technique was also capable of effectively monitoring the process and was more robust to the temperature variation and process perturbations by using an excipient peak for internal correction. Different data preprocessing methodologies were explored in an attempt to improve method performance.

  3. Stability and toxicity of selected chlorinated benzophenone-type UV filters in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Rensheng; Žabar, Romina; Grbović, Gorica; Dolenc, Darko; Yao, Jun; Tišler, Tatjana; Trebše, Polonca

    2013-01-01

    In our study, the transformation of two most widely used UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-4 (BP4), in chlorinated water with disinfection reagents sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) was studied. Based on the HPLC/MS and UV-Vis analysis the formation of two different chlorinated products (5-chloro-2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone) was established. Identity of chlorinated products was confirmed by means of comparison of retention times with independently synthesized standards. Photostability study showed that dichloro-derivative in water is less stable then parent compounds, which is not the case for monochloro-derivatives. Toxicity of chlorinated compounds tested by Vibrio fischeri was found to be in the same range as that of the starting compounds. Preliminary testing of real water samples from swimming pools and sea swimming areas confirmed the presence of BP3 and its 3,5-dichloro derivative.

  4. Development of a UV laser-induced fluorescence lidar for monitoring blue-green algae in Lake Suwa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasunori; Takano, Kengo; Kobayashi, Fumitoshi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-10-20

    We developed a UV (355 nm) laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) lidar for monitoring the real-time status of blue-green algae. Since the fluorescence spectrum of blue-green algae excited by 355 nm showed the specific fluorescence at 650 nm, the lidar was designed to be able to detect the 650 nm fluorescence as a surveillance method for the algae. The usefulness was confirmed by observation at Lake Suwa over four years (2005-2008). The detection limit of the LIF lidar was 16.65 mg/L for the blue-green algae, which is the range of concentrations in the safe level set by the World Health Organization.

  5. Real time high frequency monitoring of water quality in river streams using a UV-visible spectrometer: interest, limits and consequences for monitoring strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, Mikaël; Fovet, Ophélie; Gruau, Gérard; Jaffrézic, Anne; Petitjean, Patrice; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Ruiz, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    Stream water chemistry is highly variable in space and time, therefore high frequency water quality measurement methods are likely to lead to conceptual advances in the hydrological sciences. Sub-daily data on water quality improve the characterization of pollutant sources and pathways during flood events as well as during long-term periods [1]. However, real time, high frequency monitoring devices needs to be properly calibrated and validated in real streams. This study analyses data from in situ monitoring of a stream water quality. During two hydrological years (2010-11, 2011-12), a submersible UV-visible spectrometer (Scan Spectrolyser) was used for surface water quality measurement at the outlet of a headwater catchment located at Kervidy-Naizin, Western France (AgrHys long-term hydrological observatory, http://www.inra.fr/ore_agrhys/). The spectrometer is reagentless and equipped with an auto-cleaning system. It allows real time, in situ and high frequency (20 min) measurements and uses a multiwavelengt spectral (200-750 nm) for simultaneous measurement of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total suspended solids (TSS). A global calibration based on a PLS (Partial Least Squares) regression is provided by the manufacturer as default configuration of the UV-visible spectrometer. We carried out a local calibration of the spectrometer based on nitrates and DOC concentrations analysed in the laboratory from daily manual sampling and sub-daily automatic sampling of flood events. TSS results are compared with 15 min turbidity records from a continuous turdidimeter (Ponsel). The results show a good correlation between laboratory data and spectrometer data both during basis flows periods and flood events. However, the local calibration gives better results than the global one. Nutrient fluxes estimates based on high and different low frequency time series (daily to monthly) are compared to discuss the implication for environmental monitoring strategies. Such

  6. Late-time X-Ray, UV and Optical Monitoring of Supernova 1979C

    CERN Document Server

    Immler, S; Van Dyk, S D; Weiler, K W; Petre, R; Lewin, W H G; Pooley, D; Pietsch, W; Aschenbach, B; Hammell, M C; Rudie, G C; Immler, Stefan; Fesen, Robert A.; Dyk, Schuyler D. Van; Weiler, Kurt W.; Petre, Robert; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Pooley, David; Pietsch, Wolfgang; Aschenbach, Bernd; Hammell, Molly C.; Rudie, Gwen C.

    2005-01-01

    We present results from observations of SN 1979C with XMM-Newton in X-rays and in the UV, archival X-ray and HST data, and follow-up ground-based optical imaging. The XMM-Newton MOS spectrum shows two-temperature thermal plasma emission characteristics of both the forward (4.1 keV) and reverse shock (0.78 keV) with no intrinsic absorption. The long-term X-ray lightcurve of SN 1979C shows no sign of a decline over 16-23 yrs after its outburst. The high X-ray luminosity (8 x 10^38 ergs/s) is caused by the interaction of the shock with dense circumstellar matter, likely deposited by a strong stellar wind from the progenitor with a high mass-loss rate of 1.5 x 10^-4 M_sun/yr. The X-ray data support a strongly decelerated shock and show a mass-loss rate history which is consistent with a constant progenitor mass-loss rate and wind velocity over the past >16,000 yrs in the evolution of the progenitor. We find a CSM density profile of rho_CSM \\propto r^-s with index s10^4 cm^-3) out to large radii from the site of t...

  7. European UV DataBase (EUVDB) as a repository and quality analyser for solar spectral UV irradiance monitored in Sodankylä

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Anu; Kaurola, Jussi; Lakkala, Kaisa; Matti Karhu, Juha; Kyrö, Esko; Koskela, Tapani; Engelsen, Ola; Slaper, Harry; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2016-08-01

    Databases gathering atmospheric data have great potential not only as data storages but also in serving as platforms for coherent quality assurance (QA). We report on the flagging system and QA tools designed for and implemented in the European UV DataBase (EUVDB; http://uv.fmi.fi/uvdb/) for measured data on solar spectral UV irradiance. We confine the study on the data measured by Brewer #037 MkII spectroradiometer in Sodankylä (67.37° N, 26.63° E) in 1990-2014. The quality indicators associated with the UV irradiance spectra uploaded into the database are retrieved from the database and subjected to a statistical analysis. The study demonstrates the performance of the QA tools of the EUVDB. In addition, it yields an overall view of the availability and quality of the solar UV spectra recorded in Sodankylä over a quarter of a century. Over 90 % of the four main quality indicators are flagged as GREEN, indicating the highest achievable quality. For the BLACK flags, denoting data not meeting the pre-defined requirements, the percentages for all the indicators remain below 0.12 %.

  8. Language Control in Bilinguals: Monitoring and Response Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branzi, Francesca M; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Canini, Matteo; Costa, Albert; Abutalebi, Jubin

    2016-06-01

    Language control refers to the cognitive mechanism that allows bilinguals to correctly speak in one language avoiding interference from the nontarget language. Bilinguals achieve this feat by engaging brain areas closely related to cognitive control. However, 2 questions still await resolution: whether this network is differently engaged when controlling nonlinguistic representations, and whether this network is differently engaged when control is exerted upon a restricted set of lexical representations that were previously used (i.e., local control) as opposed to control of the entire language system (i.e., global control). In the present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated these 2 questions by employing linguistic and nonlinguistic blocked switching tasks in the same bilingual participants. We first report that the left prefrontal cortex is driven similarly for control of linguistic and nonlinguistic representations, suggesting its domain-general role in the implementation of response selection. Second, we propose that language control in bilinguals is hierarchically organized with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/presupplementary motor area acting as the supervisory attentional system, recruited for increased monitoring demands such as local control in the second language. On the other hand, prefrontal, inferior parietal areas and the caudate would act as the response selection system, tailored for language selection for both local and global control.

  9. A new HPLC UV validated method for therapeutic monitoring of deferasirox in thalassaemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Francia, Silvia; Massano, Davide; Piccione, Francesca Maria; Pirro, Elisa; Racca, Silvia; Di Carlo, Francesco; Piga, Antonio

    2012-04-15

    We describe a new high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection method for the quantification of plasma concentration of oral iron chelating agent deferasirox. A simple protein precipitation extraction procedure was applied on 500 μl of plasma aliquots. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 reverse phase column and eluate was monitored at 295 nm, with 8 min of analytical run. This method has been validated following Food and Drug Administration procedures: mean intra and inter day variability was 4.64 and 10.55%; mean accuracy was 6.27%; mean extraction recovery 91.66%. Calibration curves ranged from 0.078125 to 40 μg/ml. Limit of quantification was set at 0.15625 while limit of detection at 0.078125 μg/ml. We applied methodology developed on plasma samples of thalassaemic patients treated with deferasirox, finding correlation between deferasirox plasma concentrations and serum ferritin levels. This methodology allowed a specific, sensitive and reliable determination of deferasirox, that could be useful to perform its therapeutic monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies in patients plasma.

  10. ADEQUATE UV EXPOSURES FOR HEALTHY LIFE: IN SITU MONITORING AND MODEL CALCULATION OF THE VITAMIN-D-SYNTHETIC CAPACITY OF SUNLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Terenetskaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D which is formed upon UV solar radiation in human skin is essential in many physiological functions. To estimate beneficial vitamin-D-synthetic capacity of sunlight a bio-equivalent UV dosimeter that is based on the same molecular photochemistry from which vitamin D is photosynthesized in human skin has been developed. The examples of an in situ monitoring of the vitamin-D-synthetic capacity of sunlight using an in vitro model of vitamin D synthesis are presented, and various operational principles of the UV biodosimeter are discussed. In addition, reliable algorithm is presented for direct calculation of previtamin D3 accumulation using the photoreaction mathematical model with solar UV spectra as input data. Critical dependence of previtamin D3 accumulation on cloudiness and aerosols is demonstrated.

  11. Wastewater Biosolid Composting Optimization Based on UV-VNIR Spectroscopy Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporal-Lara, Beatriz; Melendez-Pastor, Ignacio; Gómez, Ignacio; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose

    2016-11-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment generates large amounts of organic matter-rich sludge that requires adequate treatment to avoid public health and environmental problems. The mixture of wastewater sludge and some bulking agents produces a biosolid to be composted at adequate composting facilities. The composting process is chemically and microbiologically complex and requires an adequate aeration of the biosolid (e.g., with a turner machine) for proper maturation of the compost. Adequate (near) real-time monitoring of the compost maturity process is highly difficult and the operation of composting facilities is not as automatized as other industrial processes. Spectroscopic analysis of compost samples has been successfully employed for compost maturity assessment but the preparation of the solid compost samples is difficult and time-consuming. This manuscript presents a methodology based on a combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation and ultraviolet, visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy. Spectroscopic measurements were performed with liquid compost extract instead of solid compost samples. Partial least square (PLS) models were developed to quantify chemical fractions commonly employed for compost maturity assessment. Effective regression models were obtained for total organic matter (residual predictive deviation-RPD = 2.68), humification ratio (RPD = 2.23), total exchangeable carbon (RPD = 2.07) and total organic carbon (RPD = 1.66) with a modular and cost-effective visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectroradiometer. This combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation with a versatile sensor system provides an easy-to-implement, efficient and cost-effective protocol for compost maturity assessment and near-real-time monitoring.

  12. Layerwise Monitoring of the Selective Laser Melting Process by Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Harald; Zeugner, Thomas; Zaeh, Michael F.

    Selective Laser Melting is utilized to build parts directly from CAD data. In this study layerwise monitoring of the temperature distribution is used to gather information about the process stability and the resulting part quality. The heat distribution varies with different kinds of parameters including scan vector length, laser power, layer thickness and inter-part distance in the job layout. By integration of an off-axis mounted uncooled thermal detector, the solidification as well as the layer deposition are monitored and evaluated. This enables the identification of hot spots in an early stage during the solidification process and helps to avoid process interrupts. Potential quality indicators are derived from spatially resolved measurement data and are correlated to the resulting part properties. A model of heat dissipation is presented based on the measurement of the material response for varying heat input. Current results show the feasibility of process surveillance by thermography for a limited section of the building platform in a commercial system.

  13. Lyman break and UV-selected galaxies at $z \\sim 1$ I. Stellar populations from ALHAMBRA survey

    CERN Document Server

    Oteo, I; Cepa, J; Pérez-García, A M; Ederoclite, A; Sánchez-Portal, M; Pintos-Castro, I; Pérez-Martínez, R; Aguerri, J A L; Alfaro, E J; Aparicio-Villegas, T; Benítez, N; Broadhurst, T; Cabrera-Caño, J; Castander, F J; Cerviño, M; Cristobal-Hornillos, D; Fernandez-Soto, A; Gonzalez-Delgado, R M; Husillos, C; Infante, L; Martínez, V J; Márquez, I; Masegosa, J; Matute, I; Moles, M; Molino, A; del Olmo, A; Perea, J; Prada, F; Quintana, J M

    2013-01-01

    We take advantage of the exceptional photometric coverage provided by the combination of GALEX data in the UV and the ALHAMBRA survey in the optical and near-IR to analyze the physical properties of a sample of 1225 GALEX-selected Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at $0.8 \\lesssim z \\lesssim 1.2$ located in the COSMOS field. This is the largest sample of LBGs studied at that redshift range so far. According to a spectral energy distribution fitting with synthetic stellar population templates, we find that LBGs at $z \\sim 1$ are mostly young galaxies with a median value of 341 Myr and have intermediate dust attenuation, $ \\sim 0.20$. Due to their selection criterion they are UV-bright galaxies and have high dust-corrected total SFRs, with a median value of 46.4 $M_\\odot {\\rm yr}^{-1}$. The median value of the stellar mass of the LBGs in the sample is $\\log{M_*/M_\\odot} = 9.74$. We obtain that the dust-corrected total SFR of LBGs increases with stellar mass and the specific SFR is lower for more massive galaxies (dow...

  14. Ambient monitoring of asbestos in selected Italian living areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Mangano, Dario; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Ricchi, Anna; Foresti, Elisabetta; Lesci, Giorgio; Roveri, Norberto; Mariotti, Mauro; Pecchini, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an intensive monitoring activity of the particulate, fall-out and soil of selected living areas in Italy with the aim to detect the asbestos concentration in air and subsequent risk of exposure for the population in ambient living environments, and to assess the nature of the other mineral phases composing the particulate matrix. Some areas were sorted out because of the presence of asbestos containing materials on site whereas others were used as blank spots in the attempt to detect the background environmental concentration of asbestos in air. Because the concentration of asbestos in ambient environments is presumably very low, and it is well known that conventional low-medium flow sampling systems with filters of small diameter (25mm) may collect only a very small fraction of particulate over a short period, for the first time here, an intense monitoring activity was conducted with a high flow sampling system. The high flow system requires the use of large cellulose filters with the advantage that, increasing the amount of collected dust, the probability to collect asbestos fibers increases. Both the protocol of monitoring and analysis are novel and prompted by the need to increase the sensitivity towards the small number of expected fibers. With this goal, the collection of fall-out samples (the particulate falling into a collector filled with distilled water during the monitoring shift) and soil samples was also accomplished. The analytical protocol of the matrix particulate included preliminary X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), optical microscopy and quantitative electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Correlations with climatic trends and PM10 concentration data were also attempted. The surprising outcome of this work is that, despite the nature of the investigated site, the amount of dispersed asbestos fibers is very low and invariably lower than the theoretical method detection limits of the SEM and TEM techniques for

  15. Biodegradation of selected UV-irradiated and non-irradiated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Kirsi-Maarit; Puhakka, Jaakko A; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2003-08-01

    Biodegradation of UV-irradiated anthracene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene was compared to that of the non-irradiated samples, individually and in synthetic mixtures with enrichment cultures. Combined treatment was repeated for individual anthracene and for the PAH mixture with Sphingomonas sp. strain EPA 505 and Sphingomonas yanoikuyae. Enrichment culture studies were performed on the PAH mixtures in the presence of the main photoproduct of anthracene, pure 9,10-anthracenedione. Photochemically pretreated creosote solutions were also subjected to biodegradation and the results were compared to those of the non-irradiated solutions. The primary interest was on 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as priority pollutants by European Union (EU) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Irradiation accelerated the biodegradation onset for anthracene, pyrene, and benz[a]anthracene when they were treated individually. The biodegradation of irradiated pyrene started with no lag phase and was complete by 122 h whereas biodegradation of the non-irradiated sample had a lag of 280 h and resulted in complete degradation by 720 h. Biodegradation of PAHs was accelerated in synthetic mixtures, especially in the presence of pure 9,10-anthracenedione. In general, irradiation had no effect on the biodegradation of PAHs incubated in synthetic mixtures or with pure cultures. Under current experimental conditions, the UV-irradiation invariably reduced the biodegradation of PAHs in creosote. Based on the results of the present and previous photochemical-biological studies of PAHs, the influence of the photochemical pretreatment on the biodegradation is highly dependent on the compounds being treated and other process parameters.

  16. Monitoring of TiO2-catalytic UV-LED photo-oxidation of cyanide contained in mine wastewater and leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Gye Min; Lee, Byung-Tae; Yun, Seong-Taek; Kim, Soon-Oh

    2016-01-01

    A photo-oxidation process using UV-LEDs and TiO2 was studied for removal of cyanide contained in mine wastewater and leachates. This study focused on monitoring of a TiO2-catalyzed LED photo-oxidation process, particularly emphasizing the effects of TiO2 form and light source on the efficiency of cyanide removal. The generation of hydroxyl radicals was also examined during the process to evaluate the mechanism of the photo-catalytic process. The apparent removal efficiency of UV-LEDs was lower than that achieved using a UV-lamp, but cyanide removal in response to irradiation as well as consumption of electrical energy was observed to be higher for UV-LEDs than for UV-lamps. The Degussa P25 TiO2 showed the highest performance of the TiO2 photo-catalysts tested. The experimental results indicate that hydroxyl radicals oxidize cyanide to OCN(-), NO2(-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), and CO3(2-), which have lower toxicity than cyanide. In addition, the overall efficacy of the process appeared to be significantly affected by diverse operational parameters, such as the mixing ratio of anatase and rutile, the type of gas injected, and the number of UV-LEDs used.

  17. Indirect fluorescent determination of selected nitro-aromatic and pharmaceutical compounds via UV-photolysis of 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wilson, Christopher R; Danielson, Neil D

    2008-02-15

    An indirect fluorescence (FL) detection method via the reactivity of UV-photolyzed 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonate (PBSA) has been developed for non-fluorescent aromatic compounds. At high pH with UV photolysis, PBSA in the excited state is known to be quenched by reaction with oxygen species and analyte compounds that are reactive toward these oxygen species produced during photolysis can lessen the loss of PBSA FL. After off-line photolysis of PBSA in the presence of various nitro-aromatic test compounds, the increase in PBSA FL is clearly evident. A flow injection (FI) instrument using a PBSA mobile phase propelled through a Teflon coil wrapped around a Hg lamp is optimized and modified for use for liquid chromatography (LC). For the on-line FI determination of the non-fluorescent nitro-aromatic compounds such as 4-nitroaniline, 2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, and alpha-nitronaphthalene, a positive linear response for PBSA FL from about 0.5 to 15 microM and detection limits generally between 0.2 and 1 microM (4-20 pmol) are found. Linear responses and detection limits of selected pharmaceutical compounds such as the antibacterial nitrofurantoin, antihistamines chlorpheniramine and brompheniramine, and other compounds were similar. In general, detection limits using UV detection at about 214 nm were not as good in the 1-2 microM range but linearity extended up to 100 microM. The amino acid phenylalanine and small peptides containing this aromatic amino acid were also determined using this method. Application of this detection method for the liquid chromatography determination of 4-nitroaniline, 2-nitrophenol, nitrofurantoin, and salicylate is shown.

  18. Selective pattern of cancer cell accumulation and growth using UV modulating printing of hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenguang; Yu, Haibo; Wei, Fanan; Li, Gongxin; Wang, Yuechao; Liu, Lianqing

    2015-12-01

    Fabrication of extracellular microenvironment for cancer cell growth in vitro is an indispensable technique to precisely control the cell spatial arrangement and proliferation for cell-behavior research. Current micropatterning methods usually require relatively complicated operations, which makes it difficult to investigate the effects of different cell growth patterns. This manuscript proposes a DMD-based projection technique to quickly pattern a poly(ethylene) glycol diacrylate (PEGDA)-based hydrogel on a common glass substrate. Using this method, we can effectively control the growth patterns of cells. Compared with these traditional methods which employ digital dynamic mask, polymerization of PEGDA solution can be used to create arbitrary shaped microstructures with high efficiency, flexibility and repeatability. The duration of UV exposure is less than 10 s through controlling the projected illumination pattern. The ability of patterned PEGDA-coated film to hinder cell adhesion makes it possible to control area over which cells attach. In our experiments, we take advantage of the blank area to pattern cells, which allows cells to grow in various pre-designed shapes and sizes. And the patterning cells have a high viability after culturing for several days. Interestingly, we found that the restricted space could stiffen and strengthen the cells. These results indicate that cells and extracellular microenvironment can influence each other.

  19. Stars, Dust, and the Growth of UV-Selected Sub-L* Galaxies at Redshift z~2

    CERN Document Server

    Sawicki, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    [Abridged] This work concerns very faint (R_lim=28 AB mag; M_(stars, lim) ~ 10^8 Msun), UV-selected sub-L* BX galaxies at z~2.3. Stellar masses, dust content, and dust-corrected SFRs are constrained using broadband SED fitting, giving insights into the nature of these low-mass systems. First, a correlation found between rest-frame UV luminosity and galaxy stellar mass suggests that many sub-L* galaxies at z~2.3 may have approximately constant star formation histories. A nearly-linear relation between stellar mass and star formation rate is also found, hinting that the rate at which a sub-L* BX galaxy forms its stars is directly related to the mass of stars that it has already formed. A possible explanation is that new gas that falls onto the galaxy's host halo along with accreting dark matter is the source of fuel for ongoing star formation. The instantaneous efficiency of star formation is low in this scenario, of order 1%. The low-mass end of the stellar mass function is steeper than expected from extrapola...

  20. Monitoring of water quality of selected wells in Brno district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marková Jana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two wells in the country of Brno-district (Brčálka well and Well Olšová. The aim of work was monitoring of elementary parameters of water at regular monthly intervals to measure: water temperature, pH values, solubility oxygen and spring yield. According to the client's requirements (Lesy města Brno laboratory analyzes of selected parameters were done twice a year and their results were compared with Ministry of Health Decree no. 252/2004 Coll.. These parameters: nitrate, chemical oxygen demand (COD, calcium and magnesium and its values are presented in graphs, for ammonium ions and nitrite in the table. Graphical interpretation of spring yields dependence on the monthly total rainfall and dependence of water temperature on ambient temperature was utilized. The most important features of wells include a water source, a landmark in the landscape, aesthetic element or resting and relaxing place. Maintaining wells is important in terms of future generations.

  1. In Situ Monitoring of UV-Curing Kinetics of Acrylate Coatings by Combined Ultrasound Reflectometry and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Suman

    2011-01-01

    UV radiation curing is a novel technology in the field of organic coatings. It involves curing of reactive resin using the energy of photons in the wavelength region 200-400 nm. The most attractive feature of this method is its low space, low capital and low energy consumption. Free radical polymerizable acrylate resins are the most commonly used resins in UV curing. The UV curable acrylates are mainly used as protective and decorative coatings. In general curing displays a complex interdepen...

  2. UV filters for lighting of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehring, T.; Koefferlein, M.; Thiel, S.; Seidlitz, H. K.; Payer, H. D.

    1994-03-01

    any case chamber experiments require a careful selection of the filter material used and must be accompanied by a continuous UV-B monitoring.

  3. Direct UV photolysis of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and endocrine disruptors in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jules C; Stefan, Mihaela I; Parnis, J Mark; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are micropollutants of emerging concern that have been detected in the aquatic environment and in some cases, in drinking water at nanogram per liter levels. The goal of this study was to evaluate the removal of 15 model PPCPs and EDCs from water by direct UV photolysis, using either low (LP)-or medium (MP) -pressure mercury vapor arc lamps. Some of the model compounds are either weak bases or weak acids, and therefore, the pKa values were determined or confirmed for those compounds using spectrophotometric titrations. The molar absorption coefficients of ionized and non-ionized forms were also determined. The quantum yields at 253.7 nm in phosphate buffer solutions of pH 7.2 were determined to be 0.033 ± 0.004 for sulfamethoxazole, 0.0035 ± 0.0008 for sulfachloropyridazine, 0.006 ± 0.002 for acetaminophen, 0.34 ± 0.07 for triclosan, 0.35 ± 0.14 for estrone, 0.08 ± 0.05 for 17α-ethinylestradiol, 0.086 ± 0.012 for ibuprofen. The quantum yield for 4-n-nonylphenol photolysis at 253.7 nm varied with the initial concentration from 0.32 ± 0.08 at 23 μg/L to 0.092 ± 0.006 at 230 μg/L. The pseudo-first order rate constants determined for direct photolysis at 253.7 nm of the studied micropollutants followed the order: triclosan ≈ sulfamethoxazole > 4-n-nonylphenol ≈ sulfachloropyridazine ≈ estrone > acetaminophen ≈ 17α-ethinylestradiol ≈ ibuprofen. In contrast to the results observed for the monochromatic radiation (LP lamp), all 15 model compounds photolyzed under exposure to the broadband radiation emitted by the MP lamp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy to monitor label-free interaction between molecular recognition elements and erythropoietin on a gold-coated polycarbonate platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citartan, Marimuthu; Gopinath, Subash C B; Tominaga, Junji; Chen, Yeng; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2014-08-01

    Label-free-based detection is pivotal for real-time monitoring of biomolecular interactions and to eliminate the need for labeling with tags that can occupy important binding sites of biomolecules. One simplest form of label-free-based detection is ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy, which measure changes in reflectivity as a means to monitor immobilization and interaction of biomolecules with their corresponding partners. In biosensor development, the platform used for the biomolecular interaction should be suitable for different molecular recognition elements. In this study, gold (Au)-coated polycarbonate was used as a platform and as a proof-of-concept, erythropoietin (EPO), a doping substance widely abused by the athletes was used as the target. The interaction of EPO with its corresponding molecular recognition elements (anti-EPO monoclonal antibody and anti-EPO DNA aptamer) is monitored by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Prior to this, to show that UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy is a suitable method for measuring biomolecular interaction, the interaction between biotin and streptavidin was demonstrated via this strategy and reflectivity of this interaction decreased by 25%. Subsequent to this, interaction of the EPO with anti-EPO monoclonal antibody and anti-EPO DNA aptamer resulted in the decrease of reflectivity by 5% and 10%, respectively. The results indicated that Au-coated polycarbonate could be an ideal biosensor platform for monitoring biomolecular interactions using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. A smaller version of the Au-coated polycarbonate substrates can be derived from the recent set-up, to be applied towards detecting EPO abuse among atheletes.

  5. [Emission of electromagnetic radiation from selected computer monitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyss, T

    1995-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic fields from computer monitors was analysed. The data were compared with the permissible exposure level. EM radiation of chromatic monitors is higher than that of monochromatic ones. The radiation of magnetic fraction is insignificant. Both electric and magnetic fractions of EM radiation, 50 cm away from the monitor, are very low and do not exceed permissible values. It was observed that screen filters were effective in suppressing EM emission only at a short (up to 30 cm) distance from the monitor. At a distance of 50 cm they proved to be ineffective. Metallic-net filters were more effective than glass filters in suppressing EM radiation. It seems that EM fields generated by computer monitors are not harmful to computer operators if the distance is kept in safe limits.

  6. Application of excitation-emission fluorescence matrices and UV/Vis absorption to monitoring the photocatalytic degradation of commercial humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia, Sergio, E-mail: hvalens@gmail.com [Procesos Fisicoquimicos Aplicados, Universidad de Antioquia, Carrera 53 61-30, Medellin (Colombia); Marin, Juan M.; Restrepo, Gloria [Procesos Fisicoquimicos Aplicados, Universidad de Antioquia, Carrera 53 61-30, Medellin (Colombia); Frimmel, Fritz H., E-mail: fritz.frimmel@kit.edu [BereichWasserchemie, Engler-Bunte-Institut, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technology (KIT), 7631, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the use of excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and UV/Vis spectroscopy to monitor the changes in the composition and reactivity of Aldrich humic acids (Aldrich HA) as a model compound for natural organic matter (NOM) during photocatalytic degradation. Degussa P-25 titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and a solar UV-light simulator (a batch reactor) were used. The photocatalysis shifted the fluorescence maxima of EEMs of Aldrich HA toward shorter wavelengths, which implied that the photocatalytic degradation of commercial Aldrich HA caused the breakdown of high molecular weight components and the formation of lower molecular weight fractions. In addition, the fluorescence intensity of fulvic- and humic-like Aldrich HA presented a strong correlation with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific UV absorbance (SUVA) parameters, trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), and organically bound halogens absorbable on activated carbon formation potential (AOXFP). Fluorescence spectroscopy was shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring of the photocatalytic degradation of HA. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a strong correlation between the fluorescence intensity of humic acids and DOC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HA-like and FA-like fluorescence intensity and SUVA show strong linear correlation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Humic acids with high fluorescence intensity imply high formation of DBPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Humic acid photocatalysis lead to a decrease in the fluorescence intensity of EEMs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful tool to monitor HA photocatalytic removal.

  7. Development and validation of a selective HPLC-UV method for thymol determination in skin permeation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Tamara; Pires, Felipe Q; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; da Silva, Joyce K R; Gratieri, Tais; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S S

    2016-06-01

    Thymol is a natural monoterpene, whose antioxidant and antimicrobial properties suggest a potential use in topical formulations. A simple, precise and selective HPLC method for thymol determination in skin penetration studies was developed and validated in this paper. Separation was achieved with a RP-C18 column, mobile phase comprised of acetonitrile:water (35:65v/v), flow rate of 1.5mL/min, oven temperature at 40°C, injection volume of 30μL and UV detection at 278nm. The validation procedure certified the method was selective for thymol determination even when extracted from skin matrix extracts. It was also linear in a range from 0.5 to 15.0μg/mL, robust, precise and accurate, with recovery rates from the skin layers higher than 90%. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.05 and 0.14μg/mL, respectively. The method showed, therefore, to be adequate for use in further skin permeation studies employing thymol topical formulations.

  8. New binaries among UV-selected, hot subdwarf stars and population properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kawka, A; O'Toole, S; Nemeth, P; Burton, D; Kotze, E; Buckley, D A H

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the orbital parameters of seven close binaries, including six new objects, in a radial velocity survey of 38 objects comprising a hot subdwarf star with orbital periods ranging from ~0.17 to 3 d. One new system, GALEX J2205-3141, shows reflection on a M dwarf companion. Three other objects show significant short-period variations, but their orbital parameters could not be constrained. Two systems comprising a hot subdwarf paired with a bright main-sequence/giant companion display short-period photometric variations possibly due to irradiation or stellar activity and are also short-period candidates. All except two candidates were drawn from a selection of subluminous stars in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ultraviolet sky survey. Our new identifications also include a low-mass subdwarf B star and likely progenitor of a low mass white dwarf (GALEX J0805-1058) paired with an unseen, possibly substellar, companion. The mass functions of the newly identified binaries imply minimum secondary masses...

  9. Inline UV-Vis spectroscopy to monitor and optimize cleaning-in-place (CIP) of whey filtration plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Thilo Heinz Alexander; Ottosen, Niels; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J.

    2017-01-01

    used for every day. We investigated the capability of inline UV-Vis spectroscopy to elucidate the dynamics of CIP of membrane filtration plants as a gateway to control and optimize the process. For this investigation aged membranes that had been used for industrial ultrafiltration of whey were...... transferred to a pilot plant equipped with inline UV-Vis spectroscopy on both the retentate and permeate side. Then the dynamics of multiple fouling and cleaning of these membranes were investigated. The results indicate that the first CIP step, caustic cleaning could be shortened and possibly reduced...... in concentration. The second step of CIP, enzymatic cleaning, seems to be active even longer than the anticipated time. Challenges, first findings and future steps of full scale inline UV-Vis spectroscopy are discussed. We conclude that inline UV-Vis spectroscopy can be used to optimize the processing time, energy...

  10. Monitoring Light-induced Structural Changes of Channelrhodopsin-2 by UV-visible and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eglof Ritter; Katja Stehfest; Andre Berndt; Peter Hegemann; Franz J. Bartl

    2008-01-01

    ... . We expressed ChR2 in COS-cells, purified it, and subsequently investigated this unusual photoreceptor by flash photolysis and UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy...

  11. HerMES: dust attenuation and star formation activity in UV-selected samples from z~4 to z~1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Heinis, S; Bethermin, M; Bock, J; Burgarella, D; Conley, A; Cooray, A; Farrah, D; Ilbert, O; Magdis, G; Marsden, G; Oliver, S J; Rigopoulou, D; Roehlly, Y; Schulz, B; Symeonidis, M; Viero, M; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2013-01-01

    We study the link between observed ultraviolet luminosity, stellar mass, and dust attenuation within rest-frame UV-selected samples at z~ 4, 3, and 1.5. We measure by stacking at 250, 350, and 500 um in the Herschel/SPIRE images from the HerMES program the average infrared luminosity as a function of stellar mass and UV luminosity. We find that dust attenuation is mostly correlated with stellar mass. There is also a secondary dependence with UV luminosity: at a given UV luminosity, dust attenuation increases with stellar mass, while at a given stellar mass it decreases with UV luminosity. We provide new empirical recipes to correct for dust attenuation given the observed UV luminosity and the stellar mass. Our results also enable us to put new constraints on the average relation between star formation rate and stellar mass at z~ 4, 3, and 1.5. The star formation rate-stellar mass relations are well described by power laws (SFR~ M^0.7), with the amplitudes being similar at z~4 and z~3, and decreasing by a fact...

  12. Dust Attenuation in UV-selected Starbursts at High Redshift and Their Local Counterparts: Implications for the Cosmic Star Formation Rate Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overzier, Roderik A.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Wang, Jing; Armus, Lee; Buat, Veronique; Howell, Justin; Meurer, Gerhardt; Seibert, Mark; Siana, Brian; Basu-Zych, Antara; Charlot, Stéphane; Gonçalves, Thiago S.; Martin, D. Christopher; Neill, James D.; Rich, R. Michael; Salim, Samir; Schiminovich, David

    2011-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the dust obscuration in starburst galaxies at low and high redshifts. This study is motivated by our unique sample of the most extreme UV-selected starburst galaxies in the nearby universe (z extinction is used to estimate the integrated, dust-corrected SFR density at z ~= 2-6.

  13. Validated HPLC-UV method for determination of naproxen in human plasma with proven selectivity against ibuprofen and paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filist, Monika; Szlaska, Iwona; Kaza, Michał; Pawiński, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    Estimating the influence of interfering compounds present in the biological matrix on the determination of an analyte is one of the most important tasks during bioanalytical method development and validation. Interferences from endogenous components and, if necessary, from major metabolites as well as possible co-administered medications should be evaluated during a selectivity test. This paper describes a simple, rapid and cost-effective HPLC-UV method for the determination of naproxen in human plasma in the presence of two other analgesics, ibuprofen and paracetamol. Sample preparation is based on a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure with a short, 5 s mixing time. Fenoprofen, which is characterized by a similar structure and properties to naproxen, was first used as the internal standard. The calibration curve is linear in the concentration range of 0.5-80.0 µg/mL, which is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies following a single 220 mg oral dose of naproxen sodium. The method was fully validated according to international guidelines and was successfully applied in a bioequivalence study in humans. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. UV-Vis spectroscopy of tyrosine side-groups in studies of protein structure. Part 2: selected applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosiewicz, Jan M; Shugar, David

    2016-06-01

    In Part 2 we discuss application of several different types of UV-Vis spectroscopy, such as normal, difference, and second-derivative UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, linear and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, of the side-chain of tyrosine residues in different molecular environments. We review the ways these spectroscopies can be used to probe complex protein structures.

  15. UV-Vis spectroscopy of tyrosine side-groups in studies of protein structure. Part 2: selected applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosiewicz, Jan M; Shugar, David

    In Part 2 we discuss application of several different types of UV-Vis spectroscopy, such as normal, difference, and second-derivative UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, linear and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, of the side-chain of tyrosine residues in different molecular environments. We review the ways these spectroscopies can be used to probe complex protein structures.

  16. The XMM Deep Survey in the CDF-S VIII. UV catalogue of the Optical Monitor observations

    CERN Document Server

    Antonucci, M; Vagnetti, F; Trevese, D; Comastri, A; Paolillo, M; Ranalli, P; Vignali, C

    2014-01-01

    The XMM-Newton X-ray observatory has performed repeated observations of the CDFS in 33 epochs (2001-2010) through the XMM-CDFS Deep Survey. During the X-ray observations, XMM-OM targeted the central 17x17 arcmin2 region of the X-ray field of view, providing simultaneous optical/UV coverage of the CDFS. The resulting set of data can be taken into account to build an XMM-OM catalogue of the CDFS, filling the UV spectral coverage between the optical surveys and GALEX observations. We present the UV catalogue of the XMM-CDFS Deep Survey. Its main purpose is to provide complementary UV average photometric measurements of known optical/UV sources in the CDFS, taking advantage of the unique characteristics of the survey. The data reduction is intended also to improve the standard source detection on individual observations, by cataloguing faint sources through the stacking of their exposure images. We reprocessed the XMM-OM data of the survey and we stacked the exposures from consecutive observations using the stand...

  17. Selection for high levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus monitored with an egg-hatch assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Roos, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of selection for levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus, the consecutive nematode generations of an in vivo selection were monitored with a newly developed egg-hatch assay. The in vivo selection was started with a population not previously exposed to any ant

  18. Robust Face Skin Selection for Unobtrusive Vital Signs Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, M.; Van Leest, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we developed an algorithm that robustly selects faceskin. The algorithm has been tested on a set of challenging sequences. It is robust to partial occlusions, rotation of the head and spectrum changes of the illumination.

  19. Sorption and degradation of selected organic UV filters (BM-DBM, 4-MBC, and OD-PABA) in laboratory water-sediment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Lu, Guanghua; Xie, Zhengxin; Ding, Jiannan; Liu, Jianchao; Li, Yi

    2016-05-01

    Organic UV filters that have been widely used in sunscreens and other personal care products have drawn much public concern because of their widespread contamination in the environment and their potential ecological risks to ecosystems. We selected three UV filters with high frequency of detection in the environment, namely butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane (BM-DBM), ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA), and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), to investigate the sorption and degradation behaviors of these compounds in lab-scale water-sediment systems set up with natural water and sediment samples collected from different rivers and lakes (i.e., Yangtze River, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake, and Mochou Lake) in Nanjing, East China. The sorption isotherms of these UV filters were well described by the Freundlich equation (C s   = K f  × C w (n) ). The sorption of three UV filters in four sediments was all linear or close to it, with n values between 0.92 and 1.13. A moderate to strong sorption affinity was observed for these compounds, and the sorption appears to be irreversible. For the combined sorption and degradation studies, sorption was found to be a primary mechanism for the disappearance of these UV filters from the water phase, and biotransformation appears to be the predominant factor for the degradation of the target compounds in the water-sediment systems. All three UV filters were found to be slightly resistant to the microbes in these systems, with DT50total and DT90total values-the disappearance time (DT) describes the time in which the initial total mass of the UV filters in the whole system is reduced by 50 and 90 %-ranging between 18 and 31 days and 68 and 101 days, respectively.

  20. Temperature, but not available energy, affects the expression of a sexually selected ultraviolet (UV colour trait in male European green lizards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Bajer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colour signals are widely used in intraspecific communication and often linked to individual fitness. The development of some pigment-based (e.g. carotenoids colours is often environment-dependent and costly for the signaller, however, for structural colours (e.g. ultraviolet [UV] this topic is poorly understood, especially in terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a factorial experiment, we studied how available energy and time at elevated body temperature affects the annual expression of the nuptial throat colour patch in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis after hibernation and before mating season. In this species, there is a female preference for males with high throat UV reflectance, and males with high UV reflectance are more likely to win fights. We found that (i while food shortage decreased lizards' body condition, it did not affect colour development, and (ii the available time for maintaining high body temperature affected the development of UV colour without affecting body condition or other colour traits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the expression of a sexually selected structural colour signal depends on the time at elevated body temperature affecting physiological performance but not on available energy gained from food per se in an ectothermic vertebrate. We suggest that the effect of high ambient temperature on UV colour in male L. viridis makes it an honest signal, because success in acquiring thermally favourable territories and/or effective behavioural thermoregulation can both be linked to individual quality.

  1. Electrosteric stabilization of colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles with DNA and polyethylene glycol for selective enhancement of UV detection sensitivity in capillary electrophoresis analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsudir, Samar; Lai, Edward P C

    2017-03-01

    A new approach to selectively enhance the ultraviolet (UV) detection sensitivity of titania (TiO2), albeit in the presence of silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), and zinc oxide (ZnO), nanoparticles in capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis was developed. Interactions of Triton X-100 (TX-100), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with TiO2 nanoparticles produced larger CE-UV peaks at various enhancement factors. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was a more effective adsorbate than double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) due to its flexible molecular structure that participated in a stronger interaction with TiO2 nanoparticles via its sugar-phosphate backbone. Disaggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles upon DNA binding due to electrosteric stabilization was validated using dynamic light scattering. PEG coating of TiO2-DNA nanoparticles further enhanced the UV detection sensitivity in CE analysis by providing extra electrosteric stabilization. This analytical technique, which involves binding of TiO2 nanoparticles with DNA followed by coating with PEG, has allowed us to achieve progressively an enhancement factor up to 13.0 ± 3.0 - fold in analytical sensitivity for the accurate determination of disaggregated TiO2 nanoparticles. Graphical Abstract Selective enhancement of UV detection sensitivity for TiO2 nanoparticles via electrosteric stabilization using ssDNA and PEG.

  2. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: The Infrared Excess of UV-selected z=2-10 galaxies as a function of UV-continuum Slope and Stellar Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwens, Rychard; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; da Cunha, Elisabete; Labbe, Ivo; Bauer, Franz; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Chapman, Scott; Daddi, Emanuele; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ivison, Rob; Karim, Alex; Fevre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; van der Werf, Paul; Weiss, Axel; Cox, Pierre; Elbaz, David; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Oesch, Pascal; Wagg, Jeff; Wilkins, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We make use of deep 1.2mm-continuum observations (12.7microJy/beam RMS) of a 1 arcmin^2 region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to probe dust-enshrouded star formation from 330 Lyman-break galaxies spanning the redshift range z=2-10 (to ~2-3 Msol/yr at 1sigma over the entire range). Given the depth and area of ASPECS, we would expect to tentatively detect 35 galaxies extrapolating the Meurer z~0 IRX-beta relation to z>~2 (assuming T_d~35 K). However, only 6 tentative detections are found at z>~2 in ASPECS, with just two at >>3sigma. Subdividing z=2-10 galaxies according to stellar mass, UV luminosity, and UV-continuum slope and stacking the results, we only find a significant detection in the most massive (>10^9.75 Msol) subsample, with an infrared excess (IRX=L_{IR}/L_{UV}) consistent with previous z~2 results. However, the infrared excess we measure from our large selection of sub-L* (~2 galaxies. We furthermore find that the evolution of IRX-stellar mass relationship depends on the evolution of the dust temp...

  3. INVESTIGATION OF HYBRID OXIDATION PROCESSES (UV/TIO2/H2O2) FOR SELECTED ORGANIC MICROPOLLUTANTS ELIMINATION AND CHANGE OF WATER TOXICITY

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    All of the available and applicable chemical oxidants were found to affect the quality of the treated water or wastewater. It has been commonly observed that the oxidation processes generate by-products, which often possess unknown biological activity. Accordingly, the present study assessed the degree of degradation of mixture of selected micropollutants and the change of the solution toxicity in the UV/TiO2/H2O2 hybrid process. Water containing bisphenol A and diclofenac at a concentration ...

  4. Proteolytically-induced changes of secondary structural protein conformation of bovine serum albumin monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-circular dichroism spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Günnur; Vorob'ev, Mikhail M.; Vogel, Vitali; Mäntele, Werner

    2016-05-01

    Enzymatically-induced degradation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by serine proteases (trypsin and α-chymotrypsin) in various concentrations was monitored by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet circular dichroism (UV-CD) spectroscopy. In this study, the applicability of both spectroscopies to monitor the proteolysis process in real time has been proven, by tracking the spectral changes together with secondary structure analysis of BSA as proteolysis proceeds. On the basis of the FTIR spectra and the changes in the amide I band region, we suggest the progression of proteolysis process via conversion of α-helices (1654 cm- 1) into unordered structures and an increase in the concentration of free carboxylates (absorption of 1593 and 1402 cm- 1). For the first time, the correlation between the degree of hydrolysis and the concentration of carboxylic groups measured by FTIR spectroscopy was revealed as well. The far UV-CD spectra together with their secondary structure analysis suggest that the α-helical content decreases concomitant with an increase in the unordered structure. Both spectroscopic techniques also demonstrate that there are similar but less spectral changes of BSA for the trypsin attack than for α-chymotrypsin although the substrate/enzyme ratio is taken the same.

  5. UV-Vis/FT-NIR in situ monitoring of visible-light induced polymerization of PEGDA hydrogels initiated by eosin/triethanolamine/O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaastrup, Kaja; Aguirre-Soto, Alan; Wang, Chen; Bowman, Christopher N; Stansbury, Jeffery; Sikes, Hadley D

    In conjunction with a tertiary amine coinitiator, eosin, a photoreducible dye, has been shown to successfully circumvent oxygen inhibition in radical photopolymerization reactions. However, the role of O2 in the initiation and polymerization processes remains inconclusive. Here, we employ a UV-Vis/FT-NIR analytical tool for real-time, simultaneous monitoring of chromophore and monomer reactive group concentrations to investigate the eosin-activated photopolymerization of PEGDA-based hydrogels under ambient conditions. First, we address the challenges associated with spectroscopic monitoring of the polymerization of hydrogels using UV-Vis and FT-NIR, proposing metrics for quantifying the extent of signal loss from reflection and scattering, and showing their relation to microgelation and network formation. Second, having established a method for extracting kinetic information by eliminating the effects of changing refractive index and scattering, the coupled UV-Vis/FT-NIR system is applied to the study of eosin-activated photopolymerization of PEGDA in the presence of O2. Analysis of the inhibition time, rate of polymerization, and rate of eosin consumption under ambient and purged conditions indicates that regeneration of eosin in the presence of oxygen and consumption of oxygen occur via a nonchain process. This suggests that the uniquely high O2 resilience is due to alternative processes such as energy transfer from photo-activated eosin to oxygen. Uncovering the intricacies of the role of O2 in eosin-mediated initiation aids the design of O2 resistant free radical polymerization systems relevant to photonics, optoelectronics, biomaterials, and biosensing.

  6. UV-Vis/FT-NIR in situ monitoring of visible-light induced polymerization of PEGDA hydrogels initiated by eosin/triethanolamine/O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaastrup, Kaja; Aguirre-Soto, Alan; Wang, Chen; Bowman, Christopher N.; Stansbury, Jeffery; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2016-01-01

    In conjunction with a tertiary amine coinitiator, eosin, a photoreducible dye, has been shown to successfully circumvent oxygen inhibition in radical photopolymerization reactions. However, the role of O2 in the initiation and polymerization processes remains inconclusive. Here, we employ a UV-Vis/FT-NIR analytical tool for real-time, simultaneous monitoring of chromophore and monomer reactive group concentrations to investigate the eosin-activated photopolymerization of PEGDA-based hydrogels under ambient conditions. First, we address the challenges associated with spectroscopic monitoring of the polymerization of hydrogels using UV-Vis and FT-NIR, proposing metrics for quantifying the extent of signal loss from reflection and scattering, and showing their relation to microgelation and network formation. Second, having established a method for extracting kinetic information by eliminating the effects of changing refractive index and scattering, the coupled UV-Vis/FT-NIR system is applied to the study of eosin-activated photopolymerization of PEGDA in the presence of O2. Analysis of the inhibition time, rate of polymerization, and rate of eosin consumption under ambient and purged conditions indicates that regeneration of eosin in the presence of oxygen and consumption of oxygen occur via a nonchain process. This suggests that the uniquely high O2 resilience is due to alternative processes such as energy transfer from photo-activated eosin to oxygen. Uncovering the intricacies of the role of O2 in eosin-mediated initiation aids the design of O2 resistant free radical polymerization systems relevant to photonics, optoelectronics, biomaterials, and biosensing. PMID:26755925

  7. Selective UV-filter detection with sensors based on stainless steel electrodes modified with polyaniline doped with metal tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Luiz Fernando; Lanza, Marcos Roberto de Vasconcelos; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi; Sotomayor, Maria Del Pilar Taboada

    2009-07-01

    This work describes the construction and application of two amperometric sensors for sensitive UV-filter determination. The sensors were prepared using stainless steel electrodes in which polyaniline (PANI) was electrochemically polymerized in the presence of nickel (NiPcTS) or iron (FePcTS) tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines. The sensor surface characterizations were carried out using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The PANI/NiPcTS sensor was selective for the chemical UV-filter p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and the PANI/FePcTS sensor was selective for octyldimethyl-PABA (ODP), both in a mixture of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and 0.1 mol L(-1) H2SO4 at a volume ratio of 30 : 70, and with an applied potential of 0.0 mV vs. Ag|AgCl. A detailed investigation of the selectivity was carried out for both sensors, in order to determine their responses for ten different UV filters. Finally, each sensor was successfully applied to PABA or ODP quantification in sunscreen formulations and water from swimming pools.

  8. National inventory of selected biological monitoring programs. Summary report of current or recently completed projects, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, H. T.

    1976-10-01

    The Inventory has resulted in establishment of a series of data bases containing biological monitoring information of varying types, namely, directory of investigators, record of projects received from mail questionnaire, detailed description of selected biomonitoring projects, and bibliographic citations supporting the projects received. This report contains detailed descriptions of selected biomonitoring projects organized on a state-by-state basis and with appropriate indices.

  9. Selective degradation of lignin and elimination of HO·radicals in pulps by O3 and UV laser flash irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林鹿; 周贤涛; 邱玉桂

    2002-01-01

    HO·radical is an aggressive reagent to abstract hydrogen from diverse substitutes and lead them to degradation, however, in reaction of active oxygen species with lignins, complex phenolic polymers, in dispersed lignocellulose such as pulp for environment-benign delignification, HO· radicals should be eliminated as more as possible to prevent cellulose from unfavorably concomitant degradation. A reaction system of O3 is constructed under UV laser flash irradiation, and HO·radicals are controlled efficiently by it. A new mechanism is proposed, for the first time, that O·radicals generated from reaction of O3 with UV laser flash irradiation might be the contributor to scavenge HO·radicals.

  10. Selective degradation of lignin and elimination of HO radicals in pulps by O3 and UV laser flash irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林鹿; 周贤涛; 邱玉桂

    2002-01-01

    HO radical is an aggressive reagent to abstract hydrogen from diverse substitutes and lead them to degradation, however, in reaction of active oxygen species with lignins, complex phenolic polymers, in dispersed lignocellulose such as pulp for environment-benign delignification, HO radicals should be eliminated as more as possible to prevent cellulose from unfavorably concomitant degradation. A reaction system of O3 is constructed under UV laser flash irradiation, and HO radicals are controlled efficiently by it. A new mechanism is proposed, for the first time, that O radicals generated from reaction of O3 with UV laser flash irradiation might be the contributor to scavenge HO radicals.

  11. Spectrally selective UV bactericidal effect for curative treatment of post-surgical intra-abdominal abscesses and other infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Miller, Mark A.; Babichenko, Sergey M.

    2004-07-01

    Results of in-vitro studies of bactericidal effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on strains causing drug-resistant endo-cavital infections (Enterococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and others) are presented. An original technique to measure effects of UV-irradiation on bacterial growth at different wavelengths has been developed. Spectral dependences of the bactericidal effect have been observed, and spectral maxima of bactericidal efficiency have been found. Applications to curative treatments of wounds, post-surgical intra-abdominal abscesses and other diseases are discussed.

  12. Performance evaluation of the UV/H2O2 process on selected nitrogenous organic compounds: reductions of organic contents vs. corresponding C-, N-DBPs formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Chia-Yang; Wang, Gen-Shuh

    2011-10-01

    The presence of various organic contaminants in water sources is of concern due to their direct threats to human health and potential to react with disinfectants to form carcinogenic byproducts including trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids and nitrosamines in finished water. This study applied both medium-pressure and low-pressure ultraviolet light coupled with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) to evaluate its efficacy for degradation of selected nitrogenous organic compounds and corresponding disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Six organic compounds were chosen as target precursors based on their nitrogen contents and molecular structures. The results showed that higher oxidation capacity resulted in better reduction of organic matters and DBP formation potentials (DBPFPs). However, insufficient contact time and oxidant doses could lead to a rise of DBPFPs in the early stages of UV/H2O2 reactions. A greater percentage removal was achieved for organic carbon than organic nitrogen after UV/H2O2 treatment, especially for compounds with complicated structure such as diltiazem. During the UV/H2O2 treatment, the intermediate products include tertiary amine, dimethyl amine (DMA) or DMA-like structures, which are N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors after chlorination or chloramination. Furthermore, it was observed that using dissolved organic nitrogen and DMA to predict NDMAFP could lead to biased conclusions because of the complex nature of nitrogenous matters in aqueous environments.

  13. Facile LC-UV methods for simultaneous monitoring of ciprofloxacin and rosuvastatin in API, formulations and human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Tabassum, Arman

    2015-02-01

    An efficient, selective and cost-effective liquid chromatographic assay was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ciprofloxacin and rosuvastatin in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), pharmaceutical formulations and in human serum. The chromatographic system consisted of mobile phase methanol-water, 90:10 v/v at pH 3.0 adjusted with o-phosphoric acid, pumped at 1.0 mL/min through a prepacked Purospher Star C18 (5 µm, 25 × 0.46 cm) column and effluent was monitored at the isosbestic point (255 nm) as well as at the λmax of individual drugs (243 and 271 nm). The method was validated over a linear concentration range of 0.25-15 µg/mL for ciprofloxacin and 0.33-20 µg/mL for rosuvastatin (r(2)  ≥ 0.999). The ranges of reliable response (limits of detection and quantitation) for ciprofloxacin were 3-15 and 9-45 ng/mL and 17-29 and 52-88 ng/mL, respectively, for rosuvastatin in all API, pharmaceutical formulations and human serum. Analytical recovery from human serum was >98% and relative standard deviation (RSD) was ciprofloxacin and rosuvastatin, respectively. No matrix interferences, ion suppression/enhancement and carry-over were detected. The total assay run time was less than 5 min. In another study, for optimum performance the detector was programmed for multiwavelength scanning at the absorption maxima of each component. Consequently, the linearity range was improved and limit of detection and quantitation values were down to 1-4 and 4-12 ng/mL for ciprofloxacin and 3-5 and 9-15 ng/mL for rosuvastatin, respectively. The validation parameters fitted ICH guidelines through the isosbestic and individual λmax approach. The small sample volume and simplicity of preparation make this method suitable for use in human serum samples, pharmaceutical formulations, quality control, drug-drug interaction studies, clinical laboratories, drug research centers and forensic medical centers. Copyright © 2014

  14. Online Monitoring of Water-Quality Anomaly in Water Distribution Systems Based on Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis by UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibo Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a probabilistic principal component analysis- (PPCA- based method for online monitoring of water-quality contaminant events by UV-Vis (ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The purpose of this method is to achieve fast and sound protection against accidental and intentional contaminate injection into the water distribution system. The method is achieved first by properly imposing a sliding window onto simultaneously updated online monitoring data collected by the automated spectrometer. The PPCA algorithm is then executed to simplify the large amount of spectrum data while maintaining the necessary spectral information to the largest extent. Finally, a monitoring chart extensively employed in fault diagnosis field methods is used here to search for potential anomaly events and to determine whether the current water-quality is normal or abnormal. A small-scale water-pipe distribution network is tested to detect water contamination events. The tests demonstrate that the PPCA-based online monitoring model can achieve satisfactory results under the ROC curve, which denotes a low false alarm rate and high probability of detecting water contamination events.

  15. Cyanobacterial phycobilisomes: selective dissociation monitored by fluorescence and circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigbi, M.; Rosinski, J.; Siegelman, H.W.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1980-04-01

    Phycobilisomes are supramolecular assemblies of phycobiliproteins responsible for photosynthetic light collection in red algae and cyanobacteria. They can be selectively dissociated by reduction of temperature and buffer concentration. Phycobilisomes isolated from Fremyella diplosiphon transfer energy collected by C-phycoerythrin and C-phycocyanin to allophycocyanin. The energy transfer to allophycocyanin is nearly abolished at 2/sup 0/C, as indicated by a blue shift in fluorescence emission, and is accompanied by a decrease in the circular dichroism in the region of allophycocyanin absorbance. Further dissociation of the phycobilisomes can be attained by reduction of buffer concentration and holding at 2/sup 0/C. Energy transfer to C-phycocyanin is nearly abolished, and decreases occur in the circular dichroism in the region of C-phycocyanin and C-phycoerythrin absorbance. Complete dissociation of the phycobilisomes at low buffer concentration and 2/sup 0/C requires extended time. Energy transfer to C-phycocyanin is further reduced and the circular dichroism maximum of C-phycoerythrin at 575 nm is lost. Circular dichroism provides information on the hexamer-monomer transitions of the phycobiliproteins, whereas fluorescence is indicative of hexamer-hexamer interactions. We consider that hydrophobic interactions are fundamental to the maintenance of the structure and function of phycobilisomes.

  16. Cyanobacterial phycobilisomes: Selective dissociation monitored by fluorescence and circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbi, Meir; Rosinski, Joanne; Siegelman, Harold W.; Sutherland, John Clark

    1980-01-01

    Phycobilisomes are supramolecular assemblies of phycobiliproteins responsible for photosynthetic light collection in red algae and cyanobacteria. They can be selectively dissociated by reduction of temperature and buffer concentration. Phycobilisomes isolated from Fremyella diplosiphon transfer energy collected by C-phycoerythrin and C-phycocyanin to allophycocyanin. The energy transfer to allophycocyanin is nearly abolished at 2°C, as indicated by a blue shift in fluorescence emission, and is accompanied by a decrease in the circular dichroism in the region of allophycocyanin absorbance. Further dissociation of the phycobilisomes can be attained by reduction of buffer concentration and holding at 2°C. Energy transfer to C-phycocyanin is nearly abolished, and decreases occur in the circular dichroism in the region of C-phycocyanin and C-phycoerythrin absorbance. Complete dissociation of the phycobilisomes at low buffer concentration and 2°C requires extended time. Energy transfer to C-phycocyanin is further reduced and the circular dichroism maximum of C-phycoerythrin at 575 nm is lost. Circular dichroism provides information on the hexamer-monomer transitions of the phycobiliproteins, whereas fluorescence is indicative of hexamer-hexamer interactions. We consider that hydrophobic interactions are fundamental to the maintenance of the structure and function of phycobilisomes. PMID:16592802

  17. Response of selected antioxidants and pigments in tissues of Rosa hybrida and Fuchsia hybrida to supplemental UV-A exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Vos, de C.H.; Maas, F.M.; Jonker, H.H.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Jordi, W.; Pot, C.S.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of supplemental UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation on tissue absorption at 355 nm, levels of various antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, carotenoids and flavonoids) and of antioxidant scavenging capacity were investigated with leaves and petals of Rosa hybrida, cv. Honesty and with leaves,

  18. Response of selected antioxidants and pigments in tissues of Rosa hybrida and Fuchsia hybrida to supplemental UV-A exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Vos, de C.H.; Maas, F.M.; Jonker, H.H.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Jordi, W.; Pot, C.S.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of supplemental UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation on tissue absorption at 355 nm, levels of various antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, carotenoids and flavonoids) and of antioxidant scavenging capacity were investigated with leaves and petals of Rosa hybrida, cv. Honesty and with leaves, pet

  19. Monitoring light-induced structural changes of Channelrhodopsin-2 by UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Eglof; Stehfest, Katja; Berndt, Andre; Hegemann, Peter; Bartl, Franz J

    2008-12-12

    Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a microbial type rhodopsin and a light-gated cation channel that controls phototaxis in Chlamydomonas. We expressed ChR2 in COS-cells, purified it, and subsequently investigated this unusual photoreceptor by flash photolysis and UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. Several transient photoproducts of the wild type ChR2 were identified, and their kinetics and molecular properties were compared with those of the ChR2 mutant E90Q. Based on the spectroscopic data we developed a model of the photocycle comprising six distinguishable intermediates. This photocycle shows similarities to the photocycle of the ChR2-related Channelrhodopsin of Volvox but also displays significant differences. We show that molecular changes include retinal isomerization, changes in hydrogen bonding of carboxylic acids, and large alterations of the protein backbone structure. These alterations are stronger than those observed in the photocycle of other microbial rhodopsins like bacteriorhodopsin and are related to those occurring in animal rhodopsins. UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy revealed two late intermediates with different time constants of tau = 6 and 40 s that exist during the recovery of the dark state. The carboxylic side chain of Glu(90) is involved in the slow transition. The molecular changes during the ChR2 photocycle are discussed with respect to other members of the rhodopsin family.

  20. Monitoring dithiocarbamate fungicide residues in greenhouse and non-greenhouse tomatoes in Iran by HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, A; Shoeibi, S; Amini, M; Amirahmadi, M; Rastegar, H; Ghaffarian, A; Ghazi-Khansari, M

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous analysis of dithiocarbamate fungicide residues on greenhouse and non-greenhouse tomatoes was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. A calibration curve with spiked samples was plotted to determine dithiocarbamate residues in tomato samples. Limits of detection and quantification were approximately 0.05 and 0.2 µg g(-1), respectively. The ranges of mean recoveries at five spiking levels for all dithiocarbamates of interest were between 88.2%-95.7% and 99.5%-100.8% in standards and spiked samples, respectively. In this study, 40 greenhouse and 40 non-greenhouse tomato samples were analysed. None of the samples analysed contained dithiocarbamates in excess of the maximum residue levels established by the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues, except for one greenhouse sample, with ethylenebisdithiocarbamates at 3.2 µg g(-1).

  1. Design of an Optical system for the In Situ Process Monitoring of Selective Laser Melting (SLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Philipp; Schleifenbaum, Henrich; Meiners, Wilhelm; Wissenbach, Konrad; Hinke, Christian; Bültmann, Jan

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an Additive Manufacturing technology that enables the production of complex shaped individual parts with series identical mechanical properties. Areas of improvement are up to now quality and reproducibility of parts made by SLM due to different kinds of errors. Therefore the integration of a monitoring and control module into a SLM-machine is aspired. The design of such an optical system capable of monitoring high scanning velocities and melt pool dynamics is introduced as a first step.

  2. Indicators for Monitoring Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Systematic Review of Indicator Selection Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemlein, Stefanie; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-03-17

    Monitoring water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) is important to track progress, improve accountability, and demonstrate impacts of efforts to improve conditions and services, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Indicator selection methods enable robust monitoring of WaSH projects and conditions. However, selection methods are not always used and there are no commonly-used methods for selecting WaSH indicators. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review of indicator selection methods used in WaSH-related fields. We present a summary of indicator selection methods for environment, international development, and water. We identified six methodological stages for selecting indicators for WaSH: define the purpose and scope; select a conceptual framework; search for candidate indicators; determine selection criteria; score indicators against criteria; and select a final suite of indicators. This summary of indicator selection methods provides a foundation for the critical assessment of existing methods. It can be used to inform future efforts to construct indicator sets in WaSH and related fields.

  3. Indicators for Monitoring Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Systematic Review of Indicator Selection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Schwemlein

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH is important to track progress, improve accountability, and demonstrate impacts of efforts to improve conditions and services, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Indicator selection methods enable robust monitoring of WaSH projects and conditions. However, selection methods are not always used and there are no commonly-used methods for selecting WaSH indicators. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review of indicator selection methods used in WaSH-related fields. We present a summary of indicator selection methods for environment, international development, and water. We identified six methodological stages for selecting indicators for WaSH: define the purpose and scope; select a conceptual framework; search for candidate indicators; determine selection criteria; score indicators against criteria; and select a final suite of indicators. This summary of indicator selection methods provides a foundation for the critical assessment of existing methods. It can be used to inform future efforts to construct indicator sets in WaSH and related fields.

  4. Fabrication and Optimization of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorod Array-Based UV Photodetectors via Selective Hydrothermal Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Nagaraju, Goli; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-08-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array (NRA)-based ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) were successfully fabricated and optimized via a facile hydrothermal process. Using a shadow mask technique, the thin ZnO seed layer was deposited between the patterned Au/Ti electrodes to bridge the electrodes. Thus, both the Au electrodes could be connected by the ZnO seed layer. As the sample was immersed into growth solution and heated at 90 °C, the ZnO NRAs were crystallized and vertically grown on the ZnO seed layer, thus creating a metal-semiconductor-metal PD structure. To investigate the size effect of ZnO NRAs on photocurrent, the PDs were readily prepared with different concentrations of growth solution. For the ZnO NRAs grown at 25 mM of concentration, the PD with 10 μm of channel width (i.e., gap distance between two electrodes) exhibited a high photocurrent of 1.91 × 10-4 A at an applied bias of 10 V under 365 nm of UV light illumination. The PD was optimized by adjusting the channel width. For 15 μm of channel width, a relatively high photocurrent on-off ratio of 37.4 and good current transient characteristics were observed at the same applied bias. These results are expected to be useful for cost-effective and practical UV PD applications.

  5. Fabrication and Optimization of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorod Array-Based UV Photodetectors via Selective Hydrothermal Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Nagaraju, Goli; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-12-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod array (NRA)-based ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) were successfully fabricated and optimized via a facile hydrothermal process. Using a shadow mask technique, the thin ZnO seed layer was deposited between the patterned Au/Ti electrodes to bridge the electrodes. Thus, both the Au electrodes could be connected by the ZnO seed layer. As the sample was immersed into growth solution and heated at 90 °C, the ZnO NRAs were crystallized and vertically grown on the ZnO seed layer, thus creating a metal-semiconductor-metal PD structure. To investigate the size effect of ZnO NRAs on photocurrent, the PDs were readily prepared with different concentrations of growth solution. For the ZnO NRAs grown at 25 mM of concentration, the PD with 10 μm of channel width (i.e., gap distance between two electrodes) exhibited a high photocurrent of 1.91 × 10(-4) A at an applied bias of 10 V under 365 nm of UV light illumination. The PD was optimized by adjusting the channel width. For 15 μm of channel width, a relatively high photocurrent on-off ratio of 37.4 and good current transient characteristics were observed at the same applied bias. These results are expected to be useful for cost-effective and practical UV PD applications.

  6. Climatology of Ultra Violet (UV) irradiance as measured through the Belgian ground-based monitoring network during the time period of 1995-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Praveen; Gillotay, Didier; Depiesse, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    In this study we describe the network of ground-based ultraviolet (UV) radiation monitoring stations in Belgium. The evolution of the entire network, together with the details of measuring instruments is given. The observed cumulative irradiances -UVB, UVA and total solar irradiance (TSI)- over the course of measurement for three stations -a northern (Ostende), central (Uccle) and a southern (Redu)- are shown. The longest series of measurement shown in this study is at Uccle, Brussels, from 1995 till 2014. Thus, the variation of the UV index (UVI), together with the variation of irradiances during summer and winter months at Uccle are shown as a part of this climatological study. The trend of UVB irradiance over the above mentioned three stations is shown. This UVB trend is studied in conjunction with the long-term satellite-based total column ozone value over Belgium, which shows two distinct trends marked by a change point. The total column ozone trend following the change point is positive. It is also seen that the UVB trend is positive for the urban/sub-urban sites: Uccle and Redu. Whereas the UVB trend at Ostende, which is a coastal site, is not positive. A possible explanation of this relation between total column ozone and UVB trend could be associated with aerosols, which is shown in this paper by means of a radiative transfer model based study -as a part of a preliminary investigation. It is seen that the UVI is influenced by the type of aerosols.

  7. Monitoring bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol and other antibiotics by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Anthony M; Medina, Audrie M; Royall, Ariel E; Herzog, Norbert K; Niesel, David W

    2013-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem worldwide. For this reason, clinical laboratories often determine the susceptibility of the bacterial isolate to a number of different antibiotics in order to establish the most effective antibiotic for treatment. Unfortunately, current susceptibility assays are time consuming. Antibiotic resistance often involves the chemical modification of an antibiotic to an inactive form by an enzyme expressed by the bacterium. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) has the ability to quickly monitor and identify these chemical changes in an unprecedented time scale. In this work, we used SRM as a technique to determine the susceptibility of several different antibiotics to the chemically modifying enzymes β-lactamase and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, enzymes used by bacteria to confer resistance to major classes of commonly used antibiotics. We also used this technique to directly monitor the effects of resistant bacteria grown in a broth containing a specific antibiotic. Because SRM is highly selective and can also identify chemical changes in a multitude of antibiotics in a single assay, SRM has the ability to detect organisms that are resistant to multiple antibiotics in a single assay. For these reasons, the use of SRM greatly reduces the time it takes to determine the susceptibility or resistance of an organism to a multitude of antibiotics by eliminating the time-consuming process found in other currently used methods.

  8. An ontological knowledge based system for selection of process monitoring and analysis tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Gernaey, Krist; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    monitoring and analysis tools for a wide range of operations has made their selection a difficult, time consuming and challenging task. Therefore, an efficient and systematic knowledge base coupled with an inference system is necessary to support the optimal selection of process monitoring and analysis tools......, satisfying the process and user constraints. A knowledge base consisting of the process knowledge as well as knowledge on measurement methods and tools has been developed. An ontology has been designed for knowledge representation and management. The developed knowledge base has a dual feature. On the one...... procedures has been developed to retrieve the data/information stored in the knowledge base....

  9. Ion pair-based liquid-phase microextraction combined with cuvetteless UV-vis micro-spectrophotometry as a miniaturized assay for monitoring ammonia in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senra-Ferreiro, Sonia; Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Costas-Mora, Isabel; Romero, Vanesa; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2011-09-15

    A miniaturized method based on liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) in combination with microvolume UV-vis spectrophotometry for monitoring ammonia in waters is proposed. The methodology is based on the extraction of the ion pair formed between the blue indophenol obtained according to the Berthelot reaction and a quaternary ammonium salt into a microvolume of organic solvent. Experimental parameters affecting the LPME performance such as type and concentration of the quaternary ammonium ion salt required to form the ion pair, type and volume of extractant solvent, effect of disperser solvent, ionic strength and extraction time, were optimized. A detection limit of 5.0 μg L(-1) ammonia and an enrichment factor of 30 can be attained after a microextraction time of 4 min. The repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation, was 7.6% (n=7). The proposed method can be successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of ammonia in several environmental water samples.

  10. Electronic UV dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, H C; Gniadecka, M

    1996-08-01

    The pathogenic role of ultraviolet (UV) in the development of skin cancer, skin ageing and immunosuppression makes it important to monitor human exposure to UV radiation. In a previous study we constructed UVB and UVC dosimeters based on a thermoluminescent phenomenon induced by UV in CaF2 :Dy and CaF2 crystals. However, these dosimeters were insensitive to UVA radiation and readout was time-consuming. In the present study we aimed to develop an electronic dosimeter suitable for UVA, UVB and UVC. The principle of this dosimeter is a measure of accumulated electric current induced by UV on a photodetector. Electric current induced by UV on a photodetector was accumulated in a Plessey's E-cell coulometer. A special reading device was constructed to quantify total charge of the coulometer. Sensitivity for UVA, UVB and UVC was achieved by the use of appropriate filters in front of the photodetector. The sensitivity of the electronic dosimeter increased with increasing wavelength of UV radiation; therefore, in UVB and UVC dosimeters the use of amplifiers was necessary. A linear response to UVA, UVB and UVC was achieved. Dosimeters with a linear response to increasing doses of UVA, UVB and UVC have been constructed for personal monitoring of UV exposure.

  11. SHORT-TIMESCALE MONITORING OF THE X-RAY, UV, AND BROAD DOUBLE-PEAK EMISSION LINE OF THE NUCLEUS OF NGC 1097

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Campus do Vale, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grupe, Dirk [Space Science Center, Morehead State University, 235 Martindale Drive, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Peterson, Bradley M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Baldwin, Jack A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Nemmen, Rodrigo S. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Winge, Cláudia, E-mail: silva.schimoia@ufrgs.br [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-02-10

    Recent studies have suggested that the short-timescale (≲ 7 days) variability of the broad (∼10,000 km s{sup –1}) double-peaked Hα profile of the LINER nucleus of NGC 1097 could be driven by a variable X-ray emission from a central radiatively inefficient accretion flow. To test this scenario, we have monitored the NGC 1097 nucleus in X-ray and UV continuum with Swift and the Hα flux and profile in the optical spectrum using SOAR and Gemini-South from 2012 August to 2013 February. During the monitoring campaign, the Hα flux remained at a very low level—three times lower than the maximum flux observed in previous campaigns and showing only limited (∼20%) variability. The X-ray variations were small, only ∼13% throughout the campaign, while the UV did not show significant variations. We concluded that the timescale of the Hα profile variation is close to the sampling interval of the optical observations, which results in only a marginal correlation between the X-ray and Hα fluxes. We have caught the active galaxy nucleus in NGC 1097 in a very low activity state, in which the ionizing source was very weak and capable of ionizing just the innermost part of the gas in the disk. Nonetheless, the data presented here still support the picture in which the gas that emits the broad double-peaked Balmer lines is illuminated/ionized by a source of high-energy photons which is located interior to the inner radius of the line-emitting part of the disk.

  12. Comparison of UV irradiances from Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI with Brewer measurements at El Arenosillo (Spain – Part 1: Analysis of parameter influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antón

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to compare the erythemal UV irradiance (UVER and spectral UV irradiances (at 305, 310 and 324 nm from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI onboard NASA EOS/Aura polar sun-synchronous satellite (launched in July 2004, local equator crossing time 01:45 p.m. with ground-based measurements from the Brewer spectrophotometer #150 located at El Arenosillo (South of Spain. The analyzed period comprises more than four years, from October 2004 to December 2008. The effects of several factors (clouds, aerosols and the solar elevation on OMI-Brewer comparisons were analyzed. The proxies used for each factor were: OMI Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER at 360 nm (clouds, the aerosol optical depth (AOD at 440 nm measured from the ground-based Cimel sun-photometer (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov, and solar zenith angle (SZA at OMI overpass time. The comparison for all sky conditions reveals positive biases (OMI higher than Brewer 12.3% for UVER, 14.2% for UV irradiance at 305 nm, 10.6% for 310 nm and 8.7% for 324 nm. The OMI-Brewer root mean square error (RMSE is reduced when cloudy cases are removed from the analysis, (e.g., RMSE~20% for all sky conditions and RMSE smaller than 10% for cloud-free conditions. However, the biases remain and even become more significant for the cloud-free cases with respect to all sky conditions. The mentioned overestimation is partially due to aerosol extinction influence. In addition, the differences OMI-Brewer typically decrease with SZA except days with high aerosol loading, when the bias is near constant. The seasonal dependence of the OMI-Brewer difference for cloud-free conditions is driven by aerosol climatology.

    To account for the aerosol effect, a first evaluation in order to compare with previous TOMS results (Antón et al., 2007 was performed. This comparison shows that the OMI bias is between +14% and +19% for

  13. Positron emission tomography probe to monitor selected sugar metabolism in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Owen; Clark, Peter M.; Castillo, Blanca Graciela Flores; Jung, Michael E.; Evdokimov, Nikolai M.

    2017-03-14

    The invention disclosed herein discloses selected ribose isomers that are useful as PET probes (e.g. [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-arabinose). These PET probes are useful, for example, in methods designed to monitor physiological processes including ribose metabolism and/or to selectively observe certain tissue/organs in vivo. The invention disclosed herein further provides methods for making and using such probes.

  14. Positron emission tomography probe to monitor selected sugar metabolism in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Owen; Clark, Peter M.; Castillo, Blanca Graciela Flores; Jung, Michael E.; Evdokimov, Nikolai M.

    2017-03-14

    The invention disclosed herein discloses selected ribose isomers that are useful as PET probes (e.g. [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-arabinose). These PET probes are useful, for example, in methods designed to monitor physiological processes including ribose metabolism and/or to selectively observe certain tissue/organs in vivo. The invention disclosed herein further provides methods for making and using such probes.

  15. Concentrations of the UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate in the aquatic compartment: a comparison of modelled concentrations for Swiss surface waters with empirical monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jürg Oliver

    2002-05-10

    UV filters in sunscreens and cosmetics protect the skin from damage through UV radiation. Many tonnes per year of UV filters are being used in Europe and will be present, at least seasonally, in detectable concentrations in surface waters similar to common pharmaceutically active substances. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC; CAS 5466-77-3) were extrapolated for Switzerland, taking into consideration substance-specific environmental fate data and marketing estimates, by crude worst-case reckoning and by applying two environmental models (Mackay Level III; USES 3.0), both configured for Swiss hydrological and area data. By worst-case reckoning the summer PEC is 70.8-81.3 ng/l while for the remaining 8 months of the year the PEC is 13.1-15.1 ng/l. The Level III model results in concentrations of 2.4 ng/l during the summer and 0.44 ng/l during the rest of the year, while the USES 3.0 model gives an average PEC for the whole year of 7.6 ng/l. Pooling summer monitoring data (90 single analyses) from the River Rhine below Basel in the year 1997 (Water Protection Board of Basel) and from Lakes Zurich and Hüttner in 1998 (Poiger et al., in preparation) allowed a derivation of a probabilistic median concentration of 4.6 ng/l, a 95th-percentile concentration of 18.6 ng/l and a 99th-percentile concentration of 33.5 ng/l. The 6-fold range from the median value to the maximum calls for caution in interpreting published monitoring concentrations. Comparison of modelled PECs with realistic median concentrations shows that crude reckoning overestimates actual concentrations by a factor of about 10, probably through insufficient consideration of (further) degradation of EHMC in sewage works, surface waters, sediments or river banks. Both computer models, in contrast, are within the same order of magnitude as the actual summer concentrations. Based on the available data, both these environmental fate and distribution models give

  16. Method and apparatus for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieg, Steven J; Viola, Michael B; Cheng, Shi-Wai S; Mulawa, Patricia A; Hilden, David L; Sloane, Thompson M; Lee, Jong H

    2014-05-06

    A method for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device of an exhaust aftertreatment system of an internal combustion engine operating lean of stoichiometry includes injecting a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream upstream of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device at a predetermined mass flowrate of the reductant, and determining a space velocity associated with a predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device. When the space velocity exceeds a predetermined threshold space velocity, a temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is determined, and a threshold temperature as a function of the space velocity and the mass flowrate of the reductant is determined. If the temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is below the threshold temperature, operation of the engine is controlled to regenerate the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device.

  17. Application of excitation and emission matrix fluorescence (EEM) and UV-vis absorption to monitor the characteristics of Alizarin Red S (ARS) during electro-Fenton degradation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Bo; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Juling; Yang, Zhishan; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative degradation of Alizarin Red S (ARS) in aqueous solutions by using electro-Fenton was studied. At first, effect of operating parameters such as current density, aeration rate and initial pH on the degradation of ARS were studied by using UV-vis spectrum, respectively. Then, under the optimal operating conditions (current density: 10.0mAcm(-2), aeration rate: 1000mLmin(-1), initial pH: 2.8), the identification of degradation products of ARS was carried out by using GC-MS and HPLC, meanwhile its degradation pathway was proposed according to the intermediates. Considering the location, intensity and intensity ratio of fluorescence center peak of the ARS in aqueous solution, a convenient and quick monitoring method by using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectrum technology was developed to monitor the degradation degree of ARS through electro-Fenton process. Furthermore, it is suggested that the developed method would be promising for the quick analysis and evaluation of the degradation degree of the pollutants with π-conjugated system.

  18. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: The Infrared Excess of UV-Selected z = 2-10 Galaxies as a Function of UV-Continuum Slope and Stellar Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard J.; Aravena, Manuel; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; da Cunha, Elisabete; Labbé, Ivo; Bauer, Franz E.; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Chapman, Scott; Daddi, Emanuele; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ivison, Rob J.; Karim, Alex; Le Fevre, Olivier; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian R.; van der Werf, Paul; Weiss, Axel; Cox, Pierre; Elbaz, David; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jorge; Infante, Leopoldo; Oesch, Pascal; Wagg, Jeff; Wilkins, Steve

    2016-12-01

    We make use of deep 1.2 mm continuum observations (12.7 μJy beam-1 rms) of a 1 arcmin2 region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field to probe dust-enshrouded star formation from 330 Lyman-break galaxies spanning the redshift range z = 2-10 (to ˜2-3 M ⊙ yr-1 at 1σ over the entire range). Given the depth and area of ASPECS, we would expect to tentatively detect 35 galaxies, extrapolating the Meurer z ˜ 0 IRX-β relation to z ≥ 2 (assuming dust temperature T d ˜ 35 K). However, only six tentative detections are found at z ≳ 2 in ASPECS, with just three at >3σ. Subdividing our z = 2-10 galaxy samples according to stellar mass, UV luminosity, and UV-continuum slope and stacking the results, we find a significant detection only in the most massive (>109.75 M ⊙) subsample, with an infrared excess (IRX = L IR/L UV) consistent with previous z ˜ 2 results. However, the infrared excess we measure from our large selection of sub-L ∗ (<109.75 M ⊙) galaxies is {0.11}-0.42+0.32 ± 0.34 (bootstrap and formal uncertainties) and {0.14}-0.14+0.15 ± 0.18 at z = 2-3 and z = 4-10, respectively, lying below even an IRX-β relation for the Small Magellanic Cloud (95% confidence). These results demonstrate the relevance of stellar mass for predicting the IR luminosity of z ≳ 2 galaxies. We find that the evolution of the IRX-stellar mass relationship depends on the evolution of the dust temperature. If the dust temperature increases monotonically with redshift (\\propto {(1+z)}0.32) such that T d ˜ 44-50 K at z ≥ 4, current results are suggestive of little evolution in this relationship to z ˜ 6. We use these results to revisit recent estimates of the z ≥ 3 star formation rate density.

  19. Selective Cluster-Based Temperature Monitoring System for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sudhanshu Tyagi; Sudeep Tanwar; Sumit Kumar Gupta; Neeraj Kumar; Joel JPC Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a revolution in ICT, and this has led to the evolution of wireless sensor networks (WSN), in particular, wireless body area networks. Such networks comprise a specialized collection of sensor nodes (SNs) that may be deployed randomly in a body area network to collect data from the human body. In a health monitoring system, it may be es-sential to maintain constant environmental conditions within a specific area in the hospital. In this paper, we propose a tempera-ture-monitoring system and describe a case study of a health-monitoring system for patents critically ill with the same disease and in the same environment. We propose Enhanced LEACH Selective Cluster (E-LEACH-SC) routing protocol for monitoring the tem-perature of an area in a hospital. We modified existing Selective Cluster LEACH protocol by using a fixed-distance-based thresh-old to divide the coverage region in two subregions. Direct data transmission and selective cluster-based data transmission ap-proaches were used to provide short-range and long-distance coverage for the collection of data from the body of ill patients. Ex-tensive simulations were run by varying the ratio of node densities of the two subregions in the health-monitoring system. Last Node Alive (LNA), which is a measure of network lifespan, was the parameter for evaluating the performance of the proposed scheme. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly increases network lifespan compared with traditional LEACH and LEACH-SC protocols, which by themselves improve the overall performance of the health-monitoring system.

  20. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges and opportunities in the selection of coverage indicators for global monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Harris Requejo

    Full Text Available Global monitoring of intervention coverage is a cornerstone of international efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. In this review, we examine the process and implications of selecting a core set of coverage indicators for global monitoring, using as examples the processes used by the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival and the Commission on Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. We describe how the generation of data for global monitoring involves five iterative steps: development of standard indicator definitions and measurement approaches to ensure comparability across countries; collection of high-quality data at the country level; compilation of country data at the global level; organization of global databases; and rounds of data quality checking. Regular and rigorous technical review processes that involve high-level decision makers and experts familiar with indicator measurement are needed to maximize uptake and to ensure that indicators used for global monitoring are selected on the basis of available evidence of intervention effectiveness, feasibility of measurement, and data availability as well as programmatic relevance. Experience from recent initiatives illustrates the challenges of striking this balance as well as strategies for reducing the tensions inherent in the indicator selection process. We conclude that more attention and continued investment need to be directed to global monitoring, to support both the process of global database development and the selection of sets of coverage indicators to promote accountability. The stakes are high, because these indicators can drive policy and program development at the country and global level, and ultimately impact the health of women and children and the communities where they live.

  1. Evaluating Acoustic Emission Signals as an in situ process monitoring technique for Selective Laser Melting (SLM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Karl A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Candy, Jim V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Guss, Gabe [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mathews, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-14

    In situ real-time monitoring of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process has significant implications for the AM community. The ability to adjust the SLM process parameters during a build (in real-time) can save time, money and eliminate expensive material waste. Having a feedback loop in the process would allow the system to potentially ‘fix’ problem regions before a next powder layer is added. In this study we have investigated acoustic emission (AE) phenomena generated during the SLM process, and evaluated the results in terms of a single process parameter, of an in situ process monitoring technique.

  2. Using Maximum Entropy Modeling for Optimal Selection of Sampling Sites for Monitoring Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Evangelista

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring programs must efficiently describe state shifts. We propose using maximum entropy modeling to select dissimilar sampling sites to capture environmental variability at low cost, and demonstrate a specific application: sample site selection for the Central Plains domain (453,490 km2 of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON. We relied on four environmental factors: mean annual temperature and precipitation, elevation, and vegetation type. A “sample site” was defined as a 20 km × 20 km area (equal to NEON’s airborne observation platform [AOP] footprint, within which each 1 km2 cell was evaluated for each environmental factor. After each model run, the most environmentally dissimilar site was selected from all potential sample sites. The iterative selection of eight sites captured approximately 80% of the environmental envelope of the domain, an improvement over stratified random sampling and simple random designs for sample site selection. This approach can be widely used for cost-efficient selection of survey and monitoring sites.

  3. Using maximum entropy modeling for optimal selection of sampling sites for monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Kumar, Sunil; Barnett, David T.; Evangelista, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental monitoring programs must efficiently describe state shifts. We propose using maximum entropy modeling to select dissimilar sampling sites to capture environmental variability at low cost, and demonstrate a specific application: sample site selection for the Central Plains domain (453,490 km2) of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). We relied on four environmental factors: mean annual temperature and precipitation, elevation, and vegetation type. A “sample site” was defined as a 20 km × 20 km area (equal to NEON’s airborne observation platform [AOP] footprint), within which each 1 km2 cell was evaluated for each environmental factor. After each model run, the most environmentally dissimilar site was selected from all potential sample sites. The iterative selection of eight sites captured approximately 80% of the environmental envelope of the domain, an improvement over stratified random sampling and simple random designs for sample site selection. This approach can be widely used for cost-efficient selection of survey and monitoring sites.

  4. Technical Note: Field experiences using UV/VIS sensors for high-resolution monitoring of nitrate in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebsch, M.; Grimmeisen, F.; Zemann, M.; Fenton, O.; Richards, K. G.; Jordan, P.; Sawarieh, A.; Blum, P.; Goldscheider, N.

    2015-04-01

    Two different in situ spectrophotometers are compared that were used in the field to determine nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations at two distinct spring discharge sites. One sensor was a double wavelength spectrophotometer (DWS) and the other a multiple wavelength spectrophotometer (MWS). The objective of the study was to review the hardware options, determine ease of calibration, accuracy, influence of additional substances and to assess positive and negative aspects of the two sensors as well as troubleshooting and trade-offs. Both sensors are sufficient to monitor highly time-resolved NO3-N concentrations in emergent groundwater. However, the chosen path length of the sensors had a significant influence on the sensitivity and the range of detectable NO3-N. The accuracy of the calculated NO3-N concentrations of the sensors can be affected if the content of additional substances such as turbidity, organic matter, nitrite or hydrogen carbonate significantly varies after the sensors have been calibrated to a particular water matrix. The MWS offers more possibilities for calibration and error detection but requires more expertise compared with the DWS.

  5. Technical Note: Field experiences using UV/VIS sensors for high-resolution monitoring of nitrate in groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huebsch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Two different in-situ spectrophotometers are compared that were used in the field to determine nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N concentrations at two distinct spring discharge sites. One sensor was a double wavelength spectrophotometer (DWS and the other a multiple wavelength spectrophotometer (MWS. The objective of the study was to review the hardware options, determine ease of calibration, accuracy, influence of additional substances and to assess positive and negative aspects of the two sensors as well as troubleshooting and trade-offs. Both sensors are sufficient to monitor highly time-resolved NO3-N concentrations in emergent groundwater. However, the chosen path length of the sensors had a significant influence on the sensitivity and the range of detectable NO3-N. The accuracy of the calculated NO3-N concentrations of the sensors can be affected, if the content of additional substances such as turbidity, organic matter, nitrite or hydrogen carbonate significantly varies after the sensors have been calibrated to a particular water matrix. The MWS offers more possibilities for calibration and error detection, but requires more expertise compared with the DWS.

  6. Color perception influences microhabitat selection of refugia and affects monitoring success for a cryptic anuran species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bradley S; MacKenzie, Michelle L; Maerz, John C; Farrell, Christopher B; Castleberry, Steven B

    2016-10-01

    Perceptual-biases are important for understanding an animal's natural history, identifying potential ecological traps, and for developing effective means to monitor individuals and populations. Despite research demonstrating anurans having a positive phototactic response towards blue colors, we do not yet understand if color cues are used functionally beyond sexual selection. The aim of our study was to determine if color cues are used in selecting microhabitat, and if anuran's blue-positive phototactic response could increase selection of artificial PVC refugia used to monitor cryptic camouflaging anuran species. We captured 32 Cope's Gray Treefrogs and placed them in mesh enclosures with three PVC tubes painted blue, brown, and white. Concurrently, we placed blue, brown, or unpainted white PVC tubes in stratified arrays around a treefrog breeding pond, and counted the number of occasions treefrogs occupied different colored PVC tubes. In the confined choice experiment, treefrogs selected blue tubes (48.3%) significantly more often than brown (28.5%) or white (23.2%) tubes. Our field experiment mirrored these findings (52.0% of capture events in blue, 29.0% in brown, and 19.0% in unpainted white tubes). Our results suggest color influences Cope's Gray Treefrog microhabitat selection, and they utilize color vision when choosing refugia. We demonstrate simple, small changes based on perceptual-biases can induce behaviors that may in turn have large impacts on sampling techniques used in monitoring and inventorying. Incorporating non-traditional physiological measures into animal inventorying and monitoring programs can be used in the future to improve conservation efforts.

  7. Assessment of silicone as support to investigate the transformation routes of organic chemicals under environmental conditions and UV exposure. Application to selected fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cabo, T; Rodríguez, I; Ramil, M; Cela, R

    2013-05-01

    The suitability of bulk silicone as support to follow the degradation of chemical compounds under environmental conditions and UV radiation is illustrated selecting three fungicides (fenhexamid, FEN; triadimenol, TRI and difenoconazole, DIF) as model compounds. These precursor species were first absorbed in silicone supports (10 mm length × 2 mm i.d. and 0.5 mm thickness) and then kept outdoors for several days (up to 2 months) or exposed to UV radiation (254 nm), from a low pressure mercury lamp, in the laboratory. Degradation of precursor fungicides and by-products formation was followed by liquid chromatography (LC) quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS), after desorption of silicone supports using 0.5 mL of acetonitrile. Half-lives (t(1/2)) measured under UV exposure varied from 5 to 100 min. As regards environmental conditions, the most stable fungicide was DIF, degraded by just 15 % after 2 months; whereas, t(1/2) values of 30 and 83 h were calculated for FEN during summer and autumn, respectively. Supports contained by-products arising from precursor species through de-chlorination, cleavage, hydroxylation, intra-molecular cyclation and oligomerization reactions. Most of them have been previously identified in soil surface, vegetable leaves and water after application of fungicides in agriculture fields. The low cost of silicone tubes (ca. 0.4 Euros), added to their excellent chemical stability and capability to retain precursor species and their by-products, make them ideal supports to follow the transformation routes of organic compounds under environmental and simulated conditions, even for relatively stable species with t(1/2) in the range of weeks or months.

  8. Prognostic Health Monitoring System: Component Selection Based on Risk Criteria and Economic Benefit Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binh T. Pham; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J Lybeck; Magdy S Tawfik

    2012-05-01

    Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespans. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depend on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system.

  9. Comparison of targeted peptide quantification assays for reductive dehalogenases by selective reaction monitoring (SRM) and precursor reaction monitoring (PRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffmann, Christian; Hansen, Rasmus; Baumann, Sven; Kublik, Anja; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Adrian, Lorenz; von Bergen, Martin; Jehmlich, Nico; Seifert, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Targeted absolute protein quantification yields valuable information about physiological adaptation of organisms and is thereby of high interest. Especially for this purpose, two proteomic mass spectrometry-based techniques namely selective reaction monitoring (SRM) and precursor reaction monitoring (PRM) are commonly applied. The objective of this study was to establish an optimal quantification assay for proteins with the focus on those involved in housekeeping functions and putative reductive dehalogenase proteins from the strictly anaerobic bacterium Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CBDB1. This microbe is small and slow-growing; hence, it provides little biomass for comprehensive proteomic analysis. We therefore compared SRM and PRM techniques. Eleven peptides were successfully quantified by both methods. In addition, six peptides were solely quantified by SRM and four by PRM, respectively. Peptides were spiked into a background of Escherichia coli lysate and the majority of peptides were quantifiable down to 500 amol absolute on column by both methods. Peptide quantification in CBDB1 lysate resulted in the detection of 15 peptides using SRM and 14 peptides with the PRM assay. Resulting quantification of five dehalogenases revealed copy numbers of <10 to 115 protein molecules per cell indicating clear differences in abundance of RdhA proteins during growth on hexachlorobenzene. Our results indicated that both methods show comparable sensitivity and that the combination of the mass spectrometry assays resulted in higher peptide coverage and thus more reliable protein quantification.

  10. Simulating future uncertainty to guide the selection of survey designs for long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Steven L.; Schweiger, E. William; Manier, Daniel J.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    A goal of environmental monitoring is to provide sound information on the status and trends of natural resources (Messer et al. 1991, Theobald et al. 2007, Fancy et al. 2009). When monitoring observations are acquired by measuring a subset of the population of interest, probability sampling as part of a well-constructed survey design provides the most reliable and legally defensible approach to achieve this goal (Cochran 1977, Olsen et al. 1999, Schreuder et al. 2004; see Chapters 2, 5, 6, 7). Previous works have described the fundamentals of sample surveys (e.g. Hansen et al. 1953, Kish 1965). Interest in survey designs and monitoring over the past 15 years has led to extensive evaluations and new developments of sample selection methods (Stevens and Olsen 2004), of strategies for allocating sample units in space and time (Urquhart et al. 1993, Overton and Stehman 1996, Urquhart and Kincaid 1999), and of estimation (Lesser and Overton 1994, Overton and Stehman 1995) and variance properties (Larsen et al. 1995, Stevens and Olsen 2003) of survey designs. Carefully planned, “scientific” (Chapter 5) survey designs have become a standard in contemporary monitoring of natural resources. Based on our experience with the long-term monitoring program of the US National Park Service (NPS; Fancy et al. 2009; Chapters 16, 22), operational survey designs tend to be selected using the following procedures. For a monitoring indicator (i.e. variable or response), a minimum detectable trend requirement is specified, based on the minimum level of change that would result in meaningful change (e.g. degradation). A probability of detecting this trend (statistical power) and an acceptable level of uncertainty (Type I error; see Chapter 2) within a specified time frame (e.g. 10 years) are specified to ensure timely detection. Explicit statements of the minimum detectable trend, the time frame for detecting the minimum trend, power, and acceptable probability of Type I error (

  11. Genetically encoded optical sensors for monitoring of intracellular chloride and chloride-selective channel activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bregestovski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This review briefly discusses the main approaches for monitoring chloride (Cl−, the most abundant physiological anion. Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular Cl− ([Cl−]i is a challenging task owing to two main difficulties: (i the low transmembrane ratio for Cl−, approximately 10:1; and (ii the small driving force for Cl−, as the Cl− reversal potential (ECl is usually close to the resting potential of the cells. Thus, for reliable monitoring of intracellular Cl−, one has to use highly sensitive probes. From several methods for intracellular Cl− analysis, genetically encoded chloride indicators represent the most promising tools. Recent achievements in the development of genetically encoded chloride probes are based on the fact that yellow fluorescent protein (YFP exhibits Cl−-sensitivity. YFP-based probes have been successfully used for quantitative analysis of Cl− transport in different cells and for high-throughput screening of modulators of Cl−-selective channels. Development of a ratiometric genetically encoded probe, Clomeleon, has provided a tool for noninvasive estimation of intracellular Cl− concentrations. While the sensitivity of this protein to Cl− is low (EC50 about 160 mM, it has been successfully used for monitoring intracellular Cl− in different cell types. Recently a CFP–YFP-based probe with a relatively high sensitivity to Cl− (EC50 about 30 mM has been developed. This construct, termed Cl-Sensor, allows ratiometric monitoring using the fluorescence excitation ratio. Of particular interest are genetically encoded probes for monitoring of ion channel distribution and activity. A new molecular probe has been constructed by introducing into the cytoplasmic domain of the Cl−-selective glycine receptor (GlyR channel the CFP–YFP-based Cl-Sensor. This construct, termed BioSensor-GlyR, has been successfully expressed in cell lines. The new genetically encoded chloride probes offer means of screening

  12. Biological monitoring and selected trends in environmental quality. [Use of National Inventory of Selected Biological Monitoring Programs at ORNL to identify documented environmental trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suffern, J.S.; West, D.C.; Kemp, H.T.; Burgess, R.L.

    1976-10-01

    Under a contract with the President's Council on Environmental Quality, the National Inventory of Selected Biological Monitoring Programs at ORNL was used to identify documented environmental trends. Fish population trends were described for the Great Lakes and the Colorado River system. Trends in amphibian populations in the northeast were examined and correlated with acid precipitation. Increases in breeding success among large birds of prey were correlated with reductions in ambient levels of DDT and its residues. Geographic variation in PCB contamination was examined along with differences between aquatic and terrestrial contamination levels. Changes in air quality were documented, and their effects on plant viability were outlined. Trends in the biological effects of environmental deposition of lead were documented. Long-term changes in forest structure in the southeast were presented, and a general reduction in wildlife habitat, associated with land use practices, was documented for several areas in the US.

  13. Criteria to assess and select sites for long-term avian monitoring in an urbanizing landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lorne P; Milne, Robert J

    2004-06-01

    A methodology was developed to prioritize the suitability of sites for long-term monitoring of avian populations, including vulnerable species, both to enhance assessment of changes in ecological resources and to facilitate land-use planning at the regional scale. This paper argues that a successful monitoring program begins with a site prioritization procedure that integrates scores based on spatial controls with ecological and socio-economic indicators, particularly those dependent on community involvement. The evaluation strategy in this study combines 1) spatial controls such as land ownership and accessibility, with 2) biological and habitat indicators such as vulnerable species and habitat connectivity, and 3) community and agency variables such as volunteer commitment and agency priorities. In total, a set of ten indicators was identified. This strategy was applied to predominantly agricultural landscapes, which are experiencing increasing human pressures, in three sub-watersheds of the Credit River, Southern Ontario. Specifically, bird populations were recorded during the breeding seasons of 2000-2002 in nine land units or habitat types including marsh, deciduous forest, and grasslands as mapped by Credit Valley Conservation (CVC) following Ecological Land Classification (ELC) guidelines. CVC selected sites for long-term monitoring in 2002 and the relationships between the scored (or ranked) sites and the selected long-term monitoring sites are discussed.

  14. Mode Selective Actuator-Sensor System for Lamb Wave-Based Structural Health Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Daniel; Wierach, Peter; Sinapius, Michael

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on Lamb waves, a type of ultrasonic guided waves, is a promising method for in-service inspection of composite structures. In this study mode selective actuators and sensors are investigated to excite a particular Lamb wave mode in composite plates. The actuator and sensor exhibit an interdigital transducer design. In order to describe the complex displacement fields of

  15. Simultaneous determination of traces amounts of cadmium, zinc, and cobalt based on UV-Vis spectrometry combined with wavelength selection and partial least squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Deng; Fan, Wei; Lv, Huiying; Liang, Yizeng; Shan, Yang; Li, Gaoyang; Yang, Zhenyu; Yu, Ling

    2014-04-05

    The use of wavelength selection before partial least squares regression (PLSR) for simultaneous determination of divalent metal ions, cadmium, zinc and cobalt by UV-Vis spectrometry was investigated in this paper. The number of wavelengths selected by competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) for cadmium, zinc, and cobalt were 21, 13 and 7, respectively, from the 916 original wavelength points. The analytical system was based on the formation of the complexes with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino)phenol (Br-PADAP) in surfactant media. Compared with the results of full spectra calibration, the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) reduced to 0.0110, 0.0098 and 0.0031 for cadmium, zinc and cobalt, respectively. Moreover, by using the selective wavelengths instead of the 916 original wavelengths, the latent variables of PLS models reduced to 3, 3 and 4. The results indicated that the PLS model established by selected wavelength could be used for simultaneous determination of divalent metal ions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Selection of Sampling Pumps Used for Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2001-11-05

    The variable frequency drive centrifugal submersible pump, Redi-Flo2a made by Grundfosa, was selected for universal application for Hanford Site groundwater monitoring. Specifications for the selected pump and five other pumps were evaluated against current and future Hanford groundwater monitoring performance requirements, and the Redi-Flo2 was selected as the most versatile and applicable for the range of monitoring conditions. The Redi-Flo2 pump distinguished itself from the other pumps considered because of its wide range in output flow rate and its comparatively moderate maintenance and low capital costs. The Redi-Flo2 pump is able to purge a well at a high flow rate and then supply water for sampling at a low flow rate. Groundwater sampling using a low-volume-purging technique (e.g., low flow, minimal purge, no purge, or micropurgea) is planned in the future, eliminating the need for the pump to supply a high-output flow rate. Under those conditions, the Well Wizard bladder pump, manufactured by QED Environmental Systems, Inc., may be the preferred pump because of the lower capital cost.

  17. Clustering Properties of restframe UV selected galaxies I: the correlation length derived from GALEX data in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Milliard, Bruno; Blaizot, Jeremy; Arnouts, Stephane; Schiminovich, David; Budavari, Tamas; Donas, Jose; Treyer, Marie; Laget, Michel; Viton, Maurice; Wyder, Ted K; Szalay, A S; Barlow, Tom A; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Martin, D Christopher; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Seibert, Mark; Small, Todd; Bianchi, Luciana; Heckman, Timothy M; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F; Rich, R Michael; Welsh, Barry Y; Yi, Sukyoung K; Xu, C K

    2007-01-01

    We present the first measurements of the angular correlation function of galaxies selected in the far (1530 A) and near (2310 A) Ultraviolet from the GALEX survey fields overlapping SDSS DR5 in low galactic extinction regions. The area used covers 120 sqdeg (GALEX - MIS) down to magnitude AB = 22, yielding a total of 100,000 galaxies. The mean correlation length is ~ 3.7 \\pm 0.6 Mpc and no significant trend is seen for this value as a function of the limiting apparent magnitude or between the GALEX bands. This estimate is close to that found from samples of blue galaxies in the local universe selected in the visible, and similar to that derived at z ~ 3 for LBGs with similar rest frame selection criteria. This result supports models that predict anti-biasing of star forming galaxies at low redshift, and brings an additional clue to the downsizing of star formation at z<1.

  18. Unified ZnO Q-dot growth mechanism from simultaneous UV-Vis and EXAFS monitoring of sol-gel reactions induced by different alkali base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Bruno L.; Silva, Marlon N.; Santilli, Celso V.; Briois, Valérie; Pulcinelli, Sandra H.

    2016-11-01

    This article aims to give experimental evidences of the universality of main steps involved in ZnO nanoparticles formation and growth from sol-gel process. In this way, we revisit the effect of the alkali base (LiOH, NaOH, KOH) used to induce the hydrolysis-condensation reaction in order to unfold the ZnO Q-dot formation mechanisms by using simultaneous time resolved monitoring of zinc species and Q-dot size by combining EXAFS and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Irrespective of the alkali base used, nucleation and growth of ZnO Q-dots occur by consumption of zinc oxy-acetate precursor. Higher amounts of ZnO nanocrystal are produced as the strength of the base increases. After achieving the steady state equilibrium regime the Q-dot growth occurs initially by oriented attachment coalescence mechanism followed by the Ostwald ripening coarsening. The dependence of the formation and growth mechanisms on the base strength allows the fine tuning of the Q-dot size and photoluminescence properties.

  19. Monitoring of cornea elastic properties changes during UV-A/riboflavin-induced corneal collagen cross-linking using supersonic shear wave imaging: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Aubry, Jean-François; Touboul, David; Fink, Mathias; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Bercoff, Jeremy; Tanter, Mickael

    2012-08-31

    Keratoconus disease or post-LASIK corneal ectasia are increasingly treated using UV-A/riboflavin-induced corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). However, this treatment suffers from a lack of techniques to provide an assessment in real-time of the CXL effects. Here, we investigated the potential interest of corneal elasticity as a biomarker of the efficacy of this treatment. For this purpose, supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) was performed both ex vivo and in vivo on porcine eyes before and after CXL. Based on ultrasonic scanners providing ultrafast frame rates (~30 kHz), the SSI technique generates and tracks the propagation of shear waves in tissues. It provides two- and three-dimensional (2-D and 3-D) quantitative maps of the corneal elasticity. After CXL, quantitative maps of corneal stiffness clearly depicted the cross-linked area with a typical 200-μm lateral resolution. The CXL resulted in a 56% ± 15% increase of the shear wave speed for corneas treated in vivo (n = 4). The in vivo CXL experiments performed on pigs demonstrated that the quantitative estimation of local stiffness and the 2-D elastic maps of the corneal surface provide an efficient way to monitor the local efficacy of corneal cross-linking.

  20. The Effect of Cyanophages on the Mortality of Synechococcus spp. and Selection for UV Resistant Viral Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza; Suttle

    1998-11-01

    Abstract Viruses that cause lysis of Synechococcus spp. are present throughout the year in the western Gulf of Mexico. The effect of sunlight on loss rates of cyanophage infectivity was determined by incubating natural cyanophage communities and cyanophage isolates (strains S-PWM1 and S-PWM3) in UV-transparent bags at the surface, and at depth, on several occasions throughout the year. Decay rates of infectivity of natural cyanophage communities at the surface, at Port Aransas, Texas, USA, ranged from undetectable to 0.335 h-1, with the highest rates occurring during the summer. During the spring and winter, decay rates of cyanophage isolates and natural cyanophage communities were generally similar, but during summer, decay rates of isolates were as much as twofold higher than the natural communities. In situ incubations at two offshore stations during a bloom of Synechococcus spp. produced decay rates of 0.53 and 0.75 d-1, integrated over the mixed layer and averaged over 24 h. Based on a burst size of 81 viruses produced per lysed cell (measured for natural cyanobacterial communities in the Gulf of Mexico), cyanophages imposed mortality rates of 1 and 8%, respectively, on Synechococcus spp. In contrast, in nearshore incubations in the winter and spring, cyanophages were responsible for removing cyanophages, and estimates of cyanophage mortality), regardless of the time of year or concentrations of viruses and hosts. These results indicate that natural cyanophage communities tolerate damage by solar radiation better in summer than in winter. Moreover, net decay rates of cyanophage infectivity in sunlight were similar, whether host cells were present or not, indicating that detectable cyanophage production did not occur during daytime in situ incubations.

  1. High-throughput screening assay used in pharmacognosy: Selection, optimization and validation of methods of enzymatic inhibition by UV-visible spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Granados-Guzmán

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In research laboratories of both organic synthesis and extraction of natural products, every day a lot of products that can potentially introduce some biological activity are obtained. Therefore it is necessary to have in vitro assays, which provide reliable information for further evaluation in in vivo systems. From this point of view, in recent years has intensified the use of high-throughput screening assays. Such trials should be optimized and validated for accurate and precise results, i.e. reliable. The present review addresses the steps needed to develop and validate bioanalytical methods, emphasizing UV-Visible spectrophotometry as detection system. Particularly focuses on the selection of the method, the optimization to determine the best experimental conditions, validation, implementation of optimized and validated method to real samples, and finally maintenance and possible transfer it to a new laboratory.

  2. Formal selection of measures for a composite index of NICU quality of care: Baby-MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, J; Gould, JB; Zupancic, JAF; Stark, AR; Wall, KM; Kowalkowski, MA; Mei, M; Pietz, K; Thomas, EJ; Petersen, LA

    2011-01-01

    Objective To systematically rate measures of care quality for very low birth weight infants for inclusion into Baby-MONITOR, a composite indicator of quality. Study Design Modified Delphi expert panelist process including electronic surveys and telephone conferences. Panelists considered 28 standard neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) quality measures and rated each on a 9-point scale taking into account pre-defined measure characteristics. In addition, panelists grouped measures into six domains of quality. We selected measures by testing for rater agreement using an accepted method. Result Of 28 measures considered, 13 had median ratings in the high range (7 to 9). Of these, 9 met the criteria for inclusion in the composite: antenatal steroids (median (interquartile range)) 9(0), timely retinopathy of prematurity exam 9(0), late onset sepsis 9(1), hypothermia on admission 8(1), pneumothorax 8(2), growth velocity 8(2), oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age 7(2), any human milk feeding at discharge 7(2) and in-hospital mortality 7(2). Among the measures selected for the composite, the domains of quality most frequently represented included effectiveness (40%) and safety (30%). Conclusion A panel of experts selected 9 of 28 routinely reported quality measures for inclusion in a composite indicator. Panelists also set an agenda for future research to close knowledge gaps for quality measures not selected for the Baby-MONITOR. PMID:21350429

  3. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2015-01-01

    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Time resolved bovine host reponse to virulence factors mapped in milk by selected reaction monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Codrea, Marius Cosmin

    in food production. Rapid diagnostic methods are still not available, and particularly pathogen-specific biomarkers would be highly valuable, as these may allow correct antibiotic treatment to be applied shortly after an udder infection has been observed. Moreover, with automatic milking systems and on-line....... Furthermore, this SRM approach provides a strong tool for investigating these proteins in very large scale experiments, particularly with the scope to investigate whether these candidate biomarkers are suited for monitoring animal health in milk production.......TIME RESOLVED BOVINE HOST RESPONSE TO VIRULENCE FACTORS, MAPPED IN MILK BY SELECTED REACTION MONITORING S.L. Bislev1, U. Kusebauch2, M.C. Codrea1, R. Moritz2, C.M. Røntved1, E. Bendixen1 1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark; 2...

  5. Chemical analysis of succinylacetone and 4-hydroxyphenyllactate in amniotic fluid using selective ion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobs, C; Sweetman, L; Nyhan, W L

    1984-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the concentration of succinylacetone and 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid in amniotic fluid was developed for the prenatal diagnosis of hereditary tyrosinemia. Succinylacetone was converted to 5-methyl-3-isoxazolepropionic acid and isolated with 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid by liquid partition chromatography and the trimethylsilyl derivatives quantified by ammonia chemical ionization selected ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with 2-hydroxy-n-caproic acid as the internal standard. The concentration of 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid in normal amniotic fluid was 1.97 +/- 0.75 (S.D.) mumol/l while succinylacetone was undetectable. A pregnancy at risk for tyrosinemia type II was monitored. The concentration of 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid was within the normal range and a healthy child was born.

  6. Electrochemical Impedance Sensors for Monitoring Trace Amounts of NO3 in Selected Growing Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Ghaffari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of smart cities and big data, precision agriculture allows the feeding of sensor data into online databases for continuous crop monitoring, production optimization, and data storage. This paper describes a low-cost, compact, and scalable nitrate sensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring trace amounts of NO3− in selected growing media. The nitrate sensor can be integrated to conventional microelectronics to perform online nitrate sensing continuously over a wide concentration range from 0.1 ppm to 100 ppm, with a response time of about 1 min, and feed data into a database for storage and analysis. The paper describes the structural design, the Nyquist impedance response, the measurement sensitivity and accuracy, and the field testing of the nitrate sensor performed within tree nursery settings under ISO/IEC 17025 certifications.

  7. Electrochemical Impedance Sensors for Monitoring Trace Amounts of NO3 in Selected Growing Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Seyed Alireza; Caron, William-O.; Loubier, Mathilde; Normandeau, Charles-O.; Viens, Jeff; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S.; Gosselin, Benoit; Messaddeq, Younes

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of smart cities and big data, precision agriculture allows the feeding of sensor data into online databases for continuous crop monitoring, production optimization, and data storage. This paper describes a low-cost, compact, and scalable nitrate sensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring trace amounts of NO3− in selected growing media. The nitrate sensor can be integrated to conventional microelectronics to perform online nitrate sensing continuously over a wide concentration range from 0.1 ppm to 100 ppm, with a response time of about 1 min, and feed data into a database for storage and analysis. The paper describes the structural design, the Nyquist impedance response, the measurement sensitivity and accuracy, and the field testing of the nitrate sensor performed within tree nursery settings under ISO/IEC 17025 certifications. PMID:26197322

  8. Clustering Properties of restframe UV selected galaxies II: Migration of Star Formation sites with cosmic time from GALEX and CFHTLS

    CERN Document Server

    Heinis, Sebastien; Arnouts, Stephane; Blaizot, Jeremy; Schiminovich, David; Budavari, Tamas; Ilbert, Olivier; Treyer, Marie; Wyder, Ted K; McCracken, Henry J; Barlow, Tom A; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Martin, D Christopher; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Seibert, Mark; Small, Todd; Bianchi, Luciana; Heckman, Timothy M; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F; Rich, R Michael; Szalay, Alexander S; Welsh, Barry Y; Yi, Sukyoung K; Xu, C K

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the clustering properties of ultraviolet selected galaxies by using GALEX-SDSS data at z 2) to low redshift (b ~ 0.79^{+0.1}_{-0.08}). When accounting for the fraction of the star formation activity enclosed in the different samples, our results suggest that the bulk of star formation migrated from high mass dark matter halos at z>2 (10^12 < M_min < 10^13 M_sun, located in high density regions), to less massive halos at low redshift (M_min < 10^12 M_sun, located in low density regions). This result extends the ``downsizing'' picture (shift of the star formation activity from high stellar mass systems at high z to low stellar mass at low z) to the dark matter distribution.

  9. Effective Sensor Selection and Data Anomaly Detection for Condition Monitoring of Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liansheng Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In a complex system, condition monitoring (CM can collect the system working status. The condition is mainly sensed by the pre-deployed sensors in/on the system. Most existing works study how to utilize the condition information to predict the upcoming anomalies, faults, or failures. There is also some research which focuses on the faults or anomalies of the sensing element (i.e., sensor to enhance the system reliability. However, existing approaches ignore the correlation between sensor selecting strategy and data anomaly detection, which can also improve the system reliability. To address this issue, we study a new scheme which includes sensor selection strategy and data anomaly detection by utilizing information theory and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR. The sensors that are more appropriate for the system CM are first selected. Then, mutual information is utilized to weight the correlation among different sensors. The anomaly detection is carried out by using the correlation of sensor data. The sensor data sets that are utilized to carry out the evaluation are provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Ames Research Center and have been used as Prognostics and Health Management (PHM challenge data in 2008. By comparing the two different sensor selection strategies, the effectiveness of selection method on data anomaly detection is proved.

  10. Effective Sensor Selection and Data Anomaly Detection for Condition Monitoring of Aircraft Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liansheng; Liu, Datong; Zhang, Yujie; Peng, Yu

    2016-04-29

    In a complex system, condition monitoring (CM) can collect the system working status. The condition is mainly sensed by the pre-deployed sensors in/on the system. Most existing works study how to utilize the condition information to predict the upcoming anomalies, faults, or failures. There is also some research which focuses on the faults or anomalies of the sensing element (i.e., sensor) to enhance the system reliability. However, existing approaches ignore the correlation between sensor selecting strategy and data anomaly detection, which can also improve the system reliability. To address this issue, we study a new scheme which includes sensor selection strategy and data anomaly detection by utilizing information theory and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). The sensors that are more appropriate for the system CM are first selected. Then, mutual information is utilized to weight the correlation among different sensors. The anomaly detection is carried out by using the correlation of sensor data. The sensor data sets that are utilized to carry out the evaluation are provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center and have been used as Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) challenge data in 2008. By comparing the two different sensor selection strategies, the effectiveness of selection method on data anomaly detection is proved.

  11. Biogenic unmodified gold nanoparticles for selective and quantitative detection of cerium using UV-vis spectroscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy (DLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, E; Pradhan, N; Panda, P K; Mishra, B K

    2015-06-15

    The ability of self-functionalized biogenic GNPs towards highly selective colorimetric detection of rare earth element cerium is being reported for the first time. GNPs underwent rapid aggregation on addition of cerium indicated by red shift of SPR peak followed by complete precipitation. Hereby, this concept of co-ordination of cerium ions onto the GNP surface has been utilized for detection of cerium. The remarkable capacity of GNPs to sensitively detect Ce without proves beneficial compared to previous reports of colorimetric sensing. MDL was 15 and 35 ppm by DLS and UV-vis spectroscopy respectively, suggesting DLS to be highly sensitive and a practical alternative in ultrasensitive detection studies. The sensing system showed a good linear fit favouring feasible detection of cerium in range of 2-50 ppm. Similar studies further showed the superior selectivity of biogenic GNPs compared to chemically synthesized counterparts. The sensing system favours on-site analysis as it overcomes need of complex instrumentation, lengthy protocols and surface modification of GNP.

  12. Removal and seasonal variability of selected analgesics/anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive/cardiovascular pharmaceuticals and UV filters in wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovko, Oksana; Kumar, Vimal; Fedorova, Ganna; Randak, Tomas; Grabic, Roman

    2014-06-01

    Seasonal removal efficiency of 16 pharmaceuticals and personal care products was monitored in a wastewater treatment plant in České Budějovice, Czech Republic, over a period of 1 year (total amount of samples, n = 272). The studied compounds included four UV filters, three analgesics/anti-inflammatory drugs and nine anti-hypertensive/cardiovascular drugs. In most cases, elimination of the substances was incomplete, and overall removal rates varied strongly from -38 to 100%. Therefore, it was difficult to establish a general trend for each therapeutic group. Based on the removal efficiencies (REs) over the year, three groups of target compounds were observed. A few compounds (benzophenon-1, valsartan, isradipine and furosemide) were not fully removed, but their REs were greater than 50%. The second group of analytes, consisting of 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid, tramadol, sotalol, metoprolol, atenolol and diclofenac, showed a very low RE (lower than 50%). The third group of compounds showed extremely variable RE (benzophenon-3 and benzophenon-4, codeine, verapamil, diltiazem and bisoprolol). There were significant seasonal trends in the observed REs, with reduced efficiencies in colder months.

  13. CO and NO2 Selective Monitoring by ZnO-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Donato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanomaterials with different shapes were synthesized, characterized and tested in the selective monitoring of low concentration of CO and NO2 in air. ZnO nanoparticles (NPs and nanofibers (NFs were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method in supercritical conditions and electrospinning technique, respectively. CO and NO2 sensing tests have demonstrated that the annealing temperature and shape of zinc oxide nanomaterials are the key factors in modulating the electrical and sensing properties. Specifically, ZnO NPs annealed at high temperature (700 °C have been found sensitive to CO, while they displayed negligible response to NO2. The opposite behavior has been registered for the one-dimensional ZnO NFs annealed at medium temperature (400 °C. Due to their adaptable sensitivity/selectivity characteristics, the developed sensors show promising applications in dual air quality control systems for closed ambient such as automotive cabin, parking garage and tunnels.

  14. Development of a potassium-selective optode for hydroponic nutrient solution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, Matthew; Berinstain, Alain; Dixon, Michael

    2012-08-06

    Highly efficient and reliable plant growth such as that required in biological life support systems for future space-based missions can be better achieved with knowledge of ion concentrations within the hydroponic nutrient solution. This paper reports on the development and application of ion-selective bulk optodes to plant growth systems. Membranes for potassium-selective sensing are reported that have been tailored so that their dynamic range is centred on potassium activities within typical nutrient solution recipes. The developed sensors have been shown to exhibit a potassium activity measuring range from 0.134 to 117 mM at pH 6.0. These bulk optodes show full scale response on the order of several minutes. They show minimal interference to other cations and meet worst-case selectivity requirements for potassium monitoring in the considered half strength Hoagland solution. When continuously immersed in nutrient solution, these sensors demonstrated predicable lifetimes on the order of 50h. The developed instrument for absorption-based measurements including light source, mini-spectrometer and optode probe is presented. Custom instrument control and monitoring software including a spectral normalization procedure, use of a dual-wavelength absorbance ratio technique and automatic adjustment for pH variation result in an instrument that is self-calibrating and one that can account for effects such as light source fluctuations, membrane thickness variations and a variety of other factors. The low mass, low volume nature of bulk optode sensing systems, make them a promising technology for future space-based plant production systems. Their low-cost and technology transfer potential suggest that they could provide terrestrial growers a new and reliable mechanism to obtain ion-selective knowledge of their nutrient solution, improving yields, reducing costs and aiding in compliance to continually more stringent environmental regulation. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published

  15. [Selection of digital filtering in the escaping ammonia monitoring with TDLAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, De-Bao; Chen, Wen-Liang; Du, Zhen-Hui; Jia, Hao; Qi, Ru-Bin; Li, Hong-Lian; Zhen, Yang; Hou, Yan-Xia; Xu, Ke-Xin

    2012-09-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology (TDLAS), with its advantages of high selectivity and accuracy, provides a reliable approach to the on-line detection of escaping ammonia. Firstly, the present paper introduces the TDLAS principle, experimental system and the analyses of system noise. Then with the concentration of 90 x 10(-6) and 30 x 10(-6) NH3 for example, we used TDLAS system to collect their second harmonic original spectrum with all kinds of noise interference. To improve the signal spectrum, five types of digital filtering methods were respectively used to filter the original spectrum. Finally we did the NH3 experiments of concentration gradient and the long time monitoring: NH3 experiment of 20 x 10(-6). The analysis indicated that the averaging-wavelet filtering is validated to be more accurate than the other filtering methods in the noise reduction, which can improve the precision of the monitoring system from 10 x 10(-6) to 1.25 x 10(-6) and the SNR also increases by 14 times. It provides an effective pretreatment during the monitoring of escaping ammonia of extremely low concentration.

  16. Monitoring and mapping selected riparian habitat along the lower Snake River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J. L; Tiller, B. L [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Witter, M. [Shannon and Wilson, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States). Geotechnical and Environmental Consultants, Seattle, Washington (United States); Mazaika, R. [Corps of Engineers, Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Studies in this document were initiated to establish baseline information on riparian and wetland habitat conditions at the areas studied under the current reservoir operations on the lower Snake River. Two approaches were used to assess habitat at 28 study sites selected on the four pools on the lower Snake River. These areas all contribute significant riparian habitat along the river, and several of these areas are designated habitat management units. At 14 of the 28 sites, we monitored riparian habitat on three dates during the growing season to quantify vegetation abundance and composition along three transects: soil nutrients, moisture, and pH and water level and pH. A second approach involved identifying any differences in the extent and amount of riparian/wetland habitat currently found at the study areas from that previously documented. We used both ground and boat surveys to map and classify the changes in vegetative cover along the shoreline at the 14 monitoring sites and at 14 additional sites along the lower Snake selected to represent various riparian/wetland habitat conditions. Results of these mapping efforts are compared with maps of cover types previously generated using aerial photography taken in 1987.

  17. Spoilage of foods monitored by native fluorescence spectroscopy with selective excitation wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yang; Wang, Wubao; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    The modern food processing and storage environments require the real-time monitoring and rapid microbiological testing. Optical spectroscopy with selective excitation wavelengths can be the basis of a novel, rapid, reagent less, noncontact and non-destructive technique for monitoring the food spoilage. The native fluorescence spectra of muscle foods stored at 2-4°C (in refrigerator) and 20-24°C (in room temperature) were measured as a function of time with a selective excitation wavelength of 340nm. The contributions of the principal molecular components to the native fluorescence spectra of meat were measured spectra of each fluorophore: collagen, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and flavin. The responsible components were extracted using a method namely Multivariate Curve Resolution with Alternating Least-Squares (MCR-ALS). The native fluorescence combined with MCR-ALS can be used directly on the surface of meat to produce biochemically interpretable "fingerprints", which reflects the microbial spoilage of foods involved with the metabolic processes. The results show that with time elapse, the emission from NADH in meat stored at 24°C increases much faster than that at 4°C. This is because multiplying of microorganisms and catabolism are accompanied by the generation of NADH. This study presents changes of relative content of NADH may be used as criterion for detection of spoilage degree of meat using native fluorescence spectroscopy.

  18. Development of molecularly imprinted poly(methacrylic acid)/silica for clean-up and selective extraction of cholesterol in milk prior to analysis by HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, D N; Visentainer, J V; Tarley, C R T

    2014-10-07

    In the present paper the assessment of a novel molecularly imprinted polymer, poly(methacrylic acid)/silica, for clean-up and selective extraction of cholesterol in milk samples is described. The relative selectivity coefficient (k) values for cholesterol/5-α-cholestane and cholesterol/7-dehydrocholesterol systems were found to be 5.08 and 6.08, respectively, thus attesting the selectivity of the MIP for cholesterol under competitive adsorption with structurally analogous steroid compounds. The milk analysis was initially based on saponification followed by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane. Then, the protocol of molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) was carried out by loading the milk hexanic extract through 200 mg of MIP or NIP (non-imprinted polymer) packed into SPE cartridges at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-1). The washing step was performed by using n-hexane followed by further elution with ethanol and HPLC-UV analysis at 208 nm. From the breakthrough curve the maximum adsorption capacity of the MIP towards cholesterol was found to be 29.51 mg g(-1). The precision of the MISPE protocol was assessed as intra- and inter-days yielding RSD (relative standard deviations) lower than 4.10%. Cleaner HPLC chromatograms were obtained for milk samples submitted to the MISPE protocol in comparison to the solid phase extraction using the NIP or modified octadecyl silica (C18). Recoveries varying from 96.6 up to 102.2% for milk samples spiked with cholesterol were achieved, thus ensuring the accuracy of the proposed method.

  19. Active safety monitoring of new medical products using electronic healthcare data: Selecting alerting rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J.; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Walker, Alexander M.; Glynn, Robert J.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Active medical-product-safety surveillance systems are being developed to monitor many products and outcomes simultaneously in routinely collected longitudinal electronic healthcare data. These systems will rely on algorithms to generate alerts about potential safety concerns. METHODS We compared the performance of five classes of algorithms in simulated data using a sequential matched-cohort framework, and applied the results to two electronic healthcare databases to replicate monitoring of cerivastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis. We generated 600,000 simulated scenarios with varying expected event frequency in the unexposed, alerting threshold, and outcome risk in the exposed, and compared the alerting algorithms in each scenario type using an event-based performance metric. RESULTS We observed substantial variation in algorithm performance across the groups of scenarios. Relative performance varied by the event frequency and by user-defined preferences for sensitivity versus specificity. Type I error-based statistical testing procedures achieved higher event-based performance than other approaches in scenarios with few events, whereas statistical process control and disproportionality measures performed relatively better with frequent events. In the empirical data, we observed 6 cases of rhabdomyolysis among 4,294 person-years of follow-up, with all events occurring among cerivastatin-treated patients. All selected algorithms generated alerts before the drug was withdrawn from the market. CONCLUSION For active medical-product-safety monitoring in a sequential matched cohort framework, no single algorithm performed best in all scenarios. Alerting algorithm selection should be tailored to particular features of a product-outcome pair, including the expected event frequencies and trade-offs between false-positive and false-negative alerting. PMID:22266893

  20. Dust Attenuation in UV-selected Starbursts at High Redshift and their Local Counterparts: Implications for the Cosmic Star Formation Rate Density

    CERN Document Server

    Overzier, Roderik; Wang, Jing; Armus, Lee; Buat, Veronique; Howell, Justin; Meurer, Gerhardt; Seibert, Mark; Siana, Brian; Basu-Zych, Antara; Charlot, Stéphane; Gonçalves, Thiago S; Martin, D Christopher; Neill, James D; Rich, R Michael; Salim, Samir; Schiminovich, David

    2010-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the dust obscuration in starburst galaxies at low and high redshift. This study is motivated by our unique sample of the most extreme UV-selected starburst galaxies in the nearby universe (z<0.3), found to be good analogs of high-redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) in most of their physical properties. We find that the dust properties of the Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs) are consistent with the relation derived previously by Meurer et al. (M99) that is commonly used to dust-correct star formation rate measurements at a very wide range of redshifts. We directly compare our results with high redshift samples (LBGs, BzK, and sub-mm galaxies at z=2-3) having IR data either from Spitzer or Herschel. The attenuation in typical LBGs at z=2-3 and LBAs is very similar. Because LBAs are much better analogs to LBGs compared to previous local star-forming samples, including M99, the practice of dust-correcting the SFRs of high redshift galaxies based on the local calibration is now placed on...

  1. Variable Efficacy of the Proteinaceous Antifungal YvgO in Select Fruit Juices and Teas as a Complement with UV Methods of Food Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, David C; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2015-10-01

    Heat-resistant fungal spores present a processing challenge for beverages and fruit juices, as thermal and UV strategies are often inadequate in reducing heat-resistant fungal burdens to acceptable levels. While effective against pathogenic or invasive bacteria, germicidal UV light treatments also fail to achieve an appreciable reduction of heat-resistant fungal spores. As an alternative, the efficacy of the antifungal protein YvgO was examined across a selection of fruit juices and teas, as well as solid model matrices. Compared with its efficacy in analogous liquid matrices, the apparent efficacy of YvgO was diminished on acidified solid matrices due to a reduction in YvgO diffusion. Using an XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] tetrazolium dye cytotoxicity assay, the effective concentrations to reduce growth by 50% were elucidated in samples challenged with Byssochlamys fulva H25. The MICs were determined and ranged from 2 ppm in apple juice and acidified teas to approximately 3 to 12 ppm for lemonade and orange, white cranberry, blueberry, prune, cherry, and grape juices. Apple cider and nonacidified teas showed reduced efficacy, with MICs exceeding 100 ppm. Tannin-rich products readily removed YvgO from the product, impairing its efficacy. Adding bovine serum albumin as a competitive inhibitor effectively reversed the YvgO-tannin association and restored efficacy in black but not green tea matrices. When challenged with a 5-log CFU inoculum of B. fulva, the shelf lives of the products were extended for various times up to 28 days in a concentrationdependent manner. However, initial efficacy was not predictive of shelf life extension, as some products exhibited improved protection at just two- and fourfold concentrations above the MIC, while others only exhibited long-term stability when concentrations exceeded 20 times the MIC. As such, YvgO may be an attractive alternative to currently available protection strategies

  2. Use of space-filling curves to select sample locations in natural resource monitoring studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Andrew J; Scott, Charles T

    2009-02-01

    The establishment of several large area monitoring networks over the past few decades has led to increased research into ways to spatially balance sample locations across the landscape. Many of these methods are well documented and have been used in the past with great success. In this paper, we present a method using geographic information systems (GIS) and fractals to create a sampling frame, superimpose a tessellation and draw a sample. We present a case study that illustrates the technique and compares results to those from other methods using data from Voyageurs National Park in Minnesota. Our method compares favorably with results from a popular plot selection method, Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified Design, and offers several additional advantages, including ease of implementation, intuitive appeal, and the ability to maintain spatial balance by adding new plots in the event of an inaccessible plot encountered in the field.

  3. Time resolved bovine host reponse to virulence factors mapped in milk by selected reaction monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Codrea, Marius Cosmin

    TIME RESOLVED BOVINE HOST RESPONSE TO VIRULENCE FACTORS, MAPPED IN MILK BY SELECTED REACTION MONITORING S.L. Bislev1, U. Kusebauch2, M.C. Codrea1, R. Moritz2, C.M. Røntved1, E. Bendixen1 1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark; 2...... Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington, USA Mastitis is beyond doubt the largest health problem in modern milk production. Many different pathogens can cause infections in the mammary gland, and give rise to severe toll on animal welfare, economic gain as well as on excessive use of antibiotics...... in food production. Rapid diagnostic methods are still not available, and particularly pathogen-specific biomarkers would be highly valuable, as these may allow correct antibiotic treatment to be applied shortly after an udder infection has been observed. Moreover, with automatic milking systems and on...

  4. Arc-Welding Spectroscopic Monitoring based on Feature Selection and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Lopez- Higuera

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A new spectral processing technique designed for application in the on-line detection and classification of arc-welding defects is presented in this paper. A noninvasive fiber sensor embedded within a TIG torch collects the plasma radiation originated during the welding process. The spectral information is then processed in two consecutive stages. A compression algorithm is first applied to the data, allowing real-time analysis. The selected spectral bands are then used to feed a classification algorithm, which will be demonstrated to provide an efficient weld defect detection and classification. The results obtained with the proposed technique are compared to a similar processing scheme presented in previous works, giving rise to an improvement in the performance of the monitoring system.

  5. Targeted proteomics by selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry: applications to systems biology and biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschenbroich, Sarah; Kislinger, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Mass Spectrometry-based proteomics is now considered a relatively established strategy for protein analysis, ranging from global expression profiling to the identification of protein complexes and specific post-translational modifications. Recently, Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry (SRM-MS) has become increasingly popular in proteome research for the targeted quantification of proteins and post-translational modifications. Using triple quadrupole instrumentation (QqQ), specific analyte molecules are targeted in a data-directed mode. Used routinely for the quantitative analysis of small molecular compounds for at least three decades, the technology is now experiencing broadened application in the proteomics community. In the current review, we will provide a detailed summary of current developments in targeted proteomics, including some of the recent applications to biological research and biomarker discovery.

  6. Simultaneous Fault Detection and Sensor Selection for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenna Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA system are used widely in wind farms to obtain operation and performance information about wind turbines. The paper presents a three-way model by means of parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC for wind turbine fault detection and sensor selection, and evaluates the method with SCADA data obtained from an operational farm. The main characteristic of this new approach is that it can be used to simultaneously explore measurement sample profiles and sensors profiles to avoid discarding potentially relevant information for feature extraction. With K-means clustering method, the measurement data indicating normal, fault and alarm conditions of the wind turbines can be identified, and the sensor array can be optimised for effective condition monitoring.

  7. Quantitative EEG Brain Mapping In Psychotropic Drug Development, Drug Treatment Selection, and Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Itil, Kurt Z.

    1995-05-01

    Quantification of standard electroencephalogram (EEG) by digital computers [computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG)] has transformed the subjective analog EEG into an objective scientific method. Until a few years ago, CEEG was only used to assist in the development of psychotropic drugs by means of the quantitative pharmaco EEG. Thanks to the computer revolution and the accompanying reductions in cost of quantification, CEEG can now also be applied in psychiatric practice. CEEG can assist the physician in confirming clinical diagnoses, selecting psychotropic drugs for treatment, and drug treatment monitoring. Advancements in communications technology allow physicians and researchers to reduce the costs of acquiring a high-technology CEEG brain mapping system by utilizing the more economical telephonic services.

  8. Fatigue of Ti6Al4V Structural Health Monitoring Systems Produced by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Strantza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM is an additive manufacturing (AM process which is used for producing metallic components. Currently, the integrity of components produced by SLM is in need of improvement due to residual stresses and unknown fracture behavior. Titanium alloys produced by AM are capable candidates for applications in aerospace and industrial fields due to their fracture resistance, fatigue behavior and corrosion resistance. On the other hand, structural health monitoring (SHM system technologies are promising and requested from the industry. SHM systems can monitor the integrity of a structure and during the last decades the research has primarily been influenced by bionic engineering. In that aspect a new philosophy for SHM has been developed: the so-called effective structural health monitoring (eSHM system. The current system uses the design freedom provided by AM. The working principle of the system is based on crack detection by means of a network of capillaries that are integrated in a structure. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the functionality of Ti6Al4V produced by the SLM process in the novel SHM system and to confirm that the eSHM system can successfully detect cracks in SLM components. In this study four-point bending fatigue tests on Ti6Al4V SLM specimens with an integrated SHM system were conducted. Fractographic analysis was performed after the final failure, while finite element simulations were used in order to determine the stress distribution in the capillary region and on the component. It was proven that the SHM system does not influence the crack initiation behavior during fatigue. The results highlight the effectiveness of the eSHM on SLM components, which can potentially be used by industrial and aerospace applications.

  9. Suitable features selection for monitoring thermal condition of electrical equipment using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, A. S. N.; Taib, S.

    2013-11-01

    Monitoring the thermal condition of electrical equipment is necessary for maintaining the reliability of electrical system. The degradation of electrical equipment can cause excessive overheating, which can lead to the eventual failure of the equipment. Additionally, failure of equipment requires a lot of maintenance cost, manpower and can also be catastrophic- causing injuries or even deaths. Therefore, the recognition processof equipment conditions as normal and defective is an essential step towards maintaining reliability and stability of the system. The study introduces infrared thermography based condition monitoring of electrical equipment. Manual analysis of thermal image for detecting defects and classifying the status of equipment take a lot of time, efforts and can also lead to incorrect diagnosis results. An intelligent system that can separate the equipment automatically could help to overcome these problems. This paper discusses an intelligent classification system for the conditions of equipment using neural networks. Three sets of features namely first order histogram based statistical, grey level co-occurrence matrix and component based intensity features are extracted by image analysis, which are used as input data for the neural networks. The multilayered perceptron networks are trained using four different training algorithms namely Resilient back propagation, Bayesian Regulazation, Levenberg-Marquardt and Scale conjugate gradient. The experimental results show that the component based intensity features perform better compared to other two sets of features. Finally, after selecting the best features, multilayered perceptron network trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm achieved the best results to classify the conditions of electrical equipment.

  10. Approach towards sensor placement, selection and fusion for real-time condition monitoring of precision machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Poi Voon; Teo, Chek Sing; Tan, Kok Kiong

    2016-02-01

    Moving mechanical parts in a machine will inevitably generate vibration profiles reflecting its operating conditions. Vibration profile analysis is a useful tool for real-time condition monitoring to avoid loss of performance and unwanted machine downtime. In this paper, we propose and validate an approach for sensor placement, selection and fusion for continuous machine condition monitoring. The main idea is to use a minimal series of sensors mounted at key locations of a machine to measure and infer the actual vibration spectrum at a critical point where it is not suitable to mount a sensor. The locations for sensors' mountings which are subsequently used for vibration inference are identified based on sensitivity calibration at these locations moderated with normalized Fisher Information (NFI) associated with the measurement quality of the sensor at that location. Each of the identified sensor placement location is associated with one or more sensitive frequencies for which it ranks top in terms of the moderated sensitivities calibrated. A set of Radial Basis Function (RBF), each of them associated with a range of sensitive frequencies, is used to infer the vibration at the critical point for that frequency. The overall vibration spectrum of the critical point is then fused from these components. A comprehensive set of experimental results for validation of the proposed approach is provided in the paper.

  11. A highly Selective Fluorescent Sensor for Monitoring Cu(2+) Ion: Synthesis, Characterization and Photophysical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderinto, Stephen Opeyemi; Xu, Yuling; Peng, Hongping; Wang, Fei; Wu, Huilu; Fan, Xuyang

    2017-01-01

    A new fluorescent sensor, 4-allylamine-N-(N-salicylidene)-1,8-naphthalimide (1), anchoring a naphthalimide moiety as fluorophore and a Schiff base group as receptor, was synthesized and characterized. The photophysical properties of sensor 1 were conducted in organic solvents of different polarities. Our study revealed that, depending on the solvent polarity, the fluorescence quantum yields varied from 0.59 to 0.89. The fluorescent activity of the sensor was monitored and the sensor was consequently applied for the detection of Cu(2+) with high selectivity over various metal ions by fluorescence quenching in Tris-HCl (pH = 7.2) buffer/DMF (1:1, v/v) solution. From the binding stoichiometry, it was indicated that a 1:1 complex was formed between Cu(2+) and the sensor 1. The fluorescence intensity was linear with Cu(2+) in the concentration range 0.5-5 μM. Moreso, the detection limit was calculated to be 0.32 μM, which is sufficiently low for good sensitivity of Cu(2+) ion. The binding mode was due to the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and the coordination of Cu(2+) with C = N and hydroxyl oxygen groups of the sensor 1. The sensor proved effective for Cu(2+) monitoring in real water samples with recovery rates of 95-112.6 % obtained.

  12. Selective hyaluronan-CD44 signaling promotes miRNA-21 expression and interacts with vitamin D function during cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas progression following UV irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly YW Bourguignon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan (HA, the major extracellular matrix component, is often anchored to CD44 isoforms, a family of structurally/functionally important cell surface receptors. Our recent results indicate that UV irradiation (UVR-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC overexpress a variety of CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v, with different CD44v isoforms appear to confer malignant SCC properties. UVR also stimulates HA degradation in epidermal keratinocytes. Both large HA polymers and their UVR-induced catabolic products (small HA selectively activate CD44 isoform-mediated cellular signaling in normal keratinocytes and SCC cells, with all of the downstream processes being mediated by RhoGTPases (e.g., RhoA and Rac1. Importantly, we found that the hormonally active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH2D3 not only prevents the UVR-induced small HA activation of abnormal keratinocyte behavior and SCC progression, but also enhances large HA stimulation of normal keratinocyte activities and epidermal function(s. Furthermore, we found that HA and its UVR-induced catabolic products (e.g., large and small HA selectively activate CD44-mediated Rac and RhoA signaling. Specifically, large HA-CD44 interaction promotes Rac/PKNγ-dependent normal keratinocyte differentiation, DNA repair and keratinocyte survival. Conversely, small HA-CD44v isoform interaction stimulates RhoA/ROK-dependent NFκB signaling and microRNA-21 (miR-21 production, leading to inflammation, proliferation (following acute UVR response and SCC progression (following chronic UVR exposure. Active vitamin D inhibits small HA-CD44v-mediated RhoA/ROK signaling and SCC progression; and it also enhances large HA-CD44-mediated differentiation, DNA repair and normal epidermal function. Selective applications of large HA and vitamin D will be used to improve the UVR-induced HA (small vs. large HA-CD44 isoform interaction with RhoGTPase signaling and skin inflammation as a potential therapeutic treatment for skin

  13. Size-selective precipitation in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals of CdTe and CdSe: a study by UV-VIS spectroscopy; Precipitacao seletiva de tamanhos em nanoparticulas semicondutoras coloidais de CdTe e CdSe: um estudo por espectroscopia UV-VIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viol, Livia Cristina de Souza; Silva, Fernanda Oliveira; Ferreira, Diego Lourenconi; Alves, Jose Luiz Aarestrup; Schiavon, Marco Antonio, E-mail: schiavon@ufsj.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del Rei, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais

    2011-07-01

    The post-preparative size-selective precipitation technique was applied in CdTe and CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals prepared via colloidal route in water. The synthesis of CdTe and CdSe nanoparticles and the effect of the post-preparative size-selective precipitation have been characterized mainly by mean of ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis). It was demonstrated that the size-selective precipitation are able to isolate particles of different sizes and purify the nanoparticles as well. (author)

  14. Protein turnover measurement using selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (SRM-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Stephen W; Hammond, Dean E; Simpson, Deborah M; Waters, John; Hurst, Jane L; Beynon, Robert J

    2016-10-28

    Protein turnover represents an important mechanism in the functioning of cells, with deregulated synthesis and degradation of proteins implicated in many diseased states. Therefore, proteomics strategies to measure turnover rates with high confidence are of vital importance to understanding many biological processes. In this study, the more widely used approach of non-targeted precursor ion signal intensity (MS1) quantification is compared with selected reaction monitoring (SRM), a data acquisition strategy that records data for specific peptides, to determine if improved quantitative data would be obtained using a targeted quantification approach. Using mouse liver as a model system, turnover measurement of four tricarboxylic acid cycle proteins was performed using both MS1 and SRM quantification strategies. SRM outperformed MS1 in terms of sensitivity and selectivity of measurement, allowing more confident determination of protein turnover rates. SRM data are acquired using cheaper and more widely available tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, making the approach accessible to a larger number of researchers than MS1 quantification, which is best performed on high mass resolution instruments. SRM acquisition is ideally suited to focused studies where the turnover of tens of proteins is measured, making it applicable in determining the dynamics of proteins complexes and complete metabolic pathways.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  15. Automated selected reaction monitoring software for accurate label-free protein quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleman, Johan; Karlsson, Christofer; Waldemarson, Sofia; Hansson, Karin; James, Peter; Malmström, Johan; Levander, Fredrik

    2012-07-06

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a mass spectrometry method with documented ability to quantify proteins accurately and reproducibly using labeled reference peptides. However, the use of labeled reference peptides becomes impractical if large numbers of peptides are targeted and when high flexibility is desired when selecting peptides. We have developed a label-free quantitative SRM workflow that relies on a new automated algorithm, Anubis, for accurate peak detection. Anubis efficiently removes interfering signals from contaminating peptides to estimate the true signal of the targeted peptides. We evaluated the algorithm on a published multisite data set and achieved results in line with manual data analysis. In complex peptide mixtures from whole proteome digests of Streptococcus pyogenes we achieved a technical variability across the entire proteome abundance range of 6.5-19.2%, which was considerably below the total variation across biological samples. Our results show that the label-free SRM workflow with automated data analysis is feasible for large-scale biological studies, opening up new possibilities for quantitative proteomics and systems biology.

  16. A pulsed, mono-energetic and angular-selective UV photo-electron source for the commissioning of the KATRIN experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, WWU Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IEKP, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Ranitzsch, P.C.O.; Hannen, V.; Ortjohann, H.W.; Rest, O.; Winzen, D.; Zacher, M.; Weinheimer, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, WWU Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Beck, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, WWU Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Mainz (Germany); Beglarian, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IPE, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Erhard, M.; Groh, S.; Kraus, M. [IEKP, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Schloesser, K.; Thuemmler, T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IKP, Karlsruhe (Germany); Valerius, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, WWU Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IKP, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wierman, K.; Wilkerson, J.F. [University of North Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The KATRIN experiment aims to determine the neutrino mass scale with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2} (90% C.L.) by a precision measurement of the shape of the tritium β-spectrum in the endpoint region. The energy analysis of the decay electrons is achieved by a MAC-E filter spectrometer. To determine the transmission properties of the KATRIN main spectrometer, a mono-energetic and angular-selective electron source has been developed. In preparation for the second commissioning phase of the main spectrometer, a measurement phase was carried out at the KATRIN monitor spectrometer where the device was operated in a MAC-E filter setup for testing. The results of these measurements are compared with simulations using the particle-tracking software ''Kassiopeia'', which was developed in the KATRIN collaboration over recent years. (orig.)

  17. Feature Selection by Merging Sequential Bidirectional Search into Relevance Vector Machine in Condition Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kui; DONG Yu; BALL Andrew

    2015-01-01

    For more accurate fault detection and diagnosis, there is an increasing trend to use a large number of sensors and to collect data at high frequency. This inevitably produces large-scale data and causes difficulties in fault classification. Actually, the classification methods are simply intractable when applied to high-dimensional condition monitoring data. In order to solve the problem, engineers have to resort to complicated feature extraction methods to reduce the dimensionality of data. However, the features transformed by the methods cannot be understood by the engineers due to a loss of the original engineering meaning. In this paper, other forms of dimensionality reduction technique(feature selection methods) are employed to identify machinery condition, based only on frequency spectrum data. Feature selection methods are usually divided into three main types: filter, wrapper and embedded methods. Most studies are mainly focused on the first two types, whilst the development and application of the embedded feature selection methods are very limited. This paper attempts to explore a novel embedded method. The method is formed by merging a sequential bidirectional search algorithm into scale parameters tuning within a kernel function in the relevance vector machine. To demonstrate the potential for applying the method to machinery fault diagnosis, the method is implemented to rolling bearing experimental data. The results obtained by using the method are consistent with the theoretical interpretation, proving that this algorithm has important engineering significance in revealing the correlation between the faults and relevant frequency features. The proposed method is a theoretical extension of relevance vector machine, and provides an effective solution to detect the fault-related frequency components with high efficiency.

  18. Feature selection by merging sequential bidirectional search into relevance vector machine in condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kui; Dong, Yu; Ball, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    For more accurate fault detection and diagnosis, there is an increasing trend to use a large number of sensors and to collect data at high frequency. This inevitably produces large-scale data and causes difficulties in fault classification. Actually, the classification methods are simply intractable when applied to high-dimensional condition monitoring data. In order to solve the problem, engineers have to resort to complicated feature extraction methods to reduce the dimensionality of data. However, the features transformed by the methods cannot be understood by the engineers due to a loss of the original engineering meaning. In this paper, other forms of dimensionality reduction technique(feature selection methods) are employed to identify machinery condition, based only on frequency spectrum data. Feature selection methods are usually divided into three main types: filter, wrapper and embedded methods. Most studies are mainly focused on the first two types, whilst the development and application of the embedded feature selection methods are very limited. This paper attempts to explore a novel embedded method. The method is formed by merging a sequential bidirectional search algorithm into scale parameters tuning within a kernel function in the relevance vector machine. To demonstrate the potential for applying the method to machinery fault diagnosis, the method is implemented to rolling bearing experimental data. The results obtained by using the method are consistent with the theoretical interpretation, proving that this algorithm has important engineering significance in revealing the correlation between the faults and relevant frequency features. The proposed method is a theoretical extension of relevance vector machine, and provides an effective solution to detect the fault-related frequency components with high efficiency.

  19. Worker selection of safe speed and idle condition in simulated monitoring of two industrial robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, W; Rahimi, M

    1991-05-01

    Industrial robots often operate at high speed, with unpredictable motion patterns and erratic idle times. Serious injuries and deaths have occurred due to operator misperception of these robot design and performance characteristics. The main objective of the research project was to study human perceptual aspects of hazardous robotics workstations. Two laboratory experiments were designed to investigate workers' perceptions of two industrial robots with different physical configurations and performance capabilities. Twenty-four subjects participated in the study. All subjects were chosen from local industries, and had had considerable exposure to robots and other automated equipment in their working experience. Experiment 1 investigated the maximum speed of robot arm motions that workers, who were experienced with operation of industrial robots, judged to be 'safe' for monitoring tasks. It was found that the selection of safe speed depends on the size of the robot and the speed with which the robot begins its operation. Speeds of less than 51 cm/s and 63 cm/s for large and small robots, respectively, were perceived as safe, i.e., ones that did not result in workers feeling uneasy or endangered when working in close proximity to the robot and monitoring its actions. Experiment 2 investigated the minimum value of robot idle time (inactivity) perceived by industrial workers as system malfunction, and an indication of the 'safe-to-approach' condition. It was found that idle times of 41 s and 28 s or less for the small and large robots, respectively, were perceived by workers to be a result of system malfunction. About 20% of the workers waited only 10 s or less before deciding that the robot had stopped because of system malfunction. The idle times were affected by the subjects' prior exposure to a simulated robot accident. Further interpretations of the results and suggestions for operational limitations of robot systems are discussed.

  20. Shape selection in Landsat time series: a tool for monitoring forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisen, Gretchen G; Meyer, Mary C; Schroeder, Todd A; Liao, Xiyue; Schleeweis, Karen G; Freeman, Elizabeth A; Toney, Chris

    2016-10-01

    We present a new methodology for fitting nonparametric shape-restricted regression splines to time series of Landsat imagery for the purpose of modeling, mapping, and monitoring annual forest disturbance dynamics over nearly three decades. For each pixel and spectral band or index of choice in temporal Landsat data, our method delivers a smoothed rendition of the trajectory constrained to behave in an ecologically sensible manner, reflecting one of seven possible 'shapes'. It also provides parameters summarizing the patterns of each change including year of onset, duration, magnitude, and pre- and postchange rates of growth or recovery. Through a case study featuring fire, harvest, and bark beetle outbreak, we illustrate how resultant fitted values and parameters can be fed into empirical models to map disturbance causal agent and tree canopy cover changes coincident with disturbance events through time. We provide our code in the r package ShapeSelectForest on the Comprehensive R Archival Network and describe our computational approaches for running the method over large geographic areas. We also discuss how this methodology is currently being used for forest disturbance and attribute mapping across the conterminous United States.

  1. Monitoring the sensitivity of selected crops to lead, cadmium and arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piršelová B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are highly toxic environmental pollutants. In plants, these compounds cause numerous slighter or stronger toxic effects. They inhibit root and shoot growth and yield production, affect nutrient uptake and homeostasis, and are frequently accumulated by agriculturally important crops. Effects of heavy metals on five selected species of agricultural crops were monitored. We focused our attention to general and commonly used stress indicators such as seed germination, weight and length of roots and shoots. Each of these characteristics was dependent on the tested plant species and tested heavy metals. Dosage of lead (500 mg/l had little effect on seed germination, cadmium (300 mg/l significantly affected seed germination of pea and barley, arsenic (100 mg/l caused total inhibition of seed germination in all tested plant species. Plants grow in soil contaminated with heavy metals showed several symptoms of metal toxicity (chlorosis, necrosis of leaf tips, blackening of roots. In general, the highest tolerance to tested metal ions was observed in both varieties of bean, and the lowest sensitivity was observed in soybean plants. The highest degree of toxicity was shown to have tested doses of cadmium and arsenic, the lowest the doses of lead. In general, the lowest tolerance indexes were determined based on the decrease in fresh weight of roots.

  2. Oxidized fatty acid analysis by charge-switch derivatization, selected reaction monitoring, and accurate mass quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinping; Moon, Sung Ho; Mancuso, David J; Jenkins, Christopher M; Guan, Shaoping; Sims, Harold F; Gross, Richard W

    2013-11-01

    A highly sensitive, specific, and robust method for the analysis of oxidized metabolites of linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was developed using charge-switch derivatization, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) and quantitation by high mass accuracy analysis of product ions, thereby minimizing interferences from contaminating ions. Charge-switch derivatization of LA, AA, and DHA metabolites with N-(4-aminomethylphenyl)-pyridinium resulted in a 10- to 30-fold increase in ionization efficiency. Improved quantitation was accompanied by decreased false positive interferences through accurate mass measurements of diagnostic product ions during SRM transitions by ratiometric comparisons with stable isotope internal standards. The limits of quantitation were between 0.05 and 6.0pg, with a dynamic range of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude (correlation coefficient r(2)>0.99). This approach was used to quantitate the levels of representative fatty acid metabolites from wild-type (WT) and iPLA2γ(-/-) mouse liver identifying the role of iPLA2γ in hepatic lipid second messenger production. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of high mass accuracy product ion analysis in conjunction with charge-switch derivatization for the highly specific quantitation of diminutive amounts of LA, AA, and DHA metabolites in biologic systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective Reduction of Cr(VI in Chromium, Copper and Arsenic (CCA Mixed Waste Streams Using UV/TiO2 Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The highly toxic Cr(VI is a critical component in the Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA formulations extensively employed as wood preservatives. Remediation of CCA mixed waste and discarded treated wood products is a significant challenge. We demonstrate that UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI to less toxic Cr(III in the presence of arsenate, As(V, and copper, Cu(II. The rapid conversion of Cr(VI to Cr(III during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis occurs over a range of concentrations, solution pH and at different Cr:As:Cu ratios. The reduction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and increases with decreasing solution pH. Saturation of the reaction solution with argon during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis had no significant effect on the Cr(VI reduction demonstrating the reduction of Cr(VI is independent of dissolved oxygen. Reduction of Cu(II and As(V does not occur under the photocatalytic conditions employed herein and the presence of these two in the tertiary mixtures had a minimal effect on Cr(VI reduction. The Cr(VI reduction was however, significantly enhanced by the addition of formic acid, which can act as a hole scavenger and enhance the reduction processes initiated by the conduction band electron. Our results demonstrate UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI in mixed waste streams under a variety of conditions.

  4. Selective reduction of Cr(VI) in chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) mixed waste streams using UV/TiO2 photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shan; Jiang, Wenjun; Rashid, Mamun; Cai, Yong; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2015-02-03

    The highly toxic Cr(VI) is a critical component in the Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) formulations extensively employed as wood preservatives. Remediation of CCA mixed waste and discarded treated wood products is a significant challenge. We demonstrate that UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III) in the presence of arsenate, As(V), and copper, Cu(II). The rapid conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis occurs over a range of concentrations, solution pH and at different Cr:As:Cu ratios. The reduction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and increases with decreasing solution pH. Saturation of the reaction solution with argon during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis had no significant effect on the Cr(VI) reduction demonstrating the reduction of Cr(VI) is independent of dissolved oxygen. Reduction of Cu(II) and As(V) does not occur under the photocatalytic conditions employed herein and the presence of these two in the tertiary mixtures had a minimal effect on Cr(VI) reduction. The Cr(VI) reduction was however, significantly enhanced by the addition of formic acid, which can act as a hole scavenger and enhance the reduction processes initiated by the conduction band electron. Our results demonstrate UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI) in mixed waste streams under a variety of conditions.

  5. The Star Formation and Extinction Co-Evolution of UV-Selected Galaxies over 0.05

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, D Christopher; Schiminovich, David; Wyder, Ted K; Perez-Gonzales, Pablo G; Johnson, Benjamin; Wolf, Christian; Barlow, Tom A; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G; Seibert, Mark; Welsh, Barry Y; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Timothy M; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F; Milliard, Bruno; Rich, R Michael; Szalay, A S; Yi, Sukyoung K; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Rieke, George

    2007-01-01

    We use a new stacking technique to obtain mean mid IR and far IR to far UV flux ratios over the rest near-UV/near-IR color-magnitude diagram. We employ COMBO-17 redshifts and COMBO-17 optical, GALEX far and near UV, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS Mid IR photometry. This technique permits us to probe infrared excess (IRX), the ratio of far IR to far UV luminosity, and specific star formation rate (SSFR) and their co-evolution over two orders of magnitude of stellar mass and redshift 0.1

  6. Monitoring of selected essential elements and contaminants at sheep and cow farms in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina TUNEGOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate the actual contamination of selected area of Slovakia, in view of its environmental character referred both to the suitability or unsuitability of the use of milk from this area, to other food processing. This article deals with analysis of the content of selected compounds in soil, feed and milk, at the cow and sheep farms. Village in Eastern Slovakia, Tulčík, was the area of investigation. This area is characterized as an area with mild disturbance of environment. 11 compounds have been analyzed (calcium, selenium, cadmium, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls – congeners 138, 153, 180, and pesticides - p,p´ DDE, Endosulfan I., Beta-HCH, aflatoxin M1. Samples of soil were collected once a year (spring season, samples of feeds and milk were collected two-times a year (spring and autumn season. Analysis of samples was performed in Eurofins Bel/Novamann (Nové Zámky, Slovak Republic. Analyses were performed by routine methods, according to the valid methodologies. Levels of compounds were obtained and then results have been compared with the most acceptable limits in according to applicable legislation. At both farms, 73.08% (38 samples of analyzed compounds were below the limit of quantification (LOQ and 26.92% (14 samples of compounds were quantifiable. The most significant differences between monitored farms were recorded in soil (27 720 mg·kg-1 Ca, feed (27 620 mg·kg-1 Ca and milk (960 mg·kg-1 Ca. The high content of calcium in soil and feed did not affect the content of calcium in milk. The results showed that the content of toxic elements, polychorinated biphenyls, pesticides and aflatoxin M1 in analyzed area of Eastern Slovakia was very low and under the limit of quantification. It can be concluded, that the use of milk from this area for direct use or for dairy products is appropriate and poses no health risk to the consumers.

  7. [Measurement and evaluation of natural and artificial UV radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krins, A; Burger, P M; Dörschel, B; Knuschke, P

    1999-10-01

    Natural and artificial UV radiation are environmental factors with both beneficial and harmful biological effects. This article will explain the physical measurement quantities and their relation to the biologically effective dose and will summarize the present technical state of the art of personal UV monitoring. In practical use are dosimeters based on polysulphone, a polymer which undergoes changes in its optical properties upon irradiation with UV. Other systems determine the UV dose by quantifying damage induced in Bacillus subtilis spores upon UV exposure. An electronic UV sensor represents a new and interesting development. Personal UV dosimeters will become an useful tool in both clinical and scientific areas within dermatology.

  8. Selecting optimal monitoring site locations for peak ambient particulate material concentrations using the MM5-CAMx4 numerical modelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Andrew; Titov, Mikhail; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2011-01-15

    Installation of temporary or long term monitoring sites is expensive, so it is important to rationally identify potential locations that will achieve the requirements of regional air quality management strategies. A simple, but effective, numerical approach to selecting ambient particulate matter (PM) monitoring site locations has therefore been developed using the MM5-CAMx4 air pollution dispersion modelling system. A new method, 'site efficiency,' was developed to assess the ability of any monitoring site to provide peak ambient air pollution concentrations that are representative of the urban area. 'Site efficiency' varies from 0 to 100%, with the latter representing the most representative site location for monitoring peak PM concentrations. Four heavy pollution episodes in Christchurch (New Zealand) during winter 2005, representing 4 different aerosol dispersion patterns, were used to develop and test this site assessment technique. Evaluation of the efficiency of monitoring sites was undertaken for night and morning aerosol peaks for 4 different particulate material (PM) spatial patterns. The results demonstrate that the existing long term monitoring site at Coles Place is quite well located, with a site efficiency value of 57.8%. A temporary ambient PM monitoring site (operating during winter 2006) showed a lower ability to capture night and morning peak aerosol concentrations. Evaluation of multiple site locations used during an extensive field campaign in Christchurch (New Zealand) in 2000 indicated that the maximum efficiency achieved by any site in the city would be 60-65%, while the efficiency of a virtual background site is calculated to be about 7%. This method of assessing the appropriateness of any potential monitoring site can be used to optimize monitoring site locations for any air pollution measurement programme.

  9. Real Time Monitoring of Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentration and Disinfection By-Product Formation Potential in a Surface Water Treatment Plant with Simulaneous UV-VIS Absorbance and Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study describes a method based on simultaneous absorbance and fluorescence excitation-emission mapping for rapidly and accurately monitoring dissolved organic carbon concentration and disinfection by-product formation potential for surface water sourced drinking water treatment. The method enables real-time monitoring of the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), absorbance at 254 nm (UVA), the Specific UV Absorbance (SUVA) as well as the Simulated Distribution System Trihalomethane (THM) Formation Potential (SDS-THMFP) for the source and treated water among other component parameters. The method primarily involves Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) decomposition of the high and lower molecular weight humic and fulvic organic component concentrations. The DOC calibration method involves calculating a single slope factor (with the intercept fixed at 0 mg/l) by linear regression for the UVA divided by the ratio of the high and low molecular weight component concentrations. This method thus corrects for the changes in the molecular weight component composition as a function of the source water composition and coagulation treatment effects. The SDS-THMFP calibration involves a multiple linear regression of the DOC, organic component ratio, chlorine residual, pH and alkalinity. Both the DOC and SDS-THMFP correlations over a period of 18 months exhibited adjusted correlation coefficients with r2 > 0.969. The parameters can be reported as a function of compliance rules associated with required % removals of DOC (as a function of alkalinity) and predicted maximum contaminant levels (MCL) of THMs. The single instrument method, which is compatible with continuous flow monitoring or grab sampling, provides a rapid (2-3 minute) and precise indicator of drinking water disinfectant treatability without the need for separate UV photometric and DOC meter measurements or independent THM determinations.

  10. Selected algorithms for measurement data processing in impulse-radar-based system for monitoring of human movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miękina, Andrzej; Wagner, Jakub; Mazurek, Paweł; Morawski, Roman Z.

    2016-11-01

    The importance of research on new technologies that could be employed in care services for elderly and disabled persons is highlighted. Advantages of impulse-radar sensors, when applied for non-intrusive monitoring of such persons in their home environment, are indicated. Selected algorithms for the measurement data preprocessing - viz. the algorithms for clutter suppression and echo parameter estimation, as well as for estimation of the twodimensional position of a monitored person - are proposed. The capability of an impulse-radar- based system to provide some application-specific parameters, viz. the parameters characterising the patient's health condition, is also demonstrated.

  11. Simultaneous in-line monitoring of the conversion and the coating thickness in UV-cured acrylate coatings by near-infrared reflection spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirschel, Gabriele; Heymann, Katja; Scherzer, Tom

    2010-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) reflection spectroscopy was used for in-line analysis of the conversion and the coating thickness (5-20 μm) of UV-cured clear and pigmented acrylate coatings. The quantitative evaluation of the recorded spectra was carried out by partial least-squares (PLS) regression, in particular with the PLS2 algorithm, which allows simultaneous prediction of both parameters. The efficiency of this method was investigated in roll coating experiments at line speeds up to 100 m min(-1). It was shown that the method is able to compensate for the effect of accidental variations of the coating thickness, which inevitably occur upon changes of the line speed, on the prediction of the conversion. Accordingly, the conversion could be determined with a precision of ±2...3%, whereas the error in the measurement of the thickness was found to be about 0.5-1 μm.

  12. Bioimpedance in monitoring of effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznecova LV

    2011-06-01

    cutoff >0.678. Comparing Group 3 and Group 4, the electrical dispersion a parameter of the same pathway had a specificity of 100%, a sensitivity of 89.5% (P < 0.0001, and a cutoff >0.692.Conclusion: Electrical conductivity measurement of the forehead pathway using EIS has a high specificity and sensitivity at day 45 when comparing treatment responders and nonresponders, but decreases at day 60. The EIS electrical dispersion a parameter of the forehead pathway has a high specificity and sensitivity at day 45 when comparing treatment responders and nonresponders, and increases at day 60. The EIS system may be a noninvasive, easily administered, low-cost technique that could be used as an adjunct to DSM-IV and Clinical Global Impression scores for monitoring of efficacy of treatment in patients with major depressive disorder.Keywords: major depressive disorder, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, Electro Interstitial Scan, electrical conductivity, dispersion α parameter

  13. Selected reaction monitoring as an effective method for reliable quantification of disease-associated proteins in maple syrup urine disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Guerra, Paula; Birkler, Rune I D; Merinero, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry can quantitatively measure proteins by specific targeting of peptide sequences, and allows the determination of multiple proteins in one single analysis. Here, we show the feasibility of simultaneous measurements of multiple proteins in mitocho......Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry can quantitatively measure proteins by specific targeting of peptide sequences, and allows the determination of multiple proteins in one single analysis. Here, we show the feasibility of simultaneous measurements of multiple proteins......, whereas mRNA levels were almost unaltered, indicating instability of E1α and E1β monomers. Using SRM we elucidated the protein effects of mutations generating premature termination codons or misfolded proteins. SRM is a complement to transcript level measurements and a valuable tool to shed light...

  14. How many organisms are in ballast water discharge? A framework for validating and selecting compliance monitoring tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Lisa A; Tamburri, Mario N; First, Matthew R; Smith, G Jason; Johengen, Thomas H

    2014-09-15

    As regulations governing the discharge of living organisms in ships' ballast water enter into force, tools to rapidly and easily measure compliance with the discharge standards will be essential. To assess, validate, and select compliance tools, a framework-consisting of three parts-is presented: proof-of-concept, validation and verification, and final selection stages. Next, a case study describing the proof-of-concept stage is discussed. Specifically, variable fluorescence was evaluated as an approach for determining compliance with the discharge standard for living organisms ⩾10 μm and compliance monitoring tools.

  15. Selective ablation of Copper-Indium-Diselenide solar cells monitored by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and classification methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego-Vallejo, David [Technische Universität Berlin, Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, Straße des 17, Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Laser- und Medizin- Technologie Berlin GmbH (LMTB), Applied Laser Technology, Fabeckstr. 60-62, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Ashkenasi, David, E-mail: d.ashkenasi@lmtb.de [Laser- und Medizin- Technologie Berlin GmbH (LMTB), Applied Laser Technology, Fabeckstr. 60-62, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Lemke, Andreas [Laser- und Medizin- Technologie Berlin GmbH (LMTB), Applied Laser Technology, Fabeckstr. 60-62, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Eichler, Hans Joachim [Technische Universität Berlin, Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, Straße des 17, Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Laser- und Medizin- Technologie Berlin GmbH (LMTB), Applied Laser Technology, Fabeckstr. 60-62, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and two classification methods, i.e. linear correlation and artificial neural networks (ANN), are used to monitor P1, P2 and P3 scribing steps of Copper-Indium-Diselenide (CIS) solar cells. Narrow channels featuring complete removal of desired layers with minimum damage on the underlying film are expected to enhance efficiency of solar cells. The monitoring technique is intended to determine that enough material has been removed to reach the desired layer based on the analysis of plasma emission acquired during multiple pass laser scribing. When successful selective scribing is achieved, a high degree of similarity between test and reference spectra has to be identified by classification methods in order to stop the scribing procedure and avoid damaging the bottom layer. Performance of linear correlation and artificial neural networks is compared and evaluated for two spectral bandwidths. By using experimentally determined combinations of classifier and analyzed spectral band for each step, classification performance achieves errors of 7, 1 and 4% for steps P1, P2 and P3, respectively. The feasibility of using plasma emission for the supervision of processing steps of solar cell manufacturing is demonstrated. This method has the potential to be implemented as an online monitoring procedure assisting the production of solar cells. - Highlights: • LIBS and two classification methods were used to monitor CIS solar cells processing. • Selective ablation of thin-film solar cells was improved with inspection system. • Customized classification method and analyzed spectral band enhanced performance.

  16. A niche-based framework to assess current monitoring of European forest birds and guide indicator species' selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Amy S I; Barov, Boris; Burfield, Ian J; Gregory, Richard D; Norris, Ken; Vorisek, Petr; Wu, Taoyang; Butler, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Concern that European forest biodiversity is depleted and declining has provoked widespread efforts to improve management practices. To gauge the success of these actions, appropriate monitoring of forest ecosystems is paramount. Multi-species indicators are frequently used to assess the state of biodiversity and its response to implemented management, but generally applicable and objective methodologies for species' selection are lacking. Here we use a niche-based approach, underpinned by coarse quantification of species' resource use, to objectively select species for inclusion in a pan-European forest bird indicator. We identify both the minimum number of species required to deliver full resource coverage and the most sensitive species' combination, and explore the trade-off between two key characteristics, sensitivity and redundancy, associated with indicators comprising different numbers of species. We compare our indicator to an existing forest bird indicator selected on the basis of expert opinion and show it is more representative of the wider community. We also present alternative indicators for regional and forest type specific monitoring and show that species' choice can have a significant impact on the indicator and consequent projections about the state of the biodiversity it represents. Furthermore, by comparing indicator sets drawn from currently monitored species and the full forest bird community, we identify gaps in the coverage of the current monitoring scheme. We believe that adopting this niche-based framework for species' selection supports the objective development of multi-species indicators and that it has good potential to be extended to a range of habitats and taxa.

  17. Selective reflection technique as a probe to monitor the growth of a metallic thin film on dielectric surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Weliton Soares; Chevrollier, Martine; de Silans, Thierry Passerat

    2013-01-01

    Controlling thin film formation is technologically challenging. The knowledge of physical properties of the film and of the atoms in the surface vicinity can help improve control over the film growth. We investigate the use of the well-established selective reflection technique to probe the thin film during its growth, simultaneously monitoring the film thickness, the atom-surface van der Waals interaction and the vapor properties in the surface vicinity.

  18. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube-sheathed carbon fibers as pristine microelectrodes for selective monitoring of ascorbate in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling; Yu, Ping; Hao, Jie; Zhang, Meining; Zhu, Lin; Dai, Liming; Mao, Lanqun

    2014-04-15

    Using as-synthesized vertically aligned carbon nanotube-sheathed carbon fibers (VACNT-CFs) as microelectrodes without any postsynthesis functionalization, we have developed in this study a new method for in vivo monitoring of ascorbate with high selectivity and reproducibility. The VACNT-CFs are formed via pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine (FePc) on the carbon fiber support. After electrochemical pretreatment in 1.0 M NaOH solution, the pristine VACNT-CF microelectrodes exhibit typical microelectrode behavior with fast electron transfer kinetics for electrochemical oxidation of ascorbate and are useful for selective ascorbate monitoring even with other electroactive species (e.g., dopamine, uric acid, and 5-hydroxytryptamine) coexisting in rat brain. Pristine VACNT-CFs are further demonstrated to be a reliable and stable microelectrode for in vivo recording of the dynamic increase of ascorbate evoked by intracerebral infusion of glutamate. Use of a pristine VACNT-CF microelectrode can effectively avoid any manual electrode modification and is free from person-to-person and/or electrode-to-electrode deviations intrinsically associated with conventional CF electrode fabrication, which often involves electrode surface modification with randomly distributed CNTs or other pretreatments, and hence allows easy fabrication of highly selective, reproducible, and stable microelectrodes even by nonelectrochemists. Thus, this study offers a new and reliable platform for in vivo monitoring of neurochemicals (e.g., ascorbate) to largely facilitate future studies on the neurochemical processes involved in various physiological events.

  19. Development of UV-B screening compounds in response to variation in ambient levels of UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Joe H.; Xu, Chenping; Gao, Wei; Slusser, James R.

    2005-08-01

    The induction of UV-B screening compounds in response to exposure to UV-B radiation is a commonly reported response and is generally considered to be an adaptive response of plants for protection from UVinduced damage. However, a number of questions remain to be answered including the importance of qualitative and localization differences among species in providing protection, indirect consequences of changes in leaf secondary chemistry on ecological processes and the dose response of metabolite accumulation. In this study we utilized UV monitoring data provided on site by the USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program to monitor the changes in UV-screening compounds in soybeans under a range of UV-B levels due to natural variation in ambient UV-B radiation. Soybean cultivars Essex, Clark and Clark-magenta, an isoline of Clark that produces minimal levels of flavonols, were grown beneath shelters covered either with polyester to block most UV-B radiation or teflon which is nearly transparent in the UV range and harvested at regular intervals for pigment and protein analysis. Daily levels of weighted UV-B varied from 7 kJ m-2. Increases in UV-screening compounds showed a positive dose response to UV-B radiation in all cultivars with Essex showing the steepest dose response. UV-A also induced screening compounds in all species The hydroxycinnimates of the magenta isoline showed a steep dose response to UV-A and a rather constant (non dose specific) but small additional increment in response to UV-B. The Clark isoline, which produced primarily the flavonol quercetin, showed a dose response to UV-B intermediate between that of Clark-magenta and Essex. All three cultivars show similar tolerance to UV-B in field conditions indicating that UV-induced pigment production is adequate to protect them from excessive UV-B damage.

  20. A model for selecting bioindicators to monitor radionuclide concentrations using Amchitka Island in the Aleutians as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2007-11-01

    World War II and the Cold War have left the Unites States, and other Nations, with massive cleanup and remediation tasks for radioactive and other legacy hazardous wastes. While some sites can be cleaned up to acceptable residential risk levels, others will continue to hold hazardous wastes, which must be contained and monitored to protect human health and the environment. While media (soil, sediment, groundwater) monitoring is the usual norm at many radiological waste sites, for some situations (both biological and societal), biomonitoring may provide the necessary information to assure greater peace of mind for local and regional residents, and to protect ecologically valuable buffer lands or waters. In most cases, indicators are selected using scientific expertise and a literature review, but not all selected indicators will seem relevant to stakeholders. In this paper, I provide a model for the inclusion of stakeholders in the development of bioindicators for assessing radionuclide levels of biota in the marine environment around Amchitka Island, in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Amchitka was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. The process was stakeholder-initiated, stakeholder-driven, and included stakeholders during each phase. Phases included conceptualization, initial selection of biota and radionuclides, refinement of biota and radionuclide target lists, collection of biota, selection of biota and radionuclides for analysis, and selection of biota, tissues, and radionuclides for bioindicators. The process produced site-specific information on biota availability and on radionuclide levels that led to selection of site-appropriate bioindicators. I suggest that the lengthy, iterative, stakeholder-driven process described in this paper results in selection of bioindicators that are accepted by biologists, public health personnel, public-policy makers, resource agencies, regulatory agencies, subsistence hunters/fishers, and a wide

  1. Global Monitoring of Atmospheric Trace Gases, Clouds and Aerosols from UV/vis/NIR Satellite Instruments: Currents Status and Near Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Deutschmann, T.; Frankenberg, C.; Grzegorski, M.; Khokhar, M. F.; Kühl, S.; Marbach, T.; Mies, K.; de Vries, M. Penning; Platt, U.; Pukite, J.; Sanghavi, S.

    2008-04-01

    A new generation of UV/vis/near-IR satellite instruments like GOME (since 1995), SCIAMACHY (since 2002), OMI (since 2004), and GOME-2 (since 2006) allows to measure several important stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases like O3, NO2, OClO, HCHO, SO2, BrO, and H2O as well as clouds and aerosols from space. Because of its extended spectral range, the SCIAMACHY instrument also allows the retrieval of Greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4) and CO in the near IR. Almost all of the tropospheric trace gases are observed by these instruments for the first time. From satellite data it is possible to investigate the temporal and spatial variation. Also different sources can be characterised and quantified. The derived global distributions can serve as input and for the validation of atmospheric models. Here we give an overview on the current status of these new instruments and data products and their recent applications to various atmospheric and oceanic phenomena.

  2. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR in Formalin Fixed Tumor Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hembrough Todd

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of key therapeutic targets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in clinical tissue samples is typically done by immunohistochemistry (IHC and is only subjectively quantitative through a narrow dynamic range. The development of a standardized, highly-sensitive, linear, and quantitative assay for EGFR for use in patient tumor tissue carries high potential for identifying those patients most likely to benefit from EGFR-targeted therapies. Methods A mass spectrometry-based Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM assay for the EGFR protein (EGFR-SRM was developed utilizing the Liquid Tissue®-SRM technology platform. Tissue culture cells (n = 4 were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to establish quantitative EGFR levels. Matching formalin fixed cultures were analyzed by the EGFR-SRM assay and benchmarked against immunoassay of the non-fixed cultured cells. Xenograft human tumor tissue (n = 10 of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC origin and NSCLC patient tumor tissue samples (n = 23 were microdissected and the EGFR-SRM assay performed on Liquid Tissue lysates prepared from microdissected tissue. Quantitative curves and linear regression curves for correlation between immunoassay and SRM methodology were developed in Excel. Results The assay was developed for quantitation of a single EGFR tryptic peptide for use in FFPE patient tissue with absolute specificity to uniquely distinguish EGFR from all other proteins including the receptor tyrosine kinases, IGF-1R, cMet, Her2, Her3, and Her4. The assay was analytically validated against a collection of tissue culture cell lines where SRM analysis of the formalin fixed cells accurately reflects EGFR protein levels in matching non-formalin fixed cultures as established by ELISA sandwich immunoassay (R2 = 0.9991. The SRM assay was applied to a collection of FFPE NSCLC xenograft tumors where SRM data range from 305amol/μg to 12,860amol/μg and

  3. Applications of Piezoelectric Materials in Structural Health Monitoring and Repair: Selected Research Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ser Tong Quek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent applications of piezoelectric materials in structural health monitoring and repair conducted by the authors. First, commonly used piezoelectric materials in structural health monitoring and structure repair are introduced. The analysis of plain piezoelectric sensors and actuators and interdigital transducer and their applications in beam, plate and pipe structures for damage detection are reviewed in detail. Second, an overview is presented on the recent advances in the applications of piezoelectric materials in structural repair. In addition, the basic principle and the current development of the technique are examined.

  4. Four challenges in selecting and implementing methods to monitor and evaluate participatory processes: Example from the Rwenzori region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Ducrot, Raphaëlle; Ferrand, Nils; Barreteau, Olivier; Anne Daniell, Katherine; Pittock, Jamie

    2016-09-15

    Participatory approaches are now increasingly recognized and used as an essential element of policies and programs, especially in regards to natural resource management (NRM). Most practitioners, decision-makers and researchers having adopted participatory approaches also acknowledge the need to monitor and evaluate such approaches in order to audit their effectiveness, support decision-making or improve learning. Many manuals and frameworks exist on how to carry out monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for participatory processes. However, few provide guidelines on the selection and implementation of M&E methods, an aspect which is also often obscure in published studies, at the expense of the transparency, reliability and validity of the study. In this paper, we argue that the selection and implementation of M&E methods are particularly strategic when monitoring and evaluating a participatory process. We demonstrate that evaluators of participatory processes have to tackle a quadruple challenge when selecting and implementing methods: using mixed-methods, both qualitative and quantitative; assessing the participatory process, its outcomes, and its context; taking into account both the theory and participants' views; and being both rigorous and adaptive. The M&E of a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori Region, Uganda, is used as an example to show how these challenges unfold on the ground and how they can be tackled. Based on this example, we conclude by providing tools and strategies that can be used by evaluators to ensure that they make utile, feasible, coherent, transparent and adaptive methodological choices when monitoring and evaluating participatory processes for NRM.

  5. Photocatalytic decomposition of selected estrogens and their estrogenic activity by UV-LED irradiated TiO2 immobilized on porous titanium sheets via thermal-chemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlos, Maricor J; Liang, Robert; Hatat-Fraile, Melisa M; Bragg, Leslie M; Zhou, Norman Y; Servos, Mark R; Andrews, Susan A

    2016-11-15

    The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) remains a big challenge in water treatment. Risks associated with these compounds are not clearly defined and it is important that the water industry has additional options to increase the resiliency of water treatment systems. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has potential applications for the removal of EDCs from water. TiO2 has been immobilized on supports using a variety of synthesis methods to increase its feasibility for water treatment. In this study, we immobilized TiO2 through the thermal-chemical oxidation of porous titania sheets. The efficiency of the material to degrade target EDCs under UV-LED irradiation was examined under a wide range of pH conditions. A yeast-estrogen screen assay was used to complement chemical analysis in assessing removal efficiency. All compounds but 17β-estradiol were degraded and followed a pseudo first-order kinetics at all pH conditions tested, with pH 4 and pH 11 showing the most and the least efficient treatments respectively. In addition, the total estrogenic activity was substantially reduced even with the inefficient degradation of 17β-estradiol. Additional studies will be required to optimize different treatment conditions, UV-LED configurations, and membrane fouling mitigation measures to make this technology a more viable option for water treatment.

  6. Use of space-filling curves to select sample locations in natural resource monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Lister; Charles T. Scott

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of several large area monitoring networks over the past few decades has led to increased research into ways to spatially balance sample locations across the landscape. Many of these methods are well documented and have been used in the past with great success. In this paper, we present a method using geographic information systems (GIS) and fractals...

  7. Early Adolescent Substance Use in Mexican Origin Families: Peer Selection, Peer Influence, and Parental Monitoring*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Because adolescents vary in their susceptibility to peer influence, the current study addresses potential reciprocal effects between associating with deviant peers and use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD), as well as the potential buffering role of parental monitoring on these reciprocal effects. Method 674 children of Mexican origin reported at fifth and seventh grade(10.4 years old at fifth grade)on the degree to which they associated with deviant peers, intended to use alcohol, tobacco or other drugs (ATOD) in the future, and had used controlled substances during the past year. Trained observers rated parental monitoring from video-recorded family interactions at the first assessment. Results Youth who intended to use ATODs during fifth grade experienced a relative increase in number of deviant peers by seventh grade, and youth with more deviant peers in fifth grade were more likely to use ATODs by seventh grade. Parental monitoring buffered (i.e., moderated) the reciprocal association between involvement with deviant peers and both intent to use ATODs and actual use of ATODs. Conclusions Parental monitoring can disrupt the reciprocal associations between deviant peers and ATOD use during the transition from childhood to adolescence PMID:26525416

  8. Towards Proactive Context-Aware Service Selection in the Geographically Distributed Remote Patient Monitoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawar, Pravin; Beijnum, van Bert-Jan; Mei, Hailiang; Hermens, Hermie

    2009-01-01

    In the mobile (M)-health domain, the remote patient monitoring system (RPMS) facilitates continuous collection, transmission and viewing of the patient vital signs data. Furthermore, in case of an emergency it provides context-aware emergency response services (ERSs) such as the doctor, paramedic, a

  9. Sensor combination and chemometric variable selection for online monitoring of Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ödman, Peter; Johansen, C.L.; Olsson, L.

    2010-01-01

    Fed-batch cultivations of Streptomyces coelicolor, producing the antibiotic actinorhodin, were monitored online by multiwavelength fluorescence spectroscopy and off-gas analysis. Partial least squares (PLS), locally weighted regression, and multilinear PLS (N-PLS) models were built for prediction...

  10. Selection of bioindicators for monitoring marine environmental quality in the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C L; Paon, L A; Moffatt, J D; King, T

    2003-06-01

    Distribution of metals, PAH's and PCB's in lobsters, mussels, and sediments were used to assess marine environmental quality of the Bay of Fundy. This study demonstrates that the lobster (Homarus americanus) is a better bioindicator for monitoring contaminants in the marine environment and has a greater capacity for the uptake and accumulation of contaminants than the mussel (Mytilus edulis) and sediments. A definite pattern in the spatial distribution of lobster Cu, Cd, and Ag was evident. The distribution of organic contaminants for both mussels and lobsters in the Bay of Fundy lacked a spatial trend, and organic contaminants were undetectable in sediments from all sites. The Gulf Watch Programme, which monitors chemicals in mussels in the Bay of Fundy, did not indicate a problem with high levels of Cu, Cd, and Zn in the ecosystem. Analytes below the detection limit, such as in mussels and sediments, increase the difficulties of chemical analysis and detection for environmental monitoring. Deficiencies of mussels in monitoring the Bay of Fundy were discussed.

  11. Noninvasive ultrasonic monitoring of the mechanical properties of selected muscles and connected tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakir Hossain, M.; Grill, W.

    2012-04-01

    The force-length relation is one of the most important mechanical properties of skeletal muscular tissue. Due to the rather limited availability of non-invasive methods suitable to quantify the in-vivo biomechanical properties of activated human muscles and connected tendons, the quantification of the bio-mechanical properties is difficult. The measurement principle applied here is based on the detection of the dynamics of the muscle under observation by an ultrasonic caliper and monitoring of the externally present forces by a synchronously operated ultrasonic force sensor. The developed monitoring scheme is exemplified for gradual increasing voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the gastrocnemius muscle up to maximum contraction, with the force sensor restricting the flexion of the joint. The temporal resolution for the monitoring is 0.01 s, relating to a monitoring rate of 100 Hz and is achieved with a spatial resolution concerning the observed lateral extension of the muscle of 0.01 mm. The employed low power, economic and non-intrusive detection scheme and respective instrumentation have the demonstrated potential to quantify the in-vivo hysteretic behavior of the observed force-length relation for MVIC of the human gastrocnemius muscle for the first time. The purpose of this study was to determine in-vivo the force-length relations for the human gastrocnemius and biceps muscles noninvasively by suitable experimental techniques with high temporal and spatial resolution concerning monitoring of the biomechanical relevant parameters involved in the dynamics of activated muscle. The data is collected and analyzed to derive quantitative information on force-length relations, essential for the analysis of muscle performance and interpretation by musculoskeletal models. The involved technologies are demonstrated and the respective results are presented and discussed.

  12. [Selection of indicators for continuous monitoring of the impact of programs optimizing antimicrobial use in Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Urrusuno, Rocío; Flores-Dorado, Macarena; Moreno-Campoy, Eva; Montero-Balosa, M Carmen

    2015-05-01

    To determine core indicators for monitoring quality prescribing in Primary Care based on the evidence, and to assess the feasibility of these indicators for monitoring the use of antibiotics. A literature review was carried out on quality indicators for antimicrobial prescribing through an electronic search limited to the period 2001-2012. It was completed with an "ad hoc" search on the websites of public national and international health services. Finally, indicators were chosen by consensus by a multidisciplinary group of professionals dedicated to managing infections from several areas. The feasibility and applicability of these indicators was verified through the reporting and use of data in the prescription database. Twenty two indicators were found. The consensus group selected 16 indicators. Eleven of them measure the specific antimicrobial selection, and 5 are consumption rates. The indicators were successfully applied to the prescription database, being able to make comparisons between different geographical areas and to observe trends in prescriptions. The definition of a basic set of indicators to monitor antibiotic use adapted to local conditions is required. The results of these indicators can be used for feedback to professionals and for evaluating the impact of programs aimed at improving antimicrobial use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of aerosol optical depth of UV-B monitoring and research program (UVMRP), AERONET and MODIS over continental united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongzhao; Chen, Maosi; Davis, John; Gao, Wei

    2013-06-01

    The concern about the role of aerosols as to their effect in the Earth-Atmosphere system requires observation at multiple temporal and spatial scales. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameters (MODIS) is the main aerosol optical depth (AOD) monitoring satellite instrument, and its accuracy and uncertainty need to be validated against ground based measurements routinely. The comparison between two ground AOD measurement programs, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Ultraviolet-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program, confirms the consistency between them. The intercomparison between the MODIS AOD, the AERONET AOD, and the UVMRP AOD suggests that the UVMRP AOD measurements are suited to be an alternative ground-based validation source for satellite AOD products. The experiments show that the spatial-temporal dependency between the MODIS AOD and the UVMRP AOD is positive in the sense that the MODIS AOD compare more favorably with the UVMRP AOD as the spatial and temporal intervals are increased. However, the analysis shows that the optimal spatial interval for all time windows is defined by an angular subtense of around 1° to 1.25°, while the optimal time window is around 423 to 483 minutes at most spatial intervals. The spatial-temporal approach around 1.25° & 423 minutes shows better agreement than the prevalent strategy of 0.25° & 60 minutes found in other similar investigations.

  14. Therapeutic drug monitoring of beta-lactam antibiotics - Influence of sample stability on the analysis of piperacillin, meropenem, ceftazidime and flucloxacillin by HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Nadine; Brenner, Thorsten; Swoboda, Stefanie; Weigand, Markus A; Hoppe-Tichy, Torsten

    2017-09-05

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a useful tool to optimize antibiotic therapy. Increasing interest in alternative dosing strategies of beta-lactam antibiotics, e.g. continuous or prolonged infusion, require a feasible analytical method for quantification of these antimicrobial agents. However, pre-analytical issues including sample handling and stability are to be considered to provide valuable analytical results. For the simultaneous determination of piperacillin, meropenem, ceftazidime and flucloxacillin, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method including protein precipitation was established utilizing ertapenem as internal standard. Long-term stability of stock solutions and plasma samples were monitored. Furthermore, whole blood stability of the analytes in heparinized blood tubes was investigated comparing storage under ambient conditions and 2-8°C. A calibration range of 5-200μg/ml (piperacillin, ceftazidime, flucloxacillin) and 2-200μg/ml (meropenem) was linear with r(2)>0.999, precision and inaccuracy were beta-lactam antibiotics in whole blood tubes were found to remain within specifications for 8h when stored at 2-8°C but not at room temperature. The presented method is a rapid and simple option for routine TDM of piperacillin, meropenem, ceftazidime and flucloxacillin. Whereas long-term storage of beta-lactam samples at -80°C is possible for at least 9 months, whole blood tubes are recommended to be kept refrigerated until analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ocular bulb as a matrix of selection in detection of clenbuterol: an effective monitoring in breeding turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Roncada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clenbuterol is a 2-agonist licensed in Europe solely as a muscle relaxant in pregnant cattle, usually during calf delivery, and for tocolysis and treatment of respiratory diseases in horses. Different use in animals is considered illegal because this growth promoter can endanger human health. The aim of this work was to monitor the presence of clenbuterol in a not official and inedible matrix (where there is strong evidence of its potential accumulation, as ocular bulb, collected in 2007-2009 from turkeys at public slaughterhouses in Central-Northern Italy. The 280 collected samples were analysed with a new and effective method of extraction and purification based on HPLC analysis with UV-DAD detection. The average extraction recoveries were 80.60 ± 1.57%. All the samples were below the quantification limit (0.010 µg/mL. At 95% confidence level the percentage of positive turkeys breeding-farms was below 14%. This allows extending positive evaluations on the safety of edible tissues of Italian turkey.

  16. Environmental Contaminants Monitoring in Selected Wetlands of Wyoming: Biologically Active Elements Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, water and biota were collected from selected wetlands in Wyoming for the Biologically Active Elements (BAE) Study in 1988, 1989 and 1990 to identify...

  17. Selective Alcohol Oxidation by a Copper TEMPO Catalyst: Mechanistic Insights by Simultaneously Coupled Operando EPR/UV-Vis/ATR-IR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeah, Jabor; Bentrup, Ursula; Stößer, Reinhard; Brückner, Angelika

    2015-09-28

    The first coupled operando EPR/UV-Vis/ATR-IR spectroscopy setup for mechanistic studies of gas-liquid phase reactions is presented and exemplarily applied to the well-known copper/TEMPO-catalyzed (TEMPO=(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl) oxidation of benzyl alcohol. In contrast to previous proposals, no direct redox reaction between TEMPO and Cu(I) /Cu(II) has been detected. Instead, the role of TEMPO is postulated to be the stabilization of a (bpy)(NMI)Cu(II) -O2 (⋅-) -TEMPO (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, NMI=N-methylimidazole) intermediate formed by electron transfer from Cu(I) to molecular O2 .

  18. Selecting disease-outcome pairs for monitoring the quality of hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, N P; Ashton, C M; Kuykendall, D H; Petersen, N J; Souchek, J; Hollingsworth, J C

    1995-01-01

    Health care payors and providers are increasingly monitoring hospital discharge data bases for adverse events as markers for quality of care. The principal criticisms of these analyses have focused on the impediments to risk adjustment posed by the incompleteness and inaccuracy of the data bases. However, efforts to address the inadequacies of the data bases will not correct deficiencies of the analytic process. These deficiencies arise from the application of one adverse outcome to all disease states. Instead, analysis should be restricted to comparisons of subgroups of patients in which a close fit exists between the quality of care for the disease state and the expected outcome. Furthermore, these disease-outcome pairs should be minimally subject to measurement error. The authors present a conceptual framework for developing such meaningful disease-outcome pairs, and using the hospital discharge data base of the Department of Veterans Affairs, show how the framework can be used to devise a monitoring strategy for re-admission.

  19. Comparison of aerosol optical depth of UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP), AERONET and MODIS over continental United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongzhao TANG; Maosi CHEN; John DAVIS; Wei GAO

    2013-01-01

    The concern about the role of aerosols as to their effect in the Earth-Atmosphere system requires observation at multiple temporal and spatial scales.The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameters (MODIS) is the main aerosol optical depth (AOD)monitoring satellite instrument,and its accuracy and uncertainty need to be validated against ground based measurements routinely.The comparison between two ground AOD measurement programs,the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Ultraviolet-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program,confirms the consistency between them.The intercomparison between the MODIS AOD,the AERONET AOD,and the UVMRP AOD suggests that the UVMRP AOD measurements are suited to be an alternative ground-based validation source for satellite AOD products.The experiments show that the spatial-temporal dependency between the MODIS AOD and the UVMRP AOD is positive in the sense that the MODIS AOD compare more favorably with the UVMRP AOD as the spatial and temporal intervals are increased.However,the analysis shows that the optimal spatial interval for all time windows is defined by an angular subtense of around 1° to 1.25°,while the optimal time window is around 423 to 483 minutes at most spatial intervals.The spatial-temporal approach around 1.25° & 423 minutes shows better agreement than the prevalent strategy of 0.25° & 60 minutes found in other similar investigations.Research Program (UVMRP),Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET),Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameters (MODIS),validation,spatial-temporal approach

  20. An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Shumchenia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave, structure (e.g., turbine, and foundation type (e.g., monopile. Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment.

  1. Defined UV protection by apparel textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, K; Laperre, J; Avermaete, A; Altmeyer, P; Gambichler, T

    2001-08-01

    This article was written to update information on test methods and standards for determining the UV protection of apparel textiles and on factors affecting UV protective properties of fabrics, from dermatological and textile technological viewpoints. Articles from dermatological and textile technological journals published from 1990 to 2001 were identified from MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, World Textiles, and Textile Technology Digest. Peer-reviewed dermatological articles, textile technological research articles, and normative publications were selected. Independent data extraction was performed by several observers. Spectrophotometry is the preferred method for determining UV protection factor of textile materials. Various textile qualities affect the UV protection factor of a finished garment; important elements are the fabric porosity, type, color, weight, and thickness. The application of UV absorbers in the yarns significantly improves the UV protection factor of a garment. With wear and use, several factors can alter the UV protective properties of a textile, including stretch, wetness, and degradation due to laundering. Standards in the field exist in Australia and Great Britain, and organizations such as the European Standardization Commission in Europe and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists and the American Society for Testing and Materials in the United States are also establishing standards for the determination and labeling of sun protective clothing. Various textile qualities and conditions of wear and use affect UV protective properties of apparel textiles. The use of UV blocking fabrics can provide excellent protection against the hazards of sunlight; this is especially true for garments manufactured as UV protective clothing.

  2. Pre main sequence stars as UV sources for the World Space Observatory-UV mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez de Castro, Ana I.; Lamzin, Sergei A.

    2011-09-01

    Pre-main sequence stars are bright UV (UV) sources compared with their main sequence analogues. The source of this excess is the high energy processes associated with the physics of accretion/outflow during early stellar evolution. In this review, the main sources of UV excess are described as well as the most significant "unknowns" in the field. Special emphasis is made on the results from the last observations carried out with the Hubble Space Telescope and on the relevance of future dedicated monitoring programs with the World Space Observatory-UV.

  3. A UV-to-MIR monitoring of DR Tau: exploring how water vapor in the planet formation region of the disk is affected by stellar accretion variability

    CERN Document Server

    Banzatti, Andrea; Manara, Carlo F; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Testi, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Young stars are known to show variability due to non-steady mass accretion rate from their circumstellar disks. Accretion flares can produce strong energetic irradiation and heating that may affect the disk in the planet formation region, close to the central star. During an extreme accretion outburst in the young star EX Lupi, the prototype of EXor variables, remarkable changes in molecular gas emission from $\\sim1$ AU in the disk have recently been observed (Banzatti et al. 2012). Here, we focus on water vapor and explore how it is affected by variable accretion luminosity in T Tauri stars. We monitored a young highly variable solar-mass star, DR Tau, using simultaneously two high/medium-resolution ESO-VLT spectrographs: VISIR at 12.4 $\\mu$m to observe water lines from the disk, and X-shooter covering from 0.3 to 2.5 $\\mu$m to constrain the stellar accretion. Three epochs spanning timescales from several days to several weeks were obtained. Accretion luminosity was estimated to change within a factor $\\sim2...

  4. A diagnostic signal selection scheme for planetary gearbox vibration monitoring under non-stationary operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ke; Wang, KeSheng; Zhang, Mian; Ni, Qing; Zuo, Ming J.

    2017-03-01

    The planetary gearbox, due to its unique mechanical structures, is an important rotating machine for transmission systems. Its engineering applications are often in non-stationary operational conditions, such as helicopters, wind energy systems, etc. The unique physical structures and working conditions make the vibrations measured from planetary gearboxes exhibit a complex time-varying modulation and therefore yield complicated spectral structures. As a result, traditional signal processing methods, such as Fourier analysis, and the selection of characteristic fault frequencies for diagnosis face serious challenges. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a signal selection scheme for fault-emphasized diagnostics based upon two order tracking techniques. The basic procedures for the proposed scheme are as follows. (1) Computed order tracking is applied to reveal the order contents and identify the order(s) of interest. (2) Vold-Kalman filter order tracking is used to extract the order(s) of interest—these filtered order(s) constitute the so-called selected vibrations. (3) Time domain statistic indicators are applied to the selected vibrations for faulty information-emphasized diagnostics. The proposed scheme is explained and demonstrated in a signal simulation model and experimental studies and the method proves to be effective for planetary gearbox fault diagnosis.

  5. Evaluation of Select Sensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Water Distribution Systems▿

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Syreeta L.; Sinclair, Ryan G.; Riley, Mark R; Pepper, Ian L

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated real-time sensing of Escherichia coli as a microbial contaminant in water distribution systems. Most sensors responded to increased E. coli concentrations, showing that select sensors can detect microbial water quality changes and be utilized as part of a contaminant warning system.

  6. A water quality monitoring network design methodology for the selection of critical sampling points: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, R O; Robillard, P D; Day, R L; Shannon, R D; McDonnell, A J

    2006-11-01

    In order to resolve the spatial component of the design of a water quality monitoring network, a methodology has been developed to identify the critical sampling locations within a watershed. This methodology, called Critical Sampling Points (CSP), focuses on the contaminant total phosphorus (TP), and is applicable to small, predominantly agricultural-forested watersheds. The CSP methodology was translated into a model, called Water Quality Monitoring Station Analysis (WQMSA). It incorporates a geographic information system (GIS) for spatial analysis and data manipulation purposes, a hydrologic/water quality simulation model for estimating TP loads, and an artificial intelligence technology for improved input data representation. The model input data include a number of hydrologic, topographic, soils, vegetative, and land use factors. The model also includes an economic and logistics component. The validity of the CSP methodology was tested on a small experimental Pennsylvanian watershed, for which TP data from a number of single storm events were available for various sampling points within the watershed. A comparison of the ratios of observed to predicted TP loads between sampling points revealed that the model's results were promising.

  7. Spalax™ new generation: A sensitive and selective noble gas system for nuclear explosion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Petit, G; Cagniant, A; Gross, P; Douysset, G; Topin, S; Fontaine, J P; Taffary, T; Moulin, C

    2015-09-01

    In the context of the verification regime of the Comprehensive nuclear Test ban Treaty (CTBT), CEA is developing a new generation (NG) of SPALAX™ system for atmospheric radioxenon monitoring. These systems are able to extract more than 6cm(3) of pure xenon from air samples each 12h and to measure the four relevant xenon radioactive isotopes using a high resolution detection system operating in electron-photon coincidence mode. This paper presents the performances of the SPALAX™ NG prototype in operation at Bruyères-le-Châtel CEA centre, integrating the most recent CEA developments. It especially focuses on an innovative detection system made up of a gas cell equipped with two face-to-face silicon detectors associated to one or two germanium detectors. Minimum Detectable activity Concentrations (MDCs) of environmental samples were calculated to be approximately 0.1 mBq/m(3) for the isotopes (131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and 0.4 mBq/m(3) for (135)Xe (single germanium configuration). The detection system might be used to simultaneously measure particulate and noble gas samples from the CTBT International Monitoring System (IMS). That possibility could lead to new capacities for particulate measurements by allowing electron-photon coincidence detection of certain fission products.

  8. Study of UV fiber's mechanical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng TU; Xinwei QIAN; Deming LIU; Shuqiang ZHANG; Jie LUO; Tao DENG; Chen YANG; Jiangtao GUO

    2009-01-01

    A number of spectroscopic techniques make use of ultra violet (UV) absorbance and luminescence measurements to characterize materials, for use in medical/pharmaceutical applications, for forensic and sensor applications, and for remote detection or monitoring,especially for hazardous environments.Furthermore, many high-power applications in medicine and industry are looking forward to using UV wavelengths.The UV fiber's mechanical reliability has become one of the most crucial performances with longer length fiber being used.This paper reviews the researched evolvement of the normal single mode fiber's mechanical reliability.Based on the standard measure method of the normal fiber, the mechanical reliability of the UV fiber has been researched.The measurement results show the difference of mechanical reliability between the different doping composition UV fibers.

  9. Photocatalytic oxidation of selected gas-phase VOCs using UV light, TiO2, and TiO2/Pd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Tânia M; Ponczek, Milena; Rochetto, Ursula L; Landers, Richard; Tomaz, Edson

    2017-03-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation systems using titanium dioxide (TiO2) have been extensively studied for the removal of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The addition of noble metals such as palladium on TiO2 may improve photocatalytic activity by increasing charge separation efficiency. In this work, palladium was impregnated on TiO2 and the efficiency of the new catalyst was tested and compared with that of pure TiO2. Pd was impregnated on TiO2 by the reduction method, using NaBH4, and was characterized by XRD, XPS, UV-Vis, and H2 chemisorption. The photocatalytic tests were performed in an annular coated-wall reactor using octane, isooctane, n-hexane, and cyclohexane at inlet concentrations varying from 100 to 120 ppmv. Compared with pure TiO2 film, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 impregnated with 1 wt% of palladium was improved. All the aforementioned analytical techniques confirmed the presence of Pd incorporated into the structure of TiO2, and the conversion rates were studied in a broad range of residence times, yielding up to 90 % or higher rates in 40 s of residence time, thus underscoring the relevant contribution of the technology.

  10. An OSIRIS study of the gas kinematics in a sample of UV-selected galaxies: Evidence of "Hot and Bothered" starbursts in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Basu-Zych, Antara R; Overzier, Roderik; Law, David R; Schiminovich, David; Heckman, Tim; Martin, Chris; Wyder, Ted; O'Dowd, Matt

    2009-01-01

    We present data from Integral Field Spectroscopy for 3 supercompact UV-Luminous Galaxies (ScUVLGs). As nearby (z~0.2), compact (R_50~1-2 kpc), bright Paschen-alpha sources, with unusually high star formation rates (SFR=3-100 M_sun/yr), ScUVLGs are an ideal population for studying detailed kinematics and dynamics in actively star-forming galaxies. In addition, ScUVLGs appear to be excellent analogs to high redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) and our results may offer additional insight into the dynamics of LBGs. Previous work by our team has shown that the morphologies of these galaxies exhibit tidal features and companions, and in this study we find that the dynamics of ScUVLGs are dominated by disturbed kinematics of the emission line gas-- suggestive that these galaxies have undergone recent feedback, interactions or mergers. While 2 of the 3 galaxies do display rotation, v/sigma < 1 -- suggesting dispersion dominated kinematics rather than smooth rotation. We also simulate how these observations would ...

  11. Two rhodamine lactam modulated lysosome-targetable fluorescence probes for sensitively and selectively monitoring subcellular organelle pH change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongmei [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Wang, Cuiling [Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); She, Mengyao; Zhu, Yuelu; Zhang, Jidong; Yang, Zheng [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Liu, Ping, E-mail: liuping@nwu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Wang, Yaoyu [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Li, Jianli, E-mail: lijianli@nwu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2015-11-05

    Be a powerful technique for convenient detection of pH change in living cells, especially at subcellular level, fluorescent probes has attracted more and more attention. In this work, we designed and synthesized three rhodamine lactam modulated fluorescent probes RS1, RS2 and RS3, which all respond sensitively toward weak acidity (pH range 4–6) via the photophysical property in buffer solution without interference from the other metal ions, and they also show ideal pKa values and excellent reversibility. Particularly, by changing the lone pair electrons distribution of lactam-N atom with different conjugations, RS2 and RS3 exhibit high quantum yield, negligible cytotoxicity and excellent permeability. They are suitable to stain selectively lysosomes of tumor cells and monitor its pH changes sensitively via optical molecular imaging. The above findings suggest that the probes we designed could act as ideal and easy method for investigating the pivotal role of H{sup +} in lysosomes and are potential pH detectors in disease diagnosis through direct intracellular imaging. - Highlights: • Two probes for sensitively and selectively monitoring weak acidic pH change. • The pKa of the probes was highly suitable for staining lysosomes in tumor cells. • The properties of those probes were changed by different conjugate system. • These probes have negligible cytotoxicity and good sensitivity in vivo.

  12. Design and Implementation of a Time Source Selecting and Monitoring System for the Telephone Speaking Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    TL) Local Office Data Base TCP/IP IRIG -B IRIG -B voice NTPIRIG-B 50 km Figure 1. Architecture of the “117...time signal sources have been designed for the TSMS. They are the external IRIG -B Time, the external NTP Time, and the internal System Time. Generally...the TSMS chooses the IRIG -B Time as its time signal source. If the above source is in a bad condition, the system will switch to select the NTP

  13. Long-period gratings for selective monitoring of loads on a wind turbine blade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavind, L; Buggy, S; Canning, J; Gao, S; Cook, K; Luo, Y; Peng, G D; Skipper, B F; Kristensen, M

    2014-06-20

    An optical fiber sensor based on long-period gratings (LPG) for selective measurements of flap- and edge-wise bending of a wind turbine blade is presented. Two consecutive LPGs separated by 40 mm interfere to improve resolution and reduce noise in a D-shaped fiber. The mode profile of the device was characterized experimentally to provide a model describing the mode couplings. The sensor was tested on a wind turbine blade.

  14. Highly selective and stable microdisc biosensors for l-glutamate monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, Sridhar; McNeil, Calum J.; Lowry, John P.; McMahon, Colm P.; O'Neill, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate mediates most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain, and its abnormal regulation is considered a key factor underlying the appearance and progression of many neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. In this work, a microdisc-based amperometric biosensor for glutamate detection with highly enhanced selectivity and good stability is proposed. The biosensor utilizes the enzyme glutamate oxidase which was dip-coated onto 125 um diameter platinum discs. To i...

  15. Índice UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Información general sobre el Índice UV que proporciona un pronóstico del riesgo esperado de sobreexposición a la radiación ultravioleta (UV) del sol. El índice UV va acompañado de recomendaciones para protegerse del sol.

  16. Monitoring UF/sub 6/ photodissociation via laser multiphoton ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuke, M.; Reisler, H.; Wittig, C.

    1981-08-01

    Laser multiphoton ionization (MPI) is used to detect nascent photoproducts following the UV photodissociation of UF/sub 6/. Sensitivity is high, and there is no measurable background due to the MPI of parent UF/sub 6/. The technique is very well suited for monitoring isotopically selective photodissociation on a ''single shot'' basis.

  17. Earth System Monitoring Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Modern Earth System Monitoring represents a fundamental change in the way scientists study the Earth System.  In Oceanography, for the past two centuries, ships have provided the platforms for observing.  Expeditions on the continents and Earth’s poles are land-based analogues. Fundamental understanding of current systems, climate, natural hazards, and ecosystems has been greatly advanced. While these approaches have been remarkably successful, the need to establish measurements over time can only be made using Earth observations and observatories with exacting standards and continuous data.  The 19 peer-reviewed contributions in this volume provide early insights into this emerging view of Earth in both space and time in which change is a critical component of our growing understanding. Presents 19 authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Covers a wide range of data collection platforms, including satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and l...

  18. A well-monitored, X-ray selected, tidal disruption event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komossa S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a candidate tidal disruption event detected in the XMM-Newton slew survey from the nucleus of SDSS J120136.02+300305.5 (z = 0.146; hereafter SDSS J1201+30. The source, monitored by Swift and XMM-Newton, was highly variable on timescales of a week, reaching a peak X-ray luminosity of 3 × 1044 ergs/s. The light curve is reminiscent of the variations seen in SWIFT J1644+57, although in this case the absence of radio flux rules out a jet mechanism for the emission. The X-ray spectrum is steep, (spectral index = 3–5 and softens with diminishing flux. It is inconsistent with a single or multi-temperature black-body model but may be fit with Bremsstrahlung or comptonised thermal emission.

  19. Automated UV-C mutagenesis of Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-1109 and selection for microaerophilic growth and ethanol production at elevated temperature on biomass sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; Bang, Sookie S; Cox, Elby J; Schoepke, Andrew; Ochwat, Kate; Pinkelman, Rebecca; Nelson, Danielle; Qureshi, Nasib; Gibbons, William R; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Liu, Siqing; Cote, Gregory L; Rich, Joseph O; Jones, Marjorie A; Cedeño, David; Doran-Peterson, Joy; Riaño-Herrera, Nestor M; Rodríguez-Valencia, Nelson; López-Núñez, Juan C

    2013-08-01

    The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus is a potential microbial catalyst for fuel ethanol production from a wide range of biomass substrates. To improve its growth and ethanol yield at elevated temperature under microaerophilic conditions, K. marxianus NRRL Y-1109 was irradiated with UV-C using automated protocols on a robotic platform for picking and spreading irradiated cultures and for processing the resulting plates. The plates were incubated under anaerobic conditions on xylose or glucose for 5 mo at 46 °C. Two K. marxianus mutant strains (designated 7-1 and 8-1) survived and were isolated from the glucose plates. Both mutant strains, but not wild type, grew aerobically on glucose at 47 °C. All strains grew anaerobically at 46 °C on glucose, galactose, galacturonic acid, and pectin; however, only 7-1 grew anaerobically on xylose at 46 °C. Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2403 did not grow at 46 °C on any of these substrates. With glucose as a carbon source, ethanol yield after 3 d at 46 °C was higher for 8-1 than for wild type (0.51 and 0.43 g ethanol/g glucose, respectively). With galacturonic acid as a carbon source, the ethanol yield after 7 d at 46 °C was higher for 7-1 than for wild type (0.48 and 0.34 g ethanol/g galacturonic acid, respectively). These mutant strains have potential application in fuel ethanol production at elevated temperature from sugar constituents of starch, sucrose, pectin, and cellulosic biomass.

  20. Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Scharf, Sigrid [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gans, Oliver [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: oliver.gans@umweltbundesamt.at

    2007-07-15

    LC-MS/MS was used for determination of selected tetracyclines, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones in manure samples of pig, chicken and turkey, as well as arable soils fertilized with manure. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 61 to 105%. Method quantification limits were set to 100 {mu}g/kg for all substances. Analysis of 30 pig manure, 20 chicken and turkey dung, and 30 lyophilized soil samples taken in Austria revealed that in pig manure up to 46 mg/kg chlortetracycline, 29 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 23 mg/kg tetracycline could be detected. As representatives of the group of sulfonamides, sulfadimidine in pig manure and sulfadiazine in chicken and turkey dung were detected in significant amounts (maximum concentration, 20 and 91 mg/kg, respectively). Enrofloxacin was particularly observed in chicken and turkey samples. Positive detection of chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in soil samples should be outlined as most important results of this study. - Specific exposure data of selected veterinarian antibiotics in manure and samples of agriculturally used soils are reported for the first time in Austria.

  1. Monitoring of Water Spectral Pattern Reveals Differences in Probiotics Growth When Used for Rapid Bacteria Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Slavchev

    Full Text Available Development of efficient screening method coupled with cell functionality evaluation is highly needed in contemporary microbiology. The presented novel concept and fast non-destructive method brings in to play the water spectral pattern of the solution as a molecular fingerprint of the cell culture system. To elucidate the concept, NIR spectroscopy with Aquaphotomics were applied to monitor the growth of sixteen Lactobacillus bulgaricus one Lactobacillus pentosus and one Lactobacillus gasseri bacteria strains. Their growth rate, maximal optical density, low pH and bile tolerances were measured and further used as a reference data for analysis of the simultaneously acquired spectral data. The acquired spectral data in the region of 1100-1850nm was subjected to various multivariate data analyses - PCA, OPLS-DA, PLSR. The results showed high accuracy of bacteria strains classification according to their probiotic strength. Most informative spectral fingerprints covered the first overtone of water, emphasizing the relation of water molecular system to cell functionality.

  2. Marine molluscs in environmental monitoring. II. Experimental exposure to selected pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Vladimir; Mokady, Ofer; Fishelson, Lev; Feldstein, Tamar; Abelson, Avigdor

    2003-10-01

    In an effort to establish biomonitoring programmes for routine and emergency monitoring of littoral marine habitats, organismal responses are examined in two ways: firstly, in controlled, laboratory studies, where the response may be accurately characterized; secondly, in field-collected specimens, with the hope of obtaining evidence regarding disturbances such as the ones caused by anthropogenic pollution. In many cases, there is a gap between the two types of studies, and different species and experimental and/or analytical procedures are used. In a series of recent studies, we have examined responses of field-collected molluscs, and interpreted our findings with respect to pollution. Here, we report a complementary study, in which molluscs collected from reference and polluted sites were exposed to cadmium or DDT under controlled laboratory conditions. Using fluorescent probes and microfluorometry, we examined the effect of these pollutants on paracellular permeability, lysosomal stability and metabolic status of mitochondria. Our findings indicate that molluscs from polluted sites are less affected, showing significantly smaller alterations in all examined parameters. These findings are in line with previous results showing higher levels of activity of cellular defence mechanisms in molluscs collected from polluted sites. Taken together, the results may be used to establish a reliable biomonitoring system. The sensitivity of the suggested methodology is also expected to qualify such a system for early warning.

  3. Structural Health Monitoring of Precast Concrete Box Girders Using Selected Vibration-Based Damage Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjie Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Precast, prestressed concrete box girders are commonly used as superstructure components for short and medium span bridges. Their configuration and typical side-by-side placement make large portions of these elements inaccessible for visual inspection or the application of nondestructive testing techniques. This paper demonstrates that vibration-based damage detection (VBDD is an effective alternative for monitoring their structural health. A box girder removed from a dismantled bridge was used to evaluate the ability of five different VBDD algorithms to detect and localize low levels of spalling damage, with a focus on using a small number of sensors and only the fundamental mode of vibration. All methods were capable of detecting and localizing damage to a region within approximately 1.6 times the longitudinal spacing between as few as six uniformly distributed accelerometers. Strain gauges configured to measure curvature were also effective, but tended to be susceptible to large errors in near support damage cases. Finite element analyses demonstrated that increasing the number of sensor locations leads to a proportional increase in localization accuracy, while the use of additional modes provides little advantage and can sometimes lead to a deterioration in the performance of the VBDD techniques.

  4. Fabrication of ciprofloxacin molecular imprinted polymer coating on a stainless steel wire as a selective solid-phase microextraction fiber for sensitive determination of fluoroquinolones in biological fluids and tablet formulation using HPLC-UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzajani, Roya; Kardani, Fatemeh

    2016-04-15

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) fiber on stainless steel wire using ciprofloxacin template with a mild template removal condition was synthetized and evaluated for fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) of fluoroquinolones (FQs) from biological fluids and pharmaceutical samples, followed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The developed MIP fiber exhibited high selectivity for the analytes in complex matrices. The coating of the fibers were inspected using fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, thermogaravimetric analysis, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fiber shows high thermal stability (up to 300°C), good reproducibility and long lifetime. The composite coating did not swell in organic solvents nor did it strip off from the substrate. It was also highly stable and extremely adherent to the surface of the stainless steel fiber. The fabricated fiber exclusively exhibited excellent extraction efficiency and selectivity for some FQs. The effective parameters influencing the microextraction efficiency such as pH, extraction time, desorption condition, and stirring rate were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection of the four FQs ranged from 0.023-0.033 μg L(-1) (S/N=5) and the calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range from 0.1-40 μg L(-1), the inter-day and intraday relative standard deviations (RSD) for various FQs at three different concentration level (n=5) using a single fiber were 1.1-4.4% and the fiber to fiber RSD% (n=5) was 4.3-6.7% at 5 μg L(-1) of each anlyetes. The method was successfully applied for quantification of FQs in real samples including serum, plasma and tablet formulation with the recoveries between 97 to 102%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Potentiometric monitoring of cobalt in beer sample by solid contact ion selective electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Eren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new solid contact cobalt selective electrode was constructed with 4-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arene as ionophore. The best performance was observed with the membrane having an ionophore/polyvinyl chloride/sodium tetraphenylborate/nitrophenyl octyl ether ratio of 3.5:33:1.5:62 (w/w; mg. The electrode, under steady-state conditions, exhibited a working concentration range of 1 × 10−1 – 1 × 10−6 mol/L with a near-Nernstian slope of 25.3 mV/decade and a detection limit of 3.5 × 10−7 mol/L. The electrode had a very short response time (<10 seconds and good reproducibility at a working pH range of 4.0–6.5. The electrode was used for 4 months without any significant change in its sensitivity. The potentiometric performance of the electrode in partially nonaqueous medium [up to 20 % (v/v alcohol] was found satisfactory. The performance of the prepared electrode for the analysis of beer samples using direct potentiometric method is very encouraging.

  6. Metabolic Discrimination of Select List Agents by Monitoring Cellular Responses in a Multianalyte Microphysiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wikswo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing the potential of cells as complex biosensors promises the potential to create sensitive and selective detectors for discrimination of biodefense agents. Here we present toxin detection and suggest discrimination using cells in a multianalyte microphysiometer (MMP that is capable of simultaneously measuring flux changes in four extracellular analytes (acidification rate, glucose uptake, oxygen uptake, and lactate production in real-time. Differential short-term cellular responses were observed between botulinum neurotoxin A and ricin toxin with neuroblastoma cells, alamethicin and anthrax protective antigen with RAW macrophages, and cholera toxin, muscarine, 2,4-dinitro-phenol, and NaF with CHO cells. These results and the post exposure dynamics and metabolic recovery observed in each case suggest the usefulness of cell-based detectors to discriminate between specific analytes and classes of compounds in a complex matrix, and furthermore to make metabolic inferences on the cellular effects of the agents. This may be particularly valuable for classifying unknown toxins.

  7. A Sensor-based System for Monitoring Hard-shoulder Incursions: Review of Technologies and Selection Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalaki Paraskevi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to safety observations from motorway operators in the United Kingdom, the hard-shoulder is occasionally violated by road users travelling in the nearside lane. These unintentional movements (hard-shoulder incursions can impose risk to operatives performing activities on the network. To further investigate these events, a sensor-based system can be used for monitoring them and collecting related data such as severity of incursion and vehicle classification. A review of vehicle detection technologies that could be applied for this purpose is presented, along with the criteria for selection of the most suitable technology and implementation sites. Two potential non-intrusive systems are also described, a laser- and a radar-based systems, which provide different levels of flexibility and data.

  8. Size-selective QD@MOF core-shell nanocomposites for the highly sensitive monitoring of oxidase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Li, Nan; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Zhiqi; Dang, Fuquan

    2017-01-15

    In this work, we proposed a novel and facile method to monitor oxidase activities based on size-selective fluorescent quantum dot (QD)@metal-organic framework (MOF) core-shell nanocomposites (CSNCPs). The CSNCPs were synthesized from ZIF-8 and CdTe QDs in aqueous solution in 40min at room temperature with stirring. The prepared CdTe@ZIF-8 CSNCPs , which have excellent water dispersibility and stability, displays distinct fluorescence responses to hole scavengers of different molecular sizes (e.g., H2O2, substrate, and oxidase) due to the aperture limitation of the ZIF-8 shell. H2O2 can efficiently quench the fluorescence of CdTe@ZIF-8 CSNCPs over a linearity range of 1-100nM with a detection limit of 0.29nM, whereas large molecules such as substrate and oxidase have very little effect on its fluorescence. Therefore, the highly sensitive detection of oxidase activities was achieved by monitoring the fluorescence quenching of CdTe@ZIF-8 CSNCPs by H2O2 produced in the presence of substrate and oxidase, which is proportional to the oxidase activities. The linearity ranges of the uricase and glucose oxidase activity are 0.1-50U/L and 1-100U/L, respectively, and their detection limits are 0.024U/L and 0.26U/L, respectively. Therefore, the current QD@MOF CSNCPs based sensing system is a promising, widely applicable means of monitoring oxidase activities in biochemical research.

  9. Rest-frame UV--Optically Selected Galaxies at 2.3

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Yicheng; Cassata, Paolo; Ferguson, Henry C; Williams, Christina C; Dickinson, Mark; Koekemoer, Anton M; Grogin, Norman A; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Messias, Hugo; Tundo, Elena; Lin, Lihwai; Lee, Seong-Kook; Salimbeni, Sara; Fontana, Adriano; Grazian, Andrea; Kocevski, Dale; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Villanueva, Edward; van der Wel, Arjen

    2011-01-01

    A new set of color selection criteria (VJL) analogous with the BzK method is designed to select both star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and passively-evolving galaxies (PEGs) at 2.310^{10}M_{Sun}) galaxies at 2.30.4) SFGs, which however, only account for ~20% of the number density of massive SFGs. We also use the mid-infrared fluxes to clean our PEG sample, and find that galaxy size can be used as a secondary criterion to effectively eliminate the contamination of dusty SFGs. The redshift distribution of the cleaned PEG sample peaks at z~2.5. We find 6 PEG candidates at z>3 and discuss possible methods to distinguish them from dusty contamination. We conclude that at least part of our candidates are real PEGs at z~3, implying that this type of galaxies began to form their stars at z>5. We measure the integrated stellar mass density of PEGs at z~2.5 and set constraints on it at z>3. We find that the integrated stellar mass density grows by at least about factor of 10 in 1 Gyr at 3

  10. Mass Spectrometric-Based Selected Reaction Monitoring of Protein Phosphorylation during Symbiotic Signaling in the Model Legume, Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori K Van Ness

    Full Text Available Unlike the major cereal crops corn, rice, and wheat, leguminous plants such as soybean and alfalfa can meet their nitrogen requirement via endosymbiotic associations with soil bacteria. The establishment of this symbiosis is a complex process playing out over several weeks and is facilitated by the exchange of chemical signals between these partners from different kingdoms. Several plant components that are involved in this signaling pathway have been identified, but there is still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the early events in symbiotic signaling, i.e., within the first minutes and hours after the rhizobial signals (Nod factors are perceived at the plant plasma membrane. The presence of several protein kinases in this pathway suggests a mechanism of signal transduction via posttranslational modification of proteins in which phosphate is added to the hydroxyl groups of serine, threonine and tyrosine amino acid side chains. To monitor the phosphorylation dynamics and complement our previous untargeted 'discovery' approach, we report here the results of experiments using a targeted mass spectrometric technique, Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM that enables the quantification of phosphorylation targets with great sensitivity and precision. Using this approach, we confirm a rapid change in the level of phosphorylation in 4 phosphosites of at least 4 plant phosphoproteins that have not been previously characterized. This detailed analysis reveals aspects of the symbiotic signaling mechanism in legumes that, in the long term, will inform efforts to engineer this nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in important non-legume crops such as rice, wheat and corn.

  11. Mass Spectrometric-Based Selected Reaction Monitoring of Protein Phosphorylation during Symbiotic Signaling in the Model Legume, Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ness, Lori K; Jayaraman, Dhileepkumar; Maeda, Junko; Barrett-Wilt, Gregory A; Sussman, Michael R; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the major cereal crops corn, rice, and wheat, leguminous plants such as soybean and alfalfa can meet their nitrogen requirement via endosymbiotic associations with soil bacteria. The establishment of this symbiosis is a complex process playing out over several weeks and is facilitated by the exchange of chemical signals between these partners from different kingdoms. Several plant components that are involved in this signaling pathway have been identified, but there is still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the early events in symbiotic signaling, i.e., within the first minutes and hours after the rhizobial signals (Nod factors) are perceived at the plant plasma membrane. The presence of several protein kinases in this pathway suggests a mechanism of signal transduction via posttranslational modification of proteins in which phosphate is added to the hydroxyl groups of serine, threonine and tyrosine amino acid side chains. To monitor the phosphorylation dynamics and complement our previous untargeted 'discovery' approach, we report here the results of experiments using a targeted mass spectrometric technique, Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) that enables the quantification of phosphorylation targets with great sensitivity and precision. Using this approach, we confirm a rapid change in the level of phosphorylation in 4 phosphosites of at least 4 plant phosphoproteins that have not been previously characterized. This detailed analysis reveals aspects of the symbiotic signaling mechanism in legumes that, in the long term, will inform efforts to engineer this nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in important non-legume crops such as rice, wheat and corn.

  12. Enhanced nitrogen selectivity for nitrate reduction on Cu–nZVI by TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts under UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasae, Nalinee, E-mail: k_nalinee@kkumail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Chemical Kinetics and Applied Catalysis Laboratory (CKCL), Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Wantala, Kitirote, E-mail: kitirote@kku.ac.th [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Chemical Kinetics and Applied Catalysis Laboratory (CKCL), Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Research Center for Environmental and Hazardous Substance Management (EHSM), Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2016-09-01

    Highlights: • Photocatalytic process has been enhancing the nitrate removal over Cu–nZVI/TiO{sub 2}. • Highly nitrogen selectivity more than 80% over Cu–nZVI/TiO{sub 2}. • Nitrate removal can be reacted in neutral pH of solutions. - Abstract: The aims of this work were to study the effect of Cu–nZVI with and without TiO{sub 2} on nitrate reduction and to study the pathway of nitrate reduction utilizing to nitrogen gas. The chemical and physical properties of Cu–nZVI and Cu–nZVI/TiO{sub 2} such as specific surface area, crystalline phase, oxidation state of Cu and Fe and morphology were determined by N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analytical technique, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) technique and Transmittance Electron Microscopy (TEM). The full factorial design (FFD) was used in this experiment for the effect of Cu–nZVI with and without TiO{sub 2}, where the initial solution pH was varied at 4, 5.5, and 7 and initial nitrate concentration was varied at 50, 75, and 100 ppm. Finally, the pathway of nitrate reduction was examined to calculate the nitrogen gas selectivity. The specific area of Cu–nZVI and Cu–nZVI/TiO{sub 2} was found to be about 4 and 36 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. The XRD pattern of Fe{sup 0} in Cu–nZVI was found at 45° (2θ), whereas Cu–nZVI/TiO{sub 2} cannot be observed. TEM images can confirm the position of the core and the shell of nZVI for Fe{sup 0} and ferric oxide. Cu–nZVI/TiO{sub 2} proved to have higher activity in nitrogen reduction performance than that without TiO{sub 2} and nitrate can be completely degraded in both of solution pH of 4 and 7 in 75 ppm of initial nitrate concentration. It can be highlighted that the nitrogen gas selectivity of Cu–nZVI/TiO{sub 2} greater than 82% was found at an initial solution pH of 4 and 7. The main effects of Cu–nZVI with and without TiO{sub 2} and the initial nitrate concentration on nitrate

  13. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  14. Model Selection Coupled with a Particle Tracking Proxy Using Surface Deformation Data for Monitoring CO2 Plume Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B.; Nwachukwu, A.; Srinivasan, S.; Wheeler, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    This study formulates a framework of a model selection that refines geological models for monitoring CO2 plume migration. Special emphasis is placed on CO2 injection, and the particular techniques that are used for this study including model selection, particle tracking proxies, and partial coupling of flow and geomechanics. The proposed process starts with generating a large initial ensemble of reservoir models that reflect a prior uncertainty in reservoir description, including all plausible geologic scenarios. These models are presumed to be conditioned to available static data. In the absence of production or injection data, all prior reservoir models are regarded as equiprobable. Thus, the model selection algorithm is applied to select a few representative reservoir models that are more consistent with observed dynamic responses. A quick assessment of the models must then be performed to evaluate their dynamic characteristics and flow connectivity. This approach develops a particle tracking proxy and a finite element method solver for solving the flow equation and the stress problem, respectively. The shape of CO2 plume is estimated using a particle-tracking proxy that serves as a fast approximation of finite-difference simulation models. Sequentially, a finite element method solver is coupled with the proxy for analyzing geomechanical effects resulting from CO2 injection. A method is then implemented to group the models into clusters based on similarities in the estimated responses. The posterior model set is chosen as the cluster that produces the minimum deviation from the observed field data. The efficacy of non-dominated sorting based on Pareto-optimality is also tested in the current model selection framework. The proposed scheme is demonstrated on a carbon sequestration project in Algeria. Coupling surface deformation data with well injection data enhances the efficiency of tracking the CO2 plume. Therefore, this algorithm provides a probabilistic

  15. DNA repair. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals. (HLW)

  16. Gas Chromatographic-Selected Ion Monitoring-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Components with Sensory Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman WM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method has been developed that detects significant quantitative differences in the amounts of pyrazines, pyridines, furfurals, carboxylic acids, b-damascenone, sclareolide, and megastigmatrienones in the mainstream smoke of a series of five commercial cigarettes. This new quantitative method is based on the gas chromatographic-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometric (GC-SIM-MS determination of the selected smoke constituents. The accuracy and precision of the approach were well within acceptable parameters with the majority of cases relative standard deviation (RSD values consistently around 5%. Sample preparation was simple requiring only the dissolution of the trapped particulate material in a known volume of methanol followed by injection of this clear dark colored solution into the gas chromatograph. This approach represents an advance in the technology in terms of higher sample throughput and less sample workup. Certain products demonstrated consistent trends in concentration of specific chemical classes. The mainstream smoke from a University of Kentucky reference cigarette, 2R4F, was included for reference purposes. These results are applicable in the overall evaluation of the components responsible for the taste associated with cigarette products.

  17. Rapid determination of parabens in personal care products by stable isotope GC-MS/MS with dynamic selected reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Perry G; Zhou, Wanlong

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a rapid and sensitive analytical method for the determination of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butyl esters of para-hydroxy benzoic acid (parabens) in personal care products was developed and fully validated. Test portions were extracted with methanol followed by vortexing, sonication, centrifugation, and filtration without derivatization. The four parabens were quantified by GC-MS/MS in the electron ionization mode. Four corresponding isotopically labeled parabens were selected as internal standards, which were added at the beginning of the sample preparation and used to correct for recovery and matrix effects. Sensitivity, extraction efficiency, and recovery of the respective analytes were evaluated. The coefficients of determination (r(2)) were all greater than 0.995 for the four parabens investigated. The recoveries ranged from 97 to 107% at three spiked levels and a one-time (single) extraction efficiency greater than 97% was obtained. This method has been applied to screen 26 personal care products. This is the first time that a unique GC-MS/MS method with dynamic selected reaction monitoring and confirmation of analytes has been used to determine these parabens in cosmetic personal care products.

  18. Predictive modeling, simulation, and optimization of laser processing techniques: UV nanosecond-pulsed laser micromachining of polymers and selective laser melting of powder metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales Escobar, Luis Ernesto

    One of the most frequently evolving areas of research is the utilization of lasers for micro-manufacturing and additive manufacturing purposes. The use of laser beam as a tool for manufacturing arises from the need for flexible and rapid manufacturing at a low-to-mid cost. Laser micro-machining provides an advantage over mechanical micro-machining due to the faster production times of large batch sizes and the high costs associated with specific tools. Laser based additive manufacturing enables processing of powder metals for direct and rapid fabrication of products. Therefore, laser processing can be viewed as a fast, flexible, and cost-effective approach compared to traditional manufacturing processes. Two types of laser processing techniques are studied: laser ablation of polymers for micro-channel fabrication and selective laser melting of metal powders. Initially, a feasibility study for laser-based micro-channel fabrication of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) via experimentation is presented. In particular, the effectiveness of utilizing a nanosecond-pulsed laser as the energy source for laser ablation is studied. The results are analyzed statistically and a relationship between process parameters and micro-channel dimensions is established. Additionally, a process model is introduced for predicting channel depth. Model outputs are compared and analyzed to experimental results. The second part of this research focuses on a physics-based FEM approach for predicting the temperature profile and melt pool geometry in selective laser melting (SLM) of metal powders. Temperature profiles are calculated for a moving laser heat source to understand the temperature rise due to heating during SLM. Based on the predicted temperature distributions, melt pool geometry, i.e. the locations at which melting of the powder material occurs, is determined. Simulation results are compared against data obtained from experimental Inconel 625 test coupons fabricated at the National

  19. UV fluorescence lidar detection of bioaerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christesen, Steven D.; Merrow, Clifton N.; Desha, Michael S.; Wong, Anna; Wilson, Mark W.; Butler, John C.

    1994-06-01

    A UV fluorescence lidar system for the remote detection of bioaerosols has been built and tested. At the heart of the UV- LIDAR Fluorosensor system are a 200 mJ quadrupled Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm and a 16-inch Cassagrain telescope. Operating on three data collection channels, the UV lidar is capable of real time monitoring of 266 nm elastic backscatter, the total fluorescence between 300 and 400 nm, and the dispersed fluorescence spectrum (using a small spectrograph and gated intensified CCD array). Our goal in this effort was to assess the capabilities of biofluorescence for quantitative detection and discrimination of bioaerosols. To this end, the UV-LIDAR Fluorosensor system was tested against the aerosolized bacterial spore Bacillus subtilus var. niger sp. globiggi (BG) and several likely interferences at several ranges from approximately 600 to 3000 m. Our tests with BG indicate a detection limit of approximately 500 mg/cubic meter at a range of 3000 m.

  20. From ozone depletion to biological UV damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, E.; Thomalla, E.; Koepke, P. [Munich Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

    1995-12-31

    Based on the ozone data from the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg (MOHP: 47.8 deg N, 11.01 deg E) and corresponding mean atmospheric conditions, high resolution UV spectra are calculated with a complex radiation transfer model STAR. Biologically weighted UV spectra are investigated as integrated irradiances (dose rates) for maximum zenith angles and as daily integrals for selected days of the year. Ozone variation and uncertainty of action spectra are investigated

  1. The genetic architecture of UV floral patterning in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Brook T; Owens, Gregory L; Baute, Gregory J; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2017-07-01

    The patterning of floral ultraviolet (UV) pigmentation varies both intra- and interspecifically in sunflowers and many other plant species, impacts pollinator attraction, and can be critical to reproductive success and crop yields. However, the genetic basis for variation in UV patterning is largely unknown. This study examines the genetic architecture for proportional and absolute size of the UV bullseye in Helianthus argophyllus , a close relative of the domesticated sunflower. A camera modified to capture UV light (320-380 nm) was used to phenotype floral UV patterning in an F 2 mapping population, then quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified using genotyping-by-sequencing and linkage mapping. The ability of these QTL to predict the UV patterning of natural population individuals was also assessed. Proportional UV pigmentation is additively controlled by six moderate effect QTL that are predictive of this phenotype in natural populations. In contrast, UV bullseye size is controlled by a single large effect QTL that also controls flowerhead size and co-localizes with a major flowering time QTL in Helianthus . The co-localization of the UV bullseye size QTL, flowerhead size QTL and a previously known flowering time QTL may indicate a single highly pleiotropic locus or several closely linked loci, which could inhibit UV bullseye size from responding to selection without change in correlated characters. The genetic architecture of proportional UV pigmentation is relatively simple and different from that of UV bullseye size, and so should be able to respond to natural or artificial selection independently.

  2. Modelling UV sky for future UV missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Safanova, M.; Mohan, R.; Murthy, Jayant

    Software simulators are now widely used in all areas of science, especially in application to astronomical missions: from instrument design to mission planning, and to data interpretation. We present a simulator to model the diffuse ultraviolet sky, where the different contributors are separately calculated and added together to produce a sky image of the size specified by the instrument requirements. Each of the contributors to the background, instrumental dark current, airglow, zodiacal light and diffuse galactic light, is dependent on various factors. Airglow is dependent on the time of day, zodiacal light on the time of year, angle from the Sun and from the ecliptic, and diffuse UV emission depends on the look direction. To provide a full description of any line of sight, we have also added stars. The diffuse UV background light can dominate in many areas of the sky and severely impact space telescopes viewing directions due to over brightness. The simulator, available as a downloadable package and as a simple web-based tool, can be applied to separate missions and instruments. For demonstration, we present the example used for two UV missions: the UVIT instrument on the Indian ASTROSAT mission to be launched in the next year and a prospective wide-field mission to search for transients in the UV.

  3. UV-induced effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebsch, M.; Spielmann, H.; Pape, W.; Krul, C.; Deguercy, A.; Eskes, C.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory requirements: According to the current Notes for Guidance of the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP), cosmetic ingredients and mixtures of ingredients absorbing UV light (in particular UV filter chemicals used, for example, to ensure the light stabilit

  4. UV-induced effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebsch, M.; Spielmann, H.; Pape, W.; Krul, C.; Deguercy, A.; Eskes, C.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory requirements: According to the current Notes for Guidance of the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP), cosmetic ingredients and mixtures of ingredients absorbing UV light (in particular UV filter chemicals used, for example, to ensure the light

  5. Evaluation of chemical data from selected sites in the Surface-Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Collins, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    A cooperative study between the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted to assess the integrity of selected water-quality data collected at 150 sites in the FDEP Surface-Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) in Florida. The assessment included determining the consistency of the water-quality data collected statewide, including commonality of monitoring procedures and analytes, screening of the gross validity of a chemical analysis, and quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) procedures. Four tests were used to screen data at selected SWAMP sites to estimate the gross validity of selected chemical data: (1) the ratio of dissolved solids (in milligrams per liter) to specific conductance (in microsiemens per centimeter); (2) the ratio of total cations (in milliequivalents per liter) multiplied by 100 to specific conductance (in microsiemens per centimeter); (3) the ratio of total anions (in milliequivalents per liter) multiplied by 100 to specific conductance (in microsiemens per centimeter); and (4) the ionic charge-balance error. Although the results of the four screening tests indicate that the chemical data generally are quite reliable, the extremely small number of samples (less than 5 percent of the total number of samples) with sufficient chemical information to run the tests may not provide a representative indication of the analytical accuracy of all laboratories in the program. In addition to the four screening tests, unusually low or high values were flagged for field and laboratory pH (less than 4.0 and greater than 9.0) and specific conductance (less than 10 and greater than 10,000 microsiemens per centimeter). The numbers of flagged data were less than 1 percent of the 19,937 water samples with pH values and less than 0.6 percent of the 16,553 water samples with specific conductance values. Thirty-four agencies responded to a detailed questionnaire that was sent to more than 60 agencies

  6. Effect of coupled UV-A and UV-C LEDs on both microbiological and chemical pollution of urban wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevremont, A.-C., E-mail: anne-celine.chevremont@imbe.fr [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Laboratoire Chimie de l' Environnement (FRE3416), Equipe ' Developpements Metrologiques et Chimie des Milieux' , 3 place Victor Hugo, case 29, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Institut Mediterraneen de Biodiversite et d' Ecologie marine et continentale (UMR7263), Equipe ' Vulnerabilite des Systemes Microbiens' , Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Boite 452, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Farnet, A.-M. [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Institut Mediterraneen de Biodiversite et d' Ecologie marine et continentale (UMR7263), Equipe ' Vulnerabilite des Systemes Microbiens' , Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, Boite 452, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Coulomb, B.; Boudenne, J.-L. [Aix-Marseille Universite - CNRS, FR ECCOREV, Laboratoire Chimie de l' Environnement (FRE3416), Equipe ' Developpements Metrologiques et Chimie des Milieux' , 3 place Victor Hugo, case 29, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2012-06-01

    Wastewater reuse for irrigation is an interesting alternative for many Mediterranean countries suffering from water shortages. The development of new technologies for water recycling is a priority for these countries. In this study we test the efficiency of UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet-Light-Emitting Diodes) emitting UV-A or UV-C radiations, used alone or coupled, on bacterial and chemical indicators. We monitored the survival of fecal bioindicators found in urban wastewaters and the oxidation of creatinine and phenol which represent either conventional organic matter or the aromatic part of pollution respectively. It appears that coupling UV-A/UV-C i) achieves microbial reduction in wastewater more efficiently than when a UV-LED is used alone, and ii) oxidizes up to 37% of creatinine and phenol, a result comparable to that commonly obtained with photoreactants such as TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We test UV-LEDs as an urban wastewater tertiary treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-A and UV-C are coupled, combining germicidal and oxidative properties of UV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupled wavelengths have the most efficient bactericidal effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupling UV-A and UV-C leads to photooxidation of creatinine and phenol.

  7. Selective detection of carbon dioxide using LaOCl-functionalized SnO₂ nanowires for air-quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Do Dang; Toan, Le Duc; Hong, Hoang Si; Lam, Tran Dai; Trung, Tran; Van Hieu, Nguyen

    2012-01-15

    In spite of the technical important of monitoring CO(2) gas by using a semiconductor-type gas sensor, a good sensitive and selective semiconductor CO(2) sensor has been not realized due to the rather unreactive toward CO(2) of conventional semiconductor metal oxides. In this work, a novel semiconductor CO(2) sensor was developed by functionalizing SnO(2) nanowires (NWs) with LaOCl, which was obtained by heat-treating the SnO(2) NWs coating with LaCl(3) aqueous solution at a temperature range of 500-700°C. The bare SnO(2) NWs and LaOCl-SnO(2) NWs sensors were characterized with CO(2) (250-4,000 ppm) and interference gases (100 ppm CO, 100 ppm H(2), 250 ppm LPG, 10 ppm NO(2) and 20 ppm NH(3)) at different operating temperatures for comparison. The SnO(2) NWs sensors functionalized with different concentrations of LaCl(3) solution were also examined to find optimized values. Comparative gas sensing results reveal that LaOCl-SnO(2) NWs sensors exhibit much higher response, shorter response-recovery and better selectivity in detecting CO(2) gas at 400°C operating temperature than the bare SnO(2) NWs sensors. This finding indicates that the functionalizing with LaOCl greatly improves the CO(2) response of SnO(2) NWs-based sensor, which is attributed to (i) p-n junction formation of LaOCl (p-type) and SnO(2) nanowires (n-type) that led to the extension of electron depletion and (ii) the favorable catalytic effect of LaOCl to CO(2) gas.

  8. Quantitative analysis of energy metabolic pathways in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by selected reaction monitoring assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabovich, Andrei P; Pavlou, Maria P; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the quantitative response of energy metabolic pathways in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells to hypoxia, glucose deprivation, and estradiol stimulation, we developed a targeted proteomics assay for accurate quantification of protein expression in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, and pentose phosphate pathways. Cell growth conditions were selected to roughly mimic the exposure of cells in the cancer tissue to the intermittent hypoxia, glucose deprivation, and hormonal stimulation. Targeted proteomics assay allowed for reproducible quantification of 76 proteins in four different growth conditions after 24 and 48 h of perturbation. Differential expression of a number of control and metabolic pathway proteins in response to the change of growth conditions was found. Elevated expression of the majority of glycolytic enzymes was observed in hypoxia. Cancer cells, as opposed to near-normal MCF-10A cells, exhibited significantly increased expression of key energy metabolic pathway enzymes (FBP1, IDH2, and G6PD) that are known to redirect cellular metabolism and increase carbon flux through the pentose phosphate pathway. Our quantitative proteomic protocol is based on a mass spectrometry-compatible acid-labile detergent and is described in detail. Optimized parameters of a multiplex selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assay for 76 proteins, 134 proteotypic peptides, and 401 transitions are included and can be downloaded and used with any SRM-compatible mass spectrometer. The presented workflow is an integrated tool for hypothesis-driven studies of mammalian cells as well as functional studies of proteins, and can greatly complement experimental methods in systems biology, metabolic engineering, and metabolic transformation of cancer cells.

  9. Ambient solar UV radiation and seasonal trends in potential sunburn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To estimate national potential child sunburn risk patterns, monitored ambient solar UV radiation levels at six sites ... Schoolgoing children with skin types I, II and III were identified as being at greatest risk of sunburn. .... unexposed skin colour,.

  10. US EPA's UV Disinfection Technologies Demonstration Study - States Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA report and anticipated Journal articles will provide recommendations & guidance based on lessons learned for subsequent UV technology testing and monitoring/control applications of virus inactivation in drinking water.

  11. Simultaneous determination of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) in foods by selected reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimartino, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) were determined simultaneously by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry for different food matrixes. A small amount of starting sample was saponified and extracted before injection into a linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. Dihydrotachysterol, which is absent from food and has a structure similar to that of vitamins D3 and D2, was used as an internal standard. Calibration curves for the 2 vitamins showed linearity with R2 values of 0.9999 and 0.9989 for vitamins D3 and D2, respectively. Limits of detection for vitamins D3 and D2 were 0.5 ng/g (1.3 pmol/g) and 1.75 ng/g (4.4 pmol/g) and limits of quantitation were 1.25 ng/g (3.24 pmol/g), and 3.75 ng/g (9.45 pmol/g), respectively. Accuracy and precision of the method were tested with the infant formula reference standard of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, which showed a relative standard deviation of 6%. Recoveries ranged from 95 to 105%. Several food products were tested with AOAC Method 982.29, which is currently in use for vitamins D3 and D2, and results were comparable within 6%.

  12. Slice-selective gradient-encoded CEST spectroscopy for monitoring dynamic parameters and high-throughput sample characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döpfert, Jörg; Witte, Christopher; Schröder, Leif

    2013-12-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) NMR is an increasingly used technique for generating molecule or microenvironment specific signal contrast. To characterize CEST agents and to extract parameters such as temperature and pH, it is often required to resolve the spectral dimension. This is achieved by recording so called CEST- or z-spectra, where the spectral CEST information is conventionally acquired point by point, leading to long acquisition times. Here, we employ gradient-encoding to substantially accelerate the acquisition process of z-spectra in phantom experiments, reducing it to only two scans. This speedup allows us to monitor dynamic processes such as rapid temperature changes in a PARACEST sample that would be inaccessible with the conventional encoding. Furthermore, we combine the gradient-encoding approach with multi-slice selection, thus reserving one spatial dimension for the simultaneous investigation of heterogeneous PARACEST sample packages within one experiment. Hence, gradient-encoded CEST might be of great use for high-throughput screening of CEST contrast agents.

  13. Fluorinated Carbohydrates as Lectin Ligands: 19F-Based Direct STD Monitoring for Detection of Anomeric Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, João P.; Diercks, Tammo; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Cañada, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of the binding of reducing carbohydrates present as mixtures of anomers in solution to a sugar recepor (lectin) poses severe difficulties. In this situation, NMR spectroscopy enables the observation of signals for each anomer in the mixture by applying approaches based on ligand observation. Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR allows fast and efficient screening of compound mixtures for reactivity to a receptor. Owing to the exceptionally favorable properties of 19F in NMR spectroscopy and the often complex 1H spectra of carbohydrates, 19F-containing sugars have the potential to be turned into versatile sensors for recognition. Extending the recently established 1H → 1H STDre19F-NMR technique, we here demonstrate its applicability to measure anomeric selectivity of binding in a model system using the plant lectin concanavalin A (ConA) and 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-mannose. Indeed, it is also possible to account for the mutual inhibition between the anomers on binding to the lectin by means of a kinetic model. The monitoring of 19F-NMR signal perturbation disclosed the relative activities of the anomers in solution and thus enabled the calculation of their binding affinity towards ConA. The obtained data show a preference for the α anomer that increases with temperature. This experimental approach can be extended to others systems of biomedical interest by testing human lectins with suitably tailored glycan derivatives. PMID:26580665

  14. Evaluation and Selection of Indicators for Land Degradation and Desertification Monitoring: Types of Degradation, Causes, and Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairis, Or.; Kosmas, C.; Karavitis, Ch.; Ritsema, C.; Salvati, L.; Acikalin, S.; Alcalá, M.; Alfama, P.; Atlhopheng, J.; Barrera, J.; Belgacem, A.; Solé-Benet, A.; Brito, J.; Chaker, M.; Chanda, R.; Coelho, C.; Darkoh, M.; Diamantis, I.; Ermolaeva, O.; Fassouli, V.; Fei, W.; Feng, J.; Fernandez, F.; Ferreira, A.; Gokceoglu, C.; Gonzalez, D.; Gungor, H.; Hessel, R.; Juying, J.; Khatteli, H.; Khitrov, N.; Kounalaki, A.; Laouina, A.; Lollino, P.; Lopes, M.; Magole, L.; Medina, L.; Mendoza, M.; Morais, P.; Mulale, K.; Ocakoglu, F.; Ouessar, M.; Ovalle, C.; Perez, C.; Perkins, J.; Pliakas, F.; Polemio, M.; Pozo, A.; Prat, C.; Qinke, Y.; Ramos, A.; Ramos, J.; Riquelme, J.; Romanenkov, V.; Rui, L.; Santaloia, F.; Sebego, R.; Sghaier, M.; Silva, N.; Sizemskaya, M.; Soares, J.; Sonmez, H.; Taamallah, H.; Tezcan, L.; Torri, D.; Ungaro, F.; Valente, S.; de Vente, J.; Zagal, E.; Zeiliguer, A.; Zhonging, W.; Ziogas, A.

    2014-11-01

    Indicator-based approaches are often used to monitor land degradation and desertification from the global to the very local scale. However, there is still little agreement on which indicators may best reflect both status and trends of these phenomena. In this study, various processes of land degradation and desertification have been analyzed in 17 study sites around the world using a wide set of biophysical and socioeconomic indicators. The database described earlier in this issue by Kosmas and others (Environ Manage, 2013) for defining desertification risk was further analyzed to define the most important indicators related to the following degradation processes: water erosion in various land uses, tillage erosion, soil salinization, water stress, forest fires, and overgrazing. A correlation analysis was applied to the selected indicators in order to identify the most important variables contributing to each land degradation process. The analysis indicates that the most important indicators are: (i) rain seasonality affecting water erosion, water stress, and forest fires, (ii) slope gradient affecting water erosion, tillage erosion and water stress, and (iii) water scarcity soil salinization, water stress, and forest fires. Implementation of existing regulations or policies concerned with resources development and environmental sustainability was identified as the most important indicator of land protection.

  15. Evaluation and selection of indicators for land degradation and desertification monitoring: types of degradation, causes, and implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairis, Or; Kosmas, C; Karavitis, Ch; Ritsema, C; Salvati, L; Acikalin, S; Alcalá, M; Alfama, P; Atlhopheng, J; Barrera, J; Belgacem, A; Solé-Benet, A; Brito, J; Chaker, M; Chanda, R; Coelho, C; Darkoh, M; Diamantis, I; Ermolaeva, O; Fassouli, V; Fei, W; Feng, J; Fernandez, F; Ferreira, A; Gokceoglu, C; Gonzalez, D; Gungor, H; Hessel, R; Juying, J; Khatteli, H; Khitrov, N; Kounalaki, A; Laouina, A; Lollino, P; Lopes, M; Magole, L; Medina, L; Mendoza, M; Morais, P; Mulale, K; Ocakoglu, F; Ouessar, M; Ovalle, C; Perez, C; Perkins, J; Pliakas, F; Polemio, M; Pozo, A; Prat, C; Qinke, Y; Ramos, A; Ramos, J; Riquelme, J; Romanenkov, V; Rui, L; Santaloia, F; Sebego, R; Sghaier, M; Silva, N; Sizemskaya, M; Soares, J; Sonmez, H; Taamallah, H; Tezcan, L; Torri, D; Ungaro, F; Valente, S; de Vente, J; Zagal, E; Zeiliguer, A; Zhonging, W; Ziogas, A

    2014-11-01

    Indicator-based approaches are often used to monitor land degradation and desertification from the global to the very local scale. However, there is still little agreement on which indicators may best reflect both status and trends of these phenomena. In this study, various processes of land degradation and desertification have been analyzed in 17 study sites around the world using a wide set of biophysical and socioeconomic indicators. The database described earlier in this issue by Kosmas and others (Environ Manage, 2013) for defining desertification risk was further analyzed to define the most important indicators related to the following degradation processes: water erosion in various land uses, tillage erosion, soil salinization, water stress, forest fires, and overgrazing. A correlation analysis was applied to the selected indicators in order to identify the most important variables contributing to each land degradation process. The analysis indicates that the most important indicators are: (i) rain seasonality affecting water erosion, water stress, and forest fires, (ii) slope gradient affecting water erosion, tillage erosion and water stress, and (iii) water scarcity soil salinization, water stress, and forest fires. Implementation of existing regulations or policies concerned with resources development and environmental sustainability was identified as the most important indicator of land protection.

  16. In-depth proteomics of ovarian cancer ascites: combining shotgun proteomics and selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elschenbroich, Sarah; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Clarke, Blaise; Kalloger, Steve E; Boutros, Paul C; Gramolini, Anthony O; Shaw, Patricia; Jurisica, Igor; Kislinger, Thomas

    2011-05-06

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common gynecological cancer and the ninth most common cancer overall. Major problems associated with EOC include poorly characterized disease progression, disease heterogeneity, lack of early detection markers and the development of chemoresistance. Early detection and treatment of EOC would significantly benefit from routine screening tests on available biofluids. We built on our experience in analyzing ovarian cancer ascites and present an analysis pipeline that combines discovery-based proteomics, bioinformatics prioritization and targeted proteomics quantification using Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry (SRM-MS). Ascitic fluids from patients with serous-type epithelial ovarian cancer were analyzed using comprehensive shotgun proteomics and compared to noncancerous ascitic fluids from patients with benign ovarian tumors. Integration of our data with published mRNA transcriptomic and proteomic data sets led to a panel of 51 candidate proteins. Systematic SRM-MS assay development was performed for a subset of these proteins using both synthetic peptides (13 proteins) and stable isotope labeled standards (4 proteins). Subsequently, precise relative quantification by stable isotope dilution-SRM (SID-SRM) in independent ascites and serum samples was performed as a proof-of-concept validation. The analysis strategy outlined here lays the foundation for future experiments using both larger numbers of patient samples and additional candidate proteins, and provides a template for the proteomics-based discovery of cancer biomarkers.

  17. The Role of Imaging in Patient Selection, Preoperative Planning, and Postoperative Monitoring in Human Upper Extremity Allotransplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eira S.; Buck, David G.; Gorantla, Vijay S.; Losee, Joseph E.; Foust, Daniel E.; Britton, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the role of imaging in vascular composite allotransplantation based on one institution's experience with upper extremity allotransplant patients. Methods. The institutional review board approved this review of HIPAA-compliant patient data without the need for individual consent. A retrospective review was performed of imaging from 2008 to 2011 on individuals undergoing upper extremity transplantation. This demonstrated that, of the 19 patients initially considered, 5 patients with a mean age of 37 underwent transplantation. Reports were correlated clinically to delineate which preoperative factors lead to patient selection versus disqualification and what concerns dictated postoperative imaging. Findings were subdivided into musculoskeletal and vascular imaging criterion. Results. Within the screening phase, musculoskeletal exclusion criterion included severe shoulder arthropathy, poor native bone integrity, and marked muscular atrophy. Vascular exclusion criterion included loss of sufficient arterial or venous supply and significant distortion of the native vascular architecture. Postoperative imaging was used to document healing and hardware integrity. Postsurgical angiography and ultrasound were used to monitor for endothelial proliferation or thrombosis as signs of rejection and vascular complication. Conclusion. Multimodality imaging is an integral component of vascular composite allotransplantation surgical planning and surveillance to maximize returning form and functionality while minimizing possible complications. PMID:24800056

  18. The Role of Imaging in Patient Selection, Preoperative Planning, and Postoperative Monitoring in Human Upper Extremity Allotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eira S. Roth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the role of imaging in vascular composite allotransplantation based on one institution’s experience with upper extremity allotransplant patients. Methods. The institutional review board approved this review of HIPAA-compliant patient data without the need for individual consent. A retrospective review was performed of imaging from 2008 to 2011 on individuals undergoing upper extremity transplantation. This demonstrated that, of the 19 patients initially considered, 5 patients with a mean age of 37 underwent transplantation. Reports were correlated clinically to delineate which preoperative factors lead to patient selection versus disqualification and what concerns dictated postoperative imaging. Findings were subdivided into musculoskeletal and vascular imaging criterion. Results. Within the screening phase, musculoskeletal exclusion criterion included severe shoulder arthropathy, poor native bone integrity, and marked muscular atrophy. Vascular exclusion criterion included loss of sufficient arterial or venous supply and significant distortion of the native vascular architecture. Postoperative imaging was used to document healing and hardware integrity. Postsurgical angiography and ultrasound were used to monitor for endothelial proliferation or thrombosis as signs of rejection and vascular complication. Conclusion. Multimodality imaging is an integral component of vascular composite allotransplantation surgical planning and surveillance to maximize returning form and functionality while minimizing possible complications.

  19. The role of imaging in patient selection, preoperative planning, and postoperative monitoring in human upper extremity allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eira S; Buck, David G; Gorantla, Vijay S; Losee, Joseph E; Foust, Daniel E; Britton, Cynthia A

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the role of imaging in vascular composite allotransplantation based on one institution's experience with upper extremity allotransplant patients. Methods. The institutional review board approved this review of HIPAA-compliant patient data without the need for individual consent. A retrospective review was performed of imaging from 2008 to 2011 on individuals undergoing upper extremity transplantation. This demonstrated that, of the 19 patients initially considered, 5 patients with a mean age of 37 underwent transplantation. Reports were correlated clinically to delineate which preoperative factors lead to patient selection versus disqualification and what concerns dictated postoperative imaging. Findings were subdivided into musculoskeletal and vascular imaging criterion. Results. Within the screening phase, musculoskeletal exclusion criterion included severe shoulder arthropathy, poor native bone integrity, and marked muscular atrophy. Vascular exclusion criterion included loss of sufficient arterial or venous supply and significant distortion of the native vascular architecture. Postoperative imaging was used to document healing and hardware integrity. Postsurgical angiography and ultrasound were used to monitor for endothelial proliferation or thrombosis as signs of rejection and vascular complication. Conclusion. Multimodality imaging is an integral component of vascular composite allotransplantation surgical planning and surveillance to maximize returning form and functionality while minimizing possible complications.

  20. Validation of an Austrian forecasting model for biologically effective UV radiation (UV index); Validierung des oesterreichischen Vorhersagemodells fuer die biologisch-effektive UV Strahlung (UV Index)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauberger, G.; Schmalwieser, A. [Veterinaermedizinische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik

    1999-07-01

    Since October 1995 there has been an Austrian forecasting service for the next day's UV index for the three model domains Austria, Europe and world. This forecasting model uses spectral irradiation intensity data measured for 16 specific wavelengths, taking into account solar altitude, height above sea level and atmospheric ozone concentration. Weighting spectral irradiation intensity according to the spectral erythematous effect curve yields a measure of biologically effective UV radiation, and subsequent normalisation with respect to 25 mW{sub biol}/m-2 relates the result to the dimension figure for the UV index. The model has been validated by means of data obtained by continuous measurement with Robertson-Berger measuring devices (site of the Vienna Veterinary Hospital: 48 15 15.47'N; 16 25.98E; elevation 153 amsl). The spectral sensitivity of these instruments is approximately the same as that of the human skin to reddening. Combining the UV index with the expected UV dose for the day permits issuing recommendations for the most suitable sun protection factor in sunblock creams as a function of users' photobiological skin type. Users of the UV index are expected to have enough personal initiative to select the UV index that most closely corresponds to their local population situation. According to the principles of UV radiation protection the performance of the model is considered poor if the measured UV index is greater than the forecast index. This happens in approx. 12% of all cases. The error frequency of positive errors (forecast values greater than measured values) reflects the degree to which extinction of UV radiation through the population occurs, as the present model does not take this factor into account. [German] Seit Oktober 1995 wird in Oesterreich taeglich eine Prognose des UV-Index fuer die drei Modelldomaenen: Oesterreich, Europa und weltweit, geltend fuer den darauf folgenden Tag, erstellt. Das oesterreichische Prognosemodell

  1. UV, stress and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB).

  2. Predicting UV sky for future UV missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, M.; Mohan, R.; Sreejith, A. G.; Murthy, Jayant

    2013-02-01

    Software simulators are now widely used in all areas of science, especially in application to astronomical missions: from instrument design to mission planning, and to data interpretation. We present a simulator to model the diffuse ultraviolet sky, where the different contributors are separately calculated and added together to produce a sky image of the size specified by the instrument requirements. Each of the contributors to the background, instrumental dark current, airglow, zodiacal light and diffuse Galactic light, depends on different factors. Airglow is dependent on the time of day; zodiacal light depends on the time of year, angle from the Sun and from the ecliptic; diffuse UV emission depends on the line of sight. To provide a full description of the sky along any line of sight, we have also added stars. The UV background light can dominate in many areas of the sky and severely limit viewing directions due to overbrightness. The simulator, available as a downloadable package and as a web-based tool, can be applied to preparation of real space missions and instruments. For demonstration, we present the example use for the two near-future UV missions: UVIT instrument on the Indian Astrosat mission and a new proposed wide-field (∼1000 square degrees) transient explorer satellite.

  3. Quantification of matrix metalloprotease-9 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by selected reaction monitoring with microfluidics nano-liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prely, Laurette M.; Paal, Krisztina; Hermans, Jos; van der Heide, Sicco; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative protein analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was used to quantify matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9; similar to 90 kDa) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients having undergone lung transplantatio

  4. Identification by selective ion monitoring of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline in human platelets and plasma after ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peura, P; Kari, I; Airaksinen, M M

    1980-11-01

    1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (tetrahydroharman) has been quantified in human platelets and plasma following acute intake of ethanol using a selective ion monitoring method. It was not possible to detect this compound before ethanol intake.

  5. Application of wide selected-ion monitoring data-independent acquisition to identify tomato fruit proteins regulated by the CUTIN DEFICIENT2 transcription factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe here the use of label-free wide selected-ion monitoring data-independent acquisition (WiSIM-DIA) to identify proteins that are involved in the formation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit cuticles and that are regulated by the transcription factor CUTIN DEFICIENT2 (CD2). A spectral l...

  6. 一种紫外-可见光谱法检测水质COD的浊度影响实验研究%Experimental Research of Turbidity Influence on Water Quality Monitoring of COD in UV-Visible Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤斌; 魏彪; 吴德操; 米德伶; 赵敬晓; 冯鹏; 蒋上海; 毛本将

    2014-01-01

    消除浊度影响是直接光谱法检测水质COD的关键技术问题。此源于紫外-可见光谱法检测水质参数的关键依赖于化学计量法所建立的准确的水质参数分析模型,而浊度是影响其建模的一个重要参数。为此,选取福尔马肼浊度液和邻苯二甲酸氢钾标准溶液,开展了紫外-可见吸收光谱法检测水质COD的浊度影响实验研究,获得了选定溶液在245,300,360和560 nm几个特征波长点的吸光度随浊度变化的最小二乘法拟合曲线,分析了吸光度随浊度的变化规律。研究结果表明,在240~380 nm的紫外光谱段,由于引起浊度的颗粒物对有机物产生了吸附,致使浊度对水样的紫外光谱影响较为复杂;在380~780 nm的可见光谱区域,浊度对光谱的影响则是随着波长的增大而减弱。基于此,开展了多元散射校正法对受浊度影响的水样光谱进行校正试验。对某溪水水样的紫外-可见吸收光谱进行多元散射校正,通过处理前后光谱对比表明,浊度引起各个波长点的基线偏移都得到了有效的校正,而在紫外区域特征并未减弱。接着对选取的三种液体的紫外-可见吸收光谱进行多元散射校正,实验结果表明:该方法可在不影响水样紫外-可见吸收光谱特征的前提下对其吸收曲线进行有效的校正,这不仅提高了光谱法检测水质COD的信噪比,而且还为化学计量法建立准确、有效的水质检测COD分析模型进行数据预处理提供了一种新途径。%Eliminating turbidity is a direct effect spectroscopy detection of COD key technical problems .This stems from the UV-visible spectroscopy detected key quality parameters depend on an accurate and effective analysis of water quality parameters analytical model ,and turbidity is an important parameter that affects the modeling .In this paper ,we selected formazine turbidi-ty solution and standard solution of

  7. UV and EUV Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K

    2010-01-01

    We describe telescopes and instruments that were developed and used for astronomical research in the ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The wavelength ranges covered by these bands are not uniquely defined. We use the following convention here: The EUV and UV span the regions ~100-912 and 912-3000 Angstroem respectively. The limitation between both ranges is a natural choice, because the hydrogen Lyman absorption edge is located at 912 Angstroem. At smaller wavelengths, astronomical sources are strongly absorbed by the interstellar medium. It also marks a technical limit, because telescopes and instruments are of different design. In the EUV range, the technology is strongly related to that utilized in X-ray astronomy, while in the UV range the instruments in many cases have their roots in optical astronomy. We will, therefore, describe the UV and EUV instruments in appropriate conciseness and refer to the respective chapters of this volume for more technic...

  8. UV, stress and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic—also called "photo-aging"—resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on ...

  9. Reconstruction techniques of erythemal UV-radiation and future UV predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J. E.; Rieder, H. E.; Simic, S.; Weihs, P.

    2009-04-01

    Since the discovery of anthropogenic ozone depletion more than 30 year ago, the scientific community has shown an increasing interest in UV-B radiation and started to monitor UV-radiation. However, difficulties involved in the routine operation and maintenance of the instruments have limited the length of reliable data records to about two decades. Further the number of places where they were measured, resulting in a set of observations too short and too sparse for a good understanding of past UV changes. Moreover state of the art climate models do not calculate future scenarios of UV-doses. Therefore detailed information about past and future UV-trends are lacking. Reconstruction techniques are indispensable to derive long-term time series of UV-radiation and fill this gap. Apart from the astronomical parameters, like solar zenith angle and sun-earth-distance, UV radiation is strongly influenced by clouds, ozone and surface albedo. We developed and evaluated a reconstruction technique for UV-doses that first calculates the UV-doses under clear-sky condition and afterwards applies corrections in order to take cloud effects into account. Since the input parameters cloud cover, total ozone column and surface albedo are available from the Regional Climate Model (REMO), we applied our reconstruction technique also for future scenarios using REMO data as input. Hence we are able to derive a seamless UV long-term time series from the past to the future. Our method was applied for the high alpine station Hoher Sonnblick (3108m) situated in Austrian Alps.

  10. ATAQS: A computational software tool for high throughput transition optimization and validation for selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Hector

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its inception, proteomics has essentially operated in a discovery mode with the goal of identifying and quantifying the maximal number of proteins in a sample. Increasingly, proteomic measurements are also supporting hypothesis-driven studies, in which a predetermined set of proteins is consistently detected and quantified in multiple samples. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM is a targeted mass spectrometric technique that supports the detection and quantification of specific proteins in complex samples at high sensitivity and reproducibility. Here, we describe ATAQS, an integrated software platform that supports all stages of targeted, SRM-based proteomics experiments including target selection, transition optimization and post acquisition data analysis. This software will significantly facilitate the use of targeted proteomic techniques and contribute to the generation of highly sensitive, reproducible and complete datasets that are particularly critical for the discovery and validation of targets in hypothesis-driven studies in systems biology. Result We introduce a new open source software pipeline, ATAQS (Automated and Targeted Analysis with Quantitative SRM, which consists of a number of modules that collectively support the SRM assay development workflow for targeted proteomic experiments (project management and generation of protein, peptide and transitions and the validation of peptide detection by SRM. ATAQS provides a flexible pipeline for end-users by allowing the workflow to start or end at any point of the pipeline, and for computational biologists, by enabling the easy extension of java algorithm classes for their own algorithm plug-in or connection via an external web site. This integrated system supports all steps in a SRM-based experiment and provides a user-friendly GUI that can be run by any operating system that allows the installation of the Mozilla Firefox web browser. Conclusions Targeted

  11. Enhanced sensitivity for selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics using a dual stage electrodynamic ion funnel interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mahmud; Kaleta, David T; Robinson, Errol W; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Rui; Page, Jason S; Kelly, Ryan T; Moore, Ronald J; Tang, Keqi; Camp, David G; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D

    2011-02-01

    Selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) is playing an increasing role in quantitative proteomics and biomarker discovery studies as a method for high throughput candidate quantification and verification. Although SRM-MS offers advantages in sensitivity and quantification compared with other MS-based techniques, current SRM technologies are still challenged by detection and quantification of low abundance proteins (e.g. present at ∼10 ng/ml or lower levels in blood plasma). Here we report enhanced detection sensitivity and reproducibility for SRM-based targeted proteomics by coupling a nanospray ionization multicapillary inlet/dual electrodynamic ion funnel interface to a commercial triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Because of the increased efficiency in ion transmission, significant enhancements in overall signal intensities and improved limits of detection were observed with the new interface compared with the original interface for SRM measurements of tryptic peptides from proteins spiked into non-depleted mouse plasma over a range of concentrations. Overall, average SRM peak intensities were increased by ∼70-fold. The average level of detection for peptides also improved by ∼10-fold with notably improved reproducibility of peptide measurements as indicated by the reduced coefficients of variance. The ability to detect proteins ranging from 40 to 80 ng/ml within mouse plasma was demonstrated for all spiked proteins without the application of front-end immunoaffinity depletion and fractionation. This significant improvement in detection sensitivity for low abundance proteins in complex matrices is expected to enhance a broad range of SRM-MS applications including targeted protein and metabolite validation.

  12. Selection, application and monitoring of Lactobacillus paracasei strains as adjunct cultures in the production of Gouda-type cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Van Leuven, Isabelle; Dirinck, Patrick; Heyndrickx, Marc; Coudijzer, Kathleen; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2010-12-15

    Raw milk cheeses have more intense flavours than cheeses made from pasteurized milk and harbour strains with potential adjunct properties. Two Lactobacillus paracasei strains, R-40926 and R-40937, were selected as potential adjunct cultures from a total of 734 isolates from good quality artisan raw milk Gouda-type cheeses on the basis of their prevalence in different cheese types and/or over several production batches, safety and technological parameters. Conventional culturing, isolation and identification and a combined PCR-DGGE approach using total cheese DNA extracts and DNA extracts obtained from culturable fractions were employed to monitor viability of the introduced adjuncts and their effect on the cheese microbiota. The control cheese made without adjuncts was dominated by members of the starter, i.e. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. In the cheeses containing either R-40926 or R-40937, the respective adjuncts increased in number as ripening progressed indicating that both strains are well adapted to the cheese environment and can survive in a competitive environment in the presence of a commercial starter culture. Principal component analysis of cheese volatiles determined by steam distillation-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry could differentiate cheeses made with different concentrations of adjunct R-40926 from the control cheese, and these differences could be correlated to the proteolytic and lipolytic properties of this strain. Collectively, results from microbiological and metabolic analyses indicate that the screening procedure followed throughout this study was successful in delivering potential adjunct candidates to enrich or extend the flavour palette of artisan Gouda-type cheeses under more controlled conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Information selection and signal probability in multisource monitoring under the influence of centrally active drugs : Phentermine versus pentobarbital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkerts, ER; VanLaar, MW; Verbaten, MN; Mulder, G; Maes, RAA

    1996-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the relationship between drug-induced arousal shifts and sampling [(monitoring)] behaviour in a three-source task with an a priori signal occurrence probability of 0.6, 0.3, and 0.1. The multisource monitoring task and procedure was adopted from Hockey (1973) who

  14. A study of the composition of the products of laser-induced breakdown of hexogen, octogen, pentrite and trinitrotoluene using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry and UV-Vis spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovová, Kristýna; Dryahina, Kseniya; Spanel, Patrik; Kyncl, Martin; Civis, Svatopluk

    2010-05-01

    Four types of explosives were studied using a combination of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS). The LIBS technique uses short laser pulses (ArF excimer laser) as the energy source to convert small amounts samples into plasma and to produce the emission from their molecular fragments or atoms. SIFT-MS is a novel method for absolute quantification based on chemical ionization using three precursor ions, with the capability to determine concentrations of trace gases and vapours of volatile organic compounds in real time. This is the first time that SIFT-MS has been used to study the release of NO, NO(2), HCN, HNO(3), HONO, HCHO and C(2)H(2) after a laser-induced breakdown of pure explosive compounds HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclo-octane), RDX (1,3,5-trinitro-2-oxo-1,3,5-triazacyclo-hexane), PETN (pentaerithrityl-tetranitrate) and TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in solid form. The radiation emitted after excitation was analysed using a time resolving UV-Vis spectrometer with a ICCD detector. Electronic bands of the CN radical (388 nm), the Swan system of the C(2) radical (512 nm), the NH radical (336 nm), the OH radical (308.4 nm) and atomic lines of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen were identified. Vibrational and excitation temperatures were determined from the intensity distributions and a scheme of chemical reactions responsible for the formation of the observed species was proposed.

  15. Assessing environmental risk of pharmaceuticals in Portugal: An approach for the selection of the Portuguese monitoring stations in line with Directive 2013/39/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André M P T; Silva, Liliana J G; Lino, Celeste M; Meisel, Leonor M; Pena, Angelina

    2016-02-01

    In line with the Directive 2013/39/EU the most representative surface waters, regarding pharmaceuticals contamination, were selected based on a Portuguese nationwide monitoring exercise. To meet this purpose, and given that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are regarded as the major point sources of pharmaceuticals environmental contamination, the occurrence, fate and environmental risk assessment (ERA) of eleven of the most consumed pharmaceuticals, belonging to several therapeutic classes were assessed in 15 WWTPs (influents (WWIs) and effluents (WWEs)), from five different regions during one year (4 sampling campaigns). Results showed that all samples were contaminated with at least 1, and up to 8 from the 11 targeted pharmaceuticals. The highest concentrations observed were 150 and 33 μg L(-1) for WWI and WWE, respectively. Regarding temporal and spacial influence, winter, Alentejo, Algarve and Center regions presented higher mass loads. The ERA posed by 7 of the selected pharmaceuticals presented a risk quotient higher than 1 to the three trophic levels. Our findings highlighted that the rivers Mondego, Tagus, Ave, Trancão, Fervença and Xarrama should be selected as surface water monitoring stations. This study gives a good overview on pharmaceuticals contamination in WWTPs and its impact on surface waters in Portugal. Thus, a more integrative approach to rank and prioritize pharmaceuticals, based on an integrated assessment of ERA and exposure of surface water, was provided to support the future selection of the 6 most representative monitoring stations in Portugal, as required by the above mentioned directive.

  16. UV Defined Nanoporous Liquid Core Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Ndoni, Sokol

    2011-01-01

    Nanoporous liquid core waveguides, where both core and cladding are made from the same material, are presented. The nanoporous polymer used is intrinsically hydrophobic, but selective UV exposure enables it to infiltrate with an aqueous solution, thus raising the refractive index from 1.26 to 1...

  17. Prediction of BOD, COD, and Total Nitrogen Concentrations in a Typical Urban River Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix with PARAFAC and UV Absorption Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a real-time monitoring tool for the estimation of water quality is essential for efficient management of river pollution in urban areas. The Gap River in Korea is a typical urban river, which is affected by the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP and various anthropogenic activities. In this study, fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC and UV absorption values at 220 nm and 254 nm were applied to evaluate the estimation capabilities for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and total nitrogen (TN concentrations of the river samples. Three components were successfully identified by the PARAFAC modeling from the fluorescence EEM data, in which each fluorophore group represents microbial humic-like (C1, terrestrial humic-like organic substances (C2, and protein-like organic substances (C3, and UV absorption indices (UV220 and UV254, and the score values of the three PARAFAC components were selected as the estimation parameters for the nitrogen and the organic pollution of the river samples. Among the selected indices, UV220, C3 and C1 exhibited the highest correlation coefficients with BOD, COD, and TN concentrations, respectively. Multiple regression analysis using UV220 and C3 demonstrated the enhancement of the prediction capability for TN.

  18. Prediction of BOD, COD, and total nitrogen concentrations in a typical urban river using a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix with PARAFAC and UV absorption indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jin; Cho, Jinwoo

    2012-01-01

    The development of a real-time monitoring tool for the estimation of water quality is essential for efficient management of river pollution in urban areas. The Gap River in Korea is a typical urban river, which is affected by the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and various anthropogenic activities. In this study, fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM) with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and UV absorption values at 220 nm and 254 nm were applied to evaluate the estimation capabilities for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations of the river samples. Three components were successfully identified by the PARAFAC modeling from the fluorescence EEM data, in which each fluorophore group represents microbial humic-like (C1), terrestrial humic-like organic substances (C2), and protein-like organic substances (C3), and UV absorption indices (UV(220) and UV(254)), and the score values of the three PARAFAC components were selected as the estimation parameters for the nitrogen and the organic pollution of the river samples. Among the selected indices, UV(220), C3 and C1 exhibited the highest correlation coefficients with BOD, COD, and TN concentrations, respectively. Multiple regression analysis using UV(220) and C3 demonstrated the enhancement of the prediction capability for TN.

  19. Degradation of antipyrine by UV, UV/H₂O₂ and UV/PS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoqun; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Zhang, Yongji; Sui, Minghao; Deng, Jing; Zhou, Shiqing

    2013-09-15

    Degradation of antipyrine (AP) in water by three UV-based photolysis processes (i.e., direct UV, UV/H₂O₂, UV/persulfate (UV/PS)) was studied. For all the oxidation processes, the AP decomposition exhibited a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern. Generally, UV/H₂O₂ and UV/PS significantly improved the degradation rate relevant to UV treatment alone. The pseudo-first-order degradation rate constants (kobs) were, to different degrees, affected by initial AP concentration, oxidant dose, pH, UV irradiation intensity, and co-existing chemicals such as humic acid, chloride, bicarbonate, carbonate and nitrate. The three oxidation processes followed the order in terms of treatment costs: UV/PS>UV>UV/H₂O₂ if the energy and chemical costs are considered. Finally, the AP degradation pathways in the UV/H₂O₂ and UV/PS processes are proposed. Results demonstrated that UV/H₂O₂ and UV/PS are potential alternatives to control water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as AP.

  20. UV patterned nanoporous solid-liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner;

    2010-01-01

    Nanoporous Solid-Liquid core waveguides were prepared by UV induced surface modification of hydrophobic nanoporous polymers. With this method, the index contrast (delta n = 0.20) is a result of selective water infiltration. The waveguide core is defined by UV light, rendering the exposed part...

  1. Effect of UV-ozone treatment on poly(dimethylsiloxane) membranes: surface characterization and gas separation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ywu-Jang; Qui, Hsuan-zhi; Liao, Kuo-Sung; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2010-03-16

    A thin SiO(x) selective surface layer was formed on a series of cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membranes by exposure to ultraviolet light at room temperature in the presence of ozone. The conversion of the cross-linked polysiloxane to SiO(x) was monitored by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, contact angle analysis, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The conversion of the cross-linked polysiloxane to SiO(x) increased with UV-ozone exposure time and cross-linking agent content, and the surface possesses highest conversion. The formation of a SiO(x) layer increased surface roughness, but it decreased water contact angle. Gas permeation measurements on the UV-ozone exposure PDMS membranes documented interesting gas separation properties: the O(2) permeability of the cross-linked PDMS membrane before UV-ozone exposure was 777 barrer, and the O(2)/N(2) selectivity was 1.9; after UV-ozone exposure, the permeability decreased to 127 barrer while the selectivity increased to 5.4. The free volume depth profile of the SiO(x) layer was investigated by novel slow positron beam. The results show that free volume size increased with the depth, yet the degree of siloxane conversion to SiO(x) does not affect the amount of free volume.

  2. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 study for emerging organic contaminants decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaona; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Jiangyong; Quek, Elaine; Xie, Rongjin; Pang, Thomas; Xing, Yongjie

    2016-03-01

    Human behaviors including consumption of drugs and use of personal care products, climate change, increased international travel, and the advent of water reclamation for direct potable use have led to the introduction of significant amounts of emerging organic contaminants into the aqueous environment. In addition, the lower detection limits associated with improved scientific methods of chemical analysis have resulted in a recent increase in documented incidences of these contaminants which previously were not routinely monitored in water. Such contaminants may cause known or suspected adverse ecological and/or human health effects at very low concentrations. Conventional drinking water treatment processes may not effectively remove these organic contaminants. Advanced oxidation process (AOP) is a promising treatment process for the removal of most of these emerging organic contaminants, and has been accepted worldwide as a suitable treatment process. In this study, different groups of emerging contaminants were studied for decomposition efficiency using pilot-scale UV/H2O2 oxidation setup, including EDCs, PPCPs, taste and odor (T&O), and perfluorinated compounds. Results found that MP UV/H2O2 AOP was efficient in removing all the selected contaminants except perfluorinated compounds. Study of the kinetics of the process showed that both light absorption and quantum yield of each compound affected the decomposition performance. Analysis of water quality parameters of the treated water indicated that the outcome of both UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 processes can be affected by changes in the feed water quality.

  3. Random UV mutagenesis approach for enhanced biodegradation of sulfonated azo dye, Green HE4B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Swati M; Inamdar, Shrirang A; Jadhav, Jyoti P; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study was to execute mutant bacteria for efficient biodegradation of sulfonated azo dye, Green HE4B (GHE4B). UV irradiation was used to introduce random mutations in Pseudomonas sp. LBC1. Genetic alterations induced by UV irradiation in selected mutant bacteria were confirmed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA technique. The mutant bacteria named as Pseudomonas sp. 1 F reduced the time required for complete degradation of recalcitrant dye GHE4B by 25 % when compared with the wild one. The biodegradation was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis. Activities of enzymes like laccase, lignin peroxidase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, and NADH dichlorophenol indophenol reductase were found to be boosted in mutant bacteria as a consequence of UV-induced mutation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight analysis of differentially expressed proteins of mutant bacteria suggested active role of antioxidant enzymes in the degradation of the dye. The degradation product was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-performance thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results revealed few variations in the degradation end products of wild-type and mutant bacteria. Phytotoxicity study underlined the safer biodegradation of GHE4B by mutant Pseudomonas sp. 1 F.

  4. Flight Performance of UV Filters on the ALEXIS Satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, J.J.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Starin, S.

    1999-07-08

    The ALEXIS (Array of Low-Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors) mission, serving as the first dedicated all-sky monitor in the extreme UV, has been collecting data since its launch in 1993. ALEXIS operates in a 70{degree} inclination orbit at an altitude of 800 km. The ALEXIS science mission is to observe the cosmic UV background and to study variability of EUV sources. The ALEXIS experiment is composed of six telescopes. Although the telescopes were only designed for a one-year technology verification mission, they are still functioning with much the same effectiveness as at the beginning of the mission. The telescopes comprise: (1) layered synthetic microstructure (LSM) spherical mirrors, (2) thin foil filters, and (3) microchannel plate (MCP) detectors, all enshrouded within the telescope body. The LSM mirrors select the bandpass for each telescope, while rejecting some of the HeII 304{angstrom} geocoronal radiation. The filters, constructed either from aluminum/carbon or Lexan/titanium/boron, serve to strongly reject the geocoronal radiation, as well as longer wavelength emission from bright OB stars. Each telescope detector consists of two plates, the outermost of which is curved to accurately match the spherical focal surface of the mirror. By reviewing the ground and flight histories, this paper analyzes the flight performance of the filters, including the effects of long term exposure and the formation of pinholes.

  5. Métodos Ultravioleta Selectivo y de reducción con Hidracina en la determinación del ión nitrato an aguas subterraneas Selective UV method and reduction with Hidrazine Method in the determination of Nitrate ion in groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto F. Belgrano

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparison of two methods, the Selective UV Spectrophotometrical Method and Reduction with Hidrazine Method, for the determination of Nitrate ion in groundwater, was carried out. For this purpose, the results from all the drinking water collectings of the city of Olavarría, Argentina, were employed. Both methods present significant different means, but they don´t present significant differences in their variances.

  6. Extreme UV QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Luciana; Efremova, Boryana; Herald, James E; Bressan, Alessandro; Martin, Cristopher

    2009-01-01

    We present a sample of spectroscopically confirmed QSOs with FUV-NUV color (as measured by GALEX photometry) bluer than canonical QSO templates and than the majority of known QSOs. We analyze their FUV to NIR colors, luminosities and optical spectra. The sample includes a group of 150 objects at low redshift (z $<$ 0.5), and a group of 21 objects with redshift 1.7$<$z$<$2.6. For the low redshift objects, the "blue" FUV-NUV color may be caused by enhanced Ly$\\alpha$ emission, since Ly$\\alpha$ transits the GALEX FUV band from z=0.1 to z=0.47. Synthetic QSO templates constructed with Ly$\\alpha$ up to 3 times stronger than in standard templates match the observed UV colors of our low redshift sample. The H$\\alpha$ emission increases, and the optical spectra become bluer, with increasing absolute UV luminosity. The UV-blue QSOs at redshift about 2, where the GALEX bands sample restframe about 450-590A (FUV) and about 590-940A(NUV), are fainter than the average of UV-normal QSOs at similar redshift in NUV,...

  7. Unmanned aerial monitoring of fluvial changes in the vicinity of selected gauges of the Local System for Flood Monitoring in Klodzko County, SW Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeziorska, Justyna; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2013-04-01

    Only high resolution spatial data enable precise measurements of various morphometric characteristics of river channels and ensure meaningful effects of research into fluvial changes. Using ground-based measurement tools is time-consuming and expensive. Traditional photogrammetry often does not reach a desired resolution, and the technology is cost effective only for the large-area coverage. The present research introduces potentials of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) for monitoring fluvial changes. Observations were carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM produced by senseFly. This lightweight (0,5 kg), small (wingspan: 80 cm) aircraft allowed frequent (with approximately monthly sampling resolution) and low-cost missions. Three hydrologic gauges, the surroundings of which were the target of series of photos taken by camera placed in airplane frame, belong to the Local System for Flood Monitoring in Kłodzko County (SW Poland). The only way of obtaining reliable results is an appropriate image rectification, in order to measure morphometric characteristics of terrain, free of geometrical deformations induced by the topographical relief, the tilt of the camera axis and the distortion of the optics. Commercially available software for the production of digital orthophotos and digital surface models (DSMs) from a range of uncalibrated oblique and vertical aerial images was successfully used to achieve this aim. As a result of completing the above procedure 9 orthophotos were generated (one for each of 3 study areas during 3 missions). For extraction of terrain parameters, a DSM was produced as a result of bundle block adjustment. Both products reached ultra-high resolution of 4cm/px. Various fluvial forms were classified and recognized, and a few time series of maps from each study area were compared in order to detect potential changes within the fluvial system. We inferred on the origins of the short-term responses of fluvial systems, and such an inference

  8. Active naringin-chitosan films: impact of UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturriaga, Leire; Olabarrieta, Idoia; Castellan, Alain; Gardrat, Christian; Coma, Véronique

    2014-09-22

    Bioactive citrus extract-chitosan films were prepared through solvent casting-evaporation method. The impact of near UV irradiation was studied to reach a better understanding of the film behavior. The antimicrobial activity of films against Listeria innocua was maintained after UV irradiation. To study the interaction between chitosan and citrus extract components, naringin (main component) was selected as the model compound. UV treatment caused modifications of the flavanone regardless of the solvent used for its dissolution, depending on the concentration of naringin in the film: the greater the concentration the lower the modification. DSC results suggested cross-links due to UV irradiation and interactions between naringin and chitosan. This was confirmed by a decrease in the naringin release from the irradiated samples. Naringin- and citrus extract-chitosan films showed an increased absorbance in the UV region compared to pure chitosan films, showing potentiality for decreasing the lipid oxidation induced by UV light in foodstuffs.

  9. Photoreactivation of bacteriophages after UV disinfection: role of genome structure and impacts of UV source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Roberto A; Bounty, Sarah; Beck, Sara; Chan, Connie; McGuire, Christian; Linden, Karl G

    2014-05-15

    The UV inactivation kinetics of bacteriophages MS2, PhiX174, T1 and PRD1 and the potential of bacterial UV repair mechanisms to reactivate these bacteriophages is described here. The selected bacteriophages represent a range of genome size, single and double stranded genomes, circular and linear organization and RNA and DNA. Bacteriophages were exposed to UV irradiation from two different collimated beam UV irradiation sources (medium-pressure (MP) mercury lamps and low-pressure (LP) mercury lamps) and assayed during which host-phage cultures were exposed to photoreactivating light for 6 h, then incubated overnight at 37 °C in the dark. Dark controls following UV exposure were performed in parallel. UV inactivation kinetics (using dark controls) showed that circular ssDNA phage (PhiX174) was the most sensitive and linear ssRNA phage (MS2) was the more resistant phage. No photoreactivation was observed for MS2 (RNA phage) and the highest photoreactivation was observed for PRD1. In the case of PRD1, the dose required for 4-log reduction (dark control) was around 35 mJ/cm(2), with a similar dose observed for both UV sources (MP and LP). When the photoreactivation step was added, the dose required for 4-log reduction using LP lamps was 103 mJ/cm(2) and for MP lamps was 60 mJ/cm(2). Genome organization differences between bacteriophages play an important role in resistance to UV inactivation and potential photoreactivation mediated by bacterial host mechanisms. The use of photoreactivation during the assay of PRD1 creates a more conservative surrogate for potential use in UV challenge testing.

  10. An Integrated Glucose Sensor with an All-Solid-State Sodium Ion-Selective Electrode for a Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Kojima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system that uses a microneedle to permeate the skin surface and a small hydrogel to accumulate interstitial fluid glucose. The measurement of glucose and sodium ion levels in the hydrogel is required for estimating glucose levels in blood; therefore, we developed a small, enzyme-fixed glucose sensor with a high-selectivity, all-solid-state, sodium ion-selective electrode (ISE integrated into its design. The glucose sensor immobilized glucose oxidase showed a good correlation between the glucose levels in the hydrogels and the reference glucose levels (r > 0.99, and exhibited a good precision (coefficient of variation = 2.9%, 0.6 mg/dL. In the design of the sodium ISEs, we used the insertion material Na0.33MnO2 as the inner contact layer and DD16C5 exhibiting high Na+/K+ selectivity as the ionophore. The developed sodium ISE exhibited high selectivity (\\( \\log \\,k^{pot}_{Na,K} = -2.8\\ and good potential stability. The sodium ISE could measure 0.4 mM (10−3.4 M sodium ion levels in the hydrogels containing 268 mM (10−0.57 M KCl. The small integrated sensor (ϕ < 10 mm detected glucose and sodium ions in hydrogels simultaneously within 1 min, and it exhibited sufficient performance for use as a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system.

  11. Comparative evaluation of iodoacids removal by UV/persulfate and UV/H2O2 processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongjun; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhang, Wei; Lim, Kok-Yong; Webster, Richard D; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2016-10-01

    To develop a cost-effective method for post-formation mitigation of iodinated disinfection by-products, degradation of iodoacids by UV, UV/PS (persulfate), and UV/H2O2 was extensively investigated in this study. UV direct photolysis of 4 iodoacids followed first-order kinetics with rate constants in the range of 2.43 × 10(-4)-3.02 × 10(-3) cm(2) kJ(-1). The derived quantum yields (Ф254) of the 4 iodoacids range from 0.13 to 0.34, respectively. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was subsequently established and applied to predict the direct photolysis rates of 6 other structurally similar iodoacids whose standards are commercially unavailable. At a UV dose of 140 mJ cm(-2) which is typically applied for disinfection of drinking water, the removal percentages of 4 iodoacids were only between 3.35% and 34.7%. Thus, ICH2CO2H (IAA), the most photo-recalcitrant species, was selected as the target compound for removal in the UV/PS and UV/H2O2 processes. The IAA degradation rates decreased with increasing pH from 3 to 11 in both processes. Humic acid (HA) and HCO3(-) had inhibitory effects on IAA degradation in both processes. Cl(-) adversely affected the IAA degradation in the UV/PS process but had no effect in the UV/H2O2 process. Generally, in the deionized (DI) water, surface water, treated drinking water, and secondary effluent, UV/PS process is more effective than UV/H2O2 process for IAA removal, based on the same molar ratio of oxidant: IAA. SO4(-) generated in the UV/PS process yields a greater mineralization of IAA than HO in the UV/H2O2 process. IO3(-) was the predominant end-product in the UV/PS process, while I(-) was the major end-product in the UV/H2O2 process. The respective contributions of UV, HO, and SO4(-) for IAA removal in the UV/PS process were 7.8%, 14.7%, and 77.5%, respectively, at a specific condition (1.5 μM IAA, 60 μM oxidant, and pH 7). Compared to UV/H2O2 process, UV/PS was also observed as more cost

  12. Biobased Nanoparticles for Broadband UV Protection with Photostabilized UV Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayden, D.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412640694; Imhof, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145641600; Velikov, K. P.

    2016-01-01

    Sunscreens rely on multiple compounds to provide effective and safe protection against UV radiation. UV filters in sunscreens, in particular, provide broadband UV protection but are heavily linked to adverse health effects due to the generation of carcinogenic skin-damaging reactive oxygen species

  13. Biobased Nanoparticles for Broadband UV Protection with Photostabilized UV Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayden, D.R.; Imhof, A.; Velikov, K. P.

    2016-01-01

    Sunscreens rely on multiple compounds to provide effective and safe protection against UV radiation. UV filters in sunscreens, in particular, provide broadband UV protection but are heavily linked to adverse health effects due to the generation of carcinogenic skin-damaging reactive oxygen species (

  14. Visual selection and maintenance of the cell lines with high plant regeneration ability and low ploidy level in Dianthus acicularis by monitoring with flow cytometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Tomonori; Mii, Masahiro

    2005-12-01

    Efficient plant regeneration system from cell suspension cultures was established in D. acicularis (2n=90) by monitoring ploidy level and visual selection of the cultures. The ploidy level of the cell cultures closely related to the shoot regeneration ability. The cell lines comprising original ploidy levels (2C+4C cells corresponding to DNA contents of G1 and G2 cells of diploid plant, respectively) showed high regeneration ability, whereas those containing the cells with 8C or higher DNA C-values showed low or no regeneration ability. The highly regenerable cell lines thus selected consisted of compact cell clumps with yellowish color and relatively moderate growth, suggesting that it is possible to select visually the highly regenerable cell lines with the original ploidy level. All the regenerated plantlets from the highly regenerable cell cultures exhibited normal phenotypes and no variations in ploidy level were observed by flow cytometry (FCM) analysis.

  15. Evaluation and Selection of Indicators for Land Degradation and Desertification Monitoring: Types of Degradation, Causes, and Implications for Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kairis, O.; Kosmas, C.; Karavitis, C.; Ritsema, C.J.; Salvati, L.; Acikalin, S.; Alcala, M.; Alfama, P.; Atlhopheng, J.; Barrera, J.; Belgacem, A.; Sole-Benet, A.; Brito, J.; Chaker, M.; Chanda, R.; Coelho, C.; Darkoh, M.; Diamantis, I.; Ermolaeva, O.; Fassouli, V.; Fei, W.; Feng, J.; Fernandez, F.; Ferreira, A.; Gokceoglu, C.; Gonzalez, D.; Gungor, H.; Hessel, R.; Juying, J.; Khatteli, H.; Khitrov, N.; Kounalaki, A.; Laouina, A.; Lollino, P.; Lopes, M.; Magole, L.; Medina, L.; Mendoza, M.; Morais, P.; Mulale, K.; Ocakoglu, F.; Ouessar, M.; Ovalle, C.; Perez, C.; Perkins, J.; Pliakas, F.; Polemio, M.; Pozo, A.; Prat, C.; Qinke, Y.; Ramos, A.; Ramos, J.; Riquelme, J.; Romanenkov, V.; Rui, L.; Santaloia, F.; Sebego, R.; Sghaier, M.; Silva, N.; Sizemskaya, M.; Soares, J.; Sonmez, H.; Taamallah, H.; Tezcan, L.; Torri, D.; Ungaro, F.; Valente, S.; Vente, de J.; Zagal, E.; Zeiliguer, A.; Zhonging, W.; Ziogas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Indicator-based approaches are often used to monitor land degradation and desertification from the global to the very local scale. However, there is still little agreement on which indicators may best reflect both status and trends of these phenomena. In this study, various processes of land

  16. Selecting cost effective and policy-relevant biological indicators for European monitoring of soil biodiversity and ecosystem function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, B.S.; Römbke, J.; Schmelz, R.M.; Scheffczyk, A.; Faber, J.H.; Bloem, J.; Peres, G.; Cluzeau, D.; Chabbi, A.; Suhadolc, M.; Sousa, J.P.; Silva, da P.M.; Carvalho, F.; Mendes, S.; Morais, P.; Francisco, R.; Pereira, C.; Bonkowski, M.; Geisen, Stefan; Bardgetti, R.D.; Vries, De F.T.; Bolger, T.; Dirilgen, T.; Schmidt, O.; Winding, Anne; Hendriksen, Nicolien; Johansen, A.; Philippot, L.; Plassart, P.; Bru, D.; Thomson, B.M.; Griffiths, R.I.; Bailey, Megan; Keith, A.; Rutgers, M.; Mulder, Christian; Hannula, S.E.; Creamer, Rachel; Stone, D.

    2016-01-01

    Soils provide many ecosystem services that are ultimately dependent on the local diversity and belowground abundance of organisms. Soil biodiversity is affected negatively by many threats and there is a perceived policy requirement for the effective biological monitoring of soils at the European lev

  17. Selecting cost effective and policy-relevant biological indicators for European monitoring of soil biodiversity and ecosystem function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, B.s.; Römbke, J.; Schmelz, R.m.; Scheffczyk, A.; Faber, J.h.; Bloem, Jaap; Pérès, G.; Cluzeau, D.; Chabbi, A.; Suhadolc, M.; Sousa, J.p.; Martins Da Silva, P.; Carvalho, F.; Mendes, S.; Morais, P.; Francisco, R.; Pereira, C.; Bonkowski, M.; Geisen, S.; Bardgett, R.d.; De Vries, F.t.; Bolger, T.; Dirilgen, T.; Schmidt, O.; Winding, A.; Hendriksen, N.b.; Johansen, A.; Philippot, L.; Plassart, P.; Bru, D.; Thomson, B.; Griffiths, R.i.; Bailey, M.j.; Keith, A.; Rutgers, M.; Mulder, C.; Hannula, S.e.; Creamer, R.; Stone, D.

    2016-01-01

    Soils provide many ecosystem services that are ultimately dependent on the local diversity and below ground abundance of organisms. Soil biodiversity is affected negatively by many threats and there is a perceived policy requirement for the effective biological monitoring of soils at the European le

  18. Evaluation and Selection of Indicators for Land Degradation and Desertification Monitoring: Types of Degradation, Causes, and Implications for Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kairis, O.; Kosmas, C.; Karavitis, C.; Ritsema, C.J.; Salvati, L.; Acikalin, S.; Alcala, M.; Alfama, P.; Atlhopheng, J.; Barrera, J.; Belgacem, A.; Sole-Benet, A.; Brito, J.; Chaker, M.; Chanda, R.; Coelho, C.; Darkoh, M.; Diamantis, I.; Ermolaeva, O.; Fassouli, V.; Fei, W.; Feng, J.; Fernandez, F.; Ferreira, A.; Gokceoglu, C.; Gonzalez, D.; Gungor, H.; Hessel, R.; Juying, J.; Khatteli, H.; Khitrov, N.; Kounalaki, A.; Laouina, A.; Lollino, P.; Lopes, M.; Magole, L.; Medina, L.; Mendoza, M.; Morais, P.; Mulale, K.; Ocakoglu, F.; Ouessar, M.; Ovalle, C.; Perez, C.; Perkins, J.; Pliakas, F.; Polemio, M.; Pozo, A.; Prat, C.; Qinke, Y.; Ramos, A.; Ramos, J.; Riquelme, J.; Romanenkov, V.; Rui, L.; Santaloia, F.; Sebego, R.; Sghaier, M.; Silva, N.; Sizemskaya, M.; Soares, J.; Sonmez, H.; Taamallah, H.; Tezcan, L.; Torri, D.; Ungaro, F.; Valente, S.; Vente, de J.; Zagal, E.; Zeiliguer, A.; Zhonging, W.; Ziogas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Indicator-based approaches are often used to monitor land degradation and desertification from the global to the very local scale. However, there is still little agreement on which indicators may best reflect both status and trends of these phenomena. In this study, various processes of land degrada

  19. TIME-LAPSE MICROSCOPY ROLE IN IMPROVING THE OUTCOME OF IVF/ICSI CYCLES BY MONITORING AND SELECTION OF EARLY EMBRYO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela SIMIONESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI are well-established assisted reproductive biotechnologies used to overcome infertility in couples. Time-lapse monitoring is an imagistic technology which was elaborated to fulfill the need for observing the dynamics of the mammalian embryonic development in a continuous, non-invasive manner, without removing the embryos from the optimal culturing conditions. This technology offers unique information regarding the cleavage process, as well as morphological and structural modifications thus enabling the embryologists to select the embryos with elevated implantation potential. Aim of the study: to identify, evaluate and summarize the available data regarding the role of time-lapse microscopy in improving the outcome of IVF and ICSI by monitoring and selection of early embryos Material and methods: we systematically reviewed the available evidence regarding the assessment of embryo quality through both conventional monitoring and time-lapse microscopy for couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. The meta analysis included randomized trials and published data encountered on ISI Web of Knowledge Science, MedLine and Pubmed using the following keywords: time-lapse microscopy, IVF, ICSI, embryo, outcome, pregnancy. As criteria of differentiation, only studies that reported information regarding the implantation rate, aspects regarding clinical pregnancy or live birth were considered for analysis. Results: the info from the studies was extracted and included in the meta-analysis. A part of the retrospective studies conducted after 2010 have highlighted a correlation between time-lapse parameters and embryo viability as defined by the developmental competence and subsequently by the confirmation of clinical pregnancy. Other authors undertook a critical appraisal on potential benefit time-lapse monitoring may bring to ART. Conclusion

  20. Selective surface functionalization of polystyrene induced by synchrotron or UV radiation in the presence of oxygen or acrylic acid vapors; Funcionalizacao superficial seletiva de poliestireno induzida por radiacao sincrotron ou ultravioleta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, Felipe; Kuhn, Sidiney; Weibel, Daniel E., E-mail: felipekessler@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (IQ/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil) Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Efficient surface functionalization of Polystyrene (PS) thin films by electromagnetic radiation in combination with a reactive gaseous atmosphere was obtained. Monochromatic synchrotron (SR) or polychromatic UV radiation were used as excitation sources. When SR was used, O{sub 2} was introduced after irradiation into the UHV chamber. UV irradiation was carried out keeping a constant flow of O{sub 2} or acrylic acid (AA) vapors during the photolysis. FTIR-ATR and XPS-NEXAFS spectra were obtained at the UFRGS and the LNLS, Campinas respectively. PS films were functionalized by monochromatic SR and then expose to O{sub 2} at specific transitions such us C 1s {yields}{sigma}{sup *}{sub C-C} excitation. It was found a high rate of COO, C=O and C-O groups at the surface (> 70%). UV-assisted treatment in the presence of AA vapors showed that an efficient polymerization process took place, such as, it was observed in previous AA low pressure RF plasma treatments. UV-assisted functionalization has the advantage of lower costs and simple set-up compared to plasma treatments. (author)

  1. Behaviour of suspended particulate matter (SPM and selected trace metals during the 2002 summer flood in the River Elbe (Germany at Magdeburg monitoring station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baborowski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In August 2002, in the worst flooding in more than 100 years, the River Elbe destroyed built-up areas and caused widespread erosion and the relocation of soils and river sediments. To assess the pollutants entering the water, surveys of dissolved constituents and suspended particulate matter (SPM were carried out daily during the flood at a monitoring station near Magdeburg. The sampling point is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The results were compared with those of previous flood studies which used the same sampling strategy. Unlike past floods, the 2002 flood was characterised by the transport of relatively fine suspended material with a low mass concentration. Owing to different input sources, the maxima of dry weight and of particle number concentration occurred at different times. Hg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr showed a maximum concentration concurrent with the dry weight of the SPM, whereas the maximum concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd coincided with the particle number concentration peak. The concentration of particulate matter decreased rapidly, unlike the concentrations of dissolved substances such as DOC and trace metals, as well as the values of UV extinction, all of which remained high for a longer period. Comparing the results of the 2002 flood with the winter floods in 1995, 1999 and 2000, revealed increased values of As and Pb as well as higher concentrations of dissolved compounds. Keywords: river, flood, transport, suspended particulate matter, trace metals, dissolved compounds, Elbe

  2. Discussing a Selection of Ecological Monitoring Indicators%生态监测指标选择的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊; 沈强; 陈明秀; 池仕运; 胡菊香

    2014-01-01

    为了维持自然生态环境与人类社会协调、可持续发展,需要对生态系统的状态、演化趋势等进行生态监测。该文以水生态系统为例,从生态系统的组成、结构和功能角度出发,分析比较了不同类型的生态监测指标,提出从生态完整性角度对来描述和评估生态系统状况,开展生态监测和生态评价工作。以水源地水库生态监测为例,阐述了生物完整性指数的应用效果,表明基于生态完整性的生态监测工作是可行有效的。国内外的相关应用与研究均表明,我国推广开展基于生态完整性的生态监测评价工作是完全可行的,具有广阔的应用前景,将极大地推动我国监测工作的发展。%In order to maintain the coordinated and sustainable development of the natural environment and human society, the state of ecosystems and evolution trends for ecological need to be monitored. In this paper, we take the aquatic ecosystems as the example and make an analysis and comparison of the different types of ecological monitoring indicators from three aspects of the ecosystem composition, structure and function of the perspective. Furthermore, it is proposed to describe and evaluate the state of ecosystems to carry out ecological monitoring and ecological evaluation from the perspective of ecological integrity. In addition, we describe the application of the index of biotic integrity in the reservoir water source and the results show that the ecosystem monitoring based on the ecological integrity is feasible and effective. In short, the domestic and foreign-related applications and studies both show that the promotion of ecological integrity to carry out ecological monitoring based on the ecological integrity is entirely feasible, which will greatly promote the development of China’s monitoring.

  3. UV fluorescence lidar detection of bioaerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christesen, S.D.; DeSha, M.S.; Wong, A. [Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Merrow, C.N.; Wilson, M.W.; Butler, J. [Science and Technology Corp., Hampton, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Biological agents (e.g. bacterial spores, viruses, toxins) pose a serious threat to military forces on the modern battlefield. Remote detection of these agents is crucial to providing early warning of an attack and to allow for the avoidance of contaminated areas. Here, a UV fluorescence lidar system for the remote detection of bioaerosols has been built and tested. At the heart of the UV-LIDAR Fluorosensor system are a 200mJ quadrupled ND:YAG laser at 266nm and a 16 inch cassagrain telescope. Operating on three data collection channels, the UV lidar is capable of real time monitoring of 266nm elastic backscatter, the total fluorescence between 300 and 400nm, and the dispersed fluorescence spectrum (using a small spectrograph and gated intensified CCD array). The goal in this effort was to assess the capabilities of biofluorescence for quantitative detection and discrimination of bioaerosols. To this end, the UV-LIDAR Fluorosensor system was tested against the aerosolized bacterial spore Bacillus subtilus var. niger sp. globiggi (BG) and several likely interferences at several ranges from approximately 600 to 3000 meters. The tests with BG indicate a detection limit of approximately 500 mg/cubic meter at a range of 3000m.

  4. Monitoring-well installation, slug testing, and groundwater quality for selected sites in South Park, Park County, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Larry R. Rick

    2015-01-01

    During May–June, 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Park County, Colorado, drilled and installed four groundwater monitoring wells in areas identified as needing new wells to provide adequate spatial coverage for monitoring water quality in the South Park basin. Lithologic logs and well-construction reports were prepared for each well, and wells were developed after drilling to remove mud and foreign material to provide for good hydraulic connection between the well and aquifer. Slug tests were performed to estimate hydraulic-conductivity values for aquifer materials in the screened interval of each well, and groundwater samples were collected from each well for analysis of major inorganic constituents, trace metals, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, volatile organic compounds, ethane, methane, and radon. Documentation of lithologic logs, well construction, well development, slug testing, and groundwater sampling are presented in this report.

  5. Simple extraction method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selective ion monitoring mode for the determination of phenols in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuti, Lucio; Pellegrino, Roberto Maria; Tesei, Ilaria

    2006-05-12

    The concentrations of 22 components of wine, including most of those that have been shown to possess significant biological properties, have been determined by a fast and simple analytical method based on gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection in the selective ion monitoring mode (GC/MS-SIM). The procedure involves an easy liquid-liquid extraction and derivatization methods of flavanols, phenols and carboxylic acid, using a very small wine volume. The average recovery (Rcv) ranged from 73 to 107% and linear regression coefficients (r(2)) were in a range of 0.981or=0.999. The GC/MS-SIM technique gives good specificity and sensitivity, and can therefore be suitable for routine monitoring of the concentration of individual phenolic antioxidants during winemaking and the aging process.

  6. Magnetic field-induced modification of selection rules for Rb D 2 line monitored by selective reflection from a vapor nanocell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Emmanuel; Sargsyan, Armen; Tonoyan, Ara; Hakhumyan, Grant; Papoyan, Aram; Leroy, Claude; Sarkisyan, David

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic field-induced giant modification of the probabilities of five transitions of 5 S 1 / 2, F g = 2 → 5 P 3 / 2, F e = 4 of 85Rb and three transitions of 5 S 1 / 2, F g = 1 → 5 P 3 / 2, F e = 3 of 87Rb forbidden by selection rules for zero magnetic field has been observed experimentally and described theoretically for the first time. For the case of excitation with circularly-polarized ( σ +) laser radiation, the probability of F g = 2, m F = - 2 → F e = 4, m F = - 1 transition becomes the largest among the seventeen transitions of 85Rb F g = 2 → F e = 1,2,3,4 group, and the probability of F g = 1, m F = - 1 → F e = 3, m F = 0 transition becomes the largest among the nine transitions of 87Rb F g = 1 → F e = 0,1,2,3 group, in a wide range of magnetic field 200-1000 G. Complete frequency separation of individual Zeeman components was obtained by implementation of derivative selective reflection technique with a 300 nm-thick nanocell filled with Rb, allowing formation of narrow optical resonances. Possible applications are addressed. The theoretical model is well consistent with the experimental results.

  7. Preliminary results of modeled ozone uptake for Fagus sylvatica L. trees at selected EU/UN-ECE intensive monitoring plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, Marcus [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: marcus.schaub@wsl.ch; Emberson, Lisa [Stockholm Environment Institute at York, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Bueker, Patrick [Stockholm Environment Institute at York, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Kraeuchi, Norbert [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this study was to establish whether EU and UN-ECE/ICP-Forests monitoring data (i) provide the variables necessary to apply the flux-based modeling methods and (ii) meet the quality criteria necessary to apply the flux-based critical level concept. Application of this model has been possible using environmental data collected from the EU and UN-ECE/ICP-Forests monitoring network in Switzerland and Italy for 2000-2002. The test for data completeness and plausibility resulted in 6 out of a possible total of 20 Fagus sylvatica L. plots being identified as suitable from Switzerland, Italy, Spain, and France. The results show that the collected data allow the identification of different spatial and temporal areas and periods as having higher risk to ozone than those identified using the AOT40 approach. However, it was also apparent that the quality and completeness of the available data may severely limit a complete risk assessment across Europe. - Data sets of the EU and UN-ECE/ICP-Forests monitoring network are examined regarding their suitability for the modeling of ozone uptake in trees in the view of risk assessment.

  8. Hydrologic monitoring and selected hydrologic and environmental studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Georgia, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Dalton, Melinda J.

    2013-01-01

    This compendium of papers describes results of hydrologic monitoring and hydrologic and environmental studies completed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Georgia during 2011–2013. The USGS addresses a wide variety of water issues in the State of Georgia working with local, State, and Federal partners. As the primary Federal science agency for water resource information, the USGS monitors the quantity and quality of water in the Nation’s rivers and aquifers, assesses the sources and fate of contaminants in aquatic systems, collects and analyzes data on aquatic ecosystems, develops tools to improve the application of hydrologic information, and ensures that its information and tools are available to all potential users. During 2011–2013, the USGS continued a long-term program of monitoring stream and groundwater resources, including flow, water quality, and water use. In addition, a variety of hydrologic and environmental studies were completed to assess water availability, hydrologic hazards, and the impact of development on water resources. Information on USGS activities in Georgia is available online at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/.

  9. Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, S.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate which small mammal species are the best monitors of specific environmental contaminants. The evaluation is based on the published literature and on an analysis of small mammals trapped at several sites on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Studies on the uptake of heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals are reviewed in Chapter II to evaluate several small mammal species for their capacity to serve as sentinels for the presence, accumulation, and effects of various contaminants. Where several species were present at a site, a comparative evaluation was made and species are ranked for their capacity to serve as monitors of specific contaminants. Food chain accumulation and food habits of the species are used to establish a relationship with suitability as a biomonitor. Tissue-specific concentration factors were noted in order to establish target tissues. Life histories, habitat, and food habits are reviewed in order to make generalizations concerning the ability of similar taxa to serve as biomonitor. Finally, the usefulness of several small mammal species as monitors of three contaminants -- benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, and strontium-90 -- present on or near the ORNL facilities was investigated. 133 refs., 5 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Evaluations of the TiO2/simulated solar UV degradations of XAD fractions of natural organic matter from a bog lake using size-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Sergio; Marín, Juan M; Restrepo, Gloria; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2013-09-15

    This work reports on the changes in compositions of humic acids (HAs) and fulvic acids (FAs) during photocatalytic degradation. The HAs and FAs were obtained from the XAD-resin fractionation of natural-organic matter (NOM) from a bog lake (Lake Hohloh, Black Forest, Germany). Degussa P-25 titanium dioxide (TiO2) in a suspension and a solar UV simulator (batch reactor) were used in the experiments. The photocatalytic degradation of the HAs and FAs were monitored using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) equipped with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet (UV254) detection (SEC-DOC and SEC-UV254) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The evolutions of the photocatalytic degradations of the HA and FA fractions were selective. The photocatalytic degradation started with the degradations of high molecular weight compounds with relatively high UV254 absorbances in the HA and FA fractions to yield low molecular weight compounds showing less specific UV254 absorbances. Observance of the same tendency for the original NOM from Lake Hohloh indicates that these XAD-fractions still having complex compound mixtures. However, the larger molecular weight fractions of the FAs showed higher preferential adsorptions onto TiO2, which caused their faster degradation rates. Furthermore, FAs showed a greater reduction of the total THM formation potential (TTHMFP) and the organic halogen compounds adsorbable on activated carbon formation potential (AOXFP), in comparison with the HAs.

  11. The Cosmic Star-Formation History The UV finds most

    CERN Document Server

    Adelberger, K L

    2001-01-01

    This is a summary of arguments in favor of observing high-redshift star formation in the UV as presented at the Ringberg meeting in September 2000. The most rapidly star-forming galaxies are very dusty, easier to detect at 850um than in the UV, but less rapidly star-forming galaxies are less obscured by dust and as a result the comparatively faint galaxies that hosted most high-redshift star formation are easiest to detect in the UV. The correlation of star-formation rate and dust obscuration implies that extremely luminous dusty galaxies are usually as bright in the UV as the less luminous dust-free galaxies, and that any UV survey at a given redshift 0UV luminosity density will detect the majority of IR-selected galaxies as well. Little star formation occurs in galaxies that are completely hidden from UV surveys. I review recent attempts to estimate star-formation rates for high-redshift galaxies from UV data alone. The strength of UV surveys is that the...

  12. UV doses and skin effects during psoriasis climate therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeberg, Lise L.; Hernandez-Palacios, Julio; Lilleeng, Mila; Nilsen, Lill Tove; Krogstad, Anne-Lene

    2011-03-01

    Psoriasis is a common autoimmune disease with inflammatory symptoms affecting skin and joints. One way of dealing with psoriasis is by controlled solar UV exposure treatment. However, this treatment should be optimized to get the best possible treatment effect and to limit negative side effects such as erythema and an increased risk of skin cancer. In this study 24 patients at Valle Marina Treatment Center in Gran Canaria were monitored throughout a treatment period of three weeks starting at the beginning of November. The total UV dose to the location was monitored by UV-meters placed on the roof of the treatment centere, and the patients wore individual film dosimeters throughout the treatment period. Skin parameters were accessed by reflection spectroscopy (400-850nm). This paper presents preliminary findings from the skin measurements in the visible part of the spectrum, such as blood oxygenation, erythema and melanin indexes. Reflection spectroscopy was found to be a good tool for such treatment monitoring.

  13. Multi-channel selection algorithm in wireless monitoring networks%无线监测网络中多信道优化选择算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁胜; 蒋建国; 夏娜; 王佩佩

    2016-01-01

    无线监测网络中多电台监测节点通过捕捉和分析无线用户的通信数据 ,可以达到监测网络行为、诊断网络故障和管理网络资源的目的 ,而为多电台监测节点优化选择工作信道、最大化捕获数据量、获得最佳网络监测质量(quality of monitoring ,QoM )是一个关键问题.文章研究了一种基于同步微扰随机近似(SPSA )的信道选择算法.该算法在迭代过程中以随机扰动策略得到目标函数的近似梯度 ,引导搜索过程逐步逼近最优解 ;适合于复杂的多维优化问题求解 ,收敛速度快、复杂度低.实验结果表明 ,该算法可以实现无线监测网络中多电台监测节点的信道优化选择 ,并且性能优良.%In wireless monitoring networks ,multi-radio wireless sniffers are distributed for capturing and analyzing user activities in order to realize network monitoring ,fault diagnosis ,resource manage-ment and so on .Therefore ,it is a key topic to optimize the channel selection for sniffers to maximize the information collected ,so as to maximize the quality of monitoring(QoM ) .In this paper ,a simul-taneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA )-based solution is proposed in order to realize optimal channel selection .During iteration process ,the random perturbation strategy is used to com-pute the approximate gradient of the objective function ,which can lead the searching to the optimal solution .The algorithm is fast in convergence and low in complexity .The results of comparison ex-periments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can realize the multi-channel selection in wireless monitoring networks with high QoM .

  14. Optimization of SELEX: comparison of different methods for monitoring the progress of in vitro selection of aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencin, Nina; Šmuc, Tina; Vraničar, Marko; Mavri, Jan; Hren, Matjaž; Galeša, Katja; Krkoč, Peter; Ulrich, Henning; Šolar, Borut

    2014-03-01

    Oligonucleotide aptamers are selected from libraries typically comprising up to 10(15) different sequences by an iterative process of binding, separation, amplification and purification, called SELEX. During this process, the diversity of the oligonucleotide pool decreases until, presumably, only sequences with highest binding affinities towards chosen targets remain. This selection technique is time-consuming, labor-intensive and expensive. Though well posed in principles, the SELEX procedure is noise sensitive, due to amplification of unspecific-binding sequences, and it is not surprising that aptamer selection is often not successful in practice. In view of that, a follow-up of the progress of selection during its course with simple yet reliable methods is necessary. In this paper, we describe five independent assays to estimate the sequence complexity of SELEX pools including qualitative restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, melting curve analysis, quantitative fluorescence intensity measurements of bound ssDNA, real time PCR quantification and pool dissociation constant analysis during the progress of aptamer selection against streptavidin. Properties and features of each method are discussed and compared. Pool dissociation constant analysis and sequencing serve as reference methods.

  15. Effects of UV intensity and water turbidity on microbial indicator inactivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-jun; ZHANG Yong-ji

    2006-01-01

    The effects of UV intensity and turbidity on selected microbial indicator inactivation were investigated. Results showed that UV disinfection was effective in killing all the selected microbial indicators, the resistance order of the microorganisms was as follows: MS-2 coliphage > Bacillus subtilis > E. coli > Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. UV intensity had influence on the inactivation of all the microorganisms, high UV disinfection efficency was obtained with higher UV intensity. Turbidity had impact on the bacteria inactivation rate, but there was no evidence that turbidity had any negative contribution to MS-2 coliphage. Under the same UV dosage, higher UV intensity could overcome the negative influence of turbidity on UV performance, enhanced microorganism inactivation effect in turbidity water.

  16. Climate Variability, Dissolved Organic Carbon, UV Exposure, and Amphibian Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P. D.; O'Reilly, C. M.; Diamond, S.; Corn, S.; Muths, E.; Tonnessen, K.; Campbell, D. H.

    2001-12-01

    Increasing levels of UV radiation represent a potential threat to aquatic organisms in a wide range of environments, yet controls on in situ variability on UV exposure are relatively unknown. The primary control on the penetration of UV radiation in surface water environments is the amount of photoreactive dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Consequently, biogeochemical processes that control the cycling of DOC also affect the exposure of aquatic organisms to UV radiation. Three years of monitoring UV extinction and DOC composition in Rocky Mountain, Glacier, Sequoia/ Kings Canyon, and Olympic National Parks demonstrate that the amount of fulvic acid DOC is much more important than the total DOC pool in controlling UV attenuation. This photoreactive component of DOC originates primarily in soil, and is subject both to biogeochemical controls (e.g. temperature, moisture, vegetation, soil type) on production, and hydrologic controls on transport to surface water and consequently UV exposure to aquatic organisms. Both of these controls are positively related to precipitation with greater production and transport associated with higher precipitation amounts. For example, an approximately 20 percent reduction in precipitation from 1999 to 2000 resulted in a 27% - 59% reduction in the amount of photoreactive DOC at three sites in Rocky Mountain National Park. These differences in the amount of hydrophobic DOC result in an increase in UV exposure in the aquatic environment by a factor of 2 or more. Implications of these findings for observed patterns of amphibian decline will be discussed.

  17. UV activity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    In Order to continue the work displayed in Buccino & Mauas(2003) and Buccino (2003), we have calculated the index Mg II (Xhk) on 1640 high resolution IUE spectra of 269 main sequence stars of spectral classes F, G and K. From this set of observations, we found an exponential relation between the continuum UV flux and the color (B-V). Contrary to Schrijver et al (1989), who assumed that the continuum UV flux depended on the color following the relation found by Rutten (1984) for the visible one, i.e. the logarithm of the flux is proportional to a polynomial of third order with the color. Nevertheless, the exponential relation flux in the continuous UV and the color (B-V) fits far better to our data that the given one by Rutten (1984). Obtained this dependency for the ultraviolet continuum flux, the index Xhk can be obtained from the single flux in the lines core, allowing to calculate the index of Mg II for those spectra where the continuum is very dark and so the relation signal noise is very low. As it were already reported in previous works (Rutten (1991), Schrijver (1992)), we found a minimum basal flux in the Mg II h and k lines core due to the cromospheric heating by disipation of acustics waves. From this minimum flux, we calculated minimum index of activity that satisfactorily fits to the minimum values of the indexes calculated on the 1640 spectra like quotient between the flux in the line core and the continuous one.

  18. Simultaneous determination of 4-tert-octylphenol,4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Guanting Reservoir using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xing-long; HUANG Guo-lan; JIANG Gui-bin; ZHOU Qun-fang; LIU Jing-fu

    2004-01-01

    The wide occurrence of estrogenic compounds 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A in surface water of Guanting Reservoir was successfully determined. The target compounds in water samples were preconcentrated by liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane, derivatized by trifluoroacetic anhydride, and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring(SIM). In the selected seven sampling sites(S1-S7), the concentrations of NP in sample S7 were significantly higher than the other in reservoir. The pollution status in S3 and S7 were much more serious. The concentrations of OP, NP and BPA were in the range of 44.5-48.8, 221.6-349.6 and 30.2-82.7 ng/L, respectively. The pollution were mainly inputted from the upper river and released from sediments in Guanting Reservoir.

  19. The Gastrointestinal and Cardiovascular Safety of COX-2 selective inhibitors in general practice: the contribution of Prescription-Event Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Layton, D.

    2007-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for many conditions, especially in the elderly. Whilst effective, they also have side-effects, most commonly on the stomach. Advances in the understanding of how NSAIDs work in the body led to newer NSAIDs (COX-2 selective inhibitors whi

  20. Persons with multiple disabilities select environmental stimuli through a smile response monitored via camera-based technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancioni, G.E.; Bellini, D.; Oliva, D.; Singh, N.N.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lang, R.; Didden, H.C.M.; Bosco, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether two persons with multiple disabilities could use smile expressions and new camera-based microswitch technology to select environmental stimuli. Method: Within each session, a computer system provided samples/reminders of preferred and non-preferred stimuli. The camera-ba

  1. Photodegradation and toxicity changes of antibiotics in UV and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Fang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Hu Chun, E-mail: huchun@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Hu Xuexiang; Wei Dongbin; Chen Yong; Qu Jiuhui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2011-01-30

    The photodegradation of three antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline (DTC), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in UV and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was investigated with a low-pressure UV lamp system. Experiments were performed in buffered ultrapure water (UW), local surface water (SW), and treated water from local municipal drinking water treatment plant (DW) and wastewater treatment plant (WW). The efficiency of UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was affected by water quality. For all of the three selected antibiotics, the fastest degradation was observed in DW, and the slowest degradation occurred in WW. This phenomenon can be explained by R{sub OH,UV}, defined as the experimentally determined {center_dot}OH radical exposure per UV fluence. The R{sub OH,UV} values represent the background {center_dot}OH radical scavenging in water matrix, obtained by the degradation of para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), a probe compound. In natural water, the indirect degradation of CIP did not significantly increase with the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} due to its effective degradation by UV direct photolysis. Moreover, the formation of several photoproducts and oxidation products of antibiotics in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was identified using GC-MS. Toxicity assessed by Vibrio fischer (V. fischer), was increased in UV photolysis, for the photoproducts still preserving the characteristic structure of the parent compounds. While in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process, toxicity increased first, and then decreased; nontoxic products were formed by the oxidation of {center_dot}OH radical. In this process, detoxification was much easier than mineralization for the tested antibiotics, and the optimal time for the degradation of pollutants in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process would be determined by parent compound degradation and toxicity changes.

  2. TEMIS UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; van Geffen, Jos H. G. M.; Taylor, Michael; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald J.; Bais, Alkiviadis; Meleti, Charikleia; Balis, Dimitrios

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to cross-validate ground-based and satellite-based models of three photobiological UV effective dose products: the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) erythemal UV, the production of vitamin D in the skin, and DNA damage, using high-temporal-resolution surface-based measurements of solar UV spectral irradiances from a synergy of instruments and models. The satellite-based Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS; version 1.4) UV daily dose data products were evaluated over the period 2009 to 2014 with ground-based data from a Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU)-UV multifilter radiometer located at the northern midlatitude super-site of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (LAP/AUTh), in Greece. For the NILU-UV effective dose rates retrieval algorithm, a neural network (NN) was trained to learn the nonlinear functional relation between NILU-UV irradiances and collocated Brewer-based photobiological effective dose products. Then the algorithm was subjected to sensitivity analysis and validation. The correlation of the NN estimates with target outputs was high (r = 0. 988 to 0.990) and with a very low bias (0.000 to 0.011 in absolute units) proving the robustness of the NN algorithm. For further evaluation of the NILU NN-derived products, retrievals of the vitamin D and DNA-damage effective doses from a collocated Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) UVB-1 pyranometer were used. For cloud-free days, differences in the derived UV doses are better than 2 % for all UV dose products, revealing the reference quality of the ground-based UV doses at Thessaloniki from the NILU-UV NN retrievals. The TEMIS UV doses used in this study are derived from ozone measurements by the SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME2/MetOp-A satellite instruments, over the European domain in combination with SEVIRI/Meteosat-based diurnal cycle of the cloud cover fraction per 0. 5° × 0. 5° (lat × long) grid cells. TEMIS

  3. Rapid selection of a representative monitoring location of soil water content for irrigation scheduling using surface moisture-density gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Ibrahim; Janat, Mussadak; Makhlouf, Mohsen; Hamdan, Altayeb

    2016-10-01

    Establishing a representative monitoring location of soil water content is important for agricultural water management. One of the challenges is to develop a field protocol for determining such a location with minimum costs. In this paper, we use the concept of time stability in soil water content to examine whether using a short term monitoring period is sufficient to identify a representative site of soil water content and, therefore, irrigation scheduling. Surface moisture-density gauge was used as a means for measuring soil water content. Variations of soil water content in space and time were studied using geostatistical tools. Measuring soil water content was made at 30 locations as nodes of a 6×8 m grid, six times during the growing season. A representative location for average soil water content estimation was allocated at the beginning of a season, and thereafter it was validated. Results indicated that the spatial pattern of soil water content was strongly temporally stable, explained by the relationship between soil water content and fine soil texture. Two field surveys of soil water content, conducted before and after the 1st irrigation, could be sufficient to allocate a representative location of soil water content, and for adequate irrigation scheduling of the whole field. Surface moisture-density gauge was found to be efficient for characterising time stability of soil water content under irrigated field conditions.

  4. Monitoring survey of pulsating giant stars in the Local Group galaxies: survey description, science goals, target selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, E.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th; Khosroshahi, H.; Abedi, A.; Bamber, J.; Hashemi, S. A.; Nikzat, F.; Molaei Nezhad, A.

    2017-06-01

    The population of nearby dwarf galaxies in the Local Group constitutes a complete galactic environment, perfect suited for studying the connection between stellar populations and galaxy evolution. In this study, we are conducting an optical monitoring survey of the majority of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, with the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT), to identify long period variable stars (LPVs). These stars are at the end points of their evolution and therefore their luminosity can be directly translated into their birth masses; this enables us to reconstruct the star formation history. By the end of the monitoring survey, we will have performed observations over ten epochs, spaced approximately three months apart, and identified long-period, dust-producing AGB stars; five epochs of data have been obtained already. LPVs are also the main source of dust; in combination with Spitzer Space Telescope images at mid-IR wavelengths we will quantify the mass loss, and provide a detailed map of the mass feedback into the interstellar medium. We will also use the amplitudes in different optical passbands to determine the radius variations of the stars, and relate this to their mass loss.

  5. Superluminality and UV Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, G M

    2007-01-01

    The idea that the existence of a consistent UV completion satisfying the fundamental axioms of local quantum field theory or string theory may impose positivity constraints on the couplings of the leading irrelevant operators in a low-energy effective field theory is critically discussed. Violation of these constraints implies superluminal propagation, in the sense that the low-frequency limit of the phase velocity $v_{\\rm ph}(0)$ exceeds $c$. It is explained why causality is related not to $v_{\\rm ph}(0)$ but to the high-frequency limit $v_{\\rm ph}(\\infty)$ and how these are related by the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, depending on the sign of the imaginary part of the refractive index $\\Ima n(\\w)$ which is normally assumed positive. Superluminal propagation and its relation to UV completion is investigated in detail in three theories: QED in a background electromagnetic field, where the full dispersion relation for $n(\\w)$ is evaluated numerically for the first time and the role of the null energy con...

  6. OMI/Aura UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; Bais, Alkiviadis; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Arola, Antti; Kouremeti, Natalia; Balis, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of this work is to evaluate the NASA EOS AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) UV irradiance estimates through ground-based measurements performed by a NILU-UV multichannel radiometer (NILU-UV) operating in Thessaloniki, Greece, for the time period between January 2005 and December 2014. NILU-UV multi-filter radiometers can provide measurements at 5 UV wavelength bands with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm approximately and a time analysis of 1 min. An additional channel measuring the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) is also incorporated to the instrument and is used for the stringent characterization of the cloud free instances. The OMI instrument estimates solar UV irradiances at four wavelengths close to those of the NILU-UV in Thessaloniki. Clear and all-sky overpass-time, as well as solar local-noon time, UV estimates are provided by the NASA Aura Data Validation Center. Spectra measured from a collocated MKIII Brewer spectrophotometer with serial number 086 (Brewer #086) were utilized for the whole period (2005-2014) in order to estimate the NILU-UV irradiances at the OMI wavelength irradiances and therefore provide a direct comparison and validation to the NILU UV measurements provided by OMI. For the nominal comparisons, using un-flagged OMI data within a 50 km radius from Thessaloniki, the linear determination coefficient, R2, ranges between 0.91 and 0.97 for the 305 nm and between 0.75 and 0.92 for 380 nm depending on the choice of overpass or local-noon time data and the cloudiness flags. The best agreement is found for the clear-sky overpass-time comparisons as well as the both PAR- and satellite algorithm-deduced clear-sky overpass and local-noon comparisons for all wavelengths. The OMI irradiances were found to overestimate the NILU-UV observations in Thessaloniki between ∼4.5% and 13.5% for the 305 nm and between ∼1.5% and ∼10.0% for the 310 nm wavelength depending on the choice of time [overpass vs local noon

  7. In-line localized monitoring of catalyst activity in selective catalytic NO.sub.x reduction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Lawrence J.; Smith, Randall A.

    2009-12-22

    Localized catalyst activity in an SCR unit for controlling emissions from a boiler, power plant, or any facility that generates NO.sub.x-containing flue gases is monitored by one or more modules that operate on-line without disrupting the normal operation of the facility. Each module is positioned over a designated lateral area of one of the catalyst beds in the SCR unit, and supplies ammonia, urea, or other suitable reductant to the catalyst in the designated area at a rate that produces an excess of the reductant over NO.sub.x on a molar basis through the designated area. Sampling probes upstream and downstream of the designated area draw samples of the gas stream for NO.sub.x analysis, and the catalyst activity is determined from the difference in NO.sub.x levels between the two probes.

  8. Environmental monitoring of selected pesticides and organic chemicals in urban stormwater recycling systems using passive sampling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Declan; Miotliński, Konrad; Gonzalez, Dennis; Barry, Karen; Dillon, Peter; Gallen, Christie

    2014-03-01

    Water recycling via aquifers has become a valuable tool to augment urban water supplies in many countries. This study reports the first use of passive samplers for monitoring of organic micropollutants in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR). Five different configurations of passive samplers were deployed in a stormwater treatment wetland, groundwater monitoring wells and a recovery tank to capture a range of polar and non-polar micropollutants present in the system. The passive samplers were analysed for a suite of pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other chemicals. As a result, 17 pesticides and pesticide degradation products, 5 PAHs and 8 other organic chemicals including flame retardants and fragrances were detected in urban stormwater recharging Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) and an Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery (ASTR) system. Of the pesticides detected, diuron, metolachlor and chlorpyrifos were generally detected at the highest concentrations in one or more passive samplers, whereas chlorpyrifos, diuron, metolachlor, simazine, galaxolide and triallate were detected in multiple samplers. Fluorene was the PAH detected at the highest concentration and the flame retardant Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate was the chemical detected in the greatest abundance at all sites. The passive samplers showed different efficiencies for capture of micropollutants with the Empore disc samplers giving the most reliable results. The results indicate generally low levels of organic micropollutants in the stormwater, as the contaminants detected were present at very low ng/L levels, generally two to four orders of magnitude below the drinking water guidelines (NHMRC, 2011). The efficiency of attenuation of these organic micropollutants during MAR was difficult to determine due to variations in the source water concentrations. Comparisons were made between different samplers, to give a field-based calibration where existing lab-based calibrations were

  9. Environmental monitoring of selected pesticides and organic chemicals in urban stormwater recycling systems using passive sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Declan; Miotliński, Konrad; Gonzalez, Dennis; Barry, Karen; Dillon, Peter; Gallen, Christie

    2014-03-01

    Water recycling via aquifers has become a valuable tool to augment urban water supplies in many countries. This study reports the first use of passive samplers for monitoring of organic micropollutants in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR). Five different configurations of passive samplers were deployed in a stormwater treatment wetland, groundwater monitoring wells and a recovery tank to capture a range of polar and non-polar micropollutants present in the system. The passive samplers were analysed for a suite of pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other chemicals. As a result, 17 pesticides and pesticide degradation products, 5 PAHs and 8 other organic chemicals including flame retardants and fragrances were detected in urban stormwater recharging Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) and an Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery (ASTR) system. Of the pesticides detected, diuron, metolachlor and chlorpyrifos were generally detected at the highest concentrations in one or more passive samplers, whereas chlorpyrifos, diuron, metolachlor, simazine, galaxolide and triallate were detected in multiple samplers. Fluorene was the PAH detected at the highest concentration and the flame retardant Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate was the chemical detected in the greatest abundance at all sites. The passive samplers showed different efficiencies for capture of micropollutants with the Empore disc samplers giving the most reliable results. The results indicate generally low levels of organic micropollutants in the stormwater, as the contaminants detected were present at very low ng/L levels, generally two to four orders of magnitude below the drinking water guidelines (NHMRC, 2011). The efficiency of attenuation of these organic micropollutants during MAR was difficult to determine due to variations in the source water concentrations. Comparisons were made between different samplers, to give a field-based calibration where existing lab-based calibrations were

  10. Electric impedance sensing in cell-substrates for rapid and selective multipotential differentiation capacity monitoring of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitinger, Stephan; Wissenwasser, Jürgen; Kapferer, Werner; Heer, Rudolf; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2012-04-15

    Biosensor systems which enable impedance measurements on adherent cell layers under label-free conditions are considered powerful tools for monitoring specific biological characteristics. A radio frequency identification-based sensor platform was adopted to characterize cultivation and differentiation of human bone marrow-derived multipotent stem cells (bmMSC) over periods of up to several days and weeks. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing was achieved through fabrication of sensitive elements onto glass substrates which comprised two comb-shaped interdigitated gold electrodes covering an area of 1.8 mm×2 mm. The sensing systems were placed into the wells of a 6-well tissue culture plate, stacked onto a reader unit and could thus be handled and operated under sterile conditions. Continuous measurements were carried out with a sinusoidal voltage of 35 mV at a frequency of 10 kHz. After seeding of human bmMSC, this sensor was able to trace significant impedance changes contingent upon cell spreading and adhesion. The re-usable system was further proven suitable for live examination of cell-substrate attachment or continuous cell monitoring up to several weeks. Induction of either osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation could be validated in bmMSC cultures within a few days, in contrast to state-of-the-art protocols, which require several weeks of cultivation time. In the context of medical cell production in a GMP-compliant process, the here presented interdigitated electric microsensor technology allows the documentation of MSC quality in a fast, efficient and reliable fashion.

  11. Capillary electrophoresis with UV detection and mass spectrometry in method development for profiling metabolites of steroid hormone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirén, Heli; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Oresic, Matej

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for comprehensive profiling of metabolites involved in mammalian steroid metabolism. The study was performed using the partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography (PF-MEKC) technique for determination of endogenous low-hydrophilic steroids. The detection techniques in capillary electrophoresis were UV absorption and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Thirteen steroids were included in the method development, and the selected were metabolites involved in major pathways of steroid biosynthesis. Although only eight of them could be separated and detected with UV, they could be identified by ESI-MS using selected ion monitoring (SIM) technique. Tandem MS spectra were also collected. UV detection was more sensitive than MS due to better separation of compounds and the selective signal sensitivity. The lowest limits of detection were 10-100 ng/mL for cortisone, corticosterone, hydrocortisone and testosterone. The other steroids could be detected at 500-1000 ng/mL. The identification of cortisone, corticosterone, hydrocortisone, estrogen and testosterone were made in patient urine samples and their concentrations were 1-40 microg/L.

  12. New stratospheric UV/visible radiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Marceau

    Full Text Available A stratospheric balloon was launched on 12 October 1986 from the "CNES" base at Aire sur l'Adour (France to record twilight radiance in the stratosphere. The near-UV and visible radiances were continuously monitored by a photometer during sunrise. Some observations are presented for different viewing azimuthal planes and viewing elevation angles. They show the influence of aerosols layers and clouds which can be also seen on related photographs. The results as a whole may be used for testing some radiative models, especially for twilight conditions.

  13. Highly Selective Liquid Membrane Sensor Based on 1,3,5-Triphenylpyrylium Perchlorate for Quick Monitoring of Sulfate Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Ghorbani, Maryam; Daftari, Azadeh; Norouzi, Parviz; Pirelahi, Hooshang; Dargahani, Hossein Daryanavard [Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    A highly selective membrane electrode based on 1,3,5-triphenylpyrylium perchlorate (TPPP) is presented. The proposed electrode shows very good selectivity for sulfate ions over a wide variety of common inorganic and organic anions. The sensor displays a nice Nernstian slope of -29.7 mV per decade. The working concentration ranges of the electrode is 1.0 x 10{sup -1} . 6.3 x 10{sup -6} M with a detection limit of 4.0 x 10{sup -6} M (480 ng per mL). The response time of the sensor in whole concentration ranges is very short (< 6 s). The response of the sensor is independent on the pH range of 2.5-9.5. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 32% PVC, 59% benzyl acetate, 5% TPPP and 4% hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. It was successfully used as an indicator electrode for titration of sulfate ions with barium ions. The electrode was also applied for determination of salbutamol sulfate and paramomycine sulfate

  14. The UV-bright Quasar Survey (UVQS): DR1

    CERN Document Server

    Monroe, TalaWanda R; Tejos, N; Worseck, G; Hennawi, Joseph F; Schmidt, Tobias; Tumlinson, Jason; Shen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    We present the first data release (DR1) from our UV-bright Quasar Survey (UVQS) for new $z \\sim 1$ active galactic nuclei (AGN) across the sky. Using simple GALEX UV and WISE near-IR color selection criteria, we generated a list of 1450 primary candidates with $FUV 0.5$. Including a small set of observed secondary candidates, we report the discovery of 217 AGN with $FUV < 18$ mag that had no previously reported spectroscopic redshift. These are excellent potential targets for UV spectroscopy before the end of the {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} mission. The main data products are publicly released through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes.

  15. Hydraulic and geomorphic monitoring of experimental bridge scour mitigation at selected bridges in Utah, 2003-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Terry A.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2006-01-01

    Unique bridge scour mitigation designs using concrete A-Jacks were developed by the Utah Department of Transportation and installed at the Colorado River Bridge at State Road 191 and the Green River Bridge at State Road 19. The U.S. Geological Survey monitored stream reaches at these sites by collecting streambed-topography and water-velocity data from 2003 through 2005. These data were acquired annually from a moving boat with an acoustic Doppler current profiler and a differential global positioning system. Raw unordered data were processed and readied for interpolation into organized datasets with DopplerMacros, a set of computer programs. Processed streambed topography data were geostatistically interpolated by using Ordinary Kriging, and inverse distance weighting interpolation was used in the development of the two-dimensional velocity datasets. These organized datasets of topography and velocity were developed for each survey of the two bridge sites. A comparison of the riverbed topography data for each survey was done. An increase in bed elevation related to the installation of the A-Jacks scour countermeasures is evident at the Colorado River Bridge at State Road 191. The three topographic datasets acquired after the installation at the Green River Bridge at State Road 19 show few changes.

  16. [Study on the determination of permanganate index by UV-Vis spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shao-Jie; Shi, Fu-Rong; Zheng, Huai-Li

    2009-08-01

    Permanganate index is an important parameter to evaluate the organic pollution for water sources, and the current national standard method is titration analysis which needs large sample and is complicated. A new analytical method of measuring permanganate index in surface water using UV-Vis spectrometry has thus been studied. In the laboratory work, analytical wave-length of UV-Vis spectrometry was chosen. The effect of sulfuric acid dosage, concentration and dosage of KMnO4 together with heating temperature and time was identified. In order to evaluate this new method, the linear relationship of this method was tested and the analysis results were compared with those by titration method. The selected optimum analysis parameters were: 525 nm wavelength, 25% H2SO4 dosage of 5.00 mL, 0.012 50 mol x L(-1) KMnO4 dosage of 2.00 mL, 30 min heating time at the temperature of 100 degrees C. This UV-Vis spectrometry method was successfully applied to measuring the permanganate index of the samples collected from the Jialing River and the Yangtze River. Compared with the current national standard method, this method is time and cost efficient, sensitive and precise, with low reagent usage; and is also easy to be manipulated and can be employed for online monitor, thus making it an environmental friendly analysing method.

  17. Water quality monitoring system for determination of ionic nutrients by ion-exclusion chromatography with spectrophotometric detection on cation- and anion-exchange resin columns using water eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Daisuke; Nakatani, Nobutake; Mori, Masanobu; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2012-07-01

    A unified ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) system for monitoring anionic and cationic nutrients like NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, phosphate ion, silicate ion and HCO3- was developed and applied to several environmental waters. The IEC system consisted of four IEC methodologies, including the IEC with ultraviolet (UV) form connected with detection at 210 nm for determining NH4+ on anion-exchange separation column in OH anion-exchange UV-conversion column in I- form in tandem, the IEC with UV-detection at 210 nm for determining simultaneously NO3- and NO3- on cation-exchange separation column in H+ form, the IEC with UV-detection at 210 nm for determining HCO3- on cation-exchange separation column in H+ form connected with anion-exchange UV-conversion column in I- form in tandem, and the IEC with visible-detection based on molybdenum-blue reaction for determining simultaneously silicate and phosphate ions on cation-exchange separation column in H+ form. These IEC systems were combined through three manually-driven 6-port column selection valves to select each separation column to determine selectively the ionic nutrients. Using this sequential water quality monitoring system, the analytical performances such as calibration linearity, reproducibility, detection limit and recovery were also tested under the optimized chromatographic conditions. This novel water quality monitoring system has been applied successfully for the determination of the ionic eutrophication components in sub-urban river waters.

  18. coating layers under the UV loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhavý Petr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For individual components as well as for the final products is need to determine their resistance and other mechanical properties, which can be changing due to the various conditions and simultaneously we try to get still closer to the real operating conditions.Currently, given the need to guarantee a perfect quality of the product throughout its entire life cycle, it is necessary to assess the protective layers that are in direct contact with the material itself or with the future products.This article presents the results of testing individual components of the selected materials and their resistance to the UV rays. These were some samples of a prelacquered sheet and a powder coated plate after their forming, next by pigment colored concrete cubes, artificial wood and a prototype sample of the translucent material Licrete. Compared to a conventional climate tests such as heat, cold, humidity or the salt chambers, the colored protection layers were subjected to a strong UV rays. Subsequently was evaluated the change of the colors, brightness and where it was possible also the adhesion parameters and thickness of the coated layer. The measurement wasn’t focused only on the adhesion and color stability, but also to a violation of microstructure due to high temperatures caused by the UV ray. The selected specimens were tested in a device which simulates solar radiation and then were them evaluated the changes of a colors and on the surface structure.

  19. Selection of indicators for continuous monitoring of patient safety: recommendations of the project 'safety improvement for patients in Europe'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Solvejg; Mainz, Jan; Bartels, Paul

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Initiatives to improve patient safety have high priority among health professionals and politicians in most developed countries. Currently, however, assessment of patient safety problems relies mainly on case-based methodologies. The evidence for their efficiency and reproducibility......, proving that safety of care has improved with their usage, is questionable. The exact incidence and prevalence of patient safety quality problems are unknown. Therefore, there is a need for firm, evidence-based methods to survey and develop patient safety and derived activities. OBJECTIVE: The objective...... of this paper is to describe a method to select patient safety indicators and present the indicators derived through this process. METHODS: The patient safety indicators were derived and recommended for use in a formalized consensus process based on literature review, targeted information gathering, expert...

  20. The pH dependence of phototautomerism in horse radish peroxidase monitored by fluorescence site-selection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidy, Judit; Koloczek, Henryk; Paul, Karl-Gustav; Vanderkooi, Jane M.

    1987-12-01

    Fluorescence site-selection spectra of mesoporphyrin horse radish peroxidase C 2 were measured at cryogenic temperatures in 50% glycerol-water. With irradiation at ≈ 17300 cm -1 interconverting emission lines were detected, which are attributed to phototautomerization within the excited sites. The reactivity for tautomerization was found to be much higher at pH 5.1 than at pH 8.0. The fluorescence decay for the two tautomers is single exponential with lifetimes of 23 and 21 ns, respectively. pH sensitivity is discussed in terms of possible conformational changes of the amino acid chain or a role of the liberated histidine in the reaction pathway.

  1. Skin Cancer and UV Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbuk Anita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The primary cause of skin cancer is long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation and family genetics. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence, 80% of UV-R gets absorbed while in the remaining, 20 % gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective textiles are the three ways of UV protection. Most people think that all the clothing will protect them, but it does not provide full sun screening properties. Literature sources claim that only 1/3 of the spring and summer collections tested give off proper UV protection. This is very important during the summer months, when UV index is the highest. Fabric UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fiber, fabric surface, construction, porosity, density, moisture content, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agents, UV-B protective agents (UV absorbers, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For all of these reasons, in the present paper, the results of UV protecting ability according to AS/NZS 4399:1996 will be discussed to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV-R to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose enhancing light conversion and scattering. Additionally, the discrepancy in UV protection was investigated in distilled water as well as Adriatic Sea water.

  2. An integrated remote sensing and GIS approach for monitoring areas affected by selective logging: A case study in northern Mato Grosso, Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecchi, Rosana Cristina; Beuchle, René; Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Arai, Egidio; Simonetti, Dario; Achard, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    Forest cover disturbances due to processes such as logging and forest fires are a widespread issue especially in the tropics, and have heavily affected forest biomass and functioning in the Brazilian Amazon in the past decades. Satellite remote sensing has played a key role for assessing logging activities in this region; however, there are still remaining challenges regarding the quantification and monitoring of these processes affecting forested lands. In this study, we propose a new method for monitoring areas affected by selective logging in one of the hotspots of Mato Grosso state in the Brazilian Amazon, based on a combination of object-based and pixel-based classification approaches applied on remote sensing data. Logging intensity and changes over time are assessed within grid cells of 300 m × 300 m spatial resolution. Our method encompassed three main steps: (1) mapping forest/non-forest areas through an object-based classification approach applied to a temporal series of Landsat images during the period 2000-2015, (2) mapping yearly logging activities from soil fraction images on the same Landsat data series, and (3) integrating information from previous steps within a regular grid-cell of 300 m × 300 m in order to monitor disturbance intensities over this 15-years period. The overall accuracy of the baseline forest/non-forest mask (year 2000) and of the undisturbed vs disturbed forest (for selected years) were 93% and 84% respectively. Our results indicate that annual forest disturbance rates, mainly due to logging activities, were higher than annual deforestation rates during the whole period of study. The deforested areas correspond to circa 25% of the areas affected by forest disturbances. Deforestation rates were highest from 2001 to 2005 and then decreased considerably after 2006. In contrast, the annual forest disturbance rates show high temporal variability with a slow decrease over the 15-year period, resulting in a significant increase of the

  3. Pilot CCS project in Indonesia "Gundih CCS project": Geological and geophysical surveys for site selection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Takahashi, Toru; Kitamura, Keigo; Onishi, Kyosuke; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Rachmat Sule, Mohammad; Kadir, Wawan Gunawan A.; Widarto, Djedi S.; Sebayang, Rio I.; Prasetyo, Agung; Priyono, Awali; Widianto, Eko; Sapiie, Benyamin

    2013-04-01

    A pilot CCS project in Indonesia will be implemented in Gundih area, Central Java Province. The Gundih area is a gas field, and gas is ready to be produced by Pertamina EP. The CO2 content within the produced gas is more than 20% in the Gundih field, so that CO2 injection near the gas production well could be effective way to avoid abundant CO2 emission. Before implementing CO2 injection, the reservoir for CO2 injection must be characterized carefully by conducting subsurface characterization and evaluation, in order to make sure that the reservoir is suitable for CCS. Here we report preliminary results of site surveys for the determination of CO2 injection site in the Gundih area. Subsurface structures imaged on seismic reflection profiles indicate that the Ngrayong formation is one of the candidates for CO2 injection. The lithology of the Ngrayong formation is sandstone, and the depth of the formation is ~1 km in the Gundih area. Since we could not find large-scale structural closure (i.e., anticline) for the Ngrayong formation, we need to consider residual trapping. To reveal hydrological properties (e.g., permeability) of the Ngrayong formation, we obtained rock samples from the outcrop of the Ngrayong formation. Using the laboratory-derived hydrological properties and subsurface structures extracted from seismic data (e.g., geometry of the Ngrayong formation), we will apply reservoir simulation in order to determine CO2 injection site. To design the geophysical monitoring survey (e.g., receiver and source position in time-lapse seismic survey), furthermore, we conduct simulation study for the constructed geological model and estimate elastic and electric responses associated with CO2 injection.

  4. TROPOMI and TROPI: UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.; Eskes, H.; Weele, M. van; Veefkind, P.; Oss, R. van; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.T.; Landgraf, J.; Vries, J. de; Visser, H.

    2006-01-01

    TROPOMI (Tropospheric Ozone-Monitoring Instrument) is a five-channel UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR non-scanning nadir viewing imaging spectrometer that combines a wide swath (114°) with high spatial resolution (10 × 10 km 2). The instrument heritage consists of GOME on ERS-2, SCIAMACHY on Envisat and, especially,

  5. TROPOMI and TROPI: UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.; Eskes, H.; Weele, M. van; Veefkind, P.; Oss, R. van; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.T.; Landgraf, J.; Vries, J. de; Visser, H.

    2006-01-01

    TROPOMI (Tropospheric Ozone-Monitoring Instrument) is a five-channel UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR non-scanning nadir viewing imaging spectrometer that combines a wide swath (114°) with high spatial resolution (10 × 10 km 2). The instrument heritage consists of GOME on ERS-2, SCIAMACHY on Envisat and, especially,

  6. Selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical applications: Temperature monitoring and microstructural evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadroitsev, I., E-mail: ihar.yadroitsau@enise.fr [Université de Lyon, Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Saint-Etienne, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Krakhmalev, P. [Karlstad University, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, SE-651 88 Karlstad (Sweden); Yadroitsava, I. [Université de Lyon, Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Saint-Etienne, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Temperature measurements of molten pool were done using CCD camera. • Temperature of molten pool versus scanning speed and laser power was determined. • Microstructures and microhardness of SLM samples were analyzed. • Influence of heat treatment on microstructure were discussed and presented. -- Abstract: Selective laser melting (SLM) is a kind of additive manufacturing where parts are made directly from 3D CAD data layer-by-layer from powder material. SLM products are used in various industries including aerospace, automotive, electronic, chemical, biomedical and other high-tech areas. The properties of the parts produced by SLM depend strongly on the material nature, characteristics of each single track and each single layer, as well as the strength of the connections between them. Studying the temperature distribution during SLM is important because temperature gradient and heat transfer determine the microstructure and finally mechanical properties of the SLM part. In this study a CCD camera was applied for determination of the surface temperature distribution and the molten pool size of Ti6Al4V alloy. The investigation of the microstructure evolution after different heat treatments was carried out to determine the microstructure in terms of applicability for the biomedical industry.

  7. Porphyrins as Templates for Site-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition: Vapor Metalation and in Situ Monitoring of Island Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Jason R; Emery, Jonathan D; Pellin, Michael J; Martinson, Alex B F; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2016-08-10

    Examinations of enzymatic catalysts suggest one key to efficient catalytic activity is discrete size metallo clusters. Mimicking enzymatic cluster systems is synthetically challenging because conventional solution methods are prone to aggregation or require capping of the cluster, thereby limiting its catalytic activity. We introduce site-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) on porphyrins as an alternative approach to grow isolated metal oxide islands that are spatially separated. Surface-bound tetra-acid free base porphyrins (H2TCPP) may be metalated with Mn using conventional ALD precursor exposure to induce homogeneous hydroxide synthetic handles which acts as a nucleation point for subsequent ALD MnO island growth. Analytical fitting of in situ QCM mass uptake reveals island growth to be hemispherical with a convergence radius of 1.74 nm. This growth mode is confirmed with synchrotron grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. Finally, we extend this approach to other ALD chemistries to demonstrate the generality of this route to discrete metallo island materials.

  8. Determination of organic nitro compounds using HPLC-UV-PAED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marple, Ronita L.; LaCourse, William R.

    2004-12-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet and photo-assisted electrochemical detection (HPLC-UV-PAED) has been applied to the sensitive and selective determination of organic nitro compounds. The system was first developed for the determination of nitro explosives, and PAED has shown superior sensitivity over UV detection for these compounds (i.e., detectors can be used for improved analyte identification. Also, having two detectors permits chemometric resolution of overlapping peaks, and this is not addressed in the UV method. Because this method is applicable to a wide range of nitro explosives, it was predicted that PAED would show the same sensitivity and selectivity toward other types of nitro compounds. Since its development, the system's use has been expanded to include the determination of nitro-containing pharmaceuticals and glycosylated nitro compounds in biological matrices. Model compounds were chosen, specifically nitroglycerin and related compounds and nitrophenyl-glucoside, to represent these classes. PAED showed superior detection limits over low wavelength UV detection for nitroglycerin (PAED = 0.3ppb, UV at 220nm = 48ppb), demonstrating PAED"s applicability to determining nitro-pharmaceuticals. Conversely, UV detection at 220nm proved to be more sensitive than PAED for nitrophenyl-glucoside (UV at 220 = 0.6ppb, PAED = 3.6ppb). However, when nitrophenyl-glucoside was spiked into urine, PAED determination resulted in 99+0.3% recovery, while UV at 220nm resulted in 116+0.2% recovery, suggesting that UV determination may suffer from matrix interference.

  9. A selected reaction monitoring-based analysis of acute phase proteins in interstitial fluids from experimental equine wounds healing by secondary intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Louise; Bendixen, Emøke; Sørensen, Mette Aa

    2016-01-01

    In horses, pathological healing with formation of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) is a particular problem in limb wounds, whereas body wounds tend to heal without complications. Chronic inflammation has been proposed to be central to the pathogenesis of EGT. This study aimed to investigate...... levels of inflammatory acute phase proteins (APPs) in interstitial fluid from wounds in horses. A novel approach for absolute quantification of proteins, selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based mass spectrometry in combination with a quantification concatamer (QconCAT), was used for the quantification...... five horses at days 1, 2, 7, and 14 after wounding and healing without (body) and with (limb) the formation of EGT. The QconCAT included proteotypic peptides representing each of the protein targets and was used to direct the design of a gene, which was expressed in Escherichia coli in a media...

  10. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  11. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  12. Region-selective Metalization of Poly(methylmethacrylate) Surface Based on UV/ozone Surface Modification%基于紫外光/臭氧化学改性-选择性化学镀的聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯表面区域金属化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡贤巧; 蒋艳; 何巧红; 施秧梦; 胡辰辰; 汤凝; 陈恒武

    2012-01-01

    要 研究以紫外光光化学反应为基础的在聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯(PMMA)表面区域选择性金属化的方法。 通过对无臭氧紫外光、紫外光+臭氧(UV/O3)、臭氧对PMMA表面亲水化改性效果的对比, 发现仅有UV/O3可有效地使PMMA表面亲水。 表面红外光谱表明, UV/O3对PMMA表面协同作用的结果是在辐照区域生成了羧基等含氧活性基团。 以此含氧活性基团为基础, 经过胺化、氯金酸阴离子交换、NaBH4还原等表面反应, 在UV/O3作用区域形成化学镀所必须的金纳米催化中心, 再将PMMA浸入镀金、镀铜等化学镀浴中, 即可实现PMMA表面的区域金属化。 以打印的菲林片为原始掩膜, 该方法分辨率可达50 μm或更小。 以该法制备了金和铜的薄膜微电极、金膜微电热器等金属微器件, 并表征了它们的物理化学性能。%Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) has been widely used in the fields of optical instruments, aviation and auto industry, construction industry, advertising and decoration industry due to its optical transparency, low cost, low toxicity, and less fragile property. Recently it has been exploited to fabricate microfluidic chips. Region-selective metallization of PMMA surfaces are frequently required to improve the surface properties of PMMA and to integrate micro metal devices in PMMA microfluidic chips. This article presents our recent study on region-selective metalization of PMMA by means of UV/O3-based surface modification in combination of region-selective electroless plating. Deep UV-lights, ozone, and deep UV-lights in cooperation with ozone were compared with respect to the efficiency of hydrophilization of the PMMA surface. It was observed with water contact angle measurements that only synchronized deep UV and ozone treatment can turn the PMMA surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic effectively. Attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that polar

  13. A new and highly selective turn-on fluorescent sensor with fast response time for the monitoring of cadmium ions in cosmetic, and health product samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Rouhollah; Ghiamati, Ebrahim; Boroujerdi, Ramin; Rezaeifard, Abdolreza; Zaryabi, Mohadeseh Hosseinpour

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) which is an extremely toxic could be found in many products like plastics, fossil fuel combustion, cosmetics, water resources, and wastewaters. It is capable of causing serious environmental and health problems such as lung, prostate, renal cancers and the other disorders. So, the development of a sensor to continually monitor cadmium is considerably demanding. Tetrakis(4-nitrophenyl)porphyrin, T(4-NO2-P)P, was synthesized and used as a new and highly selective fluorescent probe for monitoring cadmium ions in the "turn-on" mode. There was a linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and the concentration of Cd(II) in the range of 1.0 × 10- 6 to 1.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 with a detection limit of 0.276 μM. To examine the most important parameters involved and their interactions in the sensor optimization procedure, a four-factor central composite design (CCD) combined with response surface modeling (RSM) was implemented. The practical applicability of the developed sensor was investigated using real cosmetic, and personal care samples.

  14. The mechanisms of UV mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Hironobu; Ono, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light induces specific mutations in the cellular and skin genome such as UV-signature and triplet mutations, the mechanism of which has been thought to involve translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) over UV-induced DNA base damage. Two models have been proposed: "error-free" bypass of deaminated cytosine-containing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) by DNA polymerase η, and error-prone bypass of CPDs and other UV-induced photolesions by combinations of TLS and replicative DNA polymerases--the latter model has also been known as the two-step model, in which the cooperation of two (or more) DNA polymerases as misinserters and (mis)extenders is assumed. Daylight UV induces a characteristic UV-specific mutation, a UV-signature mutation occurring preferentially at methyl-CpG sites, which is also observed frequently after exposure to either UVB or UVA, but not to UVC. The wavelengths relevant to the mutation are so consistent with the composition of daylight UV that the mutation is called solar-UV signature, highlighting the importance of this type of mutation for creatures with the cytosine-methylated genome that are exposed to the sun in the natural environment. UVA has also been suggested to induce oxidative types of mutation, which would be caused by oxidative DNA damage produced through the oxidative stress after the irradiation. Indeed, UVA produces oxidative DNA damage not only in cells but also in skin, which, however, does not seem sufficient to induce mutations in the normal skin genome. In contrast, it has been demonstrated that UVA exclusively induces the solar-UV signature mutations in vivo through CPD formation.

  15. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15771 Athens (Greece); Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: sdcqam@cid.csic.es [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, C/ Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. - Highlights: • First evidence of UV filters in fish from Iberian rivers • Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were always below 1. • Predator species presented higher UV-F concentrations suggesting trophic magnification.

  16. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  17. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  18. Long-term monitoring of 10 selected pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Sierra Nevada National Park, southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; López-Olvera, Jorge; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M; Granados, José E

    2014-11-07

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations are increasing in the Iberian Peninsula, and population management must include disease management and control. In this study, the epidemiology of 10 selected pathogens (Aujeszky's disease virus - ADV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus - PRRSV, porcine influenza virus, porcine circovirus, porcine parvovirus, Erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae, Leptospira pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp., Salmonella sp. and Mycobacterium bovis) in the wild boar population in Sierra Nevada National Park (SNNP), an open unfenced area, is reported, taking into account wild boar population abundance variation in space and time in an open unfenced environment. A total of 1103 wild boar were sampled in 141 hunting events randomly carried out for sampling in seven hunting seasons (October to February from 2002-2003 to 2009-2010 (except 2007-2008). Prevalence was overall lower than those previously reported for fenced wild boar populations in Spain, but all the pathogens analyzed except PRRSV were considered endemic in the SNNP. ADV, E. rhusiopathiae and total pathogen prevalence were positively correlated to wild boar density. Prevalence in the positive areas was significantly higher in females for ADV, E. rhusiopathiae, L. pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp. and Salmonella sp., and in males for M. bovis. This longitudinal study provides the first data on the health status of the relatively unmanaged and low density wild boar population of SNNP. It is concluded that non-intensively managed wild boar populations are able to maintain the circulation of several pathogens, even in low prevalences and in open unfenced areas with natural density variation both in time and space.

  19. TiO2光催化降解4-氯苯酚过程中的电分析监测%On-Line Monitoring in Photocatalytic Degrad ation of 4-Chlorophenol by Using Cyclic Voltammetry and UV-Vis Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺飞; 沈伟韧; 方程; 方佑龄

    2001-01-01

    On-line monitoring in photocatalytic degradation process oforganic compound 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) w as carrie d out by using cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis spectrometry. The result showed th at the degradation process undertook at least a two-route mechanism to the comp lete mineralization: through redox pairs of benzoquinone(BQ) and hydrobenzoquinone(HQ ) and of hydroxybenzoquinone(HBQ) and hydroxyhydrobenzoquinone(HHQ). UV-Vis spe ctra taken at different time showed the breakage of benzene ring and the complet e mineralization. The electroanalysis was proved to be a proper technique for on -line monitoring as it could detect simultaneously both initial reactants and intermed iates, and thus it is suitable for on-line monitoring and complementary for mec hanism study.%采用循环伏安法和紫外光谱法对有机物的光催化降解进行机理研究和在线监测.以标准光催化剂DegussaP25在紫外光照射下催化降解4-氯苯酚,发现在降解过程中至少有两对氧化还原中间产物:对苯二酚-苯醌和羟基氢醌-羟基苯醌.由4-氯苯酚及中间产物的电极响应,可以观测到它们在光催化降解过程中的含量变化,从而对整个过程实现在线监测,并由此全面了解光催化反应机理.从不同反应时间后测得的紫外光谱可以看到,苯环特征峰逐渐消失.这表明4-氯苯酚的苯环逐渐被打开,直至被彻底降解.

  20. Effects of salicylic acid (SA), ultraviolet radiation (UV-B and UV-C) on trans-resveratrol inducement in the skin of harvested grape berries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong LI; Xianbo ZHENG; Shutang YAN; Shaohua LI

    2008-01-01

    Effects of salicylic acid (SA), ultraviolet radiation (UV-B and UV-C) on the trans-resveratrol (Res) inducement of the skin of harvested grape berries were studied with three grape cultivars Takasuma, Tano Red and Carigane. Split plot design tests were adopted to compare the effects of UV-B and UV-C radiation on Res inducement of different cultivars. Results showed that tents in the skins of harvested berries for the three-selected cultivars. However, the effect of SA varied with the cultivars, and Res inducement by SA was more effective to Tano Red than Takasuma and Carigane. UV-B or UV-C irradiation significantly increased Res contents in grape skins and UV-C was more effective than UV-B. The effects of UV types and dosages on Res inducement depended upon cultivars. In the range of 0-3.6 kJ.m-2, the Res contents in the skins of the three grape cultivars were enhanced along with the increase of dosages of UV-B and UV-C.

  1. Selecting representative microsatellite loci for genetic monitoring and analyzing genetic structure of an outbred population of orange tabby cats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X Y; Yi, S; Huo, X Y; Wang, C; Liu, D F; Ren, W Z; Chen, Z W

    2015-03-13

    We optimized a panel of microsatellite markers from cat and tiger genetic data for efficient genetic monitoring and used it to analyze the genetic structure of an outbred cat stock in China. We selected a set of rich polymorphic microsatellite loci from 131 cat microsatellite loci and 3 Sumatran tiger microsatellite loci using agarose gel electrophoresis. Next, the set of optimized genetic markers was used to analyze the genetic variation in an outbred population of orange tabby cats in China by simple-tandem repeat scanning. Thirty-one loci rich in polymorphisms were selected and the highest allele number in a single locus was 8. Analysis of the orange tabby cat population illustrated that the average observed number of alleles, mean effective allele number, mean Shannon's information index, mean expected heterozygosity, and observed heterozygosity were 3.8387, 2.4027, 0.9787, 0.5565, and 0.5528, respectively. The 31 microsatellite markers used were polymorphic and suitable for analyzing the genetic structure of cats. The population of orange tabby cats was confirmed to be a well-outbred stock.

  2. Application of wide selected-ion monitoring data-independent acquisition to identify tomato fruit proteins regulated by the CUTIN DEFICIENT2 transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laetitia B B; Sherwood, Robert W; Nicklay, Joshua J; Yang, Yong; Muratore-Schroeder, Tara L; Anderson, Elizabeth T; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Zhang, Sheng

    2016-08-01

    We describe here the use of label-free wide selected-ion monitoring data-independent acquisition (WiSIM-DIA) to identify proteins that are involved in the formation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit cuticles and that are regulated by the transcription factor CUTIN DEFICIENT2 (CD2). A spectral library consisting of 11 753 unique peptides, corresponding to 2338 tomato protein groups, was used and the DIA analysis was performed at the MS1 level utilizing narrow mass windows for extraction with Skyline 2.6 software. We identified a total of 1140 proteins, 67 of which had expression levels that differed significantly between the cd2 tomato mutant and the wild-type cultivar M82. Differentially expressed proteins including a key protein involved in cutin biosynthesis, were selected for validation by target SRM/MRM and by Western blot analysis. In addition to confirming a role for CD2 in regulating cuticle formation, the results also revealed that CD2 influences pathways associated with cell wall biology, anthocyanin biosynthesis, plant development, and responses to stress, which complements findings of earlier RNA-Seq experiments. Our results provide new insights into molecular processes and aspects of fruit biology associated with CD2 function, and demonstrate that the WiSIM-DIA is an effective quantitative approach for global protein identifications.

  3. Real-time selective visual monitoring of Hg(2+) detection at ppt level: An approach to lighting electrospun nanofibers using gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamizhan, Anitha; Celebioglu, Asli; Uyar, Tamer

    2015-05-28

    In this work, fluorescent gold nanocluster (AuNC) decorated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers (AuNC*PCL-NF) for real time visual monitoring of Hg(2+) detection at ppt level in water is demonstrated. The resultant AuNC*PCL-NF exhibiting remarkable stability more than four months at ambient environment and facilitates increased accessibility to active sites resulting in improved sensing performance with rapid response time. The fluorescence changes of AuNC*PCL-NF and their corresponding time dependent spectra, upon introduction of Hg(2+), led to the visual identification of the sensor performance. It is observed that the effective removal of excess ligand (bovine serum albumin (BSA) greatly enhances the surface exposure of AuNC and therefore their selective sensing performance is achieved over competent metal ions such as Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+) present in the water. An exceptional interaction is observed between AuNC and Hg(2+), wherein the absence of excess interrupting ligand makes AuNC more selective towards Hg(2+). The underlying mechanism is found to be due to the formation of Au-Hg amalgam, which was further investigated with XPS, TEM and elemental mapping studies. In short, our findings may lead to develop very efficient fluorescent-based nanofibrous mercury sensor, keeping in view of its stability, simplicity, reproducibility, and low cost.

  4. Real-time selective visual monitoring of Hg2+ detection at ppt level: An approach to lighting electrospun nanofibers using gold nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamizhan, Anitha; Celebioglu, Asli; Uyar, Tamer

    2015-05-01

    In this work, fluorescent gold nanocluster (AuNC) decorated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers (AuNC*PCL-NF) for real time visual monitoring of Hg2+ detection at ppt level in water is demonstrated. The resultant AuNC*PCL-NF exhibiting remarkable stability more than four months at ambient environment and facilitates increased accessibility to active sites resulting in improved sensing performance with rapid response time. The fluorescence changes of AuNC*PCL-NF and their corresponding time dependent spectra, upon introduction of Hg2+, led to the visual identification of the sensor performance. It is observed that the effective removal of excess ligand (bovine serum albumin (BSA) greatly enhances the surface exposure of AuNC and therefore their selective sensing performance is achieved over competent metal ions such as Cu2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ present in the water. An exceptional interaction is observed between AuNC and Hg2+, wherein the absence of excess interrupting ligand makes AuNC more selective towards Hg2+. The underlying mechanism is found to be due to the formation of Au-Hg amalgam, which was further investigated with XPS, TEM and elemental mapping studies. In short, our findings may lead to develop very efficient fluorescent-based nanofibrous mercury sensor, keeping in view of its stability, simplicity, reproducibility, and low cost.

  5. Multi-mycotoxin analysis of animal feed and animal-derived food using LC-MS/MS system with timed and highly selective reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Liu, Na; Yang, Lingchen; Deng, Yifeng; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Suquan; Lin, Shanhai; Wu, Aibo; Zhou, Zhenlei; Hou, Jiafa

    2015-09-01

    Mycotoxins have the potential to enter the human food chain through carry-over of contaminants from feed into animal-derived products. The objective of the study was to develop a reliable and sensitive method for the analysis of 30 mycotoxins in animal feed and animal-derived food (meat, edible animal tissues, and milk) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the study, three extraction procedures, as well as various cleanup procedures, were evaluated to select the most suitable sample preparation procedure for different sample matrices. In addition, timed and highly selective reaction monitoring on LC-MS/MS was used to filter out isobaric matrix interferences. The performance characteristics (linearity, sensitivity, recovery, precision, and specificity) of the method were determined according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and 401/2006/EC. The established method was successfully applied to screening of mycotoxins in animal feed and animal-derived food. The results indicated that mycotoxin contamination in feed directly influenced the presence of mycotoxin in animal-derived food. Graphical abstract Multi-mycotoxin analysis of animal feed and animal-derived food using LC-MS/MS.

  6. UV imaging of Multiple Unit Pellet System (MUPS) tablets: A case study of acetylsalicylic acid stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Rades, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The applicability of multispectral ultraviolet (UV) imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis was investigated to monitor API degradation within multiple unit pellet system (MUPS) tablets during storage. For this purpose, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) layered pellets were coated...

  7. UV excitations of halons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Ljiljana; Alyoubi, Abdulrahman O.; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Hilal, Rifaat H.; Barbatti, Mario

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the UV excitations of a newly introduced molecular set, Halons-9, composed of nine gaseous halon molecules. The performance of the density functional-based multi-reference configuration interaction method (DFT/MRCI) and time-dependent density functional theory with CAM-B3LYP functional (TD-CAM-B3LYP) in the computation of singlet and triplet excited states of this set was evaluated against coupled-cluster with singles and doubles (CCSD). Excited states up to the corresponding ionization limits, including both localized and delocalized excitations, have been benchmarked. TD-CAM-B3LYP significantly underestimates excitation energies of the higher mixed valence-Rydberg and Rydberg states, with computed mean absolute deviations from the equation of motion (EOM)-CCSD results 1.06 and 0.76 eV, respectively. DFT/MRCI gives a significantly better description of higher excited states, albeit still poor, compared to the TD-CAM-B3LYP. The mean absolute deviations of mixed valence-Rydberg and Rydberg states from the reference EOM-CCSD values are 0.66 and 0.47 eV, respectively. The performance of DFT/MRCI for description of strongly correlated states with valence-Rydberg mixing is still not satisfactory enough. On the other hand, oscillator strengths of most of singlet states obtained with both methods are close to the EOM-CCSD values. The largest deviations, occurring in the case of several high-lying multiconfigurational states, are of an order of magnitude.

  8. Cubesat-based UV astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Noah

    Development of UV astronomy can be traced to go in one main direction: launching even larger telescopes to ensure an as high as possible photon collecting area. This trend causes inevitably escalating mission costs and this, in the present environment of diminishing research budgets, is the main reason for not having as many UV astronomy missions as one would like. I propose an alternative paradigm based on developing UV missions based on the cubesat technology. This allows a very significant cost reduction by basing the platform on custom off-the-shelf (COTS) components, at the price of small collecting apertures. I discuss possible topics that could benefit from such an approach.

  9. Chromatic analysis by monitoring unmodified silver nanoparticles reduction on double layer microfluidic paper-based analytical devices for selective and sensitive determination of mercury(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meelapsom, Rattapol; Jarujamrus, Purim; Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Chairam, Sanoe; Kulsing, Chadin; Shen, Wei

    2016-08-01

    This study demonstrates chromatic analysis based on a simple red green blue (RGB) color model for sensitive and selective determination of mercury(II). The analysis was performed by monitoring the color change of a microfluidic Paper-based Analytical Device (µPAD). The device was fabricated by using alkyl ketene dimer (AKD)-inkjet printing and doped with unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which were disintegrated when being exposed to mercury(II). The color intensity was detected by using an apparatus consisting of a digital camera and a homemade light box generating constant light intensity. A progressive increase in color intensity of the tested area on the µPAD (3.0mm) was observed with increasing mercury(II) concentration. The developed system enabled quantification of mercury(II) at low concentration with the detection limit of 0.001mgL(-1) (3 SD blank/slope of the calibration curve) and small sample volume uptake (2µL). The linearity range of the calibration curve in this technique was demonstrated from 0.05 to 7mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.998) with good precision (RSD less than 4.1%). Greater selectivity towards mercury(II) compared with potential interference ions was also observed. Furthermore, the percentage recoveries of spiked water samples were in an acceptable range which was in agreement with the values obtained from the conventional method utilizing cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometer (CVAAS). The proposed technique allows a rapid, simple, sensitive and selective analysis of trace mercury(II) in water samples.

  10. Towards the harmonization between National Forest Inventory and Forest Condition Monitoring. Consistency of plot allocation and effect of tree selection methods on sample statistics in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Patrizia; Di Cosmo, Lucio; Cenni, Enrico; Pompei, Enrico; Ferretti, Marco

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of a process aiming at harmonizing National Forest Inventory (NFI) and ICP Forests Level I Forest Condition Monitoring (FCM) in Italy, we investigated (a) the long-term consistency between FCM sample points (a subsample of the first NFI, 1985, NFI_1) and recent forest area estimates (after the second NFI, 2005, NFI_2) and (b) the effect of tree selection method (tree-based or plot-based) on sample composition and defoliation statistics. The two investigations were carried out on 261 and 252 FCM sites, respectively. Results show that some individual forest categories (larch and stone pine, Norway spruce, other coniferous, beech, temperate oaks and cork oak forests) are over-represented and others (hornbeam and hophornbeam, other deciduous broadleaved and holm oak forests) are under-represented in the FCM sample. This is probably due to a change in forest cover, which has increased by 1,559,200 ha from 1985 to 2005. In case of shift from a tree-based to a plot-based selection method, 3,130 (46.7%) of the original 6,703 sample trees will be abandoned, and 1,473 new trees will be selected. The balance between exclusion of former sample trees and inclusion of new ones will be particularly unfavourable for conifers (with only 16.4% of excluded trees replaced by new ones) and less for deciduous broadleaves (with 63.5% of excluded trees replaced). The total number of tree species surveyed will not be impacted, while the number of trees per species will, and the resulting (plot-based) sample composition will have a much larger frequency of deciduous broadleaved trees. The newly selected trees have-in general-smaller diameter at breast height (DBH) and defoliation scores. Given the larger rate of turnover, the deciduous broadleaved part of the sample will be more impacted. Our results suggest that both a revision of FCM network to account for forest area change and a plot-based approach to permit statistical inference and avoid bias in the tree sample

  11. FY 2009 Progress: Process Monitoring Technology Demonstration at PNNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrigo, Leah M.; Christensen, Ronald N.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Liezers, Martin; Peper, Shane M.; Thomas, Elizabeth M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Douglas, Matthew; Laspe, Amy R.; Lines, Amanda M.; Peterson, James M.; Ward, Rebecca M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Orton, Christopher R.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and demonstrating three technologies designed to assist in the monitoring of reprocessing facilities in near-real time. These technologies include 1) a multi-isotope process monitor (MIP), 2) a spectroscopy-based monitor that uses UV-Vis-NIR (ultraviolet-visible-near infrared) and Raman spectrometers, and 3) an electrochemically modulated separations approach (EMS). The MIP monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and pattern recognition software to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The UV-Vis-NIR and Raman spectroscopic monitoring continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (uranium, plutonium, neptunium), selected fission products, and major cold flow sheet chemicals. The EMS approach provides an on-line means for separating and concentrating elements of interest out of complex matrices prior to detection via nondestructive assay by gamma spectroscopy or destructive analysis with mass spectrometry. A general overview of the technologies and ongoing demonstration results are described in this report.

  12. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  13. Geologic, water-chemistry, and hydrologic data from multiple-well monitoring sites and selected water-supply wells in the Santa Clara Valley, California, 1999-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, M.W.; Hanson, R.T.; Wentworth, C.M.; Everett, Rhett; Williams, C.F.; Tinsley, J.C.; Noce, T.E.; Carkin, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    core samples indicate an average primary-wave velocity of about 5,515 feet per second, a bimodal distribution of density between 2.19 and 2.32 grams per cubic centimeter with an average of 2.16 grams per cubic centimeter, and a magnetic susceptibility that generally ranged between 9 and 40 with an average of 22. Water-chemistry data indicate that the ground water in the alluvial aquifers generally is low in total dissolved solids and chloride and of good quality. Isotopic data indicate that water from artificial recharge is present throughout the shallower parts of the aquifer system but may not be present toward the center of the valley. The percentage of water from artificial recharge present in ground water ranges from 0 to 61 percent for water-supply wells. The age of most shallow ground water is less than 2,000 years before present, and the age of deeper ground water is as much as 39,900 years before present, as determined from carbon age dates. Initial water-level data from the multiple-well monitoring sites indicate seasonal water-level fluctuations as great as 60 feet and water-level differences between aquifers as great as 10 feet. The water-level hydrographs indicate different water-level changes and relations between aquifers in different parts of the basin. However, most of these hydrographs indicate the potential for downward water-level gradients, with lower hydraulic heads in the deeper monitoring wells. Hydraulic properties of selected new monitoring wells indicate that horizontal hydraulic conductivities range from 0.1 to 583 feet per day. Hydraulic testing of selected core samples yielded vertical hydraulic conductivity values ranging from 8 x 10-4 to 0.3 feet per day, and effective porosity values ranging from 0.21 to 0.4. Geomechanical properties estimated from one-dimensional consolidation tests of selected core samples resulted in geometric mean inelastic and elastic specific storage values of 1.5 x 10-

  14. Calibration and characterization of UV sensors for water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larason, T.; Ohno, Y.

    2006-04-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA is participating in a project with the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF) to develop new guidelines for ultraviolet (UV) sensor characteristics to monitor the performance of UV water disinfection plants. The current UV water disinfection standards, ÖNORM M5873-1 and M5873-2 (Austria) and DVGW W294 3 (Germany), on the requirements for UV sensors for low-pressure mercury (LPM) and medium-pressure mercury (MPM) lamp systems have been studied. Additionally, the characteristics of various types of UV sensors from several different commercial vendors have been measured and analysed. This information will aid in the development of new guidelines to address issues such as sensor requirements, calibration methods, uncertainty and traceability. Practical problems were found in the calibration methods and evaluation of spectral responsivity requirements for sensors designed for MPM lamp systems. To solve the problems, NIST is proposing an alternative sensor calibration method for MPM lamp systems. A future calibration service is described for UV sensors intended for low- and medium-pressure mercury lamp systems used in water disinfection applications.

  15. UV-photodegradation of desipramine: Impact of concentration, pH and temperature on formation of products including their biodegradability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Nareman D.H.; Mahmoud, Waleed M.M. [Sustainable Chemistry and Material Resources, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1 C13, DE 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt); Olsson, Oliver [Sustainable Chemistry and Material Resources, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1 C13, DE 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Kümmerer, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.kuemmerer@leuphana.de [Sustainable Chemistry and Material Resources, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1 C13, DE 21335 Lüneburg (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    Desipramine (DMI) is a widely used tricyclic antidepressant, and it is the major metabolite of imipramine (IMI) and lofepramine (LMI); IMI and LMI are two of the most commonly used tricyclic antidepressants. If DMI enters the aquatic environment, it can be transformed by the environmental bacteria or UV radiation. Therefore, photolysis of DMI in water was performed using a simulated sunlight Xenon-lamp and a UV-lamp. Subsequently, the biodegradability of DMI and its photo-transformation products (PTPs) formed during its UV photolysis was studied. The influence of variable conditions, such as initial DMI concentration, solution pH, and temperature, on DMI UV photolysis behavior was also studied. The degree of mineralization of DMI and its PTPs was monitored. A Shimadzu HPLC-UV apparatus was used to follow the kinetic profile of DMI during UV-irradiation; after that, ion-trap and high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with chromatography were used to monitor and identify the possible PTPs. The environmentally relevant properties and selected toxicity properties of DMI and the non-biodegradable PTPs were predicted using different QSAR models. DMI underwent UV photolysis with first-order kinetics. Quantum yields were very low. DOC values indicated that DMI formed new PTPs and was not completely mineralized. Analysis by means of high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that the photolysis of DMI followed three main photolysis pathways: isomerization, hydroxylation, and ring opening. The photolysis rate was inversely proportional to initial DMI concentration. The pH showed a significant impact on the photolysis rate of DMI, and on the PTPs in terms of both formation kinetics and mechanisms. Although temperature was expected to increase the photolysis rate, it showed a non-significant impact in this study. Results from biodegradation tests and QSAR analysis revealed that DMI and its PTPs are not readily biodegradable and that some PTPs may be human and/or eco

  16. Environmental occurrence and risk of organic UV filters and stabilizers in multiple matrices in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Katherine H; Reid, Malcolm J; Fjeld, Eirik; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Thomas, Kevin V

    2015-07-01

    Eight organic UV filters and stabilizers were quantitatively determined in wastewater sludge and effluent, landfill leachate, sediments, and marine and freshwater biota. Crab, prawn and cod from Oslofjord, and perch, whitefish and burbot from Lake Mjøsa were selected in order to evaluate the potential for trophic accumulation. All of the cod livers analysed were contaminated with at least 1 UV filter, and a maximum concentration of almost 12 μg/g wet weight for octocrylene (OC) was measured in one individual. 80% of the cod livers contained OC, and approximately 50% of cod liver and prawn samples contained benzophenone (BP3). Lower concentrations and detection frequencies were observed in freshwater species and the data of most interest is the 4 individual whitefish that contained both BP3 and ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate (EHMC) with maximum concentrations of almost 200 ng/g wet weight. The data shows a difference in the loads of UV filters entering receiving water dependent on the extent of wastewater treatment. Primary screening alone is insufficient for the removal of selected UV filters (BP3, Padimate, EHMC, OC, UV-234, UV-327, UV-328, UV-329). Likely due in part to the hydrophobic nature of the majority of the UV filters studied, particulate loading and organic carbon content appear to be related to concentrations of UV filters in landfill leachate and an order of magnitude difference in these parameters correlates with an order of magnitude difference in the effluent concentrations of selected UV filters (Fig. 2). From the data, it is possible that under certain low flow conditions selected organic UV filters may pose a risk to surface waters but under the present conditions the risk is low, but some UV filters will potentially accumulate through the trophic food chain.

  17. Towards a high performing UV-A sensor based on Silicon Carbide and hydrogenated Silicon Nitride absorbing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzillo, M.; Sciuto, A.; Mannino, G.; Renna, L.; Costa, N.; Badalà, P.

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major risk factor for most skin cancers. The sun is our primary natural source of UV radiation. The strength of the sun's ultraviolet radiation is expressed as Solar UV Index (UVI). UV-A (320-400 nm) and UV-B (290-320 nm) rays mostly contribute to UVI. UV-B is typically the most destructive form of UV radiation because it has enough energy to cause photochemical damage to cellular DNA. Also overexposure to UV-A rays, although these are less energetic than UV-B photons, has been associated with toughening of the skin, suppression of the immune system, and cataract formation. The use of preventive measures to decrease sunlight UV radiation absorption is fundamental to reduce acute and irreversible health diseases to skin, eyes and immune system. In this perspective UV sensors able to monitor in a monolithic and compact chip the UV Index and relative UV-A and UV-B components of solar spectrum can play a relevant role for prevention, especially in view of the integration of these detectors in close at hand portable devices. Here we present the preliminary results obtained on our UV-A sensor technology based on the use of hydrogenated Silicon Nitride (SiN:H) thin passivating layers deposited on the surface of thin continuous metal film Ni2Si/4H-SiC Schottky detectors, already used for UV-Index monitoring. The first UV-A detector prototypes exhibit a very low leakage current density of about 0.2 pA/mm2 and a peak responsivity value of 0.027 A/W at 330 nm, both measured at 0V bias.

  18. Evaluation of erythemal UV effective irradiance from UV lamp exposure and the application in shield metal arc welding processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Ping; Liu, Hung-Hsin; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Fang, Hsin-Yu; Tsao, Ta-Ho; Lan, Cheng-Hang

    2008-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is known to cause potential effects such as erythema in skin. For UV-induced erythema (sunburn), the action spectrum from the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, International Commission on Illumination (CIE) was adopted. Erythemal UV effects from UVR lamp exposure were investigated with commercial spectroradiometry devices in this research. Three kinds of portable UV germicidal lamps with broadband UVA (BB UVA, 350-400 nm), broadband UVB (BB UVB, 280-350 nm), and narrowband UVC (NB UVC, 254 nm) wavelengths served as the UVR emission sources. An action spectrum expresses the effectiveness of radiation for assessing the hazard of UVR in the erythemal action spectrum from 250-400 nm. The UV Index (UVI) is an irradiance scale computed by multiplying the CIE erythemal irradiance integral in milliwatts per square meter by 0.04 m mW. A comprehensive approach to detecting erythemal UVR magnitude was developed to monitor the effective exposure from UV lamps. The erythemal UVR measurement was established and the exposure assessment was applied to monitor erythemal UVR magnitude from shield metal arc welding (SMAW) processing. From this study, the erythemal UVR exposures were assessed and evaluated with environmental solar simulation of the UVI exposure.

  19. 紫外光固化亚光涂料的配方设计和助剂筛选%Research on Formula Design and Additive Selection of UV Curable Matte Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范雷平

    2015-01-01

    紫外光(UV)固化涂料在应用中存在消光难、消光粉定向差、光泽不稳定以及容易发花等问题.为了解决这些问题,本研究就紫外光固化亚光涂料中消光粉、蜡粉以及各种涂料助剂对涂膜光泽的影响进行了分析和测试,最终通过选择合适的助剂以及消光剂来改善紫外光固化涂料的光泽稳定性、透明性和消光剂的定向排列性.为紫外光固化亚光涂料的配方设计和助剂筛选提出了较为清晰的解决思路.

  20. The Stellar Masses of ~40,000 UV Selected Galaxies from the WiggleZ Survey at 0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Banerji, Manda; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Contreras, Carlos; Couch, Warrick; Croton, Darren J; Croom, Scott; Davis, Tamara M; Drinkwater, Michael J; Forster, Karl; Gilbank, David; Gladders, Mike; Jelliffe, Ben; Jurek, Russell J; Li, I-hui; Madore, Barry; Martin, D Christopher; Pimbblet, Kevin; Poole, Gregory B; Pracy, Michael; Sharp, Rob; Wisnioski, Emily; Woods, David; Wyder, Ted K; Yee, H K C

    2013-01-01

    We characterise the stellar masses and star formation rates in a sample of almost 40000 spectroscopically confirmed UV luminous galaxies at 0.35sigma in the UKIDSS-LAS at all redshifts. An even more luminous subset of 15% are also detected in the WISE 3.4 and 4.6um bands. We compute stellar masses for this very large sample of extremely blue galaxies and quantify the sensitivity of the stellar mass estimates to various assumptions made during the SED fitting. The median stellar masses are log10(M*/M0)=9.6\\pm0.7, 10.2\\pm0.5 and 10.4\\pm0.4 for the IR-undetected, UKIDSS detected and UKIDSS+WISE detected galaxies respectively. We demonstrate that the inclusion of NIR photometry can lead to tighter constraints on the stellar masses. The mass estimates are found to be most sensitive to the inclusion of secondary bursts of star formation as well as changes in the stellar population synthesis models, both of which can lead to median discrepancies of the order of 0.3dex in the stellar masses. We find that the best-fit...

  1. Scenarios of future UV radiation; Szenarien zukuenftiger UV-Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuder, J.; Koepke, P. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Dameris, M. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine possible effects of the UV radiation field in terms of a biologically relevant quantity, namely erythema-weighted global irradiation intensity. This was done on the basis measured data and model simulations of total ozone content assuming different emission scenarios. Three ozone scenarios were analysed for the period from 2015 to 2050, one optimistic, one pessimistic and one currently considered to be realistic. The results show that a continuation of the past unrestrained increase in UV radiation appears unlikely. This is undoubtedly a success of current international political agreements for the protection of the ozone layer. However, one also has to consider that scenarios on the future production and emission of substances with an ozone depleting or global warming potential are subject to uncertainty. According to the supposedly realistic scenario UV radiation levels in the summer and autumn of 2050 will be back to the levels that prevailed around 1970, when atmospheric ozone concentrations were still largely undisturbed by man. By contrast, in winter and spring UV levels will continue at the high levels of recent years for several decades to come. If in addition volcanic eruptions occur, this will drastically alter stratospheric aerosol and ozone concentrations, thus probably causing an marked additional increase in UV radiation over a period of months. [German] Auf der Basis von Messwerten und von Modellsimulationen des Gesamtozongehaltes, unter der Annahme verschiedener Emissionsszenarien halogenierter Kohlenwasserstoffe, wurden moegliche Auswirkungen auf das UV-Strahlungsfeld anhand der biologisch relevanten Groesse der erythemgewichteten Globalbestrahlungsstaerke untersucht. Fuer die Jahre 2015 und 2050 wurden dazu jeweils 3 Ozonszenarien analysiert, die (nach derzeitiger Einschaetzung) wahrscheinliche, pessimistische und optimistische Bedingungen wiedergeben. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass eine ungebremste

  2. Selective and rapid monitoring of dual platelet inhibition by aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists by using multiple electrode aggregometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Reinhard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor platelet inhibition by aspirin or clopidogrel has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases. A reliable and facile assay to measure platelet inhibition after treatment with aspirin and a P2Y12 antagonist is lacking. Multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA, which is being increasingly used in clinical studies, is sensitive to platelet inhibition by aspirin and clopidogrel, but a critical evaluation of MEA monitoring of dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists is missing. Design and Methods By performing in vitro and ex vivo experiments, we evaluated in healthy subjects the feasibility of using MEA to monitor platelet inhibition of P2Y12 antagonists (clopidogrel in vivo, cangrelor in vitro and aspirin (100 mg per day in vivo, and 1 mM or 5.4 mM in vitro alone, and in combination. Statistical analyses were performed by the Mann-Whitney rank sum test, student' t-test, analysis of variance followed by the Holm-Sidak test, where appropriate. Results ADP-induced platelet aggregation in hirudin-anticoagulated blood was inhibited by 99.3 ± 1.4% by in vitro addition of cangrelor (100 nM; p 95% and 100 ± 3.2%, respectively (p in vitro or ex vivo. Oral intake of clopidogrel did not significantly reduce AA-induced aggregation, but P2Y12 blockade by cangrelor (100 nM in vitro diminished AA-stimulated aggregation by 53 ± 26% (p Conclusions Selective platelet inhibition by aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists alone and in combination can be rapidly measured by MEA. We suggest that dual anti-platelet therapy with these two types of anti-platelet drugs can be optimized individually by measuring platelet responsiveness to ADP and AA with MEA before and after drug intake.

  3. Significant role of UV and carbonate radical on the degradation of oxytetracycline in UV-AOPs: Kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqing; He, Xuexiang; Duan, Xiaodi; Fu, Yongsheng; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-05-15

    Carbonate radical (CO3(•-)), a selective oxidant, reacts readily with electron-rich compounds through electron transfer and/or hydrogen abstraction. In this study, the role of CO3(•-) in degrading oxytetracycline (OTC) by UV only, UV/H2O2 and UV/persulfate (UV/PS) advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in the presence of HCO3(-) or CO3(2-) was investigated. For UV only process, the presence of photosensitizers, i.e., nitrate (NO3(-)) and natural organic matter (NOM), had different impacts on OTC degradation, i.e., an enhancing effect by NO3(-) due to the generation of HO(•) and a slight inhibiting effect by NOM possibly due to a light scattering effect. Differently for UV/H2O2 and UV/PS processes, the presence of NO3(-) hardly influenced the destruction of OTC. Generation of CO3(•-) presented a positive role on OTC degradation by UV/NO3(-)/HCO3(-). Such influence was also observed in the two studied AOPs in the presence of both bicarbonate and other natural water constituents. When various natural water samples from different sources were used as reaction matrices, UV only and UV/H2O2 showed an inhibiting effect while UV/PS demonstrated a comparable or even promoting effect in OTC decomposition. After elucidating the potential contribution of UV direct photolysis via excited state OTC* at an elevated reaction pH condition, putative OTC transformation byproducts via CO3(•-) reaction were identified by ultra-high definition accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (QTOF/MS). Five different reaction pathways were subsequently proposed, including hydroxylation (+16 Da), quinonization (+14 Da), demethylation (-14 Da), decarbonylation (-28 Da) and dehydration (-18 Da). The significant role of UV at high pH and CO3(•-) on OTC removal from contaminated water was therefore demonstrated both kinetically and mechanistically.

  4. Scientific monitoring plan in support of the selected alternative of the Glen Canyon Dam Long-Term Experimental and Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooi, Scott P.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Topping, David J.; Grams, Paul E.; Ward, David L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Bair, Lucas S.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schmidt, John C.; Sankey, Joel B.

    2017-01-18

    IntroductionThe purpose of this document is to describe a strategy by which monitoring and research data in the natural and social sciences will be collected, analyzed, and provided to the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), its bureaus, and to the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) in support of implementation of the Glen Canyon Dam Long-Term Experimental and Management Plan (LTEMP) (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2016a). The selected alternative identified in the LTEMP Record of Decision (ROD) (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2016b) describes various data collection, analysis, modeling, and interpretation efforts to be conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC), partner agencies, and cooperators that will inform decisions about operations of Glen Canyon Dam and management of downstream resources between 2017 and 2037, the performance period of the LTEMP. General data collection, analysis, modeling, and interpretation activities are described in this science plan, whereas specific monitoring and research activities and detailed study plans are to be described in the GCDAMP’s triennial work plans (TWPs) to be developed by the Bureau of Reclamation and GCMRC with input from partner agencies and cooperators during the LTEMP period, which are to be reviewed and recommended by the GCDAMP and approved by the Secretary of the Interior. The GCDAMP consists of several components, the primary committee being the Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG). This Federal advisory committee is composed of 25 agencies and stakeholder groups and is chaired by the Secretary of the Interior’s designee. The AMWG makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning operations of Glen Canyon Dam and other experimental management actions that are intended to fulfill some obligations of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992. The Technical Work Group (TWG) is a subcommittee of the AMWG and

  5. An On-Line Monitoring System for Nitrate in Seawater Based on UV Spectrum%一种基于紫外光谱法的海水硝酸盐在线监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 冯巍巍; 陈令新; 张骏

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is one of the evaluation indicators of water quality ,which is particularly important for water quality monito-ring .A real-time on-line monitoring system of nitrate in water is introduced in this paper .And the ultraviolet absorption technol-ogy (190~370 nm) with partial least squares method is used to detect nitrate concentration .The automated online system based on ultraviolet absorption spectrum is capable of analyzing samples without any sample preservation and without contamination problems .This system is fast ,reliable ,and sensitive enough for continuous use on monitoring stations and nitrate concentration can also be determined directly via its ultraviolet absorption spectrum .This system uses flow sample cell with 1cm optical path length ,and a reference light is used to eliminate system error .The correlation coefficient for a linear function of the nitrate con-centrations is 0 .999 98 .So the results of the system model test are in good correlation with the laboratory ones .Data collected has been analyzed statistically to determine how system model behave throughout the test ,with special attention being paid to er-ror analysis .As the average relative error is 0.65% ,this system has greater stability and higher accuracy .The results of nitrate measurements by the field seawater tests in Yantai coast are obtained ,which nitrate concentrations are about 0.2 mg · L -1 in seawater ,and the recoveries of samples for standard recovery tests are in 95% ~110% ,it shows that this system is accurate ,re-liability and practicability and could be developed for detected nitrate concentration in natural water .%硝酸盐含量是水体质量指标之一 ,对于水质质量监测尤其重要.本文搭建了一种水体中硝酸盐在线原位监测系统 ,采用紫外吸收光谱法(190~240 nm )计算水样吸光度 ,并通过建立的偏最小二乘模型测定硝酸盐浓度 ,可用于海洋 ,河流 ,湖泊等多种水体.该自动在线监测系统

  6. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, combining antioxidant and UV shielding properties, prevent UV-induced cell damage and mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Fanny; de Nicola, Milena; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Giovanetti, Anna; Bejarano, Ignacio; Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2015-09-01

    Efficient inorganic UV shields, mostly based on refracting TiO2 particles, have dramatically changed the sun exposure habits. Unfortunately, health concerns have emerged from the pro-oxidant photocatalytic effect of UV-irradiated TiO2, which mediates toxic effects on cells. Therefore, improvements in cosmetic solar shield technology are a strong priority. CeO2 nanoparticles are not only UV refractors but also potent biological antioxidants due to the surface 3+/4+ valency switch, which confers anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing and therapeutic properties. Herein, UV irradiation protocols were set up, allowing selective study of the extra-shielding effects of CeO2vs. TiO2 nanoparticles on reporter cells. TiO2 irradiated with UV (especially UVA) exerted strong photocatalytic effects, superimposing their pro-oxidant, cell-damaging and mutagenic action when induced by UV, thereby worsening the UV toxicity. On the contrary, irradiated CeO2 nanoparticles, via their Ce3+/Ce4+ redox couple, exerted impressive protection on UV-treated cells, by buffering oxidation, preserving viability and proliferation, reducing DNA damage and accelerating repair; strikingly, they almost eliminated mutagenesis, thus acting as an important tool to prevent skin cancer. Interestingly, CeO2 nanoparticles also protect cells from the damage induced by irradiated TiO2, suggesting that these two particles may also complement their effects in solar lotions. CeO2 nanoparticles, which intrinsically couple UV shielding with biological and genetic protection, appear to be ideal candidates for next-generation sun shields.

  7. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, combining antioxidant and UV shielding properties, prevent UV-induced cell damage and mutagenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Caputo, Fanny

    2015-08-20

    Efficient inorganic UV shields, mostly based on refracting TiO2 particles, have dramatically changed the sun exposure habits. Unfortunately, health concerns have emerged from the pro-oxidant photocatalytic effect of UV-irradiated TiO2, which mediates toxic effects on cells. Therefore, improvements in cosmetic solar shield technology are a strong priority. CeO2 nanoparticles are not only UV refractors but also potent biological antioxidants due to the surface 3+/4+ valency switch, which confers anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing and therapeutic properties. Herein, UV irradiation protocols were set up, allowing selective study of the extra-shielding effects of CeO2vs. TiO2 nanoparticles on reporter cells. TiO2 irradiated with UV (especially UVA) exerted strong photocatalytic effects, superimposing their pro-oxidant, cell-damaging and mutagenic action when induced by UV, thereby worsening the UV toxicity. On the contrary, irradiated CeO2 nanoparticles, via their Ce3+/Ce4+ redox couple, exerted impressive protection on UV-treated cells, by buffering oxidation, preserving viability and proliferation, reducing DNA damage and accelerating repair; strikingly, they almost eliminated mutagenesis, thus acting as an important tool to prevent skin cancer. Interestingly, CeO2 nanoparticles also protect cells from the damage induced by irradiated TiO2, suggesting that these two particles may also complement their effects in solar lotions. CeO2 nanoparticles, which intrinsically couple UV shielding with biological and genetic protection, appear to be ideal candidates for next-generation sun shields. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  8. Use of multiple acoustic reflections to enhance SAW UV photo-detector sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetyan, G. Y.; Kaydashev, V. E.; Zhilin, D. A.; Minasyan, T. A.; Abdulvakhidov, K. G.; Kaidashev, E. M.

    2017-03-01

    A new approach to enhance the sensitivity of existing SAW UV-visible photo-detectors based on the monitoring of the multiple reflections of the acoustic waves in the Fourier transform of the frequency response (S21) is demonstrated. By using this concept, it is possible to monitor the UV-visible light in a wide intensity range from very high to ultralow. We present a strategy to obtain an ultrafast SAW UV photo-detector with millisecond response by tuning the deposition conditions of the ZnO film and using the multiple-reflections concept.

  9. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y.A. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I.V. [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V.U. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  10. A new approach to dissolution testing by UV imaging and finite element simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtker, Johan Peter; Rantanen, Jukka; Rades, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Most dissolution testing systems rely on analyzing samples taken remotely from the dissolving sample surface at different time points with poor time resolution and therefore provide relatively unresolved temporally and spatially information on the dissolution process. In this study......, a flexible numerical model was combined with a novel UV imaging system, allowing monitoring of the dissolution process with sub second time resolution. METHODS: The dissolution process was monitored by both effluent collection and UV imaging of compacts of paracetamol. A finite element model (FEM) was used...... to characterize the UV imaging system. RESULTS: A finite element model of the UV imaging system was successfully built. The dissolution of paracetamol was studied by UV imaging and by analysis of the effluent. The dissolution rates obtained from the collected effluent were in good agreement with the numerical...

  11. Development of a safe ultraviolet camera system to enhance awareness by showing effects of UV radiation and UV protection of the skin (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Wedzinga, Rosaline; van Montfrans, Bibi; Stok, Mirte; Klaessens, John; van der Veen, Albert

    2016-03-01

    The significant increase of skin cancer occurring in the western world is attributed to longer sun expose during leisure time. For prevention, people should become aware of the risks of UV light exposure by showing skin damage and the protective effect of sunscreen with an UV camera. An UV awareness imaging system optimized for 365 nm (UV-A) was develop using consumer components being interactive, safe and mobile. A Sony NEX5t camera was adapted to full spectral range. In addition, UV transparent lenses and filters were selected based on spectral characteristics measured (Schott S8612 and Hoya U-340 filters) to obtain the highest contrast for e.g. melanin spots and wrinkles on the skin. For uniform UV illumination, 2 facial tanner units were adapted with UV 365 nm black light fluorescent tubes. Safety of the UV illumination was determined relative to the sun and with absolute irradiance measurements at the working distance. A maximum exposure time over 15 minutes was calculate according the international safety standards. The UV camera was successfully demonstrated during the Dutch National Skin Cancer day and was well received by dermatologists and participating public. Especially, the 'black paint' effect putting sun screen on the face was dramatic and contributed to the awareness of regions on the face what are likely to be missed applying sunscreen. The UV imaging system shows to be promising for diagnostics and clinical studies in dermatology and potentially in other areas (dentistry and ophthalmology)

  12. UV Radiation in an Urban Canyon in Southeast Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, A. R.; Moore, M. R.; Kimlin, M. G.

    2006-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has the possibility to both harm and to benefit human beings when unprotected exposure occurs. After receiving small amounts of UV our bodies begin to synthesise vitamin D, which is essential for maintaining healthy bones, however excessive UV exposure can result in a variety of damaging outcomes ranging from sunburn to skin cancer and cataracts. For this reason it is very important to understand the different environments in which people encounter UV so as to better prepare the public to make smart and healthy sun exposure decisions. Each day more and more people are moving into large cities around the world and spending their time inside the urban canyon, however UV measurements are generally taken at scientific stations in open areas or on top of tall buildings, meaning that at times the environmental characteristics measured may not accurately represent those found at street-level in these highly urbanized areas. Urban canyons are home to both very tall buildings and tropospheric air pollution, each of which reduces the amount of UV reaching street-level. This study measured the varying difference between UV measurements taken at street-level and at a standard UV monitoring site on top of a building outside of the urban canyon. Investigation was conducted in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia, which models the CBDs of large cities around the world in that it boasts a great number of tall buildings, including many skyscrapers. Data was collected under clear sky conditions at five different street-level sites in the CBD (on either side of two streets running perpendicular to one another (four sites) and in a public square) and then compared to that obtained on the same day at the Queensland University of Technology's Australian Sun and Health Research Laboratory (ASHRL), which is located 2.5 kilometres outside Brisbane's CBD. Minimum erythemal dose (MED) data was collected at each location and it was found that

  13. Effect of photoperiod on the levels of endogenous gibberellins in spinach as measured by combined gas chromatography-selected ion current monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, J.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1980-11-01

    The changes in the levels of five endogenous gibberellins (GAs) in spinach in relation to photoperiodic treatment have been examined by combined gas chromatography-selected ion current monitoring. Long-day treatment caused a 5-fold decline in the level of GA/sub 19/ while the levels of GA/sub 20/ and GA/sub 29/ increased dramatically during the same period. In absolute terms, the level of GA/sub 20/ increased from 0.8 microgram per 100 grams dry weight in short days to 5.5 micrograms per 100 grams dry weight after 14 long days. The levels of GA/sub 17/ and GA/sub 44/ did not change significantly with long-day treatment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that GA/sub 19/ is converted to GA/sub 20/ and that this conversion is under photoperiodic control. Since stem growth in spinach is correlated with an increase in the level of GA/sub 20/, one major aspect of photoperiodic control of stem growth might be the availability of GA/sub 20/ through regulation of the conversion of GA/sub 19/ to GA/sub 20/.

  14. The Cu-CHA deNOx Catalyst in Action: Temperature-Dependent NH3-Assisted Selective Catalytic Reduction Monitored by Operando XAS and XES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomachenko, Kirill A; Borfecchia, Elisa; Negri, Chiara; Berlier, Gloria; Lamberti, Carlo; Beato, Pablo; Falsig, Hanne; Bordiga, Silvia

    2016-09-21

    The small-pore Cu-CHA zeolite is today the object of intensive research efforts to rationalize its outstanding performance in the NH3-assisted selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of harmful nitrogen oxides and to unveil the SCR mechanism. Herein we exploit operando X-ray spectroscopies to monitor the Cu-CHA catalyst in action during NH3-SCR in the 150-400 °C range, targeting Cu oxidation state, mobility, and preferential N or O ligation as a function of reaction temperature. By combining operando XANES, EXAFS, and vtc-XES, we unambiguously identify two distinct regimes for the atomic-scale behavior of Cu active-sites. Low-temperature SCR, up to ∼200 °C, is characterized by balanced populations of Cu(I)/Cu(II) sites and dominated by mobile NH3-solvated Cu-species. From 250 °C upward, in correspondence to the steep increase in catalytic activity, the largely dominant Cu-species are framework-coordinated Cu(II) sites, likely representing the active sites for high-temperature SCR.

  15. Determination of a bound musk xylene metabolite in carp hemoglobin as a biomarker of exposure by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaleb, M A; Brumley, W C; Pyle, S M; Sovocool, G W

    2004-10-01

    Musk xylene (MX) is widely used as a fragrance ingredient in commercial toiletries. Identification and quantitation of a bound 4-amino-MX (AMX) metabolite was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Detection of AMX occurred after the cysteine adducts in carp hemoglobin (Hb), derived from the nitroso metabolite, were released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released AMX metabolite was extracted into n-hexane. The extract was preconcentrated by evaporation and analyzed by GC-SIM-MS. The concentration of AMX metabolite was found to range from 6.0 to 30.6 ng/g in the carp Hb, collected from the Las Vegas Wash and Lake Mead, NV areas. The presence of an AMX metabolite in the carp Hb was confirmed when similar mass spectral features and the same retention time of the AMX metabolite were obtained for both standard AMX and carp Hb extract solutions. In the nonhydrolyzed and reagent blank extracts, the AMX metabolite was not detected.

  16. [Determination of amphetamines in human hair using dynamic liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry after microwave derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Meng, Pinjia; He, Hongyuan

    2007-01-01

    Human hair is an important specimen for drug abuse analysis owing to its easy collection, long surveillance time window and good correlation between the "degree of addiction" and actual drug concentration. A simple method for determination of 4 amphetamines in human hair was developed. The hair was digested under basic condition, and the drugs in it were extracted using microvolume of chloroform. The organic layer was then transferred into another tube to be derivatized with N-methyl-bis (trifluoroacetamide) (MBTFA) by microwave heating. Finally the reacted solution was detected by gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry (GC/SIM-MS) directly. 2-Methyl-phenyl ethylamine was used as an internal standard. Good linearities were obtained for 4 amphetamines with correlation coefficients better than 0.996. The limits of detection, based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3:1, were all about 50 pg/mg for amphetamine (AM) , methamphetamine (MAM), methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) in hair. The reproducibility of the method was satisfactory, with the relative standard deviations of 6.0% for AM, 13.9% for MAM, 10.2% for MDA and 9.2% for MDMA. Some real hair from the drug abusers was analyzed with this method. The minimal hair is less than 5 mg (about 20 cm). The method is highly sensitive, easy to operate, time-saving and economic, which can be used for trace analysis of amphetamines in human hair.

  17. Stable isotopic internal standard correction for quantitative analysis of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) in serum by on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Peralbo, M A; Ferreiro Vera, C; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2014-08-01

    The influence of the inclusion of a stable isotopic labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) on the quantitative analysis of hydroxyeicosatetranoic acids (HETEs) in human serum is evaluated in this research. A solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) platform, one of the preferred approaches for targeted analysis of biofluids through the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) operational mode, was used to determine HETEs. These compounds were chosen as targeted metabolites because of their involvement in cardiovascular disease, cancer and osteoporosis. 15HETE-d8 was chosen as internal standard to evaluate matrix effects. Thus, the physico-chemical properties of the SIL-IS were the basis to evaluate the analytical features of the method for each metabolite through four calibration models. Two of the models were built with standard solutions at different concentration levels, but one of the calibration sets was spiked with an internal standard (IS). The other two models were built with the serum pool from osteoporotic patients, which was spiked at different concentrations with the target analytes. In this case, one of the serum calibration sets was also spiked with the IS. The study shows that the IS allowed noticeable correction of matrix effects for some HETE isomers at certain concentration levels, while accuracy was decreased at low concentration (15ng/mL) of them. Therefore, characterization of the method has been properly completed at different concentration levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of stable isotope dimethyl labeling coupled to selected reaction monitoring to enhance throughput by multiplexing relative quantitation of targeted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thin Thin; Low, Teck Yew; Bjørlykke, Yngvild; Barsnes, Harald; Heck, Albert J R; Berven, Frode S

    2012-06-05

    In this manuscript, we present a proof-of-concept study for targeted relative protein quantitation workflow using chemical labeling in the form of dimethylation, coupled with selected reaction monitoring (dimethyl-SRM). We first demonstrate close to complete isotope incorporation for all peptides tested. The accuracy, reproducibility, and linear dynamic range of quantitation are further assessed based on known ratios of nonhuman standard proteins spiked into human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a model complex matrix. Quantitation reproducibility below 20% (CV < 20%) was obtained for analyte concentrations present at a dynamic range of 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of the background proteins. An error of less than 15% was observed when measuring the abundance of 44 out of 45 major human plasma proteins. Dimethyl-SRM was further examined by comparing the relative quantitation of eight proteins in human CSF with the relative quantitation obtained using synthetic heavy peptides coupled to stable isotope dilution-SRM (SID-SRM). Comparison between the two methods reveals that the correlation between dimethyl-SRM and SID-SRM is within 0.3-33% variation, demonstrating the accuracy of relative quantitation using dimethyl-SRM. Dimethyl labeling coupled with SRM provides a fast, convenient, and cost-effective alternative for relative quantitation of a large number of candidate proteins/peptides.

  19. Application of Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry to Field Grown Crop Plants To Allow Dissection of the Molecular Mechanisms of Abiotic Stress Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Jacoby

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One major constraint upon the application of molecular crop breeding approaches is the small number of genes linked to agronomically desirable traits through defined biochemical mechanisms. Proteomic investigations of crop plants under abiotic stress treatments have identified many proteins that differ in control versus stress comparisons, however this broad profiling of cell physiology is poorly suited to ranking the effects and identifying the specific proteins that are causative in agronomically relevant traits. Here we will reason that insights into a protein’s function, its biochemical process and links to stress tolerance are more likely to arise through approaches that evaluate these differential abundances of proteins and include varietal comparisons, precise discrimination of protein isoforms, enrichment of functionally related proteins and integration of proteomic datasets with physiological measurements of both lab and field grown plants. We will briefly explain how applying the emerging proteomic technology of multiplexed selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry with its accuracy and throughput can facilitate and enhance these approaches and provide a clear means to rank the growing cohort of stress responsive proteins. We will also highlight the benefit of integrating proteomic analyses with cultivar-specific genetic databases and physiological assessments of cultivar performance in relevant field environments for revealing deeper insights into molecular crop improvement.

  20. Photodegradation of the antineoplastic cyclophosphamide: a comparative study of the efficiencies of UV/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterbeck, Carlos Alexandre; Machado, Ênio Leandro; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer drugs are harmful substances that can have carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, genotoxic, and cytotoxic effects even at low concentrations. More than 50 years after its introduction, the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (CP) is still one of the most consumed anticancer drug worldwide. CP has been detected in water bodies in several studies and is known as being persistent in the aquatic environment. As the traditional water and wastewater treatment technologies are not able to remove CP from the water, different treatment options such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are under discussion to eliminate these compounds. The present study investigated the degradation of CP by three different AOPs: UV/H2O2, UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. The light source was a Hg medium-pressure lamp. Prescreening tests were carried out and afterwards experiments based on the optimized conditions were performed. The primary elimination of the parent compounds and the detection of transformation products (TPs) were monitored with LC-UV-MS/MS analysis, whereas the degree of mineralization was monitored by measuring the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Ecotoxicological assays were carried out with the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. CP was completely degraded in all treatments and UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 was the fastest process, followed by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. All the reactions obeyed pseudo-first order kinetics. Considering the mineralization UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 were the most efficient process with mineralization degrees higher than 85%, whereas UV/H2O2 achieved 72.5% of DOC removal. Five transformation products were formed during the reactions and identified. None of them showed significant toxicity against V. fischeri.

  1. UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy: Lambert-Beer reloaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntele, Werner; Deniz, Erhan

    2017-02-01

    UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy is used in almost every spectroscopy laboratory for routine analysis or research. All spectroscopists rely on the Lambert-Beer Law but many of them are less aware of its limitations. This tutorial discusses typical problems in routine spectroscopy that come along with technical limitations or careless selection of experimental parameters. Simple rules are provided to avoid these problems.

  2. UV completion without symmetry restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Endlich, Solomon; Penco, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    We show that it is not possible to UV-complete certain low-energy effective theories with spontaneously broken space-time symmetries by embedding them into linear sigma models, that is, by adding "radial" modes and restoring the broken symmetries. When such a UV completion is not possible, one can still raise the cutoff up to arbitrarily higher energies by adding fields that transform non-linearly under the broken symmetries, that is, new Goldstone bosons. However, this (partial) UV completion does not necessarily restore any of the broken symmetries. We illustrate this point by considering a concrete example in which a combination of space-time and internal symmetries is broken down to a diagonal subgroup. Along the way, we clarify a recently proposed interpretation of inverse Higgs constraints as gauge-fixing conditions.

  3. High-cooling-efficiency cryogenic quadrupole ion trap and UV-UV hole burning spectroscopy of protonated tyrosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiuchi, Shun-ichi; Wako, Hiromichi; Kato, Daichi; Fujii, Masaaki

    2017-02-01

    The cooling efficiency of a cryogenic three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap (QIT) is drastically improved by using copper electrodes instead of conventional stainless-steel ones. The temperature of trapped ions (protonated tyrosine TyrH+) was estimated based on the ultraviolet (UV) photo-dissociation spectra. The UV spectrum of TryH+ shows almost no hot bands, and thus the high cooling efficiency of the copper ion trap was proven. The temperature was also estimated by simulating the observed band contour in the UV spectra, which is determined by the population in the rotationally excited levels. From the simulations, the temperature of TryH+ was estimated to be ∼13 K, while that in the stainless-steel QIT was 45-50 K. In addition, to demonstrate the advantage of the copper QIT, UV-UV hole burning (HB) spectra, i.e. conformation-selected UV spectra, were measured. It was confirmed that four different conformers, A∼D, coexist in the ultra-cold protonated tyrosine. By comparing with the calculated Franck-Condon spectra, their structural assignments were discussed, including the orientation of the OH group.

  4. Plasmon-enhanced UV photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Yuika, E-mail: yuika@ap.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kawata, Satoshi [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kumamoto, Yasuaki [Nanophotonics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Taguchi, Atsushi [Nanophotonics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-02-10

    We report plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocatalysis on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in the deep-UV range. Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles fabricated on TiO{sub 2} film increases the reaction rate of photocatalysis by factors as high as 14 under UV irradiation in the range of 260–340 nm. The reaction efficiency has been determined by measuring the decolorization rate of methylene blue applied on the TiO{sub 2} substrate. The enhancement of photocatalysis shows particle size and excitation wavelength dependence, which can be explained by the surface plasmon resonance of Al nanoparticles.

  5. Patterned structures of in situ size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix under UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragouli, D; Pompa, P P; Caputo, G; Cingolani, R; Athanassiou, A [NNL-National Nanotechnology Laboratory, INFM, CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Resta, V; Laera, A M; Tapfer, L [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brindisi, SS7 Appia Km 706, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy)], E-mail: despina.fragouli@unile.it

    2009-04-15

    A method of in situ formation of patterns of size controlled CdS nanocrystals in a polymer matrix by pulsed UV irradiation is presented. The films consist of Cd thiolate precursors with different carbon chain lengths embedded in TOPAS polymer matrices. Under UV irradiation the precursors are photolyzed, driving to the formation of CdS nanocrystals in the quantum size regime, with size and concentration defined by the number of incident UV pulses, while the host polymer remains macroscopically/microscopically unaffected. The emission of the formed nanocomposite materials strongly depends on the dimensions of the CdS nanocrystals, thus, their growth at the different phases of the irradiation is monitored using spatially resolved photoluminescence by means of a confocal microscope. X-ray diffraction measurements verified the existence of the CdS nanocrystals, and defined their crystal structure for all the studied cases. The results are reinforced by transmission electron microscopy. It is proved that the selection of the precursor determines the efficiency of the procedure, and the quality of the formed nanocrystals. Moreover it is demonstrated that there is the possibility of laser induced formation of well-defined patterns of CdS nanocrystals, opening up new perspectives in the development of nanodevices.

  6. A multi-residue method for pesticides analysis in green coffee beans using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzutti, Ionara R; de Kok, Andre; Dickow Cardoso, Carmem; Reichert, Bárbara; de Kroon, Marijke; Wind, Wouter; Weber Righi, Laís; Caiel da Silva, Rosselei

    2012-08-17

    In this study, a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, using the very selective negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode, was developed and applied in combination with a modified acetonitrile-based extraction method (QuEChERS) for the analysis of a large number of pesticide residues (51 pesticides, including isomers and degradation products) in green coffee beans. A previously developed integrated sample homogenization and extraction method for both pesticides and mycotoxins analysis was used. An homogeneous slurry of green milled coffee beans and water (ratio 1:4, w/w) was prepared and extracted with acetonitrile/acetic acid (1%), followed by magnesium sulfate addition for phase separation. Aliquots from this extract could be used directly for LC-MS/MS analysis of mycotoxins and LC-amenable pesticides. For GC-MS analysis, a further clean-up was necessary. C18- and PSA-bonded silica were tested as dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) sorbents, separate and as a mixture, and the best results were obtained using C18-bonded silica. For the optimal sensitivity and selectivity, GC-MS detection in the NCI-selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode had to be used to allow the fast analysis of the difficult coffee bean matrix. The validation was performed by analyzing recovery samples at three different spike concentrations, 10, 20 and 50 μg kg(-1), with 6 replicates (n=6) at each concentration. Linearity (r(2)) of calibration curves, estimated instrument and method limits of detection and limits of quantification (LOD(i), LOD(m), LOQ(i) and LOQ(m), respectively), accuracy (as recovery %), precision (as RSD%) and matrix effects (%) were determined for each individual pesticide. From the 51 analytes (42 parent pesticides, 4 isomers and 5 degradation products) determined by GC-MS (NCI-SIM), approximately 76% showed average recoveries between 70-120% and 75% and RSD ≤ 20% at the lowest spike concentration of 10 μg kg(-1), the target method LOQ. For the

  7. Degradation of antipyrine by UV, UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UV/PS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Chaoqun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai City 200092 (China); Gao, Naiyun, E-mail: gaonaiyun@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai City 200092 (China); Deng, Yang [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ 07043 (United States); Zhang, Yongji; Sui, Minghao; Deng, Jing; Zhou, Shiqing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai City 200092 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The antipyrine decomposition exhibited a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern well. • The k{sub obs} with irradiance or oxidant dosage presented a linear relationship well. • The k{sub obs} exhibit an exponential trend as a function of [AP]{sub 0} for three systems. • UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} behaved best at pH 2.5–10, while UV/PS behaved best at pH 10.0–11.5. • Cost for chemicals was firstly taken into account in calculation of the EE/O values. -- Abstract: Degradation of antipyrine (AP) in water by three UV-based photolysis processes (i.e., direct UV, UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV/persulfate (UV/PS)) was studied. For all the oxidation processes, the AP decomposition exhibited a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern. Generally, UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UV/PS significantly improved the degradation rate relevant to UV treatment alone. The pseudo-first-order degradation rate constants (k{sub obs}) were, to different degrees, affected by initial AP concentration, oxidant dose, pH, UV irradiation intensity, and co-existing chemicals such as humic acid, chloride, bicarbonate, carbonate and nitrate. The three oxidation processes followed the order in terms of treatment costs: UV/PS > UV > UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} if the energy and chemical costs are considered. Finally, the AP degradation pathways in the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UV/PS processes are proposed. Results demonstrated that UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UV/PS are potential alternatives to control water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as AP.

  8. Development of protein biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS. It involves damage to the myelin sheath surrounding axons and to the axons themselves. MS most often presents with a series of relapses and remissions but then evolves over a variable period of time into a slowly progressive form of neurological dysfunction termed secondary progressive MS (SPMS. The reasons for this change in clinical presentation are unclear. The absence of a diagnostic marker means that there is a lag time of several years before the diagnosis of SPMS can be established. At the same time, understanding the mechanisms that underlie SPMS is critical to the development of rational therapies for this untreatable stage of the disease. Results Using high performance liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC; we have established a highly specific and sensitive selected reaction monitoring (SRM assay. Our multiplexed SRM assay has facilitated the simultaneous detection of surrogate peptides originating from 26 proteins present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Protein levels in CSF were generally ~200-fold lower than that in human sera. A limit of detection (LOD was determined to be as low as one femtomol. We processed and analysed CSF samples from a total of 22 patients with SPMS, 7 patients with SPMS treated with lamotrigine, 12 patients with non-inflammatory neurological disorders (NIND and 10 healthy controls (HC for the levels of these 26 selected potential protein biomarkers. Our SRM data found one protein showing significant difference between SPMS and HC, three proteins differing between SPMS and NIND, two proteins between NIND and HC, and 11 protein biomarkers showing significant difference between a lamotrigine-treated and untreated SPMS group. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed that these 26 proteins were correlated, and could be represented by four principal components. Overall, we established an

  9. Limiting stochastic harm when monitoring diverticular flogosis for lower Hinchey classes. Personal proposal for a selection method Reliability Ultrasound Score (RUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Pierpaolo; Rovagnati, Marco; Pakrawanan, Hamid; Carzaniga, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    An article in the BMJ issueof May 2012 (11) tackled the issue of safeguarding health by preventing diagnostic overtreatment. An observation of the diagnostic options in clinical routine enabled us to critically assess the appropriateness or notof the use of ionising radiation in monitoring acute diverticulitis by means of CT imaging. This disease, which has alwaysbeen frequent in elderly patients, has recently assumed a new role as an endemicdiseasein the Caucasian populationaged 40 to 50 in the Western world (6). We considered 79 cases coming under observation in the Emergency Roomover a period of 115 months, selected from a pool of 136 according to Hinchey Score (Hs) 0-1a-1b- assigned on admission after an Ultrasound(US) examination . The choice of the first diagnostic approach depended on the severity of the patient 's clinical condition, the degree of collaboration of the same and the discretion of the radiologist, although the concerted opinion was to prefer the US test given its clearly- established advantages of being convenient and harmless. During the period of recovery we noted the tendency to subordinate the choice of instrument to the habit and discretion of the attending practitioner. Our proposal was to introduce a standardised personal criterion which took into account the problem of stochastic harm from ionising radiation. The need of exposure or not to verify the clinical condition by means of a CT as opposed to a US was thus deduced by means of an Reliability Ultrasound Score (RUS) RESULTS: Using such score we were able to schedule in 14 out of the 37 cases in one branch of the study, an effective diagnostic check-up programmein safety and with an overall saving of 32 % of the ionising radiation. During this study wequantified a total amount of miniSivertnot dispensed, in 79 cases with Hs2°.

  10. Performance evaluation of transformer oil using uv-visible spectrophotometer

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, Radha; National Engineering College; Raja, Thangaswamy Sree Renga; Anna University; Shunmugam, Sundaram Sudalai; National Engineering College

    2014-01-01

    To ensure reliable operation of Power transformer, condition monitoring of transformer becomes obligatory. In this paper, condition assessment of transformer oil under various working conditions is performed using UV-visible spectrophotometer. Test samples include both laboratorial prepared ones and those obtained from in service transformers.  An index table of spectral responses for various faults which predominantly occur in the transformer is developed. The index table will acts as a refe...

  11. Spectral Measurements of Aerosol Absorption from UV to VISIBLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Labow, G.; Herman, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Slusser, J.; Durham, B.; Janson, G.; Wilson, C.; Disterhoft, P.; Cede, A.; Abuhassan, N.; Eck, T. F.; Holben, B.; Bais, A.; Rapsomanikis, S.

    2007-05-01

    Amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface can be strongly influenced by aerosol absorption. The aerosol absorption optical thickness (AAOT) in the visible and near IR (440 nm- 1020nm) is routinely produced from almucantar measurements made by the CIMEL instruments in the AERONET network. AAOT in the UV (300nm- 368nm) have been derived from the total and diffuse hemispherical flux measurements made by UV- Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (UV-MFRSR, Yankee Environmental Systems, Inc.) instruments. However, no direct comparisons between these two methods exist because the CIMEL wavelengths (used in almucantar retrievals) do not overlap with the UV-MFRSR wavelengths. To enable direct comparisons between the two techniques, we have modified our UV-MFRSR, part of USDA UVB Monitoring and Research Network, by replacing standard 300nm filter with 440nm filter used in AERONET network. The instrument has been deployed at Mauna Loa Observatory, at NASA GSFC in Greenbelt, MD (July 2005 - June 2006) and during SCOUT-03 field campaign in Thessaloniki, Greece in July 2006. During these deployments the instrument's calibration was monitored daily using co-located AERONET and BREWER direct sun measurements of aerosol extinction optical thickness (AOT). Between the deployments the instrument was thoroughly calibrated at the NOAA Central UV Calibration Facility in Boulder, Colorado. We find that the UV-MSFRSR instrument is highly susceptible to calibration drifts. However, these drifts can be accurately assessed using AERONET and BREWER direct sun data. After correcting for these calibration changes, the AAOT was inferred by fitting the measurements of global and diffuse atmospheric transmittances with the forward RT model independently at each spectral channel. The AOT data and ancillary measurements of aerosol column particle size distribution and refractive index in the visible wavelengths (by CIMEL sun-sky almucantar inversions), direct -sun column NO2 and

  12. Feasibility of the silver-UV process for drinking water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkus, Michael A; Talbot, Mark; Labare, Michael P

    2005-12-01

    A synergistic effect between cationic silver and UV radiation (silver-UV disinfection) has been observed that can appreciably enhance inactivation of viruses. The purpose of this work was to assess the feasibility of this technique for drinking water disinfection and evaluate the effects of selected impurities, found in fresh water, and common parameters on inactivation of the coliphage MS-2 with the silver-UV process. Turbidity (kaolin), calcium hardness, carbonate alkalinity, and pH did not significantly degrade inactivation. Inactivation was reduced in the presence of chloride, at concentrations greater than 30 mg/L, and in water samples with UV-254 absorbance values greater than ca. 0.1 cm(-1). Inactivation of MS-2 with silver-UV disinfection was also reduced at high phosphate concentrations (above ca. 5 mM). Silver-UV inactivation of MS-2 increased with increases in temperature between 10 and 20 degrees C. Silver-UV inactivation of MS-2 was increased by greater than 1-log over UV alone, in two untreated fresh water sources, which indicates that silver-UV may be a viable treatment technology. An assessment of operation and management costs suggests that an increase in inactivation of MS-2 with silver-UV disinfection could be economically beneficial.

  13. UV Direct-Writing of Metals on Polyimide

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Jack Hoyd-Gigg; Mccarthy, Aongus; Suyal, Himanshu; Prior, Kevin; Hand, Duncan P

    2008-01-01

    Conductive micro-patterned copper tracks were fabricated by UV direct-writing of a nanoparticle silver seed layer followed by selective electroless copper deposition. Silver ions were first incorporated into a hydrolyzed polyimide surface layer by wet chemical treatment. A photoreactive polymer coating, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) was coated on top of the substrate prior to UV irradiation. Electrons released through the interaction between the MPEG molecules and UV photons allowed the reduction of the silver ions across the MPEG/doped polyimide interface. The resultant silver seed layer has a cluster morphology which is suitable for the initiation of electroless plating. Initial results showed that the deposited copper tracks were in good agreement with the track width on the photomask and laser direct-writing can also fabricate smaller line width metal tracks with good accuracy. The facile fabrication presented here can be carried out in air, at atmospheric pressure, and on contoured surfaces.

  14. Possible values of UV index in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letić Milorad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION UV Index is an indicator of human exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV rays. The numerical values of the UV Index range from 1-11 and above. There are three levels of protection against UV radiation; low values of the UV Index - protection is not required, medium values of the UV Index - protection is recommended and high values of the UV Index - protection is obligatory. The value of the UV Index primarily depends on the elevation of the sun and total ozone column. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study is to determine the intervals of possible maximal annual values of the UV Index in Serbia in order to determine the necessary level of protection in a simple manner. METHOD For maximal and minimal expected values of total column ozone and for maximal elevation of the sun, the value of the UV Index was determined for each month in the Northern and Southern parts of Serbia. These values were compared with the forecast of the UV Index. RESULTS Maximal clear sky values of the UV Index in Serbia for altitudes up to 500m in May, June, July and August can be 9 or even 10, and not less than 5 or 6. During November, December, January and February the UV Index can be 4 at most. During March, April, September and October the expected values of the UV Index are maximally 7 and not less than 3. The forecast of the UV Index is within these limits in 98% of comparisons. CONCLUSION The described method of determination of possible UV Index values showed a high agreement with forecasts. The obtained results can be used for general recommendations in the protection against UV radiation.

  15. Adaptive V/UV Speech Detection Based on Characterization of Background Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Beritelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an adaptive system for Voiced/Unvoiced (V/UV speech detection in the presence of background noise. Genetic algorithms were used to select the features that offer the best V/UV detection according to the output of a background Noise Classifier (NC and a Signal-to-Noise Ratio Estimation (SNRE system. The system was implemented, and the tests performed using the TIMIT speech corpus and its phonetic classification. The results were compared with a nonadaptive classification system and the V/UV detectors adopted by two important speech coding standards: the V/UV detection system in the ETSI ES 202 212 v1.1.2 and the speech classification in the Selectable Mode Vocoder (SMV algorithm. In all cases the proposed adaptive V/UV classifier outperforms the traditional solutions giving an improvement of 25% in very noisy environments.

  16. Correlations between optical/near-infrared and UV extinction parameters and the prediction of UV extinction from ground-based photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelli, Jason A.; Clayton, Goeffrey C.; Mathis, John S.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of the variability of absolute UV extinction, A lambda derived through the ratio total-to-selective extinction, R Av/E(B-V), for 31 lines of sight for which UV extinction parameters were derived, is presented. For these data, which sample a wide range of environments and which are characterized by R = 2.5 to 6.0, differences in the shapes of UV extinction curves are largely due to variations in optical/near-UV extinction thr