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Sample records for monitor salmonella progression

  1. Noninvasive monitoring of salmonella infections in young mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olomu, Isoken N.; Reilly-Contag, Pamela; Stevenson, David K.; Contag, Christopher H.

    1999-07-01

    A recently developed bioluminescent assay was used to study the influence of age and inoculum size on the acute susceptibility of newborn and juvenile BALB/c mice to Salmonella gastrointestinal infection. Three strains of Salmonella were tagged by expression of the lux operon from Photohabdus luminescenes. Using a range of inoculum sizes varied over 6 orders of magnitude, mice aged 0-6 weeks were infected by oral inoculation. LIght emitted from the tagged bacteria and transmitted through mouse tissues was used to noninvasively monitor disease progression over 7 days. In neonatal mice there was evidence of gastrointestinal infection at 24 hours even with small inocular, and at 4-7 days, the patterns of photon emission and remained and healthy throughout the study period. Inoculation of neonates with tagged LB5000 and BJ66 resulted in severe gastrointestinal infections with low and intermediate sizes of inocula respectively. These strains are known to be of reduced virulence in adult mice. These age-related differences in susceptibility emphasize the need to define virulence in the context of age of the host, and implicate maturation of innate resistance factors in determining disease patterns. Identifying these host-factors and further defining the bacterial determinants of virulence in the neonatal host will be facilitated by this noninvasive study of infection using bioluminenscent methods.

  2. Monitoring the efficacy of steam and formaldehyde treatment of naturally Salmonella-infected layer houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Jørgensen, J.C.; Andersen, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To monitor if a temperature-humidity-time treatment found to be effective in eliminating Salmonella in laboratory trials (Gradel et al. 2003) was efficient against Salmonella in naturally infected layer houses. Methods and Results: Six layer houses with natural Salmonella infections were...

  3. Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Count Maps Epi Curves Signs & Symptoms Key Resources Salmonella Enteritidis Infections Linked to Raw, Frozen, Stuffed Chicken Entrees ... Epi Curves Signs & Symptoms Key Resources Drug-Resistant Salmonella Enteritidis Infections Linked to Raw, Frozen, Stuffed Chicken Entrees ...

  4. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Progress is reported on the following: electrical uses, direct-heat uses, drilling activities, leases, geothermal loan guarantee program, general activities, and legal, institutional, and regulatory activites. (MHR)

  5. Monitoring Radiographic Brain Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Sampson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining radiographic progression in primary malignant brain tumors has posed a significant challenge to the neuroncology community. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO Grade IV through its inherent heterogeneous enhancement, growth patterns, and irregular nature has been difficult to assess for progression. Our ability to detect tumor progression radiographically remains inadequate. Despite the advanced imaging techniques, detecting tumor progression continues to be a clinical challenge. Here we review the different criteria used to detect tumor progression, and highlight the inherent challenges with detection of progression.

  6. The neural basis of monitoring goal progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eBenn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The neural basis of progress monitoring has received relatively little attention compared to other sub-processes that are involved in goal directed behavior such as motor control and response inhibition. Studies of error-monitoring have identified the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC as a structure that is sensitive to conflict detection, and triggers corrective action. However, monitoring goal progress involves monitoring correct as well as erroneous events over a period of time. In the present research, 20 healthy participants underwent fMRI while playing a game that involved monitoring progress towards either a numerical or a visuo-spatial target. The findings confirmed the role of the dACC in detecting situations in which the current state may conflict with the desired state, but also revealed activations in the frontal and parietal regions, pointing to the involvement of processes such as attention and working memory in monitoring progress over time. In addition, activation of the cuneus was associated with monitoring progress towards a specific target presented in the visual modality. This is the first time that activation in this region has been linked to higher-order processing of goal-relevant information, rather than low-level anticipation of visual stimuli. Taken together, these findings identify the neural substrates involved in monitoring progress over time, and how these extend beyond activations observed in conflict and error monitoring.

  7. Geothermal progress monitor report No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part II of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  8. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 8. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) Report Number 8 presents information concerning ongoing technology transfer activities and the mechanisms used to support these activities within geothermal R and D programs. A state-by-state review of major geothermal development activities for the reporting period 1 February 1983 through 31 July 1983 is provided. Recent drilling and exploration efforts and the current status of geothermal electric power plant development in the United States are summarized.

  9. Geothermal Progress Monitor. Report No. 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Two themes dominate this issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor, the 15th since its inception in 1980. The first of these is the significance of the government/industry partnership role in geothermal development. This joint effort is reflected in the continued, measured growth in the use of geothermal energy, for both power generation and direct use applications, in this country and abroad, as well as in the development of new, innovative technologies to ensure a bright future for the resource. The second theme is the growing popularity of geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) among utilities, their customers, and federal agencies, all with disparate interests in the technology.

  10. Geothermal Progress Monitor: Report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor, the 14th since its inception in 1980, highlights the anticipated rapid growth in the use of geothermal heat pumps and documents the continued growth in the use of geothermal energy for power generation, both in this country and abroad. In countries with a relatively large demand for new generation capacity, geothermal, if available, is being called on as a preferable alternative to the use of domestic or imported oil. On the other hand, in this country where current demand for new capacity is less, geothermal energy is commonly being put to use in small power generation units operating on the hot water resource.

  11. The Geothermal Progress Monitor: Design and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entingh, D.J.; Lopez, A.F.; Neham, E.A.

    1981-02-01

    The Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) is an information system that links the various elements of the public and private sectors of the geothermal industry. The monitoring effort emphasizes the identification and analysis of indicators of what the main participants in geothermal energy utilization--field developers, energy users and government agencies--are doing to foster the discovery, confirmation and use of this resource. The major indicators considered both important and measurable are leasing activities, drilling efforts, feasibility studies, construction plans and progress, costs of installations, levels of investment, environmental study and regulatory activities, legislative status and changes, and government monetary investments in projects and activities. The GPM is unique in that it is a network, a process, a project staff and a product. As a process, the GPM identifies, acquires stores, tabulates, analyzes and reports on the information obtained through its network structure. The GPM project staff maintains the other aspects of the GPM and in particular produces pertinent analyses and responds to queries by providing information or directing the requestors to the appropriate sources. Finally, the GPM is a periodic report which summarizes activities, status and trends in the geothermal industry.

  12. Which Factors Are Associated with Monitoring Goal Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Betty P. I.; Webb, Thomas L.; Benn, Yael; Stride, Chris B.

    2017-01-01

    Three studies examined how people assess their progress on personal goals (e.g., whether they compare their progress to the past and/or to a desired target state), along with factors that might influence the nature of progress monitoring (e.g., whether the goal involves attaining a positive outcome or avoiding a negative outcome). Study 1 involved semi-structured interviews with 40 participants, in which we examined how participants monitored their progress and whether this was related to: (a) their level of self-efficacy, (b) whether the goal was prevention focused, and (c) whether goal progress was represented in quantifiable terms. Studies 2 (N = 492) and 3 (N = 481) were conducted online and additionally examined whether how participants monitored their progress differed as a function of the domain of the goal (i.e., whether it was related to physical development/health, finances, work/study, or social relationships). The findings suggest that participants: (i) were less likely to monitor their progress toward goals that were related to avoiding negative outcomes, (ii) were less likely to monitor their progress toward goals related to finances, work, or study with reference to the past, than progress toward other goals (e.g., those relating to physical development and health), (iii) found it easier to monitor their progress toward goals that they felt confident of attaining, but harder to monitor their progress toward goals related to work or study. Finally, the more participants thought about their goal in quantifiable terms, the more likely they were to monitor their progress, and the easier they found monitoring their progress to be. Taken together, these studies begin to describe the nature of progress monitoring and the factors that influence this important self-regulatory process.

  13. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    This issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) is the 11th since the inception of the publication in 1980. It continues to synthesize information on all aspects of geothermal development in this country and abroad to permit identification and quantification of trends in the use of this energy technology. In addition, the GPM is a mechanism for transferring current information on geothermal technology development to the private sector, and, over time, provides a historical record for those interested in the development pathway of the resource. In sum, the Department of Energy makes the GPM available to the many diverse interests that make up the geothermal community for the multiple uses it may serve. This issue of the GPM points up very clearly how closely knit many of those diverse interests have become. It might well be called an international issue'' since many of its pages are devoted to news of geothermal development abroad, to the efforts of the US industry to participate in overseas development, to the support given those efforts by federal and state agencies, and to the formation of the International Geothermal Association (IGA). All of these events indicate that the geothermal community has become truly international in character, an occurrence that can only enhance the future of geothermal energy as a major source of energy supply worldwide. 15 figs.

  14. Geothermal Progress Monitor. Report No. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The near-term challenges of the US geothermal industry and its long-range potential are dominant themes in this issue of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Progress Monitor which summarizes calendar-year 1996 events in geothermal development. Competition is seen as an antidote to current problems and a cornerstone of the future. Thus, industry's cost-cutting strategies needed to increase the competitiveness of geothermal energy in world markets are examined. For example, a major challenge facing the US industry today is that the sales contracts of independent producers have reached, or soon will, the critical stage when the prices utilities must pay them drop precipitously, aptly called the cliff. However, Thomas R. Mason, President and CEO of CalEnergy told the DOE 1996 Geothermal Program Review XIV audience that while some of his company's plants have ''gone over the cliff, the world is not coming to an end.'' With the imposition of severe cost-cutting strategies, he said, ''these plants remain profitable... although they have to be run with fewer people and less availability.'' The Technology Development section of the newsletter discusses enhancements to TOUGH2, the general purpose fluid and heat flow simulator and the analysis of drill cores from The Geysers, but the emphasis is on advanced drilling technologies.

  15. Using Learning Progressions to Monitor Progress across Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Karin K.

    2010-01-01

    Learning progressions (LPs)--descriptive continuums of how students develop and demonstrate more sophisticated understanding over time--have become an increasingly important tool in today's science classrooms. Here the author discusses some of the research behind learning progressions and presents The Science Inquiry Profile for PreK-4. This is a…

  16. Progress Monitoring to Support Science Learning for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannest, Kimberly J.; Soares, Denise A.; Smith, Stacey L.; Williams, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    Progress monitoring provides teachers with frequent, reliable data on student improvement in academic skills. However, valid and reliable progress monitoring probes are primarily available just for reading fluency, comprehension, spelling, and math. Because the instruction of students with disabilities in science occurs primarily in general…

  17. Putting Algebra Progress Monitoring into Practice: Insights from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foegen, Anne; Morrison, Candee

    2010-01-01

    Algebra progress monitoring is a research-based practice that extends a long history of research in curriculum-based measurement (CBM). This article describes the theoretical foundations and research evidence for algebra progress monitoring, along with critical features of the practice. A detailed description of one practitioner's implementation…

  18. Geothermal Progress Monitor, report No. 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) Issue No. 13 documents that most related factors favor the growth and geographic expansion of the US geothermal industry and that the industry is being technologically prepared to meet those challenges into the next century. It is the function of GPM to identify trends in the use of this resource and to provide a historical record of its development pathway. The information assembled for this issue of GPM indicates that trends in the use of geothermal energy in this country and abroad continue to be very positive. Favorable sentiments as well as pertinent actions on the part of both government and industry are documented in almost every section. The FEDERAL BEAT points up that the National Energy Strategy (NES) developed at the highest levels of the US government recognizes the environmental and energy security advantages of renewable energy, including geothermal, and makes a commitment to 'substantial diversification' of US sources of energy. With the announcement of the construction of several new plants and plant expansions, the INDUSTRY SCENE illustrates industry's continued expectation that the use of geothermal energy will prove profitable to investors. In DEVELOPMENT STATUS, spokesmen for both an investor-owned utility and a major geothermal developer express strong support for geothermal power, particularly emphasizing its environmental advantages. DEVELOPMENT STATUS also reports that early successes have been achieved by joint DOE/industry R & D at The Geysers which will have important impacts on the future management of this mature field. Also there is increasing interest in hot dry rock. Analyses conducted in support of the NES indicate that if all the postulated technology developments occur in this field, the price of energy derived from hot dry rock in the US could drop.

  19. Geothermal Progress Monitor, report No. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) Issue No. 13 documents that most related factors favor the growth and geographic expansion of the US geothermal industry and that the industry is being technologically prepared to meet those challenges into the next century. It is the function of GPM to identify trends in the use of this resource and to provide a historical record of its development pathway. The information assembled for this issue of GPM indicates that trends in the use of geothermal energy in this country and abroad continue to be very positive. Favorable sentiments as well as pertinent actions on the part of both government and industry are documented in almost every section. The FEDERAL BEAT points up that the National Energy Strategy (NES) developed at the highest levels of the US government recognizes the environmental and energy security advantages of renewable energy, including geothermal, and makes a commitment to substantial diversification'' of US sources of energy. With the announcement of the construction of several new plants and plant expansions, the INDUSTRY SCENE illustrates industry's continued expectation tha the use of geothermal energy will prove profitable to investors. In DEVELOPMENT STATUS, spokesmen for both an investor-owned utility and a major geothermal developer express strong support for geothermal power, particularly emphasizing its environmental advantages. DEVELOPMENT STATUS also reports that early successes have been achieved by joint DOE/industry R D at The Geysers which will have important impacts on the future management of this mature field. Also there is increasing interest in hot dry rock. Analyses conducted in support of the NES indicate that if all the postulated technology developments occur in this field, the price of energy derived from hot dry rock in the US could drop.

  20. Progress Toward Demonstrating SAR Monitoring of Chinese Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weigen; Johannessen, Johnny; Alpers, Werner; Yang, Jingsong

    2010-12-01

    "Demonstrating SAR monitoring of Chinese seas" is a project of the ESA-MOST Dragon 2 program. This paper presents the progress of the project. Retrieval algorithms for SAR monitoring of sea surface currents, oceanic internal waves, sea surface winds, oil spills and ships have been advanced. SAR monitoring of Chinese seas in near-real-time is now in demonstration phase.

  1. Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility from the national animal health monitoring system sheep 2011 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness and can cause clinical disease in animals. Understanding the on-farm ecology of Salmonella will be helpful in decreasing the risk of foodborne transmission. An objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella among fecal samples c...

  2. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 5. Progress report, June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Updated information is presented on activities and progress in the areas of electric power plants, direct heat applications, deep well drilling, leasing of federal lands, legislative and regulatory actions, research and development, and others. Special attention is given in this report to 1980 highlights, particularly in the areas of electric and direct heat uses, drilling, and the Federal lands leasing program. This report also includes a summary of the DOE FY 1982 geothermal budget request to Congress.

  3. [FY 2014 progress report]: Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report for Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring covers activities during FY2014. Working with partners across the regions, this landscape...

  4. Ultrasonic Monitoring of the Progress of Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

    2003-05-01

    Promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation has been attempted. It is possible to determine the progress of fermentation and production of a curd, i.e., yoghurt and or kefir, by measuring acidity using a pH meter. However, this method is inconvenient and indirect for the evaluation of the progress of lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition. In this study, an ultrasonic monitoring method for evaluating the progress of lactic acid fermentation was examined.

  5. Real-time monitoring of Salmonella enterica in free-range geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Pedersen, Karl;

    2011-01-01

    Free-range geese were sampled longitudinally and Salmonella isolates characterized to reveal highly diverging colonization dynamics. One flock was intermittently colonized with one strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from 2 weeks of age, while in another, S. enterica serovar Mbandak...

  6. Monitoring of progressive collapse of skeletal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiercz, A.; Kolakowski, P.; Holnicki-Szulc, J.

    2011-07-01

    The authors propose an idea of monitoring the state of skeletal structures of high importance (e.g. roof structures over large area buildings) with the aim of identification of slowly-developing plastic zones. This is formulated as an inverse problem within the framework of the Virtual Distortion Method, which was used previously to identify stiffness/mass modifications in similar manner. Permanent plastic strains developed in a truss element can be modeled by an initial strain (virtual distortion) introduced to the structure. The formation of subsequent plastic zones in the structure is assumed to be slow. Consequently, the design variable (plastic strain) is time-independent, which makes the inverse analysis efficient. This article presents problem formulation and numerical algorithm for identification of the plastic strains int russ structures. The identification relies on gradient-based optimization. A numerical example is included to demonstrate the efficiency of th ealgorithm.

  7. Ultrasound clinical progress monitoring: Who, where and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gill

    2015-11-01

    Prior to assessment of final ultrasound clinical competency it is important to monitor clinical progress, provide high quality feedback and encourage skills development. The role of the supervisor, mentor and assessor are fundamental to the on-going progress monitoring of ultrasound trainees. This article forms the second part of a larger project which was to elicit ultrasound practitioners' opinions on how progress should be monitored, where and by whom. An on-line questionnaire was used to gain opinions from ultrasound practitioners. Totally, 116 responses were received from professionals with an interest in ultrasound assessment. Results suggested that experienced, qualified ultrasound practitioners should undertake the role of supervisor and assessor, having been prepared for that role by the training centre. Formative monitoring should take place both within the clinical department and possibly the training centre, using a range of methods. Following completion of the training, practitioners should have a preceptorship period to consolidate their knowledge and skills for 3 to 6 months or until further competencies have been demonstrated. Formative progress monitoring should be a recognised part of ultrasound training. Essentially, staff undertaking supervision and assessor roles should be supported and trained to ensure a high quality, consistent learning experience for ultrasound trainees. Additionally, they should provide appropriate feedback to the trainee and education centre.

  8. Salmonella Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility from the National Animal Health Monitoring System Sheep 2011 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargatz, David A; Marshall, Katherine L; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Erdman, Matthew M; Kopral, Christine A

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness and can cause clinical disease in animals. Understanding the on-farm ecology of Salmonella will be helpful in decreasing the risk of foodborne transmission. An objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella among fecal samples collected on sheep operations in the United States. Another objective was to compare the use of composite fecal samples with fecal samples collected from individual sheep as a tool for screening sheep flocks for Salmonella. Sheep fecal samples (individual and composite) were collected on operations in 22 states. Salmonella isolates were characterized with regard to species, serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Most operations (72.1%) had at least one positive sample and overall 26.9% of samples were positive. The percentage of positive samples varied by animal age class. Composite and individual samples gave similar results. The majority of the isolates (94%) were Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serotype 61:-:1,5,7. Nearly all of the isolates (91.2%) tested for antimicrobial susceptibility were susceptible to all antimicrobials in the panel. The findings suggest that salmonellae typically associated with foodborne disease transmission are infrequently found on sheep operations in the United States.

  9. Laboratory monitoring of bacterial gastroenteric pathogens Salmonella and Shigella in Shanghai, China 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Wang, F; Jin, H; Hu, J; Yuan, Z; Shi, W; Yang, X; Meng, J; Xu, X

    2015-02-01

    In 2006 we initiated an enhanced laboratory-based surveillance of Salmonella and Shigella infections in Shanghai, China. A total of 4483 Salmonella and 2226 Shigella isolates were recovered from stool specimens by 2012. In 80 identified Salmonella serovars, Enteritidis (34·5%) and Typhimurium (26·2%) were the most common. Shigella (S.) sonnei accounted for 63·9% of human Shigella infections over the same time period, and replaced S. flexneri to become the primary cause of shigellosis since 2010. Overall, a high level of antimicrobial resistance was observed in Salmonella and Shigella, particularly to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, and tetracycline. Ciprofloxacin resistance was common in Salmonella Typhimurium (21·0%) and S. flexneri (37·6%). The cephalosporin resistance in both pathogens also increased over the years, ranging from 3·4% to 7·0% in Salmonella, and from 10·4% to 28·6% in Shigella. Resistance to multiple antimicrobials was also identified in a large number of the isolates. This study provides insight into the distribution of Salmonella and Shigella in diarrhoeal diseases.

  10. Social Studies Progress Monitoring and Intervention for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyers, Sarah J.; Lembke, Erica S.; Curs, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the technical adequacy of vocabulary-matching curriculum-based measurement (CBM) to identify and monitor the progress of 148 middle school students in social studies. In addition, the effectiveness of a reading comprehension intervention, Collaborative Strategic Reading (Klingner, Vaughn, Dimino, Schumm, & Bryant, 2001),…

  11. Student Progress Monitoring: What This Means for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of progress monitoring to parents, highlighting its goal of providing parents and teachers information that can help children learn more and learn faster, and to help teachers teach more effectively and make better decisions about the type of instruction that will work best with each student.

  12. Monitoring Progress towards Education for All: A Methodological Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This guidebook, aimed at middle-level policy advisors and planners in education, suggests a methodology that can be used to monitor progress in the implementation of Education for All (EFA) programs regardless of the proprieties and targets involved at the national level of the individual country. The first chapter discusses the decision to…

  13. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M

    2015-06-19

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines.

  14. TPS In-Flight Health Monitoring Project Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyk, Chris; Richards, Lance; Hudston, Larry; Prosser, William

    2007-01-01

    Progress in the development of new thermal protection systems (TPS) is reported. New approaches use embedded lightweight, sensitive, fiber optic strain and temperature sensors within the TPS. Goals of the program are to develop and demonstrate a prototype TPS health monitoring system, develop a thermal-based damage detection algorithm, characterize limits of sensor/system performance, and develop ea methodology transferable to new designs of TPS health monitoring systems. Tasks completed during the project helped establish confidence in understanding of both test setup and the model and validated system/sensor performance in a simple TPS structure. Other progress included complete initial system testing, commencement of the algorithm development effort, generation of a damaged thermal response characteristics database, initial development of a test plan for integration testing of proven FBG sensors in simple TPS structure, and development of partnerships to apply the technology.

  15. A novel homologous model for noninvasive monitoring of endometriosis progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Hortensia; Buigues, Anna; Martínez, Jessica; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; Gómez, Raúl

    2017-02-01

    To date, several groups have generated homologous models of endometriosis through the implantation of endometrial tissue fluorescently labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP) or tissue from luciferase-expressing transgenic mice into recipient animals, enabling noninvasive monitoring of lesion signal. These models present an advantage over endpoint models, but some limitations persist; use of transgenic mice is laborious and expensive, and GFP presents poor tissue penetration due to the relatively short emission wavelength. For this reason, a homologous mouse model of endometriosis that allows in vivo monitoring of generated lesions over time and mimics human lesions in recipient mice would be most desirable. In this regard, using C57BL/6 and B6N-Tyrc-Brd/BrdCrCrl mice, we optimized a decidualization protocol to obtain large volumes of decidual endometrium and mimic human lesions. Subsequently, to obtain a more robust and reliable noninvasive monitoring of lesions, we used the fluorescent reporter mCherry, which presents deeper tissue penetration and higher photostability, showing that endometrial tissue was properly labeled with 1 × 108 PFU/mL mCherry adenoviral vectors. mCherry-labeled endometriotic tissue was implanted in recipient mice, generating lesions that displayed characteristics typical of human endometriotic lesions, such as epithelial cells forming glands, local inflammation, collagen deposits, and new vessel formation. In vivo monitoring demonstrated that subcutaneous implantation on ventral abdomen of recipient mice provided the most intense and reliable signal for noninvasive lesion monitoring over a period of at least 20 days. This homologous model improves upon previously reported models of endometriosis and provides opportunities to study mechanism underlying endometriotic lesion growth and progression. We created a cost-effective but accurate homologous mouse model of endometriosis that allows the study of growth and progression of

  16. USE OF A MOLECULAR PROBE ASSAY FOR MONITORING SALMONELLA SPP. IN BIOSOLIDS SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations (40 CFR 503) require enumeration of fecal coliform or salmonellae prior to land application of biosolids. This regulation specifies use of enumeration methods included in "Standard methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 18th Edition," (SM)...

  17. MONITORING THE PRESENCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND SALMONELLA SPP. IN INDUSTRIAL GROWING POULTRY IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 – 2010, out of many poultry farms located in different geographic areas within the country (Fier, Kavaje, Durres, Elbasan, Shkoder, Korce, Lezhe and Lushnje were championed/selected visceral organs and intestinal materials. In this study, were isolated a total of 1.496 strains of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The findings obtained from this study, provide a clear picture on the presence, distribution and the behavioral of poultry pathogenosity of E.coli and Salmonella spp., based on the usage of innovative diagnostic methods. Even though, attenuated and live vaccines are continuously produced for immunization of poultry against enterobacterias, salmonellosis and colibacillosis, these diseases remain among the most encountered bacterial infections in poultry industry. Nowadays, poultry breeding in Albania has a very heterogeneous characteristic. The development of poultry industry and breeding of many avian species is mainly based on the existence of intensive modern farms with huge capacities, which often are mixed in another form- widely distributed in country, such as rural breeding, extensive and family ones. Many in vivo and in vitro studies have not yet clarified the mechanisms with which pathogen enterobacters in poultry are able to cause the infection. The routine diagnose in the field, followed by isolation of E. coli and species of Salmonella genres in reference laboratories cannot lead in classification or full recognition of circulative strains in a territory, if it is not performed a differentiation among the present microorganisms in intensive farms and those in rural areas. Foremost, it cannot be concluded the fact whether these strains are acting as prime pathogens or are part of secondary infections, which occur very often in intensive poultry breeding industry.

  18. Monitoring Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in traditional free-range 'Label Rouge' broiler production: a 23-year survey programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, G; Guyot, M; Protino, J

    2017-01-01

    'Label Rouge' broiler free-range carcasses have been monitored since 1991, and broiler flocks since 2010, for contamination by the main foodborne zoonotic bacteria. Initially, the monitoring plan mainly focused on the surveillance of Salmonella, and on indicators of the overall microbiological quality of free-range broiler carcasses such as Staphylococcus aureus and coliforms, but was extended in 2007 to include Campylobacter enumeration on carcasses and in 2010, to Salmonella in the environment of live birds. Salmonella contamination of free-range broiler carcasses rose to a peak of 16% in 1994 but less than 1% of carcasses are now regularly found to be positive. Indicators of the overall microbiological quality of carcasses are also improving. These results correlate with the low prevalence of Salmonella in free-range broiler breeding and production flocks, and with the continuous improvement of hazard analysis and critical control points in slaughterhouses, the implementation of a good manufacturing practice guide since 1997 and the application of EU regulations on Salmonella since 1998 in France. Regarding Campylobacter counts on carcasses, the situation has been improving continuously over the last few years, even if 2·5% of the carcasses are still contaminated by more than 1000 Campylobacter per g of skin. Although the current control system focusing on Salmonella is based on firm epidemiologic data and offers effective means of control (e.g. slaughtering of positive breeder flocks), existing information on Campylobacter makes it more difficult to formulate an effective control plan for free-range broilers, due to their particular exposure to environmental contamination. This long-term surveillance programme provided an extended view of the evolution of the contamination of free-range broilers and a direct measurement of the impact of mandatory and profession-driven interventions on the microbiological quality of carcasses. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  19. Genomics of Salmonella Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, Rocio; McClelland, Michael; Santiviago, Carlos A.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    Progress in the study of Salmonella survival, colonization, and virulence has increased rapidly with the advent of complete genome sequencing and higher capacity assays for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Although many of these techniques have yet to be used to directly assay Salmonella growth on foods, these assays are currently in use to determine Salmonella factors necessary for growth in animal models including livestock animals and in in vitro conditions that mimic many different environments. As sequencing of the Salmonella genome and microarray analysis have revolutionized genomics and transcriptomics of salmonellae over the last decade, so are new high-throughput sequencing technologies currently accelerating the pace of our studies and allowing us to approach complex problems that were not previously experimentally tractable.

  20. Does monitoring goal progress promote goal attainment? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, Benjamin; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Prestwich, Andrew; Conner, Mark; Kellar, Ian; Benn, Yael; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-02-01

    Control theory and other frameworks for understanding self-regulation suggest that monitoring goal progress is a crucial process that intervenes between setting and attaining a goal, and helps to ensure that goals are translated into action. However, the impact of progress monitoring interventions on rates of behavioral performance and goal attainment has yet to be quantified. A systematic literature search identified 138 studies (N = 19,951) that randomly allocated participants to an intervention designed to promote monitoring of goal progress versus a control condition. All studies reported the effects of the treatment on (a) the frequency of progress monitoring and (b) subsequent goal attainment. A random effects model revealed that, on average, interventions were successful at increasing the frequency of monitoring goal progress (d+ = 1.98, 95% CI [1.71, 2.24]) and promoted goal attainment (d+ = 0.40, 95% CI [0.32, 0.48]). Furthermore, changes in the frequency of progress monitoring mediated the effect of the interventions on goal attainment. Moderation tests revealed that progress monitoring had larger effects on goal attainment when the outcomes were reported or made public, and when the information was physically recorded. Taken together, the findings suggest that monitoring goal progress is an effective self-regulation strategy, and that interventions that increase the frequency of progress monitoring are likely to promote behavior change.

  1. Progress on the Low Frequency All Sky Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James; Jenet, Fredrick; Craig, Joseph; Creighton, Teviet David; Percy Dartez, Louis; Ford, Anthony J.; Hernandez, Andrés; Hicks, Brian; Hinojosa, Jesus; Jaramillo, Ricardo; Kassim, Namir E.; Lazio, Joseph; Lunsford, Grady; Miller, Rossina B.; Ray, Paul S.; Rivera, Jesus; Taylor, Gregory B.; Teitelbaum, Lawrence; CenterAdvanced Radio Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, University of New Mexico, Naval Research Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laborator

    2015-01-01

    The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM) is a system of geographically separated radio arrays dedicated to the study of radio transients. LoFASM consists of four stations, each comprised of 12 cross-dipole antennas designed to operate between 10-88MHz. The antennas and front end electronics for LoFASM were designed by the Naval Research Laboratory for the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) project (cf. Hicks et al. PASP 124, 1090 (2012)). All four stations are currently operational and in the commissioning stage . Over the last 3 years, undergraduate and graduate students from the University of Texas at Brownsville's Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy have been establishing these stations around the continental US, consisting of sites located in Port Mansfield, Texas, the LWA North Arm site of the LWA1 Radio Observatory in New Mexico, adjacent to the North Arm of the Very Large Array, the Green Bank Radio Observatory, West Virginia, and the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, California. In combination with the establishment of these sites was the development of the analog hardware, which consists of custom RF splitter/combiners and a custom amplifier and filter chain designed at Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy (CARA). This poster will expound on progress in site installation and the development of the analog signal chain, specifically the redesigned analog receiving system.

  2. Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility from the National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2000 and 2006 Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern over Salmonella contamination of food is compounded by fear that antimicrobials traditionally used to combat the infection will become useless due to rising antibiotic resistance. Livestock, in particular swine, are often blamed for illnesses caused by Salmonella and for increasing antibioti...

  3. Monitoring Progress in Child Poverty Reduction: Methodological Insights and Illustration to the Case Study of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Important steps have been taken at international summits to set up goals and targets to improve the wellbeing of children worldwide. Now the world also has more and better data to monitor progress. This paper presents a new approach to monitoring progress in child poverty reduction based on the Alkire and Foster adjusted headcount ratio and an…

  4. Monitoring Progress in Child Poverty Reduction: Methodological Insights and Illustration to the Case Study of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Important steps have been taken at international summits to set up goals and targets to improve the wellbeing of children worldwide. Now the world also has more and better data to monitor progress. This paper presents a new approach to monitoring progress in child poverty reduction based on the Alkire and Foster adjusted headcount ratio and an…

  5. The Los Angeles Experience in Monitoring Desegregation: Progress and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicelma J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a case analysis of the role of the Los Angeles (California) School Monitoring Committee in the implementation of school desegregation. Demonstrates how citizen monitoring advisory committees work in desegregated settings and discusses the challenges, problems, and opportunities they are likely to face. (Author/MK)

  6. Detection of Salmonella in Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Flemming; Mansdal, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain can contribute to food safety. The objective of this study was to validate an easy-to-use pre-PCR sample preparation method based on a simple boiling protocol for screening of Salmonella in meat and carcass swab samples...

  7. Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 2, January/February 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the following aspects of the program: electrical uses; direct-heat uses; leases; outreach and technical assistance; general activities; legal, institutional, and regulatory activities; and reports and publications. (MHR)

  8. 7 CFR 3405.19 - Monitoring progress of funded projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HIGHER EDUCATION CHALLENGE GRANTS... Annual Performance Reports should include a summary of the overall progress toward project objectives... reform, and opportunities to enhance dissemination of exemplary end products/results. (b) An...

  9. 7 CFR 3406.26 - Monitoring progress of funded projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... award. These reports are in addition to the annual Current Research Information System (CRIS) reports... RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING... Annual Performance Reports should include a summary of the overall progress toward project...

  10. Salmonella: Salmonellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Trine; Maurischat, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella remains one of the most important zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and is the causative agents of salmonellosis. The aim of this article is to give an overview of Salmonella and salmonellosis, starting by describing the characteristics of the microorganism Salmonella, including biochemical...

  11. FY09 PROGRESS: MULTI-ISOTOPE PROCESS (MIP) MONITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Laspe, Amy R.; Ward, Rebecca M.

    2009-10-18

    Model and experimental estimates of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor performance for determining burnup after dissolution and acid concentration during solvent extraction steps during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are presented.

  12. Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2000-03-31

    OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3(NOTE: Part II A item 1 indicates ''PAPER'', but a report is attached electronically)

  13. FY 2009 Progress: Process Monitoring Technology Demonstration at PNNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrigo, Leah M.; Christensen, Ronald N.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Liezers, Martin; Peper, Shane M.; Thomas, Elizabeth M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Douglas, Matthew; Laspe, Amy R.; Lines, Amanda M.; Peterson, James M.; Ward, Rebecca M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Orton, Christopher R.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and demonstrating three technologies designed to assist in the monitoring of reprocessing facilities in near-real time. These technologies include 1) a multi-isotope process monitor (MIP), 2) a spectroscopy-based monitor that uses UV-Vis-NIR (ultraviolet-visible-near infrared) and Raman spectrometers, and 3) an electrochemically modulated separations approach (EMS). The MIP monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and pattern recognition software to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The UV-Vis-NIR and Raman spectroscopic monitoring continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (uranium, plutonium, neptunium), selected fission products, and major cold flow sheet chemicals. The EMS approach provides an on-line means for separating and concentrating elements of interest out of complex matrices prior to detection via nondestructive assay by gamma spectroscopy or destructive analysis with mass spectrometry. A general overview of the technologies and ongoing demonstration results are described in this report.

  14. Monitoring of behavior using a video-recording system for recognition of Salmonella infection in experimentally infected growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S T; Mun, H-S; Yoe, H; Yang, C-J

    2015-01-01

    Behavior is one of the most commonly used indicators of illness; however, few studies have investigated how different common diseases affect animal behavior. This experiment was conducted to investigate behavioral and clinical alterations in growing pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella spp. during a 4-week post-infection period. A total of 48 growing pigs were divided into one of the three treatment groups (1) control, (2) infection with Salmonella Typhimurium or (3) infection with Salmonella Enteritidis. Individual pigs' behavior was recorded daily (0900 to 1100 and 1600 to 1800 h) using a video-recording system. Pigs in both infected groups had lower weight gain and feed intake during week 0 to 2 and 0 to 4 experimental period. Bacteriological data revealed that pigs in both infected groups persistently shed bacteria throughout the period of study. Oral infection of growing pigs with S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis significantly reduced the frequency of morning large (except week 1) and small movement throughout the study period. In the evening, significantly lowest frequency of movements were observed in the S. Enteritidis-infected group compared with the control. The standing and sitting frequency were significantly lower in both infected groups only at the morning of week 4. Infection with Salmonella spp. led to a significant reduction in the frequency and duration of morning eating and drinking throughout the experimental period, with the exception of 4th week drinking duration. The lowest frequency of evening eating during week 1 and 4 was recorded in both infected groups; whereas, the duration differed only at week 1. The evening drinking frequency only tended to decrease in response to S. Typhimurium infection at week 1. This study shows that, pigs infected with Salmonella spp. had poor performance, shedding high levels of Salmonella with their feces and reduced feeding and drinking activity, which are adaptive responses to infection and may help

  15. Marine litter monitoring by northern fulmars: progress report 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Meijboom, A.

    2003-01-01

    An earlier pilot study on litter contents in stomachs of fulmars indicated that this seabird can be used as a suitable indicator of levels of marine litter pollution on the North Sea off the Dutch coast. This progress report updates the existing dataset with data on fulmar stomach contents in the ye

  16. Monitoring of Salmonella in Laying Hens%蛋鸡群沙门氏菌的监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕殿红; 温肖会; 翟少伦; 黄忠; 杨燕秋; 周秀蓉; 魏文康

    2016-01-01

    [目的]了解蛋鸡场沙门氏菌的感染情况。[方法]采用沙门氏菌抗原和抗体检测方法对2012~2015年采集的广东省蛋鸡场样品进行检测。采用ELISA方法对1784血清样品进行了肠炎沙门氏菌和1387份血清样品进行了鼠伤寒沙门氏菌抗体检测;采用凝集试验方法对1391份血清样品进行了鸡白痢沙门氏菌抗体检测;采用细菌培养、PCR方法对采自广东省的活鸡/死鸡、环境拭子等1458份样品进行了沙门氏菌检测。[结果]肠炎、鼠伤寒、鸡白痢3种血清型沙门氏菌抗体的阳性率分别为16.70%、10.09%和1.01%;沙门氏菌抗原检测的阳性率为1.65%。[结论]蛋鸡群中存在肠炎、鼠伤寒、鸡白痢等3种沙门氏菌不同程度的感染,但是蛋鸡群的总体感染率不高。%Objective] To study infection of laying hens with salmonella.[Method] The antigen and antibody of salmonella in laying hens collected from Guangdong Province during 2012-2015 were detected.ELISA method and aggregation test were used to detect the antibody ti-ter of serum samples about Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella pullorum, and then germiculture and PCR were used to check out salmonella from chickens and environment swabs.[Result] Positive rates of three kinds of antibody were 16.70%, 10.09% and 1.01% respectively, while the positive rate of salmonella antigen was 1.65%.[Conclusion] The laying hens are infected with the three kinds of salmonella, but their infection rates were not high on the whole.

  17. Research progress and prospects on machinery monitoring under varying working condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Jing; Zhao Ming

    2013-01-01

    A general review is given about the research progress of the rotating machinery condition monitoring under varying working condition.The major typical methods for analyzing are reviewed,including their progress,deficiencies and capabilities.Some prospects are given finally.

  18. Terahertz paintmeter for noncontact monitoring of thickness and drying progress in paint film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Yasuda, Takashi; Sawanaka, Ken-Ichi; Araki, Tsutomu

    2005-11-01

    We propose a paintmeter for noncontact and remote monitoring of the thickness and drying progress of a paint film based on the time-of-flight measurement of the echo signal of a terahertz (THz) electromagnetic pulse. The proposed method is effectively applied to two-dimensional mapping of the painting thickness distribution for single-layer and multilayer paint films. Furthermore, adequate parameters for the drying progress are extracted from the THz pulse-echo signal and effectively applied to monitor the wet-to-dry transformation. The THz paintmeter can be a powerful tool for quality control of the paint film on the in-process monitoring of car body painting.

  19. Long-Term Monitoring of Permeable Reactive Barriers - Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, L.

    2001-04-12

    The purpose of this project is to conduct collaborative research to evaluate and maximize the effectiveness of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with a broad-based working group including representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and its project partner, Battelle, are leading the DoD effort with funding from DoD's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) and Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is coordinating the DOE effort with support from Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA), a research program under DOEs Office of Science and Technology. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is leading EPA's effort. The combined effort of these three agencies allows the evaluation of a large number of sites. Documents generated by this joint project will be reviewed by the participating agencies' principal investigators, the Permeable Barriers Group of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF), and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation (ITRC). The technical objectives of this project are to collect and review existing field data at selected PRB sites, identify data gaps, conduct additional measurements, and provide recommendations to DOE users on suitable long-term monitoring strategies. The specific objectives are to (1) evaluate geochemical and hydraulic performance of PRBs, (2) develop guidelines for hydraulic and geochemical characterization/monitoring, and (3) devise and implement long-term monitoring strategies through the use of hydrological and geochemical models. Accomplishing these objectives will provide valuable information regarding the optimum configuration and lifetime of barriers at specific sites. It will

  20. [Application of lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, You-Zhu; Fang, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Lysosome is an important organelle existing in eukaryotic cells. With the development of the study on the structure and function of lysosome in recent years, lysosome is considered as a target of toxic substances on subcellular level, and has been widely applied abroad in marine pollution monitoring. This paper summarized the biological characteristics of lysosomal marker enzyme, lysosome-autophagy system, and lysosomal membrane, and introduced the principles and methods of applying lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring. Bivalve shellfish digestive gland and fish liver are the most sensitive organs for lysosomal detection. By adopting the lysosomal detection techniques such as lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) test, neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay, morphological measurement (MM) of lysosome, immunohistochemical (Ih) assay of lysosomal marker enzyme, and electron microscopy (EM), the status of marine pollution can be evaluated. It was suggested that the lysosome could be used as a biomarker for monitoring marine environmental pollution. The advantages and disadvantages of lysosomal detection and some problems worthy of attention were analyzed, and the application prospects of lysosomal detection were discussed.

  1. WOVOdat Progress 2012: Installable DB template for Volcano Monitoring Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratdomopurbo, A.; Widiwijayanti, C.; Win, N.-T.-Z.; Chen, L.-D.; Newhall, C.

    2012-04-01

    WOVOdat is the World Organization of Volcano Observatories' (WOVO) Database of Volcanic Unrest. Volcanoes are frequently restless but only a fraction of unrest leads to eruptions. We aim to compile and make the data of historical volcanic unrest available as a reference tool during volcanic crises, for observatory or other user to compare or look for systematic in many unrest episodes, and also provide educational tools for teachers and students on understanding volcanic processes. Furthermore, we promote the use of relational databases for countries that are still planning to develop their own monitoring database. We are now in the process of populating WOVOdat in collaboration with volcano observatories worldwide. Proprietary data remains at the observatories where the data originally from. Therefore, users who wish to use the data for publication or to obtain detail information about the data should directly contact the observatories. To encourage the use of relational database system in volcano observatories with no monitoring database, WOVOdat project is preparing an installable standalone package. This package is freely downloadable through our website (www.wovodat.org), ready to install and serve as database system in the local domain to host various types of volcano monitoring data. The WOVOdat project is now hosted at Earth Observatory of Singapore (Nanyang Technological University). In the current stage of data population, our website supports interaction between WOVOdat developers, observatories, and other partners in building the database, e.g. accessing schematic design, information and documentation, and also data submission. As anticipation of various data formats coming from different observatories, we provide an interactive tools for user to convert their data into standard WOVOdat format file before then able to upload and store in the database system. We are also developing various visualization tools that will be integrated in the system to ease

  2. Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Timothy; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    The goal of Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies is to collect monitoring data to evaluate wild and natural steelhead populations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. During 2007, intensive population data were collected in Fish Creek (Lochsa River tributary) and Rapid River (Little Salmon River tributary); extensive data were collected in other selected spawning tributaries. Weirs were operated in Fish Creek and Rapid River to estimate adult escapement and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. Snorkel surveys were conducted in Fish Creek, Rapid River, and Boulder Creek (Little Salmon River tributary) to estimate parr density. Screw traps were operated in Fish Creek, Rapid River, Secesh River, and Big Creek to estimate juvenile emigrant abundance, to tag fish for survival estimation, and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. The estimated wild adult steelhead escapement in Fish Creek was 81 fish and in Rapid River was 32 fish. We estimate that juvenile emigration was 24,127 fish from Fish Creek; 5,632 fish from Rapid River; and 43,674 fish from Big Creek. The Secesh trap was pulled for an extended period due to wildfires, so we did not estimate emigrant abundance for that location. In cooperation with Idaho Supplementation Studies, trap tenders PIT tagged 25,618 steelhead juveniles at 18 screw trap sites in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. To estimate age composition, 143 adult steelhead and 5,082 juvenile steelhead scale samples were collected. At the time of this report, 114 adult and 1,642 juvenile samples have been aged. Project personnel collected genetic samples from 122 adults and 839 juveniles. We sent 678 genetic samples to the IDFG Eagle Fish Genetics Laboratory for analysis. Water temperature was recorded at 37 locations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages.

  3. Progress towards Acoustic Suspended Sediment Transport Monitoring: Fraser River, BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, M. E.; Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Kostaschuk, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Our ability to predict the timing and quantity of suspended sediment transport is limited because fine sand, silt and clay delivery are supply limited, requiring empirical modeling approaches of limited temporal stability. A solution is the development of continuous monitoring techniques capable of tracking sediment concentrations and grain-size. Here we examine sediment delivery from upstream sources to the lower Fraser River. The sediment budget of the lower Fraser River provides a long-term perspective of the net changes in the channels and in sediment delivery to Fraser Delta. The budget is based on historical sediment rating curves developed from data collected from 1965-1986 by the Water Survey of Canada. We explore the possibility of re-establishing the sediment-monitoring program using hydro-acoustics by evaluating the use of a 300 kHz side-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp), mounted just downstream of the sand-gravel transition at Mission, for continuous measurement of suspended sediment transport. Complementary field observations include conventional bottle sampling with a P-63 sampler, vertical profiles with a downward-looking 600 kHz aDcp, and 1200 kHz aDcp discharge measurements. We have successfully completed calibration of the downward-looking aDcp with the P-63 samples; the side-looking aDcp signals remain under investigation. A comparison of several methods for obtaining total sediment flux indicates that suspended sediment concentration (SSC) closely follows discharge through the freshet and peaks in total SSC and sand SSC coincide with peak measurements of discharge. Low flows are dominated by fine sediment and grain size increases with higher flows. This research assesses several techniques for obtaining sediment flux and contributes to the understanding of sediment delivery to sand-bedded portions of the river.

  4. Monitoring the progress of non-enzymatic glycation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, S.M.; Crabbe, M.J. [University of Reading, The Wolfson Laboratory, School of Animal and Microbial Sciences, Whiteknights, Reading (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-01

    The progress of in vitro non-enzymatic glycation of bovine serum albumin was followed by using {sup 14}C-glucose and a nitroblue tetrazolium assay, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, SDS gel electrophoresis and protease digestion. The number of adducts detectable using both {sup 14}C-tracers and a fructosamine assay remained low at physiological glucose concentrations, fewer than five adducts being detectable. When glucose concentrations > 1.0 M were used the number of adducts was found to greatly exceed the number of lysyl residues available in BSA, indicative of cross-linking between Maillard products. Incubation of BSA with glucose concentrations of up to 160 mM for one month produced no observable increase in molecular weight by SDS gel electrophoresis, showing that at physiological glucose concentrations, increases in molecular weight were minimal for short incubation periods. Increases in absorption were proportial to both the glucose concentration and the incubation time. Several absorption peaks, at 370, 488 and 554 nm, were consistent in appearance throughout the course of each incubation. Fluorescence spectroscopy of the modified proteins showed a disappearance of the fluorescence associated with peptide bonds and aromatic residues and the appearance of a broad peak at longer wavelengths due to the wide range of absorptive/fluorescent wavelengths of the developing Maillard products. Protease digestion gave similar patterns with non-glycated and glycated protein, suggesting that glycation did not block digestion sites, and that partial digestion did not cause significant further exposure of susceptible sites. Our results show that while glycation ultimately results in protein conformational changes and the formation of large molecular weight species, these occur at a relatively late stage in the maturation of protein Maillard products, after {>=} nine months of incubation with glucose concentration of {>=} 20 mM. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Progress Monitoring in an Integrated Health Care System: Tracking Behavioral Health Vital Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Bradley; Franklin, Allie; Mercer, Brian; Fraynt, Rebecca; Simon, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Progress monitoring implementation in an integrated health care system is a complex process that must address factors such as measurement, technology, delivery system care processes, patient needs and provider requirements. This article will describe how one organization faced these challenges by identifying the key decision points (choice of measure, process for completing rating scale, interface with electronic medical record and clinician engagement) critical to implementation. Qualitative and quantitative data will be presented describing customer and stakeholder satisfaction with the mental health progress monitoring tool (MHPMT) as well as organizational performance with key measurement targets.

  6. Salmonella Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnearney, S; McCall, D

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella infection can cause four predominant clinical syndromes: enteric fever, acute gastroenteritis, bacteraemia with or without metastatic infection, and the asymptomatic carrier state. Salmonella as an aetiological agent in osteomyelitis is essentially rare and salmonella osteomyelitis in itself is predominantly seen in patients with haemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease or thalassemia. There are very few cases reported in the literature in which salmonella osteomyelitis is seen in otherwise healthy individuals. We describe here a case of salmonella osteomyelitis in a young gentleman with no significant comorbidities who presented with fever and severe back pain, having returned from recent foreign travel. It is therefore important to consider uncommon pathogens in the differential diagnosis of travellers with prolonged fever and insidious symptoms.

  7. Monitoring progress towards universal health coverage at country and global levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Ties; Eozenou, Patrick; Evans, David; Evans, Tim; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Wagstaff, Adam

    2014-09-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has been defined as the desired outcome of health system performance whereby all people who need health services (promotion, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation) receive them, without undue financial hardship. UHC has two interrelated components: the full spectrum of good-quality, essential health services according to need, and protection from financial hardship, including possible impoverishment, due to out-of-pocket payments for health services. Both components should benefit the entire population. This paper summarizes the findings from 13 country case studies and five technical reviews, which were conducted as part of the development of a global framework for monitoring progress towards UHC. The case studies show the relevance and feasibility of focusing UHC monitoring on two discrete components of health system performance: levels of coverage with health services and financial protection, with a focus on equity. These components link directly to the definition of UHC and measure the direct results of strategies and policies for UHC. The studies also show how UHC monitoring can be fully embedded in often existing, regular overall monitoring of health sector progress and performance. Several methodological and practical issues related to the monitoring of coverage of essential health services, financial protection, and equity, are highlighted. Addressing the gaps in the availability and quality of data required for monitoring progress towards UHC is critical in most countries.

  8. Monitoring progress towards universal health coverage at country and global levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ties Boerma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Universal health coverage (UHC has been defined as the desired outcome of health system performance whereby all people who need health services (promotion, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation receive them, without undue financial hardship. UHC has two interrelated components: the full spectrum of good-quality, essential health services according to need, and protection from financial hardship, including possible impoverishment, due to out-of-pocket payments for health services. Both components should benefit the entire population. This paper summarizes the findings from 13 country case studies and five technical reviews, which were conducted as part of the development of a global framework for monitoring progress towards UHC. The case studies show the relevance and feasibility of focusing UHC monitoring on two discrete components of health system performance: levels of coverage with health services and financial protection, with a focus on equity. These components link directly to the definition of UHC and measure the direct results of strategies and policies for UHC. The studies also show how UHC monitoring can be fully embedded in often existing, regular overall monitoring of health sector progress and performance. Several methodological and practical issues related to the monitoring of coverage of essential health services, financial protection, and equity, are highlighted. Addressing the gaps in the availability and quality of data required for monitoring progress towards UHC is critical in most countries.

  9. Why Do People Act Like the Proverbial Ostrich? Investigating the Reasons That People Provide for Not Monitoring Their Goal Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, B P; Webb, T.L.; Benn, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Two studies examined peoples' reasons for not monitoring their progress toward their personal goals—a phenomenon that has been termed “the ostrich problem” (Webb et al., 2013). Study 1 used factor analysis to organize the reasons that people gave for not monitoring their goal progress, resulting in 10 factors. The most strongly endorsed reasons were: (a) that information on goal progress would demand a change in beliefs, or (b) undesired action; (c) that progress was poor, and (d) that thinki...

  10. Robust Regression for Slope Estimation in Curriculum-Based Measurement Progress Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sterett H.; Lyons, Alina F.; Johnston, Lauren E.; Millhoff, Courtney L.

    2015-01-01

    Although ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression has been identified as a preferred method to calculate rates of improvement for individual students during curriculum-based measurement (CBM) progress monitoring, OLS slope estimates are sensitive to the presence of extreme values. Robust estimators have been developed that are less biased by…

  11. "Work in progress" : the hidden dimensions of monitoring and planning in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkma, W.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The study argues that monitoring systems for large numbers of projects constituting public sector development programmes such as found in Pakistan, are built on the positivist premise that progress can be summarised objectively and in a few concise statements or indicators. Theory and

  12. "Work in progress" : the hidden dimensions of monitoring and planning in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkma, W.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The study argues that monitoring systems for large numbers of projects constituting public sector development programmes such as found in Pakistan, are built on the positivist premise that progress can be summarised objectively and in a few concise statements or indicators. Theory and handb

  13. Assessing and Monitoring Student Progress in an E-Learning Personnel Preparation Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyen, Edward L.; Aust, Ronald J.; Bui, Yvonne N.; Isaacson, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of e-learning in special education personnel preparation focuses on student assessment in e-learning environments. It includes a review of the literature, lessons learned by the authors from assessing student performance in e-learning environments, a literature perspective on electronic portfolios in monitoring student progress, and the…

  14. Language Assessment in a Snap: Monitoring Progress up to 36 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Montgomery, Judy K.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Developmental Snapshot, a 52-item parent questionnaire on child language and vocal communication development that can be administered monthly and scored automatically. The Snapshot was created to provide an easily administered monthly progress monitoring tool that enables parents to…

  15. Work in progress: the hidden dimensions of monitoring and planning in Pakistan.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkma, W.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The study argues that monitoring systems for large numbers of projects constituting public sector development programmes such as found in Pakistan, are built on the positivist premise that progress can be summarised objectively and in a few concise statements or indicators. Theory and handbooks on t

  16. Analysis and assessment of bridge health monitoring mass data—progress in research/development of "Structural Health Monitoring"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI AiQun; DING YouLiang; WANG Hao; GUO Tong

    2012-01-01

    The "Structural Health Monitoring" is a project supported by National Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (Grant No.50725828).To meet the urgent requirements of analysis and assessment of mass monitoring data of bridge environmental actions and structural responses,the monitoring of environmental actions and action effect modeling methods,dynamic performance monitoring and early warning methods,condition assessment and operation maintenance methods of key members are systematically studied in close combination with structural characteristics of long-span cable-stayed bridges and suspension bridges.The paper reports the progress of the project as follows.(1) The environmental action modeling methods of long-span bridges are established based on monitoring data of temperature,sustained wind and typhoon.The action effect modeling methods are further developed in combination with the multi-scale baseline finite element modeling method for long-span bridges.(2) The identification methods of global dynamic characteristics and internal forces of cables and hangers for long-span cable-stayed bridges and suspension bridges are proposed using the vibration monitoring data,on the basis of which the condition monitoring and early warning methods of bridges are developed using the environmental-condition-normalization technique.(3) The analysis methods for fatigue loading effect of welded details of steel box girder,temperature and traffic loading effect of expansion joint are presented based on long-term monitoring data of strain and beam-end displacement,on the basis of which the service performance assessment and remaining life prediction methods are developed.

  17. The Research Progress of the Orally Attenuated Recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium Vector Vaccine%减毒沙门氏菌作为口服活疫苗载体的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马全英; 安芳兰; 刘萍; 祝秀梅; 吕志慧; 王凡; 刘学荣; 黄银君; 牟克斌

    2012-01-01

    文章就沙门氏菌相关基因的特点、减毒沙门氏菌载体激发的免疫应答、进入机体免疫系统的机制、减毒沙门氏菌的应用、载体疫苗的优越性及潜在危险性几方面综述了减毒沙门氏菌作为口服疫苗载体的研究进展,为新型菌苗的研制提供一种新的思路。%This article related genes from Salmonella characteristics of the related gene, attenuation salmonella carrier stimulate the immune re- sponse, into the mechanism of the immune system, the application of attenuated salmonella typhimurium, the superiority of vaccine vectors potentially dangerous areas and review of the attenuated salmonella as oral progress in a new type vaccine vectors for the development of novel vaccine provides a new way of thinking.

  18. A New Way for Physical Progress Monitoring in High Tech Infrastructure Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Favari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the project of designing an agile physical progress measurement system for the construction management department of a multinational company operating in turnkey railway projects field. It has been pointed out that the classical physical progress measurement, based on Earn Value Management (EVM and so financially based, is not suitable for modern high-tech and, in one word, complex, construction projects. So it has been looked for something different, more agile, to easily fix the problem of monitoring on a weekly basis the physical progress of sites. The work starts by describing the process of choosing KPIs, defines an overall physical progress index, than discusses the choice of a baseline to measure against, and at the end it illustrates the visual management implemented.

  19. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Human Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Bearded Dragons Advice to Pet Owners Case Count Maps Epi ... Entrée Typhi (Typhoid Fever) Associated with Frozen Mamey Fruit Pulp Hartford and Baildon Infections Associated with Restaurant ...

  20. Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children, use an oral rehydration solution, such as Pedialyte, unless your doctor advises otherwise. Salmonella infection can ... can use an oral rehydration solution, such as Pedialyte, unless your doctor advises otherwise. The U.S. Department ...

  1. The Progress of the Vector Construction of Attenuated Salmonella%减毒沙门氏菌载体构建策略研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明荣; 朱良全

    2014-01-01

    Attenuated Salmonella can induce mucosal, humoral and cellular immune responses. Salmonella can present antigen, stimulate specific humoral and cellular immune response against both Salmonella and heterologous antigen. So that Salmonella is considered as prospective vaccine vector. In this review, the strategy for constructions of attenuated Salmonella vector is described, including the attenuated Salmonella strains, high level expression of heterologous antigen, etc. At the end, it is prospected about the problems to be solved during the application of attenuated Salmonella vector.%减毒沙门氏菌能诱导粘膜、体液及细胞免疫,不仅其自身能够产生免疫效应,而且还能携带外源基因诱导宿主特异性应答,是具有广泛应用前景的疫苗载体。本文从减毒致弱菌株构建、外源基因高效表达等方面综述了减毒沙门氏菌载体构建策略的新进展,进而对减毒沙门氏菌活载体应用中待解决的科学问题进行了归纳。

  2. Salmonellae interactions with host processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRock, Doris L; Chaudhary, Anu; Miller, Samuel I

    2015-04-01

    Salmonellae invasion and intracellular replication within host cells result in a range of diseases, including gastroenteritis, bacteraemia, enteric fever and focal infections. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that salmonellae use to alter host cell physiology; through the delivery of effector proteins with specific activities and through the modulation of defence and stress response pathways. In this Review, we summarize our current knowledge of the complex interplay between bacterial and host factors that leads to inflammation, disease and, in most cases, control of the infection by its animal hosts, with a particular focus on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. We also highlight gaps in our knowledge of the contributions of salmonellae and the host to disease pathogenesis, and we suggest future avenues for further study.

  3. Why Do People Act Like the Proverbial Ostrich? Investigating the Reasons That People Provide for Not Monitoring Their Goal Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Betty P. I.; Webb, Thomas L.; Benn, Yael

    2017-01-01

    Two studies examined peoples' reasons for not monitoring their progress toward their personal goals—a phenomenon that has been termed “the ostrich problem” (Webb et al., 2013). Study 1 used factor analysis to organize the reasons that people gave for not monitoring their goal progress, resulting in 10 factors. The most strongly endorsed reasons were: (a) that information on goal progress would demand a change in beliefs, or (b) undesired action; (c) that progress was poor, and (d) that thinking about and/or working on the goal was associated with negative emotions. Study 2 adopted a prospective design and investigated whether the reasons identified in Study 1 predicted: (a) the likelihood that participants would decline an opportunity to monitor their goal progress, and (b) the frequency with which participants monitored their goal progress. We found evidence that some of the most strongly endorsed reasons from Study 1 also predicted the avoidance of monitoring in Study 2; however, the belief that information about goal progress was likely to be inaccurate and not useful, and perceived control over goal attainment also reliably predicted the avoidance of monitoring in Study 2. Taken together, the findings explain why people do not monitor their goal progress and point to potential avenues for intervention. PMID:28228740

  4. Salmonella control programs in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Henrik C; Hald, Tine; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo; Madsen, Mogens; Korsgaard, Helle; Bager, Flemming; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Mølbak, Kåre

    2003-07-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems.

  5. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  6. Use of Acoustic Emission to Monitor Progressive Damage Accumulation in Kevlar (R) 49 Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Andrade, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) data acquired during intermittent load hold tensile testing of epoxy impregnated Kevlar(Registeres TradeMark) 49 (K/Ep) composite strands were analyzed to monitor progressive damage during the approach to tensile failure. Insight into the progressive damage of K/Ep strands was gained by monitoring AE event rate and energy. Source location based on energy attenuation and arrival time data was used to discern between significant AE attributable to microstructural damage and spurious AE attributable to noise. One of the significant findings was the observation of increasing violation of the Kaiser effect (Felicity ratio < 1.0) with damage accumulation. The efficacy of three different intermittent load hold stress schedules that allowed the Felicity ratio to be determined analytically is discussed.

  7. Idaho Habitat/Natural Production Monitoring, Pt. I: General Monitoring Subproject : Annual Progress Report 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, Bruce A.; Scully, Richard J.; Petrosky, Charles Edward

    1992-01-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating proposed and existing habitat improvement projects for rainbow-steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, hereafter called steelhead, and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, hereafter called chinook, in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages for the past seven years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. This evaluation project is also funded under the same authority (Fish and Wildlife Program, Northwest Power Planning Council). A mitigation record is being developed using increased carrying capacity and/or survival as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on completion or maturation of the project and presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed status of upriver anadromous stocks has precluded measuring full benefits of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit is credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration.

  8. Idaho Habitat/Natural Production Monitoring, Pt. I: General Monitoring Subproject : Annual Progress Report 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, Bruce A.; Scully, Richard J.; Petrosky, Charles Edward

    1992-01-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating proposed and existing habitat improvement projects for rainbow-steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, hereafter called steelhead, and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, hereafter called chinook, in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages for the past seven years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. This evaluation project is also funded under the same authority (Fish and Wildlife Program, Northwest Power Planning Council). A mitigation record is being developed using increased carrying capacity and/or survival as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on completion or maturation of the project and presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed status of upriver anadromous stocks has precluded measuring full benefits of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit is credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration.

  9. Monitoring the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma based on multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Lian, Yuane; Nie, Yuting; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-09-01

    Intraductal carcinoma is a precancerous lesion of the breast and the immediate precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was used to monitor the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, which can improve early detection of precursor lesions and halt progression to invasive neoplastic disease. It was found that MPM has the capability to reveal the qualitative changes in features of cells, structure of basement membranes, and architecture of collagens during the development from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, as well as the quantitative alterations in nuclear area, circle length of basement membrane, and collagen density. Combined with intra-fiberoptic ductoscopy or transdermal biopsy needle, MPM has the potential to provide immediate histological diagnosis of tumor progression in the field of breast carcinoma.

  10. Glaucoma Monitoring in a Clinical Setting Glaucoma Progression Analysis vs Nonparametric Progression Analysis in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Heeg, Govert P.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    Objective: To compare prospectively 2 perimetric progression detection algorithms for glaucoma, the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial algorithm (glaucoma progression analysis [GPA]) and a nonparametric algorithm applied to the mean deviation (MD) (nonparametric progression analysis [NPA]). Methods:

  11. Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids, 1994-1995 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans, Karen M.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2000-06-30

    OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 4. The analysis of the effect of cracks on the acceleration of the calcium leaching process of cement-based materials has been pursued. During the last period (Technical Progress Report No 3), we have introduced a modeling accounting for the high diffusivity of fractures in comparison with the weak solid material diffusivity. It has been shown through dimensional and asymptotic analysis that small fractures do not significantly accelerate the material aging process. This important result for the overall structural aging kinetics of containment structure has been developed in a paper submitted to the international journal ''Transport in Porous Media''.

  13. Towards an expert system for accurate diagnosis and progress monitoring of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, Athanasios; Psiha, Maria; Vlamos, Panayiotis

    2015-01-01

    While Parkinson's disease is a chronic and progressive movement disorder, no one can predict which symptoms will affect an individual patient. At the present time there is no cure for Parkinson's disease but instead a variety of alternative treatments provide relief from the symptoms. Due to these unpromising factors, we propose a new multi-scale ontology-based modeling technology for the accurate diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and its progress monitoring. The proposed model will be used to assess the status of the patient with PD corresponding treatments using a multilayer neural network. The proposed tool also aims to identify new associated physical and biological biomarkers from heterogeneous patients' data. The architecture of this expert system and its implementation in Protégé is presented in this paper.

  14. Real-time monitoring of progression towards renal failure in primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, Peter J; Sousa, Inês; Asar, Özgür

    2015-07-01

    Chronic renal failure is a progressive condition that, typically, is asymptomatic for many years. Early detection of incipient kidney failure enables ameliorative treatment that can slow the rate of progression to end-stage renal failure, at which point expensive and invasive renal replacement therapy (dialysis or transplantation) is required. We use routinely collected clinical data from a large sample of primary care patients to develop a system for real-time monitoring of the progression of undiagnosed incipient renal failure. Progression is characterized as the rate of change in a person's kidney function as measured by the estimated glomerular filtration rate, an adjusted version of serum creatinine level in a blood sample. Clinical guidelines in the UK suggest that a person who is losing kidney function at a relative rate of at least 5% per year should be referred to specialist secondary care. We model the time-course of a person's underlying kidney function through a combination of explanatory variables, a random intercept and a continuous-time, non-stationary stochastic process. We then use the model to calculate for each person the predictive probability that they meet the clinical guideline for referral to secondary care. We suggest that probabilistic predictive inference linked to clinical criteria can be a useful component of a real-time surveillance system to guide, but not dictate, clinical decision-making.

  15. Students' Progression in Monitoring Anomalous Results Obtained in Inquiry-Based Laboratory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras-Pérez, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines students' engagement in monitoring anomalous results across a 2-year longitudinal study with 9th and 10th graders (14-15 and 15-16 years of age). The context is a set of five inquiry-based laboratory tasks, requiring students to plan and carry out investigations. The study seeks to examine students' interpretation of data, in particular anomalous results generated by them during the process of solving the tasks, and their ability to monitor them. Data collected include video and audio recordings as well as students' written products. For the analysis, two rubrics were developed drawing on Chinn and Brewer (Cognition and Instruction, 19, 323-393, 2001) and Hmelo-Silver et al. (Science Education, 86, 219-243, 2002). The findings point to a pattern of progress in students' responses across the 2 years: (a) responses revealing a low capacity of monitoring due to not recognizing the data as anomalous or recognizing it as anomalous but being unable to explain their causes are more frequent in the first tasks and (b) responses revealing an improved capacity of monitoring are more frequent in the last tasks. The factors influencing students' regulation of their performances, as the requirement of planning, and specific scaffolding based on activity theory are discussed.

  16. Transmission and shedding patterns of Salmonella in naturally infected captive wild roof rats (Rattus rattus) from a Salmonella-contaminated layer farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umali, Dennis V; Lapuz, Randy Rhon Simoun P; Suzuki, Terumasa; Shirota, Kazutoshi; Katoh, Hiromitsu

    2012-06-01

    Rodents play a major role in the transmission and maintenance of Salmonella contamination cycles in poultry facilities. However, very limited field data are available regarding the transmission routes, infection cycle, and shedding patterns of Salmonella by naturally infected wild rodents from commercial layer farms. In this study, a total of 128 resident wild roof rats (Rattus ratus) were captured from a Salmonella-contaminated layer facility. All roof rats were divided into 51 laboratory cages, and weekly monitoring of Salmonella fecal shedding patterns was conducted for 53 wk. Seven roof rats from cages that were observed to frequently shed Salmonella were isolated in individual cages, and daily Salmonella monitoring was performed for 35 days. At the end of monitoring, each roof rat was euthanatized, and isolation of Salmonella from different organs was performed. Results of weekly monitoring of Salmonella showed that 21 of 51 cages (41.2%) were positive for Salmonella Infantis, while two cages (3.92%) were positive for Salmonella Enteritidis. Moreover, 11 cages were positive for Salmonella for at least two sampling weeks. Isolation of Salmonella from fecal droppings was mainly observed during the first 12 wk of captivity. The longest interval between two Salmonella-positive fecal dropping was 24 wk. In the daily Salmonella monitoring, only Salmonella Infantis was isolated from fecal droppings, in which the highest number of Salmonella Infantis organisms per fecal dropping was at 1 x 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu), while the lowest measured quantity was 1 x 10(3) cfu. It was noted that the frequency of Salmonella shedding in fecal droppings appeared to have a linear correlation (r = 0.85) with the number of Salmonella organisms (cfu) per fecal pellet (P poultry facilities through intermittent fecal shedding. Moreover, Salmonella Enteritidis in wild roof rats appears to be more of a systemic infection, in which isolation is most likely to occur in internal

  17. 惠州市腹泻患者非伤寒沙门氏菌监测结果分析%Analysis on the Results of Monitoring of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Diarrhea Patients in Huizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾健君; 罗泽燕; 徐励琴; 张健; 黄超群; 柯碧霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解我市非伤寒沙门菌的流行基线,早期识别暴发疫情,分析流行因素,掌握我市在腹泻病人中分离的非伤寒沙门菌株的血清型别、分布、耐药性变化情况,指导临床用药.方法 对2008-2009年惠州市监测医院的腹泻患者粪便标本进行非伤寒沙 门氏菌检测,对分离到的菌株进行血清型、药物敏感性试验和脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分型.结果 两年共监测腹泻患者430例,检出沙门氏菌19例,阳性率为4.42%.19株沙门氏菌分布于5个血清型,以鼠伤寒沙门氏菌及肠炎沙门氏菌为主,分别占47.37%和26.32%.大多数沙门菌对常用的头孢类和喹诺酮类抗生素敏感.结论 沙门氏菌是重要的肠道病原菌,病菌经口进入体内而致病,应加强相应的食品卫生监督与健康教育,宣传个人卫生防护知识,切实预防沙门氏菌感染.%Objective To understand the popular baseline of nontyphoidal salmonella in Huizhou city,to recognize the outbreak of epidemic situation early,and analyze epidemic factor.To understand the serotypes,distribution,and the change situation of medicine sensitivity of nontyphoidal salmonella separated from diarrhea cases,in order to instruct clinical medication.Method Stool specimens of diarrhea cases collected from surveillance hospital were detected for nontyphoidal salmonella from 2008 to 2009 in Huizhou; and the separated strains were further identified by serotypes test,medicine sensitivity test,and the pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).Results Among the 430 diarrhea cases monitored in the two years,19 ones were infected by salmonella,with the positive rate of 4.42%.The 19 strains of salmonellas distributed in 5 blood serums; the main strains of which were Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis,accounting for 47.37% and 26.32% each.Most of the salmonellas were sensitive to antibiotic such as cephems and quinolones which were commonly used.Conclusion Salmonella is

  18. Teacher Progress Monitoring of Instructional and Behavioral Management Practices: An Evidence-Based Approach to Improving Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    In the era of teacher evaluation and effectiveness, assessment tools that identify and monitor educators' instruction and behavioral management practices are in high demand. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) Observer Form is a multidimensional teacher progress monitoring tool designed to assess teachers' usage of instructional and behavioral…

  19. The vertical monitor position for presbyopic computer users with progressive lenses: how to reach clear vision and comfortable head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidling, Patrick; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    When presbyopic employees are wearing general-purpose progressive lenses, they have clear vision only with a lower gaze inclination to the computer monitor, given the head assumes a comfortable inclination. Therefore, in the present intervention field study the monitor position was lowered, also with the aim to reduce musculoskeletal symptoms. A comparison group comprised users of lenses that do not restrict the field of clear vision. The lower monitor positions led the participants to lower their head inclination, which was linearly associated with a significant reduction in musculoskeletal symptoms. However, for progressive lenses a lower head inclination means a lower zone of clear vision, so that clear vision of the complete monitor was not achieved, rather the monitor should have been placed even lower. The procedures of this study may be useful for optimising the individual monitor position depending on the comfortable head and gaze inclination and the vertical zone of clear vision of progressive lenses. For users of general-purpose progressive lenses, it is suggested that low monitor positions allow for clear vision at the monitor and for a physiologically favourable head inclination. Employees may improve their workplace using a flyer providing ergonomic-optometric information.

  20. Salmonella typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Mochammad, Hatta

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript could use as research on infectious diseases Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis differentiated 297 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood culture isolates from Makassar in 76 genotypes and a single unique S. Typhi genotype was isolated from the cholecystectomy specimens of four patients with cholelithiasis. The high diversity in S. Typhi genotypes circulating in Makassar indicates that the number of carriers could be very large, which may complicat...

  1. Nanochips of Tantalum Oxide Nanodots as artificial-microenvironments for monitoring Ovarian cancer progressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Udesh; Wang, Ssu-Meng; Chu, Ying Hao; Huang, Guewha S.; Lin, Yan Ren; Hung, Yao Ching; Chen, Wen Liang

    2016-08-01

    Nanotopography modulates cell characteristics and cell behavior. Nanotopological cues can be exploited to investigate the in-vivo modulation of cell characteristics by the cellular microenvironment. However, the studies explaining the modulation of tumor cell characteristics and identifying the transition step in cancer progressiveness are scarce. Here, we engineered nanochips comprising of Tantalum oxide nanodot arrays of 10, 50, 100 and 200 nm as artificial microenvironments to study the modulation of cancer cell behavior. Clinical samples of different types of Ovarian cancer at different stages were obtained, primary cultures were established and then seeded on different nanochips. Immunofluorescence (IF) was performed to compare the morphologies and cell characteristics. Indices corresponding to cell characteristics were defined. A statistical comparison of the cell characteristics in response to the nanochips was performed. The cells displayed differential growth parameters. Morphology, Viability, focal adhesions, microfilament bundles and cell area were modulated by the nanochips which can be used as a measure to study the cancer progressiveness. The ease of fabrication of nanochips ensures mass-production. The ability of the nanochips to act as artificial microenvironments and modulate cell behavior may lead to further prospects in the markerless monitoring of the progressiveness and ultimately, improving the prognosis of Ovarian cancer.

  2. Progress on Salmonella Type Ⅲ Secretion System%沙门菌Ⅲ型分泌系统研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵维芯; 胡茂志; 李红英; 严秋香; 崔桂友

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is a main pathogenic intestinal bacteria which can cause zoonosis.Among different food microbes,Salmonella is one of the most popular bacteria to cause food poison.The pathogenicity of Salmonella is closely associated with its type Ⅲ secretion system (T3SS).After infection,Salmonella can regulate the function of host cells through selective secretion of effector proteins into cytoplasm of cells by T3SS and then complete the process of infection and intracellular colonization in a short time.Using this mechanism,Salmonella can escape the killing of hosts.Therefore,the study of Salmonella T3SS will bene-fit for the defense against salmonellosis.This paper focused on the review of the structure,assembly and ac-tion mechanism of T3SS.The understanding of them will provide references for research in controlling sal-monellosis.%沙门菌是一种重要的人兽共患肠道病原菌,在引起人类食物中毒的微生物中常列榜首。沙门菌的致病性与其Ⅲ型分泌系统(T3SS)密切相关。沙门菌能够利用 T3SS 选择性分泌效应蛋白至感染细胞的胞质中,在较短的时间内通过调节宿主细胞的功能,完成细菌的感染和胞内定殖过程,从而逃避机体的清除作用。沙门菌 T3SS 的作用机制研究对于沙门菌病的防治具有重要意义,论文主要对沙门菌 T3SS 的结构、组装及作用机理做一综述,以期为沙门菌病的防控提供参考。

  3. Salmonella Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Salmonella Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Salmonella Infections A A A What's in this article? Salmonella ... contaminated food (usually meat, poultry, eggs, or milk). Salmonella infections affect the intestines and cause vomiting, fever, and ...

  4. 沙门菌PCR检测技术应用进展%Research progress in detection of Salmonella by polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽华; 唐保晖

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella spp,is one the principal bacteria causing food poinonings. The conventional detection of Salmonella spp.include selective culture, biochemical idenfication, etc, that were time-consuming and low sensitivity and difficult to meet the rapid detection demand. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)is one the recently developed methods for rapid detection of Salmonella spp in various kinds of foods. The objective gene to be detected by PCR is diversified, mianly covering species-specific prime gene.serogroup-specific gene and serotype -specific prime gene. In this paper the variou objective genes of Salmonella spp to be detected by various PCR techniquew were discussed.%沙门菌是引起食物中毒的主要致病菌之一,其传统检测方法包括选择性培养、生化鉴定等步骤,耗时长、灵敏性差,很难满足快速检测要求.聚合酶链反应(PCR)技术是近年来广泛应用于食品中沙门菌快速检测的方法之一,其检测目的基因多种多样,主要包括属特异性引物基因、血清群特异性引物基因与血清型特异性引物基因.本文主要概述PCR技术应用于沙门菌检测的各种目的基因,并简要介绍常规PCR、多重PCR及实时定量PCR等技术的应用.

  5. Monitoring of the dissemination of Salmonella in the chicken Frankfurt-sausage productionline of a sausage factory in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Freitas Luiz

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and its derivatives are among the foodstuffs considered by environmental health authorities to present the highest risks to the public. A total of 185 samples were collected in five monthly batches, from different processing stages in a sausage plant that uses mechanically-deboned chicken meat (MDCM, and testedfor the presence of Salmonella. Enrichment was carried out in both Kauffman's tetrathionate broth and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth and isolation on Salmonella-Shigella agar and brilliant-green agar. Live Salmonella bacteria were isolated from six samples of the raw meat and from the emulsion, in batches three, four, and five, but not from any sample in batches one or two. The six isolated strains were all classified as Salmonella Albany, which has not previously been reported in MDCM. Of the two enrichment broths, Rappaport-Vassiliadis gave the better results. The pattern of contamination suggests a probable common source, given that a new supplier was used in the third, fourth, and fifth months. It was also shown that the industrial cooking was effective in preventing Salmonella surviving in the final product.

  6. 沙门氏菌快速检测技术研究进展%Research Progress on the Rapid Detection of Salmonella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章伟帆

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is the most common pathogenic bacteria in food, which can cause bromatoxism and bring about haz-ard on human. There is a problem of time-consuming on the conventional detection approach, resulting from the various se-rotypes in salmonella. In recent years, a growing of new detection methods emerge in endlessly, particularly those on the molecular biology and immunology with the development of biological technology. This article provides the development and application on the rapid detection of salmonella in food.%沙门氏菌是食品中最常见的致病菌,是导致食物中毒的重要病原菌之一,严重危害人类的健康安全和食品安全。由于其血清型繁多,传统方法检测起来耗时耗力。近年来,随着生物学的发展,新的检测技术层出不穷,尤其是分子生物学检测技术和免疫学检测技术。该文介绍了近年来检测食品中沙门氏菌技术的研究进展以及其应用前景。

  7. Monitoring and Inhibiting MT1-MMP during Cancer Initiation and Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pahwa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP is a zinc-dependent type-I transmembrane metalloproteinase involved in pericellular proteolysis, migration and invasion. Numerous substrates and binding partners have been identified for MT1-MMP, and its role in collagenolysis appears crucial for tumor invasion. However, development of MT1-MMP inhibitors must consider the substantial functions of MT1-MMP in normal physiology and disease prevention. The present review examines the plethora of MT1-MMP activities, how these activities relate to cancer initiation and progression, and how they can be monitored in real time. Examination of MT1-MMP activities and cell surface behaviors can set the stage for the development of unique, selective MT1-MMP inhibitors.

  8. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  9. Electrophysiological Monitoring of Injury ProgressionIn the Rat Cerebellar Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan eOrdek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The changes of excitability in affected neural networks can be used as a marker to study the temporal course of traumatic brain injury (TBI. The cerebellum is an ideal platform to study brain injury mechanisms at the network level using the electrophysiological methods. Within its crystalline morphology, the cerebellar cortex contains highly organized topographical subunits that are defined by two main inputs, the climbing and mossy fibers. Here we demonstrate the use of cerebellar evoked potentials (EPs mediated through these afferent systems for monitoring the injury progression in a rat model of fluid percussion injury (FPI. A mechanical tap on the dorsal hand was used as a stimulus, and EPs were recorded from the paramedian lobule (PML of the posterior cerebellum via multi-electrode arrays (MEA. Post-injury evoked response amplitudes (EPAs were analyzed on a daily basis for one week and compared with pre-injury values. We found a trend of consistently decreasing EPAs in all nine animals, losing as much as 72±4% of baseline amplitudes measured before the injury. Notably, our results highlighted two particular time windows; the first 24 hours of injury in the acute period and day-3 to day-7 in the delayed period where the largest drops (~50% and 24% were observed in the EPAs. In addition, cross-correlations of spontaneous signals between electrode pairs declined (from 0.47±0.1 to 0.35±0.04, p<0.001 along with the EPAs throughout the week of injury. In support of the electrophysiological findings, immunohistochemical analysis at day-7 post-injury showed detectable Purkinje cell loss at low FPI pressures and more with the largest pressures used. Our results suggest that sensory evoked potentials recorded from the cerebellar surface can be a useful technique to monitor the course of cerebellar injury and identify the phases of injury progression even at mild levels.

  10. Understanding Climate Adaptation on Public Lands in the Upper Midwest: Implications for Monitoring and Tracking Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhalt-Depies, Christine M; Knoot, Tricia Gorby; Rissman, Adena R; Sharp, Anthony K; Martin, Karl J

    2016-05-01

    There are limited examples of efforts to systematically monitor and track climate change adaptation progress in the context of natural resource management, despite substantial investments in adaptation initiatives. To better understand the status of adaptation within state natural resource agencies, we utilized and problematized a rational decision-making framework to characterize adaptation at the level of public land managers in the Upper Midwest. We conducted in-depth interviews with 29 biologists and foresters to provide an understanding of managers' experiences with, and perceptions of, climate change impacts, efforts towards planning for climate change, and a full range of actions implemented to address climate change. While the majority of managers identified climate change impacts affecting their region, they expressed significant uncertainty in interpreting those signals. Just under half of managers indicated planning efforts are underway, although most planning is remote from local management. Actions already implemented include both forward-looking measures and those aimed at coping with current impacts. In addition, cross-scale dynamics emerged as an important theme related to the overall adaptation process. The results hold implications for tracking future progress on climate change adaptation. Common definitions or measures of adaptation (e.g., presence of planning documents) may need to be reassessed for applicability at the level of public land managers.

  11. Understanding Climate Adaptation on Public Lands in the Upper Midwest: Implications for Monitoring and Tracking Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhalt-Depies, Christine M.; Knoot, Tricia Gorby; Rissman, Adena R.; Sharp, Anthony K.; Martin, Karl J.

    2016-05-01

    There are limited examples of efforts to systematically monitor and track climate change adaptation progress in the context of natural resource management, despite substantial investments in adaptation initiatives. To better understand the status of adaptation within state natural resource agencies, we utilized and problematized a rational decision-making framework to characterize adaptation at the level of public land managers in the Upper Midwest. We conducted in-depth interviews with 29 biologists and foresters to provide an understanding of managers' experiences with, and perceptions of, climate change impacts, efforts towards planning for climate change, and a full range of actions implemented to address climate change. While the majority of managers identified climate change impacts affecting their region, they expressed significant uncertainty in interpreting those signals. Just under half of managers indicated planning efforts are underway, although most planning is remote from local management. Actions already implemented include both forward-looking measures and those aimed at coping with current impacts. In addition, cross-scale dynamics emerged as an important theme related to the overall adaptation process. The results hold implications for tracking future progress on climate change adaptation. Common definitions or measures of adaptation (e.g., presence of planning documents) may need to be reassessed for applicability at the level of public land managers.

  12. Natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy: a practical approach to risk profiling and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, David; Giovannoni, Gavin

    2012-02-01

    Natalizumab reduces relapse frequency, delays onset of disease progression and improves disease outcomes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and is a cost-effective treatment for rapidly evolving severe relapsing-remitting MS. However, it is associated with the development of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), a serious opportunistic brain infection caused by a neurotropic strain of the JC virus (JCV). Until May 2011, 83 300 patients had received natalizumab for MS. One hundred and twenty-four patients had developed PML, of whom 23 (19%) died. In order to maximise the benefit-risk ratio of natalizumab for MS patients it is important to develop a strategy for risk profiling and monitoring for PML. Central to this is an understanding of the biology of the JCV and the emerging clinical picture of natalizumab-associated PML. This paper reviews the evidence for managing the risk of PML in natalizumab-treated patients and the authors propose an algorithm for risk profiling and risk management. Key features of this algorithm include risk stratification based on emerging risk factors, heightened clinical vigilance for the clinical features of natalizumab-associated PML and considerations for temporary and permanent cessation of natalizumab dosing.

  13. Global Monitoring of Salmonella Serovar Distribution from the World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network Country Data Bank: Results of Quality Assured Laboratories from 2001 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Vieira, Antonio; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Quality Assurance System. In all regions throughout the study period, with the exception of the Oceania and North American regions, Salmonella serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium ranked as the most common and second most common serovar, respectively. In the North American and Oceania (Australia and New...

  14. Bacteriophage therapy to reduce salmonella colonization of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atterbury, R.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Ortiz, F.; Lovell, M.A.; Harris, J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Allen, V.M.; Barrow, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acute enteric infections caused by salmonellas remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Although some progress has been made in reducing Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens by using biosecuri

  15. Bacteriophage therapy to reduce salmonella colonization of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atterbury, R.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Ortiz, F.; Lovell, M.A.; Harris, J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Allen, V.M.; Barrow, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Acute enteric infections caused by salmonellas remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Although some progress has been made in reducing Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens by using

  16. Fate of Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory-scale drinking water biofilms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schaefer, Lisa M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available and thus allows in situ detection of undisturbed cells and is ideally suited for monitoring Salmonella in biofilms. The fate and persistence of non-typhoidal Salmonella in simulated drinking water biofilms was investigated. The ability of Salmonella to form...

  17. Cardiac Acceleration at the Onset of Exercise : A Potential Parameter for Monitoring Progress During Physical Training in Sports and Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, Florentina J.; Monden, Paul G.; van Meeteren, Nico L. U.; Daanen, Hein A. M.

    There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HRonset) can be used as a monitoring variable. The digital databases of Scopus and PubMed were

  18. Cardiac acceleration at the onset of exercise: A potential parameter for monitoring progress during physical training in sports and rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, F.J.; Monden, P.G.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HRonset) can be used as a monitoring variable. The digital databases of Scopus and PubMed were

  19. Taking the Pulse: Monitoring the Quality and Progress of Internationalization, Including Tracking Measures. CBIE Research Millennium Series No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2000-01-01

    Internalization of higher education will be remembered as one of the major challenges and accomplishments of the last two decades. This paper introduces the concept of qualitative and quantitative tracking measures to enable a monitoring of progress and quality toward specified objects or targets. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to emphasize the…

  20. Cardiac Acceleration at the Onset of Exercise : A Potential Parameter for Monitoring Progress During Physical Training in Sports and Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, Florentina J.; Monden, Paul G.; van Meeteren, Nico L. U.; Daanen, Hein A. M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HRonset) can be used as a monitoring variable. The digital databases of Scopus and PubMed were se

  1. Teachers' Attitudes about Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading (CBM-R) for Universal Screening and Progress Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sarah Stebbe; Witmer, Sara; Cook, Elizabeth; daCruz, Katelin

    2014-01-01

    Universal screening and progress monitoring are two essential components of the response-to-intervention (RTI) framework. Within RTI models, teachers are commonly expected to collect, score, and use much of the associated student performance data. One measure that is commonly used within RTI models is Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading…

  2. Stratification and monitoring of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk: recommendations from an expert group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, C; Craner, M; Guadagno, J; Kapoor, R; Mazibrada, G; Molyneux, P; Nicholas, R; Palace, J; Pearson, O R; Rog, D; Young, C A

    2016-02-01

    The use of natalizumab for highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by the occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Through measurement of the anti-JCV antibody index, and in combination with the presence or absence of other known risk factors, it may be possible to stratify patients with MS according to their risk of developing PML during treatment with natalizumab and detect early suspected PML using MRI including a diffusion-weighted imaging sequence. This paper describes a practical consensus guideline for treating neurologists, based on current evidence, for the introduction into routine clinical practice of anti-JCV antibody index testing of immunosuppressant-naïve patients with MS, either currently being treated with, or initiating, natalizumab, based on their anti-JCV antibody status. Recommendations for the frequency and type of MRI screening in patients with varying index-associated PML risks are also discussed. This consensus paper presents a simple and pragmatic algorithm to support the introduction of anti-JCV antibody index testing and MRI monitoring into standard PML safety protocols, in order to allow some JCV positive patients who wish to begin or continue natalizumab treatment to be managed with a more individualised analysis of their PML risk.

  3. Comparision of photogrammetric point clouds with BIM building elements for construction progress monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttas, S.; Braun, A.; Borrmann, A.; Stilla, U.

    2014-08-01

    For construction progress monitoring a planned state of the construction at a certain time (as-planed) has to be compared to the actual state (as-built). The as-planed state is derived from a building information model (BIM), which contains the geometry of the building and the construction schedule. In this paper we introduce an approach for the generation of an as-built point cloud by photogrammetry. It is regarded that that images on a construction cannot be taken from everywhere it seems to be necessary. Because of this we use a combination of structure from motion process together with control points to create a scaled point cloud in a consistent coordinate system. Subsequently this point cloud is used for an as-built - as-planed comparison. For that voxels of an octree are marked as occupied, free or unknown by raycasting based on the triangulated points and the camera positions. This allows to identify not existing building parts. For the verification of the existence of building parts a second test based on the points in front and behind the as-planed model planes is performed. The proposed procedure is tested based on an inner city construction site under real conditions.

  4. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gama NMSQ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the presence of Salmonella sp in flocks of white laying hens. In different farms, the transport boxes of twelve flocks were inspected at arrival for the presence of Salmonella. Four positive (A, B, L and M and one negative (I flocks were monitored at each four weeks using bacteriological examination of cecal fresh feces up to 52 weeks. Birds were also evaluated at 52 weeks, when 500 eggs were taken randomly, and at 76 weeks, after forced molt. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain were isolated from the transport boxes of the four positive flocks (flocks A, B, L and M. Salmonella sp was not isolated from the transport boxes or from the feces after 76 weeks-old in flock I. Salmonella sp was isolated in the 1st, 11th, 34th, 42nd and 76th weeks from flock A; in the 1st, 4th, 11th and 76th weeks from flock B; in the first week and in the 17th to 52nd weeks from flock L; and in the 1st and 76th weeks from flock M. S. Enteritidis, S. enterica rough strain and Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis were isolated from the four positive flocks. Besides, Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana was isolated from flocks B and L, and Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka was isolated from flock L. Eggs produced by flock A and by flock L were contaminated with S. Enteritidis and S. enterica rough strain. According to these results, Salmonella-infected flocks may produce contaminated eggs.

  5. 78 FR 42526 - Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food; Withdrawal of...) entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food.'' This CPG is obsolete. DATES: The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA issued the CGP entitled ``Sec. 690.700 Salmonella Contamination of Dry Dog Food...

  6. Monitor and Evaluate the Genetic Characteristics of Supplemented Salmon and Steelhead, 2006-2007 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntson, Ewann; Waples, Robin S.; Moran, Paul [National Marine Fisheries Service

    2008-11-20

    This progress report offers a summary of genetic monitoring and evaluation research related to artificial propagation of Chinook salmon and steelhead in the Snake River basin. Our principal goal has been to characterize the relative (and net) reproductive success of hatchery fish spawning in the wild in multiple sub-basins. We address a critical uncertainty identified in essentially all tribal, state, and federal recovery planning efforts. Beyond simple description of those patterns of differential reproductive success, we seek to understand the biotic and abiotic factors that contribute to our observations, including genetic and environmental elements, and the real time effects of hatchery reform. We adopt two fundamentally different approaches that capture processes operating at different geographic scales. Our tier 2 design monitors changes in gene frequency through time in hatchery and wild populations. These studies monitor spatial and temporal genetic change over broad river basins and sub-basins. Tier 3 studies, by contrast, are able to construct pedigrees in naturally spawning populations that include hatchery and wild fish. We can then use actual matings to infer the fitness of hatchery versus wild individuals, based on the numbers of offspring we observe in our progeny samples. We get extraordinary detail from the tier 3 studies but only for a single river system. Thus, tier 2 studies provide breadth of information, whereas tier 3 studies offer unparalleled depth of insight for single discrete systems. We exceeded our goals in almost all areas for both tier 2 and tier 3 studies, and, where we did not, we offer an explanation of why, and what future action will be taken (Lessons Learned). All subcontracts were let as expected, providing smolt trapping, tissue sampling, genotyping, and analysis. Our inter-laboratory standardization efforts with tribal, state, and federal agencies were highly successful in this period. These standardization activities have

  7. Comparison of Standard Automated Perimetry, Short-Wavelength Automated Perimetry, and Frequency-Doubling Technology Perimetry to Monitor Glaucoma Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rongrong; Wang, Chenkun; Gu, Yangshun; Racette, Lyne

    2016-02-01

    Detection of progression is paramount to the clinical management of glaucoma. Our goal is to compare the performance of standard automated perimetry (SAP), short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP), and frequency-doubling technology (FDT) perimetry in monitoring glaucoma progression.Longitudinal data of paired SAP, SWAP, and FDT from 113 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma enrolled in the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study or the African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study were included. Data from all tests were expressed in comparable units by converting the sensitivity from decibels to unitless contrast sensitivity and by expressing sensitivity values in percent of mean normal based on an independent dataset of 207 healthy eyes with aging deterioration taken into consideration. Pointwise linear regression analysis was performed and 3 criteria (conservative, moderate, and liberal) were used to define progression and improvement. Global mean sensitivity (MS) was fitted with linear mixed models.No statistically significant difference in the proportion of progressing and improving eyes was observed across tests using the conservative criterion. Fewer eyes showed improvement on SAP compared to SWAP and FDT using the moderate criterion; and FDT detected less progressing eyes than SAP and SWAP using the liberal criterion. The agreement between these test types was poor. The linear mixed model showed a progressing trend of global MS overtime for SAP and SWAP, but not for FDT. The baseline estimate of SWAP MS was significantly lower than SAP MS by 21.59% of mean normal. FDT showed comparable estimation of baseline MS with SAP.SWAP and FDT do not appear to have significant benefits over SAP in monitoring glaucoma progression. SAP, SWAP, and FDT may, however, detect progression in different glaucoma eyes.

  8. Development Progress of On-Line Monitoring Equipment for UF6 Abundance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Monitoring the abundance of UF6 gas flowing in processing pipe is a nondestructive assay technique. It can be judged whether highly enriched uranium is produced by monitoring the abundance of UF6 gas

  9. Idaho Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Progress Report February 1, 2007 - January 31, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Timothy; Johnson, June; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    River stocks of steelhead and spring/summer Chinook salmon still have significant natural reproduction and thus are the focal species for this project's investigations. The overall goal is to monitor the abundance, productivity, distribution, and stock-specific life history characteristics of naturally produced steelhead trout and Chinook salmon in Idaho (IDFG 2007). We have grouped project tasks into three objectives, as defined in our latest project proposal and most recent statement of work. The purpose of each objective involves enumerating or describing individuals within the various life stages of Snake River anadromous salmonids. By understanding the transitions between life stages and associated controlling factors, we hope to achieve a mechanistic understanding of stock-specific population dynamics. This understanding will improve mitigation and recovery efforts. Objective 1. Measure 2007 adult escapement and describe the age structure of the spawning run of naturally produced spring/summer Chinook salmon passing Lower Granite Dam. Objective 2. Monitor the juvenile production of Chinook salmon and steelhead trout for the major population groups (MPGs) within the Clearwater and Salmon subbasins. Objective 3. Evaluate life cycle survival and the freshwater productivity/production of Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon. There are two components: update/refine a stock-recruit model and estimate aggregate smolt-to-adult survival. In this annual progress report, we present technical results for work done during 2007. Part 2 contains detailed results of INPMEP aging research and estimation of smolt-to-adult return rates for wild and naturally produced Chinook salmon (Objectives 1 and 3). Part 3 is a report on the ongoing development of a stock-recruit model for the freshwater phase of spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin (Objective 3). Part 4 is a summary of the parr density data (Objective 2) collected in 2007 using the new site selection

  10. Resent Progress in Research on Calibration Instrument for Radioactive Aerosol Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xi-lin; CHEN; Yong-yong; WU; Chang-ping; XING; Yu; MENG; Jun; YANG; Qiao-ling

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive aerosol monitors are widely used in monitoring the radioactivity concentration of the artificial nuclides in gaseous effluents from the nuclear facilities.An on-developing calibration instrument for radioactive aerosol monitors consists of an α and β aerosol generating unit,aerosol transferring unit,measurement unit of radioactivity concentration of aerosol for instruments calibrated and the waste gas

  11. A Research Progress on Salmonella Multi-drug Resistance Genomic Island 1%沙门菌多重耐药基因岛研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2011-01-01

    多药耐药基因组岛是指细菌染色体上一段具有典型特征的基因簇,携带有多种耐药基因,决定细菌的多药耐药性;多药耐药基因组岛具有移动元件的特征,如 G+C百分比和密码子使用与宿主菌不同,常含移动基因,可以在同种甚至于不同种菌株间水平转移,加速了临床上多药耐药菌株的产生.目前已发现在沙门菌属和其他菌属的细菌中携带沙门菌多重耐药基因岛.由于沙门菌多重耐药基因岛1上的耐药基因具有可移动性,使其在细菌多重耐药获得与传播机制的研究中具有重要意义.%A multi-drug resistance genomic island of bacteria refers to the gene clusters section of hacterial chromosome with typical characteristics, on which there are many drug resistant genes determining the multi-drug resistance of bacteria. Multi-drug resistance genomic island has characteristics of mobile genetic elements such as different (G+ C contents and codon usage. It usually contains mobile genes and can be transferred between homologous and even heterologous hacteria,which promotes the production of clinical multi-drug resistant strains. At present , salmonella multidrug resistant genomic island 1 ( SGI1 )and the variants of it have been found in salmonella and other bacteria. The mohile characteristic of SGI1 made it very important in studying development and dissemination of the multi-drug resistance among bacteria.

  12. Antibiotics use and resistance patterns of Salmonella species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotics use and resistance patterns of Salmonella species in poultry from Ibadan, ... in self medication without veterinary diagnosis of diseases or prescription. ... There are urgent needs for national monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in ...

  13. Evaluation of bioluminescent imaging for noninvasive monitoring of colorectal cancer progression in the liver and its response to immunogene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Aparicio Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioluminescent imaging (BLI is based on the detection of light emitted by living cells expressing a luciferase gene. Stable transfection of luciferase in cancer cells and their inoculation into permissive animals allows the noninvasive monitorization of tumor progression inside internal organs. We have applied this technology for the development of a murine model of colorectal cancer involving the liver, with the aim of improving the pre-clinical evaluation of new anticancer therapies. Results A murine colon cancer cell line stably transfected with the luciferase gene (MC38Luc1 retains tumorigenicity in immunocompetent C57BL/6 animals. Intrahepatic inoculation of MC38Luc1 causes progressive liver infiltration that can be monitored by BLI. Compared with ultrasonography (US, BLI is more sensitive, but accurate estimation of tumor mass is impaired in advanced stages. We applied BLI to evaluate the efficacy of an immunogene therapy approach based on the liver-specific expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12. Individualized quantification of light emission was able to determine the extent and duration of antitumor responses and to predict long-term disease-free survival. Conclusion We show that BLI is a rapid, convenient and safe technique for the individual monitorization of tumor progression in the liver. Evaluation of experimental treatments with complex mechanisms of action such as immunotherapy is possible using this technology.

  14. Salmonella serotype distribution in the Dutch broiler supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; Thissen, J T N M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2009-12-01

    Salmonella serotype distribution can give insight in contamination routes and persistence along a production chain. Therefore, it is important to determine not only Salmonella prevalence but also to specify the serotypes involved at the different stages of the supply chain. For this purpose, data from a national monitoring program in the Netherlands were used to estimate the serotype distribution and to determine whether this distribution differs for the available sampling points in the broiler supply chain. Data covered the period from 2002 to 2005, all slaughterhouses (n = 22), and the following 6 sampling points: departure from hatchery, arrival at the farm, departure from the farm, arrival at the slaughterhouse, departure from the slaughterhouse, and end of processing. Furthermore, retail data for 2005 were used for comparison with slaughterhouse data. The following serotypes were followed throughout the chain: Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Paratyphi B var. Java (Salmonella Java), Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Virchow, and Salmonella Mbandaka. Results showed that serotype distribution varied significantly throughout the supply chain (P supply chain up to the retail phase.

  15. The Developmental Writing Scale: A New Progress Monitoring Tool for Beginning Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Janet M.; Cali, Kathleen; Nelson, Nickola W.; Staskowski, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Developing writers make qualitative changes in their written products as they progress from scribbling and drawing to conventional, paragraph level writing. As yet, a comprehensive measurement tool does not exist that captures the linguistic and communicative changes (not just emergent spelling) in the early stages of this progression. The…

  16. Quantitative muscle MRI as an assessment tool for monitoring disease progression in LGMD2I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Tracey A; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Coombs, Anna;

    2013-01-01

    Outcome measures for clinical trials in neuromuscular diseases are typically based on physical assessments which are dependent on patient effort, combine the effort of different muscle groups, and may not be sensitive to progression over short trial periods in slow-progressing diseases. We hypoth...

  17. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  19. Idaho Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Progress Report February 1, 2007 - January 31, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Timothy; Johnson, June; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    River stocks of steelhead and spring/summer Chinook salmon still have significant natural reproduction and thus are the focal species for this project's investigations. The overall goal is to monitor the abundance, productivity, distribution, and stock-specific life history characteristics of naturally produced steelhead trout and Chinook salmon in Idaho (IDFG 2007). We have grouped project tasks into three objectives, as defined in our latest project proposal and most recent statement of work. The purpose of each objective involves enumerating or describing individuals within the various life stages of Snake River anadromous salmonids. By understanding the transitions between life stages and associated controlling factors, we hope to achieve a mechanistic understanding of stock-specific population dynamics. This understanding will improve mitigation and recovery efforts. Objective 1. Measure 2007 adult escapement and describe the age structure of the spawning run of naturally produced spring/summer Chinook salmon passing Lower Granite Dam. Objective 2. Monitor the juvenile production of Chinook salmon and steelhead trout for the major population groups (MPGs) within the Clearwater and Salmon subbasins. Objective 3. Evaluate life cycle survival and the freshwater productivity/production of Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon. There are two components: update/refine a stock-recruit model and estimate aggregate smolt-to-adult survival. In this annual progress report, we present technical results for work done during 2007. Part 2 contains detailed results of INPMEP aging research and estimation of smolt-to-adult return rates for wild and naturally produced Chinook salmon (Objectives 1 and 3). Part 3 is a report on the ongoing development of a stock-recruit model for the freshwater phase of spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin (Objective 3). Part 4 is a summary of the parr density data (Objective 2) collected in 2007 using the new site selection

  20. [FY 2015 progress report]: Inventory and Monitoring for the Federally Endangered Northern Red-bellied Cooter

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a FY2015 progress report for development of a standardized field protocol for surveying ponds for northern red-bellied cooter occupancy and new maps...

  1. The Multi-Isotope Process Monitor Project: FY11 Progress and Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Hayes, John W.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Bender, Sarah E.; Unlu, Kenan; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Schreiber, S. S.; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2012-08-01

    Summary The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor represents a potentially new and efficient approach to monitoring process conditions in reprocessing facilities with the high-level goal of aiding in the “...(minimization of) the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism” (Office of Technology Assessment 1995). This approach relies on multivariate analysis and gamma spectroscopy of spent fuel product and waste streams to automatically and simultaneously monitor a variety of process conditions (e.g., acid concentrations, burnup, cooling time, etc.) in near real-time (NRT). While the conceptual basis for the MIP Monitor has been shown to be effective in an aqueous reprocessing system, the fundamental approach should also be viable in a pyro-processing recycle system. The MIP Monitor may be calibrated to provide online quantitative information about process variables for process control or domestic safeguards applications; or it can simply monitor, with a built-in information barrier, for off-normal conditions in process streams, making the approach well-suited for applications were it is necessary to respect proprietary information or for international safeguards applications. Proof-of-concept simulations and experiments were performed in previous years demonstrating the validity of this tool in a laboratory setting. This report details follow-on research and development efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) related to the MIP Monitor for fiscal year 2011 (FY11).

  2. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor Project: FY12 Progress and Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Orton, Christopher R.; Jordan, David V.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Bender, Sarah; Dayman, Kenneth J.; Unlu, Kenan; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2012-09-27

    The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), provides an efficient approach to monitoring the process conditions in reprocessing facilities in support of the goal of "...(minimization of) the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism." The MIP Monitor measures distributions of a suite of indicator (radioactive) isotopes present within product and waste streams of a nuclear reprocessing facility. These indicator isotopes are monitored on-line by gamma spectrometry and compared, in near-real-time, to spectral patterns representing "normal" process conditions using multivariate pattern recognition software. The monitor utilizes this multivariate analysis and gamma spectroscopy of reprocessing streams to detect small changes in the gamma spectrum, which may indicate changes in process conditions. Multivariate analysis methods common in chemometrics, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS), act as pattern recognition techniques, which can detect small deviations from the expected, nominal condition. By targeting multiple gamma-emitting indicator isotopes, the MIP Monitor approach is compatible with the use of small, portable, relatively high-resolution gamma detectors that may be easily deployed throughout an existing facility. The automated multivariate analysis can provide a level of data obscurity, giving a built-in information barrier to protect sensitive or proprietary operational data. Proof-of-concept simulations and experiments have been performed in previous years to demonstrate the validity of this tool in a laboratory setting. Development of the MIP Monitor approach continues to evaluate the efficacy of the monitor for automated, real-time or near-real-time application. This report details follow-on research and development efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development related to the MIP Monitor for fiscal year

  3. Using surveillance and monitoring data of different origins in a Salmonella source attribution model: a European Union example with challenges and proposed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Knegt, L V; Pires, S M; Hald, T

    2015-04-01

    Microbial subtyping approaches are commonly used for source attribution of human salmonellosis. Such methods require data on Salmonella in animals and humans, outbreaks, infection abroad and amounts of food available for consumption. A source attribution model was applied to 24 European countries, requiring special data management to produce a standardized dataset. Salmonellosis data on animals and humans were obtained from datasets provided by the European Food Safety Authority. The amount of food available for consumption was calculated based on production and trade data. Limitations included different types of underreporting, non-participation in prevalence studies, and non-availability of trade data. Cases without travel information were assumed to be domestic; non-subtyped human or animal records were re-identified according to proportions observed in reference datasets; missing trade information was estimated based on previous years. The resulting dataset included data on 24 serovars in humans, broilers, laying hens, pigs and turkeys in 24 countries.

  4. White-faced Ibis nest monitoring at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana : 1997 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a White-faced Ibis study that was conducted on Benton Lake NWR during 1997. The objectives were to locate and monitor a sample of nests and...

  5. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, July--September 1993: Volume 13, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1993-11-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the third quarter of 1993.

  6. NRC TLD direct radiation monitoring network: Progress report, July--September 1997. Volume 17, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1998-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. Ambient radiation levels result from naturally occurring radionuclides present in the soil, cosmic radiation constantly bombarding the earth from outer space, and the contribution, if any, from the monitored facilities and other man-made sources. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an unusual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the third quarter of 1996. A complete listing of the site facilities monitored is included. In some instances, two power reactor facilities are monitored by the same set of dosimeters (e.g., Kewaunee and Point Beach).

  7. Comparative performance of three sampling techniques to detect airborne Salmonella species in poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, Elisa; Moset, Verónica; Zhao, Yang; Jiménez-Belenguer, Ana; Cerisuelo, Alba; Cambra-López, María

    2014-01-01

    Sampling techniques to detect airborne Salmonella species (spp.) in two pilot scale broiler houses were compared. Broilers were inoculated at seven days of age with a marked strain of Salmonella enteritidis. The rearing cycle lasted 42 days during the summer. Airborne Salmonella spp. were sampled weekly using impaction, gravitational settling, and impingement techniques. Additionally, Salmonella spp. were sampled on feeders, drinkers, walls, and in the litter. Environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity, and airborne particulate matter (PM) concentration) were monitored during the rearing cycle. The presence of Salmonella spp. was determined by culture-dependent and molecular methods. No cultivable Salmonella spp. were recovered from the poultry houses' surfaces, the litter, or the air before inoculation. After inoculation, cultivable Salmonella spp. were recovered from the surfaces and in the litter. Airborne cultivable Salmonella spp. Were detected using impaction and gravitational settling one or two weeks after the detection of Salmonella spp. in the litter. No cultivable Salmonella spp. were recovered using impingement based on culture-dependent techniques. At low airborne concentrations, the use of impingement for the quantification or detection of cultivable airborne Salmonella spp. is not recommended. In these cases, a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods is recommended. These data are valuable to improve current measures to control the transmission of pathogens in livestock environments and for optimising the sampling and detection of airborne Salmonella spp. in practical conditions.

  8. Monitoring Huntington’s disease progression through preclinical and early stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chris; Feigin, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder that typically begins in middle adulthood. The neurodegenerative process that underlies HD, however, likely begins many years before clinical diagnosis. Since genetic testing can identify individuals that will develop HD during this preclinical period, clinical trials aiming to slow disease progression will likely focus on this phase of the illness in an effort to delay disease onset. How to best measure the efficacy of potential disease-modifying therapies in preclinical HD remains a complex challenge. This article will review the clinical and imaging measures that have been assessed as potential markers of disease progression in preclinical and early symptomatic HD. PMID:23243467

  9. A study of familial MELAS: Evaluation of A3243G mutation, clinical phenotype, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy-monitored progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunnuan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical manifestations of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes syndrome (MELAS syndrome are nonspecific and can easily be misdiagnosed. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS-based detection of lactate in the brain has been found to be of diagnostic help in MELAS syndrome, however, the issue of whether MRS features vary by stage remains unresolved. We assessed the causative mutation and radiological features of a family of MELAS. Four of the family members harbored the A3243G mutation, probably of maternal inheritance. However, the clinical phenotypic expression was different in these patients. MRS showed a lactate peak, decreased N-acetylaspartate, choline, and creatine, which became more pronounced with progression of the disease, demonstrating that brain-MRS-based detection of lactate may be a suitable way to monitor the progression and treatment of MELAS.

  10. A Framework for (Tele-) Monitoring of the Rehabilitation Progress in Stroke Patients: eHealth 2015 Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagos, H; David, V; Haller, M; Kotzian, S; Hofmann, M; Schlossarek, S; Eichholzer, K; Winkler, M; Frohner, M; Reichel, M; Mayr, W; Rafolt, D

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of mobility in conjunction with an independent life style is one of the major goals of rehabilitation after stroke. The Rehab@Home framework shall support the continuation of rehabilitation at home. The framework consists of instrumented insoles, connected wirelessly to a 3G ready tablet PC, a server, and a web-interface for medical experts. The rehabilitation progress is estimated via automated analysis of movement data from standardized assessment tests which are designed according to the needs of stroke patients and executed via the tablet PC application. The Rehab@Home framework's implementation is finished and ready for the field trial (at five patients' homes). Initial testing of the automated evaluation of the standardized mobility tests shows reproducible results. Therefore it is assumed that the Rehab@Home framework is applicable as monitoring tool for the gait rehabilitation progress in stroke patients.

  11. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  12. Weight preserving image registration for monitoring disease progression in lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Haseem, Ashraf

    2008-01-01

    the density of lung tissue with respect to local expansion or compression such that the total weight of the lungs is preserved during deformation. Our method provides a good estimation of regional destruction of lung tissue for subjects with a significant difference in inspiration level between CT scans...... compared with intensities in the deformed baseline image indicate local loss of lung tissue that is associated with progression of emphysema. To account for differences in lung intensity owing to differences in the inspiration level in the two scans rather than disease progression, we propose to adjust...

  13. Resource conservation and recovery act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-06-01

    This document describes the progress of 13 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period January 1 to March 31, 1989. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 32 refs., 30 figs., 103 tabs.

  14. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Progress report, October 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  15. Research Progress of Farmland Drought Monitoring and Prediction Based on Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guijun; Yang, Hao; Jin, Xiuliang; Pignatti, Stefano; Casa, Raffaele; Pascucci, Simone; Silvesrtro, Paolo Cosmo

    2014-11-01

    Since the Kick-off of the Dragon-3 project Farmland Drought Monitoring and Prediction Based on Multi-source Remote Sensing Data (ID: 10448), our research focuses on three points including 1) the monitoring of key biophysical variables of crop and soil in farmland drought by optical and radar remote sensing data, 2) the risk assessment of farmland drought by time series remote sensing and meteorological data, and 3) the crop loss evaluation under farmland drought mainly based on AquaCrop crop model. Our study area is mainly located in Beijing, and Shaanxi Province (semi-arid region), China. Experiment campaign and data analysis were carried out and some new methods aiming at farmland drought monitoring and prediction were developed, which highlighting the importance of ESA-NRSCC Dragon cooperation.

  16. Monitoring Progress toward Successful K-12 STEM Education: A Nation Advancing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Following a 2011 report by the National Research Council (NRC) on successful K-12 education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), Congress asked the National Science Foundation to identify methods for tracking progress toward the report's recommendations. In response, the NRC convened the Committee on an Evaluation Framework…

  17. Progress from Specificity: How to Monitor the Paris Declaration in the Malawi Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Laura

    2009-01-01

    At the time of writing, it is not possible to measure progress accurately, or even assess the baseline status of aid effectiveness in the education sector. Twelve targets en route to the five objectives of the Paris Declaration were set and agreed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); they were to be measured…

  18. Development of bioluminescent Salmonella strains for use in food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey R Hartford

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella can reside in healthy animals without the manifestation of any adverse effects on the carrier. If raw products of animal origin are not handled properly during processing or cooked to a proper temperature during preparation, salmonellosis can occur. In this research, we developed bioluminescent Salmonella strains that can be used for real-time monitoring of the pathogen's growth on food products. To accomplish this, twelve Salmonella strains from the broiler production continuum were transformed with the broad host range plasmid pAKlux1, and a chicken skin attachment model was developed. Results Salmonella strains carrying pAKlux1 constitutively expressed the luxCDABE operon and were therefore detectable using bioluminescence. Strains were characterized in terms of bioluminescence properties and plasmid stability. To assess the usefulness of bioluminescent Salmonella strains in food safety studies, we developed an attachment model using chicken skin. The effect of washing on attachment of Salmonella strains to chicken skin was tested using bioluminescent strains, which revealed the attachment properties of each strain. Conclusion This study demonstrated that bioluminescence is a sensitive and effective tool to detect Salmonella on food products in real-time. Bioluminescence imaging is a promising technology that can be utilized to evaluate new food safety measures for reducing Salmonella contamination on food products.

  19. Curriculum-Based Measurement of Oral Reading: Multi-Study Evaluation of Schedule, Duration, and Dataset Quality on Progress Monitoring Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Theodore J.; Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Monaghen, Barbara D.; Van Norman, Ethan R.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum-Based Measurement of Oral Reading (CBM-R) is used to collect time series data, estimate the rate of student achievement, and evaluate program effectiveness. A series of 5 studies were carried out to evaluate the validity, reliability, precision, and diagnostic accuracy of progress monitoring across a variety of progress monitoring…

  20. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Vivek V; Devon, Rebecca L; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2016-01-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g) in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group, respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S. Typhimurium, 14.1% S. Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of time

  1. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil eChousalkar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonise reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonise the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. The mean Salmonella load in feces ranged from 1.54 to 63.35 and 0.31 to 98.38 most probable number/g (MPN/g in the S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka group respectively. No correlation was found between mean fecal Salmonella load and frequency of egg shell contamination. Egg shell contamination was higher in S. Typhimurium + S. Mbandaka infected group (7.2% Typhimurium, 14.1% Mbandaka compared to birds infected with S. Typhimurium (5.66% however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S. Typhimurium. Throughout the study Salmonella was not recovered from internal contents of eggs laid by hens. Salmonella was isolated from different segments of oviduct of hens from both the groups, however pathology was not observed on microscopic examination. This study investigated Salmonella shedding for up to 15 weeks p.i which is a longer period of

  2. Progress report:Specifications and design criteria for innovative corrosion monitoring and (downhole) sensor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Akemu, A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this sub-project is to establish specifications and design criteria for corrosion monitoring and corrosion sensor systems used in CO2 storage wells; this includes sensitivity analysis and an evaluation of technological maturity. In the Year 1 programme, we review the tools deployed

  3. Monitoring the Progress of New American Schools: A Description of Implementing Schools in a Longitudinal Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Mark; Heilbrunn, Jodi; McKelvey, Christopher; Sullivan, Thomas

    A private, nonprofit corporation, New American Schools (NAS) funds the development of designs aimed at transforming entire schools at the elementary and secondary levels. This report describes a large number of NAS sites in their early implementation stages. The report is the first in a series that monitors a longitudinal sample of schools…

  4. Quarterly Progress Report on the Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.

    1996-12-30

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program ( BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  5. Detection Optimization of the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation Algorithm Used in Infrasound Nuclear Treaty Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ultimately improved the quality of this written document . Anthony M. Runco, Jr. vii Table of Contents Page Abstract...Centre IMS International Monitoring System LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory LRT Likelihood ratio test LTA Long-term-power-average MAP Maximum a...station performance. The document then concludes with recommendations for future work. 6 II. Literature Review 2.1

  6. Challenges and progress in making DNA-based monitoring operational AIS early detection as testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of DNA barcoding to find additional species in hard-to-sample locations or hard-to-identify samples is well established. Nevertheless, adoption of DNA barcoding into regular monitoring programs has been slow, in part due to issues of standardization and interpretation...

  7. Challenges and progress in making DNA-based AIS early detection monitoring operational

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of DNA barcoding to find additional species in hard-to-sample locations or hard-to-identify samples is well established. Nevertheless, adoption of DNA barcoding into regular monitoring programs has been slow, in part due to issues of standardization and interpretation...

  8. Detection of Salmonella spp, Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium in naturally infected broiler chickens by a multiplex PCR-based assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Paião

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Salmonella in the intestinal tract, on the chickens skin and among their feathers, may cause carcasses contamination during slaughtering and processing and possibly it is responsible by the introduction of this microorganism in the slaughterhouses. A rapid method to identify and monitor Salmonella and their sorovars in farm is becoming necessary. A pre-enriched multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR assay employing specific primers was developed and used to detect Salmonella at the genus level and to identify the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium in broiler chicken swab samples. The method was validated by testing DNA extract from 90 fresh culture cloacal swab samples from poultry chicken cultured in phosphate buffer peptone water at 37 ºC for 18 h. The final results showed the presence of Salmonella spp. in 25% of samples, S. Enteritidis was present in 12% of the Salmonella-positive samples and S. Typhimurium in 3% of the samples. The m-PCR assay developed in this study is a specific and rapid alternative method for the identification of Salmonella spp. and allowed the observation of specific serovar contamination in the field conditions within the locations where these chickens are typically raised.

  9. In vivo non-invasive serial monitoring of FDG-PET progression and regression in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthley, Stephen G; Zhang, Zhuang Y; Machac, Josef; Helft, Gérard; Tang, Cheuk; Liew, Gary Y H; Zaman, Azfar G; Worthley, Matthew I; Fayad, Zahi A; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Fuster, Valentin; Badimon, Juan J

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the ability of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) imaging to serially monitor macrophage content in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits (n = 8) by a combination of atherogenic diet and balloon denudation of the aorta. At the end of nine months, the rabbits were randomized to a further six months of the same atherogenic diet (progression group) or normal diet (regression group). In vivo uptake of FDG by the thoracic aorta was measured using aortic uptake-to-blood radioactivity ratios at the start and end of the randomized period. A significant increase in FDG uptake of the progression group after continued cholesterol feeding (aortic uptake-to-blood radioactivity: 0.57 +/- 0.02 to 0.68 +/- 0.02, P = 0.001), and a corresponding fall in FDG uptake of the regression group after returning to a normal chow diet (aortic uptake-to-blood radioactivity ratios: 0.67 +/- 0.02 to 0.53 +/- 0.02, P < 0.0001). FDG PET can quantify in vivo macrophage content and serially monitor changes in FDG activity in this rabbit model.

  10. How accurate are interpretations of curriculum-based measurement progress monitoring data? Visual analysis versus decision rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, Ethan R; Christ, Theodore J

    2016-10-01

    Curriculum based measurement of oral reading (CBM-R) is used to monitor the effects of academic interventions for individual students. Decisions to continue, modify, or terminate these interventions are made by interpreting time series CBM-R data. Such interpretation is founded upon visual analysis or the application of decision rules. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of visual analysis and decision rules. Visual analysts interpreted 108 CBM-R progress monitoring graphs one of three ways: (a) without graphic aids, (b) with a goal line, or (c) with a goal line and a trend line. Graphs differed along three dimensions, including trend magnitude, variability of observations, and duration of data collection. Automated trend line and data point decision rules were also applied to each graph. Inferential analyses permitted the estimation of the probability of a correct decision (i.e., the student is improving - continue the intervention, or the student is not improving - discontinue the intervention) for each evaluation method as a function of trend magnitude, variability of observations, and duration of data collection. All evaluation methods performed better when students made adequate progress. Visual analysis and decision rules performed similarly when observations were less variable. Results suggest that educators should collect data for more than six weeks, take steps to control measurement error, and visually analyze graphs when data are variable. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of laser fluorescence in monitoring non-cavitated caries lesion progression on smooth surfaces in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, J A; Sarti, C S; Assunção, C M; Arthur, R A; Lussi, A; Diniz, M B

    2017-07-02

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a pen-type laser fluorescence (LF) device (LFpen: DIAGNOdent pen) to detect and monitor the progression of caries-like lesions on smooth surfaces. Fifty-two bovine enamel blocks were submitted to three different demineralisation cycles for caries-like lesion induction using Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei and Actinomyces naeslundii. At baseline and after each cycle, the enamel blocks were analysed under Knoop surface micro-hardness (SMH) and an LFpen. One enamel block after each cycle was randomly chosen for Raman spectroscopy analysis. Cross-sectional micro-hardness (CSMH) was performed at different depths (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μm) in 26 enamel blocks after the second cycle and 26 enamel blocks after the third cycle. Average values of SMH (± standard deviation (SD)) were 319.3 (± 21.5), 80.5 (± 31.9), 39.8 (± 12.7), and 29.77 (± 10.34) at baseline and after the first, second and third cycles, respectively. Statistical significant difference was found among all periods (p  0.05). One sample of each cycle was characterised through Raman spectroscopy analysis. It can be concluded that LF was effective in detecting the first demineralisation on enamel; however, the method did not show any effect in monitoring lesion progression after three cycles of in vitro demineralisation.

  12. A framework for prospectively defining progression rules for internal pilot studies monitoring recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Lisa V; Williamson, Paula R; Wilby, Martin J; Jaki, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Just over half of publicly funded trials recruit their target sample size within the planned study duration. When recruitment targets are missed, the funder of a trial is faced with the decision of either committing further resources to the study or risk that a worthwhile treatment effect may be missed by an underpowered final analysis. To avoid this challenging situation, when there is insufficient prior evidence to support predicted recruitment rates, funders now require feasibility assessments to be performed in the early stages of trials. Progression criteria are usually specified and agreed with the funder ahead of time. To date, however, the progression rules used are typically ad hoc. In addition, rules routinely permit adaptations to recruitment strategies but do not stipulate criteria for evaluating their effectiveness. In this paper, we develop a framework for planning and designing internal pilot studies which permit a trial to be stopped early if recruitment is disappointing or to continue to full recruitment if enrolment during the feasibility phase is adequate. This framework enables a progression rule to be pre-specified and agreed upon prior to starting a trial. The novel two-stage designs stipulate that if neither of these situations arises, adaptations to recruitment should be made and subsequently evaluated to establish whether they have been successful. We derive optimal progression rules for internal pilot studies which minimise the expected trial overrun and maintain a high probability of completing the study when the recruitment rate is adequate. The advantages of this procedure are illustrated using a real trial example.

  13. Comparison of the prevalence of Salmonella infection in layer hens from commercial layer farms with high and low rodent densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapuz, Randy Rhon Simoun P; Umali, Dennis V; Suzuki, Terumasa; Shirota, Kazutoshi; Katoh, Hiromitsu

    2012-03-01

    A comparison on the prevalence of Salmonella infection in layer hens from commercial layer farms with high and low rodent densities was investigated. Out of 280 laying hens sampled from three commercial layer farms with high rodent densities, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) was isolated from 20 (7.14%) hens and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis (Salmonella Infantis) from three (1.07%) hens. In contrast, layer hens sampled from four commercial layer farms with low rodent densities were negative for any salmonellae. Significant differences (P Salmonella from various organs of infected layer hens were also noted. For Salmonella Enteritidis, liver (55.0%) and the oviduct (55.0%) had the highest isolation rates while all Salmonella Infantis isolates were from the oviduct. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of BlnI-digested chromosomal DNA of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from layer hens and rodents showed similar patterns. PFGE analysis of Salmonella Infantis isolated from layer hens, rodents, eggs, and the environment yielded identical patterns. In this study, the significantly higher prevalence rate (P Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Infantis in layer hens from high rodent density farms could be attributed to the high rodent population density. The persistent Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Infantis infection inside layer houses may have been amplified by the increasing numbers in the rodent population over the years, which increased the opportunity for environment-rodent-chicken interaction and the transmission of salmonellae to chickens. Monitoring of salmonellae from rodents inside poultry premises is recommended to be an effective additional tool in the assessment of the Salmonella status of layer flocks.

  14. Volcano Monitoring in Ecuador: Three Decades of Continuous Progress of the Instituto Geofisico - Escuela Politecnica Nacional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Yepes, H. A.; Hall, M. L.; Mothes, P. A.; Ramon, P.; Hidalgo, S.; Andrade, D.; Vallejo Vargas, S.; Steele, A. L.; Anzieta, J. C.; Ortiz, H. D.; Palacios, P.; Alvarado, A. P.; Enriquez, W.; Vasconez, F.; Vaca, M.; Arrais, S.; Viracucha, G.; Bernard, B.

    2014-12-01

    In 1988, the Instituto Geofisico (IG) began a permanent surveillance of Ecuadorian volcanoes, and due to activity on Guagua Pichincha, SP seismic stations and EDM control lines were then installed. Later, with the UNDRO and OAS projects, telemetered seismic monitoring was expanded to Tungurahua, Cotopaxi, Cuicocha, Chimborazo, Antisana, Cayambe, Cerro Negro, and Quilotoa volcanoes. In 1992 an agreement with the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion strengthened the monitoring of Tungurahua and Cotopaxi volcanoes with real-time SP seismic networks and EDM lines. Thus, background activity levels became established, which was helpful because of the onset of the 1999 eruptive activity at Tungurahua and Guagua Pichincha. These eruptions had a notable impact on Baños and Quito. Unrest at Cotopaxi volcano was detected in 2001-2002, but waned. In 2002 Reventador began its eruptive period which continues to the present and is closely monitored by the IG. In 2006 permanent seismic BB stations and infrasound sensors were installed at Tungurahua and Cotopaxi under a cooperative program supported by JICA, which allowed us to follow Tungurahua's climatic eruptions of 2006 and subsequent eruptions up to the present. Programs supported by the Ecuadorian Secretaria Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia and the Secretaria Nacional de Planificacion resulted in further expansion of the IG's monitoring infrastructure. Thermal and video imagery, SO2 emission monitoring, geochemical analyses, continuous GPS and tiltmeters, and micro-barometric surveillance have been incorporated. Sangay, Soche, Ninahuilca, Pululahua, and Fernandina, Cerro Azul, Sierra Negra, and Alcedo in the Galapagos Islands are now monitored in real-time. During this time, international cooperation with universities (Blaise Pascal & Nice-France, U. North Carolina, New Mexico Tech, Uppsala-Sweden, Nagoya, etc.), and research centers (USGS & UNAVCO-USA, IRD-France, NIED-Japan, SGC-Colombia, VAAC, MIROVA) has introduced

  15. The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contor, Craig R.; Harris, Robin; King, Marty [Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

    2009-06-10

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPMEP) is funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L.96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). The UBNPMEP is coordinated with two Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) research projects that also monitor and evaluate the success of the Umatilla Fisheries Restoration Plan. This project deals with the natural production component of the plan, and the ODFW projects evaluate hatchery operations (project No. 1990-005-00, Umatilla Hatchery M & E) and smolt outmigration (project No. 1989-024-01, Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River). Collectively these three projects monitor and evaluate natural and hatchery salmonid production in the Umatilla River Basin. The need for natural production monitoring has been identified in multiple planning documents including Wy-Kan-Ush-Mi Wa-Kish-Wit Volume I, 5b-13 (CRITFC 1996), the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 1990), the Umatilla Basin Annual Operation Plan, the Umatilla Subbasin Summary (CTUIR & ODFW 2001), the Subbasin Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 2004), and the Comprehensive Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 2006). Natural production monitoring and evaluation is also consistent with Section III, Basinwide Provisions, Strategy 9 of the 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, NPCC 2004). The Umatilla Basin M&E plan developed along with efforts to restore natural populations of spring and fall Chinook salmon, (Oncorhynchus tshawytsha), coho

  16. Research progress of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng WANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the high-power laser welding process, plasmas are induced by the evaporation of metal under laser radiation, which can affect the coupling of laser energy and the workpiece, and ultimately impact on the reliability of laser welding quality and process directly. The research of laser-induced plasma is a focus in high-power deep penetration welding field, which provides a promising research area for realizing the automation of welding process quality inspection. In recent years, the research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics is mainly in two aspects, namely the research of plasma signal detection and the research of laser welding process modeling. The laser-induced plasma in the laser welding is introduced, and the related research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics at home and abroad is analyzed. The current problems in the field are summarized, and the future development trend is put forward.

  17. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Summary of 1984 Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    at Clam Lake , Wisconsin ;1. lIT RESEARCH INSTITUTE vii IITRI E06549-18 12 ] LIST OF FIGURES Page 1. ELF Communications Facilities in Wisconsin and...Monitoring Program. The completed transmitter will consist of two facilities, one located in the Chequamegon National Forest near Clam Lake , Wisconsin...with taxon (e.g., > 5x for carabids, > 2x for Collembola ). Previous estimates of surface-active fauna must therefore be interpreted with caution

  18. 2006 progress report on acoustic and visual monitoring for cetaceans along the outer Washington Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Oleson, Erin M.; Hildebrand, John A.; Calambokidis, John; Schorr, Greg; Falcone, Erin

    2007-01-01

    An acoustic and visual monitoring effort for cetaceans was initiated within the boundaries of the proposed expansion area for the Quinault Underwater Tracking Range in July 2004. Acoustic data collection consisted of recordings at a site on the continental shelf to the west of Cape Elizabeth and another in deep water within Quinault Canyon. An analysis plan for acoustic data is included. Results for 32 visual surveys are presented as tables and charts for pinnipeds, dolphins, porpoises, an...

  19. An alpha-synuclein MRM assay with diagnostic potential for Parkinson's disease and monitoring disease progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Stewart, Tessandra [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Shi, Min [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Pottiez, Gwenael [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Dator, Romel [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Wu, Rui [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Department of Pathology, No. 3 Hospital of Beijing University, Beijing China; Aro, Patrick [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Schuster, Robert J. [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Ginghina, Carmen [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Pan, Catherine [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Gao, Yuqian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Qian, Weijun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zabetian, Cyrus P. [Parkinson' s Disease Research and Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle WA USA; Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle WA USA; Hu, Shu-Ching [Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle WA USA; Quinn, Joseph F. [Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Zhang, Jing [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Department of Pathology, Peking University Health Science Centre and Third Hospital, Beijing 100083 China

    2017-04-19

    Aim: The alpha-synuclein (α-syn) level in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as measured by immunoassays, is promising as a Parkinson’s disease (PD) biomarker. However, the levels of total α-syn are inconsistent among studies with large cohorts and different measurement platforms. Total α-syn level also does not correlate with disease severity or progression. Here, we developed a highly sensitive Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) method to measure absolute CSF α-syn peptide concentrations without prior enrichment or fractionation, aiming to discover new candidate biomarkers. Results: Six peptides covering 73% of protein sequence were reliably identified, and two were consistently quantified in cross-sectional and longitudinal cohorts. Absolute concentration of α-syn in human CSF was determined to be 2.1ng/mL. A unique α-syn peptide, TVEGAGSIAAATGFVK (81-96), displayed excellent correlation with previous immunoassay results in two independent PD cohorts (p < 0.001), correlated with disease severity, and its changes significantly tracked the disease progression longitudinally. Conclusions: An MRM assay to quantify human CSF α-syn was developed and optimized. Sixty clinical samples from cross-sectional and longitudinal PD cohorts were analyzed with this approach. Although further larger-scale validation is needed, the results suggest that α-syn peptide could serve as a promising biomarker in PD diagnosis and progression.

  20. Research progress of monitoring, forecasting, and prevention of rockburst in underground coal mining in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin ming Dou; Zonglong Mu; Zhenlei Li; Anye Cao; Siyuan Gong

    2014-01-01

    As one of the dynamic disasters of coal mines, rockburst seriously affects underground safe coal mining. Based on the laboratory test, field test, and theoretical analysis, this study proposed the principle of the rock burst induced by the combination of dynamic and static stresses and divided such rock burst into three types, including induced by primary dynamic stress, mainly induced by dynamic stress, and by dynamic stress in low critical stress state. The expressions of the static stress induced by coal mining and dynamic stress induced by mining tremors were obtained. Moreover, theories and technologies at home and abroad were summarized concerning the monitoring, forecasting, and preventing of rockburst. These mainly include the zoning and leveling forecasting method, electromagnetic radiation technology, elastic wave and seismic wave computed tomography technologies in aspect of rockburst monitoring, as well as the intensity weakening theory, the strong-soft-strong structure effect, the directional hydraulic fracturing technology, the roadway support system in regards of rockburst prevention. The prospect of rockburst development suggested that researches concerning the rockburst mechanism should be quantitatively developed around the roadway and coalface surrounding coal-rock mass. It should be focused on the rockburst mechanism and prevention technology of mining with over 1,000 km deep and mining in large tectonic zone. In addition, the monitoring and prevention of rockburst should be based on rockburst mechanism.

  1. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, January 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) from January 1994 through December 1994 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  2. Monitoring genetic and metabolic potential for in situ bioremediation: Mass spectrometry. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, M.V.; Hurst, G.B.; Britt, P.F.; McLuckey, S.A.; Doktycz, M.J.

    1997-09-01

    'A number of US Department of Energy (DOE) sites are contaminated with mixtures of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) such as carbon tetrachloride, chloroform,. perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene. At many of these sites, in situ microbial bioremediation is an attractive strategy for cleanup because it has the potential to degrade DNAPLs in situ without producing toxic byproducts. A rapid screening method to determine the broad range metabolic and genetic potential for contaminant degradation would greatly reduce the cost and time involved in assessment for in situ bioremediation as well as for monitoring ongoing bioremediation treatment. In this project, the ORNL Organic Mass Spectrometry (OMS) group is developing mass-spectrometry-based methods to screen for the genetic and metabolic potential for assessment and monitoring of in situ bioremediation of DNAPLs. In close collaboration, Professor Mary Lidstrom''s group at the University of Washington is identifying short DNA sequences related to microbial processes involved in the biodegradation of pollutants. This work will lay the foundation for development of a field-portable mass-spectrometry-based technique for rapid assessment and monitoring of bioremediation processes on site.'

  3. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  4. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-07-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  5. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-10-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  6. Multimodal imaging-monitored progression of stroke-like episodes in a case of MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namer, Izzie Jacques; Wolff, Valérie; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Marescaux, Christian

    2014-03-01

    We report imaging findings during, between, and after 2 stroke-like episodes in a 45-year-old woman with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome with an A32243G mitochondrial mutation 6 years before. In November 2010, for a first episode, she showed mixed aphasia with logorrhea, disinhibition, agitation, euphoria, and a large left temporoparietal lesion. Symptomatology progressively regressed under L-arginine treatment. She was readmitted in June 2011 for a second episode with great anxiety, disorientation, impaired face recognition, worsening mixed aphasia, and a new right temporal lesion. After additional L-carnitine treatment, she remained without relapse for 14 months.

  7. Meta-Immunological Profiling of Children With Type 1 Diabetes Identifies New Biomarkers to Monitor Disease Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Mario; Nugnes, Rosa; Bruzzese, Dario; Perna, Francesco; De Rosa, Veronica; Procaccini, Claudio; Mozzillo, Enza; Cilio, Corrado M.; Elding Larsson, Helena; Lernmark, Åke; La Cava, Antonio; Franzese, Adriana; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells in genetically susceptible individuals. Triggers of islet autoimmunity, time course, and the precise mechanisms responsible for the progressive β-cell failure are not completely understood. The recent escalation of obesity in affluent countries has been suggested to contribute to the increased incidence of type 1 diabetes. Understanding the link between metabolism and immune tolerance could lead to the identification of new markers for the monitoring of disease onset and progression. We studied several immune cell subsets and factors with high metabolic impact as markers associated with disease progression in high-risk subjects and type 1 diabetic patients at onset and at 12 and 24 months after diagnosis. A multiple correlation matrix among different parameters was evaluated statistically and assessed visually on two-dimensional graphs. Markers to predict residual β-cell function up to 1 year after diagnosis were identified in multivariate logistic regression models. The meta-immunological profile changed significantly over time in patients, and a specific signature that was associated with worsening disease was identified. A multivariate logistic regression model measuring age, BMI, fasting C-peptide, number of circulating CD3+CD16+CD56+ cells, and the percentage of CD1c+CD19−CD14−CD303− type 1 myeloid dendritic cells at disease onset had a significant predictive value. The identification of a specific meta-immunological profile associated with disease status may contribute to our understanding of the basis of diabetes progression. PMID:23396400

  8. Meta-immunological profiling of children with type 1 diabetes identifies new biomarkers to monitor disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Mario; Nugnes, Rosa; Bruzzese, Dario; Perna, Francesco; De Rosa, Veronica; Procaccini, Claudio; Mozzillo, Enza; Cilio, Corrado M; Elding Larsson, Helena; Lernmark, Ake; La Cava, Antonio; Franzese, Adriana; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2013-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells in genetically susceptible individuals. Triggers of islet autoimmunity, time course, and the precise mechanisms responsible for the progressive β-cell failure are not completely understood. The recent escalation of obesity in affluent countries has been suggested to contribute to the increased incidence of type 1 diabetes. Understanding the link between metabolism and immune tolerance could lead to the identification of new markers for the monitoring of disease onset and progression. We studied several immune cell subsets and factors with high metabolic impact as markers associated with disease progression in high-risk subjects and type 1 diabetic patients at onset and at 12 and 24 months after diagnosis. A multiple correlation matrix among different parameters was evaluated statistically and assessed visually on two-dimensional graphs. Markers to predict residual β-cell function up to 1 year after diagnosis were identified in multivariate logistic regression models. The meta-immunological profile changed significantly over time in patients, and a specific signature that was associated with worsening disease was identified. A multivariate logistic regression model measuring age, BMI, fasting C-peptide, number of circulating CD3(+)CD16(+)CD56(+) cells, and the percentage of CD1c(+)CD19(-)CD14(-)CD303(-) type 1 myeloid dendritic cells at disease onset had a significant predictive value. The identification of a specific meta-immunological profile associated with disease status may contribute to our understanding of the basis of diabetes progression.

  9. Geodesic distance on a Grassmannian for monitoring the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Liangyan; Tang, Xiaoying; Moura, José M F

    2017-02-01

    We propose a geodesic distance on a Grassmannian manifold that can be used to quantify the shape progression patterns of the bilateral hippocampi, amygdalas, and lateral ventricles in healthy control (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 754 subjects (3092 scans in total) were used in this study. Longitudinally, the geodesic distance was found to be proportional to the elapsed time separating the two scans in question. Cross-sectionally, utilizing a linear mixed-effects statistical model, we found that each structure's annualized rate of change in the geodesic distance followed the order of AD>MCI>HC, with statistical significance being reached in every case. In addition, for each of the six structures of interest, within the same time interval (e.g., from baseline to the 6th month), we observed significant correlations between the geodesic distance and the cognitive deterioration as quantified by the ADAS-cog increase and the MMSE decrease. Furthermore, as the disease progresses over time, this linkage between the inter-shape geodesic distance and the cognitive decline becomes considerably stronger and more significant.

  10. InPRO: Automated Indoor Construction Progress Monitoring Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamledari, Hesam

    In this research, an envisioned automated intelligent robotic solution for automated indoor data collection and inspection that employs a series of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), entitled "InPRO", is presented. InPRO consists of four stages, namely: 1) automated path planning; 2) autonomous UAV-based indoor inspection; 3) automated computer vision-based assessment of progress; and, 4) automated updating of 4D building information models (BIM). The works presented in this thesis address the third stage of InPRO. A series of computer vision-based methods that automate the assessment of construction progress using images captured at indoor sites are introduced. The proposed methods employ computer vision and machine learning techniques to detect the components of under-construction indoor partitions. In particular, framing (studs), insulation, electrical outlets, and different states of drywall sheets (installing, plastering, and painting) are automatically detected using digital images. High accuracy rates, real-time performance, and operation without a priori information are indicators of the methods' promising performance.

  11. Monitoring progression in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA): the use of clinical scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürk, Katrin; Schulz, Stefanie R; Schulz, Jörg B

    2013-08-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with ataxia, dysarthria, pyramidal tract signs, sensory loss, cardiomyopathy and diabetes. There is no cure for FRDA so far. Studies of the natural history of the disease and future therapeutic trials require development of appropriate outcome markers. Since any therapeutic benefit is expected to modulate deterioration over time rather than to reverse disability, potential outcome measures must be sensitive instruments carefully analysed for their significance. Clinical scales may represent an appropriate measuring tool. Over the last few years the construction, evaluation and validation of sensitive clinical scales for the assessment of disease severity and progression in ataxia have had considerable impact on our understanding of the disease. Currently, there are three different scales that are most frequently applied: The International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), the Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale (FARS) and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). All scales have been validated and compared with regard to their testing properties.

  12. A CORE approach to progress monitoring and feedback: Enhancing evidence and improving practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkham, Michael; Mellor-Clark, John; Stiles, William B

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE) System and reports on its scientific yield and practice impact. First, we describe the suite of CORE measures, including the centerpiece CORE-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), its short forms, special purpose forms, translations, and psychometric properties, along with the pretreatment CORE Therapy Assessment Form and the CORE End of Therapy Form. Second, we provide an overview of the scientific yield arising from analyses of large CORE data sets collected in routine practice. Third, we describe the use of CORE measures for feedback in practice settings. Finally, we consider future directions for monitoring and feedback in research and practice.

  13. MALDI-TOF-MS鉴定2008年辽宁省食源性疾病监测系统检出的沙门菌的初步研究%Discrimination of Salmonella isolated from the foodborne disease monitoring system of Liaoning province in 2008 by MALDI-TOF-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕佳; 卢行安; 刘淑艳; 蒋丹; 宋惠君; 侯君; 胡英

    2011-01-01

    目的 应用MALDI-TOF-MS技术对2008年辽宁省食源性疾病监测检出的24株沙门菌和2株沙门菌标准菌株进行鉴定,并对其中4种血清型的16株沙门菌进行种水平的鉴定.通过MALDI-TOF-MS的相关性分析,研究MALDI-TOF-MS与血清分型结果的相关性及MALDI-TOF-MS对实验的沙门菌的分型能力.方法 考察并确定既适合菌株生长又适宜MALDI-TOF-MS分析的沙门菌培养基后,应用MALDI-TOF-MS的相关软件对沙门菌进行数据采集和图谱比对,所得鉴定结果与血清分型结果进行比较.对属于4个种的4株沙门菌的蛋白峰信息进行比较分析.通过生化鉴定及MALDI-TOF-MS的聚类分析及主成分分析讨论4株肠炎沙门菌同源关系.结果 MALDI-TOF-MS技术分别在属和种的水平上准确鉴定了沙门菌株,并且在种的鉴定水平上与血清分型结果具有极大相关性.MALDI-TOF-MS区分了属于4个种的4株沙门菌的蛋白峰之间的微小差异.而且,对相同血清型的4株肠炎沙门菌的聚类分析及主成分分析显示出其同源程度的差异.结论 MALDI-TOF-MS技术在属水平上鉴定沙门菌具有很高的准确性,在种水平上的鉴定也有着很好的应用前景.MALDI-TOF-MS技术可能为沙门菌分型溯源提供一种新的手段.%Objective A rapid method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the identification of intact bacterial cells was used for the discrimination of Salmonella strains at genus and species level.The aim of this study was to discuss the relationship of the result from MALDI-TOF-MS analysis and serotyping, and the typing ability of MALDI-TOF-MS to Salmonella strains through relative soft wares.Methods Twenty-four Salmonella strains isolated from the Foodborne Disease Monitoring System of Liaoning Province in 2008 and 2 standard strains purchased from ATCC were used in the study.Sixteen Salmonella strains belonging to four

  14. Progress in Gamma Ray Measurement Information Barriers for Nuclear Material Transparency Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolford, J.K.; White, G.K.

    2000-07-03

    Negotiations between technical representatives of the US and the Russian Federation in support of several pending nuclear arms and nuclear material control agreements must take account of the need for assurances against the release of sensitive information. Most of these agreements involve storing nuclear material and in some cases nuclear components from stockpile weapons in specially designed containers. Strategies for monitoring the agreements typically include measuring neutron and gamma radiation from the controlled items to verify declared attributes of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. If accurate enough to be useful, these measurements will contain information about the design of the component being monitored, information considered sensitive by one or both parties to the agreement. Safeguards have evolved to prevent disclosure of this information during inspections. These measures combine hardware, software, and procedural measures to contain the sensitive data, presenting only the results needed for verification. Custom features preserve data security and guard against disclosure in case of failure. This paper summarizes the general problem and discusses currently developing solutions for a high resolution gamma ray detection system. It argues for the simplest possible implementation of several key system components.

  15. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the

  16. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the

  17. Monitoring the progressive increase of the longest episode of spontaneous movements in Guinea pig fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the changes in the duration of spontaneous movements in the guinea pig fetus after the appearance of its first movements. Every day from the 25th to the 35th gestation day, one fetus from each of twenty pregnant animals was examined by ultrasound. Fetal movements were observed for 5 min. The episode with the longest period of movement was taken into consideration and was recorded as: 3 s. Days 25 and 26 were characterized by episodes lasting 3 s (χ2 = 140.51 p <0.05. Tracking the dynamics of progressive increases in the longest episode of spontaneous movement could be a useful factor in estimating the maturity and condition of a fetus. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175006/2011

  18. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) Systems, Final Rule" in 1996. This rule sets Salmonella ... to reduce bacteria by means of the PR/HACCP system. [ Top of Page ] Q. How can consumers prevent ...

  19. Salmonella Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Human Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Bearded Dragons Advice to Pet Owners Case Count Maps Epi ... Entrée Typhi (Typhoid Fever) Associated with Frozen Mamey Fruit Pulp Hartford and Baildon Infections Associated with Restaurant ...

  20. The Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project : Progress Report, 1999-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contor, Craig R.; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-06-02

    The Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME) was funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) under the Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME). Chapter One provides an overview of the entire report and how the objectives of each statement of work from 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 contract years are organized and reported. Chapter One also provides background information relevant to the aquatic resources of the Walla Walla River Basin. Objectives are outlined below for the statements of work for the 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002 contract years. The same objectives were sometimes given different numbers in different years. Because this document is a synthesis of four years of reporting, we gave objectives letter designations and listed the objective number associated with the statement of work for each year. Some objectives were in all four work statements, while other objectives were in only one or two work statements. Each objective is discussed in a chapter. The chapter that reports activities and findings of each objective are listed with the objective below. Because data is often interrelated, aspects of some findings may be reported or discussed in more than one chapter. Specifics related to tasks, approaches, methods, results and discussion are addressed in the individual chapters.

  1. A biodiversity indicators dashboard: addressing challenges to monitoring progress towards the Aichi biodiversity targets using disaggregated global data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Han

    Full Text Available Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's "Aichi Targets". These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity "dashboard"--a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate, state of species (Red List Index, conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas, and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision. Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the

  2. A biodiversity indicators dashboard: addressing challenges to monitoring progress towards the Aichi biodiversity targets using disaggregated global data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuemei; Smyth, Regan L; Young, Bruce E; Brooks, Thomas M; Sánchez de Lozada, Alexandra; Bubb, Philip; Butchart, Stuart H M; Larsen, Frank W; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matthew C; Turner, Will R

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the imperiled status of biodiversity and its benefit to human well-being, the world's governments committed in 2010 to take effective and urgent action to halt biodiversity loss through the Convention on Biological Diversity's "Aichi Targets". These targets, and many conservation programs, require monitoring to assess progress toward specific goals. However, comprehensive and easily understood information on biodiversity trends at appropriate spatial scales is often not available to the policy makers, managers, and scientists who require it. We surveyed conservation stakeholders in three geographically diverse regions of critical biodiversity concern (the Tropical Andes, the African Great Lakes, and the Greater Mekong) and found high demand for biodiversity indicator information but uneven availability. To begin to address this need, we present a biodiversity "dashboard"--a visualization of biodiversity indicators designed to enable tracking of biodiversity and conservation performance data in a clear, user-friendly format. This builds on previous, more conceptual, indicator work to create an operationalized online interface communicating multiple indicators at multiple spatial scales. We structured this dashboard around the Pressure-State-Response-Benefit framework, selecting four indicators to measure pressure on biodiversity (deforestation rate), state of species (Red List Index), conservation response (protection of key biodiversity areas), and benefits to human populations (freshwater provision). Disaggregating global data, we present dashboard maps and graphics for the three regions surveyed and their component countries. These visualizations provide charts showing regional and national trends and lay the foundation for a web-enabled, interactive biodiversity indicators dashboard. This new tool can help track progress toward the Aichi Targets, support national monitoring and reporting, and inform outcome-based policy-making for the protection of

  3. Muscle-Derived Proteins as Serum Biomarkers for Monitoring Disease Progression in Three Forms of Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Peter M.; Pogoryelova, Oksana; Goldstein, Richard; Bennett, Donald; Guglieri, Michela; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Lochmüller, Hanns; Morris, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Identifying translatable, non-invasive biomarkers of muscular dystrophy that better reflect the disease pathology than those currently available would aid the development of new therapies, the monitoring of disease progression and the response to therapy. Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate a panel of serum protein biomarkers with the potential to specifically detect skeletal muscle injury. Method: Serum concentrations of skeletal troponin I (sTnI), myosin light chain 3 (Myl3), fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) and muscle-type creatine kinase (CKM) proteins were measured in 74 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), 38 Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) and 49 Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) patients and 32 healthy controls. Results: All four proteins were significantly elevated in the serum of these three muscular dystrophy patient populations when compared to healthy controls, but, interestingly, displayed different profiles depending on the type of muscular dystrophy. Additionally, the effects of patient age, ambulatory status, cardiac function and treatment status on the serum concentrations of the proteins were investigated. Statistical analysis revealed correlations between the serum concentrations and certain clinical endpoints including forced vital capacity in DMD patients and the time to walk ten meters in LGMD2B patients. Serum concentrations of these proteins were also elevated in two preclinical models of muscular dystrophy, the mdx mouse and the golden-retriever muscular dystrophy dog. Conclusions: These proteins, therefore, are potential muscular dystrophy biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and therapeutic response in both preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26870665

  4. The Role of Sarcosine, Uracil, and Kynurenic Acid Metabolism in Urine for Diagnosis and Progression Monitoring of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsos, Georgios; Virgiliou, Christina; Lagoudaki, Ioanna; Sardeli, Chrysanthi; Raikos, Nikolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios; Dimitriadis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate sarcosine, uracil, and kynurenic acid in urine as potential biomarkers in prostate cancer detection and progression monitoring. Sarcosine, uracil, and kynurenic acid were measured in urine samples of 32 prostate cancer patients prior to radical prostatectomy, 101 patients with increased prostate-specific antigen prior to ultrasonographically-guided prostatic biopsy collected before and after prostatic massage, and 15 healthy volunteers (controls). The results were related to histopathologic data, Gleason score, and PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen). Metabolites were measured after analysis of urine samples with Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) instrumentation. Multivariate, nonparametric statistical tests including receiver operating characteristics analyses, one-way analysis of variance (Kruskal–Wallis test), parametric statistical analysis, and Pearson correlation, were performed to evaluate diagnostic performance. Decreased median sarcosine and kynurenic acid and increased uracil concentrations were observed for patients with prostate cancer compared to participants without malignancy. Results showed that there was no correlation between the concentration of the studied metabolites and the cancer grade (Gleason score <7 vs. ≥7) and the age of the patients. Evaluation of biomarkers by ROC (Receiving Operating Characteristics) curve analysis showed that differentiation of prostate cancer patients from participants without malignancy was not enhanced by sarcosine or uracil levels in urine. In contrast to total PSA values, kynurenic acid was found a promising biomarker for the detection of prostate cancer particularly in cases where collection of urine samples was performed after prostatic massage. Sarcosine and uracil in urine samples of patients with prostate cancer were not found as significant biomarkers for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. None of the

  5. The Role of Sarcosine, Uracil, and Kynurenic Acid Metabolism in Urine for Diagnosis and Progression Monitoring of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gkotsos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate sarcosine, uracil, and kynurenic acid in urine as potential biomarkers in prostate cancer detection and progression monitoring. Sarcosine, uracil, and kynurenic acid were measured in urine samples of 32 prostate cancer patients prior to radical prostatectomy, 101 patients with increased prostate-specific antigen prior to ultrasonographically-guided prostatic biopsy collected before and after prostatic massage, and 15 healthy volunteers (controls. The results were related to histopathologic data, Gleason score, and PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen. Metabolites were measured after analysis of urine samples with Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS instrumentation. Multivariate, nonparametric statistical tests including receiver operating characteristics analyses, one-way analysis of variance (Kruskal–Wallis test, parametric statistical analysis, and Pearson correlation, were performed to evaluate diagnostic performance. Decreased median sarcosine and kynurenic acid and increased uracil concentrations were observed for patients with prostate cancer compared to participants without malignancy. Results showed that there was no correlation between the concentration of the studied metabolites and the cancer grade (Gleason score <7 vs. ≥7 and the age of the patients. Evaluation of biomarkers by ROC (Receiving Operating Characteristics curve analysis showed that differentiation of prostate cancer patients from participants without malignancy was not enhanced by sarcosine or uracil levels in urine. In contrast to total PSA values, kynurenic acid was found a promising biomarker for the detection of prostate cancer particularly in cases where collection of urine samples was performed after prostatic massage. Sarcosine and uracil in urine samples of patients with prostate cancer were not found as significant biomarkers for the diagnosis of prostate cancer

  6. Salmonella sp. bacteriology monitoring in laying hens at different growing and laying periods from poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza Monitoramento bacteriológico para Salmonella sp. em poedeira comercial em diferentes fases de recria e produção de empresas avícolas da Região Metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuella Evangelista da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This work aimed to verify Salmonella occurrence in laying hen flocks from eight poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza city. Swab collections were performed in transport boxes of day-old-chicks, totaling 40 feces samples (5 samples/flock, which presented no Salmonella contamination. Bacterial analyses from a pool of feces were performed in the same flocks at 10, 20, 30 and 40 weeks of age. Salmonella enterica rough strain and Salmonella Newport were found in two flocks at 20 and 40 weeks of age, respectively. These results suggest that the birds were infected with Salmonella after their arrival in the poultry farms. It was verified that 25% of the poultry farms presented positive feces samples for Salmonella contamination, indicating the need for a more efficacious preventive program in the poultry farms for egg production. This work suggests that day old birds were of Salmonella contamination which indicates no vertical Salmonella transmission, however the rearing phase present failures regarding bacterial control.

     

    KEY WORDS: Bacteriology, chickens, eggs, feces, Salmonella.

    O presente trabalho objetivou investigar a presença de Salmonella em lotes de poedeiras comerciais de oito empresas da região metropolitana de Fortaleza,CE, Brasil. Realizaram-se suabes em cinco caixas de transporte por lote das oito empresas analisadas, totalizando quarenta amostras de mecônio, sendo todas negativas para Salmonella. Os mesmos lotes (oito foram monitorados na décima, vigésima, trigésima e quadragésima semanas de idade com exame bacteriológico de pool de cem fezes frescas. Foram isoladas Salmonella enterica subsepécie enterica cepa rugosa e Salmonella Newport das amostras de fezes nas empresas 2 e 6 na

  7. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry.

  8. Digital stereo-optic disc image analyzer for monitoring progression of glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Enrique; Mitra, Sunanda; Wilson, Mark P.; Soliz, Peter

    2002-05-01

    This paper describes an automated 3-D surface recovery algorithm for consistent and quantitative evaluation of the deformation in the ONH (optic nerve head). Additional measures, such as the changes in the volume of the cup and the disc as an improvement to the traditional cup to disc ratios, can thus be developed for longitudinal follow-up study of a patient. We propose an automated computerized technique for stereo pair registration and surface visualization of the ONH. Power cepstrum and zero mean cross correlation are embedded in the registration and a 3-D surface recovery technique is proposed. Preprocessing, as well as an overall registration, is performed upon stereo pairs. Then a coarse to fine feature matching strategy is used to reduce the ambiguity in finding the conjugate pair of the same point within the constraints of the epipolar plane. A cubic B-spline interpolation smooths the representation of the ONH obtained, while superimposition of features such as blood vessels is added. Studies show high correlation between traditional cup/disc measures derived from manual segmentation by ophthalmologists and computer generated cup/disc volume ratio. Such longitudinal studies over a large population of glaucoma patients are currently in progress for validation of the surface recovery algorithm.

  9. Biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring of progression, and treatment responses in ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    With the growing awareness of the impact of chronic back pain and axial spondyloarthritis and recent breakthroughs in genetics and the development of novel treatments which may impact best on early disease, the need for markers that can facilitate early diagnosis and profiling those individuals at the highest risk for a bad outcome has never been greater. The genetic basis of ankylosing spondylitis has been considerably advanced, and HLA-B27 testing has a role in the diagnosis. Knowledge is still incomplete of the rest of the genetic contribution to disease susceptibility, and it is likely premature to use extensive genetic testing (other than HLA-B27) for diagnosis. Serum and plasma biomarkers have been examined extensively in assessing disease activity, treatment response, and as predictors or radiographic severity. For assessing disease activity, other than C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the most work has been in examining cytokines (particularly interleukin 17 and 23), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) markers (particularly MMP3). For assessing those at the highest risk for radiographic progression, biomarkers of bony metabolism, cartilage and connective tissue degradation products, and adipokines have been most extensively assessed. The problem is that no individual biomarkers has been reproducibly shown to assess disease activity or predict outcome, and this area still remains an unmet need, of relevance to industry stakeholders, to regulatory bodies, to the healthcare system, to academic investigators, and finally to patients and providers. PMID:25939520

  10. Biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring of progression, and treatment responses in ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveille, John D

    2015-06-01

    With the growing awareness of the impact of chronic back pain and axial spondyloarthritis and recent breakthroughs in genetics and the development of novel treatments which may impact best on early disease, the need for markers that can facilitate early diagnosis and profiling those individuals at the highest risk for a bad outcome has never been greater. The genetic basis of ankylosing spondylitis has been considerably advanced, and HLA-B27 testing has a role in the diagnosis. Knowledge is still incomplete of the rest of the genetic contribution to disease susceptibility, and it is likely premature to use extensive genetic testing (other than HLA-B27) for diagnosis. Serum and plasma biomarkers have been examined extensively in assessing disease activity, treatment response, and as predictors or radiographic severity. For assessing disease activity, other than C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, the most work has been in examining cytokines (particularly interleukin 17 and 23), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) markers (particularly MMP3). For assessing those at the highest risk for radiographic progression, biomarkers of bony metabolism, cartilage and connective tissue degradation products, and adipokines have been most extensively assessed. The problem is that no individual biomarkers has been reproducibly shown to assess disease activity or predict outcome, and this area still remains an unmet need, of relevance to industry stakeholders, to regulatory bodies, to the healthcare system, to academic investigators, and finally to patients and providers.

  11. Monitoring genetic and metabolic potential for in situ bioremediation: Mass spectrometry. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, M.V.; Hurst, G.B.; Doktycz, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Weaver, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Lidstrom, M.; Costello, A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (US)

    1998-01-01

    'A number of DOE sites are contaminated with dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene. At many of these sites, microbial bioremediation is an attractive strategy for cleanup, since it has the potential to degrade DNAPLs in-situ. A rapid screening method to determine the broad range potential of a site''s microbial population for contaminant degradation would greatly facilitate assessment for in-situ bioremediation, as well as for monitoring ongoing bioremediation treatment. Current laboratory-based treatability methods are cumbersome and expensive. In this project, the authors are developing methods based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization mass-spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to rapidly and accurately detect polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. In parallel, PCR primers to amplify DNA sequences from microbial genes involved in biodegradation of pollutants are being identified that are short enough to allow MALDI-MS detection. This work will lay the foundation for development of a field-portable MS-based technique for rapid assessment and monitoring of bioremediation processes on site. This report summarizes work after 1-1/2 years of a 3-year project. In this time, the authors have demonstrated MALDI-MS-based detection of signature bacterial PCR products (Hurst et al., 1998). A model system for interfacing MALDI-MS with PCR amplification is based on the pmoA gene for the active site subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase, a bacterial enzyme that can oxidize trichloroethylene. PCR primer pairs were designed to amplify relatively short segments (99 bases and 56 bases) of this gene in Type 1 and Type 2 methanotrophs. A rapid reverse-phase purification of the resulting PCR products allows MALDI-MS detection from a fraction of one 25-microliter PCR reaction. At this level of sensitivity, MALDI-MS has considerable potential to compete with existing electrophoresis and hybridization methods

  12. Monitoring progression of clinical reasoning skills during health sciences education using the case method - a qualitative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Kristina; Ekelin, Maria; Edgren, Gudrun; Sandgren, Olof; Hovbrandt, Pia; Persson, Eva K

    2017-09-11

    Outcome- or competency-based education is well established in medical and health sciences education. Curricula are based on courses where students develop their competences and assessment is also usually course-based. Clinical reasoning is an important competence, and the aim of this study was to monitor and describe students' progression in professional clinical reasoning skills during health sciences education using observations of group discussions following the case method. In this qualitative study students from three different health education programmes were observed while discussing clinical cases in a modified Harvard case method session. A rubric with four dimensions - problem-solving process, disciplinary knowledge, character of discussion and communication - was used as an observational tool to identify clinical reasoning. A deductive content analysis was performed. The results revealed the students' transition over time from reasoning based strictly on theoretical knowledge to reasoning ability characterized by clinical considerations and experiences. Students who were approaching the end of their education immediately identified the most important problem and then focused on this in their discussion. Practice knowledge increased over time, which was seen as progression in the use of professional language, concepts, terms and the use of prior clinical experience. The character of the discussion evolved from theoretical considerations early in the education to clinical reasoning in later years. Communication within the groups was supportive and conducted with a professional tone. Our observations revealed progression in several aspects of students' clinical reasoning skills on a group level in their discussions of clinical cases. We suggest that the case method can be a useful tool in assessing quality in health sciences education.

  13. A Comparison of Imaging Techniques to Monitor Tumor Growth and Cancer Progression in Living Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Puaux

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Purpose. Monitoring solid tumor growth and metastasis in small animals is important for cancer research. Noninvasive techniques make longitudinal studies possible, require fewer animals, and have greater statistical power. Such techniques include FDG positron emission tomography (FDG-PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and optical imaging, comprising bioluminescence imaging (BLI and fluorescence imaging (FLI. This study compared the performance and usability of these methods in the context of mouse tumor studies. Methods. B16 tumor-bearing mice (n=4 for each study were used to compare practicality, performance for small tumor detection and tumor burden measurement. Using RETAAD mice, which develop spontaneous melanomas, we examined the performance of MRI (n=6 mice and FDG-PET (n=10 mice for tumor identification. Results. Overall, BLI and FLI were the most practical techniques tested. Both BLI and FDG-PET identified small nonpalpable tumors, whereas MRI and FLI only detected macroscopic, clinically evident tumors. FDG-PET and MRI performed well in the identification of tumors in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value. Conclusion. Each of the four methods has different strengths that must be understood before selecting them for use.

  14. Targeting access to reproductive health: giving contraception more prominence and using indicators to monitor progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Stan; Edouard, Lindsay

    2007-05-01

    Unmet need for contraception represents a major failure in the provision of reproductive health services and reflects the extent of access to services for spacing and limiting births, which are also affected by personal, partner, community and health system factors. In the context of the Millennium Development Goals, family planning has been given insufficient attention compared to maternal health and the control of sexually transmitted infections. As this omission is being redressed, efforts should be directed towards ensuring that an indicator of unmet need is used as a measure of access to services. The availability of data on unmet need must also be increased to enable national comparisons and facilitate resource mobilisation. Unmet need is a vital component in monitoring the proportion of women able to space and limit births. Unmet need for contraception is a measure conditioned by people's preferences and choices and therefore firmly introduces a rights perspective into development discourse and serves as an important instrument to improve the sensitivity of policy dialogue. The new reproductive health target and the opportunity it offers to give appropriate attention to unmet need for contraception will allow the entry of other considerations vital to ensuring universal access to reproductive health.

  15. Dworshak Reservoir Kokanee Population Monitoring: Project Progress Report, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiolie, Melo; Vidergar, Dmitri T.; Harryman, Bill

    2001-08-01

    We used split-beam hydroacoustics and trawling to monitor the kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka population in Dworshak Reservoir during 1999. Estimated abundance of kokanee has continued to increase since the high entrainment losses in the spring of 1996. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 1,545,000 kokanee and rainbow trout O. mykiss in Dworshak Reservoir during July 1999. This included 1,144,000 age-0 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 42%), 212,000 age-1 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15%), and 189,000 age-2 kokanee and stocked rainbow trout (90% CI {+-} 39%). Rainbow trout could not be distinguished from the age-2 kokanee in the echograms since they were of similar size. Age-0 kokanee ranged in length from 40 mm to 90 mm, age-1 from 193 mm to 212 mm, and age-2 kokanee from 219 mm to 336 mm. These sizes indicated kokanee are still growing well. Discharge of water from Dworshak Dam during 1999 did not stop the expansion of the kokanee population based on these results. Counts of spawning kokanee in four tributary streams exceeded 11,000 fish. This index also showed a marked increase from last year's 660 spawning kokanee or the 1997 total of 144 spawning kokanee.

  16. Barriers to adoption of measures to control salmonella in pigs in the UK: A stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Frewer, L.J.; Marier, E.; Armstrong, D.; Cook, A.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella infection in pigs may enter the pork chain and thus contribute to human salmonellosis. In 2002 the British Pig Executive (BPEX) launched the Zoonosis Action Plan (ZAP). ZAP is a monitoring scheme based on detecting antibodies to salmonella infection in meat juice sampled from pigs after s

  17. Salmonella typhi sternal wound infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfeir, Maroun; Youssef, Pierre; Mokhbat, Jacques E

    2013-12-01

    Samonella typhi usually causes gastrointestinal infections. Few reports in the literature described skin and soft tissue infections related to Salmonella species, especially in immunocompetent patients. Our case exhibited sternal abscess growing Salmonella typhi.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic nontyphoidal Salmonella: an alarming trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G B; Schwarz, S

    2016-12-01

    Zoonotic bacteria of the genus Salmonella have acquired various antimicrobial resistance properties over the years. The corresponding resistance genes are commonly located on plasmids, transposons, gene cassettes, or variants of the Salmonella Genomic Islands SGI1 and SGI2. Human infections by nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates mainly result from ingestion of contaminated food. The two predominantly found Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars in the USA and in Europe are S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. Many other nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars have been implicated in foodborne Salmonella outbreaks. Summary reports of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates over time suggest a moderate to low level of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug-resistance. However, serovar-specific analyses showed in part a steady state, a continuous decline, or a recent increase in resistance to certain antimicrobial agents. Resistance to critically important antimicrobial agents, e.g. third-generation cephalosporins and (fluoro)quinolones is part of many monitoring programmes and the corresponding results confirm that extended-spectrum β-lactamases are still rarely found in nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars, whereas resistance to (fluoro)quinolones is prevalent at variable frequencies among different serovars from humans and animals in different countries. Although it is likely that nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates from animals represent a reservoir for resistance determinants, it is mostly unknown where and when Salmonella isolates acquired resistance properties and which exchange processes have happened since then. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Progress in Attenuated Salmonella Vaccines and Vaccine Carrier%减毒沙门氏菌在疫苗和疫苗载体方面的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正; 程相朝

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella can not only be used as vaccines but also an ideal vaccine vector, it has been a wide range of medical and veterinary importance. Salmonella can be made by means of mucosal immune (oral or nasal), easy operation and little irritation of the vaccination. In addition. Salmonella is an invasion of intracellular, effectively presenting antigens to stimulate ami-Salmonella and induce foreign protein specific humoral immune response and cellular immune response, and can also induce mucosal immunity and systemic immunity. As new vaccines to provide a reference, this review mechanism of Salmonella invasion, the immune mechanism and its application status in vaccine.%沙门氏菌不仅可以用作疫苗,也是理想的疫苗载体,已受到医学与兽医学的广泛重视.沙门氏菌可以经黏膜途径免疫(口服或鼻内),操作方便,对接种对象刺激小;此外,沙门氏菌为胞内侵袭细菌,能有效递呈抗原,激发抗沙门氏菌和诱导外源蛋白的特异性体液免疫反应与细胞免疫反应,并能同时诱导黏膜免疫与全身免疫.文章对沙门氏菌的入侵机制、免疫机理及其在疫苗中的应用状况进行了综述,为新型疫苗的研究提供参考.

  20. Application of Circulating Tumor DNA as a Non-Invasive Tool for Monitoring the Progression of Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaolin Zhou

    Full Text Available Liquid biopsy has been proposed to be a promising noninvasive tool to obtain information on tumor progression. Through a clinical observation of a case series of 6 consecutive patients, we aim to determine the value of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA for monitoring the tumor burden during the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC.We used capture sequencing of 545 genes to identify somatic alternations in primary tumor tissues of the six CRC patients who underwent radical surgery and in 23 plasma samples collected at serial time points. We compared the mutation patterns and variant allele frequencies (VAFs between the matched tissue and the plasma samples and evaluated the potential advantage of using ctDNA as a better tumor load indicator to detect disease relapse over carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, cancer antigen (CA 19-9 and imaging studies.We identified low-frequency mutations with a mean VAF of 0.88% (corresponding to a mean tumor burden of 0.20ng/mL in the preoperative plasmas of four patients with locally advanced CRC and a subset of mutations shared by their primary tumors. The tumor loads appeared a sudden decrease upon surgery or other adjuvant treatments and then generally maintained at low levels (0.092ng/mL until disease recurred. ctDNA increased by 13-fold when disease relapsed in one patient while the CEA and CA 19-9 levels remained normal. In this patient, all six somatic mutations identified in the preoperative plasma were detected in the recrudescent plasma again, with five mutations showing allele fraction increase.We described a multi-time-point profile of ctDNA of CRC patients during the course of comprehensive treatment and observed a correlation of ctDNA level with the clinically evaluated tumor progression. This demonstrated a new strategy by analyzing the heterogeneous ctDNA to evaluate and monitor the tumor burden in the treatment and follow-up of CRC patients, with potentially better potency than conventional biomarkers.

  1. Salmonella enteritidis in Quail Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    ERDOĞRUL, Özlem Turgay

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella enteritidis was investigated in 123 liquid whole quail eggs. Salmonella strains were identified and sero-grouped by coagglutination test and slide agglutination test. Seven (5.69%) of 123 whole quail eggs were in group D1 and were sero-typed as Salmonella enteritidis. It was found that in phage-typing of Salmonella enteritidis, three of 7 strains were Salmonella enteritidis PT4 , two of them were PT1, one of them was PT7, and one of them was indefinite.

  2. Salmonella enteritidis in Quail Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    ERDOĞRUL, Özlem Turgay

    2002-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella enteritidis was investigated in 123 liquid whole quail eggs. Salmonella strains were identified and sero-grouped by coagglutination test and slide agglutination test. Seven (5.69%) of 123 whole quail eggs were in group D1 and were sero-typed as Salmonella enteritidis. It was found that in phage-typing of Salmonella enteritidis, three of 7 strains were Salmonella enteritidis PT4 , two of them were PT1, one of them was PT7, and one of them was indefinite.

  3. Monitoring Progress: How the 2012 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education Can Inform a National K-12 STEM Education Indicator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, William O.; Banilower, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    "Monitoring Progress Toward Successful K-12 STEM Education: A Nation Advancing?" (National Research Council, 2013) describes a set of 14 indicators for assessing and tracking the health of pre-college STEM education in the United States. This 2012 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education (NSSME), is the fifth in a series of…

  4. Curriculum-Based Measurement of Oral Reading: Standard Errors Associated with Progress Monitoring Outcomes from DIBELS, AIMSweb, and an Experimental Passage Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoin, Scott P.; Christ, Theodore J.

    2009-01-01

    There are relatively few studies that evaluate the quality of progress monitoring estimates derived from curriculum-based measurement of reading. Those studies that are published provide initial evidence for relatively large magnitudes of standard error relative to the expected magnitude of weekly growth. A major contributor to the observed…

  5. Monitoring Training Progress During Exercise Training in Cancer Survivors : A Submaximal Exercise Test as an Alternative for a Maximal Exercise Test?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; van Weert, Ellen; Korstjens, Irene; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Zonderland, Maria L.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Ros, Wynand J.

    May AM, van Weert E, Korstjens 1, Hoekstra-Weebers JE, van der Schans CP, Zonderland ML, Mesters 1, van den Borne B, Ros WJ. Monitoring training progress during exercise training in cancer survivors: a submaximal exercise test as an alternative for a maximal exercise test? Arch Phys Med Rehabil

  6. Teachers' Attitudes about Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading (CBM-R) for Universal Screening and Progress Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sarah Stebbe; Witmer, Sara; Cook, Elizabeth; daCruz, Katelin

    2014-01-01

    Universal screening and progress monitoring are two essential components of the response-to-intervention (RTI) framework. Within RTI models, teachers are commonly expected to collect, score, and use much of the associated student performance data. One measure that is commonly used within RTI models is Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading…

  7. Examining the Technical Adequacy of Second-Grade Reading Comprehension Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System. Technical Report # 08-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Julie; Liu, Kimy; Tindal, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This technical report describes the development of reading comprehension assessments designed for use as progress monitoring measures appropriate for 2nd Grade students. The creation, piloting, and technical adequacy of the measures are presented. The following are appended: (1) Item Specifications for MC [Multiple Choice] Comprehension - Passage…

  8. Cardiac acceleration at the onset of exercise: a potential parameter for monitoring progress during physical training in sports and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinga, Florentina J; Monden, Paul G; van Meeteren, Nico L U; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-05-01

    There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HRonset) can be used as a monitoring variable. The digital databases of Scopus and PubMed were searched to retrieve studies investigating HRonset. In total 652 studies were retrieved. These articles were then classified as having emphasis on HRonset in a sports or rehabilitation setting, which resulted in 8 of 112 studies with a sports application and 6 of 68 studies with a rehabilitation application that met inclusion criteria. Two co-existing mechanisms underlie HRonset: feedforward (central command) and feedback (mechanoreflex, metaboreflex, baroreflex) control. A number of studies investigated HRonset during the first few seconds of exercise (HRonsetshort), in which central command and the mechanoreflex determine vagal withdrawal, the major mechanism by which heart rate (HR) increases. In subsequent sports and rehabilitation studies, interest focused on HRonset during dynamic exercise over a longer period of time (HRonsetlong). Central command, mechanoreflexes, baroreflexes, and possibly metaboreflexes contribute to HRonset during the first seconds and minutes of exercise, which in turn leads to further vagal withdrawal and an increase in sympathetic activity. HRonset has been described as the increase in HR compared with resting state (delta HR) or by exponential modeling, with measurement intervals ranging from 0-4 s up to 2 min. Delta HR was used to evaluate HRonsetshort over the first 4 s of exercise, as well as for analyzing HRonsetlong. In exponential modeling, the HR response to dynamic exercise is biphasic, consisting of fast (parasympathetic, 0-10 s) and slow (sympathetic, 1-4 min) components. Although available studies differed largely in measurement protocols, cross-sectional and longitudinal training studies showed that studies analyzing HRonset

  9. Analysis of shigella and salmonella monitoring results in patients with acute diarrhea in Tianshan District of Urumqi City%乌鲁木齐天山区急性腹泻患者志贺菌、沙门菌监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宇平

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解乌鲁木齐天山区2013-2015年腹泻患者志贺菌、沙门菌感染情况和菌型分布。方法:对区内监测点医院就诊的急性腹泻患者采集标本,检测志贺菌、沙门菌,对阳性患者进一步进行流行病学调查。结果:2013-2015年共检测1363份标本,检出志贺菌、沙门菌共40株,阳性检出率2.93%,阳性率最高发生在6、7月份。结论:加强健康教育,养成良好的卫生习惯是预防腹泻,防止志贺菌、沙门菌感染的关键。%Objective:To explore the shigella and salmonella infection and bacterial distribution in patients with diarrhea in Tianshan District of Urumqi City from 2013 to 2015.Methods:Specimens of patients with acute diarrhea were collected at the monitoring point of the hospital,shigella and salmonella were detected.For positive patients,we further carried out epidemiological investigation.Results:From 2013 to 2015,a total of 1 363 samples were detected.40 samples had shigella and salmonella,and the positive detection rate was 2.93%.The highest positive rate was in June and July.Conclusion:To strengthen health education and to develop good health habits were the keys to prevent diarrhea and salmonella and shigella infection.

  10. Value of HBsAg level in dynamic monitoring of disease progression in patients with chronic HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAO Teng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical value of HBsAg level in dynamic monitoring of disease progression in patients with chronic HBV infection. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 1107 patients with different clinical stages of chronic HBV infection who had not received antiviral therapy at the time of hospitalization in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from May 2011 to December 2015, and according to the disease status, they were divided into HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB group, HBeAg-negative CHB group, compensated liver cirrhosis group (LC-C group, decompensated liver cirrhosis group (LC-D group, and primary liver cancer (PLC group. These groups were compared in terms of HBsAg expression and the association between HBsAg and clinical features. An analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t-test was used for further comparison between any two groups; the t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between these groups. Pearson correlation analysis was also performed. ResultsThere was a significant difference in serum HBsAg level between the HBeAg-positive CHB group, HBeAg-negative CHB group, LC-C group, LC-D group, and PLC group (F=100.45, P<0.001. The HBeAg-positive CHB group had significantly higher levels of HBsAg and HBV DNA than the HBeAg-negative CHB group (t= 16.67 an 16.22, both P<0.001. There were significant differences in HBsAg and HBV DNA levels between the HBeAg-positive CHB group, LC-C group, LC-D group, and PLC group (F= 42.92 and 27.38, both P<0.001, as well as between the HBeAg-negative CHB group, LC-C group, LC-D group, and PLC group (F=6.04 and 4.10, both P<0.05. HBV DNA level was significantly different across patients with different HBsAg levels (<1000 IU/ml, 1000-20 000 IU

  11. Whole Genome Epidemiological Typing of Salmonella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    . Technological advances and effective price in high throughput genome sequencing are making whole genome sequencing (WGS) available as a routine tool for bacterial typing. Typing of Salmonella, especially sub-typing within the same serotype or even the same clone, the genetic variation of the target genes being...... used for typing is crucial for successful discrimination. The core genes or the genes that are conserved in all members of a genus or species are potentially good candidates for investigating genomic variation in phylogeny and epidemiology. A total of 2,882 core genes have been observed among 73...... evolution and remain useful as candidate genes for bacterial genome typing-even if they cannot be expected to differentiate highly clonal isolates e.g. outbreak cases of Salmonella [I]. To achieve successful ‘real-time’ monitoring and identification of outbreaks, rapid and reliable sub-typing is essential...

  12. Geothermal Progress Monitor 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-12-01

    Some of the more interesting articles in this GPM are: DOE supporting research on problems at The Geysers; Long-term flow test of Hot Dry Rock system (at Fenton Hill, NM) to begin in Fiscal Year 1992; Significant milestones reached in prediction of behavior of injected fluids; Geopressured power generation experiment yields good results. A number of industry-oriented events and successes are reported, and in that regard it is noteworthy that this report comes near the end of the most active decade of geothermal power development in the U.S. There is a table of all operating U.S. geothermal power projects. The bibliography of research reports at the end of this GPM is useful. (DJE 2005)

  13. Multiplex PCR for the concurrent detection and differentiation of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, Chai Fung; Wong, Woan Chwen; Chai, Lay Ching; Lee, Hai Yen; Noorlis, Ahmad; Zainazor, Tuan Chilek Tuan; Tang, John Yew Huat; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohamad; Cheah, Yoke Kqueen; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2011-01-01

    Salmonellosis outbreaks involving typhoid fever and human gastroenteritis are important diseases in tropical countries where hygienic conditions are often not maintained. A rapid and sensitive method to detect Salmonella spp., Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium is needed to improve control and surveillance of typhoid fever and Salmonella gastroenteritis. Our objective was the concurrent detection and differentiation of these food-borne pathogens using a multiplex PCR. We therefore designed and optimized a multiplex PCR using three specific PCR primer pairs for the simultaneous detection of these pathogens. The concentration of each of the primer pairs, magnesium chloride concentration, and primer annealing temperature were optimized before verification of the specificity of the primer pairs. The target genes produced amplicons at 429 bp, 300 bp and 620 bp which were shown to be 100% specific to each target bacterium, Salmonella spp., Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium, respectively. PMID:22028607

  14. Monitoring NSL. Progress of the Dutch National Air Quality Cooperation Programme (NSL). State of affairs 2012; Monitoringsrapportage NSL. Stand van zaken 2012 Nationaal Samenwerkingsprogamma Luchtkwaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zanten, M.C.; Wesseling, J.; Mooibroek, D.; Van Alphen, A.; Nguyen, L. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Groot Wassink, H.; Verbeek, C. [InfoMil, Agentschap NL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    The National Air Quality Cooperation Programme (NSL) has been created to facilitate improvements in air quality in the Netherlands and to ensure that the Netherlands meets the respective deadlines set for compliance to EU limit values for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Local, regional and national authorities work together within the framework of this programme to ensure that these goals will be met. A monitoring programme has been put in place to monitor progress and, if necessary, to enable timely modifications to the programme. The annual results of the monitoring programme have been bundled together by the Monitoring Bureau (collaboration between RIVM and the InfoMil Knowledge Centre) into the 2012 progress report [Dutch] Om de luchtkwaliteit te verbeteren is het Nationaal Samenwerkingsprogramma Luchtkwaliteit (NSL) opgezet. Hierin werken de Rijksoverheid en decentrale overheden samen om te zorgen dat Nederland overal tijdig aan de grenswaarden voor fijn stof en stikstofdioxide zal voldoen. Om de voortgang van dit verbeterprogramma te volgen en tijdig eventuele extra maatregelen te kunnen nemen, is aan het NSL een monitoringsprogramma verbonden. De uitvoering van de monitoring is neergelegd bij Bureau Monitoring, een samenwerkingsverband tussen het RIVM en Kenniscentrum InfoMil.

  15. Salmonella from Baby Turtles

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-09

    Dr. Stacey Bosch, a veterinarian with CDC, discusses her article on Salmonella infections associated with baby turtles.  Created: 1/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/9/2017.

  16. Salmonella pseudomembranous colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew; McNeil, Candice; Abdelsayed, George; Chin-Lue, Roland; Kassis, Simon; Manthous, Constantine A

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis is most often associated with antibiotic use and caused most often by Clostridium difficile. Aclinical syndrome and pathology that is identical can be caused rarely by other organisms. We report a case of Salmonella enterica pseudomembranous colitis and briefly review the literature regarding rare causes of this syndrome.

  17. Salmonella burden in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, M; Bizri, A R; Ghosn, N; Berry, A; Musharrafieh, U

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a disease that represents a major public health concern in both developing and developed countries. The aim of this article is to evaluate the public health burden of Salmonella illness in Lebanon. The current scope of the Salmonella infection problem was assessed in relation to disease incidence and distribution with respect to age, gender and district. Factors that provide a better understanding of the magnitude of the problem were explored and highlighted. Data reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and 2013 was reviewed. Information obtained was compared to information reported regionally and globally. The estimated true incidence was derived using multipliers from the CDC and Jordan. A literature review of all published data from Lebanon about Salmonella susceptibility/resistance patterns and its serious clinical complications was conducted. The estimated incidence was 13·34 cases/100 000 individuals, most cases occurred in the 20-39 years age group with no significant gender variation. Poor and less developed districts of Lebanon had the highest number of cases and the peak incidence was in summer. Reflecting on the projected incidence derived from the use of multipliers indicates a major discrepancy between what is reported and what is estimated. We conclude that data about Salmonella infection in Lebanon and many Middle Eastern and developing countries lack crucial information and are not necessarily representative of the true incidence, prevalence and burden of illness.

  18. Foodborne Salmonella control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost all of the paratyphoid Salmonella spp. are normal flora bacteria of the intestines of chickens and turkeys. They cohabit together and have a very comfortable living arrangement, causing little or no harm to one another and seldom attracting much attention from the birds’ defense systems. Th...

  19. Cell lines and Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge R; Hendriks H; Garssen J; MGB; LPI

    2001-01-01

    Infectie met Salmonella kan gepaard gaan met de invasie van darmepitheelcellen. De aan de invasie voorafgaande aanhechting leidt reeds tot de transmigratie van witte bloedcellen (neutrofielen) vanuit de bloedbaan naar het epitheelweefsel. De migratie wordt gestimuleerd door de productie van chemok

  20. 巨噬细胞在沙门菌感染中作用的研究新进展%Current research progress on the role of macrophages in Salmonella infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贝贝; 吴淑燕; 黄瑞

    2012-01-01

    巨噬细胞是机体重要的免疫细胞.当沙门菌侵袭时可迅速作出反应,通过多种杀伤机制杀灭病原菌;同时分泌细胞因子和趋化因子调控免疫应答,并募集活化更多的巨噬细胞、中性粒细胞和淋巴细胞,发挥抗感染作用.此外,巨噬细胞在沙门菌侵袭过程中还具有特殊功能,作为兼性胞内菌的宿主细胞帮助其播散至全身,从而造成机体感染.本文就近年来巨噬细胞在沙门菌感染过程中的作用作一综述.%Macrophages can make quick responses to Salmonella invasion. Tt controls infection through secreting cytokines and chemokines, and recruiting more macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes. Tn addition, macrophages could also help Salmonella to disseminate in the body and cause infection. Tn this paper, the different roles of macrophages play during Salmonella infection are reviewed.

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin P. Kaaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n = 650 were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n = 71 were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isolated, S. Chester was the most commonly isolated serovar (19.7%, followed by S. Schwarzengrund at 12.7%. From the Salmonella isolates, 19.7% (n = 14 were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials (nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxa-zole, streptomycin and/or tetracycline, whereas 80.3% (n = 57 were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to sulfisoxazole and the trimethroprim-suflamethoxazole combination were the most common. The resistant isolates belonged to ten different Salmonella serovars. The susceptibility of most of the Salmonella isolated to the antimicrobials tested indicates that anti-microbial resistance is not as common and extensive in Namibia as has been reported in many other countries. It also appears that there is a range of antimicrobials available that are effective in managing Salmonella infections in Namibia. However, there is some evidence that resistance is developing and this will need further monitoring to ensure it does not become a problem.

  2. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    Vancauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  3. Robust Classification and Segmentation of Planar and Linear Features for Construction Site Progress Monitoring and Structural Dimension Compliance Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalek, R.; Lichti, D. D.; Ruwanpura, J.

    2015-08-01

    The application of terrestrial laser scanners (TLSs) on construction sites for automating construction progress monitoring and controlling structural dimension compliance is growing markedly. However, current research in construction management relies on the planned building information model (BIM) to assign the accumulated point clouds to their corresponding structural elements, which may not be reliable in cases where the dimensions of the as-built structure differ from those of the planned model and/or the planned model is not available with sufficient detail. In addition outliers exist in construction site datasets due to data artefacts caused by moving objects, occlusions and dust. In order to overcome the aforementioned limitations, a novel method for robust classification and segmentation of planar and linear features is proposed to reduce the effects of outliers present in the LiDAR data collected from construction sites. First, coplanar and collinear points are classified through a robust principal components analysis procedure. The classified points are then grouped using a robust clustering method. A method is also proposed to robustly extract the points belonging to the flat-slab floors and/or ceilings without performing the aforementioned stages in order to preserve computational efficiency. The applicability of the proposed method is investigated in two scenarios, namely, a laboratory with 30 million points and an actual construction site with over 150 million points. The results obtained by the two experiments validate the suitability of the proposed method for robust segmentation of planar and linear features in contaminated datasets, such as those collected from construction sites.

  4. Regional systems development for geothermal energy resources: Pacific region (California and Hawaii). Task 2: Regional program monitoring and progress evaluation, topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-19

    All the objectives of the regional program monitoring and progress evaluation have been met through personal contacts and the review of data. They are as follows: to determine the existing status of power plant projects and future plans; to identify major problem areas for each project (technical, financial, regulatory) that are affecting progress; and to analyze the data and to develop recommendations directed toward resolving problems. The results have been presented in a tabular summary format that is accompanied by explanatory text covering 25 projects.

  5. Targeted Cancer Therapy Using Engineered Salmonella typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin Hai

    2016-01-01

    Obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli specifically colonize and proliferate inside tumor tissues and inhibit tumor growth. Among them, attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) has been widely studied in animal cancer models and Phase I clinical trials in human patients. S. typhimurium genes are easily manipulated; thus diverse attenuated strains of S. typhimurium have been designed and engineered as tumor-targeting therapeutics or drug delivery vehicles that show both an excellent safety profile and therapeutic efficacy in mouse models. An attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, VNP20009, successfully targeted human metastatic melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Phase I clinical trials; however, the efficacy requires further refinement. Along with the characteristics of self-targeting, proliferation, and deep tissue penetration, the ease of genetic manipulation allows for the production of more attenuated strains with greater safety profiles and vector systems that deliver designable cargo molecules for cancer diagnosis and/or therapy. Here, we discuss recent progress in the field of Salmonellae-mediated cancer therapy. PMID:27689027

  6. Targeted Cancer Therapy Using Engineered Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin Hai; Min, Jung-Joon

    2016-09-01

    Obligate or facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli specifically colonize and proliferate inside tumor tissues and inhibit tumor growth. Among them, attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) has been widely studied in animal cancer models and Phase I clinical trials in human patients. S. typhimurium genes are easily manipulated; thus diverse attenuated strains of S. typhimurium have been designed and engineered as tumor-targeting therapeutics or drug delivery vehicles that show both an excellent safety profile and therapeutic efficacy in mouse models. An attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, VNP20009, successfully targeted human metastatic melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Phase I clinical trials; however, the efficacy requires further refinement. Along with the characteristics of self-targeting, proliferation, and deep tissue penetration, the ease of genetic manipulation allows for the production of more attenuated strains with greater safety profiles and vector systems that deliver designable cargo molecules for cancer diagnosis and/or therapy. Here, we discuss recent progress in the field of Salmonellae-mediated cancer therapy.

  7. Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects : Habitat Evaluation, Adult and Juvenile Habitat Utilization and Water Temperature Monitoring : 2001 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    projects to improve fish habitat. In 1998, the ACCD identified the need for a more detailed analysis of these instream projects to fully evaluate their effectiveness at improving fish habitat. Therefore, ACCD contracted with WDFW's Snake River Lab (SRL) to take pre- and post-construction measurements of the habitat (i.e., pools, LOD, width, depth) at each site, and to evaluate fish use within some of the altered sites. These results have been published annually as progress reports to the ACCD (Bumgarner et al. 1999, Wargo et al. 2000, and Bumgarner and Schuck 2001). The ACCD also contracted with the WDFW SRL to conduct other evaluation and monitoring in the stream such as: (1) conduct snorkel surveys at habitat alteration sites to document fish usage following construction, (2) deploy temperature monitors throughout the basin to document summer water temperatures, and (3) attempt to document adult fish utilization by documenting the number of steelhead redds associated with habitat altered areas. This report provides a summary of pre-construction measurements taken on three proposed Charley Creek habitat sites during 2001, two sites in main Asotin Creek, and one site in George Creek, a tributary that enters in the lower Asotin Creek basin. Further, it provides a comparison of measurements taken pre- and post-construction on three 1999 habitat sites taken two years later, but at similar river flows. It also presents data collected from snorkel surveys, redd counts, and temperature monitoring.

  8. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Volume 1, The report and Appendix A, Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This report documents recent progress on ground-water monitoring projects for four Hanford Site facilities: the 300 Area Process Trenches, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds, and the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste (NRDW) Landfill. The existing ground-water monitoring projects for the first two facilities named in the paragraph above are currently being expanded by adding new wells to the networks. During the reporting period, sampling of the existing wells continued on a monthly basis, and the analytical results for samples collected from September through November 1986 are included and discussed in this document. 8 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Genome-wide screen for salmonella genes required for long-term systemic infection of the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A microarray-based negative selection screen was performed to identify Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (serovar Typhimurium genes that contribute to long-term systemic infection in 129X1/SvJ (Nramp1(r mice. A high-complexity transposon-mutagenized library was used to infect mice intraperitoneally, and the selective disappearance of mutants was monitored after 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postinfection. One hundred and eighteen genes were identified to contribute to serovar Typhimurium infection of the spleens of mice by 28 d postinfection. The negatively selected mutants represent many known aspects of Salmonella physiology and pathogenesis, although the majority of the identified genes are of putative or unknown function. Approximately 30% of the negatively selected genes correspond to horizontally acquired regions such as those within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI 1-5, prophages (Gifsy-1 and -2 and remnant, and the pSLT virulence plasmid. In addition, mutations in genes responsible for outer membrane structure and remodeling, such as LPS- and PhoP-regulated and fimbrial genes, were also selected against. Competitive index experiments demonstrated that the secreted SPI2 effectors SseK2 and SseJ as well as the SPI4 locus are attenuated relative to wild-type bacteria during systemic infection. Interestingly, several SPI1-encoded type III secretion system effectors/translocases are required by serovar Typhimurium to establish and, unexpectedly, to persist systemically, challenging the present description of Salmonella pathogenesis. Moreover, we observed a progressive selection against serovar Typhimurium mutants based upon the duration of the infection, suggesting that different classes of genes may be required at distinct stages of infection. Overall, these data indicate that Salmonella long-term systemic infection in the mouse requires a diverse repertoire of virulence factors. This diversity of genes presumably reflects the fact that

  10. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site Facilities: Progress report for the period April 1--June 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 10 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled during this period in the 100-N Area and near the 216-A-36B Crib.

  11. Live Attenuated Human Salmonella Vaccine Candidates: Tracking the Pathogen in Natural Infection and Stimulation of Host Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, James E; Buskirk, Amanda D; Tennant, Sharon M; Pasetti, Marcela F

    2016-11-01

    Salmonellosis, caused by members of the genus Salmonella, is responsible for considerable global morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. In this review, we will discuss the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, focusing on human Salmonella infections. We will trace the path of Salmonella through the body, including host entry sites, tissues and organs affected, and mechanisms involved in both pathogenesis and stimulation of host immunity. Careful consideration of the natural progression of disease provides an important context in which attenuated live oral vaccines can be rationally designed and developed. With this in mind, we will describe a series of attenuated live oral vaccines that have been successfully tested in clinical trials and demonstrated to be both safe and highly immunogenic. The attenuation strategies summarized in this review offer important insights into further development of attenuated vaccines against other Salmonella for which live oral candidates are currently unavailable.

  12. The detection of Salmonella typhimurium on shell eggs using a phage-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yating; Li, Suiqiong; Horikawa, Shin; Shen, Wen; Park, Mi-Kyung; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the direct detection of Salmonella typhimurium on shell eggs using a phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensor. The ME biosensor consists of a ME resonator as the sensor platform and E2 phage as the biorecognition element that is genetically engineered to specifically bind with Salmonella typhimurium. The ME biosensor, which is a wireless sensor, vibrates with a characteristic resonant frequency under an externally applied magnetic field. Multiple sensors can easily be remotely monitored. Multiple measurement and control sensors were placed on the shell eggs contaminated by Salmonella typhimurium solutions with different known concentrations. The resonant frequency of sensors before and after the exposure to the spiked shell eggs was measured. The frequency shift of the measurement sensors was significantly different than the control sensors indicating Salmonella contamination. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm binding of Salmonella to the sensor surface and the resulting frequency shift results.

  13. Detection and characterization of Salmonella spp. in recreational aquatic environments in the Northeast of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Tracogna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to detect the presence of Salmonella spp. in recreational aquatic environments in the Northeast of Argentina and to relate it with water and environmental parameters. Sixty eight samples of water from recreational aquatic environments in the provinces of Chaco and Corrientes, Argentina, were studied. Salmonellae were detected in 6 samples (8.8%. Salmonella spp. isolates belonged to the following species and serovars: S. enterica serovar Give, S. enterica subespecie IV, S. enterica ser. Bredeney, S. enterica ser. Rubislaw, and S. enterica ser. Enteritidis (two isolates. None of the isolates were resistant to tested antimicrobials. There were no significant differences among sampling sites as a reservoir of bacteria Salmonella spp. and the other variables. The presence of Salmonella spp. in our recreational aquatic environments reaffirms the need for monitoring in order to minimize the risks of infection to exposed persons.

  14. Serogenotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. isolated from retail meat samples in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stella; Braun, Sascha; Akintimehin, Faith; Fesobi, Toun; Bamidele, Moses; Coker, Akitoye; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf

    2016-08-01

    Microarray-based serogenotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the detection of relevant resistance genes were performed on isolates of Salmonella spp. from retail meat samples obtained in Lagos, Nigeria. Out of 151 meat samples, 33 Salmonella isolates were obtained. Nine different Salmonella serovars (S. Amoutive, S. Bargny, S. Drac, S. Ealing, S. Urbana, S. Hadar, S. Nyborg, S. Anatum and S. Havana) were identified by microarray-based serogenotyping and confirmed afterwards using classical serotyping. Antibiotic susceptibility tests with 17 antibiotics showed that almost all isolates were fully susceptible to this panel. The results of this study indicated a high prevalence of Salmonella in retail meat, the presence of some previously rather rarely described Serovars in retail meat samples from Lagos, and a need to monitor for Salmonella and their antibiotic resistance determinants. The microarray-based system used herein proved to be perfectly suited as epidemiological tool to replace classical serotyping.

  15. Waardevermindering pluimveevlees besmet met Salmonella enteritidis en Salmonella typhymurium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    De doelstelling van het onderzoek is om de waardevermindering van met Salmonella enteritidis (S.e.) en Salmonella typhymurium (S.t.) besmet pluimveevlees van vleeskuikens te bepalen. Hoe hoog is de opbrengstenderving en hoe hoog zijn de extra kosten van maatregelen voor de slachterij of uitsnijderij

  16. Salmonella Typhimurium induces SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulated and strain dependent downregulation of MHC II expression on porcine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parys, Alexander; Boyen, Filip; Verbrugghe, Elin; Leyman, Bregje; Bram, Flahou; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2012-06-13

    Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the host's immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine alveolar macrophages in a Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 and SPI-2 dependent way. Salmonella induced downregulation of MHC II expression and intracellular proliferation of Salmonella in macrophages were significantly impaired after opsonization with Salmonella specific antibodies prior to inoculation. Furthermore, the capacity to downregulate MHC II expression on macrophages differed significantly among Salmonella strains, independently of strain specific differences in invasion capacity, Salmonella induced cytotoxicity and altered macrophage activation status. The fact that strain specific differences in MHC II downregulation did not correlate with the extent of in vitro SPI-1 or SPI-2 gene expression indicates that other factors are involved in MHC II downregulation as well. Since Salmonella strain dependent interference with the pig's immune response through downregulation of MHC II expression might indicate that certain Salmonella strains are more likely to escape serological detection, our findings are of major interest for Salmonella monitoring programs primarily based on serology.

  17. Salmonella Typhimurium induces SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulated and strain dependent downregulation of MHC II expression on porcine alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Parys Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the host’s immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine alveolar macrophages in a Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-1 and SPI-2 dependent way. Salmonella induced downregulation of MHC II expression and intracellular proliferation of Salmonella in macrophages were significantly impaired after opsonization with Salmonella specific antibodies prior to inoculation. Furthermore, the capacity to downregulate MHC II expression on macrophages differed significantly among Salmonella strains, independently of strain specific differences in invasion capacity, Salmonella induced cytotoxicity and altered macrophage activation status. The fact that strain specific differences in MHC II downregulation did not correlate with the extent of in vitro SPI-1 or SPI-2 gene expression indicates that other factors are involved in MHC II downregulation as well. Since Salmonella strain dependent interference with the pig’s immune response through downregulation of MHC II expression might indicate that certain Salmonella strains are more likely to escape serological detection, our findings are of major interest for Salmonella monitoring programs primarily based on serology.

  18. 肠炎沙门菌感染与鸡蛋污染相互作用机制的研究进展%Progress on the mechanisms of interactions between Salmonella Enteritidis infection and egg contamination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐俊妮; 刘骥; 陈娟

    2012-01-01

    被污染的鸡蛋与人类肠炎沙门菌病感染之间存在明显的联系,鸡蛋和鸡蛋产品是肠炎沙门菌暴发最主要的食品源头.本文主要阐述肠炎沙门菌病原与蛋鸡及鸡蛋之间的相互作用,揭示肠炎沙门菌菌株比其他血清型菌株更易污染鸡蛋的原因.%There was an obvious association between contaminated eggs and human salmonellosis. Contaminated eggs and egg products were the most important vehicle of food-borne salmonellosis. The host-pathogen interactions in the reproductive tract of hens and eggs were explained. The reason of eggs easier to be contaminated by Salmonella Enteritidis strains than other Salmonella strains with different serotypes was highlighted.

  19. Genetic susceptibility for Salmonella infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam JGC van; Jong WH de; Jonge R de; Hoebee B; TOX

    2005-01-01

    The Salmonella species Typhimurium and Enteritidis form the most important causes of food poisoning. Immunity to Salmonellae requires innate and specific immune responses. Reported here are the genetic polymorphisms in the genes of Nramp1, Toll-like receptors and CD14 related to the innate immune re

  20. Genetic susceptibility for Salmonella infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam JGC van; Jong WH de; Jonge R de; Hoebee B; TOX

    2005-01-01

    The Salmonella species Typhimurium and Enteritidis form the most important causes of food poisoning. Immunity to Salmonellae requires innate and specific immune responses. Reported here are the genetic polymorphisms in the genes of Nramp1, Toll-like receptors and CD14 related to the innate immune re

  1. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  2. A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Jorge; Lindberg, Peter; Waldenström, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species entericaserovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.Keywords: Salmonella; epidemiology; ecology; peregrine falcon; no...

  3. An analysis on results of monitoring nontyphoidal Salmonella in diarrhea patients in Huizhou%惠州市腹泻患者非伤寒沙门氏菌监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾健君; 罗泽燕; 徐励琴; 张健; 黄超群; 柯碧霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解我市非伤寒沙门菌的流行基线,早期识别暴发疫情,分析流行因素,掌握我市在腹泻病人中分离的非伤寒沙门菌株的血清型别、分布、耐药性变化情况,指导临床用药.方法 对2008-2009年惠州市监测医院的腹泻患者粪便标本进行非伤寒沙门氏菌检测,对分离到的菌株进行血清型、药物敏感性试验和脉冲场凝胶电泳( PFGE)分型.结果 两年共监测腹泻患者430例,检出沙门氏菌19例,阳性率为4.42%.19株沙门氏菌分布于5个血清型,以鼠伤寒沙门氏菌及肠炎沙门氏菌为主,分别占47.37%和26.32%.大多数沙门菌对常用的头孢类和喹诺酮类抗生素敏感.结论 沙门氏菌是重要的肠道病原菌,病菌经口进入体内而致病,应加强相应的食品卫生监督与健康教育,宣传个人卫生防护知识,切实预防沙门氏菌感染.%Objective To investigate prevalence baseline of nontyphoidal Salnonella in Huizhou city,to identify an epidemic outbreak earlier,and to analyze epidemic factors.To explore the serotypes,distribution,and changes in drug resistance of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from diarrhea patients,in order to instruct clinical use of medication.Methods Stool specimens of diarrhea patients collected from 2008 to 2009 in the surveillance hospitals in Huizhou were detected for nontyphoidal Salmonella.The isolated strains were further serotyped; drug sensitivity testing and pulse field gel electrophoresis were performed.Results Of 430 diarrhea patients,19 were infected by Salmonella,with the positive rate of 4.42%.The 19 strains had five serotypes,mainly Salmonella typhimurium ( 47.37% ) and Salmonella enteritidis ( 26.32% ).Most strains of Salmonellas were sensitive to common antibiotics including cephems and quinolones.Conclusions Salmonella is an important type of enteric pathogen and it causes disease by oral pathway.We should strengthen food safety surveillance and of health education

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella in Australian reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T Franciscus; Lightfoot, Dianne; Holz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From January 2007 until June 2008, 504 reptiles of four families and 57 species were examined for Salmonella by using cloacal or intestinal swabs. Salmonella was identified in 139 (28%) of the 504 animals tested. Of the 504 reptiles examined, 210 were captive and 294 were wild. Ninety-eight (47%) of the captive reptiles were shedding Salmonella at the time of sampling. In contrast, only 41 (14%) of the wild reptiles were shedding Salmonella. The higher prevalence of Salmonella in captive reptiles was statistically significant (Preptiles in Australia are not natural carriers of Salmonella and that diet and captivity may influence Salmonella excretion in other species.

  5. The infectious intracellular lifestyle of Salmonella enterica relies on the adaptation to nutritional conditions within the Salmonella-containing vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diacovich, Lautaro; Lorenzi, Lucía; Tomassetti, Mauro; Méresse, Stéphane; Gramajo, Hugo

    2016-12-09

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes various host-specific diseases. During their life cycle, Salmonellae survive frequent exposures to a variety of environmental stresses, e.g. carbon-source starvation. The virulence of this pathogen relies on its ability to establish a replicative niche, named Salmonella-containing vacuole, inside host cells. However, the microenvironment of the SCV and the bacterial metabolic pathways required during infection are largely undefined. In this work we developed different biological probes whose expression is modulated by the environment and the physiological state of the bacterium. We constructed transcriptional reporters by fusing promoter regions to the gfpmut3a gene to monitor the expression profile of genes involved in glucose utilization and lipid catabolism. The induction of these probes by a specific metabolic change was first tested in vitro, and then during different conditions of infection in macrophages. We were able to determine that Entner-Doudoroff is the main metabolic pathway utilized by Salmonella during infection in mouse macrophages. Furthermore, we found sub-populations of bacteria expressing genes involved in pathways for the utilization of different sources of carbon. These populations are modified in presence of different metabolizable substrates, suggesting the coexistence of Salmonella with diverse metabolic states during the infection.

  6. RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976) ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1988. There are 16 individual hazardous waste facilities covered by the 13 ground-water monitoring projects. The Grout Treatment Facility is included in this series of quarterly reports for the first time. The 13 projects discussed in this report were designed according to applicable interim-status ground-water monitoring requirements specified in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). During this quarter, field activities primarily consisted of sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes sediment analyses in addition to ground-water monitoring results. Twelve new wells were installed during the previous quarter: two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, six at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells include drillers' logs and other drilling and site characterization data, and are provided in Volume 2 or on microfiche in the back of Volume 1. 26 refs., 28 figs., 74 tabs.

  7. Eleventh CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2010-01-01

    Het elfde ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2006 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk). 26 Nationale Referentie L

  8. Tenth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Mevius DJ; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het tiende ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2005 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk) en het Centraal Instituut

  9. Eleventh CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Het elfde ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in maart 2006 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met de Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk). 26 Nationale Referentie L

  10. Salmonellae in food stuffs of plant origin and their implications on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krtinić, G; Durić, P; Ilić, S

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of food-borne infection in human beings. Cases of Salmonella infection have been decreasing in Europe in the last ten years, yet, Salmonella infections are still the main cause of acute diarrhea syndrome. Globalization has caused the international food industry to increase the production of collective nutrition produce and products. This has intensified the need for authorized and accredited laboratories to monitor microbiological food safety. All parameters indicate the necessity of a multi-sector approach to this problem. Food safety supervision involves the analysis and identification of risk management, as well as the monitoring, evaluating, and regulating of crop irrigation. We can be more certain with a multi-sector approach that the number of Salmonella infections caused by plant-originated food stuffs will not increase in the future.

  11. A Methodology of Analysis for Monitoring Treatment Progression with 19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback (19ZNF) in a Single-Subject Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigbaum, Genomary; Wigton, Nancy L

    2015-09-01

    19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback (19ZNF) is a modality using 19-electrodes with real-time normative database z-scores, suggesting effective clinical outcomes in fewer sessions than traditional neurofeedback. Thus, monitoring treatment progression and clinical outcome is necessary. The area of focus in this study was a methodology of quantitative analysis for monitoring treatment progression and clinical outcome with 19ZNF. This methodology is noted as the Sites-of-Interest, which included repeated measures analyses of variance (rANOVA) and t-tests for z-scores; it was conducted on 10 cases in a single subject design. To avoid selection bias, the 10 sample cases were randomly selected from a pool of 17 cases that met the inclusion criteria. Available client outcome measures (including self-report) are briefly discussed. The results showed 90% of the pre-post comparisons moved in the targeted direction (z = 0) and of those, 96% (80% Bonferroni corrected) of the t-tests and 96% (91% Bonferroni corrected) of the rANOVAs were statistically significant; thus indicating a progression towards the mean in 15 or fewer 19ZNF sessions. All cases showed and reported improvement in all outcome measures (including quantitative electroencephalography assessment) at case termination.

  12. Salmonella, Shigella, and yersinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, John P; Frank, Karen M

    2015-06-01

    Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia cause a well-characterized spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to hemorrhagic colitis and fatal typhoidal fever. These pathogens are responsible for millions of cases of food-borne illness in the United States each year, with substantial costs measured in hospitalizations and lost productivity. In the developing world, illness caused by these pathogens is not only more prevalent but also associated with a greater case-fatality rate. Classic methods for identification rely on selective media and serology, but newer methods based on mass spectrometry and polymerase chain reaction show great promise for routine clinical testing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, John; Frank, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia cause a well-characterized spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to hemorrhagic colitis and fatal typhoidal fever. These pathogens are responsible for millions of cases of food-borne illness in the U.S. each year, with substantial costs measured in hospitalizations and lost productivity. In the developing world, illness caused by these pathogens is not only more prevalent, but is also associated with a greater case-fatality rate. Classical methods for identification rely on selective media and serology, but newer methods based on mass spectrometry and PCR show great promise for routine clinical testing. PMID:26004640

  14. Monitoring Lake Temperature at Kodiak, Togiak and Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuges: 2011 Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instrument arrays were established to conduct long-term, all-season monitoring of water temperature at eight lakes on Kodiak, Togiak, and Alaska Peninsula/Becharof...

  15. Benchtop monitoring of reaction progress via visual recognition with a handheld UV lamp: in situ monitoring of boronic acids in the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barder, Timothy E; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2007-01-04

    [reaction: see text] Although boronic acids are widely used in metal-catalyzed reactions, it is difficult to assay their consumption. As such, we developed a reversible fluorescent sensor that is activated upon binding a boronic acid. The sensor can be used to monitor consumption of a boronic acid in Suzuki-Miyaura reactions. Importantly, only a standard handheld long-wave UV lamp (365 nm) is required and fluorescence is easily detectable with the naked eye without disturbing the reaction mixture.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of Salmonella based on rRNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Nordentoft, Steen; Olsen, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    To establish the phylogenetic relationships between the subspecies of Salmonella enterica (official name Salmonella choleraesuis), Salmonella bongori and related members of Enterobacteriaceae, sequence comparison of rRNA was performed by maximum-likelihood analysis. The two Salmonella species wer...

  17. EU Collaborative study VI on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Mooijman KA; Nagelkerke NJD; van de Giessen AW; Henken AM; MGB; IMA

    2003-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) organiseerde in 2002 een zesde bacteriologisch ringonderzoek. Zeventien Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) namen deel aan deze studie. Referentie materialen in combinatie

  18. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress report for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 10 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988. This volume discusses as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled during this period in the 100-N Area (Appendix A) and near the 216-A-36B Crib (Appendix B). Volume 1 discusses the 10 projects. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy under Contract AC06-76RL01830.

  19. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E. (eds.)

    1990-03-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 15 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989. This volume discusses the projects. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the samples aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 51 refs., 35 figs., 86 tabs.

  20. Progress in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of antibacterial a gents%抗菌药物的治疗药物监测进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑾瑜; 施耀国

    2001-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of antibiotics with a narrow treatment index and higher toxicity can be enhenced by practicing therapeutic d rug monitoring(TDM) and indiv idualized administration.In this paper,progress in TDM of antibacterial agents i n home and abroad was reviewed.%实行治疗药物监测(therapeutic drug monitoring ,TDM )进行给药方案个体化,可使治疗指数小、安全范围窄、毒性反应较大的抗菌药物的使用更 加安全、有效。本文对国内外有关抗菌药物TDM的进展作一综述,旨在推动抗菌药物的TDM在 我国的开展。

  1. [Prevalence of Salmonella in meat and meat products in Moravia in 2010-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardoň, Jan; Ondrušková, J; Ambrož, P

    2016-06-01

    Bacteria of the genus Salmonella greatly contribute to foodborne infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. An important source of the diseases is foods of animal origin. The study aimed at monitoring and assessing the prevalence of individual Salmonella serovars in samples of meat and meat products collected in Moravia, Czech Republic. Between 2010 and 2015, the State Veterinary Institute in Olomouc performed microbiology tests in a total of 52,735 meat and meat product samples to detect Salmonella spp. The samples were collected in Moravia and a part of East Bohemia. Bacteriological examination of the samples was carried out in accordance with the Czech version of the European Standard EN ISO 6579 : 2002. Genus identification of suspected isolates was performed using the MALDI-TOF MS method; Salmonella serotypes were identified by a slide agglutination test using the White-Kaufmann-Le Minor scheme. Salmonella spp. were detected in 2.4 % of the 52,735 samples examined. The highest rate of detection (21.9 %) was noted in poultry meat, followed by poultry meat preparations (9.1 % of positive samples) and other meat preparations (0.7 % of positive samples). The serovars most frequently identified from positive samples were Salmonella Infantis and S. Derby. The rates of Salmonella spp. detected in the monitored commodities have been increasing since 2012. However, this may be due to a better risk analysis when selecting samples to be tested. Salmonella spp. were most frequently detected in poultry and poultry products. The other types of meat and meat products constituted only a small proportion of the positive cases. The analysis of Salmonella spp. isolated from foods showed that serovars most prevalent in meat and meat products are different from the serovar S. Enteritidis, mainly responsible for causing the diseases in humans.

  2. Data-based Decision-making: Teachers' Comprehension of Curriculum-based Measurement Progress-monitoring Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Roxette M.; Espin, Christine A.; Chung, Siuman; Saab, Nadira

    2017-01-01

    Teachers have difficulty using data from Curriculum-based Measurement (CBM) progress graphs of students with learning difficulties for instructional decision-making. As a first step in unraveling those difficulties, we studied teachers' comprehension of CBM graphs. Using think-aloud methodology, we examined 23 teachers' ability to…

  3. Glutamate monitoring in vitro and in vivo: recent progress in the field of glutamate biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieben, Nathalie Ines; Rose, Nadia Cherouati; Martinez, Karen Laurence

    2009-01-01

    , and different techniques have been developed to this end. This review presents and discusses these techniques, especially the recent progress in the field of glutamate biosensors, as well as the great potential of nanotechnology in glutamate sensing. Microdialysis coupled to analytical detection techniques...

  4. Military Personnel: DOD Is Expanding Combat Service Opportunities for Women, but Should Monitor Long-Term Integration Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    10. Study of historical U.S. Marine Corps integration efforts Review the integration of women into Marine Corps aviation occupations and past...integration of women into the logistics and aviation communities 13. Expand Unit Assignments Survey Determine participants’ experiences regarding...MILITARY PERSONNEL DOD Is Expanding Combat Service Opportunities for Women , but Should Monitor Long-Term

  5. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

  6. EPA Method 1682: Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 1682 describes procedures for analysis of solid samples (biosolids) and may be adapted for assessment of water, liquid, particulate and aerosol samples contaminated with Salmonella spp. using culture and immunoassay.

  7. Protective host immune responses to Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Oanh H; McSorley, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi are the causative agents of human typhoid fever. Current typhoid vaccines are ineffective and are not widely used in endemic areas. Greater understanding of host-pathogen interactions during Salmonella infection should facilitate the development of improved vaccines to combat typhoid and nontyphoidal Salmonellosis. This review will focus on our current understanding of Salmonella pathogenesis and the major host immune components that participate in immunity to Salmonella infection. In addition, recent findings regarding host immune mechanisms in response to Salmonella infection will be also discussed, providing a new perspective on the utility of improved tools to study the immune response to Salmonella infections.

  8. Evaluation of Non-Viral Surrogate Markers as Predictive Indicators for Monitoring Progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: An Eight-Year Analysis in a Regional Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafatpanah, Houshang; Essmailian, Leila; Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Vakili, Rosita; Norouzi, Mehdi; Sarvghad, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinpour, Ali Mohammad; Sharebiani, Hiva; Rezaee, S A Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Suitable methods for clinical monitoring of HIV-infected patients are crucial in resource-poor settings. Demographic data, clinical staging, and laboratory findings for 112 asymptomatic subjects positive for HIV were assessed at the first admission and the last visit from 2002 to 2010. Cox regression analysis showed hemoglobin (Hb) (HR = 0.643, P = 0.021) to be a predictive indicator for disease progression, while CD4, CD8, and platelet counts showed low HRs, despite having significant probability values. Hb and total lymphocyte count (TLC) rapidly declined from stage II to III (10.9 and 29.6%, respectively). Reduced CD4 and platelet counts and Hb during stage I were associated with disease progression, and TLC was correlated with CD4 counts at the last follow-up (P analysis suggested that a TLC cutoff of 1,800 cell/mm(3) was more reliable in this region. Statistical analysis and data mining findings showed that Hb and TLC, and their rapid decline from stage II to III, in addition to reduced platelet count, could be valuable markers for a surrogate algorithm for monitoring of HIV-infected subjects and starting anti-viral therapy in the absence of sophisticated detection assays.

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of locally isolated Salmonella strains used in preparation of Salmonella antigens in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hazem Mohammed Ibrahim; Dalia Ahmed Mohammed Abd El-moaty; Hanan Ali Ahmed; Mona Ibrahim El-Enbaawy

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This work was conducted to study the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of locally isolated Salmonella strains (Salmonella Pullorum, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium) from poultry used in the preparation of Salmonella antigens in Egypt. Materials and Methods: The phenotypic characterization of Salmonella strains was done using standard microbiological, biochemical, and serological techniques. Molecular identification was done using different sets of primers on...

  10. Molecular characterization of Salmonella spp directly from snack and food commonly sold in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stella; Opere, Bolanle; Fowora, Muinah; Aderohunmu, Abdulrahman; Ibrahim, Rita; Omonigbehin, Emmanuel; Bamidele, Moses; Adeneye, Adeniyi

    2012-05-01

    Food borne Salmonella infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. A total of 200 food samples commonly sold in Lagos, Nigeria comprising raw and cooked meat as well as meat products and spoilt meat were analysed for the presence of Salmonella spp using REVEAL serology kit, culture methods employing RPVA (Rappaport Vassiliadis agar), SSA (Salmonella-Shigella agar) and BSA (brilliant sulphite agar) and PCR method for direct detection from samples using primer salm3/4 and ST11/ST15 sets. Using the REVEAL serology kit, 74% of the samples were positive for Salmonella spp, while culture methods showed only 19% to be Salmonella spp. The PCR method revealed that Salmonella spp was present in 62% and 54% of the samples using primer set salm3/4 and ST11/ST15, respectively. However, the primer set ST11/ST15 was more reliable in the identification of Salmonella spp directly from food samples. These tools should prove useful in the continuous monitoring and control strategies especially for ready-to-eat foods, as well as in retail meat outlets, slaughter houses, fast food restaurants for the prevention and reduction of this pathogen that is of significant importance in the food industry.

  11. Research progress of plant monitoring for indoor chemical pollution gases%室内化学污染气体的植物监测研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁敏; 刘顺腾; 赵洁

    2013-01-01

    随着室内装修装饰的大量涌现,室内化学污染物超标现象日趋严重,现代人类已经继第一污染时期—煤烟型污染和第二污染时期—光化学烟雾污染后,进入以室内化学污染为标志的第三污染时期.利用植物监测室内化学污染气体已成为安全有效的监测、控制室内化学污染的重要途径.文章阐述了室内化学污染物的特点、危害及植物监测的作用;从外部数量性状、生理生化指标、综合指标三方面综述了植物对室内化学污染监测的相关研究进展,并对植物监测研究和应用前景做出展望.%With the proliferation of the interior decoration, the phenomenon of exceeding standard of the indoor chemical pollutants is becoming more and more serious, modern human has come into the third pollution period- "indoor chemical pollution" from the first pollution period- "soot pollution" and the second pollution period- "photochemical smoke pollution". Using plants to monitor indoor chemical pollution gases has become a safe and effective way to monitor and control indoor chemical pollution. The paper expounds the characteristics and harm of indoor chemical pollution and the role of plant monitoring, summarizes the research progress of plant monitoring for indoor chemical pollution from external quantitative traits, physiological and biochemical index and comprehensive index, and makes prospect of plant monitoring research and application.

  12. Osteomielitis por salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Velázquez Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de color blanco y dos años de edad, con diagnóstico prenatal de sicklemia, que desde edades tempranas tiene problemas de la enfermedad. Ingresó en esta ocasión por una de las complicaciones infecciosas que ocasiona este padecimiento, una osteomielitis del húmero izquierdo, aislándose el germen en el hemocultivo realizado, una salmonella. Necesitó de tratamiento enérgico y prolongado; se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio en la evolución de la enfermedad y se sigue sistemáticamente por consulta externa en la actualidad

  13. Mucosal Inflammatory Response to Salmonella Typhimurium Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir ePatel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The human intestinal epithelium consists of a single layer of epithelial cells that forms a barrier against food antigens and the resident microbiota within the lumen. This delicately balanced organ functions in a highly sophisticated manner to uphold the fidelity of the intestinal epithelium and to eliminate disease-causing microorganisms. On the luminal side, this barrier is fortified by a thick mucus layer, and on the serosal side exists the lamina propria containing a resident population of immune cells. Pathogens that are able to breach this barrier disrupt the healthy epithelial lining by interfering with the regulatory mechanisms that govern the normal balance of intestinal architecture and function. This disruption results in a coordinated innate immune response deployed to eliminate the intruder that includes the release of antimicrobial peptides, activation of pattern recognition receptors, and recruitment of a variety of immune cells. In the case of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium infection, induction of an inflammatory response has been linked to its virulence mechanism, the type III secretion system (T3SS. The T3SS secretes protein effectors that exploit the host’s cell biology to facilitate bacterial entry and intracellular survival, and to modulate the host immune response. As the role of the intestinal epithelium in initiating an immune response has been increasingly realized, this review will highlight recent research that details progress made in understanding mechanisms underlying the mucosal inflammatory response to Salmonella infection, and how such inflammatory responses impact pathogenic fitness of this organism.

  14. Chemical Isotope Labeling LC-MS for Monitoring Disease Progression and Treatment in Animal Models: Plasma Metabolomics Study of Osteoarthritis Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deying; Su, Xiaoling; Wang, Nan; Li, Yunong; Yin, Hua; Li, Liang; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-01-01

    We report a chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method generally applicable for tracking metabolomic changes from samples collected in an animal model for studying disease development and treatment. A rat model of surgically induced osteoarthritis (OA) was used as an example to illustrate the workflow and technical performance. Experimental duplicate analyses of 234 plasma samples were carried out using dansylation labeling LC-MS targeting the amine/phenol submetabolome. These samples composed of 39 groups (6 rats per group) were collected at multiple time points with sham operation, OA control group, and OA rats with treatment, separately, using glucosamine/Celecoxib and three traditional Chinese medicines (Epimedii folium, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Bushen-Huoxue). In total, 3893 metabolites could be detected and 2923 of them were consistently detected in more than 50% of the runs. This high-coverage submetabolome dataset could be used to track OA progression and treatment. Many differentiating metabolites were found and 11 metabolites including 2-aminoadipic acid, saccharopine and GABA were selected as potential biomarkers of OA progression and OA treatment. This study illustrates that CIL LC-MS is a very useful technique for monitoring incremental metabolomic changes with high coverage and accuracy for studying disease progression and treatment in animal models.

  15. Interfacing supercritical fluid reaction apparatus with on-line liquid chromatography: monitoring the progress of a synthetic organic reaction performed in supercritical fluid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Edward D; Li, Ben; Guo, Wei; Liu, Jing Y

    2015-04-03

    An interface has been developed that connects a supercritical fluid reaction (SFR) vessel directly on-line to a liquid chromatograph. The combined SFR-LC system has enabled the progress of the esterification reaction between phenol and benzoyl chloride to synthesize phenyl benzoate in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide solution to be dynamically monitored. This was achieved by the periodic SFR-LC analysis of samples directly withdrawn from the esterification reaction mixture. Using the series of SFR-LC analysis results obtained for individual esterification reactions, the reaction progress profile for each esterification reaction was obtained by expressing the measured yield of phenyl benzoate as a function of reaction time. With reaction temperature fixed at 75°C, four sets (n=3) of SFR-LC reaction progress profiles were obtained at four different SFR pressures ranging from 13.79 to 27.58 MPa. The maximum SFR yield obtained for phenyl benzoate using a standard set of reactant concentrations was 85.2% (R.S.D. 4.2%) when the reaction was performed at 13.79 MPa for 90 min. In comparison, a phenyl benzoate yield of less than 0.3% was obtained using the same standard reactant concentrations after 90 min reaction time at 75°C using either: heptane, ethyl acetate or acetonitrile as conventional organic reaction solvents.

  16. Self-Awareness and Self-Monitoring of Cognitive and Behavioral Deficits in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia and Probable Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sarah; Weintraub, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Lack of insight is a core diagnostic criterion for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and is believed to be intact in the early stages of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). In other neurological conditions, symptom-specific insight has been noted, with behavioral symptoms appearing especially vulnerable to reduced insight. Different components of insight, self-awareness and self-monitoring, are also often considered separate phenomena. The current study compared insight in patients with PPA, bvFTD, and probable Alzheimer’s disease (PrAD) and a group of cognitively intact control subjects. Additionally, differences in insight for the domains primarily affected by the three types of dementia, namely, Behavior, Naming, and Memory, were assessed, and self-awareness and self-monitoring were compared. A total of 55 participants were enrolled. Participants were asked to complete self-estimate scales demonstrating their perceived ability immediately prior to, and immediately following a test in each domain of interest. Results indicated that PPA and normal control groups performed very similarly on control (Weight and Eyesight) and cognitive domains, whereas bvFTD and PrAD patients were unable to accurately assess Memory. All three diagnostic groups failed to accurately assess their behavioral symptoms, suggesting that this domain is vulnerable to loss of insight across diagnoses. Naming ability, in contrast, was either accurately assessed or underestimated in all groups. Finally, there were no notable differences between self-awareness and self-monitoring, potential explanations for this are examined. PMID:18194832

  17. Diversification of the Salmonella fimbriae: a model of macro- and microevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yue

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Salmonella comprise a large and evolutionary related population of zoonotic pathogens that can infect mammals, including humans and domestic animals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. Salmonella carries a plethora of virulence genes, including fimbrial adhesins, some of them known to participate in mammalian or avian host colonization. Each type of fimbria has its structural subunit and biogenesis genes encoded by one fimbrial gene cluster (FGC. The accumulation of new genomic information offered a timely opportunity to better evaluate the number and types of FGCs in the Salmonella pangenome, to test the use of current classifications based on phylogeny, and to infer potential correlations between FGC evolution in various Salmonella serovars and host niches. This study focused on the FGCs of the currently deciphered 90 genomes and 60 plasmids of Salmonella. The analysis highlighted a fimbriome consisting of 35 different FGCs, of which 16 were new, each strain carrying between 5 and 14 FGCs. The Salmonella fimbriome was extremely diverse with FGC representatives in 8 out of 9 previously categorized fimbrial clades and subclades. Phylogenetic analysis of Salmonella suggested macroevolutionary shifts detectable by extensive FGC deletion and acquisition. In addition, microevolutionary drifts were best depicted by the high level of allelic variation in predicted or known adhesins, such as the type 1 fimbrial adhesin FimH for which 67 different natural alleles were identified in S. enterica subsp. I. Together with strain-specific collections of FGCs, allelic variation among adhesins attested to the pathoadaptive evolution of Salmonella towards specific hosts and tissues, potentially modulating host range, strain virulence, disease progression, and transmission efficiency. Further understanding of how each Salmonella strain utilizes its panel of FGCs and specific adhesin alleles for survival and infection will support the

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Several Essential Oils towards Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Mazhar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils are natural products extracted from plants and because of their antimicrobial properties can be used as natural additives in foods. They are also useful for decontamination of food-borne pathogens and can be a safe additive in foods. The antimicrobial activities of essential oils belonging to Saturiea hortensis, Thymus vulgaris, Mentha polegium, Cuminum cyminum, Lavandula officinalis and Mentha viridis L. (spearmint were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10%v/v against Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B by using the agar well diffusion method. Essential oils showed inhibitory effect on Salmonella spp. in the agar well diffusion assay. In addition, the capability of essential oils for decontamination of minced row beef, ground beef, minced raw chicken and minced raw fish inoculated with Salmonella spp. at 0.1 and 0.5%v/v were assessed. Reduction of the Salmonella spp. population was observed following the inoculation of the cultures with 0.1 and 0.5%v/v essential oils.

  19. Sampling and detection of Salmonella in eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The detection of Salmonella in the edible internal contents of shell eggs provides the most incontrovertible and epidemiologically relevant evidence that laying flocks might threaten consumers. Accordingly, dependable tests for Salmonella in eggs remain essential for achieving public health objectiv...

  20. Effects of drying temperature and surface characteristics of vegetable on the survival of salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaree, N; Chiewchan, N; Devahastin, S

    2009-01-01

    The heat resistance of Salmonella Anatum inoculated on the surface of a model vegetable as affected by hot-air drying temperature (50 to 70 degrees C) and surface characteristics was determined in this study. Cabbage was selected as a model vegetable to demonstrate the effect of topographical feature of vegetable surface on the Salmonella attachment ability. An image analysis technique was developed to monitor the change of cabbage surface during drying and the specific surface characteristics were described in terms of the roughness factor (R). It was found that the water activity of the vegetable decreased while R-value increased with longer drying time and higher drying temperature. However, the changes of both parameters during drying did not show a significant effect on the susceptibility of Salmonella attached on the cabbage surface. Drying temperature was found to be a major factor influencing the heat resistance of Salmonella during drying.

  1. Determination of specific antibodies titre to salmonella enteritidis by elisa technique in several selected flocks of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velhner Maja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the antibody titre to Salmonella enteritidis (SE was examined by the ELISA method in two flocks of laying hens, where during routine bacteriological investigations Salmonellae was never isolated, and in one flock where Colysepticemia was diagnosed and Salmonella isolated accidentally. In the flocks were Salmonellae were not isolated, a titre with a high level of specific antibodies to SE was discovered (15 and 45%, while the flock with accidental findings of SE was poorly positive (5%. These results point to the necessity of introducing serological monitoring to SE so that the infection of salmonella may be discovered early and the prevalence in the flock determined, and also for the purpose of applying adequate measures that could reduce the possibility of secretion of SE through eggs.

  2. The role of litter beetles as potential reservoir for Salmonella enterica and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M.N.; Spencer, A.G.; Hald, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the role of beetles infesting broiler chicken rearing facilities as potential reservoirs for Salmonella enterica infections between successive broiler flocks. In addition, their role as potential reservoirs for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. was also investigated. Fourteen broiler...... houses located at 11 different farms were included in the study. The houses were nonrandomly selected on the basis of their salmonella status; nine were persistently contaminated with salmonella whereas five were salmonella negative. For each broiler house, two consecutive broiler flocks (i.e., 28...... broiler flocks in all) as well as beetles collected during both rotations of production and in the empty period (after cleaning and disinfection) between these flocks were monitored for the presence of salmonella. Examinations for the presence of campylobacter in the same sample materials were also...

  3. Optimization of SELEX: comparison of different methods for monitoring the progress of in vitro selection of aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencin, Nina; Šmuc, Tina; Vraničar, Marko; Mavri, Jan; Hren, Matjaž; Galeša, Katja; Krkoč, Peter; Ulrich, Henning; Šolar, Borut

    2014-03-01

    Oligonucleotide aptamers are selected from libraries typically comprising up to 10(15) different sequences by an iterative process of binding, separation, amplification and purification, called SELEX. During this process, the diversity of the oligonucleotide pool decreases until, presumably, only sequences with highest binding affinities towards chosen targets remain. This selection technique is time-consuming, labor-intensive and expensive. Though well posed in principles, the SELEX procedure is noise sensitive, due to amplification of unspecific-binding sequences, and it is not surprising that aptamer selection is often not successful in practice. In view of that, a follow-up of the progress of selection during its course with simple yet reliable methods is necessary. In this paper, we describe five independent assays to estimate the sequence complexity of SELEX pools including qualitative restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, melting curve analysis, quantitative fluorescence intensity measurements of bound ssDNA, real time PCR quantification and pool dissociation constant analysis during the progress of aptamer selection against streptavidin. Properties and features of each method are discussed and compared. Pool dissociation constant analysis and sequencing serve as reference methods.

  4. Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on Salmonella colonization in the ceca of young broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, Y O; Bowers, J B; Hess, J B; McKee, S R

    2010-05-01

    Live poultry is an important vehicle for transmitting Salmonella Typhimurium to humans that have salmonellosis. It is therefore imperative to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium levels in the gastrointestinal tract of live chickens. Glutamine is an established immunonutrient that is capable of alleviating disease conditions in humans and rats. Thus, 2 experiments that used Ross broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation at 1% level of the diet on cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in young broiler chicks. Experiment 1 consisted of i) treatment 1 (control, CN), in which chicks were given an unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet without glutamine supplementation or Salmonella Typhimurium challenge; ii) treatment 2 (CST), in which chicks were given the same diet as CN but challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL at 3 d of age; and iii) treatment 3 (GST), in which chicks were given the unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet supplemented with glutamine at 1% level, and challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu at 3 d of age. Experiment 2 used similar treatments (CN, CST, and GST), except that chicks in CST and GST were challenged with 7.4 x 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL, and a fourth treatment was added. The fourth treatment consisted of chicks that were not challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium but given the same diet as in GST. Duration of each experiment was 14 d. Growth performance of chicks was monitored weekly, and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium concentration was microbiologically enumerated on d 4, 10, or 11 postchallenge. Results showed that glutamine supplementation improved BW and BW gain in experiment 2 (P 0.05). The optimum supplemental level of glutamine that will enhance intestinal resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium colonization should be determined.

  5. Methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage sites. Semiannual progress report, April 1, 1988--September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadden, C.T.; Benson, S.B.; Osborne, T.R.; Revis, N.W.

    1988-12-31

    Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a persistent environmental contaminant whose chemical stability and hydrophobicity have made it difficult to remove from contaminated groundwater. PCE is also toxic and has been implicated as a carcinogen. This study was aimed at assessing methods for biological degradation of PCE. As a part of the study, the authors have characterized possible products of the degradation of PCE, and have determined the effects of detergents and solvents on the water solubility of PCE and on the toxic effects of PCE on bacteria. The authors have also isolated PCE-resistant microorganisms from monitoring wells at Y-12. To date all of the PCE-resistant bacteria isolated from the monitoring wells have been of the genus Bacillus. One of these isolates appears to be able to degrade PCE, as indicated by the disappearance of PCE from cultures of growing cells. The organism does not grow on PCE as the sole carbon source, so degradation of the solvent must occur by cometabolism.

  6. Bioluminescence-Based Tumor Quantification Method for Monitoring Tumor Progression and Treatment Effects in Mouse Lymphoma Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosette, Jeremie; Ben Abdelwahed, Rym; Donnou-Triffault, Sabrina; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Flaud, Patrice; Fisson, Sylvain

    2016-07-07

    Although bioluminescence imaging (BLI) shows promise for monitoring tumor burden in animal models of cancer, these analyses remain mostly qualitative. Here we describe a method for bioluminescence imaging to obtain a semi-quantitative analysis of tumor burden and treatment response. This method is based on the calculation of a luminoscore, a value that allows comparisons of two animals from the same or different experiments. Current BLI instruments enable the calculation of this luminoscore, which relies mainly on the acquisition conditions (back and front acquisitions) and the drawing of the region of interest (manual markup around the mouse). Using two previously described mouse lymphoma models based on cell engraftment, we show that the luminoscore method can serve as a noninvasive way to verify successful tumor cell inoculation, monitor tumor burden, and evaluate the effects of in situ cancer treatment (CpG-DNA). Finally, we show that this method suits different experimental designs. We suggest that this method be used for early estimates of treatment response in preclinical small-animal studies.

  7. Radiofrequency ablation of small liver malignancies under magnetic resonance guidance: progress in targeting and preliminary observations with temperature monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terraz, Sylvain; Cernicanu, Alexandru; Lepetit-Coiffe, Matthieu; Viallon, Magalie; Salomir, Rares; Becker, Christoph D. [University Hospitals of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Mentha, Gilles [University Hospitals of Geneva, Department of Visceral Surgery and Transplantation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-04-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of magnetic resonance (MR)-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for small liver tumours with poor conspicuity on both contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT), using fast navigation and temperature monitoring. Sixteen malignant liver nodules (long-axis diameter, 0.6-2.4 cm) were treated with multipolar RF ablation on a 1.5-T wide-bore MR system in ten patients. Targeting was performed interactively, using a fast steady-state free precession sequence. Real-time MR-based temperature mapping was performed, using gradient echo-echo planar imaging (GRE-EPI) and hardware filtering. MR-specific treatment data were recorded. The mean follow-up time was 19 {+-} 7 months. Correct placement of RF electrodes was obtained in all procedures (image update, <500 ms; mean targeting time, 21 {+-} 11 min). MR thermometry was available for 14 of 16 nodules (88%) with an accuracy of 1.6 C in a non-heated region. No correlation was found between the size of the lethal thermal dose and the ablation zone at follow-up imaging. The primary and secondary effectiveness rates were 100% and 91%, respectively. RF ablation of small liver tumours can be planned, targeted, monitored and controlled with MR imaging within acceptable procedure times. Temperature mapping is technically feasible, but the clinical benefit remains to be proven. (orig.)

  8. Monitoring Disease Progression and Therapeutic Response in a Disseminated Tumor Model for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma by Bioluminescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarethe Köberle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xenograft tumor models are widely studied in cancer research. Our aim was to establish and apply a model for aggressive CD20-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, enabling us to monitor tumor growth and shrinkage in a noninvasive manner. By stably transfecting a luciferase expression vector, we created two bioluminescent human non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines, Jeko1(luci and OCI-Ly3(luci, that are CD20 positive, a prerequisite to studying rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 antibody. To investigate the therapy response in vivo, we established a disseminated xenograft tumor model injecting these cell lines in NOD/SCID mice. We observed a close correlation of bioluminescence intensity and tumor burden, allowing us to monitor therapy response in the living animal. Cyclophosphamide reduced tumor burden in mice injected with either cell line in a dose-dependent manner. Rituximab alone was effective in OCI-Ly3(luci-injected mice and acted additively in combination with cyclophosphamide. In contrast, it improved the therapeutic outcome of Jeko1(luci-injected mice only in combination with cyclophosphamide. We conclude that well-established bioluminescence imaging is a valuable tool in disseminated xenograft tumor models. Our model can be translated to other cell lines and used to examine new therapeutic agents and schedules.

  9. Splenic abscess due to Salmonella enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Çabadak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Splenic abscess is a very rare complication of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections. We report a case of splenic abscess caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient is a 63-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus and underwent splenectomy. This case suggests that the patients with comorbities are at increased risk for invasive infections in non-typhoidal Salmonella infections.

  10. Mixed salmonella infection - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed infection with multiple Salmonella serotypes in the same patient is an unusual finding. We present a case of enteric fever in which the blood culture was sterile and Widal test was negative. The culture of the bone marrow yielded Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A.

  11. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Johanna; Gole, Vaibhav; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2015-06-15

    Salmonellosis is a significant zoonotic disease which has a considerable economic impact on the egg layer industry. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in backyard chickens. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard chickens, and the associated virulence of any serovars identified. Hundred and fifteen pooled samples from 30 backyard flocks in South Australia were screened. Four flocks tested positive for Salmonella spp. The overall Salmonella isolation rate in the current study was 10.4%. The estimated prevalence at individual bird level was 0.02% (95% CI 0.025-0.975). The serovars isolated were Salmonella Agona, Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) and Salmonella Bovismorbificans. All Salmonella isolates tested positive for the prgH, orfL and spiC genes. The Salmonella subsp 2 ser 21:z10:z6 (Wandsbek) had the most antibiotic resistance, being resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin and having intermediate resistance to florphenicol. All of the Salmonella Agona had intermediate resistance to the ampicillin, while the Salmonella Bovismorbificans were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. With the increased interest of keeping backyard chickens, the current study highlights the zoonotic risk from Salmonella spp. associated with home flocks.

  12. Monitoring the progress of preschool children with autism enrolled in early intervention programmes: problems in cognitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, I; Howlin, P

    2001-12-01

    This report examines how conclusions about the progress of preschool children enrolled in early intervention programmes may be influenced by the use of different cognitive assessment tools. As part of a longitudinal treatment outcome study, 24 children with autism aged between 27 and 58 months were each tested on the Bayley, Merrill-Palmer and Vineland scales. Their performance on each of these tests was compared. Results showed that, while scores on the different tests were highly correlated, actual test scores varied considerably, with the Bayley tending to produce the lowest IQ scores and the Merrill-Palmer the highest. These findings have important implications, as it is evident that judgements about the effects of therapy may be significantly influenced by the selection of the tests for pre- and post-treatment assessments. Possible ways of collecting, recording and reporting test data, so as to avoid spurious conclusions about treatment effects, are discussed.

  13. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  14. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The following are included: geothermal power plants proposed and on-line; direct heat applications proposed and operational; trends in drilling activities; exploration; leases; outreach and technical assistance; feasibility studies and application demonstrations; geothermal loan guaranty program; research and development activities; legal, institutional, and regulatory activities; environmental activities; reports and publications; and a directory. (MHR)

  15. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    A state-by-state review of major geothermal-development activities during 1982 is presented. It also inlcudes a summary of recent drilling and exploration efforts and the results of the 1982 leasing program. Two complementary sections feature an update of geothermal direct-use applications and a site-by-site summary of US geothermal electric-power development.

  16. Curriculum-based assessment of oral language and listening comprehension: a tool for intervention and progress monitoring in the Common Core State Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Wendy

    2012-05-01

    The Common Core State Standards and a Response to Intervention framework are movements sweeping the nation. Speech-language pathologists are uniquely positioned to play a pivotal role in supporting successful implementation of these movements. This article explores the assessment tools speech-language pathologists SLPs will need to identify and progress monitor critical language/literacy skills such as listening comprehension and oral narratives skills. Foundational research demonstrates that communication units, total words spoken, and major story components are measures that will discriminate between students with adequate language skills and language disorders and are curriculum-based, sensitive to change, and useful to determine the effectiveness of language/literacy interventions. Speech-language pathologist can broaden the impact of their knowledge and skills to improve outcomes for all students.

  17. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress Report for the Period April 1 to June 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1989. These projects are for the 300 area process trenches (300 area), 183-H solar evaporation basins (100-H area), 200 areas low-level burial grounds, nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (southeast of the 200 areas), 1301-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 1324-N surface impoundment and 1324-NA percolation pond (100-N area), 1325-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 216-A-10 crib (200-east area), 216-A-29 ditch (200-east area), 216-A-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-3 pond (east of the 200-east area), 2101-M pond (200-east area), grout treatment facility (200-east area).

  19. Transmission and control of Salmonella in the pig feed chain: a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binter, Claudia; Straver, Judith Maria; Häggblom, Per; Bruggeman, Geert; Lindqvist, Per-Anders; Zentek, Jürgen; Andersson, Mats Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    . Prevention of recontamination and control of moisture throughout the chain are thus critical factors for controlling Salmonella in feed production. To verify successful control it is necessary to have monitoring strategies able to detect low levels of Salmonella heterogeneously distributed in large volumes of feed and feed material in bulk. Experience from monitoring programs and research investigations indicates that sampling of dust and sweepings from control points along the production line is an efficient strategy to gain an indication of Salmonella contamination.

  20. Candidate soil indicators for monitoring the progress of constructed wetlands toward a natural state: a statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Adams, Jean V.; Fennessy, M. Siobhan; Mack, John; Micacchion, Mick

    2013-01-01

    A persistent question among ecologists and environmental managers is whether constructed wetlands are structurally or functionally equivalent to naturally occurring wetlands. We examined 19 variables collected from 10 constructed and nine natural emergent wetlands in Ohio, USA. Our primary objective was to identify candidate indicators of wetland class (natural or constructed), based on measurements of soil properties and an index of vegetation integrity, that can be used to track the progress of constructed wetlands toward a natural state. The method of nearest shrunken centroids was used to find a subset of variables that would serve as the best classifiers of wetland class, and error rate was calculated using a five-fold cross-validation procedure. The shrunken differences of percent total organic carbon (% TOC) and percent dry weight of the soil exhibited the greatest distances from the overall centroid. Classification based on these two variables yielded a misclassification rate of 11% based on cross-validation. Our results indicate that % TOC and percent dry weight can be used as candidate indicators of the status of emergent, constructed wetlands in Ohio and for assessing the performance of mitigation. The method of nearest shrunken centroids has excellent potential for further applications in ecology.

  1. The Cost Monitoring of the Construction Machinery with Using the Stochastic Progress-Based S-curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajňák Marek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contribution presents methodology for evaluating at-completion project performance status. Accurate cost and schedule project forecasts are difficult to generate when considering the impact of such events as unforeseen cost changes, material delays, scope deviation, changes to the project execution plan and poor subcontractor performance. In reality, the original estimate may be considered the first project forecast and at the point of project completion, the latest updated estimate (last forecast and the actual amount of what is being expended should be the same. Final project performance is determined by comparing the planned budget and project duration, with the expected forecasted final budget and elapsed time. The stochastic S-curve methodology permits objective evaluation of project performance without the limitations inherent in a deterministic approach. This paper used the stochastic S curve to monitor the cost and time consumption in operation of the construction machines. The contribution presents a partial outcome from the dissertation thesis called the Interactive tools for resource optimization in construction.

  2. Engineered antibodies for monitoring of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Annual progress report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karu, A.E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US); Roberts, V.A. [Scripps Research Inst., La Jolla, CA (US); Li, Q.X. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (US)

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of this multidisciplinary project is to use molecular biological techniques to derive a set of antibodies with useful affinities and selectivities for recovery and detection of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental and biological samples. The long-term goal is to develop immunodetection methods that will be useful in biomarker research and regulatory monitoring of PAHs. APPROACH The aims and approaches remain the same as in the original proposal. My laboratory cloned and characterized two PAL-I-specific recombinant Fab antibodies (rFabs). The authors are deriving new affinities and specificities for PAHs by mutagenesis of these rFabs, and by selection of new rFabs from combinatorial phage display libraries. Dr. Qing Li''s group designed and synthesized PAH haptens that were essential for my laboratory''s work. Dr. Victoria Roberts''s group developed molecular models that suggested the mechanism of PAH binding and predicted mutations to alter it. Dr. Li''s laboratory is using the recombinant antibodies they produce to develop immunoaffinity and immunoassay methods to quantify PAHs in environmental samples.'

  3. Marine Animal Alert System -- Task 2.1.5.3: Development of Monitoring Technologies -- FY 2011 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Myers, Joshua R.; Matzner, Shari; Copping, Andrea E.

    2011-09-30

    The Marine Animal Alert System (MAAS) in development by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is focused on providing elements of compliance monitoring to support deployment of marine hydrokinetic energy devices. An initial focus is prototype tidal turbines to be deployed in Puget Sound in Washington State. The MAAS will help manage the risk of injury or mortality to marine animals from blade strike or contact with tidal turbines. In particular, development has focused on detection, classification, and localization of listed Southern Resident killer whales within 200 m of prototype turbines using both active and passive acoustic approaches. At the close of FY 2011, a passive acoustic system consisting of a pair of four-element star arrays and parallel processing of eight channels of acoustic receptions has been designed and built. Field tests of the prototype system are scheduled for the fourth quarter of calendar year 2011. Field deployment and testing of the passive acoustic prototype is scheduled for the first quarter of FY 2012. The design of an active acoustic system that could be built using commercially available off-the-shelf components from active acoustic system vendors is also in the final stages of design and specification.

  4. Progress on the Development of the Next Generation X-ray Beam Position Monitors at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.; Yang, B.X.; Decker, G.; Sereno, N.; Ramanathan, M.

    2016-07-27

    Accurate and stable x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are ke y elements in obtaining the desired user beam stability in the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The next generat ion XBPMs for high heat load front ends (HHL FEs) have been designed to meet these requirements by utilizing Cu K-edge x-ray fluorescence (XRF) from a pair of copper absorbers and have been installed at the front ends (FEs) of the APS. Com missioning data showed a significant performance improvement over the existing photoemission-based XBPMs. While a similar design concept can be applied for the canted undulator front ends, where two undulator beams are separated by 1.0-mrad, the lower beam power (< 10 kW) per undulator allows us to explore lower-cost solutions based on Compton scat tering from the diamond blades placed edge-on to the x- ray beam. A prototype of the Compton scattering XBPM system was i nstalled at 24-ID-A in May 2015. In this report, the design and test results for XRF-based XBPM and Compton scattering based XBPM are presented. Ongoing research related to the development of the next generation XBPMs on thermal contac t resistance of a joint between two solid bodies is also discussed

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the progress of 12 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988. During this quarter, field activities at the 300 Area process trenches, the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds, the 1301-N and 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facilities, and the 216-A-36B Crib consisted of ground-water sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes well development data, sediment analysis, and water-level measurements. Ground-water sampling was begun at this site, and results will be included in next quarter's report. Twelve new wells were installed during the quarter, two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, size at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells are included in this report. Driller's logs and other drilling and site characterization data will be provided in the next quarterly report. At the 2101-M Pond, construction was completed on four wells, and initial ground-water samples were taken. The drilling logs, geophysical logging data, and as-built diagrams are included in this report in Volume 2. 19 refs., 24 figs., 39 tabs.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Harish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella are an important public health problem worldwide. On a global scale, it has been appraised that Salmonella is responsible for an estimated 3 billion human infections each year. The World Health Organization (WHO has estimated that annually typhoid fever accounts for 21.7 million illnesses (217,000 deaths and paratyphoid fever accounts for 5.4 million of these cases. Infants, children, and adolescents in south-central and South-eastern Asia experience the greatest burden of illness. In cases of enteric fever, including infections with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A and B, it is often necessary to commence treatment before the results of laboratory sensitivity tests are available. Hence, it is important to be aware of options and possible problems before beginning treatment. Ciprofloxacin has become the first-line drug of choice since the widespread emergence and spread of strains resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim. There is increase in the occurrence of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin. Reports of typhoidal salmonellae with increasing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and resistance to newer quinolones raise the fear of potential treatment failures and necessitate the need for new, alternative antimicrobials. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins and azithromycin are the options available for the treatment of enteric fever. The emergence of broad spectrum β-lactamases in typhoidal salmonellae constitutes a new challenge. Already there are rare reports of azithromycin resistance in typhoidal salmonellae leading to treatment failure. This review is based on published research from our centre and literature from elsewhere in the world. This brief review tries to summarize the history and recent trends in antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae.

  7. Circulating Tumor Cells in Metastatic Breast Cancer: Monitoring Response to Chemotherapy and Predicting Progression-Free Survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ping Cheng; Ying Yan; Xiang-yi Wang; Yuan-li Lu; Yan-hua Yuan; Xiao-li Wang; Jun Jia; Jun Ren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore RT-PCR method to set up the examination platform for detecting circulating tumor cells(CTC) in peripheral blood from metastatic breast cancer patients.The primary endpoint is to find out the correlation of existence of CTC with clinical responses and progression-free survival (PFS).Methods: The breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was serially diluted into the peripheral blood from 45 healthy donors to set up the sensitivity of RT-PCR assay.The expression of CK19 mRNA was amplified from both 49 patients and 45 healthy donors respectively.The CK19 protein quantity from plasma was measured by competitive inhibition ELISA assay.Results: The sensitivity of RT-PCR could reach 1/106-107 white blood cells with specificity of 95.6%.The objective response rate(ORR) of patients with CK19 mRNA-negative undertaken one cycle chemotherapy was significantly higher than those with positive(P<0.0001).PFS among CK19 mRNA-negative patients was also increased,although there was no significance(P=0.098).The results of ELISA assay showed that CK19 protein was decreased significantly after one cycle chemotherapy,which gave rise to a little higher ORR(P=0.015) and increased PFS(P=0.016).Conclusion: Patients with unamplified CK19 mRNA after one cycle chemotherapy could achieve better radiographic evaluation and increased PFS,which was showed to be of consistency with the CK19 protein assay among the patients treated.

  8. Circulating Tumor Cells in Metastatic Breast Cancer:Monitoring Response to Chemotherapy and Predicting Progression-Free Survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-ping Cheng; Ying Yan; Xiang-yi Wang; Yuan-li Lu; Yan-hua Yuan; Xiao-li Wang; Jun Jia; Jun Ren

    2010-01-01

    Objective:The purpose of this study is to explore RT-PCR method to set up the examination platform for detecting circulating tumor cells(CTC)in peripheral blood from metastatic breast cancer patients.The primary endpoint is to find out the correlation of existence of CTC with clinical responses and progression-free survival(PFS).Methods:The breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was serially diluted into the peripheral blood from 45 healthy donors to set up the sensitivity of RT-PCR assay.The expression of CK19 mRNA was amplified from both 49patients and 45 healthy donors respectively.The CK19 protein quantity from plasma was measured by competitive inhibition ELISA assay.Results:The sensitivity of RT-PCR could reach 1/106-107 white blood cells with specificity of 95.6%.The objective response rate(ORR)of patients with CK19 mRNA-negative undertaken one cycle chemotherapy was significantly higher than those with positive(P<0.0001).PFS among CK19 mRNA-negative patients was also increased,although there was no significance(P=0.098).The results of ELISA assay showed that CK19 protein was decreased significantly after one cycle chemotherapy,which gave rise to a little higher ORR(P=0.015)and increased PFS(P=0.016).Conclusion:Patients with unamplified CK19 mRNA after one cycle chemotherapy could achieve better radiographic evaluation and increased PFS,which was showed to be of consistency with the CK19 protein assay among the patients treated.

  9. Physical water scarcity metrics for monitoring progress towards SDG target 6.4: An evaluation of indicator 6.4.2 "Level of water stress".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Hoekstra, A Y; Wada, Y; Bouraoui, F; de Roo, A; Mekonnen, M M; van de Bund, W J; Batelaan, O; Pavelic, P; Bastiaanssen, W G M; Kummu, M; Rockström, J; Liu, J; Bisselink, B; Ronco, P; Pistocchi, A; Bidoglio, G

    2017-09-12

    Target 6.4 of the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deals with the reduction of water scarcity. To monitor progress towards this target, two indicators are used: Indicator 6.4.1 measuring water use efficiency and 6.4.2 measuring the level of water stress (WS). This paper aims to identify whether the currently proposed indicator 6.4.2 considers the different elements that need to be accounted for in a WS indicator. WS indicators compare water use with water availability. We identify seven essential elements: 1) both gross and net water abstraction (or withdrawal) provide important information to understand WS; 2) WS indicators need to incorporate environmental flow requirements (EFR); 3) temporal and 4) spatial disaggregation is required in a WS assessment; 5) both renewable surface water and groundwater resources, including their interaction, need to be accounted for as renewable water availability; 6) alternative available water resources need to be accounted for as well, like fossil groundwater and desalinated water; 7) WS indicators need to account for water storage in reservoirs, water recycling and managed aquifer recharge. Indicator 6.4.2 considers many of these elements, but there is need for improvement. It is recommended that WS is measured based on net abstraction as well, in addition to currently only measuring WS based on gross abstraction. It does incorporate EFR. Temporal and spatial disaggregation is indeed defined as a goal in more advanced monitoring levels, in which it is also called for a differentiation between surface and groundwater resources. However, regarding element 6 and 7 there are some shortcomings for which we provide recommendations. In addition, indicator 6.4.2 is only one indicator, which monitors blue WS, but does not give information on green or green-blue water scarcity or on water quality. Within the SDG indicator framework, some of these topics are covered with other indicators. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  10. Integrated surveillance and potential sources of Salmonella Enteritidis in human cases in Canada from 2003 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Nesbitt, A.; Ravel, A; Murray, R.; McCormick, R.; SAVELLI, C.; FINLEY, R.; PARMLEY, J.; AGUNOS, A.; MAJOWICZ, S. E.; Gilmour, M.; ,

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Salmonella Enteritidis has emerged as the most prevalent cause of human salmonellosis in Canada. Recent trends of S. Enteritidis subtypes and their potential sources were described by integrating Salmonella data from several Canadian surveillance and monitoring programmes. A threefold increase in S. Enteritidis cases from 2003 to 2009 was identified to be primarily associated with phage types 13, 8 and 13a. Other common phage types (4, 1, 6a) showed winter seasonality and were more li...

  11. Dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant clones of Salmonella enterica among domestic animals, wild animals, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Gonzalo; Campos, Maria Jorge; Ugarte, María; Porrero, María Concepción; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Quesada, Alberto; Píriz, Segundo

    2013-02-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. This work focuses on the identification of Salmonella enterica clonal strains which, presenting a wide distribution potential, express resistance determinants that compromise effectiveness of the antimicrobial therapy. The screening was performed on 506 Salmonella enterica isolates from animals and humans, which were characterized by serovar and phage typing, genome macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and detection of phenotypic and genotypic traits for antimicrobial resistance. A Salmonella Enteritidis strain with strong quinolone resistance is spread on three host environments carrying one of the four variants found for the GyrA protein: (1) Asp87Tyr, the major polymorphism found in 39 Salmonella isolates from human origin and six from poultry; (2) Ser83Phe, with four isolates from human origin and one from white stork (Ciconia ciconia); and (3) Asp87Asn or (4) Asp87Gly, with two isolates each from human origins. Several Salmonella Typhimurium strains that presented int1 elements and the classically associated pentaresistance (ACSSuT) phenotype were found distributed between two host environments: domestic animals and humans, domestics and wild animals, or wild fauna plus humans. This study points out the importance of monitoring gut microbiota and its antimicrobial resistance from wildlife, in parallel to livestock animals and humans, especially for animal species that are in close contact with people.

  12. Establishing Streptomycin Epidemiological Cut-Off Values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Sunde, Marianne; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates...... were investigated by polymerase chain reaction for aadA, strA, and strB streptomycin resistance genes. Out of 236 Salmonella isolates, 32 (13.5%) yielded amplicons for aadA (n = 23), strA (n = 9), and strB (n = 11). None of the 60 Salmonella isolates exhibiting MIC 4 mg/L harbored resistance genes....... Of the Salmonella isolates exhibiting MICs 8 mg/L, 16 mg/L, and 32 mg/L, 1.6%, 15%, and 39%, respectively, tested positive for one or more genes. For most monitoring programs, the streptomycin ECOFF for Salmonella is wild type (WT) ≤32 or ≤16 mg/L. A cut-off value of WT ≤32 mg/L would have misclassified 13...

  13. Nano-materials for use in sensing of salmonella infections: Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashazadeh, Paria; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Hejazi, Maryam; Hashemi, Maryam; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2017-01-15

    Salmonella infectious diseases spreading every day through food have become a life-threatening problem for millions of people and growing menace to society. Health expert's estimate that the yearly cost of all the food borne diseases is approximately $5-6 billion. Traditional methodologies for salmonella analysis provide high reliability and very low limits of detection. Among them immunoassays and Nucleic acid-based assays provide results within 24h, but they are expensive, tedious and time consuming. So, there is an urgent need for development of rapid, robust and cost-effective alternative technologies for real-time monitoring of salmonella. Several biosensors have been designed and commercialized for detection of this pathogen in food and water. In this overview, we have updated the literature concerning novel biosensing methods such as various optical and electrochemical biosensors and newly developed nano- and micro-scaled and aptamers based biosensors for detection of salmonella pathogen. Furthermore, attention has been focused on the principal concepts, applications, and examples that have been achieved up to diagnose salmonella. In addition, commercial biosensors and foreseeable future trends for onsite detecting salmonella have been summarized.

  14. Kokanee Impacts Assessment and Monitoring on Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, Annual Progress Report for October 1995-September 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiolie, Melo A.

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to Monitor Lake Pend Oreille's kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi population. Data will serve as a baseline for evaluating the benefits of a higher winter lake level beginning in 1996. We estimated the kokanee population in Lake Pend Oreille using a Hauser-type midwater trawl during August 1995 and September 1996. Population estimates in 1995 were 4.55 million age-0 kokanee, 2.87 million age-1 kokanee, 1.52 million age-2 kokanee, 0.74 million age-3 kokanee, 0.15 million age-4 kokanee, and 42,000 age-5 kokanee. Population estimates in 1996 were 5.42 million age-0 kokanee, 3.57 million age-1 kokanee, 3.17 million age-2 kokanee, 0.67 million age-3 kokanee, 0.44 million age-4 kokanee, and no age-5 kokanee. These were two of the highest total populations of kokanee since trawling began in 1977; largely due to high numbers of young kokanee. The densities of age-4 and 5 kokanee (which make up the bulk of the fishery), however, were the lowest on record in 1995 and average in 1996. We also surveyed traditional shoreline and tributary spawning areas. Counts of kokanee spawning in tributaries during 1995 were relatively consistent with previous years (6,261 kokanee). Counts of spawners along the shorelines reached a new record low of only 74 kokanee; a 93 percent decline from 1994. During December 1996, both counts dropped to their lowest point on record. Only 49 fish were seen spawning along the shorelines, and only 819 fish were seen in tributary streams. These low counts may have been partially due to higher lake levels during the spawning seasons. Higher than normal lake levels made additional gravel available for kokanee spawning in many areas of the lake. Possibly this caused kokanee to spread along the shorelines and reduced the spawner counts. Kokanee fry that had been fin clipped and stocked at the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery Ladder in 1991 and 1992 returned at a rate of 0.27% and 0.14% once they matured. This return rate was

  15. Cellulitis Due to Salmonella infantis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Salmonella are highly adapted for the growth in both humans and animals and cause a wide spectrum of disease. The growth of Serotypes S. typhi and S. paratyphi is restricted to human hosts, in whom these organisms cause enteric (typhoid fever. The remaining Serotypes (non typhoidal Salmonella or NTS can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of the broad range of animals, including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects. The usual clinical presentation of non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS infection is self limited gastroenteritis; however bacteremia and focal extra intestinal infection may occur. However salmonella localization to the skin presenting as cutaneous ulceration is regarded as a rare event. Rates of morbidity and mortality associated with NTS are highest among the elderly, infants, and immunocompromised individuals, including those with hemoglobinopathies, HIV infection, or infections that cause blockade of the reticuloendothelial system. We isolated S.infantis in 50 years old man with left leg cellulitis. The serotype was confirmed at Central Research Institute, Kasauli.

  16. Salmonella-secreted Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffron, Fred; Niemann, George; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-05-01

    In this short review we discuss secreted virulence factors of Salmonella, which directly affect Salmonella interaction with its host. Salmonella secretes protein to subvert host defenses but also, as discussed, to reduce virulence thereby permitting the bacteria to persist longer and more successfully disperse. The type III secretion system (TTSS) is the best known and well studied of the mechanisms that enable secretion from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm. Other secretion systems include outer membrane vesicles, which are present in all Gram-negative bacteria examined to date, two-partner secretion, and type VI secretion will also be addressed. Excellent reviews of Salmonella secreted effectors have focused on themes such as actin rearrangements, vesicular trafficking, ubiquitination, and the activities of the virulence factors themselves. This short review is based on S. Typhimurium infection of mice because it is a model of typhoid like disease in humans. We have organized effectors in terms of events that happen during the infection cycle and how secreted effectors may be involved.

  17. Salmonella radicidation of poultry carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Validity of methodsExperiments were carried out In which it was assessed which Salmonella isolation method is the most productive one In the examination of broiler carcasses. Refrigerated, refrigerated and radiated (2.50 kGy), frozen and frozen and radiated (2.50 kGy) samples of broile

  18. Salmonella Infection and Water Frogs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-01-12

    This podcast, featuring lead investigator Shauna Mettee, discusses the first known outbreak of Salmonella in people due to contact with water frogs.  Created: 1/12/2010 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 1/12/2010.

  19. Incidence of zoonotic Salmonella species bacteraemia: a multi-national population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laupland, Kevin; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2009-01-01

    , Canada; combined population 7.5 million residents annually) during 2000-2007. Results: A total of 480 zoonotic Salmonella species bacteraemias were identified for an overall annual incidence of 8.1 per million population. The incidence was lowest in the spring and highest in the summer, and progressively...

  20. Serodiversity and serological as well as cultural distribution of Salmonella on farms and in abattoirs in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C F; Klein, G; Verspohl, J; Beyerbach, M; Stratmann-Selke, J; Kamphues, J

    2011-03-15

    In this study fattening pigs were monitored on farms and in the abattoir for Salmonella prevalence. The samples with the highest prevalence at slaughter should be identified with special attention to the distribution of Salmonella serovars on farms in comparison to those in slaughtered pigs. Another aim was to monitor whether high serological antibody responses in pigs are in accordance with the specific Salmonella serovars in tissues. From 3418 farm faecal samples, 191 were Salmonella positive (5.58%), whereas from slaughtered pigs 330 out of 2494 analysed samples were Salmonella positive (13.2%) with the highest prevalence in the caecal content (124/499=24.9%). The chi-square test for homogeneity between the serovars found on farms and in the different types of samples at slaughter was in most cases negative (pmeat juice (cut off 40) and cultural detection of Salmonella spp. in ileocaecal lymph nodes, as well as between meat juice samples (cut off 20) and caecal content did not differ significantly. The Kappa indices only showed signs of weak concordance according to positive test results (Kappa ≤ 0.4) between different sample types on an animal basis. Pigs harbouring S. Typhimurium 1,4,12:i:1,2; DT104L in tonsils or S. Typhimurium 1,4,12:i:1,2 DT 104B low in caecal content or ileocaecal lymph nodes had the highest optical densities in meat juice. Apart from the different Salmonella prevalences between farms and slaughterhouses and in most cases non-existing concordance in Salmonella serovar distribution on farms and at slaughter, also in future farm intervention strategies to control Salmonella in the food chain are not dispensable. This is because once introduced into a slaughterhouse via swine the serovars seem to maintain the resident slaughterhouse flora and add to it.

  1. Short communication: Determination of Salmonella clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) diversity on dairy farms in Wisconsin and Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehnes, C A; Rehberger, T G; Barrangou, R; Smith, A H

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica is a foodborne pathogen able to cause disease in both humans and animals. Diverse serovars of this pathogen exist, some of which are host specific, causing a range of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic infection through morbidity and mortality. According to a 2007 survey by the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System, fecal shedding of Salmonella from healthy cows occurs on 39.7% of dairy farms in the United States. Certain serovars are frequently isolated from dairy farms and the majority of isolates from the National Animal Health Monitoring System study were represented by 5 serovars; however, genotypic diversity was not examined. The objective of this study was to determine the diversity of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci in Salmonella collected from 8 dairy farms with a previous history of salmonellosis. None of the cows or calves sampled on 2 of the 8 dairy farms were shedding Salmonella, although Salmonella was detected in a cow bedding sample on 1 of these farms. Salmonella populations were discrete on each farm, according to CRISPR typing, with the exception of an Anatum var. 15+ type on farms 5 and 6 and the Montevideo type on farms 1 and 2. One to 4 distinct CRISPR genotypes were identified per farm. The CRISPR typing differed within serovars, as Montevideo, Anatum var. 15+, and Muenster serovars had no overlap of spacer content, even on the same farm, reflecting between- and within-serovar genetic diversity. The dynamic nature of Salmonella populations was shown in a farm that was sampled longitudinally over 13.5 mo. Changes in serovar from 3,19:-:z27 to Montevideo was observed between the first sampling time and 8 mo later, with concomitant change in CRISPR alleles. The results indicate that Salmonella strains present in smaller dairy herds (<500 head) are specific to that farm and new Salmonella strains may emerge over time. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  2. Salmonella – A Brief Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmi Esko

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonellosis is the main cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in most European countries. Infections with Salmonella is usually subclinical, whereas clinical cases show symptoms with a wide range of severity. Infection is most commonly associated with the consumption of meat, especially poultry or pork, and eggs and their products. Salmonella can enter the food chain at any point throughout its length. The principal reservoir of Salmonellae is the gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds, but Salmonellae are able to survive and even multiply in many external environments. In Norway, Sweden and Finland cost effective prevention methods have been used for several years to prevent and control Salmonellea infections. In addition, competitive exclusion (CE and vaccination might be relevant as biological methods to prevent colonisation of bird intestines by enteropathogens, especially Salmonella. Antibiotic drug resistance has been a problem since the start of the antibiotic era. The cause for anxiety is that more and more bacteria are becoming resistant, often to a whole range of antibiotics. The debate on the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and animal production dates back almost as long as the use itself. There is a clear evidence to show that antibacterial agents given to animals for growth promotion, prophylactic purposes or treatment induce a rise in the number of antibiotic resistant strains isolated from the animals. These bacteria may be transmitted to humans by several possible routes. There are thus strong arguments for preventive efforts which have to be directed towards identifying real critical control points (HACCP throughout the whole food chain, which starts from the farm and ends at the consumer's table.

  3. 75 FR 48973 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella... availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation''...

  4. Salmonella spp. contamination in commercial layer hen farms using different types of samples and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M C; Soria, M A; Bueno, D J; Godano, E I; Gómez, S C; ViaButron, I A; Padin, V M; Rogé, A D

    2017-03-31

    The performance of detection methods (culture methods and polymerase chain reaction assay) and plating media used in the same type of samples were determined as well as the specificity of PCR primers to detected Salmonella spp. contamination in layer hen farms. Also, the association of farm characteristics with Salmonella presence was evaluated. Environmental samples (feces, feed, drinking water, air, boot-swabs) and eggs were taken from 40 layer hen houses. Salmonella spp. was most detected in boot-swabs taken around the houses (30% and 35% by isolation and PCR, respectively) follow by fecal samples (15.2% and 13.6% by isolation and PCR, respectively). Eggs, drinking water, and air samples were negative for Salmonella detection. Salmonella Schwarzengrund and S. Enteritidis were the most isolated serotypes. For plating media, relative specificity was 1, and the relative sensitivity was greater for EF-18 agar than XLDT agar in feed and fecal samples. However, relative sensitivity was greater in XLDT agar than EF-18 agar for boot-swab samples. Agreement was between fair to good depending on the sample, and it was good between isolation and PCR (feces and boot-swabs), without agreement for feed samples. Salmonella spp. PCR was positive for all strains, while S. Typhimurium PCR was negative. Salmonella Enteritidis PCR used was not specific. Based in the multiple logistic regression analyses, categorization by counties was significant for Salmonella spp. presence (P-value = 0.010). This study shows the importance of considering different types of samples, plating media and detection methods during a Salmonella spp. monitoring study. In addition, it is important to incorporate the sampling of floors around the layer hen houses to learn if biosecurity measures should be strengthened to minimize the entry and spread of Salmonella in the houses. Also, the performance of some PCR methods and S. Enteritidis PCR should be improved, and biosecurity measures in hen farms must be

  5. New Salmonella serotype: Salmonella enteritidis serotype Grandhaven (30(1):r:1,2).

    OpenAIRE

    McDougal, D L; Treleaven, B E; Renshaw, E C

    1982-01-01

    A new Salmonella serotype, Salmonella enteritidis serotype Grandhaven (30(1):r:1,2), was isolated from the stool of a 35-year-old man with mild gastroenteritis. He had just returned from Sudan, Africa.

  6. NRL Salmonella ringonderzoek IV en V ; Bacteriologische detectie van Salmonella in aanwezigheid van competitieve flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; van der Giessen A; MGB

    2001-01-01

    In 1999 zijn door het Nationaal Referentie Laboratorium (NRL) Salmonella 2 bacteriologische ringonderzoeken georganiseerd. Hieraan deden 26 laboratoria mee in het kader van het plan van aanpak Salmonella en Campylobacter in de pluimveehouderij. Het belangrijkste doel van deze ringonderzoeken was

  7. Ultra-fast and sensitive detection of non-typhoidal Salmonella using microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence ("MAMEF".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Tennant

    Full Text Available Certain serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica cause invasive disease (e.g., enteric fever, bacteremia, septicemia, meningitis, etc. in humans and constitute a global public health problem. A rapid, sensitive diagnostic test is needed to allow prompt initiation of therapy in individual patients and for measuring disease burden at the population level. An innovative and promising new rapid diagnostic technique is microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF. We have adapted this assay platform to detect the chromosomal oriC locus common to all Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars. We have shown efficient lysis of biologically relevant concentrations of Salmonella spp. suspended in bacteriological media using microwave-induced lysis. Following lysis and DNA release, as little as 1 CFU of Salmonella in 1 ml of medium can be detected in <30 seconds. Furthermore the assay is sensitive and specific: it can detect oriC from Salmonella serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B, Paratyphi C, Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Choleraesuis but does not detect Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae or Acinetobacter baumanii. We have also performed preliminary experiments using a synthetic Salmonella oriC oligonucleotide suspended in whole human blood and observed rapid detection when the sample was diluted 1:1 with PBS. These pre-clinical data encourage progress to the next step to detect Salmonella in blood (and other ordinarily sterile, clinically relevant body fluids.

  8. Compilation of 1986 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological-monitoring program. Volume 1. Tabs A-C. Annual progress report, January-December 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-07-01

    This is the fifth compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. This report documents the progress of the following studies: Herbaceous Plant Cover and Tree Studies; Litter Decomposition and Microflora; and The Effects of Exposing the Slime Mold Physarum Polycephalum to Electromagnetic Fields.

  9. Class 1 integron-mediated antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica strains isolated in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ranjbar

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Our findings showed that integrons class 1 were widely distributed among Salmonella enterica isolates. Surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance, including screening for integrons as likely indicators of drug resistance and acquisition of new resistance traits, are necessary steps in planning effective strategies for containing this phenomenon within foodborne infection organisms.

  10. Minimization of Salmonella contamination on raw poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Richardson, L J

    2011-01-01

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is still found on raw poultry. Expert committees have repeatedly emphasized the importance of controlling risk, but information about Salmonella in poultry is often limited to prevalence, with inadequate information about testing methods or strains of Salmonella that are detected by these methods and no information about any impact on the degree of risk. This review examines some assumptions behind the discussion of Salmonella in poultry: the relationships between sampling and cultural methodology, prevalence and numbers of cells, and the implications of serotype and subtype issues. Minimizing Salmonella contamination of poultry is not likely to reduce human salmonellosis acquired from exposure to contaminated chicken until these issues are confronted more systematically.

  11. Use of Attenuated but Metabolically Competent Salmonella as a Probiotic To Prevent or Treat Salmonella Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabag-Daigle, Anice; Blunk, Henry M; Gonzalez, Juan F; Steidley, Brandi L; Boyaka, Prosper N; Ahmer, Brian M M

    2016-07-01

    Salmonella enterica is among the most burdensome of foodborne disease agents. There are over 2,600 serovars that cause a range of disease manifestations ranging from enterocolitis to typhoid fever. While there are two vaccines in use in humans to protect against typhoid fever, there are none that prevent enterocolitis. If vaccines preventing enterocolitis were to be developed, they would likely protect against only one or a few serovars. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that probiotic organisms could compete for the preferred nutrient sources of Salmonella and thus prevent or treat infection. To this end, we added the fra locus, which encodes a utilization pathway for the Salmonella-specific nutrient source fructose-asparagine (F-Asn), to the probiotic bacterium Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (Nissle) to increase its ability to compete with Salmonella in mouse models. We also tested a metabolically competent, but avirulent, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant for its ability to compete with wild-type Salmonella The modified Nissle strain became more virulent and less able to protect against Salmonella in some instances. On the other hand, the modified Salmonella strain was safe and effective in preventing infection with wild-type Salmonella While we tested for efficacy only against Salmonella Typhimurium, the modified Salmonella strain may be able to compete metabolically with most, if not all, Salmonella serovars, representing a novel approach to control of this pathogen.

  12. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  13. Ninth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Mevius DJ; Wannet WJB; Mooijman KA; MGB; LIS; HPA (London); CIDC

    2005-01-01

    Het negende ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella werd in de lente van 2004 georganiseerd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) in samenwerking met Health Protection Agency (HPA, Londen, Verenigd Koninkrijk) en het Centraal Insti

  14. Ninth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Mevius DJ; Wannet WJB; Mooijman KA; MGB; LIS; HPA (London); CIDC

    2005-01-01

    The ninth interlaboratory comparison study on the typing of Salmonella was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, the Netherlands) in collaboration with the Health Protection Agency (HPA, London, United Kingdom) and the Central Institute for Animal

  15. 9 CFR 113.120 - Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.120 Salmonella Typhimurium Bacterin. Salmonella Typhimurium...

  16. 9 CFR 113.123 - Salmonella Dublin Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.123 Salmonella Dublin Bacterin. Salmonella Dublin Bacterin shall be...

  17. 9 CFR 113.122 - Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.122 Salmonella Choleraesuis Bacterin. Salmonella Choleraesuis...

  18. A comparison of transmission characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis between pair-housed and group-housed laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ekelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human cases of bacterial gastro-enteritis are often caused by the consumption of eggs contaminated with Salmonella species, mainly Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis (Salmonella Enteritidis. To reduce human exposure, in several countries worldwide surveillance programmes are implemented to detect colonized layer flocks. The sampling schemes are based on the within-flock prevalence, and, as this changes over time, knowledge of the within-flock dynamics of Salmonella Enteritidis is required. Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis has been quantified in pairs of layers, but the question is whether the dynamics in pairs is comparable to transmission in large groups, which are more representative for commercial layer flocks. The aim of this study was to compare results of transmission experiments between pairs and groups of laying hens. Experimental groups of either 2 or 200 hens were housed at similar densities, and 1 or 4 hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, respectively. Excretion was monitored by regularly testing of fecal samples for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Using mathematical modeling, the group experiments were simulated with transmission parameter estimates from the pairwise experiments. Transmission of the bacteria did not differ significantly between pairs or groups. This finding suggests that the transmission parameter estimates from small-scale experiments might be extrapolated to the field situation.

  19. A comparison of transmission characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis between pair-housed and group-housed laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ekelijn; Bouma, Annemarie; Klinkenberg, Don

    2011-02-23

    Human cases of bacterial gastro-enteritis are often caused by the consumption of eggs contaminated with Salmonella species, mainly Salmonella enterica serovar Enteriditis (Salmonella Enteritidis). To reduce human exposure, in several countries worldwide surveillance programmes are implemented to detect colonized layer flocks. The sampling schemes are based on the within-flock prevalence, and, as this changes over time, knowledge of the within-flock dynamics of Salmonella Enteritidis is required. Transmission of Salmonella Enteritidis has been quantified in pairs of layers, but the question is whether the dynamics in pairs is comparable to transmission in large groups, which are more representative for commercial layer flocks. The aim of this study was to compare results of transmission experiments between pairs and groups of laying hens. Experimental groups of either 2 or 200 hens were housed at similar densities, and 1 or 4 hens were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, respectively. Excretion was monitored by regularly testing of fecal samples for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Using mathematical modeling, the group experiments were simulated with transmission parameter estimates from the pairwise experiments. Transmission of the bacteria did not differ significantly between pairs or groups. This finding suggests that the transmission parameter estimates from small-scale experiments might be extrapolated to the field situation.

  20. Salmonella Surveillance Among Great-Tailed Grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus) and Other Urban Bird Species in Eastern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigar, Mary K; Cummings, Kevin J; Rodriguez-Rivera, Lorraine D; Rankin, Shelley C; Johns, Krista; Hamer, Gabriel L; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-12-01

    Wild birds may play an important role in maintaining and transmitting Salmonella. Their ability to travel large distances and their proximity to human habitations could make them a vehicle for bridging Salmonella from wild and domestic animals to humans. To determine the potential public health risk presented by urban birds, we investigated the prevalence of Salmonella among great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus) and other cohabiting urban bird species. Fecal samples were collected from 114 birds communally roosting in parking lots of retail locations in Brazos County, Texas, from February through July of 2015. Great-tailed grackles and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were the predominant species sampled. Standard bacteriologic culture methods were used to isolate Salmonella from samples, and isolates were characterized by serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Overall, 1.8% (2/114) of samples were confirmed positive for Salmonella. Both positive birds were great-tailed grackles sampled in June, yielding a 2.6% (2/76) apparent prevalence among this species. Isolates were serotyped as Salmonella Typhimurium and found to be pan-susceptible based on the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) panel of antimicrobial agents. The occurrence of Salmonella in great-tailed grackles represents a potential threat to public health, particularly considering their population size and tendency to congregate near human establishments such as grocery stores.

  1. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress report for the period January 1--March 31, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the progress of eight Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period January 1 to March 31, 1988. The facilities represented by the eight projects are the 300 Area Process trenches, 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds, Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, 216-A-36B Crib, 1301-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, and 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds. The latter four projects are included in this series of quarterly reports for the first time. This report is the seventh in a series of periodic status reports; the first six cover the period from May 1, 1986, through December 31, 1987 (PNL 1986; 1987a, b, c, d; 1988a). This report satisfies the requirements of Section 17B(3) of the Consent Agreement and Compliance Order issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (1986a) to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office. 13 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. MR T1{rho} as an imaging biomarker for monitoring liver injury progression and regression: an experimental study in rats with carbon tetrachloride intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Feng; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Yuan, Jing; Deng, Min; Ahuja, Anil T. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Hing Lok [School of Public Health and Primary Care, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Jockey Club Centre for Osteoporosis Care and Control, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chu, Eagle S.H.; Go, Minnie Y.Y.; Yu, Jun [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Institute of Digestive Disease and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Hong Kong SAR (China); Teng, Gao-Jun [Southeast University, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Nanjing (China)

    2012-08-15

    Recently it was shown that the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1{rho} value increased with the severity of liver fibrosis in rats with bile duct ligation. Using a rat carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) liver injury model, this study further investigated the merit of T1{rho} relaxation for liver fibrosis evaluation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injection of 2 ml/kg CCl{sub 4} twice weekly for up to 6 weeks. Then CCl{sub 4} was withdrawn and the animals were allowed to recover. Liver T1{rho} MRI and conventional T2-weighted images were acquired. Animals underwent MRI at baseline and at 2 days, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks post CCl{sub 4} injection, and they were also examined at 1 week and 4 weeks post CCl{sub 4} withdrawal. Liver histology was also sampled at these time points. Liver T1{rho} values increased slightly, though significantly, on day 2, and then increased further and were highest at week 6 post CCl{sub 4} insults. The relative liver signal intensity change on T2-weighted images followed a different time course compared with that of T1{rho}. Liver T1{rho} values decreased upon the withdrawal of the CCl{sub 4} insult. Histology confirmed the animals had typical CCl{sub 4} liver injury and fibrosis progression and regression processes. MR T1{rho} imaging can monitor CCl{sub 4}-induced liver injury and fibrosis. (orig.)

  3. Protective host immune responses to Salmonella infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Oanh H.; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi are the causative agents of human typhoid fever. Current typhoid vaccines are ineffective and are not widely used in endemic areas. Greater understanding of host–pathogen interactions during Salmonella infection should facilitate the development of improved vaccines to combat typhoid and nontyphoidal Salmonellosis. This review will focus on our current understanding of Salmonella pathogenesis and the major host immune components that participat...

  4. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P

  5. Live Attenuated Human Salmonella Vaccine Candidates: tracking the pathogen in natural infection and stimulation of host immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, James E.; Buskirk, Amanda D.; Tennant, Sharon M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis, caused by members of the genus Salmonella, is responsible for considerable global morbidity and mortality, in both animals and humans. In this review, we will discuss the pathogenesis of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, focusing on human Salmonella infections. We will trace the path of Salmonella through the body, including host entry sites, tissues and organs affected, and mechanisms involved in both pathogenesis and stimulation of host immunity. Careful consideration of the natural progression of disease provides an important context in which attenuated live oral vaccines can be rationally designed and developed. With this in mind, we will describe a series of attenuated live oral vaccines that have been successfully tested in clinical trials and demonstrated to be both safe and highly immunogenic. The attenuation strategies summarized in this review offer important insights into further development of attenuated vaccines against other Salmonella for which live oral candidates are currently unavailable. PMID:27809955

  6. Reports of Outbreaks and Isolation on Salmonella Spp. in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Constanza Pérez Rubiano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The foodborne diseases are currently one of the problems with great socio-economic impact in the world. According to the Pan American Health Organization, the foodborne diseases are within the five leading causes of death in children under five years in Latin America and the Caribbean. Among the etiologic agents most involved in outbreaks of foodborne diseases is Salmonella spp., this pathogen has often been associated with diarrheal diseases worldwide, caused by the consumption of contaminated food and causes the most prevalent zoonosis in developed countries. The numbers of records of these diseases in some countries, especially those in the developing world, are deficient because information systems as SIRVETA just recently have developed strategies to improve the detection of outbreaks and isolates of foodborne diseases. However, there are still some gaps in the registration and notification procedures. The present review covers general aspects of Salmonella spp., outbreaks and isolates, most frequently reported serotypes and distribution, and behavior of this microorganism to antimicrobial found in Colombia and indicates some control programs and monitoring of Salmonella spp. which have been implemented in the country.

  7. SPECIFIC CONTROL OF SALMONELLA IN POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenov N.V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientifically based and clinically validated new tools and methods to combat Salmonella infection in poultry, allowing to ensure the safety and health safety products - eggs and poultry meat. The method of selective decontamination involves the use of bivalent bacteriophage that is based on highly selected phages Phagum Salmonella typhimurium and Phagum Salmonella enteritidis, as well as probiotic laktobifadola. The developed tools and methods of selective decontamination followed by immunization with inactivated vaccine associated "Virosalm" allows you to eliminate salmonella infection in poultry.

  8. Modeling the inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis on poultry products exposed to pulsed UV light

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keklik, Nene M; Demirci, Ali; Puri, Virendra M; Heinemann, Paul H

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed UV light inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium on unpackaged and vacuum-packaged chicken breast, Listeria monocytogenes on unpackaged and vacuum-packaged chicken frankfurters, and Salmonella...

  9. Genetic diversity of Salmonella pathogenicity islands SPI-5 and SPI-6 in Salmonella Newport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guojie; Allard, Marc; Strain, Errol; Stones, Robert; Zhao, Shaohua; Brown, Eric; Meng, Jianghong

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Newport is one of the common serotypes causing foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks in the United States. Salmonella Newport consists of three lineages exhibiting extensive genetic diversity. Due to the importance of Salmonella pathogenicity islands 5 and 6 (SPI-5 and SPI-6) in virulence of pathogenic Salmonella, the genetic diversity of these two SPIs may relate to different potentials of Salmonella Newport pathogenicity. Most Salmonella Newport strains from North America belong to Salmonella Newport lineages II and III. A total 28 Salmonella Newport strains of lineages II and III from diverse sources and geographic locations were analyzed, and 11 additional Salmonella genomes were used as outgroup in phylogenetic analyses. SPI-5 was identified in all Salmonella Newport strains and 146 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected. Thirty-nine lineage-defining SNPs were identified, including 18 nonsynonymous SNPs. Two 40-kb genomic islands (SPI5-GI1 and SPI5-GI2) encoding bacteriophage genes were found between tRNA-ser and pipA. SPI5-GI1 was only present in Salmonella Newport multidrug-resistant strains of lineage II. SPI-6 was found in all strains but three Asian strains in Salmonella Newport lineage II, whereas the three Asian strains carried genomic island SPI6-GI1 at the same locus as SPI-6 in other Salmonella. SPI-6 exhibited 937 SNPs, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that clustering of Salmonella Newport isolates was a reflection of their geographic origins. The sequence diversity within SPI-5 and SPI-6 suggests possible recombination events and different virulence potentials of Salmonella Newport. The SNPs could be used as biomarkers during epidemiological investigations.

  10. Evaluation of a serological Salmonella Mix-ELISA for poultry used in a national surveillance programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Niels Christian; Ekeroth, Lars; Gradel, K.O.

    2000-01-01

    of bacteriological monitoring with negative results were used for calculating the flock and individual test specificities, which were 0.997 and 0.999, respectively. Layer flocks from the table egg sector were used for calculation of positive predictive values. In the survey, flocks were examined for salmonella...... by Mix-ELISA and by faecal culture, and in case of a positive result in either of these a repeated, serological testing was performed, and 60 animals were organ-cultured. If one of these samplings was positive, the flock was declared salmonella infected. In a period of 3 months, 35 flocks were found...

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mąka, Łukasz; Popowska, Magdalena

    This review summarizes current data on resistance among Salmonella spp. isolates of food origin from countries in different regions of the world. The mechanisms of resistance to different groups of antimicrobial compounds are also considered. Among strains resistant to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones the most prevalent mechanism is amino acid substitutions in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of genes gyrA, parC but mechanism of growing importance is plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) associated with genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS but frequency of their detection is different. Resistance to sulfonamides is mostly associated with genes sul1 and sul2, while resistance to trimethoprim is associated with various variants of dhfr ( dfr) genes. Taking into account Salmonella spp. strains isolated from food, resistance to β-lactams is commonly associated with β-lactamases encoding by blaTEM genes. However strains ESBL and AmpC – positive are also detected. Resistance to aminoglicosides is commonly result of enzymatic inactivation. Three types of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme are: acetyltransferases (AAC), adenyltransferases (ANT) and phosphotransferases (APH). Resistance to tetracyclines among Salmonella spp. isolated from food is most commonly associated with active efflux. Among numerous genetic determinants encoding efflux pumps tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetE and tetG are reported predominatingly. One of the most common mechanisms of resistance against chloramphenicol is its inactivation by chloramphenicol acetyltrasferases (CATs), but resistance to this compound can be also mediated by chloramphenicol efflux pumps encoded by the genes cmlA and floR. It is important to monitor resistance of Salmonella isolated from food, because the globalization of trade, leading to the long-distance

  12. Evidence from the UK Zoonoses Action Plan in favour of localised anomalies of Salmonella infection on United Kingdom pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Helen E; Fenton, Sarah E; French, Nigel P; Miller, Alexander J; Cook, Alasdair J C

    2009-05-01

    Salmonella spp. are important food-borne pathogens. Abattoir studies demonstrated that almost a quarter of British finisher pigs might carry Salmonella, which led to the introduction by the British Pig Executive of their Zoonoses Action Plan (ZAP) to monitor the Salmonella status of United Kingdom pig farms by testing meat juice samples using an ELISA system. We used the K-function and approaches from the field of geostatistics to study routine data from ZAP. We demonstrated that there is statistical evidence that geographically localized anomalies of Salmonella infection were present in one of three regions studied. The physical mechanisms underlying this structure remain unclear: spatial structure might be present as a result of shared spatially structured (second-order) or non-spatially structured (first-order) risk factors, transmission processes, or a combination of both. We have demonstrated a way to use routinely collected surveillance data to enhance the knowledge of spatial disease epidemiology.

  13. In vivo regulation of the Vi antigen in Salmonella and induction of immune responses with an in vivo-inducible promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Carole; Grant, Andrew J; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Morgan, Fiona J E; John, Victoria F; Houghton, Jenny; Kingsley, Robert A; Dougan, Gordon; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the agent of typhoid fever in humans, expresses the surface Vi polysaccharide antigen that contributes to virulence. However, Vi expression can also be detrimental to some key steps of S. Typhi infectivity, for example, invasion, and Vi is the target of protective immune responses. We used a strain of S. Typhimurium carrying the whole Salmonella pathogenicity island 7 (SPI-7) to monitor in vivo Vi expression within phagocytic cells of mice at different times after systemic infection. We also tested whether it is possible to modulate Vi expression via the use of in vivo-inducible promoters and whether this would trigger anti-Vi antibodies through the use of Vi-expressing live bacteria. Our results show that Vi expression in the liver and spleen is downregulated with the progression of infection and that the Vi-negative population of bacteria becomes prevalent by day 4 postinfection. Furthermore, we showed that replacing the natural tviA promoter with the promoter of the SPI-2 gene ssaG resulted in sustained Vi expression in the tissues. Intravenous or oral infection of mice with a strain of S. Typhimurium expressing Vi under the control of the ssaG promoter triggered detectable levels of all IgG subclasses specific for Vi. Our work highlights that Vi is downregulated in vivo and provides proof of principle that it is possible to generate a live attenuated vaccine that induces Vi-specific antibodies after single oral administration.

  14. Procalcitonin levels in salmonella infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Procalcitonin (PCT as a diagnostic marker for bacteremia and sepsis has been extensively studied. We aimed to study PCT levels in Salmonella infections whether they would serve as marker for early diagnosis in endemic areas to start empiric treatment while awaiting blood culture report. Materials and Methods: BACTEC blood culture was used to isolate Salmonella in suspected enteric fever patients. Serum PCT levels were estimated before starting treatment. Results: In 60 proven enteric fever patients, median value of serum PCT levels was 0.22 ng/ml, values ranging between 0.05 and 4 ng/ml. 95% of patients had near normal or mild increase (<0.5 ng/ml, only 5% of patients showed elevated levels. Notably, high PCT levels were found only in severe sepsis. Conclusion: PCT levels in Salmonella infections are near normal or minimally increased which differentiates it from other systemic Gram-negative infections. PCT cannot be used as a specific diagnostic marker of typhoid.

  15. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from pig farms in Ibadan, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fashae, Kayode; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2014-01-01

    reaction. The 229 Salmonella isolates were made of 50 serovars predominated by rare serovars Salmonella Give (n = 36; 15.7 %), Salmonella Brancaster (n = 17; 7.4 %), Salmonella Colindale (n = 15; 6.6 %), Salmonella Elisaberthville (n = 13; 5.7 %), Salmonella Hillingdon (n = 13; 5.7 %), and Salmonella...

  16. The effect of clinical outbreaks of salmonellosis on the prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding among dairy cattle in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Warnick, Lorin D; Elton, Mara; Gröhn, Yrjo T; McDonough, Patrick L; Siler, Julie D

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the within-herd prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding is higher in dairy herds with clinical outbreaks of disease, as compared to herds with subclinical infections only. Data were collected prospectively from dairy herds throughout New York that had at least 150 lactating cows and that received clinical service from participating veterinarians. After enrollment, Salmonella surveillance consisted of both environmental screening and disease monitoring within the herd. Herds positive by either environmental or fecal culture were sampled during three visits to estimate the within-herd prevalence of Salmonella. We characterized isolates by serovar and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Among 57 enrolled herds, 44 (77%) yielded Salmonella-positive samples during the study period; 27 (61%) of the positive herds had Salmonella isolated from environmental samples only, and 17 (39%) had one or more laboratory-confirmed clinical cases. The within-herd prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding ranged from 0 to 53%. Salmonella Cerro was the predominant serovar, accounting for 56% of all isolates. Antimicrobial resistance ranged from zero to nine drugs, and 14 (32%) of the positive farms generated multidrug-resistant isolates. Herds with laboratory-confirmed clinical cases had a higher prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding than herds that only generated positive environmental samples, as estimated by a Poisson regression model (prevalence ratio, 2.7; p = 0.01). An association between dairy herd outbreaks of salmonellosis and a higher prevalence of asymptomatic shedding should help guide strategies for reducing the public health threat of Salmonella, as the ability to recognize high-risk herds by clinical laboratory submissions presents an obvious opportunity to maximize food safety at the preharvest level. This is in contrast with other foodborne zoonotic pathogens, such as Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O157:H7, which

  17. FAKTOR VIRULENSI Salmonella enterica SEROVAR TYPHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvy Khrisna Pranamartha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Demam tifoid disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi, dengan gejala umum berupa demam tinggi dan nyeri perut. Tifoid adalah penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi, yang masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui mulut dan saluran cerna.1 Untuk bisa memahami patogenesis dari demam tifoid sampai ke tingkat selular dan molekular, ada 5 hal penting yang harus digaris bawahi, yaitu: 1.\tTipe 3 Sistem Sekresi (T3SS 2.\tVirulence Genes dari Salmonella yang mengkode 5 SIP (Salmonella Invasion Protein SIP A, B, C, D, dan E. 3.\tToll R2 dan toll R3 yang merupakan lapisan luar dari makrofag. 4.\tSistem imun lumen usus sampai ke organ dalam 5.\tFungsi endotelial sel dalam inflamasi. Infeksi Salmonella dapat berakibat fatal kepada bayi, balita, ibu hamil dan kandungannya serta orang lanjut usia. Hal ini disebabkan karena kekebalan tubuh mereka yang menurun. Virulensi salmonella tidak lepas dari peranan SPI, yang terletak di dalam kromosom dan plasmid bakteri. Dimana SPI 1 dan SPI 2 telah dikaji cukup mendalam karena keterkaitannya dengan T3SS, dan berperan sangat penting pada invasi awal serta siklus hidup intrasel dari bakteri Salmonella. Kontaminasi Salmonella dapat dicegah dengan mencuci tangan dan menjaga kebersihan makanan yang dikonsumsi. Selalu menjaga kebersihan lingkungan hidup kita agar terhindar dari kontaminasi dengan bakteri Salmonella typhi. Agar mewaspadai sejak dini pencegahan dan pengobatan penyakit typhus. Studi mendalam perlu dilakukan agar kita mampu lebih memahami proses kompleks antara patogen dan sel inang. Mengingat dari 15 SPI yang sudah diketahui, hanya SPI 1 dan SPI 2 yang sudah dikaji secara mendalam. Kata Kunci: Salmonella, Salmonella Invasion Protein, Typhi.

  18. A Carbon Monitoring System Approach to US Coastal Wetland Carbon Fluxes: Progress Towards a Tier II Accounting Method with Uncertainty Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Holmquist, J. R.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Byrd, K. B.; Callaway, J.; Crooks, S.; Drexler, J. Z.; Feagin, R. A.; Ferner, M. C.; Gonneea, M. E.; Kroeger, K. D.; Megonigal, P.; Morris, J. T.; Schile, L. M.; Simard, M.; Sutton-Grier, A.; Takekawa, J.; Troxler, T.; Weller, D.; Woo, I.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their high rates of long-term carbon (C) sequestration when compared to upland ecosystems, coastal C accounting is only recently receiving the attention of policy makers and carbon markets. Assessing accuracy and uncertainty in net C flux estimates requires both direct and derived measurements based on both short and long term dynamics in key drivers, particularly soil accretion rates and soil organic content. We are testing the ability of remote sensing products and national scale datasets to estimate biomass and soil stocks and fluxes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. For example, the 2013 Wetlands Supplement to the 2006 IPCC GHG national inventory reporting guidelines requests information on development of Tier I-III reporting, which express increasing levels of detail. We report progress toward development of a Carbon Monitoring System for "blue carbon" that may be useful for IPCC reporting guidelines at Tier II levels. Our project uses a current dataset of publically available and contributed field-based measurements to validate models of changing soil C stocks, across a broad range of U.S. tidal wetland types and landuse conversions. Additionally, development of biomass algorithms for both radar and spectral datasets will be tested and used to determine the "price of precision" of different satellite products. We discuss progress in calculating Tier II estimates focusing on variation introduced by the different input datasets. These include the USFWS National Wetlands Inventory, NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program, and combinations to calculate tidal wetland area. We also assess the use of different attributes and depths from the USDA-SSURGO database to map soil C density. Finally, we examine the relative benefit of radar, spectral and hybrid approaches to biomass mapping in tidal marshes and mangroves. While the US currently plans to report GHG emissions at a Tier I level, we argue that a Tier II analysis is possible due to national

  19. Development of protein biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (SRM-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS. It involves damage to the myelin sheath surrounding axons and to the axons themselves. MS most often presents with a series of relapses and remissions but then evolves over a variable period of time into a slowly progressive form of neurological dysfunction termed secondary progressive MS (SPMS. The reasons for this change in clinical presentation are unclear. The absence of a diagnostic marker means that there is a lag time of several years before the diagnosis of SPMS can be established. At the same time, understanding the mechanisms that underlie SPMS is critical to the development of rational therapies for this untreatable stage of the disease. Results Using high performance liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC; we have established a highly specific and sensitive selected reaction monitoring (SRM assay. Our multiplexed SRM assay has facilitated the simultaneous detection of surrogate peptides originating from 26 proteins present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Protein levels in CSF were generally ~200-fold lower than that in human sera. A limit of detection (LOD was determined to be as low as one femtomol. We processed and analysed CSF samples from a total of 22 patients with SPMS, 7 patients with SPMS treated with lamotrigine, 12 patients with non-inflammatory neurological disorders (NIND and 10 healthy controls (HC for the levels of these 26 selected potential protein biomarkers. Our SRM data found one protein showing significant difference between SPMS and HC, three proteins differing between SPMS and NIND, two proteins between NIND and HC, and 11 protein biomarkers showing significant difference between a lamotrigine-treated and untreated SPMS group. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed that these 26 proteins were correlated, and could be represented by four principal components. Overall, we established an

  20. Persistence of Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 in Soil Enhanced after Growth in Lettuce Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelia Smalla

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of Salmonella in the environment is influenced by a multitude of biotic and abiotic factors. In addition, its persistence can be influenced by preadaptation before the introduction into the environment. In order to study how preadaptation changes the survival of Salmonella in soil and therefore its potential to colonize the phytosphere, we developed a new medium based on lettuce material [lettuce medium (LM]. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 was used as a model for Salmonella in this study. LT2 was inoculated into soil microcosms after pregrowth in Luria Bertani (LB broth or in LM. Survival of LT2 in soil was monitored over 56 days by plate counts and quantification of the Typhimurium-specific gene STM4497 using qPCR in total community DNA for which primers and TaqMan probe were designed in this study. Significantly enhanced persistence was observed for LT2 pregrown in LM compared to LT2 pregrown in LB, indicating a preadaptation effect. Surprisingly, no improved survival could be observed for S. Typhimurium strain 14028s and S. enterica serovar Senftenberg after pregrowth on LM. This indicates a high strain specificity of preadaptation. Results from previous studies suggested that biofilm formation could enhance the survival of human pathogens in various environments and might contribute to enhanced survival on plants. In vitro biofilm assays with several Salmonella strains revealed a strain-specific effect of LM on the biofilm formation. While LM significantly improved the biofilm formation of S. Senftenberg, the biofilm formation of LT2 was better in LB. This indicates that the better survival of LM-pregrown LT2 in soil was not linked to an improved ability to form biofilms but was likely due to other factors. Most importantly, this study showed that the medium used to pregrow Salmonella can influence its survival in soil and its biofilm formation which might influence the fate of Salmonella in soil.

  1. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in retail aquaculture products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Kuang, Dai; Shi, Xianming; Xiao, Wenjia; Zhang, Jing; Gu, Zhen; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-10-01

    Aquaculture products can become sources of Salmonella by exposure to contaminated water or through processing practices, thus representing a public health hazard. A study was conducted on Salmonella contamination in aquaculture products sampled from marketplaces and retailers in Shanghai, China. A total of 730 samples (including fish, shellfish, bullfrog, clam, shrimp and others) were obtained from 2006 to 2011. Among them, 217 (29.7%) were positive for Salmonella. Thirty-eight serovars were identified in the 217 Salmonella isolates. The most prevalent were Salmonella Aberdeen (18.4%), S. Wandsworth (12.0%), S. Thompson (9.2%), S. Singapore (5.5%), S. Stanley (4.6%), S. Schwarzengrund (4.6%), S. Hvittingfoss (4.1%) and S. Typhimurium (4.1%). Many resistant isolates were detected, with 69.6% resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug. We observed high resistance to sulfonamides (56.5%), tetracycline (34.1%), streptomycin (28.6%), ampicillin (23.5%) and nalidixic acid (21.2%). Lower levels of resistance were found for gentamicin (3.2%), ciprofloxacin (2.3%), ceftiofur (1.3%), cefotaxime (0.9%), ceftazidime (0.5%) and cefepime (0.5%). A total of 43.3% of the Salmonella isolates were multidrug-resistant and 44 different resistance patterns were found. This study provided data on the prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from retail aquaculture products in Shanghai, and indicated the need for monitoring programs for microbiologic safety in such projects and for more prudent drug use in aquaculture production in order to reduce the risk of development and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  2. The incidence of Salmonella in random-source cats purchased for use in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Beaucage, C M

    1979-03-01

    In research facilities, cats are routinely ignored as a potential source of salmonella infection. Over a period of 18 months, 142 cats received from commercial vendors for use in research were screened for enteric Salmonella. Salmonella was isolated from 15 animals, an incidence of 10.6%. Five (29%) of the 17 shipments contained animals that were positive for Salmonella. The serotypes isolated were Salmonella derby, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella bredeney.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne disease outbreaks: United States, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A C; Grass, J E; Richardson, L C; Nisler, A L; Bicknese, A S; Gould, L H

    2017-03-01

    Although most non-typhoidal Salmonella illnesses are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment is critical for invasive infections. To describe resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne outbreaks in the United States, we linked outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to isolate susceptibility data in the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Resistant outbreaks were defined as those linked to one or more isolates with resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug. Multidrug resistant (MDR) outbreaks had at least one isolate resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Twenty-one per cent (37/176) of linked outbreaks were resistant. In outbreaks attributed to a single food group, 73% (16/22) of resistant outbreaks and 46% (31/68) of non-resistant outbreaks were attributed to foods from land animals (P foodborne Salmonella outbreaks can help determine which foods are associated with resistant infections.

  4. Salmonella typhimurium infection in total knee arthroplasty: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeesh Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is a rare cause of prosthetic joint infection (PJI. The recognized predisposing risk factors for Salmonella septic arthritis include diabetes mellitus, renal failure, human immunodeficiency virus infection and chronic corticosteroid use. We describe a case of PJI of the knee in a 74-year-old lady who was on antitubercular treatment. The patient presented with discharging sinus and raised inflammatory markers. She was successfully treated by the removal of prosthesis and debridement followed by ciprofloxacin therapy for 6 weeks. This case report highlights the potential virulence of Salmonella in immunocompromised patient with a joint prosthesis. Continuous monitoring and close collaboration of microbiologists and orthopedicians helped obtain the resolution of infection in our patient.

  5. Horse species symposium: a novel approach to monitoring pathogen progression during uterine and placental infection in the mare using bioluminescence imaging technology and lux-modified bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, P L; Christiansen, D L; Hopper, R M; Walters, F K; Moulton, K; Curbelo, J; Greene, J M; Willard, S T

    2011-05-01

    Uterine and placental infections are the leading cause of abortion, stillbirth, and preterm delivery in the mare. Whereas uterine and placental infections in women have been studied extensively, a comprehensive examination of the pathogenic processes leading to this unsatisfactory pregnancy outcome in the mare has yet to be completed. Most information in the literature relating to late-term pregnancy loss in mares is based on retrospective studies of clinical cases submitted for necropsy. Here we report the development and application of a novel approach, whereby transgenically modified bacteria transformed with lux genes of Xenorhabdus luminescens or Photorhabdus luminescens origin and biophotonic imaging are utilized to better understand pathogen-induced preterm birth in late-term pregnant mares. This technology uses highly sensitive bioluminescence imaging camera systems to localize and monitor pathogen progression during tissue invasion by measuring the bioluminescent signatures emitted by the lux-modified pathogens. This method has an important advantage in that it allows for the potential tracking of pathogens in vivo in real time and over time, which was hitherto impossible. Although the application of this technology in domestic animals is in its infancy, investigators were successful in identifying the fetal lungs, sinuses, nares, urinary, and gastrointestinal systems as primary tissues for pathogen invasion after experimental infection of pregnant mares with lux-modified Escherichia coli. It is important that pathogens were not detected in other vital organs, such as the liver, brain, and cardiac system. Such precision in localizing sites of pathogen invasion provides potential application for this novel approach in the development of more targeted therapeutic interventions for pathogen-related diseases in the equine and other domestic species.

  6. Adaptation to bile in salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Piñero, Sara Belén

    2013-01-01

    Las bacterias pertenecientes al género Salmonella son patógenos Gramnegativos capaces de infectar una gran variedad de animales. En humanos, la infección por Salmonella suele comenzar con la ingestión de agua o alimentos contaminados, y puede dar lugar a

  7. Anaerobiosis induced virulence of Salmonella typhi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Sarika; Singh, R D; Sharma, P C

    2002-01-01

    , we examined the effect of anaerobiosis on the virulence of Salmonella Typhi, a Gram negative bacteria which invades through the gut mucosa and is responsible for typhoid fever. METHODS: Salmonella Typhi (ty2) was cultured in aerobic and anaerobic conditions to compare its virulence by rabbit ileal...

  8. Incidence of Salmonella Infantis in poultry meat and products and the resistance of isolates to antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaba, V.; Golić, B.; Sladojević, Ž.; Kalaba, D.

    2017-09-01

    Globalisation, climate change, changes in eating habits and the food industry, modern animal husbandry and market demands often have a negative impact on quality assurance, food safety and animal health. After the eradication of some zoonotic diseases that previously often jeopardized the human population, today in developed countries, the focus is mainly on the control of zoonoses transmitted by food. Salmonella is one of the most common pathogens that can be transmitted from animals to humans, and its reservoirs are poultry, cattle and pigs, so one transmission route to humans is from contaminated food of animal origin. Multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella, which can transfer their resistance genes to other microorganisms, are considered a serious threat to public health. Control of Salmonella primarily depends on a good monitoring system and knowledge of the presence of serovars and strains in an epizootiological area. During the first nine months of 2016, 1321 samples of poultry meat and products were examined, among which 108 harboured Salmonella. Altogether, 29 of the 108 isolates (26.85%) were Salmonella Infantis. For all 29 S. Infantis isolates, antimicrobial resistance was tested by the disc diffusion method. The isolates showed 100% resistance to amoxicillin, and nalidixic acid.

  9. Salmonella Infection Enhances Erythropoietin Production by the Kidney and Liver, Which Correlates with Elevated Bacterial Burdens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Xi; Benoun, Joseph M; Weiskopf, Kipp; Garcia, K Christopher; McSorley, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    Salmonella infection profoundly affects host erythroid development, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect remain poorly understood. We monitored the impact of Salmonella infection on erythroid development and found that systemic infection induced anemia, splenomegaly, elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels, and extramedullary erythropoiesis in a process independent of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) or flagellin. The circulating EPO level was also constitutively higher in mice lacking the expression of signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα). The expression level of EPO mRNA was elevated in the kidney and liver but not increased in the spleens of infected mice despite the presence of extramedullary erythropoiesis in this tissue. In contrast to data from a previous report, mice lacking EPO receptor (EPOR) expression on nonerythroid cells (EPOR rescued) had bacterial loads similar to those of wild-type mice following Salmonella infection. Indeed, treatment to reduce splenic erythroblasts and mature red blood cells correlated with elevated bacterial burdens, implying that extramedullary erythropoiesis benefits the host. Together, these findings emphasize the profound effect of Salmonella infection on erythroid development and suggest that the modulation of erythroid development has both positive and negative consequences for host immunity.

  10. Salmonella Infection Enhances Erythropoietin Production by the Kidney and Liver, Which Correlates with Elevated Bacterial Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Xi; Benoun, Joseph M.; Weiskopf, Kipp; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella infection profoundly affects host erythroid development, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect remain poorly understood. We monitored the impact of Salmonella infection on erythroid development and found that systemic infection induced anemia, splenomegaly, elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels, and extramedullary erythropoiesis in a process independent of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) or flagellin. The circulating EPO level was also constitutively higher in mice lacking the expression of signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα). The expression level of EPO mRNA was elevated in the kidney and liver but not increased in the spleens of infected mice despite the presence of extramedullary erythropoiesis in this tissue. In contrast to data from a previous report, mice lacking EPO receptor (EPOR) expression on nonerythroid cells (EPOR rescued) had bacterial loads similar to those of wild-type mice following Salmonella infection. Indeed, treatment to reduce splenic erythroblasts and mature red blood cells correlated with elevated bacterial burdens, implying that extramedullary erythropoiesis benefits the host. Together, these findings emphasize the profound effect of Salmonella infection on erythroid development and suggest that the modulation of erythroid development has both positive and negative consequences for host immunity. PMID:27456828

  11. Development of RNA aptamers for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Choi, In-Soo; Park, Chankyu; Kim, Dong-Eun; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2012-04-01

    We developed and evaluated RNA aptamers to analyze their potential for use in detecting Salmonella Enteritidis. The selected aptamer was observed to specifically bind to Salmonella Enteritidis without any cross-reactivity to other Salmonella serovars. Thus, this study suggests that aptamers specific to Salmonella Enteritidis have a high potential for use in presumptive presumptive screening methods or alternative serotyping methods.

  12. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Agnès; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chaussé, Anne-Marie; Schikora, Adam; Velge, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica species are Gram-negative bacteria, which are responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruits with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i) attachment to host surfaces; (ii) entry processes; (iii) multiplication; (iv) suppression of host defense mechanisms; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections. PMID:25653644

  13. Significance of salmonella in pork production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabasil Neđeljko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals, feed, meat and meat products are often transported across long distances, being an important part of international trade, which enables a dissemination of salmonella, including even of some resistant strains. Pigs are animals which are difficult to manipulate because of their temperament, build, sharp teeth, irritability, good sense of smell, bad sight and their sensitivity to stress. Animals coming from different farms should be separated in stock yards to prevent both contamination with pathogens such as salmonella and their irritation and aggressiveness caused by contacts with other pigs. These animals are usually a significant reservoir of salmonella which are 'inside' the gastrointestinal tract and gut associated lymph tissue. In contrast to our country, in the EU, even countries which have always had low salmonella prevalence, e.g. Finland, have a control program. The program has to be based on a guarantee that all relevant factors will participate in the prevention of salmonella contamination.

  14. Interactions of Salmonella with animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Agnès; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chaussé, Anne-Marie; Schikora, Adam; Velge, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica species are Gram-negative bacteria, which are responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases in both humans and animals, thereby posing a major threat to public health. Recently, there has been an increasing number of reports, linking Salmonella contaminated raw vegetables and fruits with food poisoning. Many studies have shown that an essential feature of the pathogenicity of Salmonella is its capacity to cross a number of barriers requiring invasion of a large variety of cells and that the extent of internalization may be influenced by numerous factors. However, it is poorly understood how Salmonella successfully infects hosts as diversified as animals or plants. The aim of this review is to describe the different stages required for Salmonella interaction with its hosts: (i) attachment to host surfaces; (ii) entry processes; (iii) multiplication; (iv) suppression of host defense mechanisms; and to point out similarities and differences between animal and plant infections.

  15. Pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of food-borne diseases worldwide. Animal models other than the mouse have been employed for the study of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections because the murine model is not suitable for the study of Salmonella-induced diarrhea. The microbe has developed mechanisms to exploit the host cell machinery to its own purpose. Bacterial proteins delivered directly into the host cell cytosol cause cytoskeletal changes and interfere with host cell signaling pathways, which ultimately enhance disease manifestation. Recently, marked advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular interactions between Salmonella serotypes and their hosts. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis.

  16. Salmonella - at home in the host cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti eMalik Kale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica has developed an array of sophisticated tools to manipulate the host cell and establish an intracellular niche, for successful propagation as a facultative intracellular pathogen. While Salmonella exerts diverse effects on its host cell, only the cell biology of the classic trigger-mediated invasion process and the subsequent development of the Salmonella-containing vacuole have been investigated extensively. These processes are dependent on cohorts of effector proteins translocated into host cells by two type III secretion systems (T3SS, although T3SS-independent mechanisms of entry may be important for invasion of certain host cell-types. Recent studies into the intracellular lifestyle of Salmonella have provided new insights into the mechanisms used by this pathogen to modulate its intracellular environment. Here we discuss current knowledge of Salmonella-host interactions including invasion and establishment of an intracellular niche within the host.

  17. Interaction between Salmonella and Schistosomiasis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Amber; Toy, Trevor; Marks, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between schistosomiasis and Salmonella is a particularly important issue in Africa, where dual infection by the parasite and the bacterium are likely common. In this review, the ways in which schistosomiasis affects human biology as it relates to Salmonella are described. Those who are infected by both organisms experience reduced immunological functioning, exhibit irreversible organ damage due to prolonged schistosomiasis infection, and become latent carriers of Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi and S. Typhimurium. The sequestration of the bacteria in the parasite leads to ineffective antibiotic treatment because the bacteria cannot be completely killed, and lingering infection may then lead to antimicrobial resistance. These manifestations are likely not just for those dually infected but also for those first infected with schistosomes and, later, Salmonella. More data are needed to better understand dual infection, particularly as it may impact treatment and prevention of schistosomiasis and Salmonella in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27907208

  18. Compilation of 1985 annual reports of the Navy elf (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological monitoring program. Volume 1. Tabs A-C. Annual progress report, January-December 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.; Bruhn, J.; Cattelino, P.; Fuller, L.; Jurgensen, M.

    1986-07-01

    This is the fourth compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of ten studies performed during 1985 at the Wisconsin and Michigan Transmitting Facilities. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships. This volume consists of three reports: Herbaceous Plant Cover and Tree Studies; Litter Decomposition and Microflora; and The Effects of Exposing the Slime MOld Physarum polycephalum to Electromagnetic Fields.

  19. VOC-based metabolic profiling for food spoilage detection with the application to detecting Salmonella typhimurium-contaminated pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Cheung, William; Winder, Catherine L; Goodacre, Royston

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using a novel volatile organic compound (VOC)-based metabolic profiling approach with a newly devised chemometrics methodology which combined rapid multivariate analysis on total ion currents with in-depth peak deconvolution on selected regions to characterise the spoilage progress of pork. We also tested if such approach possessed enough discriminatory information to differentiate natural spoiled pork from pork contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium, a food poisoning pathogen commonly recovered from pork products. Spoilage was monitored in this study over a 72-h period at 0-, 24-, 48- and 72-h time points after the artificial contamination with the salmonellae. At each time point, the VOCs from six individual pork chops were collected for spoiled vs. contaminated meat. Analysis of the VOCs was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The data generated by GC/MS analysis were initially subjected to multivariate analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-block PCA. The loading plots were then used to identify regions in the chromatograms which appeared important to the separation shown in the PCA/multi-block PCA scores plot. Peak deconvolution was then performed only on those regions using a modified hierarchical multivariate curve resolution procedure for curve resolution to generate a concentration profiles matrix C and the corresponding pure spectra matrix S. Following this, the pure mass spectra (S) of the peaks in those region were exported to NIST 02 mass library for chemical identification. A clear separation between the two types of samples was observed from the PCA models, and after deconvolution and univariate analysis using N-way ANOVA, a total of 16 significant metabolites were identified which showed difference between natural spoiled pork and those contaminated with S. typhimurium.

  20. Pontos críticos de controle de Salmonella spp. no abate de frangos Critical control points for Salmonella spp. in poultry slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A.S. Von Rückert

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de Salmonella spp. em esfregaços superficiais em 135 carcaças de frangos, coletadas em cinco diferentes fases do abate, utilizando os métodos de microbiologia convencional, reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR e imunoanálise. Os três métodos resultaram em tendência semelhante de detecção de Salmonella spp. nas carcaças de frango, ao longo da linha de abate. A maior frequência de Salmonella spp. foi determinada após o chuveiro de lavagem das carcaças, localizado entre a evisceração e o pré-resfriamento. Vinte (14,8% esfregaços foram determinados pela metodologia convencional, 52 (38,5% pela PCR e 66 (48,8% pela imunoanálise. A menor contaminação foi encontrada na saída do pré-resfriamento, com frequências de 3,7%, 0% e 16,7%, respectivamente. Salmonella spp. foi encontrada em todas as fases de abate, mostrando a importância do monitoramento de diferentes pontos críticos de controle eventualmente identificados no abate de frangos.The presence of Salmonella spp. in superficial swabs collected from 135 chicken carcasses in five different slaugther steps using the conventional microbiology, PCR, and immunoanalysis methods was evaluated. The three methods presented similar tendency to detect Salmonella spp. in the chicken carcasses along the slaugther line. The highest frequency of Salmonella spp. was found after the shower, located between the evisceration and the chiller. Twenty (14.8% swabes were determined by the conventional methodology, 52 (38.9% by the PCR, and 66 (48.9% by the immunoanalysis. The lowest contamination was found after chiller tank, where the frequencies were 5 (3.7%, 0 (0%, and 24 (16.7%, respectively. Salmonella spp. was found in all the slaugther steps. This shows the importance for monitoring different CCP (Control Critical Point in the poultry slaughterhouses.

  1. Surveillance and cross contamination of salmonella spp., in pork, with profiles of nalidixic acid resistance in salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Colm

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen and porcine products are an important source. With this in mind, pork sausages were surveyed for Salmonella prevalence. Sausages were sampled during August-December 2008, none of which were positive for Salmonella. As an alternative porcine source of salmonella, 102 pig ear pet treats were surveyed from October 2008 to September 2009. Salmonella was detected in 24.5% of treats using a culture detection method and 28.4% u...

  2. Prediction of Salmonella carcass contamination by a comparative quantitative analysis of E. coli and Salmonella during pig slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Barfod, Kristen; Hald, Tine;

    2013-01-01

    carcass contamination with Salmonella, when the distribution of Salmonella concentrations in faeces is known. Paired pig sample data (faecal samples and carcass swabs) were obtained from five slaughterhouses and analysed for prevalence and concentrations of E. coli and Salmonella. A simple model...... extensive data set showed that other factors than the observed faecal carriage of Salmonella by the individual animals brought to slaughter, play a more important role in the Salmonella carcass contamination of pork....

  3. Pinellas County, Florida, Site Environmental Restoration Project Sitewide Environmental Monitoring Semiannual Progress Report for the Young - Rainey STAR Center June Through November 2016, January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surovchak, Scott [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Daniel, Joe [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Young - Rainey STAR Center (Science, Technology, and Research Center) at the Pinellas County, Florida, Site is a former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility constructed in the mid-1950s. The 96-acre STAR Center is located in Largo, Florida, and lies in the northeast quarter of Section 13, Township 30 South, Range 15 East (Figure 1). While it was owned by DOE, the purpose of the site was to develop and manufacture components for the nation’s nuclear weapons program. In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Assessment (EPA 1988) at the site to gather information on potential releases of hazardous materials. In February of 1990, EPA issued a Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments permit to DOE, requiring DOE to investigate and perform remediation activities in those areas designated as solid-waste management units (SWMUs) contaminated by hazardous materials resulting from DOE operations. A total of 17 SWMUs were identified and investigated at the STAR Center. By 1997, 13 of the 17 SWMUs had been remediated or approved for no further action. More recently, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) executed Conditional Site Rehabilitation Completion Orders for the Northeast Site and the Wastewater Neutralization Area on July 27, 2016, stating that no further action is required for those SWMUs. The Building 100 Area (a combination of the Old Drum Storage Site and the Building 100-Industrial Drain Leaks SWMUs) comprises the only two active SWMUs at the STAR Center (Figure 2). This document serves as the semiannual progress report for the SWMUs by providing the results of recent monitoring activities and a summary of ongoing and projected work. The STAR Center is owned by the Pinellas County Industrial Development Authority, but DOE is responsible for remediation activities at the site. Additional background information for the site is contained in the Long-Term Surveillance

  4. Herd level husbandry factors associated with the serological Salmonella prevalence in finishing pig herds in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wolf, P J; Wolbers, W B; Elbers, A R; van der Heijden, H M; Koppen, J M; Hunneman, W A; van Schie, F W; Tielen, M J

    2001-02-12

    A national program to reduce Salmonella in pork and pork products should include monitoring and intervention at farm level. To develop an adequate intervention strategy at farm level, risk factors for Salmonella infections in finishing pigs have to be determined. In this study, blood samples were collected randomly at two slaughterhouses from slaughter pigs. Samples were tested by the Dutch Salmonella ELISA, based on the O-antigens 1, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 12, using a cut-off of OD%=10. This ELISA has been calibrated against the Danish ELISA to give comparable results. Workers from herds from which at least forty blood samples had been collected, were asked to participate in a questionnaire. In total, 353 questionnaires were obtained and analysed. Significant risk factors associated with the proportion of seropositive samples were identified by multiple linear logistic regression. The feeding of a complete liquid feed containing fermented by-products and the omission of disinfection after pressure washing a compartment as part of an all-in/all-out procedure, were both associated with a lower Salmonella seroprevalence. A small to moderate herd size (feed, or herds which had more than 16% of the livers of their pigs condemned at the slaughterhouse as a result of white spots were associated with a higher Salmonella seroprevalence. Hypothetical intervention strategies based on these risk factors can be studied for their effect on the Salmonella seroprevalence and practical applicability in field studies.

  5. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P

    2007-11-01

    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of locally isolated Salmonella strains used in preparation of Salmonella antigens in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Mohammed Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work was conducted to study the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of locally isolated Salmonella strains (Salmonella Pullorum, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium from poultry used in the preparation of Salmonella antigens in Egypt. Materials and Methods: The phenotypic characterization of Salmonella strains was done using standard microbiological, biochemical, and serological techniques. Molecular identification was done using different sets of primers on different genes using different polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Results: The phenotypic characterization of Salmonella strains was confirmed. Molecular identification revealed detection of 284 bp fragment of InvA gene in all studied Salmonella strains. Furthermore, multiplex PCR was used for more confirmation of being Salmonella spp., generally at 429 bp as well as genotyping of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis at 559 and 312 bp, respectively, in one reaction. Conclusion: The locally isolated field Salmonella strains were confirmed phenotypically and genotypically to be Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium and could be used for the preparation of Salmonella antigens.

  7. EU Interlaboratory comparison study VIII on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Heisterkamp SH; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; MGB

    2006-01-01

    In 2004 werd door het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) het achtste bacteriologische ringonderzoek georganiseerd. Deelnemers van de studie waren de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRL's-Salmonella) van de EU lidstaten

  8. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for the rapid and sensitive detection of Salmonella typhimurium from pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techathuvanan, Chayapa; Draughon, Frances Ann; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2010-03-01

    Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) detects the presence of mRNA and has a greater potential for detecting viable pathogens than do DNA-based PCR assays, with improved speed and sensitivity compared with traditional methods. Our objective was to rapidly and sensitively detect Salmonella Typhimurium from pork within two 8-h work shifts using a SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR (rt-RT-PCR) assay. Pork chop and sausage samples (25 g) were inoculated with 10(8) to 10(0) CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium and stomached in 225 ml of tetrathionate broth. Serial dilutions were spread plated on xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar either immediately or after 10 h of selective preenrichment or preenrichment followed by 12 h of selective enrichment (for stressed cells) at 37 degrees C for standard cultural enumeration. RNA was extracted using the TRIzol method. The rt-RT-PCR assay was carried out in a Bio-Rad iCycler using a SYBR Green I one-step RT-PCR kit and Salmonella specific invA gene primers with an internal amplification control (IAC). The PCR was followed by melting temperature (T(m)) analysis to determine specific Salmonella invA (T(m) = 87.5 degrees C) and IAC (T(m) = 82 degrees C) products. Improved Salmonella detection up to 10(1) CFU/25 g of pork and 10(0) CFU/25 g of sausages was obtained after 10 h of enrichment within approximately 24 h. Even without enrichment, Salmonella could be detected from both pork chop and sausage at 10(6) CFU/25 g within 1 day. This robust rt-RT-PCR detects and confirms Salmonella in pork within approximately 24 h and thus is significantly faster than traditional methods that take >/=1 week. This assay shows promise for routine testing and monitoring of Salmonella by the pork industry.

  9. Pleural Empyema due to Group D Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Kam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-typhi Salmonella normally presents as a bacteremia, enterocolitis, and endovascular infection but rarely manifests as pleuropulmonary disease. We present a case of a 66-year-old female with underlying pulmonary pathology, secondary to an extensive smoking history, who presented with a left-sided pleural effusion. The causative agent was identified as being group D Salmonella. Decortication of the lung was performed and the patient was discharged on antibiotics with resolution of her symptoms. This case helps to support the inclusion of Salmonella group D as a possible etiological agent of infection in the differential causes of exudative pleural effusions.

  10. Unveiling ubiquitinome rearrangements induced by Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionda, Tihana; Behrends, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Ubiquitination plays a critical role in the activation of host immune responses to infection and serves as a signal for pathogen delivery to phagophores along the xenophagy pathway. We recently performed systematic ubiquitination site profiling of epithelial cells infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Our findings specifically highlight components of the NFKB, membrane trafficking pathways and RHO GTPase systems as ubiquitination hubs during infection. In addition, a broad spectrum of bacterial effectors and several outer membrane proteins are ubiquitinated in infected cells. This comprehensive resource of ubiquitinome dynamics during Salmonella infection enables further understanding of the complex host-pathogen interplay and may reveal novel targets for the inhibition of Salmonella invasion and inflammation.

  11. Bilateral amaurosis caused by Salmonella enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerovski, Branimir; Barisić, Nina; Vidović, Tomislav; Petricek, Igor; Cerovski, Jasenka

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to show the potential of Salmonella enteritidis infection to eventually result in visual impairment. A case of salmonellosis in a 6-year-old boy, caused by intake of a cake made from eggs infected with Salmonella enteritidis, is presented. Prolonged duration of the disease was followed by complete remission of neurologic complications and persistent amaurosis with bilateral optic nerve atrophy. A severe form of Salmonella enterocolitis with neurologic involvement can lead to optic nerve lesion with consequential loss of vision.

  12. Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barco, Lisa; Barrucci, Federica; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2013-01-01

    Source attribution of cases of food-borne disease represents a valuable tool for identifying and prioritizing effective food-safety interventions. Microbial subtyping is one of the most common methods to infer potential sources of human food-borne infections. So far, Salmonella microbial subtyping...... source attribution models have been implemented by using serotyping and phage-typing data. Molecular-based methods may prove to be similarly valuable in the future, as already demonstrated for other food-borne pathogens like Campylobacter. This review assesses the state of the art concerning Salmonella...... in the context of their potential applicability for Salmonella source attribution studies....

  13. Comparison of the environmental survival characteristics of Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Miranda J; Liebana, Ernesto; McLaren, Ian; Clifton-Hadley, Felicity A; Wales, Andrew D; Davies, Robert H

    2012-10-12

    To examine possible correlations in bovine Salmonella isolates between environmental survival and serovar-associated epidemiological patterns, bovine field isolates of Salmonella serovars Typhimurium and Dublin (two each) were inoculated into bovine faeces slurry and tested monthly by culture for survival during a six-month period of storage at a variable ambient temperature in a disused animal transporter. Low moisture conditions, where the slurry was dried onto wooden dowels, increased detectable survival of a low-level inoculum by up to five months, compared with wet slurry. A more modest increase of survival time was seen with storage of wet slurry under refrigeration at 4°C. Under both dry and wet conditions, the concentration of culturable Salmonella Typhimurium declined at a slower rate than did that of Salmonella Dublin. Salmonella that was naturally contaminating bovine faeces from farms with Salmonella Typhimurium did not show superior survival times compared with Salmonella Typhimurium that had been artificially inoculated into samples. The differing survival characteristics of the two serovars that was observed in environmental faeces may complement their different modes of infection in cattle. Salmonella Dublin, being a bovine host-adapted strain that establishes chronic infection in some animals, may have less need to survive for a prolonged period outside of its host than does Salmonella Typhimurium.

  14. Evaluation of a CHROMagar Salmonella Medium for the Isolation of Salmonella Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yesim cekin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonella infections are the leading cause of food-borne infections and can cause gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Salmonella species is defined as inability to lactose fermentation, using citrate as a carbon source, using lysine as nitrate source and forming Hydrogen sulfide (H2S in TSI agar. However, confirmation of false positive results is time consuming and lead to increased costs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of CHROMagar Salmonella (CHROMagar Microbiology, France which is developed for isolation and detection of Salmonella species. Material and Method: For this purpose, among a total of 148 isolates which were isolated from various clinical specimens and stocked at the Central Laboratory of Akdeniz University Hospital, 65 were Salmonella spp., 10 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were E. coli, 10 were Acinetobacter baumannii, 10 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 18 were Morganella morganii, 11 were Citrobacter spp., 5 were Providencia spp., 4 were Aeromonas spp., 5 were Proteus spp. were included in this study. All of the 65 Salmonella spp. isolates apperared with mauve colonies at the CHROMagar Salmonella. Results: E. coli and Klebsiella pnemoniae species were seen as blue, Providencia species were seen as pale-blue; Morganella morganii species were seen as pale-pink, mauve; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were seen as pale. Acinebacter baumannii and Aeromonas spp. species were also seen as mauve colonies. Dicussion: CHROMagar Salmonella medium can detect Salmonella species with %100 sensitivity, however there is a need to biochemical or serological confirmation.

  15. Salmonella bongori provides insights into the evolution of the Salmonellae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fookes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Salmonella contains two species, S. bongori and S. enterica. Compared to the well-studied S. enterica there is a marked lack of information regarding the genetic makeup and diversity of S. bongori. S. bongori has been found predominantly associated with cold-blooded animals, but it can infect humans. To define the phylogeny of this species, and compare it to S. enterica, we have sequenced 28 isolates representing most of the known diversity of S. bongori. This cross-species analysis allowed us to confidently differentiate ancestral functions from those acquired following speciation, which include both metabolic and virulence-associated capacities. We show that, although S. bongori inherited a basic set of Salmonella common virulence functions, it has subsequently elaborated on this in a different direction to S. enterica. It is an established feature of S. enterica evolution that the acquisition of the type III secretion systems (T3SS-1 and T3SS-2 has been followed by the sequential acquisition of genes encoding secreted targets, termed effectors proteins. We show that this is also true of S. bongori, which has acquired an array of novel effector proteins (sboA-L. All but two of these effectors have no significant S. enterica homologues and instead are highly similar to those found in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Remarkably, SboH is found to be a chimeric effector protein, encoded by a fusion of the T3SS-1 effector gene sopA and a gene highly similar to the EPEC effector nleH from enteropathogenic E. coli. We demonstrate that representatives of these new effectors are translocated and that SboH, similarly to NleH, blocks intrinsic apoptotic pathways while being targeted to the mitochondria by the SopA part of the fusion. This work suggests that S. bongori has inherited the ancestral Salmonella virulence gene set, but has adapted by incorporating virulence determinants that resemble those employed by EPEC.

  16. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA IN CAPTIVE REPTILES FROM CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Maja; Pedersen, Karl; Prukner-Radovcic, Estella

    2015-06-01

    Salmonellosis transmitted by pet reptiles is an increasing public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella strains from captive reptiles in Croatia. From November 2009 to November 2011 a total of 292 skin, pharyngeal, cloacal, and fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy reptiles were tested for Salmonella excretions by bacteriologic culture and serotyping. These 200 individual reptiles included 31 lizards, 79 chelonians, and 90 snakes belonging to private owners or housed at the Zagreb Zoo, Croatia. Salmonella was detected in a total of 13% of the animals, among them 48.4% lizards, 8.9% snakes, and 3.8% turtles. Representatives of five of the six Salmonella enterica subspecies were identified with the following proportions in the total number of isolates: Salmonella enterica enterica 34.6%, Salmonella enterica houtenae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica arizonae 23.1%, Salmonella enterica diarizonae 15.4%, and Salmonella enterica salamae 3.8%. The 14 different serovars isolated included several rarely occurring serovars such as Salmonella Apapa, Salmonella Halle, Salmonella Kisarawe, and Salmonella Potengi. These findings confirm that the prevalence of Salmonella is considerable in captive reptiles in Croatia, indicating that these animals may harbor serovars not commonly seen in veterinary or human microbiologic practice. This should be addressed in the prevention and diagnostics of human reptile-transmitted infections.

  17. Persistent Salmonella Enteritidis environmental contamination on layer farms in the context of an implemented national control program with obligatory vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, I; Van Meirhaeghe, H; Rasschaert, G; Vanrobaeys, M; De Graef, E; Herman, L; Ducatelle, R; Heyndrickx, M; De Reu, K

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to closely examine the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis environmental contamination on persistently positive layer farms in Belgium during successive laying cycles. All of the farms were required to vaccinate their layers under the national control program for Salmonella. Seven farms with previous or current Salmonella Enteritidis contamination were monitored during different stages of the laying period and after cleaning and disinfection (CD). Environmental samples, including from the equipment and vermin, were taken in the henhouse and egg-collecting area. Dilutions were performed to define the degree of Salmonella Enteritidis contamination. Eggshells, egg contents, and ceca were also tested for Salmonella. At the end of the first sampled laying period, 41.6% of the environmental samples were contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis. After CD, the prevalence dropped to 11.4%. On average, the prevalence in the second laying period increased again: 17.8, 18.4, and 22.3% at the onset, middle, and end of the lay period, respectively. After CD before the third laying period, the prevalence decreased to 6.6% and stabilized at the onset of lay (6.3%). During lay, as well as after CD, a wide variety of contaminated environmental samples were found; for example, in the henhouse, in the egg-collecting area, on mobile equipment and in or on vermin. In the henhouse during laying, the most recurrent and highly contaminated sites were the overshoes, floor, manure belt, and hen feces. The egg-collecting area had a significantly higher number of contaminated samples compared with that of the henhouse. For both sites, the floor appeared to be the most suitable sampling site to estimate the Salmonella Enteritidis status of the farms. Eggshell and egg content contamination varied between 0.18 and 1.8% and between 0.04 and 0.4%, respectively. In total, 2.2% of the analyzed ceca contained Salmonella Enteritidis. This study revealed that Salmonella

  18. AN INSIGHT INTO CONTEMPORARY TREND IN THE ANTIBIOGRAM OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVARS: A CLAMOR FOR ANTIBIOTIC RECYCLING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    fluoroquinolone susceptibility, thereby preventing therapeutic failure. In order to avert the profound impact of antimicrobial resistance and to define the b est possible therapy, periodic monitoring of Salmonella antibiogram is of prime value. The upsurge of occurrence of ciprofloxacin resistance, impending resistance to macrolide - azithromycin, re - emergence of chloramphenicol sensitive strains is of particula r concern and necessitates a change towards ‘evidence - based’ treatment and rationalization of existing empirical therapy of enteric fever shifting the vital focus towards antibiotic recycling

  19. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella enterica Recovered from Clinical Samples from Cattle and Swine in Minnesota, 2006 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Samuel; Rovira, Albert; Davies, Peter; Ahlstrom, Christina; Muellner, Petra; Rendahl, Aaron; Olsen, Karen; Bender, Jeff B.; Wells, Scott; Perez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the leading causes of foodborne disease worldwide despite preventive efforts at various stages of the food production chain. The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica represents an additional challenge for public health authorities. Food animals are considered a major reservoir and potential source of foodborne salmonellosis; thus, monitoring of Salmonella strains in livestock may help to detect emergence of new serotypes/MDR phenotypes and to gain a better understanding of Salmonella epidemiology. For this reason, we analyzed trends over a nine-year period in serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance, of Salmonella isolates recovered at the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (MVDL) from swine (n = 2,537) and cattle (n = 1,028) samples. Prevalence of predominant serotypes changed over time; in swine, S. Typhimurium and S. Derby decreased and S. Agona and S. 4,5,12:i:- increased throughout the study period. In cattle, S. Dublin, S. Montevideo and S. Cerro increased and S. Muenster became less frequent. Median minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and proportion of antibiotic resistant isolates were higher for those recovered from swine compared with cattle, and were particularly high for certain antibiotic-serotype combinations. The proportion of resistant swine isolates was also higher than observed in the NARMS data, probably due to the different cohort of animals represented in each dataset. Results provide insight into the dynamics of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in livestock in Minnesota, and can help to monitor emerging trends in antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27936204

  20. An update on insertable cardiac monitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming J; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Krieger, Derk W

    2015-01-01

    Continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring has undergone compelling progress over the past decades. Cardiac monitoring has emerged from 12-lead electrocardiograms being performed at the discretion of the treating physician to in-hospital telemetry, Holter monitoring, prolonged external event monitoring...

  1. Inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Tennessee in peanut butter by 915 MHz microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different levels to inactivate 3 serovars of Salmonella in peanut butter. Peanut butter inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4 and 6 kW and acid and peroxide values and color changes were determined after 5 min of microwave heating. Salmonella populations were reduced with increasing treatment time and treatment power. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three Salmonella serovars by 3.24-4.26 log CFU/g. Four and two kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these Salmonella serovars by 1.14-1.48 and 0.15-0.42 log CFU/g, respectively. Microwave treatment did not affect acid, peroxide, or color values of peanut butter. These results demonstrate that 915 MHz microwave processing can be used as a control method for reducing Salmonella in peanut butter without producing quality deterioration.

  2. Ultra-Fast and Sensitive Detection of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Using Microwave-Accelerated Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (“MAMEF”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, James E.; Geddes, Chris D.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Certain serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica cause invasive disease (e.g., enteric fever, bacteremia, septicemia, meningitis, etc.) in humans and constitute a global public health problem. A rapid, sensitive diagnostic test is needed to allow prompt initiation of therapy in individual patients and for measuring disease burden at the population level. An innovative and promising new rapid diagnostic technique is microwave-accelerated metal-enhanced fluorescence (MAMEF). We have adapted this assay platform to detect the chromosomal oriC locus common to all Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars. We have shown efficient lysis of biologically relevant concentrations of Salmonella spp. suspended in bacteriological media using microwave-induced lysis. Following lysis and DNA release, as little as 1 CFU of Salmonella in 1 ml of medium can be detected in <30 seconds. Furthermore the assay is sensitive and specific: it can detect oriC from Salmonella serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B, Paratyphi C, Typhimurium, Enteritidis and Choleraesuis but does not detect Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae or Acinetobacter baumanii. We have also performed preliminary experiments using a synthetic Salmonella oriC oligonucleotide suspended in whole human blood and observed rapid detection when the sample was diluted 1∶1 with PBS. These pre-clinical data encourage progress to the next step to detect Salmonella in blood (and other ordinarily sterile, clinically relevant body fluids). PMID:21494634

  3. Acalculous cholecystitis due to Salmonella enteritidis

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Rebollo, Maria Lourdes; Sánchez-Antolín, Gloria; García-Pajares, Félix; Vallecillo-Sande, Maria Antonia; Fernández-Orcajo, Pilar; Velicia-Llames, Rosario; Caro-Patón, Agustín

    2008-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is defined as an acute inflammation of the gallbladder in the absence of stones. We herein report a case of a young man who developed AAC after a Salmonella enteritidis gastrointestinal infection.

  4. 75 FR 18751 - Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 118 Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During... Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-315), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy...

  5. The Salmonella enterica Pan-genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Annika; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is divided into four subspecies containing a large number of different serovars, several of which are important zoonotic pathogens and some show a high degree of host specificity or host preference. We compare 45 sequenced S. enterica genomes that are publicly available (22......, and the core and pan-genome of Salmonella were estimated to be around 2,800 and 10,000 gene families, respectively. The constructed pan-genomic dendrograms suggest that gene content is often, but not uniformly correlated to serotype. Any given Salmonella strain has a large stable core, whilst...... there is an abundance of accessory genes, including the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs), transposable elements, phages, and plasmid DNA. We visualize conservation in the genomes in relation to chromosomal location and DNA structural features and find that variation in gene content is localized in a selection...

  6. Acalculous cholecystitis due to Salmonella enteritidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Lourdes Ruiz-Rebollo; Gloria Sánchez-Antolín; Félix García-Pajares; Maria Antonia Vallecillo-Sande; Pilar Fernández-Orcajo; Rosario Velicia-Uames; Agustín Caro-Patón

    2008-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is defined as an acute inflammation of the gallbladder in the absence of stones. We herein report a case of a young man who developed AAC after a Salmonella enteritidis gastroin-testinal infection.

  7. lac repressor is an antivirulence factor of Salmonella enterica: its role in the evolution of virulence in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeepa M Eswarappa

    Full Text Available The genus Salmonella includes many pathogens of great medical and veterinary importance. Bacteria belonging to this genus are very closely related to those belonging to the genus Escherichia. lacZYA operon and lacI are present in Escherichia coli, but not in Salmonella enterica. It has been proposed that Salmonella has lost lacZYA operon and lacI during evolution. In this study, we have investigated the physiological and evolutionary significance of the absence of lacI in Salmonella enterica. Using murine model of typhoid fever, we show that the expression of LacI causes a remarkable reduction in the virulence of Salmonella enterica. LacI also suppresses the ability of Salmonella enterica to proliferate inside murine macrophages. Microarray analysis revealed that LacI interferes with the expression of virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. This effect was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Interestingly, we found that SBG0326 of Salmonella bongori is homologous to lacI of Escherichia coli. Salmonella bongori is the only other species of the genus Salmonella and it lacks the virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Overall, our results demonstrate that LacI is an antivirulence factor of Salmonella enterica and suggest that absence of lacI has facilitated the acquisition of virulence genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 in Salmonella enterica making it a successful systemic pathogen.

  8. Imunidade de aves (Gallus gallus) para Salmonella enterica subesp. enterica Sorovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum

    OpenAIRE

    Acelas Díaz, Silvia Juliana [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The fowl typhoid is a systemic disease of chickens caused by Salmonella enteric subsp. enteric serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum. This bacterium is highly pathogenic for chickens at any age, causing mortality even in adult birds. The progress of clinical signs differs among different lines of chickens. White lines of chickens are considered resistant and hardly mortality is observed. Chickens of brown lines are more susceptible and develop severe clinical signs with high mortality rates. T...

  9. Conservation of Salmonella infection mechanisms in plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schikora, Adam; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Bueso, Eduardo; Garcia, Ana V; Nilau, Theodora; Charrier, Amélie; Pelletier, Sandra; Menanteau, Pierrette; Baccarini, Manuela; Velge, Philippe; Hirt, Heribert

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs). In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also found that Salmonella originating from infected plants are equally virulent for human cells and mice. These results indicate a high degree of conservation in the defense and infection mechanism of animal and plant hosts during Salmonella infection.

  10. Control charts for identifying systematic errors using control sera to detect antibody to Salmonella in an indirect ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, H.; Barfod, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the preparation of Shewhart's control charts using the concept of rational subgroups for monitoring the Salmonella antibody ELISA used for surveillance of Danish pig herds. Control charts were prepared for a buffer control sample, a negative serum sample and a positive serum ...... charts could reveal systematic analytical errors....

  11. BEHAVIOR OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7, LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES, AND SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM IN TEEWURST, A RAW SPREADABLE SAUSAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, or Escherichia coli O157:H7 were separately monitored both in and on teewurst, a traditional raw and spreadable sausage of Germanic origin. Multi-strain cocktails of each pathogen (ca. 5.0 log CFU/g) were used to separately inoculate teewur...

  12. Disseminated Salmonella Infection Coexisting with Thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheer, S; Immanuel, Subash; Balamugesh, T; Christopher, D J

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old boy presented with high grade fever, diffuse chest pain and exertional breathlessness of one month duration. Radiologically he had a large lobulated anterior mediastinal mass with necrotic thick enhancing septaes. Histopathology of the mass was suggestive of thymoma and culture from the necrotic aspirate yielded Salmonella typhi. The same pathogen was isolated in subsequent blood and sputum cultures. This current report describes the rare association of salmonella infection with thymoma.

  13. Salmonella dublin Septicemia in Two Puppies

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, P N

    1984-01-01

    Two eight week old purebred female Bull Terrier puppies died within 24 hours of each other as a result of a septicemia caused by Salmonella dublin. The salient clinical features were: temperature of 41°C; rapid breathing; fluid, blood-stained stools; prostration and death. Pathological findings included embolic pneumonia, splenitis, myocarditis, nephritis and meningoencephalitis. Salmonella dublin was isolated from the spleen, lung and kidneys of both puppies.

  14. Determination of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, Belgode N; Menezes, Godfred A

    2015-01-01

    Infections with Salmonella are an important public health problem worldwide. Salmonella are one of the most common causes of food-borne illness in humans. There are many types of Salmonella but they can be divided into two broad categories: those that cause typhoid and those that do not. The typhoidal Salmonella (TS), such as S. enterica subsp. enterica serovars Typhi and S. Paratyphi only colonize humans and are usually acquired by the consumption of food or water contaminated with human fecal material. The much broader group of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) usually results from improperly handled food that has been contaminated by animal or human fecal material. Antimicrobials are critical to the successful outcome of invasive Salmonella infections and enteric fever. Due to resistance to the older antimicrobials, ciprofloxacin [fluoroquinolone (FQ)] has become the first-line drug for treatment. Nevertheless, switch to FQ has led to a subsequent increase in the occurrence of salmonellae resistant to this antimicrobial agent. The exact mechanism of this FQ resistance is not fully understood. FQ resistance has driven the use of third-generation cephalosporins and azithromycin. However, there are sporadic worldwide reports of high level resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (such as ceftriaxone) in TS and in NTS it has been recognized since 1988 and are increasing in prevalence worldwide. Already there are rare reports of azithromycin resistance leading to treatment failure. Spread of such resistance would further greatly limit the available therapeutic options, and leave us with only the reserve antimicrobials such as carbapenem and tigecycline as possible treatment options. Here, we describe the methods involved in the genotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of salmonellae.

  15. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  16. Development of multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification-RFLP (mLAMP-RFLP) to detect Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yanchun; Zhu, Shengmei; Jin, Cuicui; Chen, Fusheng

    2011-08-02

    A multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification-RFLP (mLAMP-RFLP) was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of Salmonella strains and Shigella strains in milk. In this system, two sets of LAMP primers were designed to specifically target invA of Salmonella spp. and ipaH of Shigella spp. Under isothermal conditions at 63 °C, ladder pattern of DNA bands could be amplified within 60 min in the presence of genomic DNAs of Salmonella strains and Shigella strains, which could be distinguished between Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. simultaneously based on the different ladder pattern of DNA bands and subsequent restriction enzyme analysis. The overall analysis time was approximately 20 h including the enrichment of the bacterial cells, which greatly saved detection time. The sensitivity of mLAMP was found to be 100 fg DNA/tube with genomic DNAs of Salmonella strains and Shigella strains, comparatively, multiplex PCR was 1 pg DNA/tube. The mLAMP allowed the detection of milk sample artificially contaminated by Salmonella strains and Shigella strains at initial inoculation levels of approximate 5CFU/10 mL. In conclusion, the mLAMP described here can potentially facilitate simultaneous monitoring of Salmonella and Shigella in a large number of food samples, which could be used as a primary screening method and as a supplement to classical detection method.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of Salmonella desiccation resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiping; Bhaskara, Anuhya; Megalis, Christina; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2012-12-01

    The survival of Salmonella in low moisture foods and processing environments remains a great challenge for the food industry and public health. To explore the mechanisms of Salmonella desiccation resistance, we studied the transcriptomic responses in Salmonella Tennessee (Tennessee), using Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 (LT2), a strain weakly resistant to desiccation, as a reference strain. In response to 2 h of air-drying at 11% equilibrated relative humidity, approximately one-fourth of the open reading frames (ORFs) in the Tennessee genome and one-fifth in LT2 were differentially expressed (>2-fold). Among all differentially expressed functional groups (>5-fold) in both strains, the expression fold change associated with fatty acid metabolism was the highest, and constituted 51% and 35% of the total expression fold change in Tennessee and LT2, respectively. Tennessee showed greater changes in expression of genes associated with stress response and envelope modification than LT2, while showing lesser changes in protein biosynthesis expression. Expression of flagella genes was significantly more inhibited in stationary phase cells of Tennessee than LT2 both before and after desiccation. The accumulation of the osmolyte trehalose was significantly induced by desiccation in Tennessee, but no increase was detectable in LT2, which is consistent with the expression patterns of the entire trehalose biosynthesis and degradation pathways in both strains. Results from this study present a global view of the dynamic desiccation responses in Salmonella, which will guide future research efforts to control Salmonella in low moisture environments.

  18. Salmonella recovery from broilers and litter following gavage with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission of Salmonella to broiler chicks with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles or larvae was evaluated by sampling litter and ceca during growout. In two trials, 1 or 2 day-of-hatch broiler chicks (in a pen of 40) were gavaged with either 4 darkling beetles, 4 beetle larvae, or 0.1 mL pept...

  19. Toename Salmonella en Campylobacter bij slacht : Campylobacter in pluimveesector constant, Salmonella sterk gedaald

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2009-01-01

    In vrijwel alle schakels van de pluimveevleesketen is de besmetting met Salmonella in de periode van 2002 tot 2005 gedaald. Campylobacter werd in diezelfde periode juist vaker in slachthuizen aangetroffen. Tijdens het slachten nam de besmetting met beide pathogenen toe, voor Salmonella gold dit voor

  20. NRL Salmonella ringonderzoek II: bacteriologische detectie van Salmonella in aanwezigheid van competitieve flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; in ' t Veld PH; Nagelkerke N; van de Giessen AW; MGB

    1999-01-01

    In april 1998 werd een bacteriologisch ringonderzoek voor de detectie van Salmonella in aanwezigheid van stoorflora georganiseerd door het Nationaal Referentie Laboratorium (NRL) voor Salmonella (RIVM, Bilthoven). Aan het ringonderzoek werd deelgenomen door 23 laboratoria in het kader van het Plan

  1. Twelfth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk PA; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; LZO

    2007-01-01

    De Nationale Referentie Laboratoria van de 25 Europese lidstaten scoorden dit jaar goed bij de kwaliteitscontrole op Salmonella. Sinds 1992 zijn deze laboratoria verplicht deel te nemen aan deze kwaliteitstoets, het zogeheten ringonderzoek voor de typering van Salmonella. Zes laboratoria hadden ee

  2. Autophagy facilitates Salmonella replication in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong B; Croxen, Matthew A; Marchiando, Amanda M; Ferreira, Rosana B R; Cadwell, Ken; Foster, Leonard J; Finlay, B Brett

    2014-03-11

    Autophagy is a process whereby a double-membrane structure (autophagosome) engulfs unnecessary cytosolic proteins, organelles, and invading pathogens and delivers them to the lysosome for degradation. We examined the fate of cytosolic Salmonella targeted by autophagy and found that autophagy-targeted Salmonella present in the cytosol of HeLa cells correlates with intracellular bacterial replication. Real-time analyses revealed that a subset of cytosolic Salmonella extensively associates with autophagy components p62 and/or LC3 and replicates quickly, whereas intravacuolar Salmonella shows no or very limited association with p62 or LC3 and replicates much more slowly. Replication of cytosolic Salmonella in HeLa cells is significantly decreased when autophagy components are depleted. Eventually, hyperreplication of cytosolic Salmonella potentiates cell detachment, facilitating the dissemination of Salmonella to neighboring cells. We propose that Salmonella benefits from autophagy for its cytosolic replication in HeLa cells. IMPORTANCE As a host defense system, autophagy is known to target a population of Salmonella for degradation and hence restricting Salmonella replication. In contrast to this concept, a recent report showed that knockdown of Rab1, a GTPase required for autophagy of Salmonella, decreases Salmonella replication in HeLa cells. Here, we have reexamined the fate of Salmonella targeted by autophagy by various cell biology-based assays. We found that the association of autophagy components with cytosolic Salmonella increases shortly after initiation of intracellular bacterial replication. Furthermore, through a live-cell imaging method, a subset of cytosolic Salmonella was found to be extensively associated with autophagy components p62 and/or LC3, and they replicated quickly. Most importantly, depletion of autophagy components significantly reduced the replication of cytosolic Salmonella in HeLa cells. Hence, in contrast to previous reports, we propose

  3. Competitive inhibition bacteria of bovine origin against Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P

    2007-08-01

    Studies were conducted to isolate bacteria inhibitory to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive type (DT) 104 in vitro from cattle not carrying Salmonella and to determine the inhibitory activity of the isolated bacteria through competitive growth in cattle feces artificially contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 and S. enterica serovar Newport. Fecal samples (108) were obtained from dairy and beef cows. S. enterica serovars were isolated from 9.25% of the samples and included Salmonella Newport (4), Salmonella Bareilly (1), Salmonella Mbandaka (1), Salmonella Montevideo (1), Salmonella Meleagridis (1), and monophasic Salmonella (2). All four Salmonella Newport isolates were resistant to at least nine antibiotics. Of 1,097 bacterial isolates from cattle feces screened, 30 were inhibitory to Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in vitro. The inhibitory isolates included 22 Escherichia coli, 6 Bacillus circulans, 1 Serratia fonticola, and 1 Enterobacter cloacae. Typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed 17 distinguishable profiles among the 22 E. coli. Competitive inhibition isolates did not significantly reduce Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 during 21 days of storage at 37 degrees C in cattle feces. B. circulans (10(5) CFU/g of inoculum) significantly reduced Salmonella Newport on days 3 and 5 and on day 21 with 10(8) CFU/g of inoculum at 37 degrees C. At 21degrees C, significant reductions of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 occurred with 10(8) CFU of gram-negative competitive inhibition bacteria per g and 10(5) CFU of B. circulans per g on day 5 only. No significant reductions were observed with Salmonella Newport at 21 degrees C. The 25 competitive inhibition bacteria identified in this study offer a first step in identifying competitive inhibition bacteria that may reduce the level of intestinal carriage and fecal shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 and Salmonella Newport in cattle.

  4. Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis for Salmonella Infection Surveillance, Texas, USA, 2007

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-14

    This podcast describes monitoring of the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for Salmonella surveillance in Houston, Texas. CDC microbiologist Peter Gerner-Smidt discusses the importance of the PulseNet national database in surveillance of food-borne infections.  Created: 6/14/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/14/2010.

  5. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium using phage-based magnetostrictive sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Ramji S.; Hu, Jing; Guntupalli, Rajesh; Wan, Jiehui; Huang, Shichu; Yang, Hong; Petrenko, Valery A.; Barbaree, James M.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2006-05-01

    This article presents a contactless, remote sensing Salmonella typhimurium sensor based on the principle of magnetostriction. Magnetostrictive materials have been used widely for various types of sensor systems. In this work, the use of a magnetostrictive material for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium has been established. The mass of the bacteria attached to the sensor causes changes in the resonance frequency of the sensor. Filamentous bacteriophage was used as a probe order to ensure specific and selective binding of the bacteria onto the sensor surface. Thus changes in response of the sensor due to the mass added onto the sensor caused by specific attachment of bacteria can be monitored in absence of any contact to the sensor. The response of the sensor due to increasing concentrations (from 5x101 to 5x10 8 cfu/ml) of the bacteria was studied. A reduction in the physical dimensions enhances the sensitivity of these sensors and hence different dimensions of the sensor ribbons were studied. For a 2mm x 0.1mm x 0.02mm the detection limit was observed to be of the order of 10 4 cfu/mL and for a sensor of 1mm x 0.2mm x 0.02mm a reduced detection limit of 10 3 cfu/mL was achieved.

  6. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium using polyclonal antibody immobilized magnetostrictive biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntupalli, R.; Hu, Jing; Lakshmanan, Ramji S.; Wan, Jiehui; Huang, Shichu; Yang, Hong; Barbaree, James M.; Huang, T. S.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2006-05-01

    Novel mass-sensitive, magnetostrictive sensors have a characteristic resonant frequency that can be determined by monitoring the magnetic flux emitted by the sensor in response to an applied, time varying, magnetic field. This magnetostrictive platform has a unique advantage over conventional sensor platforms in that measurement is wireless or remote. These biosensors can thus be used in-situ for detecting pathogens and biological threat agents. In this work, we have used a magnetostrictive platform immobilized with a polyclonal antibody (the bio-molecular recognition element) to form a biosensor for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium. Upon exposure to solutions containing Salmonella typhimurium bacteria, the bacteria were bound to the sensor and the additional mass of the bound bacteria caused a shift in the sensor's resonant frequency. Responses of the sensors to different concentrations of S. typhimurium were recorded and the results correlated with those obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of samples. Good agreement between the measured number of bound bacterial cells (attached mass) and frequency shifts were obtained. The longevity and specificity of the selected polyclonal antibody were also investigated and are reported.

  7. Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium in Chicken Carcass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-bin Lan; Shi-zhou Wang; Yong-guang Yin; W.Clint Hoffmann; Xiao-zhe Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Chicken is one of the most popular meat products in the world. Salmonella Typhimurium is a common foodborne pathogens associated with the processing of poultry. An optical Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor was sensitive to the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken carcass. The Spreeta biosensor kits were used to detect Salmonella Typhimurium on chicken carcass successfully. A taste sensor like electronic tongue or biosensors was used to basically "taste" the object and differentiated one object from the other with different taste sensor signatures. The surface plasmon resonance biosensor has potential for use in rapid, real-time detection and identification of bacteria, and to study the interaction of organisms with different antisera or other molecular species. The selectivity of the SPR biosensor was assayed using a series of antibody concentrations and dilution series of the organism. The SPR biosensor showed promising to detect the existence of Salmonella Typhimurium at 1×106 CFU/ml. Initial results show that the SPR biosensor has the potential for its application in pathogenic bacteria monitoring. However, more tests need to be done to confirm the detection limitation.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella strains clinically isolated in Hyogo, Japan (2009-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Shigemura, Katsumi; Shimizu, Rika; Kato, Ayaka; Kimura, Mayuha; Katayama, Yuki; Okuya, Yuma; Yutaka, Shunichiro; Nishimoto, Akiko; Kishi, Akane; Fujiwara, Miki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Iijima, Yoshio; Fujisawa, Masato; Shirakawa, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the in vitro susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents and genetic diversity of 195 clinical strains of Salmonella spp., which were isolated and examined for the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) blaCTX-M gene and the presence of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes mutations in Hyogo, Japan, from 2009 to 2012. Forty-three of the 195 strains were antimicrobial resistant. Two Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strains, 1 serovar Schwarzengrund, and 1 serovar Enteritidis were identified as ESBL-producing strains possessing blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-2, respectively. Among 8 nalidixic acid-resistant strains, 7 had mutations in gyrA alone or in gyrA and parC. In conclusion, we identified CTX-M ESBL-producing Salmonella clinical strains with multidrug resistance. Further studies are needed to monitor these serious drug-resistant Salmonella strains in Japan.

  9. Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contaminants Buy, Store & Serve Safe Food Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection Share Tweet ... it Email Print August 2004 Every year homemade ice cream causes several outbreaks of Salmonella infection with up ...

  10. Genetic characterization of Salmonella and Shigella spp. isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to investigate the presence of bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. ... between river water and riverbed sediment isolates for Salmonella spp. and Shigella .... conditions, and the other was preserved in 1 mL of 15% glycerol.

  11. Salmonella Is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Salmonella is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Salmonella can contaminate more than poultry and eggs. It ...

  12. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Salmonella and Eggs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... can I reduce my chance of getting a Salmonella infection? Keep eggs refrigerated at 40°F (4° ...

  13. Test results of Salmonella typing by the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella in the Member States of the European Union and the EnterNet Laboratories - Collaborative study VII on typing of Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Wannet WJB; Henken AM; MGB; LIS

    2003-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, Nederland) organiseerde in samenwerking met Public Health Laboratory Services (PHLS), London, Verenigd Koninkrijk een zevende ringonderzoek aangaande de typering van Salmonella. Zeventien Nationale Referentie L

  14. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on an estimation of the public health impact of setting a new target for the reduction of Salmonella in turkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    The quantitative contribution of turkeys and other major animal-food sources to the burden of human salmonellosis in the European Union was estimated. A ‘Turkey Target Salmonella Attribution Model’ (TT-SAM) based on the microbial-subtyping approach was used. TT-SAM includes data from 25 EU Member...... States, four animal-food sources of Salmonella and 23 Salmonella serovars. The model employs 2010 EU statutory monitoring data on Salmonella in animal populations (EU baseline survey data for pigs), data on reported cases of human salmonellosis and food availability data. It estimates that 2.6 %, 10.......6 %, 17.0 % and 56.8 % of the human salmonellosis cases are attributable to turkeys, broilers, laying hens (eggs) and pigs, respectively. The top-6 serovars of fattening turkeys that contribute most to human cases are S. Enteritidis, S. Kentucky, S. Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Virchow and S. Saintpaul...

  15. ESTABELECIMENTO DE UM PROTOCOLO DE SOROAGLUTINAÇÃO RÁPIDA (SAR PARA DETECÇÃO DE ANTICORPOS PARA Salmonella Typhimurium EM SUÍNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosecler Alves Pereirara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium is an important agent isolated from cases of human food poisoning in Brazil. Animal-origin products are the main source of infection, and pork has been implicated in Salmonella transmission to humans. Programs to salmonella monitoring in swine have been carried out, using bacteriologicaland serological tests like ELISA. However, these tests are time-consuming and expensive. The rapid agglutination test (RAT is cheaper, faster and easier. Aiming to standardize RAT to detect anti-salmonella antibodies in swine serum, 60 samples of swine serum were tested. They had previously displayed positive (30 or negative (30 results in the ELISA test. The results showed that RAT had sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value and predictive negative value equal to 96.7% when non-diluted serum was tested. Thus, this test can be applied to detect antibodies against S. Typhimurium in swine serum.

  16. Comparative Virulotyping of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemfareji, Omar Ismail; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2013-12-01

    Members of Salmonella enterica are important foodborne pathogens of significant public health concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine a range of virulence genes among typhoidal (S. typhi) and non-typhoidal (S. enteritidis) strains isolated from different geographical regions and different years. A total of 87 S. typhi and 94 S. enteritidis strains were tested for presence of 22 virulence genes by employing multiplex PCR and the genetic relatedness of these strains was further characterized by REP-PCR. In S. typhi, invA, prgH, sifA, spiC, sopB, iroN, sitC, misL, pipD, cdtB, and orfL were present in all the strains, while sopE, agfC, agfA, sefC, mgtC, and sefD were present in 98.8, 97.7, 90.8, 87.4, 87.4 and 17.2 %, of the strains, respectively. No lpfA, lpfC, pefA, spvB, or spvC was detected. Meanwhile, in S. enteritidis, 15 genes, agfA, agfC, invA, lpfA, lpfC, sefD, prgH, spiC, sopB, sopE, iroN, sitC, misL, pipD, and orfL were found in all S. enteritidis strains 100 %, followed by sifA and spvC 98.9 %, pefA, spvB and mgtC 97.8 %, and sefC 90.4 %. cdtB was absent from all S. enteritidis strains tested. REP-PCR subtyped S. typhi strains into 18 REP-types and concurred with the virulotyping results in grouping the strains, while in S. enteritidis, REP-PCR subtyped the strains into eight profiles and they were poorly distinguishable between human and animal origins. The study showed that S. typhi and S. enteritidis contain a range of virulence factors associated with pathogenesis. Virulotyping is a rapid screening method to identify and profile virulence genes in Salmonella strains, and improve an understanding of potential risk for human and animal infections.

  17. Chronic proliferative rhinitis associated with Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serovar 61:k:1, 5, (7) in sheep in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasta, D; Ferrer, L M; Ramos, J J; Bueso, J P; Borobia, M; Ruiz de Arcaute, M; Figueras, L; González-Sainz, J M; De Las Heras, M

    2012-11-01

    A chronic proliferative rhinitis in sheep associated with Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serovar 61:k:1, 5, (7) is described. Ten adult sheep from eight traditionally managed Rasa Aragonesa flocks located in Aragon (Spain) were studied. Clinical signs began with bilateral thick mucus nasal discharge, wheezing and snoring and progressed to partial or complete obstruction of the nostrils. Necropsy examination revealed swollen ventral nasal turbinates with a roughened mucosal surface partially covered by small polyps. Histopathology revealed chronic proliferative rhinitis with a predominant population of neutrophils that infiltrated the mucosal epithelium. Plasma cells and macrophages were present in the lamina propria. Organisms expressing Salmonella antigen immunohistochemically were detected within epithelial cells. Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serovar 61:k:1, 5, (7) was isolated as a sole microorganism from nasal swabs taken from five animals. The implication of finding this bacterium in various diseases in sheep and its role as a potential zoonosis are discussed.

  18. 沙门氏菌快速检测技术概述%Summary of the Rapid Detection of Salmonella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝良德; 朱晓霞; 谢晓红; 易军; 雷岷; 任永军; 郭志强; 李丛艳; 郑洁

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella is an important pathogenic bacterium of zoonosis that can cause intestinal infection in both humans and animals. This review briefly introduced research progress of the rapid detection of Salmonella in recent years and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of various detection methods, hoping to find a fast, simple, specific and sensitive method that could detect the majority serotypes of Salmonella.%沙门氏菌是一种能引起人和多种动物肠道感染的重要人畜共患的病原菌.简要介绍了近年来沙门氏菌快速检测技术研究进展,并分析各种检测方法的优缺点,以期寻找一种快速、简便、特异、灵敏,能检测绝大多数血清型沙门氏菌的方法.

  19. Detection of Salmonella enterica in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) of Chilean Patagonia: evidences of inter-species transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougnac, C; Pardo, C; Meza, K; Arredondo, C; Blank, O; Abalos, P; Vidal, R; Fernandez, A; Fredes, F; Retamal, P

    2015-04-01

    Patagonia in southern South America is among the few world regions where direct human impact is still limited but progressively increasing, mainly represented by tourism, farming, fishing and mining activities. The sanitary condition of Patagonian wildlife is unknown, in spite of being critical for the assessment of anthropogenic effects there. The aim of this study was the characterization of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from wild colonies of Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) located in Magdalena Island and Otway Sound, in Chilean Patagonia. Eight isolates of Salmonella were found, belonging to Agona and Enteritidis serotypes, with an infection rate of 0·38%. Resistance to ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur and tetracycline antimicrobials were detected, and some of these strains showed genotypic similarity with Salmonella strains isolated from humans and gulls, suggesting inter-species transmission cycles and strengthening the role of penguins as sanitary sentinels in the Patagonian ecosystem.

  20. Detection and classification of salmonella serotypes using spectral signatures collected by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...

  1. Salmonella in pork retail outlets and dissemination of its pulsotypes through pig production chain in Chiang Mai and surrounding areas, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchanee, Prapas; Tansiricharoenkul, Kankanok; Buawiratlert, Tunyamai; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Angchokchatchawal, Kittipat; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Yano, Terdsak; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Rojanasatien, Suvichai; Tadee, Pakpoom

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella spp. is acknowledged as a significant zoonotic foodborne pathogen throughout the world. Contaminated pork consumption is considered as a main cause of human salmonellosis. In the later stage of the pig production chain, poor hygiene and unsuitable storage conditions in retail outlets are considered to be key factors linked to the risk of Salmonella infection. The purpose of current study, which was conducted throughout April 2014 to September 2014, was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in pork sold at the retail stage in wet markets and supermarkets in the Chiang Mai urban area of Thailand. Additionally, clonal relations between Salmonella strains described in this study and those identified in earlier study from the same geographical area were considered. It is provided as a means of contributing to current knowledge regarding Salmonella epidemiology with an ultimate aim of improved food security and consumer protection in this region. From a total of 82 pork samples analyzed in this study, 41% were positive for Salmonella, with prevalence of 73.2% from wet markets (n=30/41) and 9.8% from supermarkets (n=4/41). Twelve Salmonella serovars were identified, S. Rissen being the most commonly encountered. Antibiotic resistance of the isolates was highest for ampicillin and tetracycline (53%), followed by streptomycin (44%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and subsequent geographical distribution analysis indicated that the clonal Salmonella strains originated from multiple sources had been spread over a wide area. The existence of a common pig supply chain "farm-slaughterhouse-retail" transmission route is inferred. Continuous monitoring of Salmonella along the entire production chain is needed to reduce contamination loads and to ensure the safety of pork products for end consumers.

  2. Applications of microscopy in Salmonella research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malt, Layla M; Perrett, Charlotte A; Humphrey, Suzanne; Jepson, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative enteropathogen that can cause localized infections, typically resulting in gastroenteritis, or systemic infection, e.g., typhoid fever, in humans and many other animals. Understanding the mechanisms by which Salmonella induces disease has been the focus of intensive research. This has revealed that Salmonella invasion requires dynamic cross-talk between the microbe and host cells, in which bacterial adherence rapidly leads to a complex sequence of cellular responses initiated by proteins translocated into the host cell by a type 3 secretion system. Once these Salmonella-induced responses have resulted in bacterial invasion, proteins translocated by a second type 3 secretion system initiate further modulation of cellular activities to enable survival and replication of the invading pathogen. Elucidation of the complex and highly dynamic pathogen-host interactions ultimately requires analysis at the level of single cells and single infection events. To achieve this goal, researchers have applied a diverse range of microscopy techniques to analyze Salmonella infection in models ranging from whole animal to isolated cells and simple eukaryotic organisms. For example, electron microscopy and high-resolution light microscopy techniques such as confocal microscopy can reveal the precise location of Salmonella and its relationship to cellular components. Widefield light microscopy is a simpler approach with which to study the interaction of bacteria with host cells and often has advantages for live cell imaging, enabling detailed analysis of the dynamics of infection and cellular responses. Here we review the use of imaging techniques in Salmonella research and compare the capabilities of different classes of microscope to address specific types of research question. We also provide protocols and notes on some microscopy techniques used routinely in our own research.

  3. Conservation of Salmonella Infection Mechanisms in Plants and Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Schikora; Isabelle Virlogeux-Payant; Eduardo Bueso; Garcia, Ana V.; Theodora Nilau; Amélie Charrier; Sandra Pelletier; Pierrette Menanteau; Manuela Baccarini; Philippe Velge; Heribert Hirt

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs). In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also...

  4. Evaluation of VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) easy Salmonella method for the detection of Salmonella in a variety of foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Goetz, Katherine; Benzinger, M Joseph; Agin, James; Goins, David; Johnson, Ronald L

    2011-01-01

    The VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) Easy Salmonella method is a specific enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay performed in the automated VIDAS instrument. The VIDAS Easy Salmonella method is a simple 2-step enrichment procedure, using pre-enrichment followed by selective enrichment in a newly formulated broth, SX2 broth. This new method was compared in a multilaboratory collaborative study to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 5 method for five food matrixes (liquid egg, vanilla ice cream, spinach, raw shrimp, and peanut butter) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook 4.04 method for deli turkey. Each food type was artificially contaminated with Salmonella at three inoculation levels. A total of 15 laboratories representing government, academia, and industry, throughout the United States, participated. In this study, 1583 samples were analyzed, of which 792 were paired replicates and 791 were unpaired replicates. Of the 792 paired replicates, 285 were positive by both the VIDAS and reference methods. Of the 791 unpaired replicates, 341 were positive by the VIDAS method and 325 were positive by the cultural reference method. A Chi-square analysis of each of the six food types was performed at the three inoculation levels tested. For all foods evaluated, the VIDAS Easy SLM method demonstrated results comparable to those of the reference methods for the detection of Salmonella.

  5. Self-Awareness and Self-Monitoring of Cognitive and Behavioral Deficits in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia and Probable Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sarah; Weintraub, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Lack of insight is a core diagnostic criterion for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), and is believed to be intact in the early stages of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). In other neurological conditions, symptom-specific insight has been noted, with behavioral symptoms appearing especially vulnerable to reduced insight.…

  6. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: IMWG consensus perspectives risk factors for progression and guidelines for monitoring and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kyle (Robert); B.G.M. Durie (Brian); S.V. Rajkumar (Vincent); O. Landgren; J. Bladé (Joan); G. Merlini; N. Kröger; H. Einsele (Hermann); D. Vesole (David); M.A. Dimopoulos (Meletios); J.F. San Miguel (Jesús Fernando); H. Avet-Loiseau; R. Hajek (Roman); W. Chen (Wei); K.C. Anderson (Kenneth Carl); H. Ludwig (Heinz); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); S. Pavlovsky; A. Palumbo (Antonio); P.G. Richardson; B. Barlogie (Bart); P. Greipp (Philip); R. Vescio (Robert); I. Turesson; J. Westin (Johan); M. Boccadoro (Mario)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMonoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) was identified in 3.2% of 21 463 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, 50 years of age or older. The risk of progression to multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, AL amyloidosis or a lymphoproliferative disorder is a

  7. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: IMWG consensus perspectives risk factors for progression and guidelines for monitoring and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kyle (Robert); B.G.M. Durie (Brian); S.V. Rajkumar (Vincent); O. Landgren; J. Bladé (Joan); G. Merlini; N. Kröger; H. Einsele (Hermann); D. Vesole (David); M.A. Dimopoulos (Meletios); J.F. San Miguel (Jesús Fernando); H. Avet-Loiseau; R. Hajek (Roman); W. Chen (Wei); K.C. Anderson (Kenneth Carl); H. Ludwig (Heinz); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); S. Pavlovsky; A. Palumbo (Antonio); P.G. Richardson; B. Barlogie (Bart); P. Greipp (Philip); R. Vescio (Robert); I. Turesson; J. Westin (Johan); M. Boccadoro (Mario)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMonoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) was identified in 3.2% of 21 463 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, 50 years of age or older. The risk of progression to multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, AL amyloidosis or a lymphoproliferative disorder is a

  8. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: IMWG consensus perspectives risk factors for progression and guidelines for monitoring and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kyle (Robert); B.G.M. Durie (Brian); S.V. Rajkumar (Vincent); O. Landgren; J. Bladé (Joan); G. Merlini; N. Kröger; H. Einsele (Hermann); D. Vesole (David); M.A. Dimopoulos (Meletios); J.F. San Miguel (Jesús Fernando); H. Avet-Loiseau; R. Hajek (Roman); W. Chen (Wei); K.C. Anderson (Kenneth Carl); H. Ludwig (Heinz); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); S. Pavlovsky; A. Palumbo (Antonio); P.G. Richardson; B. Barlogie (Bart); P. Greipp (Philip); R. Vescio (Robert); I. Turesson; J. Westin (Johan); M. Boccadoro (Mario)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMonoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) was identified in 3.2% of 21 463 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, 50 years of age or older. The risk of progression to multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, AL amyloidosis or a lymphoproliferative disorder is

  9. A Pilot Trial of Pioglitazone HCl and Tretinoin in ALS: Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers to Monitor Drug Efficacy and Predict Rate of Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd D. Levine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine if therapy with pioglitazone HCl and tretinoin could slow disease progression in patients with ALS. Levels of tau and pNFH in the cerebrospinal fluid were measured to see if they could serve as prognostic indicators. Methods. 27 subjects on stable doses of riluzole were enrolled. Subjects were randomized to receive pioglitazone 30 mg/d and tretinoin 10 mg/BID for six months or two matching placebos. ALSFRS-R scores were followed monthly. At baseline and at the final visit, lumbar punctures (LPs were performed to measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarker levels. Results. Subjects treated with tretinoin, pioglitazone, and riluzole had an average rate of decline on the ALSFRS-R scale of −1.02 points per month; subjects treated with placebo and riluzole had a rate of decline of -.86 (P=.18. Over six months of therapy, CSF tau levels decreased in subjects randomized to active treatment and increased in subjects on placebo. Further higher levels of pNF-H at baseline correlated with a faster rate of progression. Conclusion. ALS patients who were treated with tretinoin and pioglitazone demonstrated no slowing on their disease progression. Interestingly, the rate of disease progression was strongly correlated with levels of pNFH in the CSF at baseline.

  10. Microseismic monitoring of Chocolate Bayou, Texas. The Pleasant Bayou No. 2 geopressured/geothermal energy test-well program. 1982 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauk, F.J.; Davis, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the seismic risks associated with geopressured fluid production from the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 design well a seismic monitoring program was conducted in the vicinity of the Brazoria County design wells since 1979. The monitoring program was designed first to establish the nature of the local ambient seismicity prior to production, and second to provide continued surveillance of the area during the well tests to determine if production altered ambient seismic conditions significantly. The operation, data analyses, results and conclusions of the Brazoria seismic network during the operational period from 1 January through 31 December 1982 are described.

  11. Diffuse abdominal gallium-67 citrate uptake in salmonella infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.

    1987-11-01

    Two pediatric patients with salmonella infections (one with typhoid fever and the second with salmonella C2 gastroenteritis), had a diffuse abdominal uptake of Ga-67 citrate. The possible explanation for this finding is discussed. Salmonella infection should be included as a cause in the differential diagnosis of diffuse accumulation of Ga-67 citrate.

  12. Extended Spectrum Beta-lactam Resistance among Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is an important food bourn pathogen capable of infecting both humans and animals. One of the most effective treatments for Salmonella infections is beta-lactam antibiotics, particularly extended spectrum beta-lactams; however, Salmonella resistant to these antibiotics have been recovered ...

  13. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjoy Banerjee; Mei Chen Ooi; Mohamed Shariff; Helena Khatoon

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed indiv...

  14. Salmonellae in avian wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsum, T.; Handeland, K.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2002-01-01

    Postmortem records of wild-living birds in Norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. The salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gulls...

  15. Salmonella in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Claire; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Janecko, Nicol; Allan, Mike; McEwen, Scott A

    2011-04-01

    Numerous serotypes of Salmonella have been detected in a variety of wild animals, including raccoons (Procyon lotor). Raccoons are common, mid-size omnivores that live in close association with people in urban and rural areas in Ontario. Although raccoons are known to shed Salmonella, little is known about their potential long-term role in maintaining Salmonella infections. We sampled feces from raccoons in three areas of Ontario: one primarily urban site around Niagara, one primarily rural site north of Guelph, and the grounds of the Toronto Zoo, in 2007 to identify which serotypes of Salmonella were commonly shed by raccoons in southern Ontario. In addition, we conducted a longitudinal study at the Toronto Zoo site to determine if raccoons remain persistently infected with Salmonella. Salmonella was found in 45% of samples. The prevalence of Salmonella in raccoon feces ranged from 27% at the rural site to 65% at the urban site. We detected 16 serotypes of Salmonella in 83 positive samples. The most common serotype detected in raccoons from the rural and zoo sites was Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, whereas Salmonella Newport was detected most commonly in the urban site. Only one raccoon of 11 that were captured in four or more consecutive trapping sessions shed the same Salmonella serotype for two consecutive months, suggesting that raccoons regularly acquire new Salmonella serotypes from the environment.

  16. Salmonella infection and immune response in finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and the immunological alterations that occur in Salmonella-carrier pigs, by longitudinally com...

  17. Mechanism of Salmonella reduction in fermented pig feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsen, van R.L.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Biesterveld, S.; Urlings, B.A.P.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    To protect consumers from Salmonella infection acquired through the consumption of pork meat, it is necessary to eradicate Salmonella from pork. In order to achieve this, the whole pork production chain should be free from Salmonella, including the pigs at the farm. In epidemiological studies it was

  18. Resistance of broiler outbred lines to infection with Salmonella enteritidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, N.M.; Janss, L.L.G.; Putirulan, F.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella infections originating from poultry are one of the major causes of food-borne disease. For the control of salmonella in poultry a multifactorial approach is more likely to be effective, and the genetic resistance of poultry breeds to salmonella infections may be a valuable contribution. E

  19. Salmonella enteritidis from a case of fever with thrombocytopenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shamma Arora; Naveen Gupta; Ashwani Kumar; IR Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Non typhoidalSalmonella species are thought to be potentially infectious to humans. We isolated Salmonella enteritidis from a 10-year-old boy with fever and thrombocytopenia. We reviewed the literature concerning infections caused bySalmonella but we could not find any such case report from India.

  20. 76 FR 16425 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... for industry entitled ``Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct- Human-Contact Animal... testing procedures for Salmonella spp. in human foods (except shell eggs) and direct-human- contact animal... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella Species...

  1. 9 CFR 113.30 - Detection of Salmonella contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of Salmonella contamination... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.30 Detection of Salmonella contamination. The test for detection of Salmonella contamination provided in this section shall be conducted when such a test is prescribed in an...

  2. Meta-analysis of Chicken - Salmonella infection experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Hulsegge, B.; Schokker, D.J.; Smits, M.A.; Fife, M.; Zoorob, R.; Endale, M.L.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness.

  3. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Salmonella spp. from...

  4. 76 FR 81513 - Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During... with certain provisions contained in FDA's final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in...

  5. Remote Sensing-based Drought Monitoring Approach and Research Progress%以遥感为基础的干旱监测方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周磊; 武建军; 张洁

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a serious natural disaster. It is doing increasingly damage to the human environment as the drought events occur more frequently. Real-time and effective drought monitoring is an effective means to reduce the losses caused by drought. Since the beginning of 20th century, a lot of drought indices have been de-veloped for monitoring the occurrence and variation of drought. Drought is a complex natural disaster. Howev-er, each drought index has its own advantages and weaknesses in drought monitoring. Almost all the drought indices are based on specific geographical and temporal scales;it is difficult to spread its applicability all over the world. Because of the meteorological drought indices using discrete, point-based meteorological measure-ments collected at weather station locations, the results have restricted level of spatial precision for monitoring drought patterns. Remote sensing technology provides alternative data for operational drought monitoring, with advanced temporal and spatial characteristics. However, additional information still needs to be incorpo-rated so as to thoroughly explain the anomaly in vegetation caused by drought. Besides, to achieve a more ac-curate description of drought characteristics, drought intensity differences caused by vegetation type, tempera-ture, elevation, manmade irrigation, and other factors under the same water condition must be considered. Therefore, effective drought monitoring indicator should both reflect soil moisture, vegetation condition and take into account vegetation type, temperature, and man-made factors leading to regional drought differences. Aiming at the problem mentioned above, the satellite based drought indices, and integrated meteorological and remote sensed drought indices was reviewed in our research. Firstly, this paper summarized the widely used drought monitoring models which were based on remote sensing data. The remote sensing drought monitoring approach was summarized by dividing

  6. Progress in the development of the neutron flux monitoring system of the French GEN-IV SFR: simulations and experimental validations [ANIMMA--2015-IO-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammes, C.; Filliatre, P.; De Izarra, G. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation, Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, (France); Elter, Zs.; Pazsit, I. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Division of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Goteborg, (Sweden); Verma, V.; Hellesen, C.; Jacobsson, S. [Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala, (Sweden); Hamrita, H.; Bakkali, M. [CEA, DRT, LIST, Sensors and Electronic Architecture Laboratory, Saclay, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Chapoutier, N.; Scholer, A-C.; Verrier, D. [AREVA NP, 10 rue Juliette Recamier F-69456 Lyon, (France); Cantonnet, B.; Nappe, J-C. [PHONIS France S.A.S, Nuclear Instrumentation, Avenue Roger Roncier, B.P. 520, F-19106 Brive Cedex, (France); Molinie, P.; Dessante, P.; Hanna, R.; Kirkpatrick, M.; Odic, E. [Supelec, Department of Power and Energy System, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Jadot, F. [CEA, DEN, DER, ASTRID Project Group, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, (France)

    2015-07-01

    The neutron flux monitoring system of the French GEN-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor will rely on high temperature fission chambers installed in the reactor vessel and capable of operating over a wide-range neutron flux. The definition of such a system is presented and the technological solutions are justified with the use of simulation and experimental results. (authors)

  7. The detection of antibodies against Salmonella Enteritidis in reference materials using a LPS ELISA ; A collaborative study amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Dufrenne JB; Nagelkerke N; Veld PH in' t; Henken AM; MGB

    1997-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium voor Salmonella (CRL) heeft een ringonderzoek georganiseerd waarin een immunologische methode voor het aantonen van antilichamen tegen Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) werd uitgevoerd en waaraan alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria voor Salmonella (NRLs) deel

  8. Molecular characterization of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are human pathogens frequently isolated from poultry. As a step towards implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance (COIPARS), this study characterized molecular patt...

  9. Test results of Salmonella serotyping in the Member States of the European Union. (Collaborative study III amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Het Communautair Referentie Laboratorium (CRL) voor Salmonella heeft een derde ringonderzoek voor de serotypering van Salmonella georganiseerd. Alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRLs) voor Salmonella van de Europese Unie deden aan het onderzoek mee. Het belangrijkste doel was het vergelijke

  10. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  11. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  12. Salmonella capture using orbiting magnetic microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Drew; Ballard, Matthew; Mills, Zachary; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Using three-dimensional simulations and experiments, we examine capture of salmonella from a complex fluid sample flowing through a microfluidic channel. Capture is performed using orbiting magnetic microbeads, which can easily be extracted from the system for analysis after salmonella capture. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of the system, which consists of a microchannel filled with a viscous fluid, model salmonella, magnetic microbeads and a series of angled parallel ridges lining the top of the microchannel. Simulations provide a statistical measure of the ability of the system to capture target salmonella. Our modeling findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip experimental device to be used for the detection of salmonella from complex food samples, allowing for the detection of the bacteria at the food source and preventing the consumption of contaminated food. Such a device can be used as a generic platform for the detection of a variety of biomaterials from complex fluids. This work is supported by a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture.

  13. Molecular epidemiological investigation of a diffuse outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Montevideo isolates in Osaka Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tetsuya; Sakata, Junko; Kanki, Masashi; Seto, Kazuko; Taguchi, Masumi; Kumeda, Yuko

    2011-10-01

    In Osaka Prefecture, Japan, three foodborne outbreaks were caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Montevideo in rapid succession between September 2007 and May 2008. Further, Salmonella Montevideo was also isolated from several sporadic diarrhea patients and asymptomatic carriers examined during approximately the identical period. To investigate the relatedness of the isolates, we performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) for 29 Salmonella Montevideo isolates obtained in this region between 1991 and 2008. Although antimicrobial susceptibility tests had low discriminatory power, PFGE patterns revealed 17 unique types with outbreaks, one sporadic patient, and three different carriers between 2007 and 2008 had nearly identical PFGE patterns and were classified into the identical MLVA type; further, the isolates with this PFGE and MLVA pattern appeared only at that time between 1991 and 2008. These data strongly suggest that genetically identical Salmonella Montevideo strains may have caused the 2007 and 2008 outbreaks in Osaka Prefecture. Our results demonstrate that PFGE using XbaI and BlnI is useful for discriminating between Salmonella Montevideo isolates, even within a limited area, and reconfirm that continuous epidemiological surveillance for bacterial intestinal infections such as salmonellosis may be useful to not only monitor changes in the genetic diversity of isolates, but to also detect diffuse outbreaks.

  14. Emergence and serovar profiling of non-typhoidal Salmonellae (NTS) isolated from gastroenteritis cases-A study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Mamatha; Devadas, Suganthi Martena; Shetty, Vignesh; Bangera, Sohan Rodney; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sarkar, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Human infection with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars is often a neglected and undiagnosed infection in the developing world. Invasive NTS is now being established as having a new and emerging pathogenic role. There is not sufficient data on the prevalence of NTS serovars and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern from India. Faecal specimens collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis were processed to isolate Salmonella according to the standard protocol for a period from January 2011-December 2014. Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Of the total 320 (10.04%) bacterial enteric pathogens isolated, 64 (20%) were non-typhoidal Salmonella. Among the serogroup, O:4 (B) (n = 26; 40.6%) was found to be the commonest followed by O:7 (C1) (n = 11; 17.1%) and O:3,10 (E1) (n = 11; 17.1%). NTS infection in cancer patients could also be termed as nosocomial NTS diarrhoea due to primary community infection with prolonged incubation periods, consumption of contaminated food during hospital stay or Nosocomially acquired infection. Serovar Oslo has been predominant (9/17) in NTS isolates from cancer patients, whereas serovars Bovismorbificans, Wangata and Schleissheim have been reported for the first time in the country. The isolates were mostly susceptible to antibiotics except Salmonella ser Kentucky, which showed resistance to ciprofloxacin is reported for the first time in the country. Continuous surveillance is required to monitor resistance of NTS isolates.

  15. Impact of litter Salmonella strain on the recovered Salmonella strains from broiler crop and ceca following feed withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the impact of litter Salmonella status during feed withdrawal, 2 pens of 5-wk-old broilers (n=10/pen) in separate rooms were challenged with marker strains of either Salmonella Montevideo (nalidixic acid resistant) or Salmonella Heidelberg (streptomycin resistant) by oral gavage. Three ...

  16. NRL Salmonella ringonderzoek VI/VII voor bacteriologische detectie Salmonella en pilot ringonderzoeken I/II voor bacteriologische detectie Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Dam-Deisz C; MGB

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 werden er twee bacteriologische ringonderzoeken voor de detectie van Salmonella in aanwezigheid van stoorflora georganiseerd door het Nationaal Referentie Laboratorium (NRL) voor Salmonella, waaraan werd deelgenomen door 23 laboratoria die betrokken zijn bij het plan van aanpak Salmonella en

  17. KDHE Project Code: C6-074-00002: Progress and Monitoring Report for the LDB/SVE/AS System at the Former CCC/USDA Grain Storage Facility, Agra, Kansas, in July-December 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Agra, Kansas, from the 1950s to the early 1970s. No structures remain on the property, and the land is used for agricultural purposes, specifically wheat production. The property is currently owned by the Kyle Railroad Co. and is leased to Mr. Herb VanEaton. The Pro-Ag Marketing grain storage facility is directly south of the former CCC/USDA facility. Quarterly progress reports for October-December 2008, January-March 2009, and April- June 2009 (Argonne 2009a,b,c) provided detailed information regarding construction and startup of the cleanup. Previous periodic monitoring reports (Argonne 2010a,b,c,d, 2011a,b,c, 2012, 2013a,b,c, 2014a,b) have tracked the subsequent progress of the cleanup effort. Data for evaluation of system performance are collected primarily by sampling SVE effluents, soil gas monitoring points, and groundwater wells for analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Table 1.1 provides a detailed chronological summary of activities during implementation of the cleanup.

  18. Monitoring stroke progression: in vivo imaging of cortical perfusion, blood-brain barrier permeability and cellular damage in the rat photothrombosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoknecht, Karl; Prager, Ofer; Vazana, Udi; Kamintsky, Lyn; Harhausen, Denise; Zille, Marietta; Figge, Lena; Chassidim, Yoash; Schellenberger, Eyk; Kovács, Richard; Heinemann, Uwe; Friedman, Alon

    2014-11-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia is among the main causes of death and disability worldwide. The ischemic core often progresses, invading the peri-ischemic brain; however, assessing the propensity of the peri-ischemic brain to undergo secondary damage, understanding the underlying mechanisms, and adjusting treatment accordingly remain clinically unmet challenges. A significant hallmark of the peri-ischemic brain is dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), yet the role of disturbed vascular permeability in stroke progression is unclear. Here we describe a longitudinal in vivo fluorescence imaging approach for the evaluation of cortical perfusion, BBB dysfunction, free radical formation and cellular injury using the photothrombosis vascular occlusion model in male Sprague Dawley rats. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction propagated within the peri-ischemic brain in the first hours after photothrombosis and was associated with free radical formation and cellular injury. Inhibiting free radical signaling significantly reduced progressive cellular damage after photothrombosis, with no significant effect on blood flow and BBB permeability. Our approach allows a dynamic follow-up of cellular events and their response to therapeutics in the acutely injured cerebral cortex.

  19. Progress on Developing Adaptive Optics-Optical Coherence Tomography for In Vivo Retinal Imaging: Monitoring and Correction of Eye Motion Artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J; Capps, Arlie G; Kim, Dae Yu; Panorgias, Athanasios; Stevenson, Scott B; Hamann, Bernd; Werner, John S

    2014-03-01

    Recent progress in retinal image acquisition techniques, including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), combined with improved performance of adaptive optics (AO) instrumentation, has resulted in improvement in the quality of in vivo images of cellular structures in the human retina. Here, we present a short review of progress on developing AO-OCT instruments. Despite significant progress in imaging speed and resolution, eye movements present during acquisition of a retinal image with OCT introduce motion artifacts into the image, complicating analysis and registration. This effect is especially pronounced in high-resolution datasets acquired with AO-OCT instruments. Several retinal tracking systems have been introduced to correct retinal motion during data acquisition. We present a method for correcting motion artifacts in AO-OCT volume data after acquisition using simultaneously captured adaptive optics-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) images. We extract transverse eye motion data from the AO-SLO images, assign a motion adjustment vector to each AO-OCT A-scan, and re-sample from the scattered data back onto a regular grid. The corrected volume data improve the accuracy of quantitative analyses of microscopic structures.

  20. Progress on Developing Adaptive Optics–Optical Coherence Tomography for In Vivo Retinal Imaging: Monitoring and Correction of Eye Motion Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Robert J.; Capps, Arlie G.; Kim, Dae Yu; Panorgias, Athanasios; Stevenson, Scott B.; Hamann, Bernd; Werner, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in retinal image acquisition techniques, including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), combined with improved performance of adaptive optics (AO) instrumentation, has resulted in improvement in the quality of in vivo images of cellular structures in the human retina. Here, we present a short review of progress on developing AO-OCT instruments. Despite significant progress in imaging speed and resolution, eye movements present during acquisition of a retinal image with OCT introduce motion artifacts into the image, complicating analysis and registration. This effect is especially pronounced in high-resolution datasets acquired with AO-OCT instruments. Several retinal tracking systems have been introduced to correct retinal motion during data acquisition. We present a method for correcting motion artifacts in AO-OCT volume data after acquisition using simultaneously captured adaptive optics-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) images. We extract transverse eye motion data from the AO-SLO images, assign a motion adjustment vector to each AO-OCT A-scan, and re-sample from the scattered data back onto a regular grid. The corrected volume data improve the accuracy of quantitative analyses of microscopic structures. PMID:25544826