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Sample records for monitor river otter

  1. Otter ( Lutra lutra ) predation on stocked brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) in two Danish lowland rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate otter predation on stocked trout. Large hatchery-reared trout (16-30 cm) were stocked into two Danish rivers with different fish populations. Otter diet before and after trout stocking was determined by analysing 685 spraints, collected regularly during the 35-day study...... period. Fish composition in the rivers before stocking was assessed by electrofishing. In River Trend, a typical trout river, the proportion of trout in the otter diet increased from 8% before stocking to 33% a few days after stocking. Moreover, trout lengths in the diet changed significantly towards...... the lengths of stocked trout, indicating that newly stocked trout were preferred to wild trout. In River Skals, dominated by cyprinids, there was no change in otter diet after stocking of hatchery trout, i.e., these were ignored by otter. Otter predation should be taken into account together with fish...

  2. A Distribution Survey for Otters along a River in Central Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Chettri; Melissa Savage

    2014-01-01

    We report the findings of a survey for otters along a major river in central Bhutan. The river bears various names in different stretches along its run, including Mochhu, Phochhu, Punatsangchhu and Sunkosh. We report: 1) the distribution and density of otter sign, including tracks, scats, latrines and dens, 2) the correlation between sign abundance and vegetation and substrate characteristics, and 3) the correlation of otter sign with human disturbance. Five of the six 5.5 km transects sample...

  3. Monitoring and assessment of conservation status of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Bjarne; Madsen, Aksel Bo; Elmeros, Morten

    Monitoring and assessment of conservation status of the Eurasian Otter Lutra lutra in Denmark Søgaard B. ¹, Madsen A.B.¹, Elmeros M.¹ ¹Institute of Bioscience - Kaloe, Aarhus University. Keywords: Eurasian Otter; Monitoring; Conservation status According to the EU Habitats Directive Denmark has...... of the otter inside Denmark, DNA analysis of dead found otters in Schleswig-Holstein (North Germany) shows that “Danish” otter have crossed the border to Germany connecting the Danish population to the East German population, which spreads into Schleswig-Holstein from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern....

  4. High-altitude diving in river otters: coping with combined hypoxic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crait, Jamie R; Prange, Henry D; Marshall, Noah A; Harlow, Henry J; Cotton, Clark J; Ben-David, Merav

    2012-01-15

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are highly active, semi-aquatic mammals indigenous to a range of elevations and represent an appropriate model for assessing the physiological responses to diving at altitude. In this study, we performed blood gas analyses and compared blood chemistry of river otters from a high-elevation (2357 m) population at Yellowstone Lake with a sea-level population along the Pacific coast. Comparisons of oxygen dissociation curves (ODC) revealed no significant difference in hemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O(2)) binding affinity between the two populations - potentially because of demands for tissue oxygenation. Instead, high-elevation otters had greater Hb concentrations (18.7 g dl(-1)) than sea-level otters (15.6 g dl(-1)). Yellowstone otters displayed higher levels of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), and half the concentration of the serum protein albumin, possibly to compensate for increased blood viscosity. Despite compensation in several hematological and serological parameters, theoretical aerobic dive limits (ADL) were similar between high-elevation and sea-level otters because of the lower availability of O(2) at altitude. Our results suggest that recent disruptions to the Yellowstone Lake food web could be detrimental to otters because at this high elevation, constraints on diving may limit their ability to switch to prey in a deep-water environment.

  5. Bilateral uric acid nephrolithiasis and ureteral hypertrophy in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A.; Bildfell, Rob; Henny, Charles J.; Buhler, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first case of uric acid nephrolithiasis in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis). A 7 yr old male river otter collected from the Skagit River of western Washington (USA) had bilateral nephrolithiasis and severely enlarged ureters (one of 305 examined [0.33%]). The uroliths were 97% uric acid and 3% protein. Microscopic changes in the kidney were confined to expansion of renal calyces, minor loss of medullary tissue, and multifocal atrophy of the cortical tubules. No inflammation was observed in either kidney or the ureters. The ureters were enlarged due to marked hypertrophy of smooth muscle plus dilation of the lumen. Fusion of the major calyces into a single ureteral lumen was several cm distal to that of two adult male otters used as histopathologic control specimens. This case report is part of a large contaminant study of river otters collected from Oregon and Washington. It is important to understand diseases and lesions of the otter as part of our overall evaluation of this population.

  6. Postrelease monitoring of radio-instrumented sea otters in Prince William Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnett, C.; Rotterman, L.M.; Stack, C.; Monson, Daniel H.; Bayha, Keith; Kormendy, Jennifer

    1990-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that were captured in western Prince William Sound (PWS) or the Gulf of Alaska, treated, and held in captivity at the temporary rehabilitation centers established in response to the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill were instrumented with radio transmitters, released into eastern PWS, and monitored by radiotelemetry. We undertook the present study to gain information for guiding the release of the remaining captive otters and evaluating the efficacy of sea otter rehabilitation after exposure to crude oil. Radio transmitters were attached to the flippers of seven sea otters released in May 1989 and monitored for periods of a few hours to more than 60 days. However, little was learned about the fate of these animals because the radio transmitters used proved unreliable. Forty-five additional sea otters from the rehabilitation centers were implanted with radio transmitters, released into northeastern PWS and monitored for 8 months. During the first 20 days after the first release of these implanted otters (n = 21), they were more mobile than wild-caught and released sea otters studied in PWS, from 1984 through 1990. All were alive and vigorous at the end of the 20-day period. Tracking of all 45 implanted sea otters during the 8-month period showed that the otters remained highly mobile. Many (46.6%) crossed into western PWS. However, by the end of the 8 months, 12 of the instrumented otters were dead and 9 were missing. One radio failed. These mortality and missing rates are much higher than those normally observed for adult sea otters in PWS. The death rate was highest in winter. These data suggest that, despite the tremendous amount of money and energy directed toward the treatment and care of these animals, the sea otters released from the centers were not completely rehabilitated, that is, not returned to a normal state. We recommend that future policies focus on preventing otters from becoming oiled, rather than attempting to treat them

  7. Patterns of otter (Lutra Lutra) distribution and man-otter conflicts in river Sado basin : conservation implications

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso, Teresa Marta Pacheco de Sales Luís Sampaio, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Ecologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), a protected predator, competes with man for water, in drier regions, and for fish in important fish rearing areas. This thesis addresses man-otter conflicts, by examining: i) otter distribution and persistence in a waterscape facing natural water shortage, yet aggravated by human activities; and ii) otter damages in fish rearing areas, to further understand the l...

  8. Changes in diets of river otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska: Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, R.T.; Testa, J.W.; Faro, J.B.; Schwartz, C.C.; Browning, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the diets of river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, were examined in 1989 and 1990. On the basis of identification of prey remains in their feces, otters fed principally on marine, bottom-dwelling fishes. Marine gastropods, bivalves, and crustaceans composed most of the invertebrates in the diet of otters; freshwater and terrestrial food items seldom occurred in their feces. The diets of otters included 149 different taxa, most of which rarely occurred in their feces. Sixty-five taxa occurred ≥5 times in the combined data set. Species richness and diversity of prey remains in otter feces were similar on oiled and nonoiled study areas in late winter 1989 (before the oil spill) and during summer 1989 following the spill. By summer 1990, however, there were significant declines in the richness and diversity of species (mostly bony fish, molluscs, and bivalves) in otter diets on the oiled area. Likewise, the relative abundance of prey remains in otter feces showed strong differences between areas and years, and an area by year interaction. Members of the Perciformes and Archaeogastropoda declined from 1989 to 1990 on the oiled area while they increased on the nonoiled site; Malacostraca exhibited the opposite pattern. These outcomes, when considered with other data on body mass and blood chemistry, strongly suggest that some effects of the oil spill on otters were delayed. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  9. Monitoring population status of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska: options and considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esslinger, George G.; Esler, Daniel N.; Howlin, S.; Starcevich, L.A.

    2015-06-25

    After many decades of absence from southeast Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are recolonizing parts of their former range, including Glacier Bay, Alaska. Sea otters are well known for structuring nearshore ecosystems and causing community-level changes such as increases in kelp abundance and changes in the size and number of other consumers. Monitoring population status of sea otters in Glacier Bay will help park researchers and managers understand and interpret sea otter-induced ecosystem changes relative to other sources of variation, including potential human-induced impacts such as ocean acidification, vessel disturbance, and oil spills. This report was prepared for the National Park Service (NPS), Southeast Alaska Inventory and Monitoring Network following a request for evaluation of options for monitoring sea otter population status in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. To meet this request, we provide a detailed consideration of the primary method of assessment of abundance and distribution, aerial surveys, including analyses of power to detect interannual trends and designs to reduce variation around annual abundance estimates. We also describe two alternate techniques for evaluating sea otter population status—(1) quantifying sea otter diets and energy intake rates, and (2) detecting change in ages at death. In addition, we provide a brief section on directed research to identify studies that would further our understanding of sea otter population dynamics and effects on the Glacier Bay ecosystem, and provide context for interpreting results of monitoring activities.

  10. Habitat quality assessment for the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra on the river Jajrood, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Mirzaei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is little information about the status and ecology of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra in Iran. We assessed the habitat suitability for otters of the River Jajrood, Tehran province, measuring, or visually estimating, 12 environmental parameters along 16 600 m long river stretches (sampling sites. The downstream stretches of the river were found to be more suitable for otters with respect to the upper part of its course. Although the assessments of habitat suitability for the otter may be affected by several limits, the current distribution of the species on the river agrees with the results of this study. The preservation of the otter in Tehran province should involve the restoration of the ecosystem of the River Jajrood in order to improve the length of suitable river stretches.
    Riassunto Stima dell’idoneità ambientale per la lontra (Lutra lutra del fiume Jajrood, Iran. Le informazioni relative alla lontra (Lutra lutra in Iran sono scarse. L’idoneità ambientale per la specie del fiume Jajrood, provincia di Tehran, è stata valutata, misurando o stimando 12 parametri ambientali lungo 16 stazioni di campionamento, coincidenti con tratti di fiume della lunghezza di 600 m. I tratti più a valle sono risultati più idonei rispetto al corso superiore del fiume. Malgrado i numerosi limiti del metodo di stima dell’idoneità ambientale adottato, i risultati sono in accordo con l’attuale distribuzione della lontra lungo il fiume Jajrood. La conservazione della lontra nella provincia di Tehran dovrebbe prevedere miglioramenti ambientali volti a incrementare lo sviluppo lineare degli habitat idonei lungo il fiume Jajrood.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4447

  11. An eDNA assay for river otter detection: A tool for surveying a semi-aquatic mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha M. Padgett-Stewart; Taylor M. Wilcox; Kellie J. Carim; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an effective tool for the detection of elusive or low-density aquatic organisms. However, it has infrequently been applied to mammalian species. North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) are both broad ranging and semi-aquatic, making them an ideal candidate for examining the uses of eDNA for detection of mammals. We developed...

  12. Trophic interactions of the endangered Southern river otter ( Lontra provocax) in a Chilean Ramsar wetland inferred from prey sampling, fecal analysis, and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marcela; Guevara, Giovany; Correa, Loreto; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    Non-invasive methodological approaches are highly recommended and commonly used to study the feeding ecology of elusive and threatened mammals. In this study, we use multiple lines of evidence to assess the feeding strategies of the endangered Southern river otter, by determining seasonal prey availability (electrofishing), analysis of undigested prey remains (spraints), and the use of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) in otter spraints ( n = 262) and prey in a wetland ecosystem of southern Chile (39°49'S, 73°15'W). Fecal and isotopic analyses suggest that the otter diet is restricted to a few prey items, particularly the less-mobile, bottom-living, and larger prey such as crayfish ( Samastacus spinifrons, 86.11 %) and crabs ( Aegla spp., 32.45 %), supplemented opportunistically by cyprinids ( Cyprinus carpio, 9.55 %) and catfish ( Diplomystes camposensis, 5.66 %). The results suggest that the river otter is highly specialized in bottom foraging. Isotopic signatures of food sources and feces revealed a mid-upper trophic position for the Southern river otter, with either higher or lower δ15N values than their potential prey items. δ13C values for river otters were less enriched than their potential food resources. We suggest that due to their narrow trophic niche and possible dependence on only a few food items, this species may be highly vulnerable to the reduction in its prey populations. Finally, maintaining the ecological interactions between Southern river otters and their prey is considered a central priority for the survival of this endangered carnivore mammal.

  13. Review of the systematics, biology and ecology of lice from pinnipeds and river otters (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soledad Leonardi, Maria; Palma, Ricardo Luis

    2013-01-01

    We present a literature review of the sucking louse family Echinophthiriidae, its five genera and twelve species parasitic on pinnipeds (fur seals, sea lions, walruses, true seals) and the North American river otter. We give detailed synonymies and published records for all taxonomic hierarchies, as well as hosts, type localities and repositories of type material; we highlight significant references and include comments on the current taxonomic status of the species. We provide a summary of present knowledge of the biology and ecology for eight species. Also, we give a host-louse list, and a bibliography to the family as complete as possible.

  14. Modeling Behavior by Coastal River Otter (Lontra Canadensis in Response to Prey Availability in Prince William Sound, Alaska: A Spatially-Explicit Individual-Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E Albeke

    Full Text Available Effects of climate change on animal behavior and cascading ecosystem responses are rarely evaluated. In coastal Alaska, social river otters (Lontra Canadensis, largely males, cooperatively forage on schooling fish and use latrine sites to communicate group associations and dominance. Conversely, solitary otters, mainly females, feed on intertidal-demersal fish and display mutual avoidance via scent marking. This behavioral variability creates "hotspots" of nutrient deposition and affects plant productivity and diversity on the terrestrial landscape. Because the abundance of schooling pelagic fish is predicted to decline with climate change, we developed a spatially-explicit individual-based model (IBM of otter behavior and tested six scenarios based on potential shifts to distribution patterns of schooling fish. Emergent patterns from the IBM closely mimicked observed otter behavior and landscape use in the absence of explicit rules of intraspecific attraction or repulsion. Model results were most sensitive to rules regarding spatial memory and activity state following an encounter with a fish school. With declining availability of schooling fish, the number of social groups and the time simulated otters spent in the company of conspecifics declined. Concurrently, model results suggested an elevation of defecation rate, a 25% increase in nitrogen transport to the terrestrial landscape, and significant changes to the spatial distribution of "hotspots" with declines in schooling fish availability. However, reductions in availability of schooling fish could lead to declines in otter density over time.

  15. Non–invasive sampling of endangered neotropical river otters reveals high levels of dispersion in the Lacantun River System of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic dispersion, levels of population genetic structure, and movement of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis were investigated by screening eight polymorphic microsatellites from DNA extracted from fecal samples, collected in a hydrologic system of the Lacandon rainforest in Chiapas, Mexico. A total of 34 unique genotypes were detected from our surveys along six different rivers, and the effect of landscape genetic structure was studied. We recovered 16 of the 34 individuals in multiple rivers at multiple times. We found high levels of dispersion and low levels of genetic differentiation among otters from the six surveyed rivers (P > 0.05, except for the pairwise comparison among the Lacantún and José rivers (P < 0.05. We recommend that conservation management plans for the species consider the entire Lacantún River System and its tributaries as a single management unit to ensure the maintenance of current levels of population genetic diversity, because the population analyzed seems to follow a source–sink dynamic mainly determined by the existence of the major river.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Niladri [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)]. E-mail: nbasu@uottawa.ca; Scheuhammer, Anton M. [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); O' Brien, Mike [Furbearers and Upland Game, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, Nova Scotia, B4N 4E5 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 {+-} 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 {+-} 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 {+-} 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Niladri; Scheuhammer, Anton M.; O'Brien, Mike

    2007-01-01

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 ± 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 ± 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 ± 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects

  18. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  19. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: relationship to age and parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenavic, Katherine; Champoux, Louise; Mike, O'Brien; Daoust, Pierre-Y; Evans, R Douglas; Evans, Hayla E

    2008-11-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink.

  20. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenavic, Katherine [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Champoux, Louise [Service Canadien de la Faune Environnement Canada, 1141 Route de l' Eglise, c.p. 10100, Sainte-Foy, QC G1V 4H5 (Canada)], E-mail: louise.champoux@ec.gc.ca; Mike, O' Brien [Furbearers and Upland Game, Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, NS B4N 4E5 (Canada)], E-mail: obrienms@gov.ns.ca; Daoust, Pierre-Y. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of P.E.I., 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3 (Canada)], E-mail: daoust@upei.ca; Evans, R. Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Evans, Hayla E. [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)], E-mail: hevans@trentu.ca

    2008-11-15

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations.

  1. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klenavic, Katherine; Champoux, Louise; Mike, O'Brien; Daoust, Pierre-Y.; Evans, R. Douglas; Evans, Hayla E.

    2008-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations

  2. Columbia River water quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Waste water from Hanford activities is discharged at eight points along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. These discharges consist of backwash water from water intake screens, cooling water, river bank springs, water storage tank overflow, and fish laboratory waste water. Each discharge point is identified in an existing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the EPA. Effluents from each of these outfalls are routinely monitored and reported by the operating contractors as required by their NPDES permits. Measurements of several Columbia River water quality parameters were conducted routinely during 1982 both upstream and downstream of the Hanford Site to monitor any effects on the river that may be attributable to Hanford discharges and to determine compliance with the Class A designation requirements. The measurements indicated that Hanford operations had a minimal, if any, impact on the quality of the Columbia River water

  3. Nicho trófico de la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis en un ambiente modificado, Temascaltepec, México Food niche of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis in a modified environment, Temascaltepec, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Monroy-Vilchis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los cambios en espacio y tiempo de dieta de la nutria en Temascaltepec, Estado de México, en 2 ríos que presentan importante intervención humana causada por el establecimiento de criaderos de peces comerciales. Se recolectaron 157 excrementos, identificandose la trucha (Oncorhynchus mykiss como la presa más consumida (92.4%, seguida por invertebrados (3.5%, anfibios (2.9% y plantas (1.8%. La dieta de la nutria no varía significativamente entre estaciones climáticas, mientras que entre ríos, la variación fue significativa. En la zona de estudio, la nutria muestra tendencia a especializarse en el consumo de trucha. Las granjas de trucha influyen en la dieta de la nutria y se presentan como clave para la permanencia de la nutria en la zona de estudio.Spatial and temporal changes in the diet of the river otter in Temascaltepec, Mexico were analyzed on 2 rivers that present important human disturbance caused by aquaculture of commercial fish. 157 scats were collected, the principal prey was trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (92.4% followed by invertebrates (3.5%, amphibians (2.9% and plants (1.8%. Between climatic stations the diet of the river otter did not vary significantly, whereas between rivers it presented significant variation. The river otter showed specialization in the consumption of trout. The trout farms have influenced the diet of the river otter, and appear as key for the permanence of the otter in the study zone.

  4. Maine River Temperature Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We collect seasonal and annual temperature measurements on an hourly or quarter hourly basis to monitor habitat suitability for ATS and other species. Temperature...

  5. Canopy Chemistry (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Canopy characteristics: leaf chemistry, specific leaf area, LAI, PAR, IPAR, NPP, standing biomass--see also: Meteorology (OTTER) for associated...

  6. Savannah River Plant remote environmental monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The SRP remote environmental monitoring system consists of separations facilities stack monitors, production reactor stack monitors, twelve site perimeter monitors, river and stream monitors, a geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES) data link, reactor cooling lake thermal monitors, meteorological tower system, Weather Information and Display (WIND) system computer, and the VANTAGE data base management system. The remote environmental monitoring system when fully implemented will provide automatic monitoring of key stack releases and automatic inclusion of these source terms in the emergency response codes

  7. Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: cyanotoxin (microcystin transfer from land to sea otters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Miller

    Full Text Available "Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine

  8. Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) transfer from land to sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Mekebri, Abdu; Crane, Dave; Oates, Stori C.; Tinker, M. Timothy; Staedler, Michelle; Miller, Woutrina A.; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Dominik, Clare; Hardin, Dane; Langlois, Gregg; Murray, Michael; Ward, Kim; Jessup, David A.

    2010-01-01

    "Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins) are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb) were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels) and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine "harmful algal

  9. An otter tragedy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raloff, J.

    1993-01-01

    Otters appear to be the most vulnerable of all marine mammals to oil; oil reduces the insulating value of their fur by as much as 70% and otters are extremely vulnerable to oil poisoning through inhalation of hydrocarbon fumes, ingestion of petroleum, and absorption through the skin. After the Exxon Valdez accident in Alaska's Prince William Sound, dramatic efforts were made to rescue and rehabilitate otters and other sea animals. One hundred ninety seven of the treated otters were released back into the wild. However, soon after the release, wildlife biologist Lisa Rotterman reported an unprecidented die-off of never-oiled otters. Many of the treated otters may have carried a potentially novel herpesvirus, but whether this caused the die-off is controversial. It is also hard to separate symptoms of sickness, stress, and fear from oil toxicity. Overall the findings suggest a generic regimen for all oiled otters: antibiotics, vitamin and mineral supplements, and prompt administration of fluids. Assessing which animals need care is an urgent need. Strict quarantine, short captivity time, and protected handling of oiled animals are further suggestions

  10. Giant Otters in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk C.; Staib E.

    1992-01-01

    We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  11. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan

    2017-10-01

    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  12. Development of river sediment monitoring in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Mlakar, Marina; Maldini, Krešimir

    2017-04-01

    Establishment of regular river sediment monitoring, in addition to water monitoring, is very important. Unlike water, which represents the current state of a particular watercourse, sediment represents a sort of record of the state of pollution in the long run. Sediment monitoring is crucial to gain a real insight into the status of pollution of particular watercourses and to determine trends over a longer period of time. First scientific investigations of river sediment geochemistry in Croatia started 1989 in the Krka River estuary [1], while first systematic research of a river basin in Croatia was performed 2005 in Kupa River drainage basin [2]. Up to now, several detailed studies of both toxic metals and organic pollutants have been conducted in this drainage basin and some other rivers, also Croatian scientists participated in river sediment research in other countries. In 2008 Croatian water authorities (Hrvatske Vode) started preliminary sediment monitoring program, what was successfully conducted. In the first year of preliminary program only 14 stations existed, while in 2014 number of stations increased to 21. Number of monitored watercourses and of analysed parameters also increased. Current plan is to establish permanent monitoring network of river sediments throughout the state. The goal is to set up about 80 stations, which will cover all most important and most contaminated watercourses in all parts of the country [3]. Until the end of the year 2016, regular monitoring was conducted at 31 stations throughout the country. Currently the second phase of sediment monitoring program is in progress. At the moment parameters being determined on particular stations are not uniform. From inorganic compounds it is aimed to determine Cd, Pb, Ni, Hg, Cu, Cr, Zn and As on all stations. The ratio of natural concentrations of those elements vs. anthropogenic influence is being evaluated on all stations. It was found that worse situation is with Ni, Hg and Cr, who

  13. Enteric bacterial pathogen detection in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) is associated with coastal urbanization and freshwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Byrne, Barbara A; Jang, Spencer S; Dodd, Erin M; Dorfmeier, Elene; Harris, Michael D; Ames, Jack; Paradies, David; Worcester, Karen; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

    2010-01-01

    Although protected for nearly a century, California's sea otters have been slow to recover, in part due to exposure to fecally-associated protozoal pathogens like Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona. However, potential impacts from exposure to fecal bacteria have not been systematically explored. Using selective media, we examined feces from live and dead sea otters from California for specific enteric bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, C. difficile and Escherichia coli O157:H7), and pathogens endemic to the marine environment (Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and Plesiomonas shigelloides). We evaluated statistical associations between detection of these pathogens in otter feces and demographic or environmental risk factors for otter exposure, and found that dead otters were more likely to test positive for C. perfringens, Campylobacter and V. parahaemolyticus than were live otters. Otters from more urbanized coastlines and areas with high freshwater runoff (near outflows of rivers or streams) were more likely to test positive for one or more of these bacterial pathogens. Other risk factors for bacterial detection in otters included male gender and fecal samples collected during the rainy season when surface runoff is maximal. Similar risk factors were reported in prior studies of pathogen exposure for California otters and their invertebrate prey, suggesting that land-sea transfer and/or facilitation of pathogen survival in degraded coastal marine habitat may be impacting sea otter recovery. Because otters and humans share many of the same foods, our findings may also have implications for human health.

  14. Enteric bacterial pathogen detection in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) is associated with coastal urbanization and freshwater runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Jang, Spencer S.; Dodd, Erin M.; Dorfmeier, Elene; Harris, Michael D.; Ames, Jack; Paradies, David; Worcester, Karen; Jessup, David A.; Miller, Woutrina A.

    2009-01-01

    Although protected for nearly a century, California’s sea otters have been slow to recover, in part due to exposure to fecally-associated protozoal pathogens like Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona. However, potential impacts from exposure to fecal bacteria have not been systematically explored. Using selective media, we examined feces from live and dead sea otters from California for specific enteric bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, C. difficile and Escherichia coli O157:H7), and pathogens endemic to the marine environment (Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and Plesiomonas shigelloides). We evaluated statistical associations between detection of these pathogens in otter feces and demographic or environmental risk factors for otter exposure, and found that dead otters were more likely to test positive for C. perfringens, Campylobacter and V. parahaemolyticus than were live otters. Otters from more urbanized coastlines and areas with high freshwater runoff (near outflows of rivers or streams) were more likely to test positive for one or more of these bacterial pathogens. Other risk factors for bacterial detection in otters included male gender and fecal samples collected during the rainy season when surface runoff is maximal. Similar risk factors were reported in prior studies of pathogen exposure for California otters and their invertebrate prey, suggesting that land-sea transfer and/or facilitation of pathogen survival in degraded coastal marine habitat may be impacting sea otter recovery. Because otters and humans share many of the same foods, our findings may also have implications for human health. PMID:19720009

  15. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results

  16. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results

  17. Habitat quality, water quality and otter distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mason

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades the otter (Lutra lutra has declined over much of Europe. Good habitat has been shown to be essential to otters. Specific elements of cover have been identified in some studies but the minimum cover requirements to support otter populations are not known. These are likely to vary in relation to other factors, such as disturbance. Habitat destruction has been severe in many areas of Europe. Water quantity is important to otters, especially where low flows destroy the food base, namely fish. However the minimum food requirements to support populations are not known. The main cause of the decline in otter populations is almost certainly bioaccumulating pollutants, especially PCBs. These are likely to be inhibiting recolonization in many areas. In Britain, catchment distribution of otters within regions is negatively correlated to mean PCB levels in otter spraints, and these are indicative of tissue levels. PCBs have been found in all samples studied. Current EC statutory monitoring is inadequate to protect otter populations from bioaccumulating contaminants. Standards are presented here for otter protection. More fundamental research is required to refine our understanding of the requirements of the otter. Riassunto Qualità ambientale, qualità dell'acqua e distribuzione della lontra - Negli ultimi decenni la lontra (Lutra lutra è diminuita su buona parte del suo areale europeo, dove particolarmente pesante è stata la distruzione di ambienti favorevoli. Habitat qualitativamente idonei sono essenziali per la sopravvivenza della specie. In alcuni studi, specifici parametri di copertura vegetale dei corpi idrici sono stati ritenuti importanti per la specie, ma quale sia il valore minimo di copertura riparia in grado di supportare una popolazione resta sconosciuto. I parametri di copertura variano probabilmente in relazione ad altri fattori, quali, ad

  18. Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data

  19. Radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.S.; Howard, H.D.; Betsill, J.D.; Matthews, R.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Salikhbaev, U.S.; Radyuk, R.I.; Vdovina, E.D.; Solodukhin, V.P.; Poznyak, V.L.; Vasiliev, I.A.; Alekhina, V.M.; Juraev, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The article contains the results obtained during the radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya River, which was conducted within the frames of international collaboration of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and USA. The data on the nature of salinity of water, alfa- and beta-activity of water, bottom, water plants, and soil was obtained. Dependence of the obtained results on the distance form the source is discussed. The major life-providing arteries for the great region of Central Asia are Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. There are many countries next to the pools of these rivers: Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. There is a great concern caused by the shortage of supply of fresh water, severe epidemiological situation, and radiation conditions along of the pools of these rivers. Such conditions have developed as a result of intensive economic and industrial activities, and also of geological and geochemical features of this region. One of the most serious aspects of this problem is the weak scrutiny level of influence of large deposits of natural uranium and consequences of technological and industrial activities. Since November, 2000 Scientifics of four of the listed countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) have come to an agreement carrying out the teamwork on studying and monitoring the environment in the pools of Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers [1]. Collaborator of these works is Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, USA. During three expeditions each country in 15 control sites on their territory has conducted field researches and has obtained the samples of elements of the environment. Laboratory researches were carried out in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The first results were obtained in (2,3) and later in [4].Currently, the analysis of the data on salinity of water and alpha- and beta- activities of samples along Syr-Darya River is presented

  20. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents

  1. Depredación de aves acuáticas por la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis annectens, en el río Yaqui, Sonora, México Aquatic bird predation by neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis annectens, at Rio Yaqui, Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registra la depredación de aves acuáticas por la nutria neotropical (L. longicaudis annectens en el río Yaqui, Sonora. Se colectaron e identificaron 25 cráneos, porciones de esqueleto postcraneal y plumas de aves encontrados en los comederos de las nutrias; las especies identificadas fueron el cormorán neotropical (Phalacrocorax brasilianus con 16 individuos, el pato de collar (Anas platyrhynchos diazi, 4 individuos; la garza blanca (Ardea alba, 3 individuos; el huaco de corona amarilla (Nyctanassa violacea y el pelícano café (Pelecanus occidentalis, ambos con 1 individuo. En los peces se encontró la tilapia del género Oreochromis. Probablemente los hábitos alimenticios de esta especie responden a la estacionalidad y al consumo de presas más disponibles en el hábitat. Estos registros confirman que las nutrias de río son depredadores oportunistas cuya dieta tiene una amplio rango de uso de especies de los ambientes riparios, además dichos registros son una razón más para considerar la nutria neotropical como especie sombrilla para la conservación de ecosistemas completos, ya que su presencia es un indicador de alta disponibilidad energética y de alta biodiversidad.We report the predation of aquatic birds by neotropical river otters (L. longicaudis annectens at Río Yaqui, Sonora. As many as 25 skulls, post-cranial skeletons and feathers were found at river otter feeding sites. The neotropical cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus was the most predated bird with 16 individuals, followed by Mexican mallard (Anas platyrhynchos diazi with 4 individuals, great egret (Ardea alba with 3 individuals, yellow-crowned night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea, and brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis, both with 1 individual. With respect to fish, the tilapia Oreochromis, was the only species found in scats. Neotropical river otter feeding habits were associated with food availability at different seasons of the year. These records show that

  2. Monitoring micropollutants in the Swist river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffels, Ekkehard; Brunsch, Andrea; Wunderlich-Pfeiffer, Jens; Mertens, Franz Michael

    2016-11-01

    Micropollutant pathways were studied for the Swist river basin (Western Germany). The aim was to verify the effectiveness of a monitoring approach to detect micropollutants entering the river. In a separate sewer system, water was frequently found to be contaminated with micropollutants. Improper connections of sewage canals to the stormwater network seemed to be the cause of pollution. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) exerted the largest influence on micropollutants for the receiving river. During a flu outbreak, antibiotics in the Swist stemming from WWTPs increased remarkably. Elevated levels of pharmaceuticals were measured in discharges from a combined sewer overflow (CSO). The study showed that the pharmaceutical load of a CSO was significantly reduced by advanced treatment with a retention soil filter. Painkillers, an anticonvulsant and beta blockers were the most often detected pharmaceuticals in the sewage of urban areas. Herbicides, flame retardants and industrial compounds were also observed frequently. On cropland, Chloridazon and Terbuthylazine compounds were often found in landscape runoff. Fungicides and insecticides were the most frequent positive findings in runoff from orchards. The paper shows that a coherent approach to collecting valid information regarding micropollutants and to addressing relevant pathways as a basis for appropriate management strategies could be established.

  3. Effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Otter Creek and in the Otter Creek alluvial aquifer, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Otter Creek drains an area of 709 square miles in the coal-rich Powder River structural basin of southeastern Montana. The Knobloch coal beds in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation is a shallow aquifer and a target for future surface mining in the downstream part of the Otter Creek basin. A mass-balance model was used to estimate the effects of potential mining on the dissolved solids concentration in Otter Creek and in the alluvial aquifer in the Otter Creek valley. With extensive mining of the Knobloch coal beds, the annual load of dissolved solids to Otter Creek at Ashland at median streamflow could increase by 2,873 tons, or a 32-percent increase compared to the annual pre-mining load. Increased monthly loads of Otter Creek, at the median streamflow, could range from 15 percent in February to 208 percent in August. The post-mining dissolved solids load to the subirrigated part of the alluvial valley could increase by 71 percent. The median dissolved solids concentration in the subirrigated part of the valley could be 4,430 milligrams per liter, compared to the pre-mining median concentration of 2,590 milligrams per liter. Post-mining loads from the potentially mined landscape were calculated using saturated-paste-extract data from 506 overburdened samples collected from 26 wells and test holes. Post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley likely would continue at increased rates for hundreds of years after mining. If the actual area of Knobloch coal disturbed by mining were less than that used in the model, post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley would be proportionally smaller. (USGS)

  4. H-ADCP discharge monitoring of a large tropical river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.; Sassi, M.G.; Vermeulen, B.

    2012-01-01

    River flow can be continuously monitored through velocity measurements with an acoustic Doppler current profiler, deployed horizontally at a river bank (H-ADCP). This approach was adopted to obtain continuous discharge estimates at two cross-sections in the River Mahakam, i.e. at an upstream station

  5. OTTER, Resolution Style Theorem Prover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, W.W.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: OTTER (Other Techniques for Theorem-proving and Effective Research) is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first-order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyper-resolution, UR-resolution, and binary para-modulation. These inference rules take as small set of clauses and infer a clause. If the inferred clause is new and useful, it is stored and may become available for subsequent inferences. Other capabilities are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, and evaluable functions and predicates. 2 - Method of solution: For its inference process OTTER uses the given-clause algorithm, which can be viewed as a simple implementation of the set of support strategy. OTTER maintains three lists of clauses: axioms, sos (set of support), and demodulators. OTTER is not automatic. Even after the user has encoded a problem into first-order logic or into clauses, the user must choose inference rules, set options to control the processing of inferred clauses, and decide which input formulae or clauses are to be in the initial set of support and which, if any, equalities are to be demodulators. If OTTER fails to find a proof, the user may try again different initial conditions. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 5000 characters in an input string, 64 distinct variables in a clause, 51 characters in any symbol. The maxima can be changed by finding the appropriate definition in the header.h file, increasing the limit, and recompiling OTTER. There are a few constraints on the order of commands

  6. Evaluarea şi conservarea efectivelor de vidră (Lutra lutra L.: un studiu de caz în aria naturală protejată ”Moldova superioară” [Assessment and conservation of otter (Lutra lutra L. populations: A case study in natural protected area ”Moldova superioară”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănilă Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the international legislation, the otter is a protected species. The main purpose of this paper is the analysis of the otter population in a protected area from north of Romania, the estimation of populations and the quantification of existent and potential threats, together with conservation measures. The research was conducted in the natural area ”Superior Moldova” (north of Romanian Eastern Carpathians, between Câmpulung Moldovenesc and Breaza localities, in March and June 2014. To assess the otter population, the track analysis and registration methods were used. Both of the Moldova river banks were checked up and in certain parts, and the presence of the otter was recorded. The den places were registered with GPS coordinates. There were identified three zones where the otters lived within an area of 5-7 km, with a nucleus of intense activity of 2-4 km. The presence of 2-3 otter families, respectively 2-3 adults and 4-6 youngsters was confirmed. These results corespond to a density of about 0.6 individuals/km2 or 1.6 individuals reported to approximately 10 km water course length. The data collected are comparable to that obtained in other areas in Romania. We conclude that the monitoring can be done by track analysis/registration method or by direct observation if the conditions allow it. For the otter population conservation, an important step is the human being awareness, the checking of the aquaculture farm owners and the strict application of the legislation.

  7. Activity patterns and time budgets of the declining sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatt, Thomas S.; Siniff, Donald B.; Estes, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Time budgets of predators may reflect population status if time spent foraging varies with local prey abun- dance. We assumed that the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population at Amchitka Island, Alaska, USA, had been at equilibrium since the early 1960s and collected time budgets of otters to be used to represent future conditions of currently expanding sea otter populations. We used radiotelemetry to monitor activity-time budgets of otters from August 1992 to March 1994. Sea otter activity was directly linked to sex, age, weather condition, season, and time of day. Sea otters differed in percent time foraging among cohorts but not within cohorts. Percent time foraging ranged from 21% for females with very young (≤ 3weeks of age) dependent pups to 52% for females with old (≥10 weeks of age) pups. Otters foraged more and hauled out more as local sea conditions worsened. Adult males spent less time foraging during winter and spring, consistent with seasonal changes in prey selection. Time spent for- aging was similar to that reported for otters in California and an established population in Prince William Sound, Alaska, but greater than that of otters in recently established populations in Oregon and Alaska. Despite current evidence indicating that the population was in decline during our study, we were unable to recognize this change using time budgets. Our results illustrate the importance of stratifying analyses of activity patterns by age and sex cohorts and the complexity inherent in comparisons of behavioral data between different populations relying on distinct prey bases.

  8. Skagit IMW - Skagit River Estuary Intensively Monitored Watershed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study evaluates system-level effects of several estuary restoration projects on juvenile Chinook salmon production in the Skagit River estuary. The monitoring...

  9. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a ‘reference’ range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell–cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (CT) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

  10. Release strategies for rehabilitated sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bayha, Keith; Williams, Terrie M.; Davis, Randall W.

    1995-01-01

    According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services’ (USFWS) Response Plan for sea otters (USFWS, in preparation), in the event of an oil spill, the decision to release sea otters from rehabilitation centers following treatment will be linked to the decision on whether to capture sea otters for treatment. Assuming a scenario similar to the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), once the decision to capture sea otters is made, the ultimate goal is to return as many sea otters to the wild as possible, even though the rescue may not be expected to produce results significant at the population level. The decision by the USFWS to proceed with capture, rehabilitation, and release will be made on a case-by-case basis (USFWS, in preparation). Many factors will influence the decision. Perhaps the most important factors in deciding when and where to release sea otters are the location and availability of suitable release sites and verification that the otters are free of diseases that might be transmitted to the wild population.Alternative release strategies for sea otters will be contained in the sea otter response portion of the USFWS’s oil spill contingency plans for Alaska and California that are being developed as required by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Public review of these plans before they are implemented will help to reduce public concern about the survival of rehabilitated otters, their biological effect on the release area, and the potential introduction or spread of disease into the wild sea otter population.The objective of this chapter is to review alternative strategies for the disposition of rehabilitated sea otters. Our assumption is that returning as many animals to the wild as possible, whether it be for humanitarian or biological reasons, is the ultimate goal of this effort (Figure 10.1).

  11. Optimal river monitoring network using optimal partition analysis: a case study of Hun River, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Chunyue; Rong, Luge; Wang, Xiaoxu; Sun, Lina; Luo, Qing; Wu, Hao

    2018-01-09

    River monitoring networks play an important role in water environmental management and assessment, and it is critical to develop an appropriate method to optimize the monitoring network. In this study, an effective method was proposed based on the attainment rate of National Grade III water quality, optimal partition analysis and Euclidean distance, and Hun River was taken as a method validation case. There were 7 sampling sites in the monitoring network of the Hun River, and 17 monitoring items were analyzed once a month during January 2009 to December 2010. The results showed that the main monitoring items in the surface water of Hun River were ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), chemical oxygen demand, and biochemical oxygen demand. After optimization, the required number of monitoring sites was reduced from seven to three, and 57% of the cost was saved. In addition, there were no significant differences between non-optimized and optimized monitoring networks, and the optimized monitoring networks could correctly represent the original monitoring network. The duplicate setting degree of monitoring sites decreased after optimization, and the rationality of the monitoring network was improved. Therefore, the optimal method was identified as feasible, efficient, and economic.

  12. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, C.; Padezanin, P.C.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1984-06-01

    This annual report presents data for 1983 radioactivity and radioisotope concentrations in the air, water, plants, and animals of the Savannah River Plant. Additional monitoring was performed for chemical contaminants such as mercury and chlorocarbons. All concentrations were within applicable federal and state limits or not detectable with state-of-the-art monitoring equipment

  13. Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potvin, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Reactor Maintenance's Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program (MVMP) plays an essential role in ensuring the safe operation of the three Production Reactors at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WRSC) Savannah River Site (SRS). This program has increased machinery availability and reduced maintenance cost by the early detection and determination of machinery problems. This paper presents the Reactor Maintenance's Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program, which has been documented based on Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) NP-5311, Utility Machinery Monitoring Guide, and some examples of the successes that it has enjoyed

  14. Radiation risks and monitoring of transboundary rivers of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Solodukhin, V.P.; Khazhekber, S.; Poznyak, V.L.; Chernykh, E.E.; Passell, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The condition of the water resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan is characterized with their whole deficiency as well as their high pollution and desiccation. The situation is also aggravated with much relaxation of work coordination on regulation of trans-boundary river flows and control of their water quality as a result of the USSR collapse and isolation of separate republics. The absence of objective information on water condition of rivers and their contamination sources creates a danger of high ecological risk and psychological stress for inhabitants, localities of that related to the basins of these rivers, and serves as reasoning for claims (occasionally unreasonable) to neighboring countries. Following rivers are the largest trans-boundary ones in Kazakhstan: Ile, Syrdarya, Ural and Irtysh. All these rivers are of great importance for people's life-support of the republic. At the same time presence of a number of large industrial centers, agricultural enterprises and radiation-dangerous objects in the basins of these rivers creates a potential danger of chemical and radiation contamination for their water flows. Objective information on its influence rate is required. The most acceptable form of the control of radiation and hydro-chemical situation in the basins of transboundary rivers is their monitoring based on modern nuclear-and-physical methods of analysis. Very important factor in organization of such monitoring system is participation of all the countries concerned with the basin of the river under the control. There is a work experience of many years in Central Asia on monitoring of large Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers. These works have been carried out since 2000 with the framework of the International project NAVRUZ. Participants of this project are organizations of nuclear profile from Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. The collaborator of this project is the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), USA. Experience of these

  15. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Table 1 lists those well series with constituents in the groundwater above Flag 2 during third quarter 1992, organized by location. Results from all laboratory analyses are used to generate this table. Specific conductance and pH data from the field also are included in this table

  16. Habitat and food resources of otters (Mustelidae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Patah, P.; Nur-Syuhada, N.; Md-Nor, S.; Sasaki, H.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    Habitat and food resources of otters were studied in several locations in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 210 fecal samples were collected from April 2010 to March 2011 believed to be of otter's were analyzed for their diet composition and their habitat preferences. The DNA testing conducted revealed that only 126 samples were identified as Lultrogale perspicillata and Aonyx cinereus with 105 and 21 samples, respectively. Habitat analyses revealed that these two species preferred paddy fields and mangroves as their main habitats but L. perspicillata preferred to hunt near habitat with large water bodies, such as mangroves, rivers, ponds, and lakes. A. cinereus on the other hand, were mainly found near land-based habitat, such as paddy fields, casuarinas forest and oil palms near mangroves. Habitats chosen were influenced by their food preferences where L. perspicillata consumed a variety of fish species with a supplementary diet of prawns, small mammals, and amphibians, compared to A. cinereus which consumed less fish and more non-fish food items, such as insects, crabs, and snails. Since, the most of the otter habitats in this study are not located within the protected areas, conservation effort involving administrations, landowners, private organizations and public are necessary.

  17. An overview of sea otter studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; DeGange, Anthony R.; Loughlin, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    The Exxron Valdez oil spill (EVOS) on 24 March 1989 threatened extensive areas of prime sea otter (Enhydra lutris) habitat along the coasts of south-central Alaska. The spill occurred in northeastern Prince William Sound (PWS), and oil moved rapidly south and west through PWS into the Gulf of Alaska. Much of the coastline of western PWS was heavily oiled, and the slick eventually spread as far southwest as Kodiak Island and the Alaska Peninsula (Galt and Payton 1990; Morris and Loughlin, Chapter 1). All coastal waters affected by the spill were inhabited by sea otters.Concern for the survival of sea otters following the oil spill was immediate and well founded. Sea otters are particularly vulnerable to oil contamination because they rely on pelage rather than blubber for insulation, and oiling drastically reduces the insulative value of the fur (Costa and Kooyman 1982; Siniff et al. 1982; Geraci and Williams 1990). Within days of the spill, recovery of oiled live otters and carcasses began. During the several months following the spill, sea otters became symbolic of the mortality associated with the spilled oil, and of the hope for rescue and recovery of injured wildlife (Batten 1990).An extensive sea otter rescue and rehabilitation effort was mounted in the weeks and months following the spill. Handling and treatment of the captive sea otters posed an enormous and difficult challenge, given the large number of otters held at the facilities and minimal prior experience in caring for oiled sea otters. Rehabilitation of sea otters was a separate effort from the postspill studies designed to evaluate injury to the otter populations and is not addressed in this chapter only as it relates to evaluation of damage assessment studies. Detailed information on the rehabilitation effort is presented in Bayha and Kormendy (1990) and Williams and Davis (1990).Sea otters retained a high profile in the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) studies largely because the initial

  18. Habitat networking: a new chance for the otter in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Reuther

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the main problems for otter protection in Germany as well as in Europe is the fragmentation and isolation of populations. In Germany a thriving population exists in the eastern parts of the country while in the central parts only isolated populations remain, and in the western parts the species is extirpated. On the basis of this situation a habitat network program is in progress with the aim to protect and restore not only those habitats where the otter still remains but also those habitats which can function as a network to connect the thriving with the isolated populations. This network focuses on existing protected wetlands or rivers and restoration activities in wetlands or rivers. The situation of the otter in Europe (excluding Scandinavia and the British Isles is comparable to that in Germany. There are stable or thriving populations in the eastern and western parts while in Central Europe only isolated populations remain. Following the German otter habitat network program possibilities are shown and discussed to establish a habitat network program for the otter on a European level. Riassunto Ripristino di una rete di ambienti favorevoli alla lontra: una nuova possibilità per la specie in Europa? - Uno dei principali problemi riguardanti la conservazione della lontra (Lutra lutra in Germania, come del resto in Europa, è la frammentazione e l'isolamento delle popolazioni. In Germania, una cospicua popolazione esiste nella parte orientale, mentre in quella centrale sono presenti nuclei isolati; nella porzione occidentale del paese la specie è invece praticamente estinta. Tenendo presente questa situazione, è stato avviato un programma di ricostruzione di una rete di ambienti favorevoli alla lontra con l'obiettivo di proteggere e ripristinare non solo gli ambienti in cui la specie è attualmente presente, ma anche quelli che possono funzionare come rete di

  19. Monitoring dissolved radioactive cesium in Abukuma River in Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Kurosawa, Akihiko; Komai, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive materials were released into the atmosphere and deposited over wide areas of farmland, forests, and cities; elevated levels of "1"3"1I, "1"3"4Cs, and "1"3"7Cs have been detected in these areas due to the accident at the Tokyo Power Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the April 2011 earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan. Radioactive Cs deposited on farmland and forests gradually leaches into water bodies such as mountain streams and rivers adsorbed onto particles or in a dissolved state. It is important to calrify the level of dissolved and total radioactive Cs in environmental water for forecasting the of discharge of radioactive Cs from forest and watersheds, assessing on the effect of dissolved and total radioactive Cs on not only irrigation water but also rice and other crops, and evaluating the transport of radioactive Cs from rivers to costal areas. Therefore, it is important to monitor their levels in Fukushima Prefecture over time. In this research, we monitored the levels of dissolved and total radioactive Cs in Abukuma River using a conventional evaporative concentration method. By monitoring the river waters since September 2012, it was estimated that the levels of dissolved radioactive Cs were less than 0.128 Bq/L and those of total radioactive Cs were less than 0.274 Bq/L in the main stream and branches of Abukuma River in the low suspended solid condition. (author)

  20. Monitoring and Assessment of Youshui River Water Quality in Youyang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-qin; Wen, Juan; Chen, Ping-hua; Liu, Na-na

    2018-02-01

    By monitoring the water quality of Youshui River from January 2016 to December 2016, according to the indicator grading and the assessment standard of water quality, the formulas for 3 types water quality indexes are established. These 3 types water quality indexes, the single indicator index Ai, single moment index Ak and the comprehensive water quality index A, were used to quantitatively evaluate the quality of single indicator, the water quality and the change of water quality with time. The results show that, both total phosphorus and fecal coliform indicators exceeded the standard, while the other 16 indicators measured up to the standard. The water quality index of Youshui River is 0.93 and the grade of water quality comprehensive assessment is level 2, which indicated that the water quality of Youshui River is good, and there is room for further improvement. To this end, several protection measures for Youshui River environmental management and pollution treatment are proposed.

  1. Analyses of Trawling Track and Fishing Activity Based on the Data of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS):A Case Study of the Single Otter Trawl Vessels in the Zhoushan Fishing Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang; WANG Yingbin; ZHENG Ji

    2015-01-01

    The original purpose of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) is for enforcement and control of vessel sailing. With the ap-plication of VMS in fishing vessels, more and more population dynamic studies have used VMS data to improve the accuracy of fisheries stock assessment. In this paper, we simulated the trawl trajectory under different time intervals using the cubic Hermite spline (cHs) interpolation method based on the VMS data of 8 single otter trawl vessels (totally 36000 data items) fishing in Zhou-shan fishing ground from September 2012 to December 2012, and selected the appropriate time interval. We then determined vessels’ activities (fishing or non-fishing) by comparing VMS speed data with the corresponding speeds from logbooks. The results showed that the error of simulated trajectory greatly increased with the increase of time intervals of VMS data when they were longer than 30 minutes. Comparing the speeds from VMS with those from the corresponding logbooks, we found that the vessels’ speeds were be-tween 2.5kn and 5.0kn in fishing. The cHs interpolation method is a new choice for improving the accuracy of estimation of sailing trajectory, and the VMS can be used to determine the vessels’ activities with the analysis of their trajectories and speeds. Therefore, when the fishery information is limited, VMS can be one of the important data sources for fisheries stock assessment, and more at-tention should be paid to its construction and application to fisheries stock assessment and management.

  2. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  3. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.; Culp, P.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1983-11-01

    The results of the 1980 Savannah River Plant environmental monitoring program are presented. Appendices contain data analysis and quality control information, minimum detectable levels, tabes of environmental sample analyses, and maps of sampling locations. Radioactive releases are divided into four categories for comparison with previous releases. The categories are: tritium, noble gases, beta and gamma emitters, and total alpha emitters. 34 figures, 58 tables

  4. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  5. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, C.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1975-08-01

    Results obtained from the environmental radioactivity monitoring program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during 1974 are summarized. A brief discussion of plant releases to the environment and radioactivity detected in the environment is presented in the following text, figures, and tables. The appendices contain tables of results from environmental samples analyses, sensitivities of laboratory analyses, and maps of sampling locations. (auth)

  6. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  7. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  8. Effluent and environmental monitoring of Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgrim, T.; De Waele, C.; Gallagher, C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Environmental Protection Program has been gathering environmental monitoring data at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) for over 60 years. The comprehensive effluent and environmental monitoring program at CRL consists of more than 600 sampling locations, including the Ottawa River, with approximately 60,000 analyses performed on air and liquid effluent parameters each year. Monitoring for a variety of radiological and non-radiological parameters is regularly conducted on various media, including ambient air, foodstuff (e.g. milk, fish, garden produce, large game, and farm animals), groundwater, Ottawa River water and other surface water on and off-site. The purpose of the monitoring program is to verify that past and current radiological and non-radiological emissions derived from AECL operations and activities, such as process water effluent into the Ottawa River, are below regulatory limits and demonstrate that CRL operations do not negatively affect the quality of water on or leaving the site. In fact, ongoing program reports demonstrate that radiological emissions are well below regulatory limits and have been declining for the past five years, and that non-radiological contaminants do not negatively affect the quality of water on and off the site. Two updated Canadian Standards Association (CSA) standards for Effluent and Environmental monitoring have come into effect and have resulted in some changes to the AECL Program. This presentation will discuss effluent and surface water monitoring results, the observed trends, the changes triggered by the CSA standards, and a path forward for the future. (author)

  9. Monitoring of protected areas of the Lower Vistula River

    OpenAIRE

    Dawid Aleksander Szatten; Zbigniew Czerebiej

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of the research was to determine the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the condition of surface waters in the protected areas of the Lower Vistula River. The research included the analysis of the surface water monitoring network in the Lower Vistula catchment area in the water management cycle 2010-2015. The research subject was Lower Vistula on the section from the Wloclawek Reservoir (km 675) to the estuary of the river to the Gdańsk Bay (km 941). The most important re...

  10. Radioecological monitoring of transboundary rivers of the Central Asian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuldashev, B.S.; Salikhbaev, U.S.; Kist, A.A.; Radyuk, D.S.; Vdovina, E.D.; Zhuk, L.I.

    2005-01-01

    Results of radioecological investigation of Central Asian rivers are presented. Investigation was done as part of the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the United States. The study of waterborne radionuclides and metals concentrations in Central Asia is of particular interest because of the history of nuclear materials mining, fabrication, transport, and storage there, when it was part of the Soviet Union. This development left a legacy of radionuclides and metals contamination in some Central Asian regions, which poses a clear health hazard to populations who rely heavily upon surface water for agricultural irrigation and direct domestic consumption. (author)

  11. OTTER 3.3 Reference Manual

    OpenAIRE

    McCune, William

    2003-01-01

    OTTER is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first-order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyperresolution, UR-resolution, and binary paramodulation. Some of its other abilities and features are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, evaluable functions and predicates, Knuth-Bendix completion, and the hints strategy. O...

  12. Review of historical monitoring data on Techa River contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiova, M. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Burmistrov, D. S.; Safronova, N. G.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, B. A.; Neta, P. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. The extensive increase in plutonium production during 1948-1955, as well as the absence of reliable waste-management technology, resulted in significant releases of liquid radioactive effluent into the rather small Techa River. This resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside communities; these residents form the cohort of an epidemiologic investigation. Analysis of the available historical monitoring data indicates that the following reliable data sets can be used for reconstruction of doses received during the early periods of operation of the Mayak Production Association: Temporal pattern of specific beta activity of river water for several sites in the upper Techa region since July 1951; average annual values of specific beta activity of river water and bottom sediments as a function of downstream distance for the whole river since 1951; external gamma-exposure rates near the shoreline as a function of downstream distance for the whole Techa River since 1952; and external gamma-exposure rate as a function of distance from the shoreline for several sites in the upper and middle Techa since 1951.

  13. 2011 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, W. J.; Lucas, J. G.; Gano, K. A.

    2011-11-14

    This report documents the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains the vegetation monitoring data that was collected in the spring and summer of 2011 from the River Corridor Closure Contractor’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  14. 2010 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey, A. L. Johnson

    2010-09-30

    This report documents eh status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with CERLA cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2010 from the River Corridor Closure Contract’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  15. Radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya river (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuldashev, B.S.; Salikhbaev, U.S.; Radyuk, R.I.; Vdovina, E.D.; Artemov, S.V.; Radyuk, G.A.; Zaparov, E.A.; Howard, H.D.; Barber, D.S.; Betsill, J.D.; Matthews, R.; Solodukhin, V.P.; Poznyak, V.L.; Vasiliev, I.A.; Alekhina, V.M.; Djuraev, A.A.; Djuraev, An.A.

    2004-01-01

    The article contains the results obtained during the radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya River, which was conducted within the frames of international collaboration of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and USA. The data on the nature of radionuclide distribution of uranium and thorium rows in bottom and soil is presented. Reasons of formation of the observed dependence of the obtained results on the distance from the source are discussed. (author)

  16. Sea otters in the northern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.; Estes, James A.; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    About 250 years ago sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were distributed continuously from central Baja California, north and west along the Pacific Rim to Machatka Peninsula in Russia, and south along the Kuril Island to northern Japan (Kenyon 1969; Fig. 1a). Several hundred thousand sea otters may have occurred in the north Pacific region when commercial hunting began in the 18th century (Riedman and Estes 1990).At least two attributes of the sea otter have influenced humans, likely for as long as they have resided together along the coast of the north Pacific Ocean. First, sea otters rely on a dense fur, among the finest in the world, for insulation in the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. The demand for sea otter fur led to their near extinction in the 19th century. The fur harvest, begun about 1740 and halted by international treaty in 1911, left surviving colonies, each likely numbering less than a few hundred animals, in California, south-central Alaska, and the Aleutian, Medney, and Kuril Islands (Fig. 1a). These individuals provided the nucleus for the recovery of the species. Today more than 100,000 sea otters occur throughout about 75% of their original range (fig. 1b). Immigration has resulted in near-complete occupation of the Aleutian and Kuril archipelagos and the Alaska peninsula. Successful translocations have resulted in viable populations in southeast Alaska, Washington, and British Columbia. Large amounts of unoccupied habitat remain along the coasts of Russia, Canada, the United States, and Mexico.The second potential source of conflict between sea otters and humans is that sea otters prey on and often limit some benthic invertebrate populations. Because some of these invertebrates are aso used by humans (Estes and VanBlaricom 1985), human perceptions about the effects of sea otter foraging on invertebrates sometimes differ. By limiting populations of herbivorous invertebrates (e.g., sea urchins [Echinoidea]) otters help maintain the integrity of kelp

  17. Operational monitoring of turbidity in rivers: how satellites can contribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucke, Dorothee; Hillebrand, Gudrun; Winterscheid, Axel; Kranz, Susanne; Baschek, Björn

    2016-10-01

    The applications of remote sensing in hydrology are diverse and offer significant benefits for water monitoring. Up to now, operational river monitoring and sediment management in Germany mainly rely on in-situ measurements and on results obtained from numerical modelling. Remote sensing by satellites has a great potential to supplement existing data with two-dimensional information on near-surface turbidity distributions at greater spatial scales than in-situ measurements can offer. Within the project WasMon-CT (WaterMonitoring-Chlorophyll/Turbidity), the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) aims at the implementation of an operational monitoring of turbidity distributions based on satellite images (esp. Sentinel-2, Landsat7 and 8). Initially, selected federal inland and estuarine waterways will be addressed: Rhine, Elbe, Ems, Weser. WasMon-CT is funded within the German Copernicus activities. Within the project, a database of atmospherically corrected, geo-referenced turbidity data will be assembled. The collected corresponding meta-data will include aspects of satellite data as well as hydrological data, e.g. cloud cover and river run-off. Based on this catalogue of spatially linked meta-data, the satellite data will be selected by e.g. cloud cover or run-off. The permanently updated database will include past as well as recent satellite images. It is designed with a long-term perspective to optimize the existing in-situ measurement network, which will serve partly for calibration and partly as validation data set. The aim is to extend, but not to substitute, the existing frequent point measurements with spatially extensive, satellite-derived data from the near surface part of the water column. Here, turbidity is used as proxy for corresponding suspended sediment concentrations. For this, the relationship between turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations will be investigated. Products as e.g. longitudinal profiles or virtual measurement stations will be

  18. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  19. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.; Lawrimore, I.B.; O'Rear, W.E.

    1985-06-01

    Ensuring the radiation safety of the public in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant was a foremost consideration in the design of the plant and has continued to be a primary objective during 31 years of SRP operations. An extensive surveillance program has been continuously maintained since 1951 (before SRP startup) to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in the environment of the plant. The results of this comprehensive monitoring program are reported annually in two publications. The first, ''Savannah River Plant Environmental Report for 1984'' [DPSPU85-30-1], contains radiation dose data, routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities, summaries of environmental protection programs that are in progress, summaries of sitewide environmental research and management programs, and a summary of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities. This report is the second and contains primarily radiation dose data and radiological and nonradiological monitoring data both onsite and offsite. It is placed in Department of Energy (DOE) reading rooms and is available to the public upon request. A listing of corresponding reports that have been issued since before plant startup is presented in Appendix A. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at SRP has increased significantly during the years since plant startup. The change is reflected in annual reports. Prior to the mid-1970's the reports contained primarily radiological monitoring data. Beginning in the mid-1970's the reports started including more and more nonradiological monitoring data as those programs increased. The nonradiological monitoring program now approaches the size and extensiveness of the radiological monitoring program

  20. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Michailovsky

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

  1. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.

    1993-01-01

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques

  2. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, C.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1978-03-01

    The environmental monitoring program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) provides reliable measurement of radioactive materials released at the source (approximately 40 locations) and present in the environment (approximately 500 locations). In recent years, water-quality testing and analysis have become an essential part of the environmental monitoring program. Aqueous discharges to plant streams are monitored for nonradioactive materials by chemical analyses of water sampled in flowing streams (approximately 25 locations). A brief discussion of plant releases to the environment and radioactive and nonradioactive materials detected in the environment are presented. The appendices contain data analysis and quality control information, sensitivities of laboratory analyses, tables of environmental sample analyses, and maps of sampling locations

  3. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  4. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, C.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental monitoring program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) provides reliable measurement of radioactive materials both released at the source (approximately 40 locations) and concentrated in the environment (approximately 500 locations). In recent years, water quality testing and analysis have become an essential part of the environmental monitoring program. Aqueous discharges to plant streams are monitored for nonradioactive materials by chemical analyses of water sampled in flowing streams (approximately 25 locations). A brief discussion of plant releases to the environment and radioactive and nonradioactive materials detected in the environment are presented in the following text, figures, and tables. The appendices contain an interpretation of data treatment, tables of results of environmental sample analyses, sensitivities of laboratory analyses, and maps of sampling locations

  5. Changes in water quality along the course of a river - Classic monitoring versus patrol monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalon, Damian; Kryszczuk, Paweł; Rutkiewicz, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    Monitoring of water quality is a tool necessary to assess the condition of waterbodies in order to properly formulate water management plans. The paper presents the results of patrol monitoring of a 40-kilometre stretch of the Oder between Racibórz and Koźle. It has been established that patrol monitoring is a good tool for verifying the distribution of points of classic stationary monitoring, particularly in areas subject to varied human impact, where tributaries of the main river are very diversified as regards hydrochemistry. For this reason the results of operational monitoring carried out once every few years may not be reliable and the presented condition of the monitored waterbodies may be far from reality.

  6. Axial power monitoring uncertainty in the Savannah River Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losey, D.C.; Revolinski, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The results of this analysis quantified the uncertainty associated with monitoring the Axial Power Shape (APS) in the Savannah River Reactors. Thermocouples at each assembly flow exit map the radial power distribution and are the primary means of monitoring power in these reactors. The remaining uncertainty in power monitoring is associated with the relative axial power distribution. The APS is monitored by seven sensors that respond to power on each of nine vertical Axial Power Monitor (APM) rods. Computation of the APS uncertainty, for the reactor power limits analysis, started with a large database of APM rod measurements spanning several years of reactor operation. A computer algorithm was used to randomly select a sample of APSs which were input to a code. This code modeled the thermal-hydraulic performance of a single fuel assembly during a design basis Loss-of Coolant Accident. The assembly power limit at Onset of Significant Voiding was computed for each APS. The output was a distribution of expected assembly power limits that was adjusted to account for the biases caused by instrumentation error and by measuring 7 points rather than a continuous APS. Statistical analysis of the final assembly power limit distribution showed that reducing reactor power by approximately 3% was sufficient to account for APS variation. This data confirmed expectations that the assembly exit thermocouples provide all information needed for monitoring core power. The computational analysis results also quantified the contribution to power limits of the various uncertainties such as instrumentation error

  7. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  8. Radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya river (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salikhbaev, U.S.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Radyuk, R.I.; Vdovina, E.D.; Artemov, S.V.; Radyuk, G.A.; Zaparov, E.A.; Barber, D.S.; Betsill, J.D.; Howard, H.D.; Matthews, R.; Solodukhin, V.P.; Poznyak, V.L.; Vasiliev, I.A.; Alekhina, V.M.; Juraev, A.A.; Juraev, An.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The article contains the results obtained during the radiation monitoring of Syr-Darya River, which was conducted within the frames of international collaboration of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and USA. The data on the radionuclides of water, bottom, water plants and soil was obtained. Dependence of the obtained results on distance form the source is discussed. The results of investigations of radio-ecological situation in river Syr-Darya have been presented. Total 15 control points have been chosen in each of the 4 countries of Central Asia. Sampling of soil, bottom sediment, water and vegetation was made during expeditions. Radionuclide of all environmental objects have been studied. The quantity of the radionuclides Ra-226, K-40, Th-232, and U-238 in all samples was investigated. The amount of radionuclides changes for K-40: from 90 to 920 Bq/kg; Ra-226: from 30 to 150 Bq/kg; Th-232 from 7 to 70 Bq/kg; and U-238: from 5 to 180 Bq/kg. Uranium mines influence the process of formation of natural radioactivity in these rivers. Note that the amount of natural radionuclides uranium and thorium, decay products is highest in stations near uranium mines. We had an opportunity to get only few samples from each site, that's why we had to analyze just average seasonal values. A few samples determined great average deviations. These circumstances did not allow us to determine seasonal changes of characteristics of the investigated samples and trace technological and industrial activities by radionuclides. We saw results of general character and suggested formation models of these changes. However, these results, in our opinion, are interesting and give a general idea about radiation background along Syr-Darya and Narin Rivers. Detailed changes of background (because of seasons and technological changes) can be obtained with systematic and longer monitoring

  9. Treetop shelter of a neotropical river otter cub (Lontra longicaudis - Carnivora: Mustelidae in an Amazonian flooded forest Abrigo em copa de árvore de filhote de lontra neotropical (Lontra longicaudis - Carnivora: Mustelidae em floresta inundável amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel Ribeiro Simões dos Santos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The finding of a Neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis cub occupying a shelter in a hollowed treetop is reported. The observation was made in a seasonally flooded forest in Central Amazonia, during the high water peak of the annual inundation cycle. A literature review indicates that this is the first description of a shelter of the species, both in a hollowed tree and in Amazonia. This observation can indicate a strong relationship between the species' breeding cycle with the annual dynamics of Amazonian rivers. We discuss potential advantages and disadvantages of breeding when water level is high.É relatada a observação de um filhote de lontra (Lontra longicaudis ocupando um abrigo em uma cavidade na copa de uma árvore. A observação foi feita em uma floresta inundada na Amazônia Central, no pico de cheia do ciclo anual de inundação. A revisão da literatura revela que esta é a primeira descrição de um abrigo desta espécie em uma cavidade de árvore na natureza e na Amazônia. Tal observação pode indicar uma forte relação entre o ciclo reprodutivo da espécie e a dinâmica anual dos rios amazônicos. Discutimos vantagens e desvantagens potenciais da reprodução na época da cheia.

  10. Application of two quality indices as monitoring and management tools of rivers. Case study: the Imera Meridionale River, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Lo Giudice, Rosa

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60), the water resources of the member states of the European Community should reach good quality standards by 2015. Although such regulations illustrate the basic points for a comprehensive and effective policy of water monitoring and management, no practical tools are provided to face and solve the issues concerning freshwater ecosystems such as rivers. The Italian government has developed a set of regulations as adoption of the European Directive but failed to indicate feasible procedures for river monitoring and management. On a local scale, Sicilian authorities have implemented monitoring networks of watersheds, aiming at describing the general conditions of rivers. However, such monitoring programs have provided a relatively fragmentary picture of the ecological conditions of the rivers. In this study, the integrated use of environmental quality indices is proposed as a methodology able to provide a practical approach to river monitoring and management. As a case study, the Imera Meridionale River, Sicily's largest river, was chosen. The water quality index developed by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation and the floristic quality index based on the Wilhelm method were applied. The former enabled us to describe the water quality according to a spatial-temporal gradient, whereas the latter focused on the ecological quality of riparian vegetation. This study proposes a holistic view of river ecosystems by considering biotic and abiotic factors in agreement with the current European regulations. How the combined use of such indices can guide sustainable management efforts is also discussed.

  11. Translocated sea otter populations off the coasts of Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Ronald J.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The historical distribution of sea otters extended from the northern islands of Japan north and east across the Aleutian chain to the mainland of North America then south along the west coast to central Baja California, Mexico (Riedman and Estes 1990). By the beginning of the twentieth century, after 150 years of being intensively hunted for their valuable fur, sea otters had been extirpated from most of their range (Kenyon 1969). In 1911 sea otters were protected by the passage of the International Fur Seal Treaty. Unfortunately, only 13 remnant populations survived the fur-hunting period, and two of those, British Columbia and Mexico, would also ultimately disappear, leaving only a small group of sea otters south of Alaska, along the rugged Big Sur coast of California (Kenyon 1969).The earliest attempts to reestablish sea otters to unoccupied habitat were begun in the early 1950’s by R. D. (Sea Otter) Jones, then manager of the Aleutian National Wildlife Refuge (Kenyon 1969). These early efforts were experimental, and all failed to establish populations. However, the knowledge gained from Jones’s efforts and the seminal work of Kenyon (1969) and others during the 1950’s and early 1960’s ultimately led to the successful efforts to come.During the mid-1960’s the Alaska Department of Fish and Game began translocating sea otters to sites where the species had occurred before the fur-trade period. The first translocations were restricted to Alaska, but beginning in 1969 and continuing through 1972, the effort expanded beyond Alaska. During this period, 241 sea otters were translocated to sites in British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon (Jameson et al. 1982). The work was done cooperatively between state and provincial conservation agencies, with much of the financial support for the Oregon and Washington efforts coming from the Atomic Energy Commission (now ERDA). Followup studies of the Oregon population began in 1971 and continued through 1975. After 1975

  12. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabos, S.

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabos, S. [Alberta Health, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Computer handling of Savannah River Plant environmental monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.

    1975-12-01

    At the Savannah River Plant, computer programs are used to calculate, store, and retrieve radioactive and nonradioactive environmental monitoring data. Objectives are to provide daily, monthly, and annual summaries of all routine monitoring data; to calculate and tabulate releases according to radioisotopic species or nonradioactive pollutant, source point, and mode of entry to the environment (atmosphere, stream, or earthen seepage basins). The computer programs use a compatible numeric coding system for the data, and printouts are in the form required for internal and external reports. Data input and program maintenance are accomplished with punched cards, paper or magnetic tapes, and when applicable, with computer terminals. Additional aids for data evaluation provided by the programs are statistical counting errors, maximum and minimum values, standard deviations of averages, and other statistical analyses

  15. Monitoring of pesticides water pollution-The Egyptian River Nile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahshan, Hesham; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy Abdel-Goad; Nabawy, Ehab; Elbana, Mariam Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants represent about 95 % of the industrial sector effluents in Egypt. Contamination of the River Nile water with various pesticides poses a hazardous risk to both human and environmental compartments. Therefore, a large scale monitoring study was carried on pesticides pollution in three geographical main regions along the River Nil water stream, Egypt. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by GC-ECD. Organochlorine pesticides mean concentrations along the River Nile water samples were 0.403, 1.081, 1.209, 3.22, and 1.192 μg L -1 for endrin, dieldrin, p, p'-DDD, p, p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDE, respectively. Dieldrin, p, p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDE were above the standard guidelines of the World Health Organization. Detected organophosphorus pesticides were Triazophos (2.601 μg L -1 ), Quinalphos (1.91 μg L -1 ), fenitrothion (1.222 μg L -1 ), Ethoprophos (1.076 μg L -1 ), chlorpyrifos (0.578 μg L -1 ), ethion (0.263 μg L -1 ), Fenamiphos (0.111 μg L -1 ), and pirimiphos-methyl (0.04 μg L -1 ). Toxicity characterization of organophosphorus pesticides according to water quality guidelines indicated the hazardous risk of detected chemicals to the public and to the different environmental compartments. The spatial distribution patterns of detected pesticides reflected the reverse relationship between regional temperature and organochlorine pesticides distribution. However, organophosphorus was distributed according to the local inputs of pollutant compounds. Toxicological and water quality standards data revealed the hazardous risk of detected pesticides in the Egyptian River Nile water to human and aquatic life. Thus, our monitoring data will provide viewpoints by which stricter legislation and regulatory controls can be admitted to avoid River Nile pesticide water pollution.

  16. Summary of radiological monitoring of Columbia River water along the Hanford Reach, 1980 through 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Columbia River monitoring program, conducted as part of the SESP, provides a historical record of contaminant concentrations in the river attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and operations conducted at the Hanford Site. In addition to ongoing monitoring, special studies are conducted periodically to enhance the understanding of the transport and fate of contaminants in the river. The Columbia River monitoring program includes sampling of river water, river sediment, river-bank springs entering the river, and various types of aquatic biota found in or along the river. These samples are analyzed for radiological constituents and a wide range of chemical parameters. This report describes the water sampling component of the overall Columbia River monitoring program conducted during the years 1980 through 1989 and summarizes the radiological results generated through the program during this time period. The only radionuclides found in the river that were consistently influenced by Hanford were tritium and iodine-129. Strontium-90 and uranium, also attributable to Hanford operations, were present in localized areas within the river near ground-water discharge points; however, these contaminants are quickly dispersed within the river to concentrations similar to background

  17. Materials on the diet of the Otter (Lutra lutra L. in the West Rhodopes Mountain, South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Otter spraints were collected from the West Rhodopes from Batak Dam, Chaya and Parvenetska River areas during 2005-2007. Main food resources in Batak Dam during autumn were the frogs dominated by representatives of the family Ranidae, followed by different fish species. In both rivers the main food was the fish with predominance of Barbus cyclolepis, the frogs, and the crabs.

  18. Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    1999-07-29

    On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

  19. River Corridor Project Workplace Air Monitoring Technical Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANTOOTH, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    This document provides the technical basis by which the workplace air monitoring and sampling program is operated in the River Corridor Project (RCP). Revision 2 addresses and incorporates changes in the air monitoring program drivers and implementing documents which occurred after the previous revision was issued. This revision also includes an additional RCP project to make Revision 2 applicable to the entire RCP. These changes occurred in the following areas: (1) Changes resulting from the conversion of the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1) into the Project Hanford Radiological Control Manual (F-5173). HNF-5173 is now the implementing document for 10CFR835. (2) Changes resulting from the issue of new and revised Hanford Site implementing procedures. (3) Changes resulting from the issue of new and revised, as well as the cancellation of RCP implementing procedures. (4) Addition of the 200 Area Accelerated Deactivation Project (ADP). (5) Modification of some air sampling/monitoring locations to better meet the needs of facility operations. (6) Changes resulting from the RCP reorganization

  20. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Annual Status Report, 1999: Macroinvertebrate Sampling in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    In 1992, macroinvertebrate sampling was initiated in Pools 4, 8, 13, 26, and the Open River reach of the Mississippi River, and La Orange Pool of the Illinois River as part of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program...

  1. Radio monitoring of the Sozh-river flood plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, V.A.; Generalova, V.A.; Kol'nenkov, V.P.; Glaz, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Periodic radiation monitoring supervision is the important parameter of the radioactivity level time control with reference to concrete landscapes, estimation and their ecological radiochemistry conditions forecast in order to accept practical measures for the risk radiation danger reduction. The early monitoring supervision was carried out in the area of radioactive anomalies in Sozh-river flood plain. The new data received in 1998 and 2000 are cited below. The radiation situation of the last landscape appropriating to conditions in central and near terrace Sozh-river flood plain, more than in 10 years, is nowadays characterized by the data of the structure of Veprin one. In coastal flood plain the maximal radioactivity is dated to meadow vegetable layer in downturn of relief or to humus horizon of actual soil on coastal shaft. In central flood plain it remains rather high with the tendency of accumulation in meliorative channels, which are nowadays strongly overgrown, in 1,6-1,9 times exceeding earlier supervision. Down the Sozh near the village Gronovo in 1988 the level of gamma activity meadow vegetable layer changed. Radioactive situation is low here nowadays: on meadow vegetable layer almost in 5 times lower than former one. It is explained by the active hydro mode snow melt flood streams at the abrupt bend of Sozh channel, resulting in meadows washing and silt material washout. The deepening of Cs-137 reaches 0,20 m and connects with the accumulation of isotope in the top part of humus horizon where it is fixed in the fixed form. Monitoring supervision on radio strontium in the section of Sozh-river flood plain near the village Gronovo shows, that in 1995 its maximal concentration is observed in humusided loamy sand under meadow vegetable layer; the main mass of isotope - up to 80 % - was concentrated in the top 30-sm layer. It is remarkable, that with depth, reducing the contents almost twice and not being marked in underlaying sands, this isotope

  2. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15

  3. Modeling the Effects of Mortality on Sea Otter Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.

    2010-01-01

    mortality in all simulations eventually led to low proportions of males, leading to instability in projected populations over time. Our findings identify the critical need to understand underlying rates of change that can be acquired only through frequent monitoring of managed populations. Models could be improved through better understanding of the effects of density and demographic and environmental stochasticity on sea otter vital rates. Although our primary objective was to provide information useful in managing harvests of sea otters, our findings have implications for the conservation and management of sea otter populations subjected to other sources of mortality that can be quantified, such as incidental, accidental, or illegal.

  4. Application of Two Quality Indices as Monitoring and Management Tools of Rivers. Case Study: The Imera Meridionale River, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Giudice, Rosa Lo

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60), the water resources of the member states of the European Community should reach good quality standards by 2015. Although such regulations illustrate the basic points for a comprehensive and effective policy of water monitoring and management, no practical tools are provided to face and solve the issues concerning freshwater ecosystems such as rivers. The Italian government has developed a set of regulations as adoption of the European Directive but failed to indicate feasible procedures for river monitoring and management. On a local scale, Sicilian authorities have implemented monitoring networks of watersheds, aiming at describing the general conditions of rivers. However, such monitoring programs have provided a relatively fragmentary picture of the ecological conditions of the rivers. In this study, the integrated use of environmental quality indices is proposed as a methodology able to provide a practical approach to river monitoring and management. As a case study, the Imera Meridionale River, Sicily’s largest river, was chosen. The water quality index developed by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation and the floristic quality index based on the Wilhelm method were applied. The former enabled us to describe the water quality according to a spatial-temporal gradient, whereas the latter focused on the ecological quality of riparian vegetation. This study proposes a holistic view of river ecosystems by considering biotic and abiotic factors in agreement with the current European regulations. How the combined use of such indices can guide sustainable management efforts is also discussed.

  5. Platform for monitoring water and solid fluxes in mountainous rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Guillaume; Esteves, Michel; Aubert, Coralie; Belleudy, Philippe; Coulaud, Catherine; Bois, Jérôme; Geay, Thomas; Gratiot, Nicolas; Legout, Cédric; Mercier, Bernard; Némery, Julien; Michielin, Yoann

    2016-04-01

    The project aims to develop a platform that electronically integrates a set of existing sensors for the continuous measurement at high temporal frequency of water and solid fluxes (bed load and suspension), characteristics of suspended solids (distribution in particle size, settling velocity of the particles) and other variables on water quality (color, nutrient concentration). The project is preferentially intended for rivers in mountainous catchments draining areas from 10 to 1000 km², with high suspended sediment concentrations (maxima between 10 and 300 g/l) and highly dynamic behavior, water discharge varying of several orders of magnitude in a short period of time (a few hours). The measurement of water and solid fluxes in this type of river remains a challenge and, to date, there is no built-in device on the market to continuously monitor all these variables. The development of this platform is based on a long experience of measurement of sediment fluxes in rivers within the French Critical Zone Observatories (http://portailrbv.sedoo.fr/), especially in the Draix-Bléone (http://oredraixbleone.irstea.fr/) and OHMCV (http://www.ohmcv.fr/) observatories. The choice was made to integrate in the platform instruments already available on the market and currently used by the scientific community (water level radar, surface velocity radar, turbidity sensor, automatic water sampler, video camera) and to include also newly developed instruments (System for the Characterization of Aggregates and Flocs - see EGU2016-8542 - and hydrophone) or commercial instruments (spectrophotometer and radiometer) to be tested in surface water with high suspended sediment concentration. Priority is given to non-intrusive instruments due to their robustness in this type of environment with high destructive potential. Development work includes the construction of a platform prototype "smart" and remotely configurable for implantation in an isolated environment (absence of electric

  6. Long-term fish monitoring in large rivers: Utility of “benchmarking” across basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Casper, Andrew F.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Waite, Ian R.; Kosovich, John J.; Chapman, Colin; Irwin, Elise R.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Ickes, Brian; McKerrow, Alexa

    2017-01-01

    In business, benchmarking is a widely used practice of comparing your own business processes to those of other comparable companies and incorporating identified best practices to improve performance. Biologists and resource managers designing and conducting monitoring programs for fish in large river systems tend to focus on single river basins or segments of large rivers, missing opportunities to learn from those conducting fish monitoring in other rivers. We briefly examine five long-term fish monitoring programs in large rivers in the United States (Colorado, Columbia, Mississippi, Illinois, and Tallapoosa rivers) and identify opportunities for learning across programs by detailing best monitoring practices and why these practices were chosen. Although monitoring objectives, methods, and program maturity differ between each river system, examples from these five case studies illustrate the important role that long-term monitoring programs play in interpreting temporal and spatial shifts in fish populations for both established objectives and newly emerging questions. We suggest that deliberate efforts to develop a broader collaborative network through benchmarking will facilitate sharing of ideas and development of more effective monitoring programs.

  7. Channel Planform Dynamics Monitoring and Channel Stability Assessment in Two Sediment-Rich Rivers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent flood events induced by typhoons are powerful agents to modify channel morphology in Taiwan’s rivers. Frequent channel migrations reflect highly sensitive valley floors and increase the risk to infrastructure and residents along rivers. Therefore, monitoring channel planforms is essential for analyzing channel stability as well as improving river management. This study analyzed annual channel changes along two sediment-rich rivers, the Zhuoshui River and the Gaoping River, from 2008 to 2015 based on satellite images of FORMOSAT-2. Channel areas were digitized from mid-catchment to river mouth (~90 km. Channel stability for reaches was assessed through analyzing the changes of river indices including braid index, active channel width, and channel activity. In general, the valley width plays a key role in braided degree, active channel width, and channel activity. These indices increase as the valley width expands whereas the braid index decreases slightly close to the river mouth due to the change of river types. This downstream pattern in the Zhuoshui River was interrupted by hydraulic construction which resulted in limited changes downstream from the weir, due to the lack of water and sediment supply. A 200-year flood, Typhoon Morakot in 2009, induced significant changes in the two rivers. The highly active landscape in Taiwan results in very sensitive channels compared to other regions. An integrated Sensitivity Index was proposed for identifying unstable reaches, which could be a useful reference for river authorities when making priorities in river regulation strategy. This study shows that satellite image monitoring coupled with river indices analysis could be an effective tool to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in channel stability in highly dynamic river systems.

  8. Determination of Hg and diet identification in otter (Lontra longicaudis) feces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Josef, Carla [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA-USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: carlajosef@hotmail.com; Ramos Adriano, Leonardo; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA-USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreira, Jose Roberto [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA-USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Polo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Regional do Centro Sul - APTA, Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios. Rua Alberto Coral 1500, 13400-000 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    An analytical procedure for the determination of Hg in otter (Lontra longicaudis) feces was developed, to separate fish scales for the identification of the animal diet. Samples were washed with ultra-pure water and the suspension was sampled and transferred for digestion. The solubilization was performed with nitric-perchloric acid mixture, and detection carried out by the atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The quality of the analytical procedure was assessed by analyzing in-house standard solutions and certified reference materials. Total Hg concentrations were in the range of 7.6-156 ng g{sup -1} (July 2004), 25.6-277 ng g{sup -1} (January 2005) and 14.6-744 ng g{sup -1} (May 2005) that is approximately the same order of magnitude for all samples collected in two reservoirs at the Tiete River, Brazil. Although Hg concentrations varied with sampling periods and diet, high levels were correlated to the percentage of carnivorous fish scales present in the otter feces. - The importance of otter feces preparation for Hg analysis, focusing the food web.

  9. Determination of Hg and diet identification in otter (Lontra longicaudis) feces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Josef, Carla; Ramos Adriano, Leonardo; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel; Ferreira, Jose Roberto

    2008-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the determination of Hg in otter (Lontra longicaudis) feces was developed, to separate fish scales for the identification of the animal diet. Samples were washed with ultra-pure water and the suspension was sampled and transferred for digestion. The solubilization was performed with nitric-perchloric acid mixture, and detection carried out by the atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The quality of the analytical procedure was assessed by analyzing in-house standard solutions and certified reference materials. Total Hg concentrations were in the range of 7.6-156 ng g -1 (July 2004), 25.6-277 ng g -1 (January 2005) and 14.6-744 ng g -1 (May 2005) that is approximately the same order of magnitude for all samples collected in two reservoirs at the Tiete River, Brazil. Although Hg concentrations varied with sampling periods and diet, high levels were correlated to the percentage of carnivorous fish scales present in the otter feces. - The importance of otter feces preparation for Hg analysis, focusing the food web

  10. Monitoring and Evaluation of Environmental Flow Prescriptions for Five Demonstration Sites of the Sustainable Rivers Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy has been working with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) through the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) to modify operations of dams to achieve ecological objectives in addition to meeting the authorized purposes of the dams. Modifications to dam operations are specified in terms of environmental flow prescriptions that quantify the magnitude, duration, frequency, and seasonal timing of releases to achieve specific ecological outcomes. Outcomes of environmental flow prescriptions implemented from 2002 to 2008 have been monitored and evaluated at demonstration sites in five rivers: Green River, Kentucky; Savannah River, Georgia/South Carolina; Bill Williams River, Arizona; Big Cypress Creek, Texas; and Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon. Monitoring and evaluation have been accomplished through collaborative partnerships of federal and state agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations.

  11. Satellite radar altimetry for monitoring small rivers and lakes in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulistioadi, Y.B.; Tseng, K.H.; Shum, C.K.; Hidayat, Hidayat; Sumaryono, M.; Suhardiman, A.; Setiawan, F.; Sunarso, S.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing and satellite geodetic observations are capable of hydrologic monitoring of freshwater resources. Although satellite radar altimetry has been used in monitoring water level or discharge, its use is often limited to monitoring large rivers (>1 km) with longer interval periods

  12. The Savannah River site`s groundwater monitoring program: second quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1997, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. A detailed explanation of the flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1997 are included in this report.

  13. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  14. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  15. Otter Lutra lutra L. mortality and marine oil pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J R [Veterinary Field Station, Cheshire, England; Jones, A M; Jones, T P; Watson, H C

    1981-01-01

    Following an oil spill at Sullom Voe Oil Terminal, Shetland, at least 13 otters died. Post-mortems on five corpses showed that they had died of haemorrhagic gastroenteropathy, associated with ingested oil. The primary cause of oil ingestion seems to have been grooming of the fur. A survey of the polluted coasts revealed that otters were still present throughout most of the area.

  16. The Caloosahatchee River Estuary: a monitoring partnership between Federal, State, and local governments, 2007-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The tidal Caloosahatchee River and downstream estuaries have substantial environmental, recreational, and economic value for southwest Florida residents and visitors. Modifications to the Caloosahatchee River watershed have altered the predevelopment hydrology, thereby threatening the environmental health of estuaries in the area. Hydrologic monitoring of the freshwater contributions from tributaries to the tidal Caloosahatchee River and its estuaries is necessary to adequately describe the total freshwater inflow and constituent loads to the delicate estuarine system.

  17. Dietary specifications reflect the feeding behaviour of the European otter (Lutra lutra in “Strandzha” Natural Park (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natchev Nikolay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the present study a field survey in the area of “Strandzha” Natural Park in south-east Bulgaria was carried out. The main goal of the investigation was to gain more detailed information on the diet of the European otters (Lutra lutra that inhabit the park. As indicators for the presence of the mustelids a set of standard procedures, such as footprints tracking and inspecting the terrain for otter spraints were used. A total of 204 excrements were found, measured, documented and then disintegrated in water. The food rests in the faeces were investigated and the diet of the local population was documented. On the base of the results we separated the excrements into six groups and analysed the relations between the contents of the spraints and the characteristics of the habitat where they were found. We discovered a clear tendency toward piscivory in the middle and down streams of the studied rivers in the Natural Park. In the upper streams, otters relied almost exclusively on invertebrates like bivalves and crayfish as food source. The fact, that even suboptimal habitats, which offered invariable menu, were exploited by the otters is an indication for the stability of the local population.

  18. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The results obtained from the environmental monitoring program at the Savannah River Plant during 1974 are presented. An inventory of radioactive materials released to the environment, and data on radioactivity in samples of surface air, surface waters, soil, plants, and food are included. Data are also included on pesticides in Savannah River sediment. (U.S.)

  19. Remediating and Monitoring White Phosphorus Contamination at Eagle River Flats (Operable Unit C), Fort Richardson, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, M. E; Racine, C. H; Collins, C. M; Walsh, M. R; Bailey, R. N

    2001-01-01

    .... Army Engineer District, Alaska, and U.S. Army Alaska, Public Works, describing the results of research, monitoring, and remediation efforts addressing the white phosphorus contamination in Eagle River Flats, an 865-ha estuarine salt marsh...

  20. An autonomous underwater vehicle "Maya", for monitoring coastal waters, estuaries, rivers and dams

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.A; Navelkar, G.S.; Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Maurya, P.K.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahalunkar, A

    This article demonstrates the use of Maya, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) for monitoring coastal waters, estuaries, rivers and dams. Maya is a mono hull structure with detachable nose and tail cones. The nose cone is mission specific...

  1. Proposed Strategy for San Joaquin River Basin Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Proposed Strategy for San Joaquin River Basin Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment was published in 2010, and a Strawman Proposal was developed in 2012 by the Coalition for Urban/Rural Environmental Stewardship, California Water Resources Board, EPA.

  2. Real-Time River Channel-Bed Monitoring at the Chariton and Mississippi Rivers in Missouri, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    Scour and depositional responses to hydrologic events have been important to the scientific community studying sediment transport as well as potential effects on bridges and other hydraulic structures within riverine systems. A river channel-bed monitor composed of a single-beam transducer was installed on a bridge crossing the Chariton River near Prairie Hill, Missouri (structure L-344) as a pilot study to evaluate channel-bed change in response to the hydrologic condition disseminated from an existing streamgage. Initial results at this location led to additional installations in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation at an upstream Chariton River streamgage location at Novinger, Missouri (structure L-534) and a Mississippi River streamgage location near Mehlville, Missouri (structures A-1850 and A-4936). In addition to stage, channel-bed elevation was collected at all locations every 15 minutes and transmitted hourly to a U.S. Geological Survey database. Bed elevation data for the Chariton River location at Novinger and the Mississippi River location near Mehlville were provided to the World Wide Web for real-time monitoring. Channel-bed data from the three locations indicated responses to hydrologic events depicted in the stage record; however, notable bedforms apparent during inter-event flows also may have affected the relation of scour and deposition to known hydrologic events. Throughout data collection periods, Chariton River locations near Prairie Hill and Novinger reflected bed changes as much as 13 feet and 5 feet. Nearly all of the bed changes correlated well with the hydrographic record at these locations. The location at the Mississippi River near Mehlville indicated a much more stable channel bed throughout the data collection period. Despite missing data resulting from damage to one of the river channel-bed monitors from ice accumulation at the upstream nose of the bridge pier early in the record, the record from the downstream

  3. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.; Ballachey, B.E. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Exposure to oil was assessed by visual examination when otters arrived at the centers. Degree of oil exposure was graded according to the following criteria: oil covering greater than 60% of the body--heavily contaminated; oil covering 30-60% of the body--moderately contaminated; oil covering less than 30% of the body or light sheen on fur--lightly contaminated. If there was no oil visible, otters were considered uncontaminated. Tissues from 51 oil-contaminated sea otters (14 males, 37 females) and from six uncontaminated sea otters (three males, three females) that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Among oil-contaminated sea otters, 19/46 had interstitial pulmonary emphysema, 13/40 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage, 11/47 had centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 14/47 had periportal to diffuse hepatic lipidosis, and 10/42 had renal tubular lipidosis. Of the uncontaminated sea otters, 1/6 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage and 1/6 had diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from five sea otters found dead with external oil present 15 to 16 days after the spill. Periportal hepatic lipidosis and renal tubular lipidosis were found in 3/5, and interstitial pulmonary emphysema was found in 1/5. Tissues from six apparently normal sea otters collected from an area not affected by an oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that interstitial pulmonary emphysema, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis of sea otters were associated with exposure to crude oil. Gastric erosion and hemorrhage may have been associated with stress of captivity and/or oil exposure.

  4. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.; Ballachey, Brenda E.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Exposure to oil was assessed by visual examination when otters arrived at the centers. Degree of oil exposure was graded according to the following criteria: oil covering greater than 60% of the body - heavily contaminated; oil covering 30–60% of the body - moderately contaminated; oil covering less than 30% of the body or light sheen on fur - lightly contaminated. If there was no oil visible, otters were considered uncontaminated. Tissues from 51 oil-contaminated sea otters (14 males, 37 females) and from six uncontaminated sea otters (three males, three females) that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Among oil-contaminated sea otters, 19/46 had interstitial pulmonary emphysema, 13/40 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage, 11/47 had centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 14/47 had periportal to diffuse hepatic lipidosis, and 10/42 had renal tubular lipidosis. Of the uncontaminated sea otters, 1/6 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage and 1/6 had diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from five sea otters (three males, two females) found dead with external oil present 15 to 16 days after the spill. Periportal hepatic lipidosis and renal tubular lipidosis were found in 3/5, and interstitial pulmonary emphysema was found in 1/5. Tissues from six apparently normal sea otters (four males, two females) collected from an area not affected by an oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that interstitial pulmonary emphysema, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis of sea otters were associated with exposure to crude oil. Gastric erosion and hemorrhage may have been associated with

  5. Monitoring of microcystin-LR in Luvuvhu River catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study is to assess the levels of microcystin-LR in Luvuvhu River catchment and to assess the physicochemical parameters that may promote the growth of cyanobacteria. The level of microcystin-LR in some of the sampling sites was <0.18 ìg/l except for one site (Luvuvhu River just before the confluence ...

  6. Initial Operation of the Savannah River Site Advanced Storage Monitoring Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurry, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced storage monitoring facility has been constructed at the Savannah River Site capable of storing sensitive nuclear materials (SNM) with access to monitoring information available over the Internet. This system will also have monitoring information available over the Internet to appropriate users. The programs will ultimately supply authenticated and encrypted data from the storage sites to certified users to demonstrate the capability of using the Internet as a safe and secure communications medium for remote monitoring of sensitive items

  7. Columbia River ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for beavers, otters, nutria, mink, muskrats, and Columbian white-tailed deer in the Columbia River area....

  8. Monitoring effects of river restoration on groundwater with radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehn, Eduard

    2007-01-01

    The restoration of the perialpine river Toess in a floodplain of northern Switzerland (Linsental) included the removal of bank reinforcements and tracer studies in the river and in oberservation wells of the adjacent alluvial groundwater. The river water is continuously recharging the aquifer system and the groundwater is used extensively as drinking water. Radon activity concentrations of freshly infiltrated groundwater are interpreted as radon groundwater age between the river and a well. A first flood after the restoration operations resulted in a widening of the river bed and in a reduction of the flow distance to the wells. Sixteen days after a second flood, the results of radon measurements were compared with those from before the restoration. The radon age of the groundwater between the river and the wells decreased, probably as a result of the reduction of the flow distances. Concentrations of autochthonous and coliform bacteria increased after the restoration operation and even more one day after the first flood. Thus the findings on the bacteria corroborate the interpretation of the radon concentrations. The restoration has not yet reduced the quality of the groundwater, which is pumped for drinking water. The study is contributing to the solution of land-use conflicts between river restoration and the supply of drinking water from the alluvial groundwater. (orig.) [de

  9. Diverse Approaches to Implement and Monitor River Restoration: A Comparative Perspective in France and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Bertrand; Kail, Jochem; Toedter, Anne; Wolter, Christian; Piégay, Hervé

    2017-11-01

    River restoration is a main emphasis of river management in European countries. Cross-national comparisons of its implementation are still rare in scientific literature. Based on French and German national censuses, this study compares river restoration practices and monitoring by analysing 102 French and 270 German projects. This comparison aims to draw a spatial and temporal framework of restoration practices in both countries to identify potential drivers of cross-national similarities and differences. The results underline four major trends: (1) a lag of almost 15 years in river restoration implementation between France and Germany, with a consequently higher share of projects in Germany than in France, (2) substantial similarities in restored reach characteristics, short reach length, small rivers, and in "agricultural" areas, (3) good correspondences between stressors identified and restoration measures implemented. Morphological alterations were the most important highlighted stressors. River morphology enhancement, especially instream enhancements, were the most frequently implemented restoration measures. Some differences exist in specific restoration practices, as river continuity restoration were most frequently implemented in French projects, while large wood introduction or channel re-braiding were most frequently implemented in German projects, and (4) some quantitative and qualitative differences in monitoring practices and a significant lack of project monitoring, especially in Germany compared to France. These similarities and differences between Germany and France in restoration application and monitoring possibly result from a complex set of drivers that might be difficult to untangle (e.g., environmental, technical, political, cultural).

  10. The Water Quality of the River Enborne, UK: Observations from High-Frequency Monitoring in a Rural, Lowland River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Halliday

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a 2-year study of water quality in the River Enborne, a rural river in lowland England. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species and other chemical determinands were monitored both at high-frequency (hourly, using automated in situ instrumentation, and by manual weekly sampling and laboratory analysis. The catchment land use is largely agricultural, with a population density of 123 persons km−2. The river water is largely derived from calcareous groundwater, and there are high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Agricultural fertiliser is the dominant source of annual loads of both nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the data show that sewage effluent discharges have a disproportionate effect on the river nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics. At least 38% of the catchment population use septic tank systems, but the effects are hard to quantify as only 6% are officially registered, and the characteristics of the others are unknown. Only 4% of the phosphorus input and 9% of the nitrogen input is exported from the catchment by the river, highlighting the importance of catchment process understanding in predicting nutrient concentrations. High-frequency monitoring will be a key to developing this vital process understanding.

  11. LCREP genetic stock ID - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  12. LCREP catch records - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  13. LCREP prey data - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  14. LCREP chemistry and lipids - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  15. LCREP growth rates - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  16. Refining aging criteria for northern sea otters in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Krysten L.; Baker, Bridget B.; Mayer, Karl A.; Perez-Heydrich, Carolina; Holahan, Paula M.; Thomas, Nancy J.; White, C. LeAnn

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of skull ossification patterns is a standard method for aging various mammalian species and has been used to age Russian, Californian, and Alaskan sea otter populations. Cementum annuli counts have also been verified as an accurate aging method for the Alaskan sea otter population. In this study, cementum annuli count results and skull ossification patterns were compared as methods for aging the northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) population in Washington State. Significant agreement was found between the two methods suggesting that either method could be used to age the Washington population of otters. This study also found that ossification of the squamosal-jugal suture at the ventral glenoid fossa can be used to differentiate male subadults from adults. To assist field biologists or others without access to cementum annuli or skull ossification analysis techniques, a suite of morphologic, physiologic, and developmental characteristics were analyzed to assess whether a set of these more easily accessible parameters could also predict age class for the Washington population of otters. Tooth condition score, evidence of reproductive activity in females, and tooth eruption pattern were identified as the most useful criteria for classifying Washington sea otters as pups, juveniles, subadults, or adults/aged adults. A simple decision tree based on characteristics accessible in the field or at necropsy was created that can be used to reliably predict age class of Washington sea otters as determined by cementum annuli.

  17. Yellow River Icicle Hazard Dynamic Monitoring Using UAV Aerial Remote Sensing Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H B; Wang, G H; Tang, X M; Li, C H

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the response of Yellow River icicle hazard change requires accurate and repeatable topographic surveys. A new method based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) aerial remote sensing technology is proposed for real-time data processing in Yellow River icicle hazard dynamic monitoring. The monitoring area is located in the Yellow River ice intensive care area in southern BaoTou of Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Monitoring time is from the 20th February to 30th March in 2013. Using the proposed video data processing method, automatic extraction covering area of 7.8 km 2 of video key frame image 1832 frames took 34.786 seconds. The stitching and correcting time was 122.34 seconds and the accuracy was better than 0.5 m. Through the comparison of precise processing of sequence video stitching image, the method determines the change of the Yellow River ice and locates accurate positioning of ice bar, improving the traditional visual method by more than 100 times. The results provide accurate aid decision information for the Yellow River ice prevention headquarters. Finally, the effect of dam break is repeatedly monitored and ice break five meter accuracy is calculated through accurate monitoring and evaluation analysis

  18. Synthesis of Upper Verde River research and monitoring 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Alvin L. Medina; John N. Rinne

    2012-01-01

    This volume is a state-of-knowledge synthesis of monitoring and research conducted on the Upper Verde River (UVR) of Arizona. It contains information on the history, hydrology, soils, geomorphology, vegetation, and fish fauna of the area that can help land managers and other scientists in successfully conducting ecosystem management and future monitoring and research...

  19. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program 1991 well installation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report is a summary of the well and environmental soil boring information compiled for the groundwater monitoring program of the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1991. It includes discussion of environmental soil borings, surveying, well installations, abandonments, maintenance, and stabilization

  20. Comparison of anesthetic agents in the sea otter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.D.; Kocher, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    Five anesthetic agents (CI744, etorphine, fentanyl, ketamine hydrochloride, and halothane) were tested to establish the dosage of a safe, effective, short-acting anesthetic for use in the sea otter. Etorphine, at a dosage of 0.75 mg per adult otter and used in conjunction with diazepam, at a dosage of 1.25 mg per adult otter, met most of the requirements for use under field conditions. Halothane, administered through an anesthetic machine, proved to be effective for use in a veterinary hospital.

  1. OTTER 3.0 reference manual and guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    OTTER (Organized Techniques for Theorem-proving and Effective Research) is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first-order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyperresolution, UR-resolution, and binary paramodulation. Some of its other abilities and features are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, evaluable functions and predicates, and Knuth-Bendix completion. OTTER is coded in C, is free, and is portable to many different kinds of computer.

  2. Using Geoscience and Geostatistics to Optimize Groundwater Monitoring Networks at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckfield, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    A team of scientists, engineers, and statisticians was assembled to review the operation efficiency of groundwater monitoring networks at US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). Subsequent to a feasibility study, this team selected and conducted an analysis of the A/M area groundwater monitoring well network. The purpose was to optimize the number of groundwater wells requisite for monitoring the plumes of the principal constituent of concern, viz., trichloroethylene (TCE). The project gathered technical expertise from the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), the Environmental Restoration Division (ERD), and the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) of SRS

  3. Use of algae for monitoring of heavy metals in the River Vardar, Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. LEVKOV

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to resolve some of the problems regarding monitoring of heavy metals in rivers using Cladophora glomerata and epilithic algal communities, a year’s survey of Co, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn has been conducted on the river Vardar, FY Republic of Macedonia. Obtained results and statistical analysis clearly point out the well documented possibility of using epilithon (basically diatom communities as a monitoring tool, since correlation patterns for epilithon are either better or the same as those for Cladophora, while at the same time epilithon is much more reliable for monitoring, especially in cases when no other plant material can be obtained.

  4. Monitoring Thermal Pollution in Rivers Downstream of Dams with Landsat ETM+ Thermal Infrared Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ling

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dams play a significant role in altering the spatial pattern of temperature in rivers and contribute to thermal pollution, which greatly affects the river aquatic ecosystems. Understanding the temporal and spatial variation of thermal pollution caused by dams is important to prevent or mitigate its harmful effect. Assessments based on in-situ measurements are often limited in practice because of the inaccessibility of water temperature records and the scarcity of gauges along rivers. By contrast, thermal infrared remote sensing provides an alternative approach to monitor thermal pollution downstream of dams in large rivers, because it can cover a large area and observe the same zone repeatedly. In this study, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ thermal infrared imagery were applied to assess the thermal pollution caused by two dams, the Geheyan Dam and the Gaobazhou Dam, located on the Qingjiang River, a tributary of the Yangtze River downstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir in Central China. The spatial and temporal characteristics of thermal pollution were analyzed with water temperatures estimated from 54 cloud-free Landsat ETM+ scenes acquired in the period from 2000 to 2014. The results show that water temperatures downstream of both dams are much cooler than those upstream of both dams in summer, and the water temperature remains stable along the river in winter, showing evident characteristic of the thermal pollution caused by dams. The area affected by the Geheyan Dam reaches beyond 20 km along the downstream river, and that affected by the Gaobazhou Dam extends beyond the point where the Qingjiang River enters the Yangtze River. Considering the long time series and global coverage of Landsat ETM+ imagery, the proposed technique in the current study provides a promising method for globally monitoring the thermal pollution caused by dams in large rivers.

  5. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Third quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-02-04

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Table 1 lists those well series with constituents in the groundwater above Flag 2 during third quarter 1992, organized by location. Results from all laboratory analyses are used to generate this table. Specific conductance and pH data from the field also are included in this table.

  6. Fate and monitoring of hazardous substances in temporary rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ademollo, N.; Capri, S.; Froebrich, J.; Patrolecco, L.; Polesello, S.; Puddu, A.; Rusconi, M.; Valsecchi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Under climate-change conditions, temporary rivers will be the dominant surface-water bodies of the Mediterranean region. In order to manage this kind of water body appropriately, it is necessary to understand the chemical and ecological processes that involve hazardous substances in these

  7. Waterborne Release Monitoring and Surveillance Programs at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-03-26

    This report documents the liquid release environmental compliance programs currently in place at the Savannah river Site (SRS). Included are descriptions of stream monitoring programs, which measure chemical parameters and radionuclides in site streams and the Savannah river and test representative biological communities within the streams for chemical and radiological uptake. This report also explains the field sampling and analytical capabilities that are available at SRS during both normal and emergency conditions.

  8. Waterborne Release Monitoring and Surveillance Programs at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the liquid release environmental compliance programs currently in place at the Savannah river Site (SRS). Included are descriptions of stream monitoring programs, which measure chemical parameters and radionuclides in site streams and the Savannah river and test representative biological communities within the streams for chemical and radiological uptake. This report also explains the field sampling and analytical capabilities that are available at SRS during both normal and emergency conditions

  9. The use of genetic methods to study Eurasian otters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Petra; Gettová, Lenka; Sládkovičová, V.; Zemanová, Barbora

    Supp., - (2011), s. 102 ISSN 0394-1914. [International Otter Colloquium /11./. 30.08.2011-04.09.2011, Pavia] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930804; GA MŽP SP/2D4/16/08; GA ČR GA206/03/0757 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Eurasian otter * genetic analyses Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.internationalottercolloquium2010.eu/files/proceedings_iucn_xi_ioc_2011.pdf

  10. Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts, 1995. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achord, S.; Eppard, M.B.; Sandford, B.P.; Matthews, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    We PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook-salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1994 and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Darns during spring, summer, and fall 1995. This report details our findings. The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the migration timing of different wild stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence migration timing

  11. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T. H.; Yin, Z.; Song, Y. Z.

    2012-11-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  12. The monitoring of pesticides and alkylphenols in selected rivers in the State of Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B L L; Mustafa, A M

    2004-01-01

    Alkylphenols and most pesticides, especially organochlorine pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and they usually mimic the female hormone, estrogen. Using these chemicals in our environment would eventually lead us to consume them somehow in the food web. Several rivers in the State of Selangor, Malaysia were selected to monitor the level of alkylphenols and pesticides contamination for several months. The compounds were extracted from the water samples using liquid-liquid extraction method with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as the extracting solvents. The alkylphenols and pesticides were analyzed by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode using the quadrapole detector in Shimadzu QP-5000 gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS). Recovery of most alkylphenols and pesticides were in the range of 50% to 120%. Trace amounts of the compounds were detected in the river water samples, mainly in the range of parts per trillion. This technique of monitoring the levels of endocrine-disruptors in river water is consistent and cost effective.

  13. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T h; Yin, Z; Song, Y Z

    2012-01-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  14. Environmental Monitoring at the Savannah River Plant, Annual Report - 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, C.

    2001-07-26

    An environmental monitoring program has been in existence at SRP since 1951. The original preoperational surveys have evolved into an extensive environmental monitoring program in which sample types from approximately 500 locations are analyzed for radiological and/or nonradiological parameters. The results of these analyses for 1981 are presented in this report.

  15. Monitoring of chemical and isotopic composition of the Euphrates river in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2008-11-01

    The ratios of stable isotopes ( 18 O and 2 H), tritium content, together with the chemical composition of major ions of the Euphrates and Balikh (Euphrates tributary) Rivers, and the groundwaters of four wells drilled close to the Euphrates River course, were measured on a monthly basis. The Euphrates River water was monitored at twelve stations along its course in Syria during the period from January 2004 to December 2006, whereas those of the Balikh and groundwaters were only investigated during 2005. Although, the spatial variations of heavy stable isotope concentrations are moderated with respect to other large rivers in the world, the concentrations of these isotopes increase generally downstream the Euphrates River, with a sharp enrichment at Al-Assad Lake. This sharp increase could be explained by the effect of direct evaporation from the river and its tributaries; and the effect of drainage return flows of irrigation waters, isotopically more enriched. Enrichment of stable isotopes in the Euphrates River water was used as a direct indicator of evaporation. Based on an experimental evaporation result of a Euphrates water sample and the integral enrichment of heavy stable isotopes in the Euphrates River system, the amount of water losses by evaporation from Al-Assad Lake was estimated to be about 1.26 to 1.62 billion m''3, according to 18 O and deuterium ( 2 H), respectively. This amount represents about 12-16% of the renewable surface water resources in the country. (author)

  16. Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1, Section 1000 Addendum: Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1994-01-01

    This document -- the Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (SRS EM Plan) -- has been prepared according to guidance contained in the DOE 5400 Series orders, in 10 CFR 834, and in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and environmental Surveillance [DOE, 1991]. The SRS EM Plan's purpose is to define the criteria, regulations, and guideline requirements with which SRS will comply. These criteria and requirements are applicable to environmental monitoring activities performed in support of the SRS Environmental Monitoring Program (SRS EM Program), WSRC-3Q1-2, Volume 1, Section 1100. They are not applicable to monitoring activities utilized exclusively for process monitoring/control. The environmental monitoring program requirements documented in the SRS EM Plan incorporate all applicable should requirements of DOE/EH-0173T and expand upon them to include nonradiological environmental monitoring program requirements

  17. Environmental monitoring of Columbia River sediments: Grain-size distribution and contaminant association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, M.L.; Gardiner, W.W.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Based on the results of this study and literature review, the following conclusions can be made: Sediment grain size and TOC (total organic carbon) influence contaminant fate and transport (in general, sediments with higher TOC content and finer grain-size distribution can have higher contaminant burdens than sediments from a given river section that have less TOC and greater amounts of coarse-grained sediments). Physiochemical sediment characteristics are highly variable among monitoring sites along the Columbia River. Sediment grain characterization and TOC analysis should be included in interpretations of sediment-monitoring data.

  18. Environmental monitoring of Columbia River sediments: Grain-size distribution and contaminant association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, M.L.; Gardiner, W.W.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Based on the results of this study and literature review, the following conclusions can be made: Sediment grain size and TOC (total organic carbon) influence contaminant fate and transport (in general, sediments with higher TOC content and finer grain-size distribution can have higher contaminant burdens than sediments from a given river section that have less TOC and greater amounts of coarse-grained sediments). Physiochemical sediment characteristics are highly variable among monitoring sites along the Columbia River. Sediment grain characterization and TOC analysis should be included in interpretations of sediment-monitoring data

  19. Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program: 2000 data report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOE), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1.1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenays they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MOE applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that was undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00)

  20. Water quality assessment of a small peri-urban river using low and high frequency monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovsky, A; Criquet, J; Dumoulin, D; Alary, C; Prygiel, J; Duponchel, L; Billon, G

    2016-05-18

    The biogeochemical behaviors of small rivers that pass through suburban areas are difficult to understand because of the multi-origin inputs that can modify their behavior. In this context, a monitoring strategy has been designed for the Marque River, located in Lille Metropolitan area of northern France, that includes both low-frequency monitoring over a one-year period (monthly sampling) and high frequency monitoring (measurements every 10 minutes) in spring and summer. Several environmental and chemical parameters are evaluated including rainfall events, river flow, temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, nutritive salts and dissolved organic matter. Our results from the Marque River show that (i) it is impacted by both urban and agricultural inputs, and as a consequence, the concentrations of phosphate and inorganic nitrogen have degraded the water quality; (ii) the classic photosynthesis/respiration processes are disrupted by the inputs of organic matter and nutritive salts; (iii) during dry periods, the urban sewage inputs (treated or not) are more important during the day, as indicated by higher river flows and maximal concentrations of ammonium; (iv) phosphate concentrations depend on oxygen contents in the river; (v) high nutrient concentrations result in eutrophication of the Marque River with lower pH and oxygen concentrations in summer. During rainfalls, additional inputs of ammonium, biodegradable organic matter as well as sediment resuspension result in anoxic events; and finally (vi) concentrations of nitrate are approximately constant over the year, except in winter when higher inputs can be recorded. Having better identified the processes responsible for the observed water quality, a more informed remediation effort can be put forward to move this suburban river to a good status of water quality.

  1. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2002 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S. [Westslope Fisheries, Cranbrook, BC, Canada

    2003-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection (MWLAP), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenay they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MWLAP applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that were undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  2. Accuracy of the Missouri River Least Tern and Piping Plover Monitoring Program: considerations for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Anteau, Michael J.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Roche, Erin A.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Buhl, Thomas K.; Dovichin, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    The upper Missouri River system provides nesting and foraging habitat for federally endangered least terns (Sternula antillarum; hereafter “terns”) and threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter “plovers”). These species are the subject of substantial management interest on the Missouri River for several reasons. First, ecosystem recovery is a goal for management agencies that seek to maintain or restore natural functions and native biological communities for the Missouri River system. Terns and plovers are recognized as important ecosystem components that are linked with the river’s ecological functions. Second, although both species breed beyond the Missouri River system, the Missouri River is one of the principal breeding areas in the Northern Great Plains; thus, the river system is a focal area for recovery actions targeted at regional population goals. Third, a Biological Opinion for Missouri River operations established annual productivity goals for terns and plovers, and the recovery plan for each species established annual population goals. Meeting these goals is a key motivation in management decision making and implementation with regard to both species. A myriad of conservation and management interests necessitate understanding numbers, distribution, and productivity of terns and plovers on the Missouri River system. To this end, a Tern and Plover Monitoring Program (TPMP) was implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (hereafter “Corps”) in 1986, and has since provided annual estimates of tern and plover numbers and productivity for five Missouri River reservoirs and four river reaches (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1993). The TPMP has served as the primary source of information about the status of terns and plovers on the Missouri River, and TPMP data have been used for a wide variety of purposes. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) was tasked by the Corps to

  3. Experiences of the Use of Bio monitors for Heavy Metal Pollution Control in Almendares River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares- Rieumont, S.; Lima, L.; De la Rosa, D.; Martinez, F.; Borroto, J.; Columbie, I.; Sanchez, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text: This work is the first approach to establish a monitoring system for heavy metals in the Almendares Vento Basin. This basin is the most important watershed of Havana City, which main river is the Almendares River, that with 42 km of length goes through 5 municipalities, where live more than 500,000 inhabitants. The river receives a large pollution loads from more than 50 pollution sources of Havana City. Inputs of toxic substances like heavy metals come from the industries located along the river and tributaries, the urban discharges and from important speedways in both shores of the river. In the work, concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in sediments, water, gastropod species Tarebia granifera Lamarck, macrophyte Eichhornia Crassipes and fish from the specie Gambusia were evaluated at 14 stations during the dry season of 2003. Concentrations of copper and lead in water samples exceeded applicable guidelines for many of the sites monitored in the river basin. Heavy metals in sediments were analysed using three-stage sequential extraction procedure. In sediments high contents of studied metals were found in the bioavailable fraction. Some stations were highly polluted with all elements. Two main sources of pollution with heavy metals could be identified in the basin due to the higher concentration of most of the studied metals in the analized sampling stations. Pb concentrations were high in almost all the stations. Similar behaviour was found for the metal concentration in Eichhornia Crassipes roots, that appear to have an interesting potential as bio monitor of the pollution with heavy metals. Tarebia granifera Lamarck only could be found in 5 of the 14 stations monitored, and it presence is related with the quality of the river water. The magnitude of contamination was estimated by the comparison between local backgrounds and concentration of metals measured. Only high concentration of Zn were found in the Gambusia tissue, and no

  4. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys and Rotary Screw Trap, 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2006 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 37,938 fish from 15 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 15% of fish enumerated followed by rainbow trout (10%) and mountain whitefish (7%). Day surveys were conducted during the summer period 2007 (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2007 (October) surveys. The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) program from August through November of 2007. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 999 wild Oncorhynchus mykiss and 5,107 wild run O. tshawytscha were PIT tagged during the study period. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 22.3% for juvenile O. tshawytscha and 9.0% for juvenile O. mykiss. Rotary screw traps operated 7 days a week and remote capture operations were conducted when flow and temperature regimes permitted. This is third annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  5. Variations of transcript profiles between sea otters Enhydra lutris from Prince William Sound, Alaska, and clinically normal reference otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Bowen, Lizabeth; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Murray, M.; Estes, J.L.; Keister, Robin A.; Stott, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Development of blood leukocyte gene transcript profiles has the potential to expand condition assessments beyond those currently available to evaluate wildlife health, including sea otters Enhydra lutris, both individually and as populations. The 10 genes targeted in our study represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumor suppression, cellular stress-response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and antioxidant enzymes. These genes can be modified by biological, physical, or anthropogenic impacts and consequently provide information on the general type of stressors present in a given environment. We compared gene transcript profiles of sea otters sampled in 2008 among areas within Prince William Sound impacted to varying degrees by the 1989 ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill with those of captive and wild reference sea otters. Profiles of sea otters from Prince William Sound showed elevated transcription in genes associated with tumor formation, cell death, organic exposure, inflammation, and viral exposure when compared to the reference sea otter group, indicating possible recent and chronic exposure to organic contaminants. Sea otters from historically designated oiled areas within Prince William Sound 19 yr after the oil spill had higher transcription of genes associated with tumor formation, cell death, heat shock, and inflammation than those from areas designated as less impacted by the spill.

  6. 2005 River Corridor Cleanup Contractor Revegetation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Johnson

    2005-09-12

    This report contains a compilation of the results of vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2005 for the Environmental Restoration Contractor's revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  7. 2009 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano; R. D. Teel

    2009-09-30

    This document details the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2009, including 25 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and three bat mitigation projects.

  8. Water quality monitoring of Jialing-River in Chongqing using advanced ion chromatographic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Shi, Chao-Hong; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu

    2012-04-01

    The water quality monitoring operation to evaluate the water quality of polluted river is an extremely important task for the river-watershed management/control based on the environmental policy. In this study, the novel, simple and convenient water quality monitoring of Jialing-River in Chongqing, China was carried out using an advanced ion chromatography (IC) consisting of ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography (IEC/CEC) with conductivity detection for determining simultaneously the common anions such as SO4(2-), Cl(-), and NO3(-) and the cations such as Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, the ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) with visible detection for determining simultaneously the nutrient components such as phosphate and silicate ions, and the IEC with the enhanced conductivity detection using a post column of K+-form cation-exchange resin for determining HCO3(-)-alkalinity as an inorganic-carbon source for biomass synthesis in biological reaction process under the aerobic conditions. According to the ionic balance theory between the total equivalent concentrations of anions and cations, the water quality evaluation of the Jialing-River waters taking at different sampling sites in Chongqing metropolitan area was carried out using the advanced IC system. As a result, the effectiveness of this novel water quality monitoring methodology using the IC system was demonstrated on the several practical applications to a typical biological sewage treatment plant on Jialing-River of Chongqing.

  9. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: First quarter 1993, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the first quarter of 1993. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  10. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-17

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the fourth quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  11. Carmel River Lagoon Enhancement Project: Water Quality and Aquatic Wildlife Monitoring, 2006-7

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, William; Watson, Fred; Casagrande, Joel; Hanley, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This is a report to the California Department of Parks and Recreation. It describes water quality and aquatic invertebrate monitoring after the construction of the Carmel River Lagoon Enhancement Project. Included are data that have been collected for two years and preliminary assessment of the enhanced ecosystem. This report marks the completion of 3-years of monitoring water quality and aquatic habitat. The report adopts the same format and certain background text from previous ...

  12. Radioecological monitoring of the Tom' river ecosystem within zone of nuclear fuel cycle plants influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonova, G.A.; Bobrov, V.A.; Malikov, Yu.I.; Mel'gunov, M.S.; Makarova, I.V.; Toropov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    According to the results of 2000-2002 expeditions the estimation of radioactive contamination scales in water ecosystems within zone of Siberian Chemical Industrial Complex (SCC) influence was performed. The accumulation levels of short-lived artificial radionuclides in biota components of SCC technological channel (Romashka river), and spatial radionuclide distribution in biota of ecosystem of the Tom' and Ob' rivers at different distances from the local source have been determined using biochemical indication method. The most frequently occurring species of plants, filamentous green algae and fish were selected as indicator bioobjects for the monitoring. In spectrum of radioisotopes revealed in water plants, fish and water of the Romashka river there were determined twelve short-living isotopes that denoted continuing river burial. (author)

  13. Assessment of nematode community structure as a bioindicator in river monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.C.; Chen, P.C. [Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuan Rd, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Tsay, T.T., E-mail: tttsay@nchu.edu.t [Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuan Rd, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Nematode communities from river water and sediments were assessed for the abundance, feeding types, maturity indices and nematode channel ratio (NCR). The sampling sites studied included different levels of pollution and contamination from agricultural, industrial and sewage sources. The nematode abundance found in the sediment samples was more than that in the water samples. The lowest nematode abundance in sediment samples and the lowest NCR in water samples were both found at the industrial pollution site. Water samples showed positive correlation between the NCR and river pollution index (RPI). Mean maturity indices in sediment samples were inversely correlated with RPI. The pollutant source determined the relationship between NCR and pollution level, while maturity index always showed negative correlation with pollutant level regardless of the pollutant sources. The nematode abundance and its community structure were both reliable bioindicators for monitoring long-term river pollution in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. - Nematode community structure in rivers is related to the contamination source and level.

  14. Assessment of nematode community structure as a bioindicator in river monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.C.; Chen, P.C.; Tsay, T.T.

    2010-01-01

    Nematode communities from river water and sediments were assessed for the abundance, feeding types, maturity indices and nematode channel ratio (NCR). The sampling sites studied included different levels of pollution and contamination from agricultural, industrial and sewage sources. The nematode abundance found in the sediment samples was more than that in the water samples. The lowest nematode abundance in sediment samples and the lowest NCR in water samples were both found at the industrial pollution site. Water samples showed positive correlation between the NCR and river pollution index (RPI). Mean maturity indices in sediment samples were inversely correlated with RPI. The pollutant source determined the relationship between NCR and pollution level, while maturity index always showed negative correlation with pollutant level regardless of the pollutant sources. The nematode abundance and its community structure were both reliable bioindicators for monitoring long-term river pollution in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. - Nematode community structure in rivers is related to the contamination source and level.

  15. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to be...

  16. Environmental impact monitoring of U exploration activity in river water at Kalan Area West Kalimantan 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AS Soediro; A Dedi; A Djuhara; T Wismawati; A Nugroho; S Widarti

    2010-01-01

    U exploration at Kalan (Eko Remaja, Lemajung, Semut) will produce the environment impact of flora, fauna and society. The objective monitoring is to detect and measure the environmental change quality component caused by U exploration activity in river water at Kalan area. The monitoring were done by analyze river water sample were taken at the same place previously year. Analysis river water sample such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Ni, Zn, radioactivity U at Eko Remaja, Lemajung, Semut have shown nearly equal to the result of previous years and still below the limited value. Water quality Kalan (that scale 4.9 for Eko Remaja, Lemajung and 4.8 for Semut, it means, that's safe for environment. (author)

  17. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. First quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (EMAP): WESTERN STREAMS AND RIVERS STATISTICAL SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This statistical summary reports data from the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Western Pilot (EMAP-W). EMAP-W was a sample survey (or probability survey, often simply called 'random') of streams and rivers in 12 states of the western U.S. (Arizona, Californ...

  19. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. First quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  20. Protocols for Monitoring Habitat Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roegner, G. Curtis; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2008-04-25

    Protocols for monitoring salmon habitat restoration projects are essential for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' environmental efforts in the Columbia River estuary. This manual provides state-of-the science data collection and analysis methods for landscape features, water quality, and fish species composition, among others.

  1. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program second quarter 1999 (April through June 1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by Savannah River Site during first quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results

  2. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  3. 76 FR 62605 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type Certificate.... That AD applies to Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) airplanes equipped with a Honeywell TPE331... limitations and marking the airspeed indicator accordingly for Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter...

  4. Evaluation of sea otter capture after the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Weltz, F.; Bayha, Keith; Kormendy, Jennifer

    1990-01-01

    After the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill into Prince William Sound, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Exxon Company, U.S.A., began rescuing sea otters (Enhydra lutris). The primary objective of this operation was to capture live, oiled sea otters for cleaning and rehabilitation. Between 30 March and 29 May 1989, 139 live sea otters were captured in the sound and transported to rehabilitation centers in Valdez, Alaska. Within the first 15 days of capture operations, 122 (88%) otters were captured. Most sea otters were captured near Knight, Green, and Evans islands in the western sound. The primary capture method consisted of dipnetting otters out of water and off beaches. While capture rates declined over time, survival of captured otters increased as the interval from spill date to capture date increased. The relative degree of oiling observed for each otter captured declined over time. Declining capture rates led to the use of tangle nets. The evidence suggests the greatest threat to sea otters in Prince William Sound occurred within the first 3 weeks after the spill. Thus, in the future, the authors believe rescue efforts should begin as soon as possible after an oil spill in sea otter habitat. Further, preemptive capture and relocation of sea otters in Prince William Sound may have increased the number of otters that could have survived this event.

  5. 2008 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2008 and includes 22 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and two bat habitat mitigation projects.

  6. 2007 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. A. Gano; C. T. Lindsey

    2007-09-27

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2007 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 3 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  7. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  8. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  9. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  10. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  11. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  12. Changes in Alaskan soft-bottom prey communities along a gradient in sea otter predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitek, R.G.; Oliver, J.S.; DeGange, A.R.; Anderson, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris), well documented as "keystone" predators in rocky marine communities, were found to exert a strong influence on infaunal prey communities in soft-sediment habitats. Direct and indirect effects of sea otter predation on subtidal soft-bottom prey communities were evaluated along a temporal gradient of sea otter occupancy around the Kodiak Archipelago. The results indicate that Kodiak otters forage primarily on bivalve prey and dramatically reduce infaunal bivalve and green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) prey populations. Bivalve prey abundance, biomass, and size were inversely related to duration of sea otter occupancy. The relative conditions of shells discarded by otters in shallow ( 20 m) water at the same sites indicate that otters first exploited Saxidomus in shallow-water feeding areas, and later switched to Macoma spp. in deeper water. Otter-cracked shells of the deep-burrowing clam Tresus capax were rarely found, even at otter foraging sites where the clam accounted for the majority of available prey biomass, suggesting that it has a partial depth refuge from otter predation. The indirect effects of otter predation included substratum disturbance and the facilitation of sea star predation on infaunal prey. Sea stars, Pycnopodia helianthoides, were attracted to experimentally dug excavations as well as natural sea otter foraging pits, where the sea stars foraged on smaller size classes of infaunal bivalves than those eaten by otters. Otters also discard clam shells on the sediment surface and expose old, buried shells during excavation. Surface shells were found to provide attachment sites for large anemones and kelp. Our study shows that sea otters can affect soft-sediment communities, not only through predation, as in rocky habitats, but also through disturbance, and thus retain a high degree of influence in two very different habitat types.

  13. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys, 2006-2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.

    2007-10-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 11 sites during the summer 2006 survey period and at 15 sites during fall 2006 and winter 2007 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 39,898 fish from 14 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 19% of fish enumerated followed by mountain whitefish (18%) and rainbow trout (14%). Day and night surveys were conducted during the summer 2006 period (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2006 (October) and winter 2007 (February/March) surveys. This is second annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  14. Monitoring Litter Inputs from the Adour River (Southwest France to the Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Bruge

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rivers are major pathways for litter to enter the ocean, especially plastic debris. Yet, further research is needed to improve knowledge on rivers contribution, increase data availability, refine litter origins, and develop relevant solutions to limit riverine litter inputs. This study presents the results of three years of aquatic litter monitoring on the Adour river catchment (southwest of France. Litter monitoring consisted of collecting all litter stranded on river banks or stuck in the riparian vegetation in defined areas identified from cartographic and hydromorphological analyses, and with the support of local stakeholders. Litter samples were then sorted and counted according to a list of items containing 130 categories. Since 2014, 278 litter samplings were carried out, and 120,632 litter items were collected, sorted, and counted. 41% of litter could not be identified due to high degradation. Food and beverage packaging, smoking-related items, sewage related debris, fishery and mariculture gear, and common household items represented around 70% of identifiable items. Overall, the present study contributes to our knowledge of litter sources and pathways, with the target of reducing the amounts entering the ocean. The long-term application of this monitoring is a way forward to measure societal changes as well as assess effectiveness of measures.

  15. Multisource Data-Based Integrated Agricultural Drought Monitoring in the Huai River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Wen, Qingzhi; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun

    2017-10-01

    Drought monitoring is critical for early warning of drought hazard. This study attempted to develop an integrated remote sensing drought monitoring index (IRSDI), based on meteorological data for 2003-2013 from 40 meteorological stations and soil moisture data from 16 observatory stations, as well as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data using a linear trend detection method, and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. The objective was to investigate drought conditions across the Huai River basin in both space and time. Results indicate that (1) the proposed IRSDI monitors and describes drought conditions across the Huai River basin reasonably well in both space and time; (2) frequency of drought and severe drought are observed during April-May and July-September. The northeastern and eastern parts of Huai River basin are dominated by frequent droughts and intensified drought events. These regions are dominated by dry croplands, grasslands, and highly dense population and are hence more sensitive to drought hazards; (3) intensified droughts are detected during almost all months except January, August, October, and December. Besides, significant intensification of droughts is discerned mainly in eastern and western Huai River basin. The duration and regions dominated by intensified drought events would be a challenge for water resources management in view of agricultural and other activities in these regions in a changing climate.

  16. Spatio-temporal monitoring of suspended sediments in the Solimões River (2000-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Villar, Raul; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Armijos, Elisa; Espinoza, Jhan-Carlo; Filizola, Naziano; Dos Santos, Andre; Willems, Bram; Fraizy, Pascal; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The Amazon River sediment discharge has been estimated at between 600 and 1200 Mt/year, of which more than 50% comes from the Solimões River. Because of the area's inaccessibility, few studies have examined the sediment discharge spatial and temporal pattern in the upper Solimões region. In this study, we use MODIS satellite images to retrieve and understand the spatial and temporal behaviour of suspended sediments in the Solimões River from Peru to Brazil. Six virtual suspended sediment gauging stations were created along the Solimões River on a 2050-km-long transect. At each station, field-derived river discharge estimates were available and field-sampling trips were conducted for validation of remote-sensing estimates during different periods of the annual hydrological cycle between 2007 and 2014. At two stations, 10-day surface suspended sediment data were available from the SO-HYBAM monitoring program (881 field SSS samples). MODIS-derived sediment discharge closely matched the field observations, showing a relative RMSE value of 27.3% (0.48 Mtday) overall. Satellite-retrieved annual sediment discharge at the Tamshiyacu (Peru) and Manacapuru (Brazil) stations is estimated at 521 and 825 Mt/year, respectively. While upstream the river presents one main sediment discharge peak during the hydrological cycle, a secondary sediment discharge peak is detected downstream during the declining water levels, which is induced by sediment resuspension from the floodplain, causing a 72% increase on average from June to September.

  17. Proposed radioactive liquid effluent monitoring requirements at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.; Carlton, W.H.; Blunt, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    Clear regulatory guidance exists for structuring a radiological air monitoring program, however, there is no parallel guidance for radiological liquid monitoring. For Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, there are no existing applicable federal regulations, DOE orders, or DOE guidance documents that specify at what levels continuous monitoring, continuous sampling, or periodic confirmatory measurements of radioactive liquid effluents must be made. In order to bridge this gap and to technically justify and document liquid effluent monitoring decisions at DOE's Savannah River Site, Westinghouse Savannah River Company has proposed that a graded, dose-based approach be established, in conjunction with limits on facility radionuclide inventories, to determine the monitoring and sampling criteria to be applied at each potential liquid radioactive effluent point. The graded approach would be similar to--and a conservative extension of--the existing, agreed-upon SRS/EPA-IV airborne effluent monitoring approach documented in WSRC's NESHAP Quality Assurance Project Plan. The limits on facility radionuclide inventories are based on--and are a conservative extension of--the 10 CFR 834, 10 CFR 20, and SCR 61-63 annual limits on discharges to sanitary sewers. Used in conjunction with each other, the recommended source category criteria levels and facility radionuclide inventories would allow for the best utilization of resources and provide consistent, technically justifiable determinations of radioactive liquid effluent monitoring requirements

  18. 2006 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Johnson; K. A. Gano

    2006-10-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. One of the objectives of restoration is the revegetation of remediated waste sites to stabilize the soil and restore the land to native vegetation. The report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2006 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 2 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  19. California sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) census results, Spring 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. Tim; Hatfield, Brian B.

    2017-09-29

    The 2017 census of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) was conducted between late April and early July along the mainland coast of central California and in April at San Nicolas Island in southern California. The 3-year average of combined counts from the mainland range and San Nicolas Island was 3,186, down by 86 sea otters from the previous year. This is the second year that the official index has exceeded 3,090, the Endangered Species Act delisting threshold identified in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Southern Sea Otter Recovery Plan (the threshold would need to be exceeded for 3 consecutive years before delisting consideration). The 5-year average trend in abundance, including both the mainland range and San Nicolas Island populations, remains positive at 2.3 percent per year. Continuing lack of growth in the range peripheries likely explains the cessation of range expansion.

  20. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Habitat Monitoring Study, 2011 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaufmann, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cullinan, Valerie I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wright, Cynthia L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Ecosystem Monitoring Program is a collaborative effort between the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (LCREP), University of Washington, Wetland Ecosystem Team (UW), US Geological Survey, Water Science Center (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-Fisheries, hereafter NOAA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory (PNNL). The goal of the program is to conduct emergent wetland monitoring aimed at characterizing salmonid habitats in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) from the mouth of the estuary to Bonneville Dam (Figure 1). This is an ecosystem based monitoring program focused on evaluating status and trends in habitat and reducing uncertainties regarding these ecosystems to ultimately improve the survival of juvenile salmonids through the LCRE. This project comprehensively assesses habitat, fish, food web, and abiotic conditions in the lower river, focusing on shallow water and vegetated habitats used by juvenile salmonids for feeding, rearing and refugia. The information is intended to be used to guide management actions associated with species recovery, particularly that of threatened and endangered salmonids. PNNL’s role in this multi-year study is to monitor the habitat structure (e.g., vegetation, topography, channel morphology, and sediment type) as well as hydrologic patterns.

  1. Nuclear incident monitor criticality alarm instrument for the Savannah River Site: Technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy facility. The facility stores, processes, and works with fissionable material at a number of locations. Technical standards and US Department of Energy orders, require these locations to be monitored by criticality alarm systems under certain circumstances. The Savannah River Site calls such instruments Nuclear Incident Monitors or NIMs. The Sole purpose of the Nuclear Incident Monitor is to provide an immediate evacuation signal in the case of an accidental criticality in order to minimize personnel exposure to radiation. The new unit is the third generation Nuclear Incident Monitor at the Savannah River Site. The second generation unit was developed in 1979. It was designed to eliminate vacuum-tube circuits, and was the first solid state NIM at SRS. The major design objectives of the second generation NIM were to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Ten prototype units have been built and tested. This report describes the design of the new NIM and the testing that took place to verify its acceptability

  2. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2001-01-01

    Fine sediment in spawning substrate has a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Basin-wide restoration plans have established targets for fine sediment levels in spawning habitat. The project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Fork John Day (NFJDR) and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years. The project is also investigating the potential relationship between surface fine levels and overwinter sedimentation. It will provide data to assess trends in substrate conditions in monitored reaches and whether trends are consistent with efforts to improve salmon habitat conditions. The data on the magnitude of overwinter sedimentation will also be used to estimate salmon survival from egg to emergence. In Sept. 1998, 1999, and Aug. 2000, sites for monitoring overwinter sedimentation were established in salmon spawning habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek (a Grande Ronde tributary), the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), and Granite Creek (a NFJDR tributary). Surface fine sediment levels were measured in these reaches via the grid method and visually estimated to test the relative accuracy of these two methods. In 1999 and 2000, surface fine sediment was also estimated via pebble counts at selected reaches to allow comparison of results among the methods. Overwintering substrate samples were collected in April 1999 and April-May 2000 to estimate the amount of overwinter sedimentation in clean gravels in spawning habitat. Monitoring methods and locations are described.

  3. Estimating Otter Numbers Using Spraints: Is It Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Yoxon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spraints have been used to survey otters in the UK since 1979 and a standard methodology has been set up which has been used in Britain and Europe for most survey work. At present data from these surveys is being used to give an estimation of actual population numbers. However, for this to be possible, there must be a correlation between sprainting numbers, active spraint sites, and otter numbers. This paper investigates whether such a correlation exists. There is evidence from previous work that there is seasonal variation in sprainting and this study confirms this. Therefore spraint surveys should be undertaken in the same months for each repeat survey.

  4. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, C.; Zeigler, C.C.; Culp, P.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1982-11-01

    An extensive surveillance program has been maintained since 1951 to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in a 1200 square mile area in the environs of the plant and the radiation exposure of the population resulting from SRP operations. This document summarizes the 1979 results. The radiation dose at the plant perimeter and the population dose in the region from SRP operations are very small relative to the dose recieved from naturally occurring radiation. The annual average dose in 1979 from atmospheric releases of radioactive materials was 0.71 mrem at the perimeter (1% of natural background). The maximum dose at the plant perimeter was 0.97 mrem. Air and water are the major dispersal media for radioactive emissions. Samples representing most segments of the environment were monitored. Releases of radioactivity from SRP had a very small effect on living plants and animals and were too minute to be detectable, and with a few exceptions, concentrations outside the plant boundary were too low to distinguish from the natural radioactive background and continuing worldwide fallout from nuclear weapons tests. 40 figures, 60 tables. (MF)

  5. Rivers rapid assessment protocols and insertion of society in monitoring of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Malafaia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of water resources has been detected and changes both institutional and in the legislation have been demanded. The careless use of rivers has ecological changes as direct consequence, causing serious modifications in the landscape and fluvial regime, besides altering the availability of habitats and the trophic composition of the aquatic environment. Pressed by this scenario, scientists have been developing assessment methods that are efficient both for the evaluation itself and for supporting decision taking in the environmental management processes. In this perspective, the objective of this study is to present the Rapid River Assessment Protocols (RAPs and to emphasize how these protocols can promote the community participation in water resources monitoring. The RAPs can used to evaluate in an integrated form the characteristics of a river section according to the conservation or degradation condition of the fluvial environment and it is characterized by its economic viability and easy applicability. In regions with poor financial resources and serious problems of water quality, the RAPs can be used in environmental management programs. By using these protocols, the integration of the community in water resources monitoring generates data which represent the quality of fluvial ecosystems throughout time, without requesting high costs or specialized professionals. The RAPs in a simplified but not simplistic tool, which can be used in activities that aim at promoting a quick and reliable assessment of the “health” of a river.

  6. Northern Great Plains Network water quality monitoring design for tributaries to the Missouri National Recreational River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Barbara L.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Yager, Lisa; Wilson, Marcia H.

    2013-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) organized more than 270 parks with important natural resources into 32 ecoregional networks to conduct Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) activities for assessment of natural resources within park units. The Missouri National Recreational River (NRR) is among the 13 parks in the NPS Northern Great Plain Network (NGPN). Park managers and NGPN staff identified surface water resources as a high priority vital sign to monitor in park units. The objectives for the Missouri NRR water quality sampling design are to (1) assess the current status and long-term trends of select water quality parameters; and (2) document trends in streamflow at high-priority stream systems. Due to the large size of the Missouri River main stem, the NGPN water quality design for the Missouri NRR focuses on wadeable tributaries within the park unit. To correlate with the NGPN water quality protocols, monitoring of the Missouri NRR consists of measurement of field core parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature; and streamflow. The purpose of this document is to discuss factors examined for selection of water quality monitoring on segments of the Missouri River tributaries within the Missouri NRR.Awareness of the complex history of the Missouri NRR aids in the current understanding and direction for designing a monitoring plan. Historical and current monitoring data from agencies and entities were examined to assess potential NGPN monitoring sites. In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 303(d) list was examined for the impaired segments on tributaries to the Missouri River main stem. Because major tributaries integrate water quality effects from complex combinations of land use and environmental settings within contributing areas, a 20-mile buffer of the Missouri NRR was used to establish environmental settings that may impact the water quality of tributaries that feed the Missouri River main stem. For selection of

  7. Real Time Monitoring System of Pollution Waste on Musi River Using Support Vector Machine (SVM) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachrurrozi, Muhammad; Saparudin; Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Real-time Monitoring and early detection system which measures the quality standard of waste in Musi River, Palembang, Indonesia is a system for determining air and water pollution level. This system was designed in order to create an integrated monitoring system and provide real time information that can be read. It is designed to measure acidity and water turbidity polluted by industrial waste, as well as to show and provide conditional data integrated in one system. This system consists of inputting and processing the data, and giving output based on processed data. Turbidity, substances, and pH sensor is used as a detector that produce analog electrical direct current voltage (DC). Early detection system works by determining the value of the ammonia threshold, acidity, and turbidity level of water in Musi River. The results is then presented based on the level group pollution by the Support Vector Machine classification method.

  8. Hood River Monitoring and Evaluation Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    The Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project is co-managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The program is divided up to share responsibilities, provide efficiency, and avoid duplication. From October 2002 to September 2003 (FY 03) project strategies were implemented to monitor, protect, and restore anadromous fish and fish habitat in the Hood River subbasin. A description of the progress during FY 03 is reported here. Additionally an independent review of the entire program was completed in 2003. The purpose of the review was to determine if project goals and actions were achieved, look at critical uncertainties for present and future actions, determine cost effectiveness, and choose remedies that would increase program success. There were some immediate changes to the implementation of the project, but the bulk of the recommendations will be realized in coming years.

  9. Hydrochemical processes in lowland rivers: insights from in situ, high-resolution monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Wade

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new insights into the hydrochemical functioning of lowland river systems using field-based spectrophotometric and electrode technologies. The streamwater concentrations of nitrogen species and phosphorus fractions were measured at hourly intervals on a continuous basis at two contrasting sites on tributaries of the River Thames – one draining a rural catchment, the River Enborne, and one draining a more urban system, The Cut. The measurements complement those from an existing network of multi-parameter water quality sondes maintained across the Thames catchment and weekly monitoring based on grab samples. The results of the sub-daily monitoring show that streamwater phosphorus concentrations display highly complex dynamics under storm conditions dependent on the antecedent catchment wetness, and that diurnal phosphorus and nitrogen cycles occur under low flow conditions. The diurnal patterns highlight the dominance of sewage inputs in controlling the streamwater phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations at low flows, even at a distance of 7 km from the nearest sewage treatment works in the rural River Enborne. The time of sample collection is important when judging water quality against ecological thresholds or standards. An exhaustion of the supply of phosphorus from diffuse and multiple septic tank sources during storm events was evident and load estimation was not improved by sub-daily monitoring beyond that achieved by daily sampling because of the eventual reduction in the phosphorus mass entering the stream during events. The results highlight the utility of sub-daily water quality measurements and the discussion considers the practicalities and challenges of in situ, sub-daily monitoring.

  10. Environmental monitoring at the Savannah River Plant. Annual report for 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, C.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    The environmental monitoring program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) provides reliable measurement of radioactive materials released at the source (approximately 40 locations) and present in the environment (approximately 500 locations). In recent years, the environmental monitoring program has been expanded to include measurements of nonradioactive materials released by SRP. A brief discussion of plant releases to the environment and radioactive and nonradioactive materials detected in the environment are presented. The appendices contain data analysis and quality control information, sensitivities of laboratory analyses, tables of environmental sample analyses, and maps of sampling locations

  11. Beach morphology monitoring in the Elwha River Littoral Cell, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathon A.; George, Douglas A.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Eshleman, Jodi; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Kaminsky, George M.; Schwartz, Andrew K.; Bierne, Matt

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the methods used, data collected, and results of the Beach Morphology Monitoring Program in the Elwha River Littoral Cell, starting in 2004. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology collaborated in the data collection with the support of the local Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe. Beach monitoring efforts consisted of collecting topographic and bathymetric horizontal and vertical position data by using a Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System (RTK-DGPS). The monitoring program was designed to characterize the littoral system of the Elwha River before the scheduled removal of two large dams in 2012. A primary objective of this work is to quantitatively describe the topography and bathymetry of the Elwha River littoral system so that the effects of dam removal may be quantified. Sediment inputs following dam removal are hypothesized to result in (A) larger amounts of fine sediment grain-sizes entering the littoral system and, (B) a reduction or reversal of coastal erosion.

  12. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  13. Eagles, Otters, and Unicorns: An Anatomy of Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Stephen R.; King, Margaret J.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes three archetypal workers: eagles who innovate by improvements, otters who innovate by extension, and unicorns who innovate by paradigm. Each of these innovators is discussed in terms of domain-relevant skills, manipulative skills, and motivation. Needs of each type in terms of business culture are discussed. (PB)

  14. Dual congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in a late-term aborted pup from a chronically infected southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Karen; Miller, Melissa A; Packham, Andrea E; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A; Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Murray, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona are protozoan parasites with terrestrial definitive hosts, and both pathogens can cause fatal disease in a wide range of marine animals. Close monitoring of threatened southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California allowed for the diagnosis of dual transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in a wild female otter that was chronically infected with both parasites. Congenital infection resulted in late-term abortion due to disseminated toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii and S. neurona DNA was amplified from placental tissue culture, as well as from fetal lung tissue. Molecular characterization of T. gondii revealed a Type X genotype in isolates derived from placenta and fetal brain, as well as in all tested fetal organs (brain, lung, spleen, liver and thymus). This report provides the first evidence for transplacental transmission of T. gondii in a chronically infected wild sea otter, and the first molecular and immunohistochemical confirmation of concurrent transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in any species. Repeated fetal and/or neonatal losses in the sea otter dam also suggested that T. gondii has the potential to reduce fecundity in chronically infected marine mammals through parasite recrudescence and repeated fetal infection.

  15. Hydraulic analysis of river training cross-vanes as part of post-restoration monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Endreny

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available River restoration design methods are incrementally improved by studying and learning from monitoring data in previous projects. In this paper we report post-restoration monitoring data and simulation analysis for a Natural Channel Design (NCD restoration project along 1600 m of the Batavia Kill (14 km2 watershed in the Catskill Mountains, NY. The restoration project was completed in 2002 with goals to reduce bank erosion and determine the efficacy of NCD approaches for restoring headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains, NY. The NCD approach used a reference-reach to determine channel form, empirical relations between the project site and reference site bankfull dimensions to size channel geometry, and hydraulic and sediment computations based on a bankfull (1.3 yr return interval discharge to test channel capacity and sediment stability. The NCD project included 12 cross-vanes and 48 j-hook vanes as river training structures along 19 meander bends to protect against bank erosion and maintain scour pools for fish habitat. Monitoring data collected from 2002 to 2004 were used to identify aggradation of pools in meander bends and below some structures. Aggradation in pools was attributed to the meandering riffle-pool channel trending toward step-pool morphology and cross-vane arms not concentrating flow in the center of the channel. The aggradation subsequently caused flow splitting and 4 partial point bar avulsions during a spring 2005 flood with a 25-yr return interval. Processing the pre-flood monitoring data with hydraulic analysis software provided clues the reach was unstable and preventative maintenance was needed. River restoration and monitoring teams should be trained in robust hydraulic analytical methods that help them extend project restoration goals and structure stability.

  16. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides using PFU systems in Yunnan lakes and rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Wenjing; Shen, Yunfen; Feng, Weisong; Wang, Xinhua

    2007-01-01

    Polyurethane foam unit (PFU) systems were collected from 11 lakes and three rivers in the Yunnan Plateau, China and, the PFU extrusion liquids were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The concentrations of pp'-DDE, HCB and HCHs were undetectable to 1.86 microgl-1 (mean 0.27 microgl-1), undetectable to 0.72 microgl-1 (mean 0.11 microgl-1), and 0.24-21.95 microgl-1 (mean 7.39 microgl-1) respectively in lakes; and those in rivers were undetectable to 0.23 microgl-1 (mean 0.08 microgl-1), 0.68-2.93 microgl-1 (mean 1.70 microgl-1), and 2.71-37.56 microgl-1 (mean 17.01 microgl-1) respectively. Notably, some residue levels of OCPs exceeded the US National Recommended Water Quality Criteria, implying Yunnan has levels of OCPs potentially harmful to human health. Further, the contamination by OCPs showed an obvious spatial distribution pattern. Amongst the lakes, Dianchi, Xingyun, Lugu and Yangzonghai had the highest OCP levels dominated by beta-HCH, whereas among rivers, Nujiang and Lancang Rivers had the highest contents of OCPs dominated by alpha-HCH. This demonstrates that HCHs are the predominant contaminants and some point sources of HCHs may still exist in Yunnan. The pollution levels in Yunnan were compared with other studies, suggesting the PFU method is suitable for long-term on-line monitoring of trace OCPs in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, continuous studies monitoring OCPs in lakes and rivers are needed to further understand the future trend of contamination.

  17. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report for 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of radioactivity added by the Savannah River Plant to its environs during 1975 was, for the most part, too small to be distinguished from natural background radiation and fallout from worldwide nuclear weapons tests. Beta activity in particulate air filters was about one-half of the 1974 level and was due entirely to global fallout. An accidental release of tritium to the atmosphere occurred in a production facility on December 31, 1975. Monitoring teams were deployed along the estimated puff trajectory immediately following the release. Monitoring extended from the production facility to the Atlantic Ocean north of Charleston, SC. Environmental sample concentrations of tritium oxide were all within normal ranges. The low concentrations of tritium measured in environmental samples around the plantsite were of no health significance. Tritium, cesium-137, and strontium-90 were the only radionuclides of plant origin detectable in river water by routine analyses. None of these had an average concentration exceeding 0.2 percent of the Concentration Guide in river water samples 8 miles downstream from the plant. Monitoring in an offsite swamp immediately below the SRP boundary has shown radioactivity (primarily cesium-137) above the natural background level in soil and vegetation. Only one-third of a five-square-mile swamp, which is largely uninhabited and inaccessible, bordering the Savannah River and downstream from SRP is affected. No restrictions on use of the swamp are considered warranted nor are remedial actions needed. Concentrations of radioactivity in vegetation and soil were, in most instances, lower than those reported in 1974. During 1975 the average dose from atmospheric releases of radioactive materials from SRP was calculated to be 0.66 millirem (mrem) at the plant perimeter

  18. Assessment and rationalization of water quality monitoring network: a multivariate statistical approach to the Kabbini River (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavukkandy, Musthafa Odayooth; Karmakar, Subhankar; Harikumar, P S

    2014-09-01

    The establishment of an efficient surface water quality monitoring (WQM) network is a critical component in the assessment, restoration and protection of river water quality. A periodic evaluation of monitoring network is mandatory to ensure effective data collection and possible redesigning of existing network in a river catchment. In this study, the efficacy and appropriateness of existing water quality monitoring network in the Kabbini River basin of Kerala, India is presented. Significant multivariate statistical techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and principal factor analysis (PFA) have been employed to evaluate the efficiency of the surface water quality monitoring network with monitoring stations as the evaluated variables for the interpretation of complex data matrix of the river basin. The main objective is to identify significant monitoring stations that must essentially be included in assessing annual and seasonal variations of river water quality. Moreover, the significance of seasonal redesign of the monitoring network was also investigated to capture valuable information on water quality from the network. Results identified few monitoring stations as insignificant in explaining the annual variance of the dataset. Moreover, the seasonal redesign of the monitoring network through a multivariate statistical framework was found to capture valuable information from the system, thus making the network more efficient. Cluster analysis (CA) classified the sampling sites into different groups based on similarity in water quality characteristics. The PCA/PFA identified significant latent factors standing for different pollution sources such as organic pollution, industrial pollution, diffuse pollution and faecal contamination. Thus, the present study illustrates that various multivariate statistical techniques can be effectively employed in sustainable management of water resources. The effectiveness of existing river water quality monitoring

  19. Soil and river sediments radionuclides monitoring at Aramar Experimental Center: an historical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segre, Nadia; Fagundes, Rosane Correa, E-mail: nadia.segre@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTM-SP/CEA/LARE), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar. Lab. Radioecologico; Moraes, Marco Antonio P.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In order to evaluate possible effects to the environment resulting from the implementation of the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha - Centro Experimental Aramar (CTMSP-CEA) at Ipero in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, which came into operation in 1989, an Environmental Monitoring Program (PMA) was established in October, 1987. One of the aims of this program is to monitor the soil and river sediments radionuclides levels at CEA and beyond its boundary. The utilization of statistical tools to evaluate the results of radiometric environmental monitoring is a procedure required by National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The box plot is a simple statistical tool for displaying data. The central tendency and dispersion of the results as well as the observation of unusual results (outliers) in the dataset are easily visualized. Control chart is a graph that maps data and provides a picture of how a process is performing over time. A control chart always has a central line for the mean, an upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for the lower control limit. Box plots and control charts were used to visualize the annual amount of natural uranium, lead-214, actinium-228 and lead-212 in soil and river sediment detected between 1987 and 2011, considering the measurements of all monitored places each year. This historical observation shows that, in average, the results obtained are below than the 1987-1988 levels (CEA's pre-operational) or below than the backgrounds radionuclides values. (author)

  20. Soil and river sediments radionuclides monitoring at Aramar Experimental Center: an historical overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, Nadia; Fagundes, Rosane Correa

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate possible effects to the environment resulting from the implementation of the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha - Centro Experimental Aramar (CTMSP-CEA) at Ipero in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, which came into operation in 1989, an Environmental Monitoring Program (PMA) was established in October, 1987. One of the aims of this program is to monitor the soil and river sediments radionuclides levels at CEA and beyond its boundary. The utilization of statistical tools to evaluate the results of radiometric environmental monitoring is a procedure required by National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The box plot is a simple statistical tool for displaying data. The central tendency and dispersion of the results as well as the observation of unusual results (outliers) in the dataset are easily visualized. Control chart is a graph that maps data and provides a picture of how a process is performing over time. A control chart always has a central line for the mean, an upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for the lower control limit. Box plots and control charts were used to visualize the annual amount of natural uranium, lead-214, actinium-228 and lead-212 in soil and river sediment detected between 1987 and 2011, considering the measurements of all monitored places each year. This historical observation shows that, in average, the results obtained are below than the 1987-1988 levels (CEA's pre-operational) or below than the backgrounds radionuclides values. (author)

  1. Risk-Based Radioactive Liquid Effluent Monitoring Requirements at the U. S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.

    2001-01-01

    For Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, clear regulatory guidance exists for structuring radiological air emissions monitoring programs. However, there are no parallel regulations for radiological liquid effluent monitoring programs. In order to bridge this gap and to technically justify liquid effluent monitoring decisions at DOE's Savannah River Site, a graded, risk-basked approach has been established to determine the monitoring and sampling criteria to be applied at each liquid discharge point

  2. The international project of radiation and hydrochemical investigation and monitoring of general Caspian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, H.D.; Barber, D.S.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K; Solodukhin, V.P.; Chernykh, E.E.; Arutyunyan, R.V.; Valyaev, A.N.; Kadik, A.A.; Stepanetts, O.V; Vernadsky, V.I.; Alizade, A.A.; Gutiev, I.S.; Mamedov, R.F.; Nadareishvili, K.S.; Chkhartishvili, A.G.; Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Chubaryan, E. V; Gevorgyan, R.G.; Puskyulyan, K.I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The scientific community of six countries (USA, Kazakhstan, Russia, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan) has developed the ecological project 'Joint International Researches and Creation of the General System of Radiation and Hydro-chemical Monitoring of Rivers of the Caspian Sea Basin.' The purpose of this project is to investigate and characterized contamination by radionuclides and toxic and chemically hazardous elements and create a valid system of radiation and hydro-chemical monitoring of the main river basins of the Caspian region: the Volga, Ural, Emba and Kura. The basins of these rivers cover large parts of Europe and Asia, including parts of Russia, West Kazakhstan and the South Caucasus and including territories of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The total area of the basins of these rivers exceeds combined area of such large European states as France, Spain and Germany, and comprises 1631 sq. km. All these rivers are the main life-supporting water arteries for the region's inhabitants, a population that comprises tens of millions of people Also, the outlets of these rivers determine the condition of the aquatic environment of the Caspian Sea. The ecological condition of the aquatic environment of all the rivers of the Caspian Sea is to a great extent due to contamination, the main components of which are anthropogenic radioactive elements, heavy metals and oil products. At present, information about contamination levels of these rivers is not known and is occasionally contradictory. In this connection there is an obvious need of qualified investigation of contamination levels and its character in the basins of these rivers and in creating a common monitoring system to assess the quality of the aquatic environment. The present project is devoted to this matter. 1. The project provides for the following main tasks: 1. Wide-ranging investigation of the level and character of contamination by radionuclides and toxic elements of the river basins

  3. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barber, David S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Betsill, J. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlefield, Adriane C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohagheghi, Amir H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shanks, Sonoya T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yuldashev, Bekhzad [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Saalikhbaev, Umar [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Radyuk, Raisa [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Djuraev, Akram [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Djuraev, Anwar [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Vasilev, Ivan [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Tolongutov, Bajgabyl [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Valentina, Alekhina [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Solodukhin, Vladimir [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Pozniak, Victor [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2003-04-01

    The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. The Project also collects data on basic water quality parameters. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through a world-wide web site (http://www.cmc.sandia.org/Central/centralasia.html), and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. This report includes graphs showing selected data from the Fall 2000 and Spring 2001 sampling seasons. These data include all parameters grouped into six regions, including main rivers and some tributaries in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya river systems. This report also assembles all data (in tabular form) generated by the project from Fall 2000 through Fall 2001. This report comes as the second part of a planned three-part reporting process. The first report is the Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual, SAND 2002-0484. This is the second report.

  4. The Navruz experiment. Cooperative monitoring for radionuclides and metals in Central Asia transboundary rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.S.; Betsill, J.D.; Mohagheghi, A.H.; Passell, H.D.; Yuldashev, B.; Salikhbaev, U.; Djuraev, A.; Vasiliev, I.; Solodukhin, V.

    2005-01-01

    In March of 2000, scientists from four nuclear physics research institutes in the Central Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and the U.S. Sandia National Laboratories embarked on a three-year cooperative transboundary river monitoring experiment. The experiment, named Navruz (meaning 'new beginning'), uses standardized methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: (1) to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; (2) to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and (3) to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources. Contamination of these rivers is a result of growing population, urbanization, agricultural uses, and radioactive and metals contamination from a legacy of uranium mining, industry, and other activities of the former Soviet Union. The project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of the importance of these contaminants to public health and political stability in Central Asia. Moreover, the method of enabling scientists from bordering countries to study a transboundary problem, can lead to a greater scientific understanding, consensus on necessary mitigation steps, and ultimately the political resolution of the issue. The project scope, approach, and preliminary results are presented. (author)

  5. Monitoring and mapping selected riparian habitat along the lower Snake River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J. L; Tiller, B. L [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Witter, M. [Shannon and Wilson, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States). Geotechnical and Environmental Consultants, Seattle, Washington (United States); Mazaika, R. [Corps of Engineers, Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Studies in this document were initiated to establish baseline information on riparian and wetland habitat conditions at the areas studied under the current reservoir operations on the lower Snake River. Two approaches were used to assess habitat at 28 study sites selected on the four pools on the lower Snake River. These areas all contribute significant riparian habitat along the river, and several of these areas are designated habitat management units. At 14 of the 28 sites, we monitored riparian habitat on three dates during the growing season to quantify vegetation abundance and composition along three transects: soil nutrients, moisture, and pH and water level and pH. A second approach involved identifying any differences in the extent and amount of riparian/wetland habitat currently found at the study areas from that previously documented. We used both ground and boat surveys to map and classify the changes in vegetative cover along the shoreline at the 14 monitoring sites and at 14 additional sites along the lower Snake selected to represent various riparian/wetland habitat conditions. Results of these mapping efforts are compared with maps of cover types previously generated using aerial photography taken in 1987.

  6. Diet of otters (Lutra lutra in various habitat types in the Pannonian biogeographical region compared to other regions of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Lanszki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the effect of habitat type and region on diet and feeding behaviours of a species facilitates a better understanding of factors impacting populations, which contributes to effective conservation management. Using spraint analysis and relative frequency of occurrence data from the literature, we described the dietary patterns of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra in 23 study sites within the Pannonian biogeographical region in Hungary. Our results indicated that diet composition varied by habitat type and is therefore context dependant. The differences among habitat types were however lower than expected. We noticed a decline in the fish consumption with a concomitant increase in trophic niche breadth and amphibian consumption in rivers, ponds (fish farms, backwaters, marshes and small watercourses. The main differences in diet were not attributed to the consumption of primary and secondary food types (fish and amphibians, but rather to differences in other, less important food types (mammals, birds. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, rivers and ponds could clearly be separated from other habitat types. We found the main fish diet of otters in most of these areas consisted of small (<100 g, eurytopic, littoral and non-native, mostly invasive species. Dietary studies from 91 sites in six European biogeographical regions showed that fish are consumed most frequently in the Atlantic and Boreal, less in the Continental and Pannonian, and least in the Alpine and Mediterranean regions. Comparative analysis indicated that the Mediterranean region (with frequent crayfish consumption and Alpine region (frequent amphibian consumption cluster separate from the other regions.

  7. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  8. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  9. Long-term monitoring of river basins: strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    In a world where equilibrium is more and more uncommon, monitoring is an essential way to discover whether undesirable change is taking place. Monitoring requires a deliberate plan of action: the regular collection and processing of information. Long-term data reveal important patterns, allowing trends, cycles, and rare events to be identified. This is particularly important for complex systems where signals may be subtle and slow to emerge. Moreover, very long data sets are essential to test hypotheses undreamt of at the time the monitoring was started. This overview includes long time series from UK river basins showing how hydrology and water quality have changed over time - and continue to change. An important conclusion is the long time frame of system recovery, well beyond the normal lifetime of individual governments or research grants. At a time of increasing hydroclimatic variability, long time series remain crucially important; in particular, continuity of observations is vital at key benchmark sites.

  10. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-10-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Since 1991, the flagging criteria have been based on the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards and on method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1992 are listed in this report.

  11. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-10-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Since 1991, the flagging criteria have been based on the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards and on method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1992 are listed in this report.

  12. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  13. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  14. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Second quarter, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  15. Escapement monitoring of adult chinook salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  16. Establishing of monitoring network on Kosovo Rivers: preliminary measurements on the four main rivers (Drini i Bardhë, Morava e Binqës, Lepenc and Sitnica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Fatbardh; Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Troni, Naser; Bacaj, Mustafë; Jusufi, Florim

    2011-04-01

    The main goal of this work was to suggest to authorities concerned a monitoring network on main rivers of Kosovo. We aim to suggest application of WFD (Water Framework Directive) in Kosovo as soon as possible. Our present chemical research could be the first step towards it, giving an opportunity to plan the monitoring network in which pollution locations will be highlighted. In addition to chemical, future ecological studies could be performed. Waters of the rivers Drini i Bardhë, Morava e Binçës, Lepenc and Sitnica, which are of supra-regional interest, are investigated systematically along the river course. Sediments of these rivers were also investigated at the same monitoring points and results have recently been published by us. In this paper we present results of mass concentrations of eco-toxic metals: Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Mn(II) in waters of four main rivers of Kosovo, using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV), Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-VIS) Spectrometry. Also some physico-chemical parameters are determined: water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, alkalinity, total hardness and temporary hardness. Results of concentrations of eco-toxic metals in water are compared with concentrations found in sediments at the same locations. Statistical methods are applied to determine anomalous regions Classification of waters at each sampling station of our work was tentatively performed based on metal indicators, using Croatian standards. Our results are showing that concentrations of Zn in all waters are low and pose no risk for living organisms. Exception is water at S5 station, where concentration is above permanent toxic level. Concentrations of Pb and Mn are high at D5 station on Drini i Bardhë River (14 km from boarder to Albania) and at all stations along Sitnica River. Cadmium in high concentrations which is above permanent toxic level is measured in water only at two stations, one (M1) on

  17. Missouri River Emergent Sandbar Habitat Monitoring Plan - A Conceptual Framework for Adaptive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Anteau, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Habitat conditions are one of the most important factors determining distribution and productivity of least terns (Sternula antillarum) and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) in the upper Missouri River system (Ziewitz and others, 1992; Kruse and others, 2002). Habitat conditions are known to change within and among seasons in response to variation in river flows, weather conditions, and management actions targeted at providing for the needs of terns and plovers. Although these principles are generally agreed upon, there is little empirical information available on the quantity and quality of tern and plover habitats in this system, particularly with reference to the major life history events that must be supported (egg laying, incubation, and brood rearing). Habitat requirements for these events are composed of two major categories: nesting and foraging habitat. In the case of piping plovers, these two requirements must occur on the same area because plover chicks are constrained to foraging near nesting sites prior to fledging (Knetter and others, 2002; Haffner, 2005). In contrast, least terns chicks are fed by the adults, allowing food procurement for broods to occur outside the immediate nesting area; however, food resources must be close enough to nesting locations to minimize foraging time. The complexity and dynamics of the upper Missouri River system introduce considerable uncertainty into how best to manage tern and plover habitats, and how best to evaluate the effectiveness of this management. An extensive program of habitat monitoring will be needed to address this complexity and support the management of least terns and piping plovers under the Missouri River Recovery Program. These needs are being addressed, in part, through a program of habitat creation and management targeted at improving quality and quantity of habitats for terns and plovers. Given the momentum of these projects and their associated costs, it is imperative that the capacity be

  18. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2008-11-06

    Emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in the Missouri River Mainstem System is a critical habitat element for several federally listed bird species: the endangered interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). The Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River and is responsible under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to take actions within its authorities to conserve listed species. To comply with the 2000 USFWS BiOp and the 2003 amended USFWS BiOp, the Corps has created habitats below Gavins Point Dam using mechanical means. Initial monitoring indicates that constructed sandbars provide suitable habitat features for nesting and foraging least terns and piping plovers. Terns and plovers are using constructed sandbars and successfully reproducing at or above levels stipulated in the BiOp. However, whether such positive impacts will persist cannot yet be adequately assessed at this time.

  19. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. Third quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  20. Demonstration of innovative monitoring technologies at the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossabi, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jenkins, R.A.; Wise, M.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an Integrated Demonstration Program at the Savannah River Site in 1989. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate innovative technologies that can improve present-day environmental restoration methods. The Integrated Demonstration Program at SRS is entitled ``Cleanup of Organics in Soils and Groundwater at Non-Arid Sites.`` New technologies in the areas of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation are being demonstrated and evaluated for their technical performance and cost effectiveness in comparison with baseline technologies. Present site characterization and monitoring methods are costly, time-consuming, overly invasive, and often imprecise. Better technologies are required to accurately describe the subsurface geophysical and geochemical features of a site and the nature and extent of contamination. More efficient, nonintrusive characterization and monitoring techniques are necessary for understanding and predicting subsurface transport. More reliable procedures are also needed for interpreting monitoring and characterization data. Site characterization and monitoring are key elements in preventing, identifying, and restoring contaminated sites. The remediation of a site cannot be determined without characterization data, and monitoring may be required for 30 years after site closure.

  1. Demonstration of innovative monitoring technologies at the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Wise, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development initiated an Integrated Demonstration Program at the Savannah River Site in 1989. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate innovative technologies that can improve present-day environmental restoration methods. The Integrated Demonstration Program at SRS is entitled ''Cleanup of Organics in Soils and Groundwater at Non-Arid Sites.'' New technologies in the areas of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation are being demonstrated and evaluated for their technical performance and cost effectiveness in comparison with baseline technologies. Present site characterization and monitoring methods are costly, time-consuming, overly invasive, and often imprecise. Better technologies are required to accurately describe the subsurface geophysical and geochemical features of a site and the nature and extent of contamination. More efficient, nonintrusive characterization and monitoring techniques are necessary for understanding and predicting subsurface transport. More reliable procedures are also needed for interpreting monitoring and characterization data. Site characterization and monitoring are key elements in preventing, identifying, and restoring contaminated sites. The remediation of a site cannot be determined without characterization data, and monitoring may be required for 30 years after site closure

  2. Continuous monitoring of sediment and nutrients in the Illinois River at Florence, Illinois, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrio, Paul J.; Straub, Timothy D.; Domanski, Marian M.; Siudyla, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    The Illinois River is the largest river in Illinois and is the primary contributing watershed for nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended-sediment loading to the upper Mississippi River from Illinois. In addition to streamflow, the following water-quality constituents were monitored at the Illinois River at Florence, Illinois (U.S. Geological Survey station number 05586300), during May 2012–October 2013: phosphate, nitrate, turbidity, temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen. The objectives of this monitoring were to (1) determine performance capabilities of the in-situ instruments; (2) collect continuous data that would provide an improved understanding of constituent characteristics during normal, low-, and high-flow periods and during different climatic and land-use seasons; (3) evaluate the ability to use continuous turbidity as a surrogate constituent to determine suspended-sediment concentrations; and (4) evaluate the ability to develop a regression model for total phosphorus using phosphate, turbidity, and other measured parameters. Reliable data collection was achieved, following some initial periods of instrument and data-communication difficulties. The resulting regression models for suspended sediment had coefficient of determination (R2) values of about 0.9. Nitrate plus nitrite loads computed using continuous data were found to be approximately 8 percent larger than loads computed using traditional discrete-sampling based models. A regression model for total phosphorus was developed by using historic orthophosphate data (important during periods of low flow and low concentrations) and historic suspended-sediment data (important during periods of high flow and higher concentrations). The R2of the total phosphorus regression model using orthophosphorus and suspended sediment was 0.8. Data collection and refinement of the regression models is ongoing.

  3. Monitoring the effects of floods on submerged macrophytes in a large river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Rovira, Albert; Real, Montserrat

    2012-12-01

    The lower Ebro River (Catalonia, Spain) has recently undergone a regime shift from a phytoplankton to a macrophyte-dominated system. Macrophytes started to spread at the end of the 1990s and since 2002 artificial floods (flushing flows) of short duration (1-2 days) are released from the Riba-roja dam once or twice a year in order to reduce macrophyte density. The aim of this study was to analyse the spatiotemporal trends of the submerged macrophytes in two stretches of the lower Ebro River using high-resolution hydroacoustic methods, in order to elucidate the effects of artificial floods and natural floods on its distribution and abundance. Results showed that the mean cover in the two studied stretches (Móra and Ginestar) was not reduced after a flushing flow (from 36.59% to 55.85% in Móra, and from 21.18% to 21.05% in Ginestar), but it was greatly reduced after the natural flood (down to 9.79% in Móra and 2.04% in Ginestar); surprisingly the cover increased in Móra after the artificial flood. In order to increase the efficiency of floods in controlling macrophyte spreading, the magnitude and frequency of them should largely increase, as well as the suspended sediment load, approaching as much as possible to the original flood pattern before dam construction. Hydroacoustic methods combined with geostatistics and interpolation in GIS can accurately monitor spatiotemporal trends of submerged macrophytes in large rivers. This is the first article to apply this monitoring system to submerged macrophytes in rivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality assurance and quality control procedures in river water radioecological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, A.; Stepanyan, A.

    2006-01-01

    For recent decades the issue of radioactive pollution of environmental components has acquired a global character as a result of nuclear weapon testing, accidents in NPPs, development of nuclear technologies and so on. A study object of this research is river water as it is known to be radionuclide transport and accumulation mediums and radioactive elements in river water are available as radioactive salts and mechanic and biological pollutants. Moreover, river water is widely used for various economic and commercial purposes and serves a drinking water supply source as well. The ongoing research is performed in the frame of a NATO/OSCE project 'South Caucasus River Monitoring'. The topicality of the problem dictates a necessity of getting credible and compatible results. For adequate radioactive pollution assessment, decisive are the application and keeping standard QA/QC procedures at all the stages of radioecological monitoring. In our research we apply the following ISO standard-based QA/QC procedures: sampling (emphasizing sample identification: sample collection site, date and method), sample transportation (keeping sample conservation and storing requirements), sample treatment and preparation in the lab, radiometric measurements of samples with regard for the time that past from sampling moment to analysis, control and calibration of analytic instruments, control analysis of samples. The obtained data are processed through standard statistic methods of QC to check measurement errors. Gamma-spectrometric measurements are maid using a Genie-2000 (Canberra) software that includes a separate program for measurement QC. The ultimate outcomes are arranged in special protocols (analysis and sampling tasks protocols, sampling task form, field measurement protocol, sample chain of custody form, sample analysis protocol) and compiled in appropriate databases

  5. Neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) and moisture contents in the Green River, Utah, UMTRA disposal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report provides the basis for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) request to discontinue neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) at the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) disposal cell and decommission the neutron access holes. After 3 years of monitoring the disposal cell, the DOE has determined that the NMM method is not suitable for determining changes in moisture content in the disposal cell. Existing tailings moisture contents in the disposal cell result in a low seepage flux. The combination of a low seepage flux and geochemical retardation by foundation materials underneath the disposal cell ensures that the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards will not be exceeded within the design life of the disposal cell. To assess the effectiveness of the NMM method for monitoring moisture contents In the disposal cell at Green River, the DOE subsequently conducted a field study and a review of historical and new literature. The literature review allowed the DOE to identify performance criteria for the NMM method. Findings of these studies suggest that: The NMM method is not sensitive to the low moisture contents found in the disposal cell.; there is an insufficient range of moisture contents in the disposal cell to develop a field calibration curve relating moisture content to neutron counts; it is not possible to collect NMM data from the disposal cell that meet data quality objectives for precision and accuracy developed from performance criteria described in the literature

  6. SENTINEL-1/2 DATA FOR SHIP TRAFFIC MONITORING ON THE DANUBE RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dana Negula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After a long period of drought, the water level of the Danube River has significantly dropped especially on the Romanian sector, in July-August 2015. Danube reached the lowest water level recorded in the last 12 years, causing the blockage of the ships in the sector located close to Zimnicea Harbour. The rising sand banks in the navigable channel congested the commercial traffic for a few days with more than 100 ships involved. The monitoring of the decreasing water level and the traffic jam was performed based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 free data provided by the European Space Agency and the European Commission within the Copernicus Programme. Specific processing methods (calibration, speckle filtering, geocoding, change detection, image classification, principal component analysis, etc. were applied in order to generate useful products that the responsible authorities could benefit from. The Sentinel data yielded good results for water mask extraction and ships detection. The analysis continued after the closure of the crisis situation when the water reached the nominal level again. The results indicate that Sentinel data can be successfully used for ship traffic monitoring, building the foundation of future endeavours for a durable monitoring of the Danube River.

  7. Long-term ecosystem monitoring and assessment of the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, J H; Zarull, M A; Ciborowski, J J H; Gannon, J E; Wilke, E; Norwood, G; Vincent, A N

    2009-11-01

    Over 35 years of US and Canadian pollution prevention and control efforts have led to substantial improvements in environmental quality of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie. However, the available information also shows that much remains to be done. Improvements in environmental quality have resulted in significant ecological recovery, including increasing populations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcons (Falco columbarius), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Sander vitreus), and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.). Although this recovery is remarkable, many challenges remain, including population growth, transportation expansion, and land use changes; nonpoint source pollution; toxic substances contamination; habitat loss and degradation; introduction of exotic species; and greenhouse gases and global warming. Research/monitoring must be sustained for effective management. Priority research and monitoring needs include: demonstrating and quantifying cause-effect relationships; establishing quantitative endpoints and desired future states; determining cumulative impacts and how indicators relate; improving modeling and prediction; prioritizing geographic areas for protection and restoration; and fostering long-term monitoring for adaptive management. Key management agencies, universities, and environmental and conservation organizations should pool resources and undertake comprehensive and integrative assessments of the health of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie at least every 5 years to practice adaptive management for long-term sustainability.

  8. Understanding transport pathways in a river system - Monitoring sediments contaminated by an incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, S.; Kleisinger, C.; Hillebrand, G.; Claus, E.; Schwartz, R.; Carls, I.; Winterscheid, A.; Schubert, B.

    2016-12-01

    Experiments to trace transport of sediments and suspended particulate matter on a river scale are an expensive and difficult venture, since it causes a lot of official requirements. In spring 2015, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were released during restoration works at a bridge in the upper part of the Elbe River, near the Czech-German border. In this study, the particle-bound PCB-transport is applied as a tracer for monitoring transport pathways of suspended solids (SS) along a whole river stretch over 700 km length. The incident was monitored by concentration measurements of seven indicator PCB congeners along the inland part of the Elbe River as well as in the Elbe estuary. Data from 15 monitoring stations (settling tanks) as well as from two longitudinal campaigns (grab samples) along the river in July and August 2015 are considered. The total PCB load is calculated for all stations on the basis of monthly contaminant concentrations and daily suspended sediment concentrations. Monte-Carlo simulations assess the uncertainties of the calculated load. 1D water levels and GIS analysis were used to locate temporal storage areas for the SS. It is shown that the ratio of high versus low chlorinated PCB congeners is a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load of the incident from the long-term background signal. Furthermore, the reduction of total PCB load within the upper Elbe indicates that roughly 24% of the SS were transported with the water by wash load. Approximately 600 km downstream of the incident site, the PCB-marked wash load was first identified in July 2015. PCB load transported intermittently in suspension was detected roughly 400 km downstream of the incident site by August 2015. In the Elbe Estuary, PCB-marked SS were only found upstream of the steep slope of water depth (approx. 4 to 15 m) within Hamburg harbor that acts as a major sediment sink. Here, SS from the inland Elbe are mixed with lowly contaminated marine material, which may mask the

  9. Why social science matters in river management: involvement of local stakeholders in monitoring the effects of room for the river measures in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugge, Laura; van den Born, Riyan

    2015-04-01

    The Netherlands is a densely populated delta region with a long tradition in flood protection and river management. In response to climate change, adaptive measures are implemented to create more room for the river (and thus increasing water discharge capacity) while at the same time maintaining the multifunctional use of the river system. These functions include for example navigation, water supply, housing and spatial quality, nature development and recreation. The incorporation of social aspects in water management is vital for the development and implementation of sustainable solutions in environmental planning. Active stakeholder involvement has major benefits in terms of trust, public support, social learning and creative decision making. In practice, however, stakeholder involvement is often confined to one-way communication (e.g. information on websites and public hearings) instead of establishing a dialogue with the relevant local stakeholders. Moreover, stakeholders are often involved too late. Our study focusses on stakeholder perceptions and the opportunities for stakeholder participation and collaboration in river management. One way to actively involve stakeholders and invest in a dialogue is through participatory monitoring, i.e. to involve local stakeholders in collecting, analyzing and evaluating monitoring data. Currently, a pilot engineering intervention (2013-2015) is carried out in the Waal river, i.e. the main Rhine branch in The Netherlands. This intervention comprises the substitution of traditional groynes by a 10 km longitudinal dam and will change the appearance of the fluvial landscape dramatically. An interdisciplinary team of scientists, government representatives and other public and private parties is involved in monitoring the hydrological, ecological and socio-economic effects of the longitudinal dam with the aim to develop and improve models, guidelines and tools for integrative river management. This also provides unique

  10. Automatic Monitoring System Design and Failure Probability Analysis for River Dikes on Steep Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Lung; Lin, Yi-Jun; Tung, Yeou-Koung

    2017-04-01

    The purposes of this study includes: (1) design an automatic monitoring system for river dike; and (2) develop a framework which enables the determination of dike failure probabilities for various failure modes during a rainstorm. The historical dike failure data collected in this study indicate that most dikes in Taiwan collapsed under the 20-years return period discharge, which means the probability of dike failure is much higher than that of overtopping. We installed the dike monitoring system on the Chiu-She Dike which located on the middle stream of Dajia River, Taiwan. The system includes: (1) vertical distributed pore water pressure sensors in front of and behind the dike; (2) Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) to measure the displacement of dike; (3) wireless floating device to measure the scouring depth at the toe of dike; and (4) water level gauge. The monitoring system recorded the variation of pore pressure inside the Chiu-She Dike and the scouring depth during Typhoon Megi. The recorded data showed that the highest groundwater level insides the dike occurred 15 hours after the peak discharge. We developed a framework which accounts for the uncertainties from return period discharge, Manning's n, scouring depth, soil cohesion, and friction angle and enables the determination of dike failure probabilities for various failure modes such as overtopping, surface erosion, mass failure, toe sliding and overturning. The framework was applied to Chiu-She, Feng-Chou, and Ke-Chuang Dikes on Dajia River. The results indicate that the toe sliding or overturning has the highest probability than other failure modes. Furthermore, the overall failure probability (integrate different failure modes) reaches 50% under 10-years return period flood which agrees with the historical failure data for the study reaches.

  11. Water quality monitoring of the Pirapó River watershed, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Bortoletto

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the Pirapó River watershed in Paraná, Brazil, and identify the critical pollution sites throughout the drainage basin. The water quality was monitored during the period from January 2011 to December 2012. Nine points distributed throughout the main channel of the Pirapó River were sampled for a total of 17 samplings. The water quality was evaluated based on the determination of 14 physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Analysis of the variables monitored in the Pirapó River watershed using factor analysis/principal components analysis (FA/PCA indicated the formation of three distinct groups of parameters: water temperature (Twater, dissolved oxygen (DO and a group composed of total suspended solids (TSS, turbidity and nitrite (NO2–. The parameters Twater and DO exhibited a relationship with the seasonality, and the TSS, turbidity, and NO2– levels were correlated with surface runoff caused by rainfall events. Principal component analysis (PCA of the sampling points enabled the selection of the 10 most important variables from among the 14 evaluated parameters. The results showed that the nitrate (NO3–, NO2–, TSS, turbidity and total phosphorous (TP levels were related to the soil type, and the parameters DO, electrical conductivity (EC, ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3 and thermotolerant coliforms (TC were related to organic matter pollution, with the P5 sampling site being the most critical site. The ordination diagram of the sampling points as a function of the PCA indicated a reduction from 9 to 5 sampling points, indicating the potential for decreasing the costs associated with monitoring.

  12. Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program : 2001 data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.; Bisset, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The Wigwam River has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region. This report provides a summary of results obtained during the second year (2001) of the juvenile bull trout enumeration and fish habitat assessment program. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the upper Wigwam River valley. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes in the upper Wigwam River, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. Five permanent sampling sites were established August 2000 in the Wigwam river drainage (one site on Bighorn Creek and four sites on the mainstem Wigwam River). At each site, juvenile (0(sup+), 1(sup+) and 2(sup+) age classes) fish densities and stream habitat conditions were measured over two stream meander wavelengths. Bull trout represented 95.1% of the catch and the mean density of juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 20.7 fish/100m(sup 2) (range 0.9 to 24.0 fish/100m(sup 2)). This compares to 17.2 fish/100m(sup 2) (+20%) for the previous year. Fry (0(sup+)) dominated the catch and this was a direct result of juvenile bull trout ecology and habitat partitioning among life history stages. Site selection was biased towards sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. Comparison of fry density estimates replicated across both the preliminary survey (1997) and the current study (Cope and Morris 2001) illustrate the stable nature of these high densities. Bull trout populations have been shown to be extremely susceptible to habitat degradation and over-harvest and are ecologically

  13. Sea otter population structure and ecology in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Monson, Daniel H.

    2002-01-01

    Sea otters are the only fully marine otter. They share a common ancestry with the Old World land otters, but their route of dispersal to the New World is uncertain. The historic range of the species is along the northern Pacific Ocean rim, between central Baja California and the islands of northern Japan. Because they forage almost exclusively on bottom-dwelling marine invertebrates such as clams, snails, crabs, and sea urchins, they predominantly occur near shore. Their offshore distribution is limited by their diving ability; although they are capable of diving to more than 100 meters deep, most of their feeding takes place between the shoreline and depths of 40 meters. They are social animals, generally resting in protected bays or kelp forests in groups, commonly referred to as rafts. Because they are gregarious, possess a fine fur, and occur primarily near shore, they have been exploited by humans for as long as they have co-occupied coastal marine communities.During the late Pleistocene, glacial advances and retreats in the northern latitudes likely influenced genetic exchange within the sea otter’s northern range. When the glaciers were at their maximum, ice sheets extended over large coastal areas, isolating sea otter populations and causing local extinctions. During periods of glacial retreat, sea otters likely recolonized the newly available habitats, allowing exchange of individuals and gene flow between populations.Beginning in about 1750, sea otter populations underwent dramatic declines as a direct result of commercial harvest for their furs. Explorations by Vitus Bering led to the discovery of abundant sea otter populations in the Aleutian Islands. The early harvest, conducted by Russians with enslaved Aleut hunters, began in the eastern Aleutians. Eventually the harvest became multinational and contributed significantly to the exploration and settlement of the North Pacific coastline by Europeans. There were two distinct periods of harvest

  14. Installation of a groundwater monitoring-well network on the east side of the Uncompahgre River in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.

    2015-10-07

    The east side of the Uncompahgre River Basin has been a known contributor of dissolved selenium to recipient streams. Discharge of groundwater containing dissolved selenium contributes to surface-water selenium concentrations and loads; however, the groundwater system on the east side of the Uncompahgre River Basin is not well characterized. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board and the Bureau of Reclamation, has established a groundwater-monitoring network on the east side of the Uncompahgre River Basin. Thirty wells total were installed for this project: 10 in 2012 (DS 923, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds923), and 20 monitoring wells were installed during April and June 2014 which are presented in this report. This report presents location data, lithologic logs, well-construction diagrams, and well-development information. Understanding the groundwater system can provide managers with an additional metric for evaluating the effectiveness of salinity and selenium control projects.

  15. Application of the index WQI-CCME with data aggregation per monitoring campaign and per section of the river: case study-Joanes River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Geane Silva; de Oliveira, Iara Brandão

    2018-03-07

    This work applied the Water Quality Index developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (WQI-CCME), to communicate the water quality per section of the Joanes River basin, State of Bahia, Brazil. WQI-CCME is a statistical procedure that originally requires the execution of at least four monitoring campaigns per monitoring location and the measurement of at least four parameters. This paper presents a new aggregation method to calculate the WQI-CCME because, to apply the original method in Joanes River, a huge loss of information would occur, by the fact that, the number of analyzed parameters varied between the monitoring campaigns developed by the Government Monitoring Program. This work modified the original aggregation method replacing it by a data aggregation for a single monitoring campaign, in a minimum of four monitoring locations per section of the river and a minimum of four parameters per monitoring location. Comparison between the calculation of WQI-CCME for river sections, with the index, WQI-CETESB, developed by the Brazilian Environmental Sanitation and Technology Company-CETESB, proved the applicability of the new aggregation method. The WQI-CETESB has it bases on the WQI from the National Sanitation Foundation and uses nine fixed parameters. As WQI-CCME uses the totality of the analyzed parameters without restrictions, it is more flexible, and the results seem more adequate to indicate the real river water quality. However, the WQI-CCME has a more stringent water quality scale in comparison with the WQI-CETESB, resulting in inferior water quality information. In conclusion, the WQI-CCME with a new aggregation method is adequate for communicating the water quality at a given time, per section of a river, respecting the minimum number of four analyses and four monitoring points. As a result, without a need to wait for other campaigns, it reduces the cost of a monitoring program and the period to communicate the water quality. The

  16. Prerequisites for Accurate Monitoring of River Discharge Based on Fixed-Location Velocity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kästner, K.; Hoitink, A. J. F.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Vermeulen, B.; Ningsih, N. S.; Pramulya, M.

    2018-02-01

    River discharge has to be monitored reliably for effective water management. As river discharge cannot be measured directly, it is usually inferred from the water level. This practice is unreliable at places where the relation between water level and flow velocity is ambiguous. In such a case, the continuous measurement of the flow velocity can improve the discharge prediction. The emergence of horizontal acoustic Doppler current profilers (HADCPs) has made it possible to continuously measure the flow velocity. However, the profiling range of HADCPs is limited, so that a single instrument can only partially cover a wide cross section. The total discharge still has to be determined with a model. While the limitations of rating curves are well understood, there is not yet a comprehensive theory to assess the accuracy of discharge predicted from velocity measurements. Such a theory is necessary to discriminate which factors influence the measurements, and to improve instrument deployment as well as discharge prediction. This paper presents a generic method to assess the uncertainty of discharge predicted from range-limited velocity profiles. The theory shows that a major source of error is the variation of the ratio between the local and cross-section-averaged velocity. This variation is large near the banks, where HADCPs are usually deployed and can limit the advantage gained from the velocity measurement. We apply our theory at two gauging stations situated in the Kapuas River, Indonesia. We find that at one of the two stations the index velocity does not outperform a simple rating curve.

  17. Robustness and quality of precipitation and river flow data obtained through participatory monitoring and citizen scienc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.

    2016-12-01

    Apart for the most basic measurements of manual rain and staff gauges, hydrology and water resources are not an evident disciplines for the application of citizen science. High-resolution measurements require elaborate equipment, installation, and maintenance that is typically beyond the scope of non-scientists. Additionally, hydrological analysis has traditionally relied upon long time series of consistent accuracy and precision. Nevertheless, new opportunities for public participation in hydrological research are emerging, driven by increasingly affordable, robust, and more user-friendly technology. Here we analyse the results generated by participatory monitoring of river flow and precipitation in around 30 catchments in the tropical Andes. This monitoring network was set up through a collaborative effort between scientists, NGOs and local communities, with the intention to generate evidence about the impact of land-use change on streamflow. Monitoring was implemented using automatic but low-cost sensors operated and maintained by local users. Tipping bucket rain gauges are used for precipitation, and river flow is monitored with pressure transducers in combination with a V-notch weir to obtain a stable stage-discharge relation. Jointly, the sensors have now collected an equivalent of more than 30 years of data, with a measurement interval of typically 5 or 15 minutes. Analysing the data, we find that the observations themselves tend to be of a quality comparable to scientific observations. However, main issues are related to the continuity of the time series, as sensors eventually fail or run out of capacity in dataloggers or batteries in the most remote locations. Despite these shortcomings, the data have proven to be useful in characterizing land-use impacts well beyond what can be achieved with conventional data collection, thus filling long-standing gaps in local hydrological knowledge. Furthermore, we expect that the advent of new, more robust, resilient

  18. Understanding restoration of Oregon's Wood River through multi-modal hydrogeomorphic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearman, T.; Hughes, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Channelized reaches of the lower Wood River in the Upper Klamath Basin of Oregon have undergone extensive restoration since the late 1990's, when the Bureau of Land Management began managing for the benefit of redband trout and other native-endemic species. Restoration included reconstruction of a floodplain and channel meanders, narrowing and deepening of channel, and excavation and reoccupation of fluvio-deltaic channels connecting the river to the Upper Klamath-Agency Lake system. The goals of this study were to extend the restoration monitoring record and evaluate post-restoration performance in light of this record. Monitoring included channel-bathymetry mapping, measurements of sediment transport (bedload), and measurement of discharge at points throughout the project reach under differing stage conditions. Results indicate two distinct domains of channel response to restoration: (1) an upstream domain marked by aggradation in the early and incision in the late post-restoration periods, and (2) a downstream domain marked by the inverse responses of degradation in the early and aggradation in the late post-restoration periods. These domains are separated by the confluence of an artificial channel maintained for boating access. Flow and sediment-transport continuity are interrupted at this confluence. At high stage (winter/spring) impoundment from the lake stalls flow, inducing sediment deposition. Stage falls as lake level recedes in the summer and stream power is restored, thereby releasing the sediment trapped at high stage. Aggradation in the downstream domain coupled with excavation of a birdfoot distributary in 2010 combined to initiate an avulsion from one distributary to another during the 2015 flow recession. With the exception of this recent avulsion, monitoring data suggest the channel system is approaching a dynamic equilibrium and behaving consistently with the rate law in geomorphology. This study provides the first known synthesis of long

  19. Social organization of sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garshelis, David L.; Johnson, Ancel M.; Garshelis, Judith A.

    1984-01-01

    Sea otters in Prince William Sound. Alaska, were spatially segregated into predominantly (97%) male areas at the front of the expanding population and breeding areas with fewer (up to 33%) males. From 1975 to 1984 we captured and marked 267 otters with tags and (or) radio transmitters and investigated their reproductive strategies, social relationships, and patterns of sexual segregation. Mating occurred year-round, but peaked in September and October. Females first bred at 4 years of age and were capable of pupping annually; they generally separated from their pup before mating. Males established breeding territories that enabled prolonged precopulatory interactions that may have prompted female–pup separation and post-copulatory interactions that precluded females from mating with other males. Male mating success was related to age, weight, territory quality, and the length of time they maintained their territory. After the breeding season, territorial males returned to male areas where food was more abundant. Young, dispersing males also entered male areas and remained there until attaining breeding age. In male areas, otters commonly rested in groups of >50 individuals. Gregariousness promoted social interactions and likely enhanced food finding and (historically) predator protection. As food diminished, males moved into adjacent, unoccupied regions; females then occupied former male areas.

  20. Video monitoring of wood transport in a free-meandering piedmont river

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVicar, B. J.; Piégay, H.; Tougne, L.; Ali, I.

    2009-12-01

    Wood in rivers exerts an important influence on riverine habitat, sediment transport, geomorphological form, and human infrastructure. There is a need to quantify wood transport within river systems in order to understand the relevant processes and develop wood budgets at local and watershed scales. Here we present a study that uses a riverside video camera to monitor wood passage. The camera was installed at a gauging station on the Ain River, a 3500 km2 piedmont river (France), in early 2007. Video was obtained during 12 floods, including 5 that were at or greater than the bankfull discharge and one flood at twice the bankfull discharge with a return period between 2 and 5 years. An image analysis algorithm is presented that uses an intersection of intensity, gradient and image difference masks to detect moving wood objects on the surface of the water. The algorithm is compared to the results from manual detection of wood in a selection of video segments. Manual detection is also used to estimate the length, diameter, velocity, and rotation of wood pieces and to note the presence of roots and branches. Agreement between the detection algorithm and the manual detection procedure is on the order of 90%. Despite considerable scatter, results show a threshold of wood transport at approximately two-thirds bankfull, a linear relation between wood transport volume and flow discharge beyond the wood transport threshold, and a strong hysteresis effect such that wood transport is an order of magnitude higher on the rising limb than on the falling limb. Wood transport vs discharge for two floods

  1. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites

  2. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A continuous monitoring program has been maintained since 1951 (before plant start-up) to determine concentrations of radioactive materials in a 1200-square-mile area outside SRP. Although some gaseous and liquid radioactive materials are discharged from SRP operations, concentrations and doses to the surrounding population continued to be far below levels considered significant from a public health viewpoint. The concentration of radioactivity added by SRP to its environs during 1976 was too small to be distinguished from natural background radiation and fallout from worldwide nuclear weapons tests. Beta activity in particulate air filters was about 1.5 times the 1975 level and was due entirely to global fallout. This concentration, both at the plant perimeter and 25 miles away (0.07 pCi/m 3 ), represents 0.07% of the Concentration Guide (CG) (defined in the Applicable Standards section which follows). Tritium oxide in air at the plant perimeter was greater than in air at more distant locations; the average concentration at the plant perimeter (50 pCi/m 3 ) was less than 0.1 of the Concentration Guide. Tritium, cesium-137, and strontium-90 were the only radionuclides of plant origin detectable in river water by routine analyses.Special research programs using ultra-low-level techniques have detected trace quantities of other radionuclides of plant origin. Radioactive materials in river fish also continued very low. Monitoring in a five-square-mile swamp bordering the Savannah River immediately below the SRP boundary has shown radioactivity (primarily cesium-137) above the natural background level in soil and vegetation

  3. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pasquale

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Therefore, a significant effort has been dedicated in the recent years worldwide to document the efficiency of restoration actions and to produce new effective guidelines that may help overcoming existing deficiencies. At the same time little attention was paid to illustrate the reasons and the use of certain monitoring and experimental techniques in spite of others, or in relation to the specific ecohydrologic process being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to enrich efforts in this direction by presenting the framework of experimental activities and the related experimental setup that we designed and installed in order to accomplish some of the research tasks of the multidisciplinary scientific project RECORD (Restored Corridor Dynamics. Therein, we studied the morphodynamic evolution of the restored reach of the River Thur near Niederneunforn (Switzerland, also in relation to the role of pioneer vegetation roots in stabilizing the alluvial sediment. In this work we describe the methodology chosen for monitoring the river morphodynamics, the dynamics of riparian and of in-bed vegetation and their mutual interactions, as well as the need of complementing such observations with experiments and with the hydraulic modeling of the site. We also discuss how the designed installation and the experiments integrate with the needs of other research groups within the project, in particular providing data for a number of investigations thereby including surface water and groundwater interactions, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics.

  4. Hood River production program monitoring and evaluation. Report B: Hood River and Pelton Ladder. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, M.B.; Jennings, M.; McCanna, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Hood River Production Program (HRPP) is jointly implemented by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWS) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). The primary goals of the HRPP are (1) to re-establish naturally sustaining spring chinook salmon using Deschutes River stock in the Hood River subbasin, (2) rebuild naturally sustaining runs of summer and winter steelhead in the Hood River subbasin, (3) maintain the genetic characteristics of the populations, and (4) contribute to tribal and non-tribal fisheries, ocean fisheries, and the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) interim goal of doubling salmon runs

  5. Monitoring Isotopes in Rivers: Creation of the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR). Results of a Coordinated Research Project 2002-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    River runoff plays a key role in human development in all societies through the provision of water for agriculture, industry and domestic use. Although the monitoring of water availability and our understanding of the main hydrological processes at the catchment scale are relatively good, many important aspects, especially those related to the interaction of runoff and groundwater, remain poorly understood. Additionally, the impact of human activities - such as the construction of large reservoirs and diversions, and the redirection of rivers to supply drinking water or water for irrigation or hydropower - are highly relevant and, together with the predicted impact of climate change, are likely to heavily impact local water cycles. The effects of such changes include: limited availability of water; changes in flood or drought frequency; changes in water quality, sediment load and groundwater recharge; and biodiversity loss in riparian environments. Additionally, political disputes may result as water resources become affected in terms of availability and/or quality. In most instances, stable isotopes and other water tracers provide a deeper insight into hydrological processes, especially in aspects related to water pathways, interconnections, transport of water and pollutants, and the transit time of water. To explore the contribution of these techniques in more detail, the IAEA has launched a monitoring programme, the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR), aimed at regular analysis of the isotope composition of runoff in large rivers. This isotope monitoring network complements an earlier precipitation network, the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). To prepare for GNIR, the IAEA launched a coordinated research project (CRP) called Design Criteria for a Network to Monitor Isotope Compositions of Runoff in Large Rivers. The main aim of the CRP was to develop a scientific rationale and a protocol for the operation of such a network, as well as

  6. Quantitative design of emergency monitoring network for river chemical spills based on discrete entropy theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bin; Jiang, Jiping; Sivakumar, Bellie; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Peng

    2018-05-01

    Field monitoring strategy is critical for disaster preparedness and watershed emergency environmental management. However, development of such is also highly challenging. Despite the efforts and progress thus far, no definitive guidelines or solutions are available worldwide for quantitatively designing a monitoring network in response to river chemical spill incidents, except general rules based on administrative divisions or arbitrary interpolation on routine monitoring sections. To address this gap, a novel framework for spatial-temporal network design was proposed in this study. The framework combines contaminant transport modelling with discrete entropy theory and spectral analysis. The water quality model was applied to forecast the spatio-temporal distribution of contaminant after spills and then corresponding information transfer indexes (ITIs) and Fourier approximation periodic functions were estimated as critical measures for setting sampling locations and times. The results indicate that the framework can produce scientific preparedness plans of emergency monitoring based on scenario analysis of spill risks as well as rapid design as soon as the incident happened but not prepared. The framework was applied to a hypothetical spill case based on tracer experiment and a real nitrobenzene spill incident case to demonstrate its suitability and effectiveness. The newly-designed temporal-spatial monitoring network captured major pollution information at relatively low costs. It showed obvious benefits for follow-up early-warning and treatment as well as for aftermath recovery and assessment. The underlying drivers of ITIs as well as the limitations and uncertainty of the approach were analyzed based on the case studies. Comparison with existing monitoring network design approaches, management implications, and generalized applicability were also discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Juvenile salmonid monitoring in the White Salmon River, Washington, post-Condit Dam removal, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Hardiman, Jill M.

    2017-06-23

    Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and removed completely in 2012, allowing anadromous salmonids access to habitat that had been blocked for nearly 100 years. A multi-agency workgroup concluded that the preferred salmonid restoration alternative was natural recolonization with monitoring to assess efficacy, followed by a management evaluation 5 years after dam removal. Limited monitoring of salmon and steelhead spawning has occurred since 2011, but no monitoring of juveniles occurred until 2016. During 2016, we operated a rotary screw trap at river kilometer 2.3 (3 kilometers downstream of the former dam site) from late March through May and used backpack electrofishing during summer to assess juvenile salmonid distribution and abundance. The screw trap captured primarily steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; smolts, parr, and fry) and coho salmon (O. kisutch; smolts and fry). We estimated the number of steelhead smolts at 3,851 (standard error = 1,454) and coho smolts at 1,093 (standard error = 412). In this document, we refer to O. mykiss caught at the screw trap as steelhead because they were actively migrating, but because we did not know migratory status of O. mykiss caught in electrofishing surveys, we simply refer to them as O. mykiss or steelhead/rainbow trout. Steelhead and coho smolts tagged with passive integrated transponder tags were subsequently detected downstream at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Few Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) fry were captured, possibly as a result of trap location or effects of a December 2015 flood. Sampling in Mill, Buck, and Rattlesnake Creeks (all upstream of the former dam site) showed that juvenile coho were present in Mill and Buck Creeks, suggesting spawning had occurred there. We compared O. mykiss abundance data in sites on Buck and Rattlesnake Creeks to pre-dam removal data. During 2016, age-0 O. mykiss were more abundant in Buck Creek than in 2009 or

  8. 76 FR 31800 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... INFORMATION: Discussion Recent analysis by the FAA on the Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) airplanes... new airworthiness directive (AD): 2011-12-02 Viking Aircraft Limited: Amendment 39-16709; Docket No...

  9. 78 FR 62361 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Vermont; Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ... Power Corporation; Vermont; Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service... issuance of a new license for the Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project No. 2558. The programmatic agreement... Agreement would be incorporated into any Order issuing a license. Green Mountain Power Corporation, as...

  10. 76 FR 53381 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ..., the plan was required to include: (1) The number, age, and sex of southern sea otters proposed to be... status of the species under the ESA and determinations under section 7 of the ESA. The purposes of the... a self- sustaining southern sea otter population (experimental population) that would provide a...

  11. Effect of a Recently Completed Habitat Rehabilitation and Enhancement Project on Fish Abundance in La Grange Pool of the Illinois River Using Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Hara, Timothy M; McClelland, Michael A; Irons, Kevin S; Cook, Thad R; Sass, Greg G

    2008-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) fish component monitors fish communities to test for changes in abundances and species composition in six regional trend areas of the Upper Mississippi River System...

  12. Synthesis of juvenile lamprey migration and passage research and monitoring at Columbia and Snake River Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2016-01-01

    We compiled and summarized previous sources of data and research results related to the presence, numbers, and migration timing characteristics of juvenile (eyed macropthalmia) and larval (ammocoetes) Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus, in the Columbia River basin (CRB). Included were data from various screw trap collections, data from historic fyke net studies, catch records of lampreys at JBS facilities, turbine cooling water strainer collections, and information on the occurrence of lampreys in the diets of avian and piscine predators. We identified key data gaps and uncertainties that should be addressed in a juvenile lamprey passage research program. The goal of this work was to summarize information from disparate sources so that managers can use it to prioritize and guide future research and monitoring efforts related to the downstream migration of juvenile Pacific lamprey within the CRB. A common finding in all datasets was the high level of variation observed for CRB lamprey in numbers present, timing and spatial distribution. This will make developing monitoring programs to accurately characterize lamprey migrations and passage more challenging. Primary data gaps centered around our uncertainty on the numbers of juvenile and larval present in the system which affects the ability to assign risk to passage conditions and prioritize management actions. Recommendations include developing standardized monitoring methods, such as at juvenile bypass systems (JBS’s), to better document numbers and timing of lamprey migrations at dams, and use biotelemetry tracking techniques to estimate survival potentials for different migration histories.

  13. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Tortorici, Cathy; Yerxa, Tracey; Leary, J.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-02-05

    The purpose ofthis document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision-making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows. 1. Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. 2. Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. 3. Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. 4. Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. 5. Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. In conclusion, the estuary RME effort is designed to meet the research and monitoring needs of the estuary Program using an adaptive management process. Estuary RME's success and usefulness will depend on the actual conduct of adaptive management, as embodied in the objectives, implrementation, data, reporting, and synthesis, evaluation, and decision-making described herein.

  14. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, K.D.; Mazet, J.A.K.; Gulland, F.M.D.; Estes, James A.; Staedler, M.; Murray, M.J.; Miller, M.; Jessup, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population in California (USA) and the Alaskan sea otter (E. lutris kenyoni) population in the Aleutian Islands (USA) chain have recently declined. In order to evaluate disease as a contributing factor to the declines, health assessments of these two sea otter populations were conducted by evaluating hematologic and/or serum biochemical values and exposure to six marine and terrestrial pathogens using blood collected during ongoing studies from 1995 through 2000. Samples from 72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences. Serum chemistry and hematology values did not indicate a specific disease process as a cause for the declines. Statistically significant differences were found between free-ranging adult southern and Alaskan population mean serum levels of creatinine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorous, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and sodium. These were likely due to varying parasite loads, contaminant exposures, and physiologic or nutrition statuses. No free-ranging sea otters had signs of disease at capture, and prevalences of exposure to calicivirus, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. were low. The high prevalence (35%) of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging southern sea otters, lack of antibodies to this parasite in Alaskan sea otters, and the pathogen's propensity to cause mortality in southern sea otters suggests that this parasite may be important to sea otter population dynamics in California but not in Alaska. The evidence for exposure to pathogens of public health importance (e.g., Leptospira spp., T. gondii) in the southern sea otter population, and the naïveté of both populations to other pathogens (e.g., morbillivirus

  15. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, Krista D; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gulland, Frances M D; Estes, James; Staedler, Michelle; Murray, Michael J; Miller, Melissa; Jessup, David A

    2003-10-01

    The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population in California (USA) and the Alaskan sea otter (E. lutris kenyoni) population in the Aleutian Islands (USA) chain have recently declined. In order to evaluate disease as a contributing factor to the declines, health assessments of these two sea otter populations were conducted by evaluating hematologic and/or serum biochemical values and exposure to six marine and terrestrial pathogens using blood collected during ongoing studies from 1995 through 2000. Samples from 72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences. Serum chemistry and hematology values did not indicate a specific disease process as a cause for the declines. Statistically significant differences were found between free-ranging adult southern and Alaskan population mean serum levels of creatinine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorous, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and sodium. These were likely due to varying parasite loads, contaminant exposures, and physiologic or nutrition statuses. No free-ranging sea otters had signs of disease at capture, and prevalences of exposure to calicivirus, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. were low. The high prevalence (35%) of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging southern sea otters, lack of antibodies to this parasite in Alaskan sea otters, and the pathogen's propensity to cause mortality in southern sea otters suggests that this parasite may be important to sea otter population dynamics in California but not in Alaska. The evidence for exposure to pathogens of public health importance (e.g., Leptospira spp., T. gondii) in the southern sea otter population, and the naïveté of both populations to other pathogens (e.g., morbillivirus

  16. Solid transport in mountain rivers: monitoring techniques and long term assessment as flood prevention tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Laura; Brambilla, Davide; Ivanov, Vladislav; Messa, Giacomo; Veronelli, Andrea; Radice, Alessio; Papini, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Floods are calamitous phenomena with an ever-increasing frequency around the globe, that often result in socio-economic damage and casualties. The role of the solid fraction in the river dynamic has been widely debated in the last decade and its importance is recognized as critical and not negligible in flood simulations as it has been evidenced that the severity of an event is often the result of the coupling of a flood wave with elevated solid transport rates. Nevertheless, assessing the quantity of sediment mobilized in a particular event is not feasible without a long term analysis of the river's dynamics and its morphological evolution since it is defined by past events. This work is focused on the techniques to improve knowledge about sediment production and transport through hydrological networks as a necessary component of a wise flood prevention planning. In particular, a multidisciplinary approach that combines hydraulic and geological knowledge is required in order to understand the evolution of the river sediment and how it will influence the following critical event. The methods are presented through a case study in Italy where a series of different approaches have been integrated to gain a comprehensive understanding of the problem: the sediment movement has been studied by a Eulerian as well as a Lagrangian approaches while hydraulic properties of the stream have been measured. The research started with an attempt to monitor sediment movements: in June 2016 300 sample pebbles, equipped with RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) transponders, have been deployed in the river and tracked after every major rainfall event. The obtained data-set has been combined with a morphological analysis and a river flow discharge computed through PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method in order to identify the relation between a given rainfall event and sediment transport. Moreover, critical sediment size has been estimated from field data using three approaches: two

  17. Ground and river water quality monitoring using a smartphone-based pH sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibasish Dutta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report here the working of a compact and handheld smartphone-based pH sensor for monitoring of ground and river water quality. Using simple laboratory optical components and the camera of the smartphone, we develop a compact spectrophotometer which is operational in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm and having spectral resolution of 0.305 nm/pixel for our equipment. The sensor measures variations in optical absorption band of pH sensitive dye sample in different pH solutions. The transmission image spectra through a transmission grating gets captured by the smartphone, and subsequently converted into intensity vs. wavelengths. Using the designed sensor, we measure water quality of ground water and river water from different locations in Assam and the results are found to be reliable when compared with the standard spectrophotometer tool. The overall cost involved for development of the sensor is relatively low. We envision that the designed sensing technique could emerge as an inexpensive, compact and portable pH sensor that would be useful for in-field applications.

  18. Monitoring of the content of lead and cadmium in the waters of the river Tuis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce Urbina, Maria Elena; Molina Salazar, Ofelia; Hidalgo Paniagua, David

    2007-01-01

    The content of lead and cadmium was monitored in the waters of the river Tuis for 11 months. The method of digestion most suitable was determined for this type of matrix. The chemical analyses were realized by means of the technique of anodic stripping voltammetry by differential pulse, for which some parameters of measurement were optimized and there decided the limits of detection and quantification. The veracity of the method was evaluated by means of the percentage of recovery for each of the analytes. The limit of detection of the lead is of 0,46 μgL-1 and limit of quantification is 1, 5 μgL-1, the cadmium has a limit of detection of 0,40 μgL-1 and 1,3 μgL-1 of quantification. (author) [es

  19. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps,Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseiller, Tom; Cotter, Michael (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)

    2009-02-17

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.

  20. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps, Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008-2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseillier, Tom; Cotter, Michael [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    2009-04-14

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.

  1. WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH IN MUDDY HABITATS: MONITORING THE POPULATION IN THE RIVER IVEL, BEDFORDSHIRE, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEAY S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available White-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes are usually associated with stony substrates, tree roots, or refuges in submerged banks. The River Ivel has the last known population of white-clawed crayfish in Bedfordshire. Prior to 2005, much of the bed comprised uniform silt, plus leaf-litter. Stands of reedmace Typha latifolia and other emergent vegetation were localised in less shaded areas. Initial survey results suggested a population at low abundance. A low-cost monitoring strategy was started in 2001 and continued three times a year to 2005, using engineering bricks, which offer artificial refuges. Crayfish are counted when bricks are lifted periodically. De-silting of c. 430 m river was carried out in February 2005, to improve habitat and to maintain the flood capacity in the channel upstream of a mill weir. Additional bricks were deployed a few weeks in advance of de-silting, then bricks and crayfish were lifted prior to dredging and were returned the next day. Starting upstream, soft, wet mud was dredged out, placed on the bank and searched manually for crayfish. Banks, tree roots and shallow margins were left undisturbed. In all, 4,142 crayfish were found in dredgings from a 430 m length of the mid channel. Crayfish were strongly associated with emergent vegetation, but many were present below the surface of the silt. Crayfish released in the dredged channel immediately burrowed into the silt retained on the channel margins. Monitoring after dredging showed no change in abundance in the main area with in-bank refuges and lots of bricks, but there was an increase in occupancy of bricks in an area where most crayfish had been in emergent vegetation.

  2. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An extensive surveillance program has been continuously maintained since 1951 to determine the concentrations of radonuclides in a 1200-square-mile area in the environs of the plant and the radiation exposure of the population resulting from SRP operations. The results of this monitoring program are reported annually to the public. This document summarizes the 1980 results. The radiation dose at the plant perimeter and the population dose in the region from SRP operations is very small relative to the dose received from naturally occurring radiation. The annual average dose in 1980 from atmospheric releases of radioactive materials from SRP was 0.7 millirem at the plant perimeter. The maximum dose at the plant perimeter was 1.01 mrem, which is 0.2% of the Department of Energy limit for offsite exposures. The population dose to people living within 80 km of the center of SRP was 99.7 man-rems. During 1980, this same population received a radiation dose of 54,400 man-rems from natural radiation and an additional dose of 47,000 man-rems from medical x-rays. An individual consuming river water downstream from SRP would receive a maximum calculated dose in 1980 of 0.22 mrem which includes dose contributions from consumer products produced using Savannah River water. Air and water are the major dispersal media for radioactive emissions. Samples representing most segments of the environment that may conceivably be affected by these emissions were monitored to ensure a safe environment. Releases of radioactivity from SRP had an inconsequential effect on living plants and animals. With a few exceptions, concentrations outside the plant boundary were too low to distinguish from the natural radioactive background and continuing worldwide fallout from nuclear weapons tests

  3. Application of a radiometric enzymic method for monitoring organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide residues in water of the Danube River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, L.; Volford, J.; Bursics, L.; Forster, T.

    1983-01-01

    Pesticide residue analyses are conventionally based on gas chromatography. These analytic procedures include tedious extraction and clear-up manipulations prior to the actual gas chromatographic determinations. Radioenzymatic method was recently applied in a residue monitoring programme on the Danube River. The programme has demonstrated that the radioenzymatic method has many advantages as a monitoring procedure in aquatic environment. Quick information can be gained without tedious sample clear-up procedure. The anticholinesteratic pesticides and the anticholinesteratic activities can be detected

  4. Monitoring biological control agents and leafy spurge populations along the Smith River in Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Birdsall; G. Markin; T. Kalaris; J. Runyon

    2013-01-01

    The Smith River originates in west central Montana and flows north approximately 100 miles before joining the Missouri River. The central 60 miles of the river flows through a relatively inaccessible, forested, scenic limestone canyon famous for its trout fishing. Because of its popularity, the area was designated Montana's first and only controlled river, with...

  5. The anatomy of effective discharge: the dynamics of coarse sediment transport revealed using continuous bedload monitoring in a gravel-bed river during a very wet year

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, Peter W.; Soar, Philip J.; Taylor, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Indirect, passive approaches for monitoring coarse bedload transport could allow cheaper, safer, higher-resolution, longer-term data that revolutionises bedload understanding and informs river management. Here, insights provided by seismic impact plates in a downstream reach of a flashy gravel-bed river (River Avon, Devon, UK) are explored in the context of plate performance. Monitoring of a centrally-situated plate (IP1) during an extremely wet 12-month period demonstrated that impacts were ...

  6. Mass balance in the monitoring of pollutants in tidal rivers of the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Raquel Pinhão; Rodrigues, Ana Paula de Castro; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro, Renato Campello; Bidone, Edison Dausacker

    2011-10-01

    This study addressed the identification and monitoring of pollution sources of terrestrial origin in rivers (domestic sewage and industrial effluents) and critical fluvial segments in highly polluted environments under tidal influence (mixing marine and continental sources) from Guanabara Bay Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mass balance of contaminants was determined in conditions of continuous flow (low tide) during dry season (lower dilution capability). The results allowed the evaluation of the potential of contaminant mass generation by the different river segments and the estimation of their natural and anthropogenic components. The water quality of Iguaçú and Sarapuí Rivers were evaluated for metals and biochemical oxygen demand. The method gave an excellent response, including the possibility of sources identification and contaminated river segments ranking. The approach also offers fast execution and data interpretation, being highly efficient.

  7. Compliance Monitoring of Underwater Blasting for Rock Removal at Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project, 2009/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Skalski, J. R.; Seaburg, Adam

    2011-05-10

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) conducted the 20-year Columbia River Channel Improvement Project (CRCIP) to deepen the navigation channel between Portland, Oregon, and the Pacific Ocean to allow transit of fully loaded Panamax ships (100 ft wide, 600 to 700 ft long, and draft 45 to 50 ft). In the vicinity of Warrior Point, between river miles (RM) 87 and 88 near St. Helens, Oregon, the USACE conducted underwater blasting and dredging to remove 300,000 yd3 of a basalt rock formation to reach a depth of 44 ft in the Columbia River navigation channel. The purpose of this report is to document methods and results of the compliance monitoring study for the blasting project at Warrior Point in the Columbia River.

  8. Hood River production program monitoring and evaluation. Report A: Hood River and Pelton Ladder evaluation studies. Annual report for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, E.A.; French, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, the Northwest Power Planning Council approved the Hood River and Pelton Ladder master plans within the framework of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The master plans define an approach for implementing a hatchery supplementation program in the Hood River subbasin. The hatchery program, as defined in the master plans, is called the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP will be implemented at a reduced hatchery production level until (1) the construction of all proposed hatchery facilities has been completed and (2) numbers of returning wild jack and adult fish are sufficient to meet broodstock collection goals. It is anticipated that construction on the hatchery production facilities will be completed by the spring of 1998. The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation

  9. Data summary report on short-term turbidity monitoring of pipeline river crossings in the Moyie River, Boundary County, Idaho: PGT-PG&E Pipeline Expansion Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowdy, M.J.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Miller, S.F.

    1994-03-01

    A water-quality monitoring program was implemented for Bechtel Corporation to measure the short-term increases in turbidity in the Moyie River caused by construction activities of the Pacific Gas Transmission-Pacific Gas & Electric Pipeline Expansion Project. Construction of the buried, 42-in.-diameter, steel pipeline, during the summer of 1992, involved eight wet crossings of the Moyie River along the 13-mi section of pipeline immediately south of the Canadian-United States border in Boundary County, Idaho. This report summarizes the sampling and analysis protocol used and gives the results and observations for each of the eight crossings. The data obtained from this monitoring program, in addition to satisfying regulatory requirements for the Pipeline Expansion Project, will contribute to an ongoing long-term study of the Moyie River crossings being performed for the Gas Research Institute by Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of this document is strictly limited to reporting the results of the monitoring program. Interpretation of the data is not within the scope of this report.

  10. Monitoring and Deformation Analysis of Groynes Using Tls at the River Elbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirschwitz, F.; Mechelke, K.; Jansch, H.; Kersten, T. P.

    2016-06-01

    To enter the Port of Hamburg, one of Europe's busiest ports all vessels need to navigate around 145 km along the Elbe river, a tide influenced navigation channel. To protect the Elbe shoreline from erosion and to channel the waterway groynes (rigid hydraulic structures) have been built along the river. In the past years since ca. 2001 there has been a large increase in damage of groynes structural integrity at parts of the German waterways. The reason for this was determined in the ever growing size of container vessels passing by and inducing long periodical primary waves which have such a force that they erode the groynes rock structure. To analyse and improve the groynes structural resistance for vessel-induced long periodical wave loads an in-situ study is carried out at Juelssand, located at the Elbe river estuary. Over a period of two years the change of the geometrical structure of two different groyne shapes is monitored automatically by utilising two terrestrial laser scanners mounted in protective housings, located each on a 12 m high platform. The self-contained monitoring systems perform scanning of the two groynes one to two times a day at low tide, as the structures are fully submerged at high tide. The long-periodical wave loads are also determined using pressure sensors in each groyne. To correlate the captured data with vessel events and analyse the effects, vessel related parameters are recorded utilizing the Automatic Identification System (AIS). This paper describes the automated processes for the data acquisition and focusses on the deformation that is calculated using current, extended and new algorithms of the Point Cloud Library. It shows the process chain from the acquisition of raw scan files from an elevated station to the filtering of point cloud, the registration, the calculation of pointwise changes and the aggregation to a grid for later correlation with ship parameters. When working outdoor in all kinds of weather conditions, the

  11. Bridge scour monitoring technologies : development of evaluation and selection protocols for application on river bridges in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Bridge failure or loss of structural integrity can result from scour of riverbed sediment near bridge abutments or : piers during high-flow events in rivers. In the past 20 years, several methods of monitoring bridge scour have been : developed spann...

  12. Temporal genetic monitoring of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in the Stehekin River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Carl O.; Chase, Dorothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Introgressive hybridization with introduced rainbow trout (RBT) (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has led to the loss of native cutthroat trout species (O. clarkii) throughout their range, creating conservation concerns. Monitoring temporal hybridization trends provides resource managers with a tool for determining population status and information for establishing conservation goals for native cutthroat trout. In this study, we re-sampled six locations in 2010 within the Stehekin River watershed, North Cascades National Park, which were originally sampled between 1999 and 2003. We used genetic markers to monitor changes in hybridization levels between sampling periods in the native westslope cutthroat trout (WCT) (O. c. lewisi) stemming from past RBT introductions. Additionally, two new locations from the lower Stehekin drainage were added to the baseline data. We found that the frequency of WCT, RBT, and their hybrids was not significantly different between monitoring periods, but that RBT allele frequencies decreased in two locations and increased in one location. We also found a consistent, substantial reduction in the frequency of RBT alleles over the monitoring period in the Stehekin River upstream of Bridge Creek (SR3) compared to the Stehekin River downstream of Bridge Creek (SR1 -2) and within lower Bridge Creek (BR1) although these three locations are confined to a small geographic area (approximately 5 km). Ecological and/or evolutionary processes likely restrict the dispersal of RBT alleles in the Stehekin River upstream of Bridge Creek.

  13. Burial ground as a containment system: 25 years of subsurface monitoring at the Savannah River Plant Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    As the Savannah River Plant (SRP) solid wastes containing small quantities of radionuclides are buried in shallow (20' deep) trenches. The hydrogeology of the burial site is described together with a variety of subsurface monitoring techniques employed to ensure the continued safe operation of this disposal facility. conclusions from over two decades of data collection are presented

  14. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program second quarter 1999 (April through June 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-12-16

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by Savannah River Site during first quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  15. Design of a water quality monitoring network for the Limpopo River Basin in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilundo, M.; Kelderman, P.; O´keeffe, J. H.

    The measurement of chemical, physical and biological parameters is important for the characterization of streams health. Thus, cost-effective and targeted water quality (WQ) monitoring programmes are required for proper assessment, restoration and protection of such systems. This research proposes a WQ monitoring network for the Limpopo River Basin (LRB) in Mozambique located in Southern Africa, a region prone to severe droughts. In this Basin both anthropogenic and natural driven processes, exacerbated by the increased water demand by the four riparian countries (Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique) are responsible for the degradation of surface waters, impairing their downstream use, either for aquatic ecosystem, drinking, industrial or irrigation. Hence, physico-chemical, biological and microbiological characteristics at 23 sites within the basin were studied in November 2006 and January 2007. The physico-chemical and microbiological samples were analyzed according to American Public Health Association (APHA) standard methods, while the biological monitoring working party method (BMWP) was used for biological assessment. The assessment of the final WQ condition at sampled points was done taking into account appropriate indexes, the Mozambican standards for receiving waters and the WHO guidelines for drinking WQ. The assessed data indicated that sites located at proximities to the border with upstream countries were contaminated with heavy metals. The Elephants subcatchment was found with a relatively better WQ, whereas the Changane subcatchment together with the effluent point discharges in the basin were found polluted as indicated by the low dissolved oxygen and high total dissolved solids, electric conductivity, total hardness, sodium adsorption ratio and low benthic macroinvertebrates taxa. Significant differences ( p < 0.05) were found for some parameters when the concentrations recorded in November and January were tested, therefore, indicating

  16. Geoinformation Support and Web Technologies for Problems of Hydrobiological Monitoring of Yenisei River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianova Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of long-term hydrobiological monitoring for the Yenisei river section from the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station dam to the village Zotino (Turukhansk district of the Krasnoyarsk region are considered. Researching of zoobenthos showed significant changes of its structure after the Krasnoyarsk HPP dam construction. In particular, the proportion of amphipods (crustaceans in the zoobenthos biomass increased by 10 times. In the expeditionary studies, seven species of amphipods were identified, but it should be noted that only two species develop and clearly dominate among them. Data obtained during the hydrobiological research formed the basis of geospatial database developed as a result of the work. The geospatial database with the observation results is available in the ICM SB RAS geoportal. The geoportal services provide data visualization in the form of interactive thematic maps, information about the objects on the map as “tooltips”, information downloading in tabular form, direct access to the data through the web mapping services. Information and analytical support for the monitoring system based on the considered approach can simplify access to the needed information, provide new opportunities for analysis and modeling, promote the development of cross-disciplinary researches.

  17. Drought monitoring of Tumen river basin wetlands between 1991 and 2016 using Landsat TM/ETM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Zhu, W.; Lee, W. K.; Heo, S.

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands area described as "the kidney of earth" owing to the importance of functions for stabilizing environment, long-term protection of water sources, as well as effectively minimize sediment loss, purify surface water from industrial and agricultural pollutants, and enhancing aquifer recharge. Drought monitoring in wetlands is vital due to the condition of water supply directly affecting the growth of wetland plants and local biodiversity. In this study, Vegetation Temperature Condition Index derived from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature is used to observe drought status from 1991 to 2016. For doing this, Landsat TM/ETM+ data for six periods are used to analytical processing. On the other hand, soil moisture maps which are acquired from CMA Land Data Assimilation System Version 1.0 for validating reliability of drought monitoring. As a result, the study shows most of area at normal moist level (decreased 25.8%) became slightly drought (increased 29.7%) in Tumen river basin cross-border (China and North Korea) wetland. The correlation between vegetation temperature condition index and soil moisture are 0.69, 0.32 and 0.2 for the layers of 0 5cm, 0 10cm, and 10 20cm, respectively. Although climate change probably contributes to the process of drought by decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature, human activities are shown as main factor that led to the process in this wetland.

  18. IBRD sonar scour monitoring project : real-time river channel-bed monitoring at the Chariton and Mississippi Rivers in Missouri, 2007-09, final report, January 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Scour and depositional responses to hydrologic events have been important to the scientific community studying sediment transport as well as potential effects on bridges and other hydraulic structures within riverine systems. A river channel-bed moni...

  19. Developing the remote sensing-based water environmental model for monitoring alpine river water environment over Plateau cold zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Y.; Wang, S.; Yang, Q.; Shen, M.; Chen, G.

    2017-12-01

    Alpine river water environment on the Plateau (such as Tibetan Plateau, China) is a key indicator for water security and environmental security in China. Due to the complex terrain and various surface eco-environment, it is a very difficult to monitor the water environment over the complex land surface of the plateau. The increasing availability of remote sensing techniques with appropriate spatiotemporal resolutions, broad coverage and low costs allows for effective monitoring river water environment on the Plateau, particularly in remote and inaccessible areas where are lack of in situ observations. In this study, we propose a remote sense-based monitoring model by using multi-platform remote sensing data for monitoring alpine river environment. In this study some parameterization methodologies based on satellite remote sensing data and field observations have been proposed for monitoring the water environmental parameters (including chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), water turbidity (WT) or water clarity (SD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total organic carbon (TOC)) over the china's southwest highland rivers, such as the Brahmaputra. First, because most sensors do not collect multiple observations of a target in a single pass, data from multiple orbits or acquisition times may be used, and varying atmospheric and irradiance effects must be reconciled. So based on various types of satellite data, at first we developed the techniques of multi-sensor data correction, atmospheric correction. Second, we also built the inversion spectral database derived from long-term remote sensing data and field sampling data. Then we have studied and developed a high-precision inversion model over the southwest highland river backed by inversion spectral database through using the techniques of multi-sensor remote sensing information optimization and collaboration. Third, take the middle reaches of the Brahmaputra river as the study area, we validated the key

  20. Sarcocystis neurona retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Thomas, N J

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of fatal disease in sea otters in the USA. Encephalitis is the predominant lesion and parasites are confined to the central nervous system and muscles. Here we report retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) found dead on Copalis Beach, WA, USA. Salient lesions were confined to the brain and eye. Multifocal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was present in the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with S. neurona schizonts. The retina of one eye had a focus of inflammation that contained numerous S. neurona schizonts and merozoites. The focus extended from the retinal pigment epithelium inward through all layers of the retina, but inflammation was most concentrated at the inner surface of the tapetum and the outer retina. The inner and outer nuclear layers of the retina were disorganized and irregular at the site of inflammation. There was severe congestion and mild hemorrhage in the choroid, and mild hemorrhage into the vitreous body. Immunohistochemistry with S. neurona-specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies stained schizonts and merozoites. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. neurona-associated retinochoroiditis in any naturally infected animal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring of the water quality of the Surata River in the mining area of Vetas and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Vladimir Illich

    2004-01-01

    The regional autonomous corporation for the defense of the Bucaramanga plateau, environmental authority in the area of influence of the Mining District of Vetas and California, exercises among other activities, the pursuit and control to the auriferous exploitations. Two of the components of this pursuit are: the monitoring of the water quality of the Surata River, final receiver of the effusions coming from of the mineral benefit and the discharges control of cyanidation sand or cyanidation lines, by means of the monthly programming of daily discharges for mining company; in order to diminish the events of high cyanide concentrations in the hydraulic averages and to reduce the cyanide consumptions for the recovery of gold. The mining exploitations of the municipality pour their residuals to the Vetas River, while those of the Municipality of California, pour them to the gulch La Baja, flowing of the Vetas River who in turn is flowing of the Surata River, that supplies a part of the system of aqueduct of the Bucaramanga Municipality. The water quality of mining effusions is determined in three monitored points on the gulch La Baja, the Vetas River and the Surata River; additionally it is made a sampling and analysis of silts in four points on the same currents. The sampling frequency for the water quality is monthly, while for the silts analysis is biweekly. This monitoring is carried out from the year 1988, although it has suffered some interruptions in the time. The technique of water sampling is punctual, integrated to the wide of the bed and without seating capacity, the taking of silts is punctual and integrated to the wide of the bed and without seating capacity, these samples are preserved and transported to the laboratory of waters and soils of the CDMB, where the following parameters are analyzed: for the water sample, mercury, free cyanide and total cyanide, suspended solids, turbidity, pH and conductivity; for the sample of silts only mercury is analyzed

  2. Satellite-derived temperature data for monitoring water status in a floodplain forest of the Upper Sabine River, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Mary Grace T.; Allen, Scott T.; Edwards, Brandon L.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Decreased water availability due to hydrologic modifications, groundwater withdrawal, and climate change threaten bottomland hardwood (BLH) forest communities. We used satellite-derived (MODIS) land-surface temperature (LST) data to investigate spatial heterogeneity of canopy temperature (an indicator of plant-water status) in a floodplain forest of the upper Sabine River for 2008–2014. High LST pixels were generally further from the river and at higher topographic locations, indicating lower water-availability. Increasing rainfall-derived soil moisture corresponded with decreased heterogeneity of LST between pixels but there was weaker association between Sabine River stage and heterogeneity. Stronger dependence of LST convergence on rainfall rather than river flow suggests that some regions are less hydrologically connected to the river, and vegetation may rely on local precipitation and other contributions to the riparian aquifer to replenish soil moisture. Observed LST variations associated with hydrology encourage further investigation of the utility of this approach for monitoring forest stress, especially with considerations of climate change and continued river management.

  3. MONITORING OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STATE OF THE RIVERS OF THE CHECHEN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Saidova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecological status of the river Argun and Squirrel. It is shown that the Argun River and Squirrel are classified as "moderately polluted" water quality class III. The basic measures to protect water resources from pollutants CR.

  4. MONITORING OF PHOSPHORUS CONTENT IN “WATER-PARTICULATE MATERIALS-BOTTOM SEDIMENTS SYSTEM” FOR RIVER PRUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE RUSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of phosphorus content in “water-particulatematerials-bottom sediments system” for river Prut. Seasonal and spatialdynamics of phosphorus forms in water, particulate materials and bottomsediments of river Prut was elucidated. The scheme for determination ofphosphorus forms in water and particulate materials according to World HealthOrganization classification was evaluated. Additionally, this scheme was tested forestimation of phosphorus content in bottom sediments. The supplemented schemeallows the analysis of the phosphorus forms for the entirely system “water –particulate materials – bottom sediments”, extending possibilities for interpretationof phosphorus dynamics in natural waters.

  5. Monitoring of the water chemistry in Norwegian lakes and rivers 1996; Kjemisk overvaaking av norske vassdrag. Elveserien 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noest, Terje; Daverdin, Rita H.; Schartau, Ann K.

    1997-07-01

    The report relates to the monitoring programme for the water quality of Norwegian rivers and lakes. This programme was started in 1965-66 with rivers located in the southernmost part of Norway. The number of locations have varied during time and includes now 19 locations distributed from Kvina in the southernmost Norway to Skallelva in Northern Norway. Chemical analyses have been made from these locations in 1996, and all samples were analysed on turbidity, colour, conductivity, pH, alkalinity, calcium, manganese, nitrate, sulphur, chlorine and silicon. Acid neutralizing capacity is calculated for all localities. Some samples were analyzed on aluminium concentrations. 12 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  6. HISTORICAL MONITORING OF BIOMARKERS OF PAH EXPOSURE OF BROWN BULLHEAD IN THE REMEDIATED BLACK RIVER AND THE CUYAHOGA RIVER, OHIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomarkers of exposure to chemical contamination were measured in brown bullhead from a heavily PAH contaminated section of the Black River, Ohio, during and immediately after remedial sediment dredging in 1990-1991, and in follow-up visits in 1993 and 1998. Biomarker levels of ...

  7. The Indigenous Observation Network: Collaborative, Community-Based Monitoring in the Yukon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Mercer, N. M.; Mutter, E. A.; Wilson, N. J.; Toohey, R.; Schuster, P. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Indigenous Observation Network (ION) is a collaborative Community-Based Monitoring (CBM) program with both permafrost and water-quality monitoring components operating in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) of Alaska and Canada. ION is jointly facilitated by the Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council (YRITWC), an indigenous non-profit organization, and the US Geological Survey (USGS), a federal agency. The YRB is the fourth largest drainage basin in North America encompassing 855,000 square kilometers in northwestern Canada and central Alaska and is essential to the ecosystems of the Bering and Chuckchi Seas. Water is also fundamental to the subsistence and culture of the 76 Tribes and First Nations that live in the YRB providing sustenance in the form of drinking water, fish, wildlife, and vegetation. Despite the ecological and cultural significance of the YRB, the remote geography of sub-Arctic and Arctic Alaska and Canada make it difficult to collect scientific data in these locations and led to a lack of baseline data characterizing this system until recently. In response to community concerns about the quality of the YR and a desire by USGS scientists to create a long term water-quality database, the USGS and YRITWC collaborated to create ION in 2005. Surface water samples are collected by trained community technicians from Tribal Environmental Programs or First Nation Lands and Resources staff from over 35 Alaska Native Tribes and First Nations that reside along the YR and/or one of the major tributaries. Samples are analyzed at USGS laboratories in Boulder, CO and results are disseminated to participating YRB communities and the general public. This presentation will focus on the factors that have enabled the longevity and success of this program over the last decade, as well as the strategies ION uses to ensure the credibility of the data collected by community members and best practices that have facilitated the collection of surface water data in remote

  8. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2008-02-20

    The purpose of this document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program, hereafter called 'the Estuary Program'. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows: (1) Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. (2) Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. (3) Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. (4) Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. (5) Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. The goal leads to three primary management questions pertaining to the main focus of the Estuary Program: estuary habitat conservation and restoration. (1) Are the estuary habitat actions achieving the expected biological and environmental performance targets? (2) Are the offsite habitat actions in the estuary improving juvenile salmonid performance and which actions are most effective at addressing the limiting factors preventing achievement of habitat, fish, or wildlife performance objectives? (3) What are the limiting factors or threats in the estuary/ocean preventing the achievement of desired habitat or fish performance objectives? Performance measures

  9. Hood River and Pelton Ladder monitoring and evaluation project and Hood River fish habitat project : annual progress report 1999-2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    2001-01-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin. This annual report summarizes work for two consecutive contract periods: the fiscal year (FY) 1999 contract period was 1 October, 1998 through 30 September, 1999 and 1 October, 1999 through 30 September, 2000 for FY 2000. Work implemented during FY 1999 and FY 2000 included (1) acclimation of hatchery spring chinook salmon and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (2) spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys on the West Fork Hood River (3) genetic analysis of steelhead and cutthroat[contractual service with the ODFW], (4) Hood River water temperature studies, (5) Oak Springs Hatchery (OSH) and Round Butte Hatchery (RBH) coded-wire tagging and clipping evaluation, (6) preparation of the Hood River Watershed Assessment (Coccoli et al., December 1999) and the Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (Coccoli et al., February 2000), (7) project implementation of early action habitat protection and restoration projects, (8) Pelton Ladder evaluation studies, (9) management oversight and guidance to BPA and ODFW engineering on HRPP facilities, and (10) preparation of an annual report summarizing project objectives for FY 1999 and FY 2000

  10. Osprey: worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel species for aquatic ecosystems. Several characteristics support the choice of the osprey as a sentinel species, including: (1) fish-eating diet atop the aquatic food web, (2) long-lived with strong nest fidelity, (3) adapts to human landscapes (potentially the most contaminated), (4) tolerates short-term nest disturbance, (5) nests spatially distributed at regular intervals, (6) highly visible nests easily located for study, (7) ability to accumulate most, if not all, lipophilic contaminants, (8) known sensitivity to many contaminants, and (9) nearly a worldwide distribution. These osprey traits have been instrumental in successfully using the species to understand population distribution, abundance, and changes over time; the effects of various contaminants on reproductive success; how contaminants in prey (fish on biomass basis) contribute to egg concentrations (i.e., biomagnification factors); and spatial residue patterns. Data summarized include nesting population surveys, detailed nesting studies, and chemical analyses of osprey egg, organ, blood, and feather samples for contaminants that bioaccumulate and/or biomagnify in aquatic food webs; and biochemical evaluations of blood and various organs. Studies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and elsewhere have shown the osprey to be a useful sentinel species for monitoring selected environmental contaminants, including some emerging contaminants in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and estuaries.

  11. Monitoring and Modeling the Fate and Transport of Nitrate in the Vadose Zone beneath a Suwannee River Basin Vegetable Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, M. A.; Graham, W. D.; Graetz, D.

    2002-05-01

    The Suwannee River basin has received much attention in recent years due to increased nitrogen levels in the groundwater-fed rivers of the basin that could seriously affect the welfare of this ecosystem. Nitrogen levels have increased from 0.1mg/l NO3-N to more than 5 mg/L NO3-N in many springs in the Suwannee Basin over the past 40 years. Nitrate concentrations in the Suwannee River itself have been increasing at the rate of .02 mg/L per year over the past 20 years. Suwannee River nitrate loads increase from 2300 kg/day to 6000 kg/day over a 33 mile stretch of the river between Dowling Park and Branford, Florida. Within this stretch of river, 89% of the nitrate loading appeared to come from the lower two-thirds, where agriculture is the dominant land use. The objective of this research is to monitor and model the impacts of alternative nutrient and water management practices on soil water quality, groundwater quality and crop yield at a commercial vegetable farm in the Suwannee River Basin. Groundwater monitoring wells, suction lysimeters, soil cores and TDR probes are used to monitor water and nitrogen transport at the site. Periodic plant biomass sampling is conducted to determine nitrogen uptake by the plants and to estimate crop yield. Field data show that two-thirds of the nitrogen applied to the spring 2001 potato crop leached to groundwater due to excessive irrigation and poor nitrogen uptake efficiency by the potatoes. The DSSAT35-Potato Crop model and the LEACHM vadose-zone model were calibrated for the spring 2001 potato crop and used to predict nitrogen leaching and crop yield for alternative management practices. Simulation results show that by reducing the duration of irrigation, reducing the fertilizer application rate, and improving the timing of fertilizer applications, nitrogen leaching can be reduced by approximately 50% while maintaining acceptable crop yields. Results of this project will ultimately be used to develop best management practices

  12. Using High Spatio-Temporal Optical Remote Sensing to Monitor Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Arctic River Yenisei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Alexis Herrault

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Arctic regions, a major concern is the release of carbon from melting permafrost that could greatly exceed current human carbon emissions. Arctic rivers drain these organic-rich watersheds (Ob, Lena, Yenisei, Mackenzie, Yukon but field measurements at the outlets of these great Arctic rivers are constrained by limited accessibility of sampling sites. In particular, the highest dissolved organic carbon (DOC fluxes are observed throughout the ice breakup period that occurs over a short two to three-week period in late May or early June during the snowmelt-generated peak flow. The colored fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC which absorbs UV and visible light is designed as chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM. It is highly correlated to DOC in large arctic rivers and streams, allowing for remote sensing to monitor DOC concentrations from satellite imagery. High temporal and spatial resolutions remote sensing tools are highly relevant for the study of DOC fluxes in a large Arctic river. The high temporal resolution allows for correctly assessing this highly dynamic process, especially the spring freshet event (a few weeks in May. The high spatial resolution allows for assessing the spatial variability within the stream and quantifying DOC transfer during the ice break period when the access to the river is almost impossible. In this study, we develop a CDOM retrieval algorithm at a high spatial and a high temporal resolution in the Yenisei River. We used extensive DOC and DOM spectral absorbance datasets from 2014 and 2015. Twelve SPOT5 (Take5 and Landsat 8 (OLI images from 2014 and 2015 were examined for this investigation. Relationships between CDOM and spectral variables were explored using linear models (LM. Results demonstrated the capacity of a CDOM algorithm retrieval to monitor DOC fluxes in the Yenisei River during a whole open water season with a special focus on the peak flow period. Overall, future Sentinel2/Landsat8

  13. Monitoring Population Evolution in the Pearl River Delta from 2000 TO 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Liu, F.; Zhang, Z.

    2018-04-01

    On behalf of more populous and developed regions in China, urban agglomerations have become important carries loading active economic activities and generous social benefits, and experienced sharper population increase, which results in great threat on local eco-environment construction. Therefore, exact and detailed population monitoring and analyzing, especially on the long sequence and multi frequency, is of great significance. The nighttime light time-series (NLT) products has been proven to be one of the most useful remotely sensed imagery to acquire persons at 1 km × 1 km scales. However, the existed problems, such as light saturation and blooming, greatly limit the accuracy of estimated results. Furthermore, it's difficult to spatialize population at km2 level due to the lack of basic data in non-census years. In order to solve all problems mentioned above, the populous Pearl River Delta was selected as the study area. A new residential extent extraction index (REEI) was proposed to solve light saturation and blooming problems. Population spatialization methods in census and non-census years were applied to acquire detailed population distribution from 2000 to 2010. Results showed the feasibility of the proposed methods in this work. During the decade, population was denser in the central PRD and sparser in the eastern, western and northern PRD. The speed of population increase was various in nine cities, but faster in 2000-2005 than 2005-2010.

  14. Automated remote cameras for monitoring alluvial sandbars on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Paul E.; Tusso, Robert B.; Buscombe, Daniel

    2018-02-27

    Automated camera systems deployed at 43 remote locations along the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, are used to document sandbar erosion and deposition that are associated with the operations of Glen Canyon Dam. The camera systems, which can operate independently for a year or more, consist of a digital camera triggered by a separate data controller, both of which are powered by an external battery and solar panel. Analysis of images for categorical changes in sandbar size show deposition at 50 percent or more of monitoring sites during controlled flood releases done in 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2016. The images also depict erosion of sandbars and show that erosion rates were highest in the first 3 months following each controlled flood. Erosion rates were highest in 2015, the year of highest annual dam release volume. Comparison of the categorical estimates of sandbar change agree with sandbar change (erosion or deposition) measured by topographic surveys in 76 percent of cases evaluated. A semiautomated method for quantifying changes in sandbar area from the remote-camera images by rectifying the oblique images and segmenting the sandbar from the rest of the image is presented. Calculation of sandbar area by this method agrees with sandbar area determined by topographic survey within approximately 8 percent and allows quantification of sandbar area monthly (or more frequently).

  15. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report for 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The environmental surveillance activities at and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) comprise the most comprehensive environmental monitoring program at any site in the United States. The results of this program have been reported to the public since 1959. In 1982, as in previous years, the impact of SRP operations on public health was insignificant. The highest radiation dose to a hypothetical individual on the SRP boundary from 1982 releases of radioactive materials was 1.4 millirems. The average radiation dose that a person at the SRP boundary received from atmospheric releases was 0.4 millirem per year. For persons living within 50 miles of SRP, the average dose was 0.12 millirem per year. The maximum radiation dose to people downstream of SRP who consumed water from the Port Wentworth water treatment plant near Savannah, GA, was 0.27 millirem in 1982. The maximum dose from consuming water from the Beaufort-Jasper, SC, water treatment plant was 0.19 millirem. These radiation doses from SRP operations are small compared to the dose from natural radiation, which averages 93 millirems per year near SRP. Additionally, doses from SRP are small compared to the geographical differences in natural radiation. The annual natural radiation dose to Georgia and South Carolina residents within 100 miles of SRP varies from place to place by as much as 60 millirems. The concentrations of nonradioactive materials of SRP origin in offsite air and water continued to be well within federal and state limits

  16. Sea otters homogenize mussel beds and reduce habitat provisioning in a rocky intertidal ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald G Singh

    Full Text Available Sea otters (Enhydra lutris are keystone predators that consume a variety of benthic invertebrates, including the intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus. By virtue of their competitive dominance, large size, and longevity, M. californianus are ecosystem engineers that form structurally complex beds that provide habitat for diverse invertebrate communities. We investigated whether otters affect mussel bed characteristics (i.e. mussel length distributions, mussel bed depth, and biomass and associated community structure (i.e. biomass, alpha and beta diversity by comparing four regions that varied in their histories of sea otter occupancy on the west coast of British Columbia and northern Washington. Mussel bed depth and average mussel lengths were 1.5 times lower in regions occupied by otters for >20 years than those occupied for <5 yrs. Diversity of mussel bed associated communities did not differ between regions; however, the total biomass of species associated with mussel beds was more than three-times higher where sea otters were absent. We examined alternative explanations for differences in mussel bed community structure, including among-region variation in oceanographic conditions and abundance of the predatory sea star Pisaster ochraceus. We cannot discount multiple drivers shaping mussel beds, but our findings indicate the sea otters are an important one. We conclude that, similar to their effects on subtidal benthic invertebrates, sea otters reduce the size distributions of intertidal mussels and, thereby, habitat available to support associated communities. Our study indicates that by reducing populations of habitat-providing intertidal mussels, sea otters may have substantial indirect effects on associated communities.

  17. Mortality trends in northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) collected from the coasts of Washington and Oregon (2002–15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. LeAnn; Lankau, Emily W.; Lynch, Deanna; Knowles, Susan N.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Dubey, Jitender P.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Thomas, Nancy J.

    2018-01-01

    During 2002−15 we examined the causes of mortality in a population of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni). Beachcast sea otters were collected primarily from the coast of Washington. Although there are no permanent sea otter residents in Oregon, several beachcast otters were collected from the Oregon coast. Infectious diseases were the primary cause of death (56%) for otters we examined. Sarcocystosis was the leading infectious cause of death (54%) and was observed throughout the study period. Some infectious diseases, such as morbilliviral encephalitis and leptospirosis, were documented for a limited number of years and then not detected again despite continued testing for these pathogens in necropsied animals. Trauma was the second most common cause of death (14%) during the study period. The continued stable growth of the Washington population of otters suggests they are able to tolerate current mortality rates.

  18. Kelp Forests versus Urchin Barrens: Alternate Stable States and Their Effect on Sea Otter Prey Quality in the Aleutian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgal and urchin barren communities are alternately stable and persist in the Aleutians due to sea otter presence and absence. In the early 1990s a rapid otter population decline released urchins from predation and caused a shift to the urchin-dominated state. Despite increases in urchin abundance, otter numbers continued to decline. Although debated, prey quality changes have been implicated in current otter population status. This study examined otter prey abundance, size, biomass, and potential energy density in remnant kelp forest and urchin-dominated communities to determine if alternate stable states affect prey quality. Findings suggest that although urchin barrens provide more abundant urchin prey, individual urchins are smaller and provide lower biomass and potential energy density compared to kelp forests. Shifts to urchin barrens do affect prey quality but changes are likely compensated by increased prey densities and are insufficient in explaining current otter population status in the Aleutians.

  19. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel N.; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  20. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network-Based Message Forwarding for a River Pollution Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Villada, Carlos; Donoso, Yezid

    2016-03-25

    Communications from remote areas that may be of interest is still a problem. Many innovative projects applied to remote sites face communications difficulties. The GOLDFISH project was an EU-funded project for river pollution monitoring in developing countries. It had several sensor clusters, with floating WiFi antennas, deployed along a downstream river's course. Sensor clusters sent messages to a Gateway installed on the riverbank. This gateway sent the messages, through a backhaul technology, to an Internet server where data was aggregated over a map. The communication challenge in this scenario was produced by the antennas' movement and network backhaul availability. Since the antennas were floating on the river, communications could be disrupted at any time. Also, 2G/3G availability near the river was not constant. For non-real-time applications, we propose a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN)-based solution where all nodes have persistent storage capabilities and DTN protocols to be able to wait minutes or hours to transmit. A mechanical backhaul will periodically visit the river bank where the gateway is installed and it will automatically collect sensor data to be carried to an Internet-covered spot. The proposed forwarding protocol delivers around 98% of the messages for this scenario, performing better than other well-known DTN routing protocols.

  1. Optimisation of the Monitoring Strategy of Macroinvertebrate Communities in the River Dender, in Relation to the EU Water Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom P. D’heygere

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dender basin in Flanders (Belgium was used as a case study to implement the European Union (EU Water Framework Directive. During the last 5 years, ample research on pollution loads and ecological water quality has been done on the Dender River. In addition to biological sampling of macroinvertebrates and fish, automated measurement stations were also used to investigate the spatial-temporal variability of the physical-chemical water quality. This research revealed that the pollution of the Dender River is highly variable. The high nutrient loads result in severe algae blooms during summer, leading to very complex diurnal processes. In this paper, the monitoring strategy for the assessment of the biological water quality in the Dender basin has been reviewed in relation to the EU Water Framework Directive. For this, seasonal macroinvertebrate data were collected and assessed. General trends and hidden structures in these data were analysed by means of classification trees, using different inputs (seasons, river types, and subbasins. Validation of the results was obtained by applying statistical methods. Analysis about the presence and abundance of the macroinvertebrates revealed that there is a distinct difference between the biological water quality in the Dender stem river and its tributaries. There are also seasonal differences between the macroinvertebrate communities when the Dender and its tributaries are examined separately. An optimised monitoring strategy is proposed based on these results and the EU Water Framework Directive. This includes two monitoring campaigns in summer and winter every 3 years. Furthermore, a cyclic monitoring scheme was developed to minimise sampling efforts.

  2. Dramatic increase in sea otter mortality from white sharks in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. Tim; Hatfield, Brian B.; Harris, Michael D.; Ames, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Although southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) are not considered prey for white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias), sharks do nonetheless bite sea otters. We analyzed spatial and temporal trends in shark bites on sea otters in California, assessing the frequency of shark bite wounds in 1,870 carcasses collected since 1985. The proportion of stranded sea otters having shark bites has increased sharply since 2003, and white shark bites now account for >50% of recovered carcasses. The trend was most pronounced in the southern part of the range, from Estero Bay to Point Conception, where shark bite frequency has increased eightfold. Seasonal trends were also evident: most shark-bitten carcasses are recovered in late summer and fall; however, the period of elevated shark bite frequency has lengthened. The causes of these trends are unclear, but possible contributing factors include increased white shark abundance and/or changes in white shark behavior and distribution. In particular, the spatiotemporal patterns of shark-bitten sea otters match increases in pinniped populations, and the increased availability of marine mammal prey for white sharks may have led to more sharks spending more time in nearshore waters utilized by both sea otters and pinnipeds.

  3. Butyltin residues in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along California coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K.; Guruge, K.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products, mono- (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT), were determined in liver, kidney, and brain tissues of adult southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along the coast of California during 1992a??1996. Hepatic concentrations of butyltin compounds (BTs = MBT + DBT + TBT) ranged from 40 to 9200 ng/g wet wt, which varied depending on the sampling location and gender. Concentrations of BTs in sea otters were comparable to those reported in stranded bottlenose dolphins from the U.S. Atlantic Coast during 1989a??1994. Greater accumulation of butyltins in sea otters was explained by their bottom-feeding habit and the diet that consists exclusively of invertebrates such as mollusks and gastropods. Livers of female sea otters contained approximately 2-fold greater concentrations of BTs than did those of males. The composition of butyltin compounds in sea otter tissues was predominated by TBT in most cases and suggestive of recent exposure. Large harbors such as Monterey Harbor that handle ships legally painted with TBT-containing antifouling paints continued to experience ecotoxicologically significant butyltin contamination. Sea otters, which were affected by infectious diseases, contained greater concentrations of BTs in their tissues than those that died from trauma and other unknown causes.

  4. Groundwater conservation and monitoring activities in the middle Brenta River plain (Veneto Region, Northern Italy: preliminary results about aquifer recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sottani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the middle Brenta River plain there is a unconfined aquifer that represents an important groundwater resource in Veneto region. In this area the main groundwater recharge factor is related to the stream seepage: the water dispersion from the Brenta river is active with variable intensity from the foothill to the alignment Nove di Bassano - Cartigliano (Province of Vicenza. In order to mitigate the expected groundwater effects, due to future important waterworks withdrawals provided by the regional water resources management plans, an experimental project of Managed Aquifer Recharge has started, by means of the realization of some river transversal ramps. The construction of pilot works, partially completed, were preceded by a specific hydrogeological monitoring program, aimed to the evaluation of the effectiveness of the MAR actions in terms of comparison between pre-and post-operam conditions. Thanks to the development of a site-specific methodology, aimed to the quantification of the artificial infiltration rate, and after some years of monitoring controls of the hydrological and hydrogeological regimes, it is now possible to evaluate the extent and the rate of the recharge effects in groundwater due to ramps realization. The monitoring plan will be continued in the medium-long term. Some innovative approaches, based for example on the use of groundwater temperature measurements as recharge tracer, will help to validate the preliminary results.

  5. Comparison of balance of tritium activity in waste water from nuclear power plants and at selected monitoring sites in the Vltava River, Elbe River and Jihlava (Dyje) River catchments in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslík, Eduard; Marešová, Diana; Juranová, Eva; Sedlářová, Barbora

    2017-12-01

    During the routine operation, nuclear power plants discharge waste water containing a certain amount of radioactivity, whose main component is the artificial radionuclide tritium. The amounts of tritium released into the environment are kept within the legal requirements, which minimize the noxious effects of radioactivity, but the activity concentration is well measurable in surface water of the recipient. This study compares amount of tritium activity in waste water from nuclear power plants and the tritium activity detected at selected relevant sites of surface water quality monitoring. The situation is assessed in the catchment of the Vltava and Elbe Rivers, affected by the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant as well as in the Jihlava River catchment (the Danube River catchment respectively), where the waste water of the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant is discharged. The results show a good agreement of the amount of released tritium stated by the power plant operator and the tritium amount detected in the surface water and highlighted the importance of a robust independent monitoring of tritium discharged from a nuclear power plant which could be carried out by water management authorities. The outputs of independent monitoring allow validating the values reported by a polluter and expand opportunities of using tritium as e.g. tracer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of targeted and untargeted effects-based monitoring tools to assess impacts of contaminants of emerging concern on fish in the South Platte River, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers in the arid Western United States face increasing influences from anthropogenic contaminants due to population growth, urbanization, and drought. To better understand and more effectively track the impacts of these contaminants, biologically-based monitoring tools are incr...

  7. Site Management and Monitoring Plan (SMMP) for the Mouth of Columbia River- Deep and Shallow Water Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites, OR/WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SMMP is intended to provide management and monitoring strategies for disposal in the Mouth of Columbia River- Deep and Shallow Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites on the border of Oregon and Washington.

  8. Improvements in Hudson River Water Quality Create the Need for a new Approach to Monitoring and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullan, G. D.; Juhl, A.; Sambrotto, R.; Lipscomb, J.; Brown, T.

    2008-12-01

    localized events, demonstrate that a new approach is needed to monitor and manage the lower Hudson River Estuary. One important component of this new approach is consideration of local and extreme conditions, rather than just spatial and temporal means. Another aspect is increased public dissemination of available water quality data. A new Hudson River water quality web site has been launched as an example of this type of public outreach.

  9. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report for 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The radiation dose at the plant perimeter or the population dose in the region from SRP operations is very small relative to the dose received from naturally occurring radiation. The annual average dose in 1978 from atmospheric releases of radioactive materials from SRP was 0.76 millirem (mrem) at the plant perimeter (approximately 1% of natural background). The maximum dose at the plant perimeter was 1.05 mrems, which is 0.2% of the Department of Energy limit for offsite exposures. The total radiation exposure at the plant perimeter from SRP releases and natural background radiation (98 mrems) was substantially less than the exposure of a person living in Columbia, SC (111 mrems), or Atlanta, GA (124 mrems). These differences are due to variation in natural radiation. The population dose to people living within 80 km (50 mi) of the center of SRP (population: 465,000) was 110 man-rems. During 1978, this same population received a radiation dose of 54,400 man-rems from natural radiation and an additional dose of 47,000 man-rems from medical x rays. An individual consuming river water downstream from SRP would receive a maximum calculated dose of 0.32 mrem. Air and water are the major dispersal media for radioactive emissions. Samples representing most segments of the environment that may conceivably be affected by these emissions were monitored to ensure a safe environment. Releases of radioactivity from SRP had very small effect on living plants and animals and were too minute to be detectable, and with a few exceptions, concentrations outside the plant boundary were too low to distinguish from the natural radioactive background and continuing worldwide fallout from nuclear weapons tests

  10. Limnological Monitoring on the Upper Mississippi River System, 1993-1996: Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Havana Field Station

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soballe, David

    2002-01-01

    .... The flood in spring 1995 receded sooner than in 1993. However, the 137 m (450.66 feet) peak on May 31, 1995, was the third highest river elevation recorded at Havana, Illinois. Low dissolved oxygen levels in the main channel were also notable in 1993-1996 with concentrations at or below 5 mg/L observed each year.

  11. Monitoring winter flow conditions on the Ivishak River, Alaska : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The Sagavanirktok River, a braided river on the Alaska North Slope, flows adjacent to the trans-Alaska pipeline for approximately 100 miles south of Prudhoe Bay. During an unprecedented flooding event in mid-May 2015, the pipeline was exposed in an a...

  12. Bird monitoring as an aid to riparian restoration: Findings from the Trinity River in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Klamath Bird Observatory and USFS Pacific Southwest Research Station

    2013-01-01

    The Trinity River Restoration Program began in 2000 with the goal of restoring the Trinity River's salmon and steelhead fisheries, which were severely degraded during the last half-century as a result of dams, water diversions under the Central Valley Project, and land-use practices such as gold mining. The restoration program, as outlined in the U.S. Department...

  13. Design of river height and speed monitoring system by using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. H.; Siagian, E. C.; Tanjung, K.; Soeharwinto

    2018-02-01

    River is one part of the hydrologic cycle. Water in rivers is generally collected from precipitation, such as rain, dew, springs, underground runoff, and in certain countries also comes from melt ice/snow. The height and speed of water in a river is always changing. Changes in altitude and speed of water can affect the surrounding environment. In this paper, we will design a system to measure the altitude and speed of the river. In this work we use Arduino Uno, ultrasonic sensors and flow rate sensors. Ultrasonic sensor HC-SR04 is used as a river height meter. Based on the test results, this sensor has an accuracy of 96.6%.

  14. An integrated approach to the Environmental Monitoring Plan of the Pertuso spring (Upper Valley of Aniene River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sappa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative assessment of groundwater and surface water is an important tool for sustainable management and protection of these important resources. This paper deals with the design of a multi-disciplinary monitoring plan related to the catchment project of the Pertuso spring, in the Upper Valley of Aniene River, which is going to be exploited to supply an important water network in the South part of Roma district. According to the Legislative Decree 152/2006, as modified by DM 260/2010, any infrastructure design should take in consideration an Environmental Monitoring Plan for the hydrogeological settings of the study area. Thus, the hydrogeological characterization combined with an Environmental Monitoring Plan provides to evaluate the potential adverse environmental impacts due catchment works. For water resources assessment and management, the quantification of groundwater recharge is a preliminary step. As a matter of fact, it has been included the quantitative characterization of the Pertuso spring, in the aim of to protect catchment area, which is directly affect by the natural hydrogeological balance of this aquifer. Thus, a multi-disciplinary monitoring plan has been set up, including quantitative and hydrogeochemical measurements, both for groundwater and surface water of the Upper Valley of Aniene River. The target of this Environmental Monitoring Plan is to set up the background framework on the hydromorphological, physico-chemical and biological properties of water resources in the water basin influenced aim by any potential environmental impact due to the construction activities. The Environmental Monitoring Plan and main features of the monitoring network will be presented in this study.

  15. A reassessment of the suspended sediment load in the Madeira River basin from the Andes of Peru and Bolivia to the Amazon River in Brazil, based on 10 years of data from the HYBAM monitoring programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchel, Philippe; Santini, William; Guyot, Jean Loup; Moquet, Jean Sébastien; Martinez, Jean Michel; Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Baby, Patrice; Fuertes, Oscar; Noriega, Luis; Puita, Oscar; Sondag, Francis; Fraizy, Pascal; Armijos, Elisa; Cochonneau, Gérard; Timouk, Franck; de Oliveira, Eurides; Filizola, Naziano; Molina, Jorge; Ronchail, Josyane

    2017-10-01

    The Madeira River is the second largest tributary of the Amazon River. It contributes approximately 13% of the Amazon River flow and it may contribute up to 50% of its sediment discharge to the Atlantic Ocean. Until now, the suspended sediment load of the Madeira River was not well known and was estimated in a broad range from 240 to 715 Mt yr-1. Since 2002, the HYBAM international network developed a new monitoring programme specially designed to provide more reliable data than in previous intents. It is based on the continuous monitoring of a set of 11 gauging stations in the Madeira River watershed from the Andes piedmont to the confluence with the Amazon River, and discrete sampling of the suspended sediment concentration every 7 or 10 days. This paper presents the results of the suspended sediment data obtained in the Madeira drainage basin during 2002-2011. The Madeira River suspended sediment load is estimated at 430 Mt yr-1 near its confluence with the Amazon River. The average production of the Madeira River Andean catchment is estimated at 640 Mt yr-1 (±30%), the corresponding sediment yield for the Andes is estimated at 3000 t km-2 yr-1 (±30%), and the average denudation rate is estimated at 1.20 mm yr-1 (±30%). Contrary to previous results that had mentioned high sedimentation rates in the Beni River floodplain, we detected no measurable sedimentation process in this part of the basin. On the Mamoré River basin, we observed heavy sediment deposition of approximately 210 Mt yr-1 that seem to confirm previous studies. But while these studies mentioned heavy sedimentation in the floodplain, we showed that sediment deposition occurred mainly in the Andean piedmont and immediate foreland in rivers (Parapeti, Grande, Pirai, Yapacani, Chimoré, Chaparé, Secure, Maniqui) with discharges that are not sufficiently large to transport their sediment load downstream in the lowlands.

  16. Phylogeography of the Patagonian otter Lontra provocax: adaptive divergence to marine habitat or signature of southern glacial refugia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chehébar Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have described the extension of ice cover in western Patagonia during the Last Glacial Maximum, providing evidence of a complete cover of terrestrial habitat from 41°S to 56°S and two main refugia, one in south-eastern Tierra del Fuego and the other north of the Chiloé Island. However, recent evidence of high genetic diversity in Patagonian river species suggests the existence of aquatic refugia in this region. Here, we further test this hypothesis based on phylogeographic inferences from a semi-aquatic species that is a top predator of river and marine fauna, the huillín or Southern river otter (Lontra provocax. Results We examined mtDNA sequences of the control region, ND5 and Cytochrome-b (2151 bp in total in 75 samples of L. provocax from 21 locations in river and marine habitats. Phylogenetic analysis illustrates two main divergent clades for L. provocax in continental freshwater habitat. A highly diverse clade was represented by haplotypes from the marine habitat of the Southern Fjords and Channels (SFC region (43°38' to 53°08'S, whereas only one of these haplotypes was paraphyletic and associated with northern river haplotypes. Conclusions Our data support the hypothesis of the persistence of L. provocax in western Patagonia, south of the ice sheet limit, during last glacial maximum (41°S latitude. This limit also corresponds to a strong environmental change, which might have spurred L. provocax differentiation between the two environments.

  17. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: wasoares@sp.gov.br, E-mail: gquinaglia@sp.gov.br [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo (CETESB), SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2013-07-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  18. Multielemental characterization of sediments from rivers and reservoirs of a sediment quality monitoring network of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The Environment Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB) by means of its quality monitoring network does, systematically, the assessment of water and sediment quality in rivers and reservoirs in the Sao Paulo state. The quality evaluation is done by means 50 parameters in water and 63 for sediment that are considered the more representative for CETESB monitoring. In 2011 the network monitoring analyzed 420 points being 24 in sediments. In the present study the multielemental characterization (total concentration) of 13 sediment samples from 24 rivers and reservoirs belonging to the CETESB monitoring network were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The analytical validation according to precision and accuracy was checked through certified reference materials analyzes BEN (Basalt-IWG-GIT), SL-1 (Lake Sediment - IAEA) and Soil-5 (IAEA), that presents certified concentration values for all elements analyzed. The results obtained for multielemental characterization were compared to NASC values (North American Shale Composite) and the enrichment factor (EF) by using Sc as a normalizer element was calculated. The results showed higher enrichment values for As, Br, Cr, Hf, Ta, Th , U and Zn and rare earth elements (REE) Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb in many of the tested sediment samples indicating that there may be an anthropogenic contribution for these elements. The multielemental results were also compared to the granulometric composition of the sediment samples. Factorial and Cluster Analysis were applied and indicated that the elements distribution is controlled, mainly by the granulometric fractions of the sediments. (author)

  19. CryoSat-2 altimetry for river level monitoring - Evaluation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Heidi; Andersen, Ole B.; Stenseng, Lars

    2015-01-01

    , the results from the method developed in this study involving virtual stations show that the CryoSat-2 data can indeed be used for such monitoring by utilizing the high spatial coverage and the sub-cycle period of 30 days. The results show that it is possible to capture the peak flow occurring during late...

  20. Monitoring of emerging pollutants in Guadiamar River basin (South of Spain): analytical method, spatial distribution and environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Eva; Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Martín, Julia; Santos, Antonio; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2016-12-01

    Guadiamar River is located in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula and connects two protected areas in the South of Spain: Sierra Morena and Doñana National Park. It is sited in an area affected by urban, industrial and agriculture sewage pollution and with tradition on intensive mining activities. Most of the studies performed in this area have been mainly focused on the presence of heavy metals and, until now, little is known about the occurrence of other contaminants such as emerging organic pollutants (EOPs). In this work, an analytical method has been optimized and validated for monitoring of forty-seven EOPs in surface water. The analytical method has been applied to study the distribution and environmental risk of these pollutants in Guadiamar River basin. The analytical method was based on solid-phase extraction and determination by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry. The 60 % of the target compounds were found in the analyzed samples. The highest concentrations were found for two plasticizers (bisphenol A and di(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate, mean concentration up to 930 ng/L) and two pharmaceutical compounds (caffeine (up to 623 ng/L) and salicylic acid (up to 318 ng/L)). This study allowed to evaluate the potential sources (industrial or urban) of the studied compounds and the spatial distribution of their concentrations along the river. Environmental risk assessment showed a major risk on the south of the river, mainly due to discharges of wastewater effluents.

  1. Monitoring and assessment of radionuclide discharges from Temelín Nuclear Power Plant into the Vltava River (Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslík, Eduard; Ivanovová, Diana; Juranová, Eva; Simonek, Pavel; Jedináková-Krízová, Vĕra

    2009-02-01

    The paper summarizes impacts of the Temelín Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on the Vltava and Labe River basins. The study is based on the results of long-term monitoring carried out before the plant operation (1989-2000), and subsequently during the plant operation (2001-2005). In the first period, the main objective was to determine background radionuclide levels remaining in the environment after global fallout and due to the Chernobyl accident. A decrease in the concentrations of (90)Sr, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, which was observed before the plant operation, continued also during the subsequent period. Apart from tritium, the results of the observation did not indicate any impacts of the plant on the concentrations of activation and fission products in the hydrosphere. The annual average tritium concentrations in the Vltava River were in agreement with predicted values. The maximum annual average tritium concentration (13.5 Bq L(-1)) was observed in 2004 downstream from the wastewater discharge in the Vltava River at Solenice. Estimated radiation doses for adults due to intakes of river water as drinking water contaminated by tritium are below 0.1 microSv y(-1).

  2. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network-Based Message Forwarding for a River Pollution Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velásquez-Villada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Communications from remote areas that may be of interest is still a problem. Many innovative projects applied to remote sites face communications difficulties. The GOLDFISH project was an EU-funded project for river pollution monitoring in developing countries. It had several sensor clusters, with floating WiFi antennas, deployed along a downstream river’s course. Sensor clusters sent messages to a Gateway installed on the riverbank. This gateway sent the messages, through a backhaul technology, to an Internet server where data was aggregated over a map. The communication challenge in this scenario was produced by the antennas’ movement and network backhaul availability. Since the antennas were floating on the river, communications could be disrupted at any time. Also, 2G/3G availability near the river was not constant. For non-real-time applications, we propose a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN-based solution where all nodes have persistent storage capabilities and DTN protocols to be able to wait minutes or hours to transmit. A mechanical backhaul will periodically visit the river bank where the gateway is installed and it will automatically collect sensor data to be carried to an Internet-covered spot. The proposed forwarding protocol delivers around 98% of the messages for this scenario, performing better than other well-known DTN routing protocols.

  3. Data management for support of the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, J. W.; Angelici, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    Management of data collected during projects that involve large numbers of scientists is an often overlooked aspect of the experimental plan. Ecosystem science projects like the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) Project that involve many investigators from many institutions and that run for multiple years, collect and archive large amounts of data. These data range in size from a few kilobytes of information for such measurements as canopy chemistry and meteorological variables, to hundreds of megabytes of information for such items as views from multi-band spectrometers flown on aircraft and scenes from imaging radiometers aboard satellites. Organizing and storing data from the OTTER Project, certifying those data, correcting errors in data sets, validating the data, and distributing those data to other OTTER investigators is a major undertaking. Using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Pilot Land Data System (PLDS), a Support mechanism was established for the OTTER Project which accomplished all of the above. At the onset of the interaction between PLDS and OTTER, it was not certain that PLDS could accomplish these tasks in a manner that would aid researchers in the OTTER Project. This paper documents the data types that were collected under the auspices of the OTTER Project and the procedures implemented to store, catalog, validate, and certify those data. The issues of the compliance of investigators with data-management requirements, data use and certification, and the ease of retrieving data are discussed. We advance the hypothesis that formal data management is necessary in ecological investigations involving multiple investigators using many data gathering instruments and experimental procedures. The issues and experience gained in this exercise give an indication of the needs for data management systems that must be addressed in the coming decades when other large data-gathering endeavors are undertaken by the ecological

  4. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  5. Comparison of Microtox and Xenoassay Light as a Near Real Time River Monitoring Assay for Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. E. Halmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescence-based assays for toxicants such as Microtox, ToxAlert, and Biotox have been used extensively worldwide. However, the use of these assays in near real time conditions is limited due to nonoptimal assay temperature for the tropical climate. An isolate that exhibits a high luminescence activity in a broad range of temperatures was successfully isolated from the mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta. This isolate was tentatively identified as Photobacterium sp. strain MIE, based on partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny. Optimum conditions that support high bioluminescence activity occurred between 24 and 30°C, with pH 5.5 to 7.5, 10 to 20 g/L of sodium chloride, 30 to 50 g/L of tryptone, and 4 g/L of glycerol as the carbon source. Assessment of near real time capability of this bacterial system, Xenoassay light to monitor heavy metals from a contaminated river running through the Juru River Basin shows near real time capability with assaying time of less than 30 minutes per samples. Samples returned to the lab were tested with a standard Microtox assay using Vibrio fishceri. Similar results were obtained to Xenoassay light that show temporal variation of copper concentration. Thus, this strain is suitable for near real time river monitoring of toxicants especially in the tropics.

  6. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-04-02

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  7. Escapement Monitoring of Adult Chinook Salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2001-04-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  8. Streamflow monitoring and statistics for development of water rights claims for Wild and Scenic Rivers, Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness, Idaho, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), collected streamflow data in 2012 and estimated streamflow statistics for stream segments designated "Wild," "Scenic," or "Recreational" under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness in southwestern Idaho. The streamflow statistics were used by BLM to develop and file a draft, federal reserved water right claim in autumn 2012 to protect federally designated "outstanding remarkable values" in the stream segments. BLM determined that the daily mean streamflow equaled or exceeded 20 and 80 percent of the time during bimonthly periods (two periods per month) and the bankfull streamflow are important streamflow thresholds for maintaining outstanding remarkable values. Prior to this study, streamflow statistics estimated using available datasets and tools for the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness were inaccurate for use in the water rights claim. Streamflow measurements were made at varying intervals during February–September 2012 at 14 monitoring sites; 2 of the monitoring sites were equipped with telemetered streamgaging equipment. Synthetic streamflow records were created for 11 of the 14 monitoring sites using a partial‑record method or a drainage-area-ratio method. Streamflow records were obtained directly from an operating, long-term streamgage at one monitoring site, and from discontinued streamgages at two monitoring sites. For 10 sites analyzed using the partial-record method, discrete measurements were related to daily mean streamflow at a nearby, telemetered “index” streamgage. Resulting regression equations were used to estimate daily mean and annual peak streamflow at the monitoring sites during the full period of record for the index sites. A synthetic streamflow record for Sheep Creek was developed using a drainage-area-ratio method, because measured streamflows did not relate well to any index site to allow use of the partial

  9. Ground subsidence monitoring of the Vega Media of the Segura River by means of Advanced differential Sar Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, R.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Sanchez, J. M.; Mallorqui, J. J.; Mulas, J.

    2010-01-01

    Ground subsidence caused by aquifer withdrawal is a geotechnical hazard that affects wide areas, causing high economic losses. This phenomenon id due to aquifer system fine soil consolidation produced by the increase of effective stress caused by piezo metric depletion. The Vega Media of the Segura River basin (SE Spain) has suffered this type of phenomena since 90s being until the moment the first documented case at a regional scale in Spain. In this work a Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) remote sensing technique called Coherent Pixel (CPT) is applied to monitoring subsidence in the Vega Media of the Segura River using 81 SAR images provided by ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT European Space Agency satellites. The processing has provided the subsidence spatial distribution and temporal evolution for the whole study area showing maximum subsidence values near 15 cm for the 1994-2007 period. (Author) 33 refs.

  10. Integrated assessment of PAH contamination in the Czech Rivers using a combination of chemical and biological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahova, Jana; Divisova, Lenka; Kodes, Vit; Leontovycova, Drahomira; Mach, Samuel; Ocelka, Tomas; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution of selected rivers in the Czech Republic. Integrated evaluation was carried out using combination of chemical and biological monitoring, in which we measured content of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in chub bile and priority PAH in water samples obtained by exposing the semipermeable membrane devices at each location. The concentrations of 1-OHP in bile samples and sum of priority PAH in water sampler ranged from 6.8 ng mg protein(-1) to 106.6 ng mg protein(-1) and from 5.2 ng L(-1) to 173.9 ng L(-1), respectively. The highest levels of biliary metabolite and PAH in water were measured at the Odra River (the Bohumín site), which is located in relatively heavily industrialized and polluted region. Statistically significant positive correlation between biliary 1-OHP and sum of PAH in water was also obtained (P < 0.01, r s = 0.806).

  11. Time-lapse ERT and DTS for seasonal and short-term monitoring of an alpine river hyporheic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Laura, Busato; Mariateresa, Perri; Giorgio, Cassiani

    2016-04-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is the area located beneath and adjacent to rivers and streams, where the interactions between surface water and groundwater take place. This complex physical domain allows the transport of several substances from a stream to the unconfined aquifer below, and vice versa, thus playing a fundamental role in the river ecosystem. The importance of the hyporheic zone makes its characterization a goal shared by several disciplines, which range from applied geophysics to biogeochemistry, from hydraulics to ecology. The frontier field of HZ characterization stays in applied non-invasive methodologies as Electrical Resistivity Tomography - ERT - and Distributed Temperature Sensing - DTS. ERT is commonly applied in cross-well configuration or with a superficial electrodes deployment while DTS is used in hydro-geophysics in the last decade, revealing a wide applicability to the typical issues of this field of study. DTS for hydro-geophysics studies is based on Raman scattering and employs heat as tracer and uses a fiber-optic cable to acquire temperature values. We applied both techniques for an alpine river case studies located in Val di Sole, TN, Italy. The collected measurements allow high-resolution characterization of the hyporheic zone, overcoming the critical problem of invasive measurements under riverbeds. In this work, we present the preliminary results regarding the characterization of the hyporheic zone of the alpine river obtained combining ERT and DTS time-lapse measurements. The data collection benefits from an innovative instrumentation deployment, which consists of both an ERT multicore cable and a DTS fiber-optic located in two separated boreholes drilled 5m under the watercourse and perpendicular to it. In particular we present the first year monitoring results and a short time-lapse monitoring experiment conducted during summer 2015. The site and the results here described are part of the EU FP7 CLIMB (Climate Induced Changes on the

  12. Quality monitoring and assessment of mercury contamination in water and sediments of the Botafogo river, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Moraes Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 80's, the riverside population of Rio Botafogo, in the Santa Cruz channel, Itamaracá has undergone critical environmental situations due to poorly planned growth and inadequate soil occupation, and as a consequence, a loss in environmental quality resulted. In 1963, an industry for production of chlorine and caustic soda produced by electrolytic cell of mercury was installed in the Botafogo river. By mid-1987, a discharge of inorganic mercury between 22 and 35 tones of mercury in this river was estimated. In addition to this industry, others of different types were installed in recent years along the sides of this river. Based on previous studies, we conducted a new assessment of contaminated sites, comparing the changes over the years concerning the quality of water and sediment of the Botafogo river, in which the locations of collection, the need to increase the network of environmental monitoring were investigated. The parameters defined for analysis of water were: pH, dissolved oxygen (OD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, ammonia and phosphorus concentration, color, turbidity and mercury content. It was monitored the concentration of mercury in the sediments. The values of pH, turbidity, DO, BOD and ammonia usually showed values within the limits established by CONAMA Resolution No 357. Color parameters have remained consistently high, probably caused by continuous withdrawal of sand before the points of collection. The content of phosphorus was high, until the beginning of 2005, and remained within standards required by legislation until the end of this research. In the studied area, it has been installed, since 1963, an industry for chlorine and caustic soda production, which uses in its manufacturing process electrolytic cell of mercury. In this experiment, the impact of mercury has been observed.

  13. Feasibility of estimate sediment yield in the non-sediment monitoring station area - A case study of Alishan River watershed,Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, ChiaChi; Chan, HsunChuan; Jia, YaFei; Zhang, YaoXin

    2017-04-01

    Due to the steep topography, frail geology and concentrated rainfall in wet season, slope disaster occurred frequently in Taiwan. In addition, heavy rainfall induced landslides in upper watersheds. The sediment yield on the slopeland affects the sediment transport in the river. Sediment deposits on the river bed reduce the river cross section and change the flow direction. Furthermore, it generates risks to residents' lives and property in the downstream. The Taiwanese government has been devoting increasing efforts on the sedimentary management issues and on reduction in disaster occurrence. However, due to the limited information on the environmental conditions in the upper stream, it is difficult to set up the sedimentary monitoring equipment. This study used the upper stream of the Qingshuei River, the Alishan River, as a study area. In August 2009, Typhoon Morakot caused the sedimentation of midstream and downstream river courses in the Alishan River. Because there is no any sediment monitoring stations within the Alishan River watershed, the sediment yield values are hard to determine. The objective of this study is to establish a method to analyze the event-landslide sediment transport in the river on the upper watershed. This study numerically investigated the sediment transport in the Alishan River by using the KINEROS 2 model developed by the United States Department of Agriculture and the CCHE1D model developed by the National Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering. The simulated results represent the morphology changes in the Alishan River during the typhoon events. The results consist of a critical strategy reference for the sedimentary management for the Alishan River watershed.

  14. The monitoring method of water quality in Ciliwung River for post restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diyanti; Saleh Pallu, Muh.; Tahir Lopa, Rita; Arsyad Thaha, M.

    2018-04-01

    Ciliwung River is the biggest river which flows across DKI Jakarta, where the river flows through the city, the settlements, and slums in Jakarta. Problems that occur in the Ciliwung River in Jakarta one of which is the quality of water. This research using some datas, there are secondary and primary data like river dimension and visualization of water quality of Ciliwung River. This research using a descriptive method which describes the comparison between a physical and chemical parameter for the durationn of three (3) years post-restoration. The physical parameters used in this reasearch are temperature and TDS, the chemical parameters are pH dan DO. Based on the result of data analyzing, we get the temperature average parameter pre-restoration is 28.30°C and TDS level is 151.96 mg/L, so the logical of standard quality criteria match with class 3. Post-restoration got the temperature 22.06°C and TDS level 224.20mg/L, so that water quality criteria match with class 2. For the chemical parameters the average pH and DO values pre-restoration are 6.84 and 4mg/L, respectively which match with class 2 category. Post-restoration, the chemical parameter about pH level is 7.41 and DO 8.4 mg/L, so the standard quality criteria match with class 1.

  15. Using Spatial Information Technologies as Monitoring Devices in International Watershed Conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A. Twumasi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies—Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing—in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region’s entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing

  16. Using spatial information technologies as monitoring devices in international watershed conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merem, Edmund C; Twumasi, Yaw A

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies-Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing-in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region's entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing techniques by generating spatially referenced data to supplement

  17. Hearing in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris): auditory profiles for an amphibious marine carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoul, Asila; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2014-11-01

    In this study we examine the auditory capabilities of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris), an amphibious marine mammal that remains virtually unstudied with respect to its sensory biology. We trained an adult male sea otter to perform a psychophysical task in an acoustic chamber and at an underwater apparatus. Aerial and underwater audiograms were constructed from detection thresholds for narrowband signals measured in quiet conditions at frequencies from 0.125-40 kHz. Aerial hearing thresholds were also measured in the presence of octave-band masking noise centered at eight signal frequencies (0.25-22.6 kHz) so that critical ratios could be determined. The aerial audiogram of the sea otter resembled that of sea lions and showed a reduction in low-frequency sensitivity relative to terrestrial mustelids. Best sensitivity was -1 dB re 20 µPa at 8 kHz. Under water, hearing sensitivity was significantly reduced when compared to sea lions and other pinniped species, demonstrating that sea otter hearing is primarily adapted to receive airborne sounds. Critical ratios were more than 10 dB higher than those measured for pinnipeds, suggesting that sea otters are less efficient than other marine carnivores at extracting acoustic signals from background noise, especially at frequencies below 2 kHz.

  18. Innervation Patterns of Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris Mystacial Follicle-Sinus Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Douglas Marshall

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea otters (Enhydra lutris are the most recent group of mammals to return to the sea, and may exemplify divergent somatosensory tactile systems among mammals. Therefore, we quantified the mystacial vibrissal array of sea otters and histologically processed follicle-sinus complexes (F-SCs to test the hypotheses that the number of myelinated axons per F-SC is greater than that found for terrestrial mammalian vibrissae and that their organization and microstructure converge with those of pinniped vibrissae. A mean of 120.5 vibrissae were arranged rostrally on a broad, blunt muzzle in 7-8 rows and 9-13 columns. The F-SCs of sea otters are tripartite in their organization and similar in microstructure to pinnipeds rather than terrestrial species. Each F-SC was innervated by a mean 1339±408.3 axons. Innervation to the entire mystacial vibrissal array was estimated at 161,313 axons. Our data support the hypothesis that the disproportionate expansion of the coronal gyrus in somatosensory cortex of sea otters is related to the high innervation investment of the mystacial vibrissal array, and that quantifying innervation investment is a good proxy for tactile sensitivity. We predict that the tactile performance of sea otter mystacial vibrissae is comparable to that of harbor seals, sea lions and walruses¬.

  19. Distribution and observations on the population of marine otters Lontra felina(Molina 1782 in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Apaza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the distribution of marine otter Lontra felinaon the Peruvian coast, from Punta Aguja (05°47'S to the boundary with Chile (18°21'S. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the literature on L. felinato elucidate a northern boundary of its geographic distribution, concluding that there is no solid evidence of a possible northern limit at 6°S. For the same reasons, the affirmation of a "historic distribution" to the Lobos de Tierra island was discarded. It is also presented information of 272 otters from 130 locations between the years 2000 and 2010. The distribution of these records no has spatial autocorrelation, suggesting a homogeneous distribution. Considering the morphostructure and geomorphology of the Peruvian coast we can see similarities with the division into three zones: north, central and south, the last two add all records of otters, which could provide habitat characteristics that, allow a continuous distribution of L. felina. Finally there is an increase in the number of otters in the Peruvian coast to compare the current values with those of 40 years ago, but we show the lack of traceability of the latest information. We suggest undertaking research linking abundances and densities of otters with the characterization and distribution of their habitats, and behavioral studies that reveal the processes or intrinsic characteristics of the species to move into its geographic range.

  20. Congener-specific model for polychlorinated biphenyl effect on otter (Lutra lutra) and associated sediment quality criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traas, T.P.; Luttik, R.; Klepper, O.; Beurskens, J.E.M.; Smit, M.D.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Hattum, van A.G.M.; Aldenberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    A model for risk assessment was built for simultaneous, congener-specific PCB bioaccumulation from sediment to fish to otters (Lutra lutra). Toxic equivalence factors (TEFs) were used to sum individual congeners in otters to a toxic equivalent concentration (TEQ) relative to

  1. Application of biomarkers for exposure and effect of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in naturally exposed european otters (Lutra lutra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murk, A.J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Luit, R.; Vanderweiden, M.E.J.; Smit, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the serious decline of European otters (Lutra lutra) over the last decades, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered to be one of the major factors. As no experiments can be conducted with otters, an eco-epidemiological study was performed to derive no observed effect concentrations

  2. Genetic consequences of population decline in Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) populations in the Czech and Slovak Republics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gettová, Lenka; Hájková, Petra

    Supp., - (2011), s. 102 ISSN 0394-1914. [International Otter Colloquium /11./. 30.08.2011-04.09.2011, Pavia] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Eurasian otter * population size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.internationalottercolloquium2010.eu/files/proceedings_iucn_xi_ioc_2011.pdf

  3. Evaluation of water resources monitoring networks: study applied to surface waters in the Macaé River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cloris Lopes Benassuly

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of hydrological phenomena is required in water resources monitoring, in order to structure the water management, focusing on ensuring its multiple uses while allowing that resource´s control and conservation. The effectiveness of monitoring depends on adequate information systems design and proper operation conditions. Data acquisition, treatment and analysis are vital for establishing management strategies, thus monitoring systems and networks shall be conceived according to their main objectives, and be optimized in terms of location of data stations. The generated data shall also model hydrological behavior of the studied basin, so that data interpolation can be applied to the whole basin. The present work aimed to join concepts and methods that guide the structuring of hydrologic monitoring networks of surface waters. For evaluating historical series characteristics as well as work stations redundancy, the entropy method was used. The Macaé River Basin’s importance is related to the public and industrial uses of water in the region that is responsible for more than 80% of Brazilian oil and gas production, what justifies the relevance of the research made. This study concluded that despite of its relatively short extension, the Macaé River Basin should have higher monitoring network density, in order to provide more reliable management data. It also depicted the high relevancy of stations located in its upper course.

  4. Effects of episodic sediment supply on bedload transport rate in mountain rivers. Detecting debris flow activity using continuous monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Taro; Sakurai, Wataru; Iuchi, Takuma; Izumiyama, Hiroaki; Borgatti, Lisa; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring of sediment transport from hillslopes to channel networks as a consequence of floods with suspended and bedload transport, hyperconcentrated flows, debris and mud flows is essential not only for scientific issues, but also for prevention and mitigation of natural disasters, i.e. for hazard assessment, land use planning and design of torrent control interventions. In steep, potentially unstable terrains, ground-based continuous monitoring of hillslope and hydrological processes is still highly localized and expensive, especially in terms of manpower. In recent years, new seismic and acoustic methods have been developed for continuous bedload monitoring in mountain rivers. Since downstream bedload transport rate is controlled by upstream sediment supply from tributary channels and bed-external sources, continuous bedload monitoring might be an effective tool for detecting the sediments mobilized by debris flow processes in the upper catchment and thus represent an indirect method to monitor slope instability processes at the catchment scale. However, there is poor information about the effects of episodic sediment supply from upstream bed-external sources on downstream bedload transport rate at a single flood time scale. We have examined the effects of sediment supply due to upstream debris flow events on downstream bedload transport rate along the Yotagiri River, central Japan. To do this, we have conducted continuous bedload observations using a hydrophone (Japanese pipe microphone) located 6.4 km downstream the lower end of a tributary affected by debris flows. Two debris flows occurred during the two-years-long observation period. As expected, bedload transport rate for a given flow depth showed to be larger after storms triggering debris flows. That is, although the magnitude of sediment supply from debris flows is not large, their effect on bedload is propagating >6 km downstream at a single flood time scale. This indicates that continuous bedload

  5. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The concentration of radioactivity added by the Savannah River Plant operations to the environs during 1977 was, for the most part, too small to be distinguished from natural background radiation and fallout from worldwide nuclear weapon tests. Beta activity in particulate air filters was about two times the 1976 level and was due entirely to global fallout. Tritium oxide in air at the plant perimeter was greater than in air at more distant locations; the average concentration at the plant perimeter (65 pCi/m 3 ) was 0.03% of the Concentration Guide (CG). Tritium, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr were the only radionuclides of plant origin detectable in Savannah River water by routine analyses. None of these had an average concentration exceeding 0.2% of the CG in river water sampled 8 mi downstream from the plant. The tritium concentration in river water immediately downstream of the plant (4.8 pCi/ml, including 0.5 pCi/ml background river contribution) represented the highest CG percentage (0.16) of the three radionuclides measured in river water. Special research programs using ultra-low-level techniques may detect trace quantities of other radionuclides of plant origin. Radioactive materials in river fish also continued very low (0.2 pCi/g 137 Cs maximum). Annual analyses of plant perimeter soil samples 0-5 cm deep) showed deposition of 137 Cs (52 mCi/km 2 ) and 239 Pu (1.2 mCi/km 2 ) within the range normally found in global fallout. 238 Pu in all soil samples was near the sensitivity of the analysis (approximately 0.1 mCi/km 2 ). For 1977, the calculated annual average dose from atmospheric releases of radioactive materials from SRP was 0.8 millirem (mrem) at the plant perimeter

  6. Environmental surveillance monitoring in the Alligator Rivers Region. Report for the six months period ending 30 September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report outlines the activities of the Northern Territory Supervising Authorities in meeting their responsibilities for environmental management and surveillance, occupational safety, relating to uranium mining and environment protection in the Alligator Rivers Region. Environmental monitoring was carried out at the Nabarlek Mine, which site has now been rehabilitated and revegetated, and at Ranger, the only mine currently operating in the region. Other uranium projects such as Jabiluka and Koongarra have been delayed due to the former Commonwealth Government's 'three mines policy'. 4 tabs., 10 figs

  7. Monitoring of Deep Foundation Pit Support and Construction Process in Soft Soil Area of Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiyi, Xie; Pengcheng

    2018-03-01

    The deep foundation pit supporting technology in the soft soil area of the Pearl River Delta is more complicated, and many factors influence and restrict it. In this project as an example, according to the geological conditions and the surrounding circumstances, the main foundation using bored piles and pre-stressed anchor cable supporting structure + five axis cement mixing pile curtain supporting form; partial use of double row piles supporting structure + five axis cement mixing pile curtain support type. Through the monitoring results of construction show that the foundation pit, the indicators of environmental changes are in the design range, the supporting scheme of deep foundation pit technology is feasible and reliable.

  8. Can data from disparate long-term fish monitoring programs be used to increase our understanding of regional and continental trends in large river assemblages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Ian R.; Casper, Andrew F.; Ward, David L.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Irwin, Elise R.; Chapman, Colin G.; Ickes, Brian S.; Paukert, Craig P.; Kosovich, John J.; Bayer, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding trends in the diverse resources provided by large rivers will help balance tradeoffs among stakeholders and inform strategies to mitigate the effects of landscape scale stressors such as climate change and invasive species. Absent a cohesive coordinated effort to assess trends in important large river resources, a logical starting point is to assess our ability to draw inferences from existing efforts. In this paper, we use a common analytical framework to analyze data from five disparate fish monitoring programs to better understand the nature of spatial and temporal trends in large river fish assemblages. We evaluated data from programs that monitor fishes in the Colorado, Columbia, Illinois, Mississippi, and Tallapoosa rivers using non-metric dimensional scaling ordinations and associated tests to evaluate trends in fish assemblage structure and native fish biodiversity. Our results indicate that fish assemblages exhibited significant spatial and temporal trends in all five of the rivers. We also document native species diversity trends that were variable within and between rivers and generally more evident in rivers with higher species richness and programs of longer duration. We discuss shared and basin-specific landscape level stressors. Having a basic understanding of the nature and extent of trends in fish assemblages is a necessary first step towards understanding factors affecting biodiversity and fisheries in large rivers. PMID:29364953

  9. Can data from disparate long-term fish monitoring programs be used to increase our understanding of regional and continental trends in large river assemblages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Waite, Ian R.; Casper, Andrew F.; Ward, David L.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Irwin, Elise R.; Chapman, Colin G.; Ickes, Brian; Paukert, Craig P.; Kosovich, John J.; Bayer, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding trends in the diverse resources provided by large rivers will help balance tradeoffs among stakeholders and inform strategies to mitigate the effects of landscape scale stressors such as climate change and invasive species. Absent a cohesive coordinated effort to assess trends in important large river resources, a logical starting point is to assess our ability to draw inferences from existing efforts. In this paper, we use a common analytical framework to analyze data from five disparate fish monitoring programs to better understand the nature of spatial and temporal trends in large river fish assemblages. We evaluated data from programs that monitor fishes in the Colorado, Columbia, Illinois, Mississippi, and Tallapoosa rivers using non-metric dimensional scaling ordinations and associated tests to evaluate trends in fish assemblage structure and native fish biodiversity. Our results indicate that fish assemblages exhibited significant spatial and temporal trends in all five of the rivers. We also document native species diversity trends that were variable within and between rivers and generally more evident in rivers with higher species richness and programs of longer duration. We discuss shared and basin-specific landscape level stressors. Having a basic understanding of the nature and extent of trends in fish assemblages is a necessary first step towards understanding factors affecting biodiversity and fisheries in large rivers.

  10. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; McNatt, Regan A.; Hockersmith, Eric E. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2004-04-01

    Prior to 1992, decisions on dam operations and use of stored water relied on recoveries of branded hatchery fish, index counts at traps and dams, and flow patterns at the dams. The advent of PIT-tag technology provided the opportunity to precisely track the smolt migrations of many wild stocks as they pass through the hydroelectric complex and other monitoring sites on their way to the ocean. With the availability of the PIT tag, a more complete approach to these decisions was undertaken starting in 1992 with the addition of PIT-tag detections of several wild spring and summer chinook salmon stocks at Lower Granite Dam. Using data from these detections, we initiated development of a database on wild fish, addressing several goals of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning Council and Conservation Act (NPPC 1980). Section 304(d) of the program states, ''The monitoring program will provide information on the migrational characteristics of the various stocks of salmon and steelhead within the Columbia Basin.'' Further, Section 201(b) urges conservation of genetic diversity, which will be possible only if wild stocks are preserved. Section 5.9A.1 of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program states that field monitoring of smolt movement will be used to determine the best timing for water storage releases and Section 5.8A.8 states that continued research is needed on survival of juvenile wild fish before they reach the first dam with special attention to water quantity, quality, and several other factors. The goals of this ongoing study are as follows (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence these patterns. (4) Characterize the migrational behavior and

  11. Monitoring of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Maria; Campo, Julian; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia

    2015-04-01

    Relevant concentrations of a broad range of pollutants have been found in Spanish Mediterranean River basins, as consequence of anthropogenic pressures and overexploitation (Campo et al., 2014). In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water and sediment of the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain). PFASs are persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic, which make them a hazard to human health and wildlife. The Ebro and Guadalquivir Rivers are the two most important rivers of Spain. They are representative examples of Mediterranean rivers heavily managed, and previous researches have reported their high pesticide contamination (Masiá et al., 2013). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). In water samples, from 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro samples and 9 in Guadalquivir ones. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxS and PFOS. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, with 251.3 ng L-1 in Ebro and 742.9 ng L-1 in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediment samples, 8 PFASs were detected in those coming from Ebro basin and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOS and PFBS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was detected for PFOA, with 32.4 ng g-1 dw, and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA with 63.8 ng g-1 dw. Ubiquity of these compounds in the environment was proved with high PFAS concentration values detected in upper parts of the rivers. Results confirm that most of the PFASs are only partially eliminated during the secondary treatment suggesting that they can be a focal point of contamination to the rivers where they can bio-accumulate and produce adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Acknowledgment The Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness has supported this work through the projects SCARCE-CSD2009-00065, CGL2011

  12. Data management for interdisciplinary field experiments: OTTER project support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Gary; Popovici, Lidia; Skiles, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of investigators of an interdisciplinary science project to properly manage the data that are collected during the experiment is critical to the effective conduct of science. When the project becomes large, possibly including several scenes of large-format remotely sensed imagery shared by many investigators requiring several services, the data management effort can involve extensive staff and computerized data inventories. The OTTER (Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research) project was supported by the PLDS (Pilot Land Data System) with several data management services, such as data inventory, certification, and publication. After a brief description of these services, experiences in providing them are compared with earlier data management efforts and some conclusions regarding data management in support of interdisciplinary science are discussed. In addition to providing these services, a major goal of this data management capability was to adopt characteristics of a pro-active attitude, such as flexibility and responsiveness, believed to be crucial for the effective conduct of active, interdisciplinary science. These are also itemized and compared with previous data management support activities. Identifying and improving these services and characteristics can lead to the design and implementation of optimal data management support capabilities, which can result in higher quality science and data products from future interdisciplinary field experiments.

  13. Integrated Hydro-geomorphological Monitoring System of the Upper Bussento river basin (Cilento and Vallo Diano Geopark, S-Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, D.; Cuomo, A.; Longobardi, A.; Villani, P.; Guida, M.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Cestari, A.; Siervo, V.; Benevento, G.; Sorvino, S.; Doto, R.; Verrone, M.; De Vita, A.; Aloia, A.; Positano, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Mediterranean river ecosystem functionings are supported by river-aquifer interactions. The assessment of their ecological services requires interdisciplinary scientific approaches, integrate monitoring systems and inter-institutional planning and management. This poster illustrates the Hydro-geomorphological Monitoring System build-up in the Upper Bussento river basin by the University of Salerno, in agreement with the local Basin Autorities and in extension to the other river basins located in the Cilento and Vallo Diano National Park (southern Italy), recently accepted in the European Geopark Network. The Monitoring System is based on a hierarchical Hydro-geomorphological Model (HGM), improved in a multiscale, nested and object-oriented Hydro-geomorphological Informative System (HGIS, Figure 1). Hydro-objects are topologically linked and functionally bounded by Hydro-elements at various levels of homogeneity (Table 1). Spatial Hydro-geomorpho-system, HG-complex and HG-unit support respectively areal Hydro-objects, as basin, sector and catchment and linear Hydro-objects, as river, segment, reach and section. Runoff initiation points, springs, disappearing points, junctions, gaining and water losing points complete the Hydro-systems. An automatic procedure use the Pfafstetter coding to hierarchically divide a terrain into arbitrarily small hydro-geomorphological units (basin, interfluve, headwater and no-contribution areas, each with a unique label with hierarchical topological properties. To obtain a hierarchy of hydro-geomorphological units, the method is then applied recursively on each basin and interbasin, and labels of the subdivided regions are appended to the existing label of the original region. The monitoring stations are ranked consequently in main, secondary, temporary and random and located progressively at the points or sections representative for the hydro-geomorphological responses by validation control and modeling calibration. The datasets

  14. 2005 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2005 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  15. 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Evaluation of triclosan and triclocarban at river basin scale using monitoring and modeling tools: implications for controlling of urban domestic sewage discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Feng; Wang, Li; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Yang, Bin; Zhou, Li-Jun; Liu, Shan; Su, Hao-Chang; Zhang, Rui-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are two commonly used personal care products. They may enter into aquatic environments after consumption and pose potential risks to aquatic organisms. We investigated the occurrence and fate of TCS and TCC in five large rivers (the Liao River, Hai River, Yellow River, Zhujiang River and Dongjiang River) in China, and compared the monitoring data with the predicted results from Level III fugacity modeling. TCS and TCC were detected in the five large rivers with the detection frequencies of 100% or close to 100% in surface water and sediments of almost every river. TCS and TCC were found at concentrations of up to 478 ng/L and 338 ng/L in surface water, and up to 1329 ng/g and 2723 ng/g in sediments. Cluster analysis indicated that the sites with higher concentrations were usually located in or near urban area. Meanwhile, principal component analysis also suggested that the mass inventories of TCS and TCC in water and sediment were significantly influenced by the factors such as the total or untreated urban domestic sewage discharge at river basin scale. The concentrations and mass inventories from the fugacity modeling were found at the same order of magnitude with the measured values, suggesting that the fugacity modeling can provide a useful tool for evaluating the fate of TCS and TCC in riverine environments. Both monitoring and modeling results indicated that the majority of mass inventories of TCS and TCC were stored into sediment, which could be a potential pollution source for river water. The wide presence of TCS and TCC in these large rivers of China implies that better controlling of urban domestic sewage discharge is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Monitoring mass changes in the Volta River basin using GRACE satellite gravity and TRMM precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner G. Ferreira

    Full Text Available GRACE satellite gravity data was used to estimate mass changes within the Volta River basin in West African for the period of January, 2005 to December, 2010. We also used the precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM to determine relative contributions source to the seasonal hydrological balance within the Volta River basin. We found out that the seasonal mass change tends to be detected by GRACE for periods from 1 month in the south to 4 months in the north of the basin after the rainfall events. The results suggested a significant gain in water storage in the basin at reference epoch 2007.5 and a dominant annual cycle for the period under consideration for both in the mass changes and rainfall time series. However, there was a low correlation between mass changes and rainfall implying that there must be other processes which cause mass changes without rainfall in the upstream of the Volta River basin.

  20. A prospective monitoring of natural and anthropical fish populations in the basin of the Trotus river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URECHE Dorel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As a major part of the Siret river hidrography, though less known ichthyologically, the Trotus has a series of tributaries worth mentioning for their natural sources of water pollution (the Slanic River for sodium chloride, the Tazlau River for potassium chloride and the Tazlaul Sarat for petroleum derivatives as well as for the chemical pollution from the plants in Darmanesti and Onesti. All these in mind the impact of the pollution over the fish fauna of the above mentioned area was determined. The basinal analysis of the ichthyocenosis was performed in three locations the selection of which was based on the particulars of the habitat: upper Trotus free of chemical and urban waste, the Tazlau and middle and downstream Trotus – an area affected by chemical and urban waste upstream Comanesti. A total number of sampling stations was chosen so as to cover all particular fish breeding associations and changes in spreading of the species.

  1. Sarcocysts of an unidentified species of Sarcocystis in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Lindsay, D.S.; Rosenthal, B.M.; Thomas, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    The number of Sarcocystis species that infect sea otters (Enhydra lutris) is unknown. Sea otter tissues were recently shown to harbor sarcocysts of S. neurona and of unidentified species of Sarcocystis. Whereas sarcocysts of S. neurona have walls 1a??3 I?m thick with type 9 villar protrusions, ultrastructure of a distinct thin-walled sarcocyst (0.5a??0.7 I?m thick) lacking villar protrusions, but instead exhibiting minute type 1 undulations on the sarcocyst wall, is described in this report. Parasites characterized from a sea otter infection were inferred to be related to, but distinct from, other species belonging to Sarcocystis, based on sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a portion of the beta subunit of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase gene.

  2. Guidelines for monitoring and adaptively managing restoration of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) on the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, R.J.; Duda, J.J.; Pess, G.R.; Zimmerman, M.; Crain, P.; Hughes, Z.; Wilson, A.; Liermann, M.C.; Morley, S.A.; McMillan, J.; Denton, K.; Warheit, K.

    2014-01-01

    As of January, 2014, the removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams on the Elwha River, Washington, represents the largest dam decommissioning to date in the United States. Dam removal is the single largest step in meeting the goals of the Elwha River Ecosystem and Fisheries Restoration Act of 1992 (The Elwha Act) — full restoration of the Elwha River ecosystem and its native anadromous fisheries (Section 3(a)). However, there is uncertainty about project outcomes with regards to salmon populations, as well as what the ‘best’ management strategy is to fully restore each salmon stock. This uncertainty is due to the magnitude of the action, the large volumes of sediment expected to be released during dam removal, and the duration of the sediment impact period following dam removal. Our task is further complicated by the depleted state of the native salmonid populations remaining in the Elwha, including four federally listed species. This situation lends itself to a monitoring and adaptive management approach to resource management, which allows for flexibility in decision-making processes in the face of uncertain outcomes.

  3. Monitoring of fish species in the Lamone river: distribution and morphometric measures of the populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish samplings were carried out monthly from spring to autumn during 2008, on the Lamone river and the Campigno stream by an electrofishing, in order to verify the presence of fish populations and the most common species represented. Barb, Barbus plebejus, Blageon, Leuciscus muticellus, Chub, Leuciscus cephalus, South European Nase, Chondrostoma genei were identified. A small population of Brown trout, Salmo trutta fario was also recognized. Barb is the most represented species in all the sites. The samplings highlight that Lamone river presented conditions suitable to fully guarantee the life of the fish populations.

  4. Pathogen exposure and blood chemistry in the Washington population of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. LeAnn; Schuler, Krysten L.; Thomas, Nancy J.; Webb, Julie L.; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Ip, Hon S.; Dubey, J.P.; Frame, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from Washington State, United States were evaluated in 2011 to determine health status and pathogen exposure. Antibodies to Brucella spp. (10%) and influenza A virus (23%) were detected for the first time in this population in 2011. Changes in clinical pathology values (serum chemistries), exposure to pathogens, and overall health of the population over the last decade were assessed by comparing 2011 data to the data collected on this population in 2001–2002. Several serum chemistry parameters were different between study years and sexes but were not clinically significant. The odds of canine distemper virus exposure were higher for otters sampled in 2001–2002 (80%) compared to 2011 (10%); likelihood of exposure significantly increased with age. Prevalence of exposure to Sarcocystis neurona was also higher in 2001–2002 (29%) than in 2011 (0%), but because testing methods varied between study years the results were not directly comparable. Exposure to Leptospira spp. was only observed in 2001–2002. Odds of Toxoplasma gondii exposure were higher for otters sampled in 2011 (97%) than otters in 2001–2002 (58%). Substantial levels of domoic acid (n = 2) and saxitoxin (n = 2) were found in urine or fecal samples from animals sampled in 2011. No evidence of calicivirus or Coxiella burnetii exposure in the Washington population of northern sea otters was found in either 2001–2002 or 2011. Changes in exposure status from 2001–2002 to 2011 suggest that the Washington sea otter population may be dealing with new disease threats (e.g., influenza) while also increasing their susceptibility to diseases that may be highly pathogenic in naïve individuals (e.g., canine distemper).

  5. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the oval cambered double slotted otter board in bottom trawl fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Huang, H. L.; Li, L. Z.; Qu, T. C.; Wu, Y.; Chen, S.; Yang, J. L.; Rao, X.

    2017-07-01

    The otter board is one of the main components of single boat trawl fisheries. An oval cambered double slotted otter board was developed for improving the expansion performance of trawl net in bottom trawl fisheries. A flume model experiment was conducted to measure the lift coefficient (C L), drag coefficient (C D), and lift to drag ratio (K) in different angles of attack (α). The experimental results are as follows : (1) The C L and K value show a trend of increasing at the beginning and then decreasing with the increase of angle of attack, the C D value reflects an upward trend as the angle of attack increases; (2) The D3 otter board (front flow deflector angle at 29°) showed a better hydrodynamic performance. When α=30°, the max lift coefficient (C Lmax) was 1.464, in this case C D = 0.554 and K=2.643. When α=15°, the max lift to drag ratio (K max) was 4.165, C L =0.633, and C D = 0.152. This suggests that the best working scope for the angle of attack is between 15°~30°, in which case, C L>0.633 and K>2.643. The mean value of the lift coefficient was 1.071 and the mean of the lift to drag ratio was 3.482. Comparative analysis of the hydrodynamic performance of different types of otter boards showed that the D3 otter board both had good expansion performance and efficiency, which can provide a reference basis for further optimization of the bottom trawl otter board.

  6. The Fetal Membranes of the Otter Shrews and a Synapomorphy for Afrotheria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M.; Blankenship, T.N.; Enders, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    The otter shrews of mainland Africa are the closest relatives of the Madagascar tenrecs. We sought for similarities in placentation between the two groups and, in a wider context, with other mammals of the Afrotheria clade. Specimens of the Nimba otter shrew (Micropotamogale lamottei) were obtain...... by two pairs of septal folds. A similar arrangement has been described for representatives of each of the remaining five orders within Afrotheria. This is significant because previous anatomical studies have failed to establish a single synapomorphy in support of Afrotheria....

  7. Environmental monitoring of 137Cs in the Vardar River catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anovski, T.; Cvetanovska-Nastevska, L.; Jovanovski, N.

    1996-01-01

    Distribution of Cs-137, as one of the most important anthropogenic radioactive pollutant on the environment, in various samples within the Vardar river catchment area has been determined. By application of adequate radioecological model, an effective equivalent dose for different transfer media and exposure pathways as a contribution of Cs-137 to the total exposure of man of different age, were calculated. (author)

  8. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of restored river corridors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasquale, N; Perona, P; Schneider, P.; Shrestha, J.; Wombacher, Andreas; Burlando, P

    2011-01-01

    River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Therefore, a significant effort has been

  9. Using drift nets to capture early life stages and monitor spawning of the yangtze river chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.W.; Kynard, B.; Yang, D.G.; Chen, X.H.; Du, H.; Shen, L.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    A sampling system for capturing sturgeon eggs using a D-shaped bottom anchored drift net was used to capture early life stages (ELS) of Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and monitor annual spawning success at Yichang on the Yangtze River, 1996-2004, before and just after the Three Gorges Dam began operation. Captured were 96 875 ELS (early life stages: eggs, yolk-sac larvae = eleuthero embryos, and larvae); most were eggs and only 2477 were yolk-sac larvae. Most ELS were captured in the main river channel and inside the bend at the Yichang spawning reach. Yolk-sac larvae were captured for a maximum of 3 days after hatching began, indicating quick dispersal downstream. The back-calculated day of egg fertilization over the eight years indicated a maximum spawning window of 23 days (20 October-10 November). Spawning in all years was restricted temporally, occurred mostly at night and during one or two spawning periods, each lasting several days. The brief temporal spawning window may reduce egg predation by opportunistic predators by flooding the river bottom with millions of eggs. During 1996-2002, the percentage of fertilized eggs in an annual 20-egg sample was between 63.5 to 94.1%; however, in 2003 the percentage fertilized was only 23.8%. This sudden decline may be related to the altered environmental conditions at Yichang caused by operation of the Three Gorges Dam. Further studies are needed to monitor spawning and changes in egg fertilization in this threatened population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. High Resolution Monitoring of River Bluff Erosion Reveals Failure Mechanisms and Geomorphically Effective Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ann Kelly

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of Structure from Motion and time lapse photogrammetry, we document rapid river bluff erosion occurring in the Greater Blue Earth River (GBER basin, a muddy tributary to the sediment-impaired Minnesota River in south central Minnesota. Our datasets elucidated dominant bluff failure mechanisms and rates of bluff retreat in a transient system responding to ongoing streamflow increases and glacial legacy impacts. Specifically, we document the importance of fluvial scour, freeze–thaw, as well as other drivers of bluff erosion. We find that even small flows, a mere 30% of the two-year recurrence interval flow, are capable of causing bluff erosion. During our study period (2014–2017, the most erosion was associated with two large flood events with 13- and 25-year return periods. However, based on the frequency of floods and magnitude of bluff face erosion associated with floods over the last 78 years, the 1.2-year return interval flood has likely accomplished the most cumulative erosion, and is thus more geomorphically effective than larger magnitude floods. Flows in the GBER basin are nonstationary, increasing across the full range of return intervals. We find that management implications differ considerably depending on whether the bluff erosion-runoff power law exponent, γ, is greater than, equal to, or less than 1. Previous research has recommended installation of water retention sites in tributaries to the Minnesota River in order to reduce flows and sediment loading from river bluffs. Our findings support the notion that water retention would be an effective practice to reduce sediment loading and highlight the importance of managing for both runoff frequency and magnitude.

  11. Monitoring the Behavior of Emerging Contaminants in Wastewater-Impacted Rivers Based on the Use of Fluorescence Excitation Emission Matrixes (EEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroi, Massimiliano; Roccaro, Paolo; Korshin, Gregory V; Vagliasindi, Federico G A

    2017-04-18

    This study investigated the applicability of fluorescence indexes based on the interpretation of excitation emission matrices (EEMs) by PARAFAC analysis and by selecting fluorescence intensities at a priori defined excitation/emission pairs as surrogates for monitoring the behavior of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) in two catchment basins impacted by wastewater discharges. Relevant EOC and EEM data were obtained for a 90 km stretch of the Simeto River, the main river in Sicily, and the smaller San Leonardo River, which was investigated for a 17 km stretch. The use of fluorescence indexes developed by these two different approaches resulted in similar observations. Changes of the fluorescence indexes that correspond to a group of humic-like fluorescing species were determined to be highly correlated with the concentrations of recalcitrant contaminants such as sucralose, sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine, which are typical wastewater markers in river water. Changes of the fluorescence indexes related to tyrosine-like substances were well correlated with the concentrations of ibuprofen and caffeine, anthropogenic indicators of untreated wastewater discharges. Chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were correlated with humic-like fluorescence indexes. The observed correlations were site-specific and characterized by different regression parameters for every collection event. Caffeine and carbamazepine showed correlations with florescence indexes in the San Leonardo River and in the alluvial plain stretch of the Simeto River, whereas sucralose, sulfamethoxazole and ibuprofen have always been well correlated in all the investigated river stretches. However, when data of different collection events from river stretches where correlations were observed were combined, good linear correlations were obtained for data sets generated via the normalization of the measured concentrations by the average value for the corresponding collection event

  12. Analysis of radiation monitoring data by distribution-free statistical methods (a case of river system Techa-Iset'-Tobol-Irtysh contamination)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luneva, K.V.; Kryshev, A.I.; Nikitin, A.I.; Kryshev, I.I.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the results of statistical analysis of radiation monitoring data of river system Techa-Iset'-Tobol-Irtysh contamination. A short description of analyzable data and the territory under consideration was given. The distribution-free statistic methods, used for comparative analysis, were described. Reasons of the methods selection and their application features were given. Comparative data analysis with traditional statistics methods was presented. Reliable decrease of 90 Sr specific activity in the river system object to object was determined, which is the evidence of the radionuclide transportation in the river system Techa-Iset'-Tobol-Irtysh [ru

  13. Monitoring the Variation in Ice-Cover Characteristics of the Slave River, Canada Using RADARSAT-2 Data—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Chu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The winter regime of river-ice covers in high northern latitude regions is often a determining factor in the management of water resources, conservation of aquatic ecosystems and preservation of traditional and cultural lifestyles of local peoples. As ground-based monitoring of river-ice regimes in high northern latitudes is expensive and restricted to a few locations due to limited accessibility to most places along rivers from shorelines, remote sensing techniques are a suitable approach for monitoring. This study developed a RADARSAT-2 based method to monitor the spatio-temporal variation of ice covers, as well as ice types during the freeze-up period, along the main channel of the Slave River Delta in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The spatio-temporal variation of ice covers along the river was analyzed using the backscatter-based coefficient of variation (CV in the 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 winters. As a consequence of weather and flow conditions, the ice cover in the 2013–2014 winter had the higher variation than the 2014–2015 winter, particularly in the potential areas of flooded/cracked ice covers. The river sections near active channels (e.g., Middle Channel and Nagle Channel, Big Eddy, and Great Slave Lake also yielded higher intra-annual variation of ice cover characteristics during the winters. With the inclusion of backscatter and texture analysis from RADARSAT-2 data, four water and ice cover classes consisting of open water, thermal ice, juxtaposed ice, and consolidated ice, were discriminated in the images acquired between November and March in both the studied winters. In addition to river geomorphology and climatic conditions such as river width, sinuosity or air temperature, the fluctuation of water flows during the winter has a significant impact on the variation of ice cover as well as the formation of different ice types in the Slave River. The RADARSAT-2 based monitoring algorithm can also be applied to other

  14. Monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in seawater of the Pearl River Estuary with rapid on-site active SPME sampling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Siming; He, Shuming; Xu, Hao; Wu, Peiyan; Jiang, Ruifen; Zhu, Fang; Luan, Tiangang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-01-01

    An on-site active solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling technique coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for sampling and monitoring 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in seawater was developed. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the sampling-rate calibration method was practical and could be used for the quantification of on-site sampling. The proposed method was employed for field tests which covered large amounts of water samples in the Pearl River Estuary in rainy and dry seasons. The on-site SPME sampling method can avoid the contamination of sample, the losses of analytes during sample transportation, as well as the usage of solvent and time-consuming sample preparation process. Results indicated that the technique with the designed device can address the requirement of modern environment water analysis. In addition, the sources, bioaccumulation and potential risk to human of the PAHs and OCPs in seawater of the Pearl River Estuary were discussed. - Highlights: • SPME on-site active sampling technique was developed and validated. • The technique was employed for field tests in the Pearl River Estuary. • 16 PAHs and 8 OCPs in the seawater of Pearl River Estuary were monitored. • The potential risk of the PAHs and OCPs in Pearl River Estuary were discussed. - An on-site active SPME sampling technique was developed and successfully applied for sampling and monitoring 16 PAHs and 8 OCPs in the Pearl River Estuary

  15. Monitoring riparian-vegetation composition and cover along the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Emily C.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Sarr, Daniel A.; Johnson, Taylor C.

    2018-06-05

    Vegetation in the riparian zone (the area immediately adjacent to streams, such as stream banks) along the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, supports many ecosystem and societal functions. In both Glen Canyon and Grand Canyon, this ecosystem has changed over time in response to flow alterations, invasive species, and recreational use. Riparian-vegetation cover and composition are likely to continue to change as these pressures persist and new ones emerge. Because this system is a valuable resource that is known to change in response to flow regime and other disturbances, a long-term monitoring protocol has been designed with three primary objectives:Annually measure and summarize the status (composition and cover) of native and non-native vascular-plant species within the riparian zone of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Mead.At 5-year intervals, assess change in vegetation composition and cover in the riparian zone, as related to geomorphic setting and dam operations, particularly flow regime.Collect data in a manner that can be used by multiple stakeholders, particularly the basinwide monitoring program overseen by the National Park Service’s Northern Colorado Plateau Network Inventory and Monitoring program.A protocol for the long-term monitoring of riparian vegetation is described in detail and standard operating procedures are included herein for all tasks. Visual estimates of foliar and ground covers are collected in conjunction with environmental measurements to assess correlations of foliar cover with abiotic and flow variables. Sample quadrats are stratified by frequency of inundation, geomorphic feature, and by river segment to account for differences in vegetation type. Photographs of sites are also taken to illustrate qualitative characteristics of the site at the time of sampling. Procedures for field preparation, generating random samples, data collection, data management, collecting and managing unknown

  16. Use of flux and morphologic sediment budgets for sandbar monitoring on the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Paul E.; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Topping, David J.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2015-01-01

    ., 2000) and depends entirely on infrequent tributary floods, monitoring of both sandbars and gross sand storage (the sand budget) is required to evaluate whether the high-flow protocol is having the intended effect of increasing sandbar size without progressively depleting sand from the system.There are many challenges associated with monitoring sand storage and active sand deposits in a river system as large and complex as the 450-km segment of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Mead. Previous studies have demonstrated the temporal variation in sand storage associated with sand-supply limitation (Topping et al., 2000) and the spatial variability in the amount of sand stored in eddies and the channel associated with channel hydraulics (Grams et al., 2013). In this study, we report on companion measurements of sand flux and morphologic change to quantify, for the first time, the relation between changes in sand mass balance, changes in within-channel sand storage, and changes in sandbars comprehensively for a 50-km river segment of the Colorado River in lower Marble Canyon within Grand Canyon National Park.We show that, when measured over the scale of a 50-km river segment, these complementary measurements of the sand budget agree within measurement uncertainty and provide a rare opportunity to integrate the temporally rich sand-flux record with the spatially rich morphologic measurements. Both methods show that sediment was evacuated from lower Marble Canyon over the 3-year study period. The flux-based budget shows the timing of changes in storage relative to dam-release patterns, while the morphologic measurements depict the spatial distribution of erosion and deposition among different depositional settings.

  17. A Demo-Genetic Analysis of a Small Reintroduced Carnivore Population: The Otter (Lutra lutra in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maelle Seignobosc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the viability of reintroduced animal populations is a complicated task. Reintroductions are usually carried out with a small number of individuals, thereby, limiting the possibilities for monitoring because of the possible negative effects of intensive monitoring on survival and reproduction. Moreover, reintroduction studies are part of a socioeconomic interplay of forces, thereby, also limiting monitoring possibilities. Also, knowledge of population demography and abundance can be incomplete or unattainable. Here, we illustrate how we combined traditional telemetry and novel non-invasive genetic methodology to construct a detailed life table of a small reintroduced otter population in The Netherlands. Combining an appropriate capture-mark-recapture framework with a matrix modelling approach provides, in general, useful insights for such populations. The data indicated that (i male survival is lower than female survival, (ii the reintroduced population is currently growing (estimated λ=1.26: range [1.06, 1.42] and seems viable, (iii increasing adult survival is currently the critical stage at which efforts of field managers should concentrate, and (iv the modelling framework allowed us to determine the boundary conditions for the vital rates under which the population would go extinct. The applied approach directs at measurements that help field managers to implement the right conservation strategy after reintroductions.

  18. Differential resilience of Amazonian otters along the Rio Negro in the aftermath of the 20th century international fur trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Natalia C; Antunes, André P; Barnett, Adrian A; Macedo, Valêncio W; Shepard, Glenn H

    2018-01-01

    Commercial hunting for the international trade in animal hides in the 20th century decimated many populations of aquatic wildlife in Amazonia. However, impacts varied significantly between different species and regions, depending upon hunting intensity, accessibility of habitat, and the inherent resilience of various species and their habitats. We investigated the differential responses of two Amazonian Mustelid species, the neotropical otter and giant otter, to commercial hunting pressure along the upper Rio Negro in Brazil, and examined historical factors that influenced spatial and temporal variation in commercial exploitation. We analyzed previously unanalyzed data from historical records of hide shipments to track changes in hide sales and prices for the two species in the late 20th century. We also gathered oral histories from older Baniwa people who had witnessed or participated in commercial otter hunting. These complimentary data sources reveal how intrinsic biological and social characteristics of the two otter species interacted with market forces and regional history. Whereas giant otter populations were driven to local or regional extinction during the late 20th century by commercial hunting, neotropical otters persisted. In recent decades, giant otter populations have returned to some parts of the upper Rio Negro, a development which local people welcome as part of a generalized recovery of the ecosystems in their territory as a result of the banning of animal pelt exports and indigenous land demarcation. This paper expands the scope of the field historical ecology and reflects on the role of local knowledge in biodiversity conservation.

  19. Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christine K.; Tinker, M. Tim; Estes, James A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Staedler, Michelle M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Jessup, David A.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The processes promoting disease in wild animal populations are highly complex, yet identifying these processes is critically important for conservation when disease is limiting a population. By combining field studies with epidemiologic tools, we evaluated the relationship between key factors impeding southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population growth: disease and resource limitation. This threatened population has struggled to recover despite protection, so we followed radio-tagged sea otters and evaluated infection with 2 disease-causing protozoal pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, to reveal risks that increased the likelihood of pathogen exposure. We identified patterns of pathogen infection that are linked to individual animal behavior, prey choice, and habitat use. We detected a high-risk spatial cluster of S. neurona infections in otters with home ranges in southern Monterey Bay and a coastal segment near San Simeon and Cambria where otters had high levels of infection with T. gondii. We found that otters feeding on abalone, which is the preferred prey in a resource-abundant marine ecosystem, had a very low risk of infection with either pathogen, whereas otters consuming small marine snails were more likely to be infected with T. gondii. Individual dietary specialization in sea otters is an adaptive mechanism for coping with limited food resources along central coastal California. High levels of infection with protozoal pathogens may be an adverse consequence of dietary specialization in this threatened species, with both depleted resources and disease working synergistically to limit recovery.

  20. Long-term monitoring of the Danube river-Sampling techniques, radionuclide metrology and radioecological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Gruber, V.; Hrachowitz, M.; Baumgartner, A.; Weilner, S.; Seidel, C.

    2009-01-01

    Sampling techniques and radiometric methods, developed and applied in a comprehensive radioecological study of the Danube River are presented. Results and radiometric data of sediment samples, collected by sediment traps in Austria and additionally by grab sampling in the Danube during research cruises between Germany and the delta (Black sea) are shown and discussed. Goal of the investigation is the protection of public and environment, especially the sustainable use and conservation of human freshwater resources against harmful radioactive exposure.

  1. Monitoring and evaluation of smolt migration in the Columbia River Basin; Volume 1; Evaluation of the 1995 predictions of the run-timing of wild migrant subyearling chinook in the Snake River Basin using Program RealTime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Yasuda, Dean

    1997-01-01

    This project was initiated in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of the project include: (1)to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and to help identify future research and analysis needs; (2)to assist in the development of improved monitoring capabilities, statistical methodologies and software tools to assist in optimizing operational and fish passage strategies to maximize the protection and survival of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon populations and other listed and nonlisted stocks in the Columbia River Basin; and (3)to design better analysis tools for evaluation programs; and (4)to provide statistical support to the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest fisheries community

  2. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; Skookumchuck Creek Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.

    2003-06-01

    The Skookumchuck Creek juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat-monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the Skookumchuck Creek watershed and was intended to expand upon similar studies initiated within the Wigwam River from 2000 to 2002. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. The 2002 project year represents the first year of a long-term bull trout-monitoring program with current studies focused on collecting baseline information. This report provides a summary of results obtained to date. Bull trout represented 72.4% of the catch. Fry dominated the catch because site selection was biased towards electrofishing sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. The mean density of all juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 6.6 fish/100m{sup 2}. This represents one-half the densities reported for the 2002 Wigwam River enumeration program, even though enumeration of bull trout redds was an order of magnitude higher for the Wigwam River. Typically, areas with combined fry and juvenile densities greater than 1.5 fish per 100 m{sup 2} are cited as critical rearing areas. Trends in abundance appeared to be related to proximity to spawning areas, bed material size, and water depth. Cover components utilized by juvenile and adult bull trout and cutthroat trout were interstices, boulder, depth, overhead vegetation and LWD. The range of morphological stream types encompass the stable and resilient spectrum (C3(1), C3 and B3c). The Skookumchuck can be generalized as a slightly entrenched, meandering, riffle-pool, cobble dominated

  3. Heavy metal baseline data for Kura water and harmonization of monitoring methodology along Kura river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, M.M.; Balayev, V.S.; Safarova, K.S.; Ibragimov, G.; Suleymanov, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : The river the Kura is main water artery of Azerbaijan Republic. In republic, the Kura river water are widely used for drinking and industrial water supply of a number of cities and large occupied items, irrigation pisciculture and fishery, cultural - improving purposes. The basic part of need of branches of a national economy of republic is satisfied with water of the Transit Rivers, main of which the Kura and her inflows are. Increased risk of pollution of waters pool the Kura realizes by the large economic project, such as the construction oil pipe line to a Baku - Supsa, Baku -Tbilisi-Ceyhan in connection with constant growth of a level oil producing shows, that the basic research of an ecological condition the Kura, is a urgent task now. As is known these pipelines there passes by pool the river the Kura and some times cross it. The disputed situation between Azerbaijan and Armenia, seismic activity of region and further periodic clearing inside of the pipeline once again requires the regular ecological control above ecosystem of Kura river pool. For the baseline data creation, in present work were investigated of trace heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn) and major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+) in water of the river Kura. Identification and quantification of trace metals sources in river Kura, as well as fate of those trace metals in that ecosystem are important environmental scientific issues. The samples for measurement were taken from the predefined stations at expedition executed in the period 2003-2005 y y. The dissolved metals and major cations were defined from samples filtered through membranous the filter pore size 0.45 micro m, without preliminary sample preparation. The analysis of trace heavy metals in the filtered samples, carried out in Perkin Elmer model, Analyst 800 atomic absorption spectrometer with Zeeman background corrector by electrothermal atomization. The Analyst 800 has auto sampler such as AS 800 and due

  4. Phocine Distemper Virus in Northern Sea Otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Burek, Kathy A.; Hammond, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused 2 epidemics in harbor seals in the Atlantic Ocean but had never been identified in any Pacific Ocean species. We found that northern sea otters in Alaska are infected with PDV, which has created a disease threat to several sympatric and decreasing Pacific marine mammals. PMID:19523293

  5. Surgical implantation of intra-abdominal radiotransmitters in marine otters (Lontra felina) in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Azat, Claudio; Boher, Francisca; Fabry, Mauricio; Pascual, Paulo; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2008-10-01

    Six free-ranging marine otters (Lontra felina) were livetrapped on the central coast of Chile and implanted with specially designed radiotransmitters as part of a spatial ecology study. Marine otters frequent the rocky seashore, often squeezing their narrow bodies through cracks and crevices and grooming themselves on the rocks. They are also among the smallest of the otter species, weighing between 3.4 kg and 4.5 kg. For these reasons, the transmitter used was small, rectangular, and flat, measuring 3.5 x 3.2 x 1.0 cm. They were implanted using a ventral midline approach to minimize contact between the skin incision and sharp-edged rocks. Surgical incisions healed within 2 wk. The transmitters functioned well, but the duration varied from 62 days to 143 days instead of the 240 days predicted by the manufacturer. All six marine otters reestablished in their home ranges, and survey results suggest they survived well beyond the life of the transmitters.

  6. The diet of otters ( Lutra lutra L.) in Danish freshwater habitats : comparisons of prey fish populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taastrom, H.M.; Jacobsen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    Otter spraints from five Danish freshwater localities were analysed. In all localities fish was the main prey (76-99% of estimated bulk), especially in winter. Depending on locality, the prey fish mainly consisted of cyprinids (Cyprinidae), percids (Percidae) or salmonids (Salmonidae). Seasonal v...

  7. 77 FR 75265 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... (USFWS 2003), the recovery team recommends that we declare the translocation program a failure and... be in the best interest of southern sea otter recovery to declare the translocation program a failure... Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea...

  8. Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a northern sea otter from Washington state, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Rosypal, A.C.; Dubey, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection was observed in a Northern sea otter from Washington, USA. The animal was found stranded, convulsed, and died shortly thereafter. Encephalitis caused by both S. neurona and T. gondii was demonstrated in histological sections of brain. Immunohistochemical examination of sections with S. neurona specific antisera demonstrated developmental stages that divided by endopolygeny and produced numerous merozoites. PCR of brain tissue from the sea otter using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 resulted in amplification of a 1100 bp product. This PCR product was cut in to 884 and 216 bp products by Dra I but was not cut by Hinf I indicating that it was S. neurona [J. Parasitol. 85 (1999) 221]. No PCR product was detected in the brain of a sea otter which had no lesions of encephalitis. Examination of brain sections using T. gondii specific antisera demonstrated tachyzoites and tissue cysts of T. gondii. The lesions induced by T. gondii suggested that the sea otter was suffering from reactivated toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was isolated in mice inoculated with brain tissue. A cat that was fed infected mouse brain tissue excreted T. gondii oocysts which were infective for mice. This is apparently the first report of dual S. neurona and T. gondii in a marine mammal.

  9. Winter predation by otter, Lutra lutra on carp pond system in South Bohemia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kortan, D.; Adámek, Zdeněk; Poláková, S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2007), s. 416-428 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : otter diet * spraint analysis * excessive hunting * fish remains Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.376, year: 2007 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/56/4/416-428_MS1301.pdf

  10. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  11. Using stable isotopes to investigate individual diet specialization in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, S.D.; Tinker, M.T.; Monson, Daniel H.; Oftedal, O.T.; Ralls, K.; Staedler, M.M.; Fogel, M.L.; Estes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in diet composition among conspecifics (dietary specialization) have been documented across a broad range of taxonomic groups and habitats, and such variation at the individual level is increasingly recognized as an important component of diversity in trophic interactions. Accurate identification of individual dietary specialization, however, requires longitudinal dietary records that are labor-intensive and cost-prohibitive to obtain for many species. Here we explore the use of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) as a promising technique for detecting and quantifying patterns of individual dietary specialization. Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) offer a unique opportunity for testing this approach because (1) they consume a wide variety of prey that span multiple trophic levels, habitats, and ecologically defined functional groups; and (2) individual diet specialization can be validated with existing observational data. We analyzed the isotopic composition of sea otter vibrissae (n = 31) in order to characterize inter- and intra-individual variation in sea otter diets at Monterey Bay, California, USA. At the population level, sea otters showed substantial variation in both δ13C and δ15N values, occupying nearly all of the “isotopic space” created by the diversity of isotopic signatures of potential prey taxa. Most of the variation in sea otter vibrissae was accounted for by differences between individuals, with much less contributed by within-individual variation. A majority of sea otters (∼80%) showed relatively little temporal variability in isotopic composition, suggesting that the proportional composition of most individuals' diets is relatively constant over time; a few individuals (∼20%) exhibited a high degree of intra-vibrissa isotopic variability, suggesting seasonal shifts in diet composition. These results and our interpretation of them were supported by long-term observational data on the diets of radio-tagged sea otters

  12. Monitoring and modeling very large, rapid infiltration using geophysics during the 2014 Lower Colorado River pulse flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J.; Macy, J. P.; Callegary, J. B.; Lopez, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    In March and April 2014, an unprecedented experiment released over 100x106 cubic meters (81,000 acre-feet) of water from Morelos Dam into the normally-dry lower Colorado River below Yuma, Arizona, USA. More than half of the water released from Morelos Dam infiltrated within the limitrophe reach, a 32-km stretch between the Northern U.S.-Mexico International Boundary and the Southern International Boundary, a distance of just 32 river-kilometers. To characterize the spatial and temporal extent of infiltration, scientists from the US Geological Survey, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Baja California, and Universidad Autónoma de Baja California carried out several geophysical surveys. Frequency-domain electromagnetic transects throughout the limitrophe reach showed that the subsurface comprised exclusively sandy material, with little finer-grained material to impede or otherwise influence infiltration. Direct current resistivity clearly imaged the rising water table near the stream channel. Both techniques provide valuable parameterization and calibration information for a surface-water/groundwater interaction model currently in development. Time-lapse gravity data were collected at 25 stations to expand the monitoring well network and provide storage-coefficient information for the groundwater model. Despite difficult field conditions, precise measurements of large gravity changes showed that changes in groundwater storage in the upper reach of the study area, where groundwater levels were highest, were constrained to the near vicinity of the river channel. Downstream near the Southern International Boundary, however, groundwater storage increased substantially over a large area, expanding into the regional aquifer that supplies irrigation water to surrounding agriculture.

  13. Determining the pattern of cementum annuli and relationship to reproduction in male sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper, Josh; von Biela, Vanessa R.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the southwestern Alaskan sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population has declined dramatically and the cause has yet to be determined. Population trajectories of large mammals are determined by three factors: survival rate, reproduction rate, and age of first reproduction (AFR). Of these three, AFR should respond first to environmental change. Life history theory predicts that AFR will be older with bottom-up causes (ie, food limitation) and younger when the cause of the decline is top-down (ie, predation), as there is usually abundant resources in this scenario. Traditionally, determining AFR required lethal sampling, which may not always be possible. Work on many mammalian species suggests that the width of annual cementum layers in teeth may decline when breeding begins. If so, examining teeth annuli may provide a nonlethal alternative for determining AFR. Ongoing research has shown this relationship in female sea otters, but male sea otters have not been tested. Sea otter testes and premolar teeth slides were collected by subsistence hunters working with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Sea Otter and Steller Sea Lion Commission from Alaska (1994– 2005). We determined the pattern in cementum annuli thickness for male sea otters across age by measuring annuli at three sites on each of the two slide sections available. We found that cementum annuli layers decreased with age, but found no correlation between cementum annuli and sexual maturity in male sea otters. This lack of correlation may be due to sampling error or different energy expenditures during reproduction for each sex. Since females expend large amounts of energy through gestation and lactation, we hypothesize that the width of female cementum annuli decreases at a much sharper rate when they reach AFR.The southwest Alaskan sea otter population has plummeted up to 90% since the early 1990s and the reason is unknown.1 Declines may be due to a bottom-up source caused by

  14. International Cooperative Programme for Assessment and Monitoring of Acidification of Rivers and Lakes. Programme Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.; Forsius, M.; Jeffries, D. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The International Cooperative Programme for Assessment of Acidification of Rivers and lakes (ICP Waters) was established in 1985 by the UN/ECE Executive Body for the Convention of Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. Achieving the programme objectives requires that both the temporally intensive and regionally extensive data are collected on a continuing basis. To guide the development and harmonization of the various national contributions, a manual was worked out. The present report is an expanded and consolidated revision of that manual. 33 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Integrated Assessment of PAH Contamination in the Czech Rivers Using a Combination of Chemical and Biological Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blahova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH pollution of selected rivers in the Czech Republic. Integrated evaluation was carried out using combination of chemical and biological monitoring, in which we measured content of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP in chub bile and priority PAH in water samples obtained by exposing the semipermeable membrane devices at each location. The concentrations of 1-OHP in bile samples and sum of priority PAH in water sampler ranged from 6.8 ng mg protein−1 to 106.6 ng mg protein−1 and from 5.2 ng L−1 to 173.9 ng L−1, respectively. The highest levels of biliary metabolite and PAH in water were measured at the Odra River (the Bohumín site, which is located in relatively heavily industrialized and polluted region. Statistically significant positive correlation between biliary 1-OHP and sum of PAH in water was also obtained (P<0.01, rs=0.806.

  16. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Huq, M.V.; Meyers-Schone, L.J.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987

  17. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico); Huq, M.V. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hamden, CT (United States); Meyers-Schone, L.J. [Frankfurter, Gross-Gerau (Germany); Mohrbacher, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, C.R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Stout, J.G. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  18. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; Axel, Gordon A.; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2002-07-01

    This report details the 2001 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these data in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

  19. Food abundance, prey morphology, and diet specialization influence individual sea otter tool use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Jessica A.; Ralls, Katherine; Tinker, M. Tim

    2017-01-01

    Sea otters are well-known tool users, employing objects such as rocks or shells to break open invertebrate prey. We used a series of generalized linear mixed effect models to examine observational data on prey capture and tool use from 211 tagged individuals from 5 geographically defined study areas throughout the sea otter’s range in California. Our best supported model was able to explain 75% of the variation in the frequency of tool use by individual sea otters with only ecological and demographic variables. In one study area, where sea otter food resources were abundant, all individuals had similar diets focusing on preferred prey items and used tools at low to moderate frequencies (4–38% of prey captures). In the remaining areas, where sea otters were food-limited, individuals specialized on different subsets of the available prey and had a wider range of average tool-use frequency (0–98% of prey captures). The prevalence of difficult-to-access prey in individual diets was a major predictor of tool use and increased the likelihood of using tools on prey that were not difficult to access as well. Age, sex, and feeding habitat also contributed to the probability of tool use but to a smaller extent. We developed a conceptual model illustrating how food abundance, the prevalence of difficult-to-access prey, and individual diet specialization interacted to determine the likelihood that individual sea otters would use tools and considered the model’s relevance to other tool-using species.

  20. Protozoal meningoencephalitis in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): A histopathological and immunohistochemical study of naturally occurring cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Dubey, J.P.; Lindsay, D.S.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Meteyer, C.U.

    2007-01-01

    Protozoal meningoencephalitis is considered to be an important cause of mortality in the California sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Thirty nine of 344 (11.3%) California (CA) and Washington state (WA) sea otters examined from 1985 to 2004 had histopathological evidence of significant protozoal meningoencephalitis. The aetiological agents and histopathological changes associated with these protozoal infections are described. The morphology of the actively multiplicative life stages of the organisms (tachyzoites for Toxoplasma gondii and merozoites for Sarcocystis neurona) and immunohistochemical labelling were used to identify infection with S. neurona (n=22, 56.4%), T. gondii (n=5, 12.8%) or dual infection with both organisms (n=12, 30.8%). Active S. neurona was present in all dual infections, while most had only the latent form of T. gondii. In S. neuronameningoencephalitis, multifocal to diffuse gliosis was widespread in grey matter and consistently present in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. In T. gondiimeningoencephalitis, discrete foci of gliosis and malacia were more widely separated, sometimes incorporated pigment-laden macrophages and mineral, and were found predominantly in the cerebral cortex. Quiescent tissue cysts of T. gondii were considered to be incidental and not a cause of clinical disease and mortality. Protozoal meningoencephalitis was diagnosed more frequently in the expanding population of WA sea otters (10 of 31, 32.3%) than in the declining CA population (29 of 313, 9.3%). Among sea otters with protozoal meningoencephalitis, those that had displayed neurological signs prior to death had active S. neurona encephalitis, supporting the conclusion that S. neurona is the most significant protozoal pathogen in the central nervous system of sea otters.

  1. Inter-decadal patterns of population and dietary change in sea otters at Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, J.; Siniff, D.B.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    After having been hunted to near-extinction in the Pacific maritime fur trade, the sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska increased from very low numbers in the early 1900s to near equilibrium density by the 1940s. The population persisted at or near equilibrium through the 1980s, but declined sharply in the 1990s in apparent response to increased killer whale predation. Sea otter diet and foraging behavior were studied at Amchitka from August 1992 to March 1994 and the data compared with similar information obtained during several earlier periods. In contrast with dietary patterns in the 1960s and 1970s, when the sea otter population was at or near equilibrium density and kelp-forest fishes were the dietary mainstay, these fishes were rarely eaten in the 1990s. Benthic invertebrates, particularly sea urchins, dominated the otter's diet from early summer to midwinter, then decreased in importance during late winter and spring when numerous Pacific smooth lumpsuckers (a large and easily captured oceanic fish) were eaten. The occurrence of spawning lumpsuckers in coastal waters apparently is episodic on a scale of years to decades. The otters' recent dietary shift away from kelp-forest fishes is probably a response to the increased availability of lumpsuckers and sea urchins (both high-preference prey). Additionally, increased urchin densities have reduced kelp beds, thus further reducing the availability of kelp-forest fishes. Our findings suggest that dietary patterns reflect changes in population status and show how an ecosystem normally under top-down control and limited by coastal zone processes can be significantly perturbed by exogenous events.

  2. Ecological drivers of variation in tool-use frequency across sea otter populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Jessica; Ralls, Katherine; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sea otters are well-known tool users, employing objects such as rocks or shells to break open hard-shelled invertebrate prey. However, little is known about how the frequency of tool use varies among sea otter populations and the factors that drive these differences. We examined 17 years of observational data on prey capture and tool use from 8 sea otter populations ranging from southern California to the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. There were significant differences in the diets of these populations as well as variation in the frequency of tool use. Sea otters at Amchitka Island, Alaska, used tools on less than 1% of dives that resulted in the capture of prey compared with approximately 16% in Monterey, California. The percentage of individuals in the population that used tools ranged from 10% to 93%. In all populations, marine snails and thick-shelled bivalves were most likely to be associated with tool use, whereas soft-bodied prey items such as worms and sea stars were the least likely. The probability that a tool would be used on a given prey type varied across populations. The morphology of the prey item being handled and the prevalence of various types of prey in local diets were major ecological drivers of tool use: together they accounted for about 64% of the variation in tool-use frequency among populations. The remaining variation may be related to changes in the relative costs and benefits to an individual otter of learning to use tools effectively under differing ecological circumstances.

  3. Setting realistic recovery targets for two interacting endangered species, sea otter and northern abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadès, Iadine; Curtis, Janelle M R; Martin, Tara G

    2012-12-01

    Failure to account for interactions between endangered species may lead to unexpected population dynamics, inefficient management strategies, waste of scarce resources, and, at worst, increased extinction risk. The importance of species interactions is undisputed, yet recovery targets generally do not account for such interactions. This shortcoming is a consequence of species-centered legislation, but also of uncertainty surrounding the dynamics of species interactions and the complexity of modeling such interactions. The northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) and one of its preferred prey, northern abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana), are endangered species for which recovery strategies have been developed without consideration of their strong predator-prey interactions. Using simulation-based optimization procedures from artificial intelligence, namely reinforcement learning and stochastic dynamic programming, we combined sea otter and northern abalone population models with functional-response models and examined how different management actions affect population dynamics and the likelihood of achieving recovery targets for each species through time. Recovery targets for these interacting species were difficult to achieve simultaneously in the absence of management. Although sea otters were predicted to recover, achieving abalone recovery targets failed even when threats to abalone such as predation and poaching were reduced. A management strategy entailing a 50% reduction in the poaching of northern abalone was a minimum requirement to reach short-term recovery goals for northern abalone when sea otters were present. Removing sea otters had a marginally positive effect on the abalone population but only when we assumed a functional response with strong predation pressure. Our optimization method could be applied more generally to any interacting threatened or invasive species for which there are multiple conservation objectives. © 2012 Society for

  4. Real-time water quality monitoring at a Great Lakes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Nevers, Meredith; Shively, Dawn; Spoljaric, Ashley; Otto, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used by the USEPA to establish new recreational water quality criteria in 2012 using the indicator bacteria enterococci. The application of this method has been limited, but resource managers are interested in more timely monitoring results. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of qPCR as a rapid, alternative method to the time-consuming membrane filtration (MF) method for monitoring water at select beaches and rivers of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in Empire, MI. Water samples were collected from four locations (Esch Road Beach, Otter Creek, Platte Point Bay, and Platte River outlet) in 2014 and analyzed for culture-based (MF) and non-culture-based (i.e., qPCR) endpoints using Escherichia coli and enterococci bacteria. The MF and qPCR enterococci results were significantly, positively correlated overall (r = 0.686, p Water quality standard exceedances based on enterococci levels by qPCR were lower than by MF method: 3 and 16, respectively. Based on our findings, we conclude that qPCR may be a viable alternative to the culture-based method for monitoring water quality on public lands. Rapid, same-day results are achievable by the qPCR method, which greatly improves protection of the public from water-related illnesses.

  5. RIVER SEDIMENT MONITORING USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS (CASE STUDY KARAJ WATERSHED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafaie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the tank volume and dehydrating digits from kinds of tanks are depended on repository sludge, so calculating the sediments is so important in tank planning and hydraulic structures. We are worry a lot about soil erosion in the basin area leading to deposit in rivers and lakes. It holds two reasons: firstly, because the surface soil of drainage would lose its fertility and secondly, the capacity of the tank decreases also it causes the decrease of water quality in downstream. Several studies have shown that we can estimate the rate of suspension sediments through remote sensing techniques. Whereas using remote sensing methods in contrast to the traditional and current techniques is faster and more accurate then they can be used as the effective techniques. The intent of this study has already been to estimate the rate of sediments in Karaj watershed through remote sensing and satellite images then comparing the gained results to the sediments data to use them in gauge-hydraulic station. We mean to recognize the remote sensing methods in calculating sediment and use them to determine the rate of river sediments so that identifying their accuracies. According to the results gained of the shown relations at this article, the amount of annual suspended sedimentary in KARAJ watershed have been 320490 Tones and in hydrologic method is about 350764 Tones .

  6. Widespread Micropollutant Monitoring in the Hudson River Estuary Reveals Spatiotemporal Micropollutant Clusters and Their Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Corey M G; Helbling, Damian E

    2018-06-05

    The objective of this study was to identify sources of micropollutants in the Hudson River Estuary (HRE). We collected 127 grab samples at 17 sites along the HRE over 2 years and screened for up to 200 micropollutants. We quantified 168 of the micropollutants in at least one of the samples. Atrazine, gabapentin, metolachlor, and sucralose were measured in every sample. We used data-driven unsupervised methods to cluster the micropollutants on the basis of their spatiotemporal occurrence and normalized-concentration patterns. Three major clusters of micropollutants were identified: ubiquitous and mixed-use (core micropollutants), sourced from sewage treatment plant outfalls (STP micropollutants), and derived from diffuse upstream sources (diffuse micropollutants). Each of these clusters was further refined into subclusters that were linked to specific sources on the basis of relationships identified through geospatial analysis of watershed features. Evaluation of cumulative loadings of each subcluster revealed that the Mohawk River and Rondout Creek are major contributors of most core micropollutants and STP micropollutants and the upper HRE is a major contributor of diffuse micropollutants. These data provide the first comprehensive evaluation of micropollutants in the HRE and define distinct spatiotemporal micropollutant clusters that are linked to sources and conserved across surface water systems around the world.

  7. River Sediment Monitoring Using Remote Sensing and GIS (case Study Karaj Watershed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaie, M.; Ghodosi, H.; Mostofi, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Whereas the tank volume and dehydrating digits from kinds of tanks are depended on repository sludge, so calculating the sediments is so important in tank planning and hydraulic structures. We are worry a lot about soil erosion in the basin area leading to deposit in rivers and lakes. It holds two reasons: firstly, because the surface soil of drainage would lose its fertility and secondly, the capacity of the tank decreases also it causes the decrease of water quality in downstream. Several studies have shown that we can estimate the rate of suspension sediments through remote sensing techniques. Whereas using remote sensing methods in contrast to the traditional and current techniques is faster and more accurate then they can be used as the effective techniques. The intent of this study has already been to estimate the rate of sediments in Karaj watershed through remote sensing and satellite images then comparing the gained results to the sediments data to use them in gauge-hydraulic station. We mean to recognize the remote sensing methods in calculating sediment and use them to determine the rate of river sediments so that identifying their accuracies. According to the results gained of the shown relations at this article, the amount of annual suspended sedimentary in KARAJ watershed have been 320490 Tones and in hydrologic method is about 350764 Tones .

  8. Continuous monitoring of a dam flush in a shallow river using two crossing ultrasonic transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanisi, Kiyosi; Razaz, Mahdi; Yano, Jyunki; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Continuous measurements of streamflow and water temperature were carried out in a shallow gravel-bed river during dam flushing operations using a new shallow acoustic system with two crossing transmission lines. The fluvial acoustic system (FAS) was equipped with four 25 kHz broadband omnidirectional transducers. The reciprocal sound transmissions were performed between the two pairs of acoustic stations, located on both sides of the river. The four-station FAS enabled the measurement of the stream direction in addition to the depth- and range-averaged sound speed, and therefore water velocity. Discharge values computed from FAS reports were compared to those estimated by the moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and rating curve (RC) methods. FAS estimates were in good agreement with ADCP and RC estimates over a range of 50 to 180 m 3 s −1 . The temperature gradients induced strong sound scattering for the 25 kHz FAS. The fine suspended sediment particles also induced a gradual decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio of the FAS. Nevertheless, the FAS has been proved to be a reliable and accurate technique for the continuous measurement of cross-sectional average velocity/water temperature. (paper)

  9. “State of the Estuary” - Developing a long term monitoring, assessment and reporting framework for the lower Saint Louis River

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the lower Saint Louis River moves closer and closer to delisting as an Area of Concern, it is incumbent that we measure, assess and report on our success. Going forward, It’s equally important that we continue monitoring to protect and sustain the healthy ecosystems we&...

  10. Water quality monitoring protocol for wadeable streams and rivers in the Northern Great Plains Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marcia H.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Paintner-Green, Kara J.

    2014-01-01

    Preserving the national parks unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations is a fundamental purpose of the National Park Service (NPS). To address growing concerns regarding the overall physical, chemical, and biological elements and processes of park ecosystems, the NPS implemented science-based management through “Vital Signs” monitoring in 270 national parks (NPS 2007). The Northern Great Plains Network (NGPN) is among the 32 National Park Service Networks participating in this monitoring effort. The NGPN will develop protocols over the next several years to determine the overall health or condition of resources within 13 parks located in Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming.

  11. Monitoring of Trace Metal Pollution in Meenachil River at Kottayam, Kerala (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu. V. Nair

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The water quality of the Meenachil river at Kottayam has been studied with reference to toxic trace metals during pre and post monsoon seasons for 10 stations during May 2009-September 2009. The metals analyzed include Zinc, Manganese, Iron, Lead, Copper and Cadmium. Among the metals studied, iron, lead and cadmium showed higher concentrations above the permissible limit for drinking water prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards. Iron and lead showed higher concentration during post monsoon and the cadmium content was high during pre-monsoon. It was observed that the main causes of deterioration in water quality might be due to the discharge of domestic wastes, municipal wastes, terrestrial runoff from seepage sites, agricultural sites and also due to geological weathering process.

  12. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Annual report for 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An extensive surveillance program has been continuously maintained since 1951 (before SRP startup) to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in a 1200-square-mile area in the environs of the plant and the radiation exposure of the population resulting from SRP operations. The results of this monitoring program are reported annually to the public. This document summarizes the 1979 results

  13. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program - Second Quarter 1998 (April through June 1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J B

    1999-02-10

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during second quarter 1998. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for the program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  14. A Successful Replication of the River Visitor Inventory and Monitoring Process for Capacity Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth Chilman; James Vogel; Greg Brown; John H. Burde

    2004-01-01

    This paper has 3 purposes: to discuss 1. case study research and its utility for recreation management decisionmaking, 2. the recreation visitor inventory and monitoring process developed from case study research, and 3. a successful replication of the process in a large-scale, multi-year application. Although case study research is discussed in research textbooks as...

  15. Risk assessment of Giardia in rivers of southern China based on continuous monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei An; Dongqing Zhang; Shumin Xiao; Jianwei Yu; Min Yang

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and risks of Giardia in China have been unclear to date,which has made it difficult to properly manage source water as well as to create reasonable drinking water standards.The levels of Giardia in river networks of several cities in Zhejiang Province,China were found to be in the range of 0-5 oocysts/10 L in the rainy season in 2008.The mortality due to Giardia infection for people in this region was calculated to be from 0 to 1.95 × 10-s persons using a conditional probability equation.Based on multiple unboiled water intake routes,the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to Giardia infection for people who consumed conventionally treated water was 0.625 (95% CI:0.137-2.05) per 105 persons,with the symptom of hospitalization making the highest contribution to total DALYs (0.56 per 105 persons; 95% CI:0.122-1.84).The DALYs decreased to 0.425 (95% CI:0.137-2.05) per 105 persons per year for those consuming water treated with advanced technology.These values were lower than the acceptable risk (1.97 × 10-5 DALYs per year).This study revealed the risk of Giardia infection to the people in river networks of Zhejiang Province for the first time,and provides a method to evaluate the risk of Giardia infection.The results are useful for the modification of drinking water quality standards based on cost-benefit analysis.

  16. Gene Transcript Profiling in Sea Otters Post-Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: A Tool for Marine Ecosystem Health Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizabeth Bowen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a panel of genes stimulated by oil exposure in a laboratory study, we evaluated gene transcription in blood leukocytes sampled from sea otters captured from 2006–2012 in western Prince William Sound (WPWS, Alaska, 17–23 years after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS. We compared WPWS sea otters to reference populations (not affected by the EVOS from the Alaska Peninsula (2009, Katmai National Park and Preserve (2009, Clam Lagoon at Adak Island (2012, Kodiak Island (2005 and captive sea otters in aquaria. Statistically, sea otter gene transcript profiles separated into three distinct clusters: Cluster 1, Kodiak and WPWS 2006–2008 (higher relative transcription; Cluster 2, Clam Lagoon and WPWS 2010–2012 (lower relative transcription; and Cluster 3, Alaska Peninsula, Katmai and captive sea otters (intermediate relative transcription. The lower transcription of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, an established biomarker for hydrocarbon exposure, in WPWS 2010–2012 compared to earlier samples from WPWS is consistent with declining hydrocarbon exposure, but the pattern of overall low levels of transcription seen in WPWS 2010–2012 could be related to other factors, such as food limitation, pathogens or injury, and may indicate an inability to mount effective responses to stressors. Decreased transcriptional response across the entire gene panel precludes the evaluation of whether or not individual sea otters show signs of exposure to lingering oil. However, related studies on sea otter demographics indicate that by 2012, the sea otter population in WPWS had recovered, which indicates diminishing oil exposure.

  17. Gene transcript profiling in sea otters post-Exxon Valdez oil spill: A tool for marine ecosystem health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Waters, Shannon C.; Bodkin, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a panel of genes stimulated by oil exposure in a laboratory study, we evaluated gene transcription in blood leukocytes sampled from sea otters captured from 2006–2012 in western Prince William Sound (WPWS), Alaska, 17–23 years after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). We compared WPWS sea otters to reference populations (not affected by the EVOS) from the Alaska Peninsula (2009), Katmai National Park and Preserve (2009), Clam Lagoon at Adak Island (2012), Kodiak Island (2005) and captive sea otters in aquaria. Statistically, sea otter gene transcript profiles separated into three distinct clusters: Cluster 1, Kodiak and WPWS 2006–2008 (higher relative transcription); Cluster 2, Clam Lagoon and WPWS 2010–2012 (lower relative transcription); and Cluster 3, Alaska Peninsula, Katmai and captive sea otters (intermediate relative transcription). The lower transcription of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), an established biomarker for hydrocarbon exposure, in WPWS 2010–2012 compared to earlier samples from WPWS is consistent with declining hydrocarbon exposure, but the pattern of overall low levels of transcription seen in WPWS 2010–2012 could be related to other factors, such as food limitation, pathogens or injury, and may indicate an inability to mount effective responses to stressors. Decreased transcriptional response across the entire gene panel precludes the evaluation of whether or not individual sea otters show signs of exposure to lingering oil. However, related studies on sea otter demographics indicate that by 2012, the sea otter population in WPWS had recovered, which indicates diminishing oil exposure.

  18. Representing Geospatial Environment Observation Capability Information: A Case Study of Managing Flood Monitoring Sensors in the Jinsha River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuli; Guan, Qingfeng; Li, Jie; Wang, Ke; Chen, Nengcheng

    2016-01-01

    Sensor inquirers cannot understand comprehensive or accurate observation capability information because current observation capability modeling does not consider the union of multiple sensors nor the effect of geospatial environmental features on the observation capability of sensors. These limitations result in a failure to discover credible sensors or plan for their collaboration for environmental monitoring. The Geospatial Environmental Observation Capability (GEOC) is proposed in this study and can be used as an information basis for the reliable discovery and collaborative planning of multiple environmental sensors. A field-based GEOC (GEOCF) information representation model is built. Quintuple GEOCF feature components and two GEOCF operations are formulated based on the geospatial field conceptual framework. The proposed GEOCF markup language is used to formalize the proposed GEOCF. A prototype system called GEOCapabilityManager is developed, and a case study is conducted for flood observation in the lower reaches of the Jinsha River Basin. The applicability of the GEOCF is verified through the reliable discovery of flood monitoring sensors and planning for the collaboration of these sensors. PMID:27999247

  19. Management and Level of Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus Illinger, 1815 as Display Animal in Indonesia Conservation Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfa Hansyari Ar-Rasyid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Education and breeding become main reasons for asian small-clawed otter placement as display animal in zoo. Proper management is needed to maintain asian small-clawed otter welfare. This research objectives were to examine and assess asian small-clawed otter welfare in three Indonesia zoos. The study was conducted from December 2016 to February 2017 in Bandung Zoo, Ragunan Zoo and Ocean Dream Samudra Ancol. The methods of this research were literature review, interview and field observation. Data were analyzed using the suitability of management and animal welfare assessment. The result showed that there were three main management activities conducted at the three study locations, i.e., nutrition, housing, and health management. Bandung Zoo achieved the lowest score of asian small-clawed otter welfare (45,24% compared to Ragunan Zoo (62,24% and Ocean Dream Samudra (65,90%. Asian small-clawed otter welfare in three institutions were relatively low to fair category, this was due to the unfilled quality of food and water i.e.,  the type, amount, feeding frequency, diet and preparing of food; the unavailability of suitable and favorable environmental conditions; the care facilities provided could not ensure the health of animal; the appearance of abnormal behavior that affected the growth and breeding of animal; and animal had no freedom to behave as in their natural habitat. Keywords: animal display, animal welfare, Asian small-clawed otter, zoo 

  20. Tourists’ willingness to pay to view otters along the Wild Coast, South Africa: a potential for increased ecotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihle Dumalisile

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on tourists’ willingness to pay to view Cape clawless otters Aonyx capensis along the Eastern Cape Wild Coast, South Africa. We collected data from a survey carried out using a structured, selfadministered questionnaire. We analyzed 67 completed questionnaires, of which 60 respondents (89.5% indicated that they would be interested in viewing otters and would be prepared to pay an extra fee, over and above the normal entrance fees, for a trained guide to show them otters. The remaining 7 (10.4% respondents indicated that they would reconsider and pay if this would create jobs for members of the local community. Most (98.4% and 91.8% of the respondents also indicated that they would still pay even if there was only a 50% or 25% chance of seeing otters. Most of the respondents were willing to pay either less than R50.00 (ca US$8.00 or R50.00-R100.00 to view otters regardless of the chances of seeing them. We conclude from our results that otters do have the potential to increase ecotourism in the area, and also to contribute financially to the poverty stricken local Dwesa community.

  1. Crims Island-Restoration and monitoring of juvenile salmon rearing habitat in the Columbia River Estuary, Oregon, 2004-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Under the 2004 Biological Opinion for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System released by the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) were directed to restore more than 4,047 hectares (10,000 acres) of tidal marsh in the Columbia River estuary by 2010. Restoration of Crims Island near Longview, Washington, restored 38.1 hectares of marsh and swamp in the tidal freshwater portion of the lower Columbia River. The goal of the restoration was to improve habitat for juveniles of Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed salmon stocks and ESA-listed Columbian white-tailed deer. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitored and evaluated the fisheries and aquatic resources at Crims Island in 2004 prior to restoration (pre-restoration), which began in August 2004, and then post-restoration from 2006 to 2009. This report summarizes pre- and post-restoration monitoring data used by the USGS to evaluate project success. We evaluated project success by examining the interaction between juvenile salmon and a suite of broader ecological measures including sediments, plants, and invertebrates and their response to large-scale habitat alteration. The restoration action at Crims Island from August 2004 to September 2005 was to excavate a 0.6-meter layer of soil and dig channels in the interior of the island to remove reed canary grass and increase habitat area and tidal exchange. The excavation created 34.4 hectares of tidal emergent marsh where none previously existed and 3.7 hectares of intertidal and subtidal channels. Cattle that had grazed the island for more than 50 years were relocated. Soil excavated from the site was deposited in upland areas next to the tidal marsh to establish an upland forest. Excavation deepened and widened an existing T-shaped channel to increase tidal flow to the interior of the island. The western arm of the existing 'T

  2. Identifying Pollutants in the Siret River Basin by Applying New Assessment Tools on Monitoring Data: the Correlation of Land Use and Physicochemical Parameter of Water Quality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mănescu Andreea

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Siret River are used as raw water source for different municipal water supply systems, yet the Siret River are used as receiving bodies by some inhabitants and industry. In the study the quality of the Siret River water was determinate using a Water Quality Index (WQI. Results are presented from a field study performed on the Bistrita, Moldova, Suceava, Siret, Şomuzu Mare, Trotuş and Tributary River in the study area Siret Basin Romania. The main objective of this study was to determine is to find correlations land use to indicators physical-chemical of water quality, to investigate pollution source is more responsible for river water quality. This is of interest not only research context, but also for supporting and facilitating the application analysis postullend in the Water Framework Directive (WFD (2000/60/CE for the establishment of programmers of measures. For this purpose a slightly impact pollution source municipal wastewater treatment, land uses, urban, forest, agriculture and mining was selected and intensively monitored during six years January 2006 - December 2011, sampling was determined to meet the WFD standards for confidence in twenty two different control section of the Siret Basin. The main measures to reduce emissions to the Siret River were calcium, ammonium, sulfate, residue fixed (RF, sodium, chloride, free detergent and municipal wastewater treatment, concentrated on point emission. The main contributor to diffuse this parameters increased when more percentage of land was dedicated to industry and urban and less to forest and mining.

  3. Water quality monitoring of river Ravi from Mehmood buti bund road to downstream Sanda main outfall, Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S.; Ayub, M.; Tabinda, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Water quality of River Ravi was monitored at six different sites on a stretch from Mehmood Buti Bund Road to Sanda Main Outfall Lahore for different physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals. Different water quality parameters at different sites ranged as under. Temperature ranged between 19.5 to 22.3 deg. C. pH was between 7.8 to 8.1, and maximum at Mehmood Buti Bund. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.71 and 9.52 mg/L, minimum at main out fall and total dissolved solids were between 40 and 213 mg/L, conductivity was between 298 to 1146 Mmhos/Cm, total alkalinity was between 111 and 463 mg/L, minimum at Mehmood Buti Bund and maximum at main out fall, total hardness was between 116 and 287 mg/L minimum at Mehmood Buti Bund and maximum at old bridge, chloride values were between 51.5 to 174 mg/L minimum near Baradari and maximum at Mehmood Buti Bund. Concentrations of Chromium, Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc ranged between 0.01 and 2.78 mg/L, 0.4 and 1.72 mg/L, 0.97 and 1.38 mg/L, 0.09 and 2.89 mg/L respectively. Minimum metal concentrations were at Mehmood Buti Bund while maximum values were at down stream of main out fall indicating more deterioration of water quality of River Ravi down streams main out fall by addition of different types of untreated industrial effluents and domestic wastewater from different operations by inhabitants of Lahore City. (author)

  4. Science advancements key to increasing management value of life stage monitoring networks for endangered Sacramento River winter-run Chinook salmon in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel C.; Windell, Sean; Brandes, Patricia L.; Conrad, J. Louise; Ferguson, John; Goertler, Pascale A. L.; Harvey, Brett N.; Heublein, Joseph; Isreal, Joshua A.; Kratville, Daniel W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Perry, Russell W.; Pisciotto, Joseph; Poytress, William R.; Reece, Kevin; Swart, Brycen G.

    2017-01-01

    A robust monitoring network that provides quantitative information about the status of imperiled species at key life stages and geographic locations over time is fundamental for sustainable management of fisheries resources. For anadromous species, management actions in one geographic domain can substantially affect abundance of subsequent life stages that span broad geographic regions. Quantitative metrics (e.g., abundance, movement, survival, life history diversity, and condition) at multiple life stages are needed to inform how management actions (e.g., hatcheries, harvest, hydrology, and habitat restoration) influence salmon population dynamics. The existing monitoring network for endangered Sacramento River winterrun Chinook Salmon (SRWRC, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in California’s Central Valley was compared to conceptual models developed for each life stage and geographic region of the life cycle to identify relevant SRWRC metrics. We concluded that the current monitoring network was insufficient to diagnose when (life stage) and where (geographic domain) chronic or episodic reductions in SRWRC cohorts occur, precluding within- and among-year comparisons. The strongest quantitative data exist in the Upper Sacramento River, where abundance estimates are generated for adult spawners and emigrating juveniles. However, once SRWRC leave the upper river, our knowledge of their identity, abundance, and condition diminishes, despite the juvenile monitoring enterprise. We identified six system-wide recommended actions to strengthen the value of data generated from the existing monitoring network to assess resource management actions: (1) incorporate genetic run identification; (2) develop juvenile abundance estimates; (3) collect data for life history diversity metrics at multiple life stages; (4) expand and enhance real-time fish survival and movement monitoring; (5) collect fish condition data; and (6) provide timely public access to monitoring data in open data

  5. Hyperspectral sensing for turbid water quality monitoring in freshwater rivers: Empirical relationship between reflectance and turbidity and total solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiunn-Lin; Ho, Chung-Ru; Huang, Chia-Ching; Srivastav, Arun Lal; Tzeng, Jing-Hua; Lin, Yao-Tung

    2014-11-28

    Total suspended solid (TSS) is an important water quality parameter. This study was conducted to test the feasibility of the band combination of hyperspectral sensing for inland turbid water monitoring in Taiwan. The field spectral reflectance in the Wu river basin of Taiwan was measured with a spectroradiometer; the water samples were collected from the different sites of the Wu river basin and some water quality parameters were analyzed on the sites (in situ) as well as brought to the laboratory for further analysis. To obtain the data set for this study, 160 in situ sample observations were carried out during campaigns from August to December, 2005. The water quality results were correlated with the reflectivity to determine the spectral characteristics and their relationship with turbidity and TSS. Furthermore, multiple-regression (MR) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to model the transformation function between TSS concentration and turbidity levels of stream water, and the radiance measured by the spectroradiometer. The value of the turbidity and TSS correlation coefficient was 0.766, which implies that turbidity is significantly related to TSS in the Wu river basin. The results indicated that TSS and turbidity are positively correlated in a significant way across the entire spectrum, when TSS concentration and turbidity levels were under 800 mg·L(-1) and 600 NTU, respectively. Optimal wavelengths for the measurements of TSS and turbidity are found in the 700 and 900 nm range, respectively. Based on the results, better accuracy was obtained only when the ranges of turbidity and TSS concentration were less than 800 mg·L(-1) and less than 600 NTU, respectively and used rather than using whole dataset (R(2) = 0.93 versus 0.88 for turbidity and R(2) = 0.83 versus 0.58 for TSS). On the other hand, the ANN approach can improve the TSS retrieval using MR. The accuracy of TSS estimation applying ANN (R(2) = 0.66) was better than with the MR approach (R

  6. Hyperspectral Sensing for Turbid Water Quality Monitoring in Freshwater Rivers: Empirical Relationship between Reflectance and Turbidity and Total Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Lin Wu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Total suspended solid (TSS is an important water quality parameter. This study was conducted to test the feasibility of the band combination of hyperspectral sensing for inland turbid water monitoring in Taiwan. The field spectral reflectance in the Wu river basin of Taiwan was measured with a spectroradiometer; the water samples were collected from the different sites of the Wu river basin and some water quality parameters were analyzed on the sites (in situ as well as brought to the laboratory for further analysis. To obtain the data set for this study, 160 in situ sample observations were carried out during campaigns from August to December, 2005. The water quality results were correlated with the reflectivity to determine the spectral characteristics and their relationship with turbidity and TSS. Furthermore, multiple-regression (MR and artificial neural network (ANN were used to model the transformation function between TSS concentration and turbidity levels of stream water, and the radiance measured by the spectroradiometer. The value of the turbidity and TSS correlation coefficient was 0.766, which implies that turbidity is significantly related to TSS in the Wu river basin. The results indicated that TSS and turbidity are positively correlated in a significant way across the entire spectrum, when TSS concentration and turbidity levels were under 800 mg·L−1 and 600 NTU, respectively. Optimal wavelengths for the measurements of TSS and turbidity are found in the 700 and 900 nm range, respectively. Based on the results, better accuracy was obtained only when the ranges of turbidity and TSS concentration were less than 800 mg·L−1 and less than 600 NTU, respectively and used rather than using whole dataset (R2 = 0.93 versus 0.88 for turbidity and R2 = 0.83 versus 0.58 for TSS. On the other hand, the ANN approach can improve the TSS retrieval using MR. The accuracy of TSS estimation applying ANN (R2 = 0.66 was better than with the MR

  7. Monitoring Water Levels and Discharges Using Radar Altimetry in an Ungauged River Basin: The Case of the Ogooué

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaros Bogning

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Radar altimetry is now commonly used for the monitoring of water levels in large river basins. In this study, an altimetry-based network of virtual stations was defined in the quasi ungauged Ogooué river basin, located in Gabon, Central Africa, using data from seven altimetry missions (Jason-2 and 3, ERS-2, ENVISAT, Cryosat-2, SARAL, Sentinel-3A from 1995 to 2017. The performance of the five latter altimetry missions to retrieve water stages and discharges was assessed through comparisons against gauge station records. All missions exhibited a good agreement with gauge records, but the most recent missions showed an increase of data availability (only 6 virtual stations (VS with ERS-2 compared to 16 VS for ENVISAT and SARAL and accuracy (RMSE lower than 1.05, 0.48 and 0.33 and R² higher than 0.55, 0.83 and 0.91 for ERS-2, ENVISAT and SARAL respectively. The concept of VS is extended to the case of drifting orbits using the data from Cryosat-2 in several close locations. Good agreement was also found with the gauge station in Lambaréné (RMSE = 0.25 m and R2 = 0.96. Very good results were obtained using only one year and a half of Sentinel-3 data (RMSE < 0.41 m and R2 > 0.89. The combination of data from all the radar altimetry missions near Lamabréné resulted in a long-term (May 1995 to August 2017 and significantly improved water-level time series (R² = 0.96 and RMSE = 0.38 m. The increase in data sampling in the river basin leads to a better water level peak to peak characterization and hence to a more accurate annual discharge over the common observation period with only a 1.4 m3·s−1 difference (i.e., 0.03% between the altimetry-based and the in situ mean annual discharge.

  8. Genetic consequences of population decline in the European otter ( Lutra lutra ) : an assessment of microsatellite DNA variation in Danish otters from 1883 to 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, C.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2001-01-01

    alleles, suggested that a drastic long-term population decline has taken place, which could have started more than 2000 years ago, possibly due to ancient anthropogenic pressure. Finally, assignment tests and pairwise F-ST values suggested weak but statistically significant genetic differentiation between......The European otter (Lutra lutra) was common in Denmark until the 1960s, but its present distribution encompasses only a minor part of the country. The aim of this study was to assess whether the recent population decline has resulted in loss of genetic variability and to gain further insight...

  9. Monitoring cod catches of the Dutch demersal fleet in 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van R.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the results of the cod monitoring program 2016. The research was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs within the EZ-program Beleidsondersteunend Onderzoek. Cod catches of the vessels in the fleet segments BT2 (beam trawl and pulse trawl) and TR (otter trawls

  10. Man-made secondary channels along the river Rhine (The Netherlands); results of post-project monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.H.E.J.; Bakker, C.; Schropp, M.H.I.; Jans, L.H.; Kok, F.R.; Grift, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Owing to river regulation in the past and intensive farming, the ecological value of the floodplains of the River Rhine in The Netherlands has decreased dramatically. One way to restore riverine biotopes is to create permanently flowing channels in the floodplain. Along the River Waal, the main

  11. Annual INTEC Groundwater Monitoring Report for Group 5 - Snake River Plain Aquifer (2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the monitoring activities conducted and presents the results of groundwater sampling and water-level measurements from October 2000 to September 2001. Groundwater samples were initially collected from 41 wells from the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the Central Facilities Area and analyzed for iodine- 129, strontium-90, tritium, gross alpha, gross beta, technetium-99, uranium isotopes, plutonium isotopes, neptunium-237, gamma spectrometry, and mercury. Samples from 41 wells were collected in April and May 2001. Additional sampling was conducted in August 2001 and included in two CFA production wells, the CFA point of compliance for the production wells, one well was previously sampled and five additional monitoring wells. Water-level measurements were taken from in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Central Facilities Area, and the area south of Central Facilities Area to evaluate groundwater flow directions. Water-level measurements indicated groundwater flow to the south-southwest from the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

  12. Groundwater monitoring program evaluation For A/M Area, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Bollinger, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken with the primary purpose of assessing the groundwater monitoring program within the A/M Area to identify ways in which the monitoring program could be improved. The task was difficult due to the large number of wells located within the A/M Area and the huge database of analytical data. It was recognized early in this investigation that one of the key tasks was to develop a way to gain access to the groundwater databases so that recommendations could be made. To achieve this, geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to extract pertinent groundwater quality information from the Geochemical Information Management System (GIMS) groundwater database and display the extracted information spatially. GIS technology was also used to determine the location of well screen and annular material zones within the A/M Area hydrostratigraphy and to identify wells that may breach confining units. Recommendations developed from this study address: (1) wells that may not be providing reliable data but continue to be routinely sampled (2) wells that may be inappropriately located but continue to be routinely sampled and (3) further work that should be undertaken, including well development, evaluation of wells that may be breaching confining units, and development of an automated link to GIMS using GIS so that GIMS data can easily be accessed and displayed geographically

  13. [Radioecological monitoring of the Yenisei River and citological characterization of a submerged aquatic plant Elodea canadensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia; Muratova, E N; Sukovatyĭ, A G; Pimenov, A V; Sanzharaeva, E A; Zotina, T A; Sedel'nikova, T S; Pan'kov, E V; Kornilova, M G

    2007-01-01

    The study was devoted to investigation of the contents of radionuclides and of heavy metals and to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in samples of Elodea canadensis, a submerged plant, collected in different parts of the Yenisei River. The samples were collected in the area subjected to radioactive impact of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC) at Zheleznogorsk and in the control area, upstream of the MCC. The investigations shown that elodea biomass in the area affected by MCC operation contained a long inventory of artificial radionuclides typical for the MCC discharges. The upstream of the MCC, in the control sampling area, the sediments and the elodea biomass contained only one artificial radionuclide--137Cs. Thus, the exposure doses to elodea shoots and roots upstream of the MCC are small (not more than 8 microGy/d) and the main contribution info the dose is made by natural radionuclides. At the MCC discharge site (the village of Atamanovo) and at the downstream of it, the total dose rate increases almost an order of magnitude, reaching its maximal values--72 microGy/d for elodea shoots and 58 microGy/d for its roots. Cytogenetic investigations of elodea roots shown that at the MCC discharge site (the village of Atamanovo) and at downstream of it the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations in ana-telophase and in metaphase cells of elodea was considerably higher than in the control area. It is highly probable that this simultaneous dramatic increase in the total exposure rate and the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations in elodea is associated with the radiation factor. It is suggested that elodea is affected not only by the radiation factor but also by the chemical factor--toxicity of heavy metals.

  14. Monitoring Changes in Croplands Due to Water Stress in the Krishna River Basin Using Temporal Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramana Murthy Reddi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing-based assessments of large river basins such as the Krishna, which supplies water to many states in India, are useful for operationally monitoring agriculture, especially basins that are affected by abiotic stress. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS time series products can be used to understand cropland changes at the basin level due to abiotic stresses, especially water scarcity. Spectral matching techniques were used to identify land use/land cover (LULC areas for two crop years: 2013–2014, which was a normal year, and 2015–2016, which was a water stress year. Water stress-affected crop areas were categorized into three classes—severe, moderate and mild—based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and intensity of damage assessed through field sampling. Furthermore, ground survey data were used to assess the accuracy of MODIS-derived classification individual products. Water inflows into and outflows from the Krishna river basin during the study period were used as direct indicators of water scarcity/availability in the Krishna Basin. Furthermore, ground survey data were used to assess the accuracy of MODIS-derived LULC classification of individual year products. Rainfall data from the tropical rainfall monitoring mission (TRMM was used to support the water stress analysis. The nine LULC classes derived using the MODIS temporal imagery provided overall accuracies of 82% for the cropping year 2013–2014 and 85% for the year 2015–2016. Kappa values are 0.78 for 2013–2014 and 0.82 for 2015–2016. MODIS-derived cropland areas were compared with national statistics for the cropping year 2013–2014 with a R2 value of 0.87. Results show that both rainfed and irrigated areas in 2015–2016 saw significant changes that will have significant impacts on food security. It has been also observed that the farmers in the basin tend to use lower inputs and labour per ha during drought years. Among

  15. Biological characterisation of Sarcocystis neurona isolated from a Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Dubey, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona was isolated from the brain of a juvenile, male southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) suffering from CNS disease. Schizonts and merozoites in tissue sections of the otter's brain reacted with anti-S. neurona antiserum immunohistochemically. Development in cell culture was by endopolyogeny and mature schizonts were first observed at 3 days postinoculation. PCR of merozoite DNA using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 and restriction enzyme digestion of the 1100 bp product with Dra I indicated the organism was S. neurona. Four of four interferon-γ gene knockout mice inoculated with merozoites developed S. neurona-associated encephalitis. Antibodies to S. neurona but not Sarcocystis falcatula, Toxoplasma gondii, or Neospora caninum were present in the serum of inoculated mice. This is the first isolation of S. neurona from the brain of a non-equine host.

  16. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in

  17. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D.

    2013-01-01

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in coordination with South

  18. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge

  19. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D. [and others

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  20. Conservation genetics of otters: Review about the use of non-invasive samples

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizábal Duque, Sandra L.; Orozco-Jiménez, Luz Y.; Zapata-Escobar, Carolina; Palacio-Baena, Jaime A.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Wild population management programs require determining some fundamental aspects for conservation, including population structure, flow between populations, evolutionary history and kinship, among others. Since sample collection from wild mammals for DNA extraction is a complex task, conservation genetics has developed non-invasive sampling techniques, which allow obtaining DNA without the need to capture individuals. For the genetic characterization of otter populations, stools are...

  1. The cost of reproduction: differential resource specialization in female and male California sea otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emma A Elliott; Newsome, Seth D; Estes, James A; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in behavior and diet can have important consequences for population and ecosystem dynamics. Here, we examine how differences in reproductive investment and spatial ecology influence individual diet specialization in male and female southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). We hypothesize that greater reproductive constraints and smaller home ranges of females lead to more pronounced intraspecific competition and increased specialization. We integrate stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope analysis of sea otter vibrissae with long-term observational studies of five subpopulations in California. We define individual diet specialization as low ratios of within-individual variation (WIC) to total population niche width (TNW). We compare isotopic and observational based metrics of WIC/TNW for males and females to data on population densities, and movement patterns using both general linear and linear mixed-effects models. Consistent with our hypothesis, increasing population density is associated with increased individual diet specialization by females but not by males. Additionally, we find the amount of coastline in a sea otter's home range positively related with individual dietary variability, with increased range span resulting in weaker specialization for both males and females. We attribute our results to sex-based differences in movement, with females needing to specialize in their small ranges to maximize energy gain, and posit that the paradigm of individual prey specialization in sea otters with increased intraspecific competition may be a pattern driven largely by females. Our work highlights a potentially broader role of sex in the mechanistic pressures promoting and maintaining diet specialization.

  2. 2013 update on sea otter studies to assess recovery from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, Daniel H.; Esslinger, George G.; Kloecker, Kimberly; Bodkin, James L.; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the tanker vessel Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling an estimated 42 million liters of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Oil spread in a southwesterly direction and was deposited on shores and waters in western Prince William Sound (WPWS). The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) was one of more than 20 nearshore species considered to have been injured by the spill. Since 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey has led a research program to evaluate effects of the spill on sea otters and assess progress toward recovery, as defined by demographic and biochemical indicators. Here, we provide an update on the status of sea otter populations in WPWS, presenting findings through 2013. To assess recovery based on demographic indicators, we used aerial surveys to estimate abundance and annual collections of sea otter carcasses to evaluate patterns in ages-at-death. To assess recovery based on biochemical indicators, we quantified transcription rates for a suite of genes selected as potential indicators of oil exposure in sea otters based on laboratory studies of a related species, the mink (Mustela vison). In our most recent assessment of sea otter recovery, which incorporated results from a subset of studies through 2009, we concluded that recovery of sea otters in WPWS was underway. This conclusion was based on increasing abundance throughout WPWS, including increasing numbers at northern Knight Island, an area that was heavily oiled in 1989 and where the local sea otter population had previously shown protracted injury and lack of recovery. However, we did not conclude that the WPWS sea otter population had fully recovered, due to indications of continuing reduced survival and exposure to lingering oil in sea otters at Knight Island, at least through 2009. Based on data available through 2013, we now conclude that the status of sea otters—at all spatial scales within WPWS—is consistent with the designation of recovery from the spill as

  3. Thermal impact of a small alas-valley river in a continuous permafrost area - insights and issues raised from a field monitoring Site in Syrdakh (Central Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Nicolas, Roux; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Séjourné, Antoine; Costard, François; Marlin, Christelle; Khristoforov, Ivan; Saintenoy, Albane

    2017-04-01

    Lakes are probably the most prominent surface water bodies in continuous permafrost areas. As a consequence, they are also the most studied features in these regions (e.g. Fedorov et al. 2014). They are indeed of great interest, not only for local populations that use the water resource they represent both in winter and summer, but also from a climatic point of view as they can be a specific source of green-house gases due to the relatively warmer environment they create, especially associated with their taliks (thawed zone surrounded by permafrost located beneath large enough lakes). From a hydrogeological perspective, such taliks can form complex groundwater networks, thus possibly connecting sub-permafrost groundwater with surface water in the present context of climate change. On the other hand, rivers, another important feature of permafrost landscapes providing similar challenges, have drawn less attention so that only a few studies focus on river interactions with permafrost (e.g. Costard et al. 2014, Grenier et al. 2013). However, the processes of heat transfer at stake between river and permafrost strongly differ from lake systems for several reasons. The geometries differ, the river water flow and thermal regimes and interactions with the lateral slopes (valley) are specific. Of particular importance is the fact that the water, in the case of rivers, is in motion leading to specific heat exchange phenomena between water and soil. (Roux et al., accepted) addressed this issue recently by means of an experimental study in a cold room and associated numerical simulations. The present study focuses on a real river-permafrost system with its full natural complexity. A small alas-valley in the vicinity of Yakutsk (Central Yakutia, Siberia) was chosen. Monitoring was started in October 2012 to study the thermal and hydrological interactions between a river and its underground in this continuous permafrost environment. Thermal sensors were installed inside the

  4. Evolutionary history and identification of conservation units in the giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, R S A; Groombridge, J J; Zambrana Rojas, V D; Van Damme, P; Gottelli, D; Kundu, S; Bodmer, R; Ariani, C V; Iyengar, A; Jordan, W C

    2011-12-01

    The giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, occupies a range including the major drainage basins of South America, yet the degree of structure that exists within and among populations inhabiting these drainages is unknown. We sequenced portions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (612bp) and control region (383 bp) genes in order to determine patterns of genetic variation within the species. We found high levels of mtDNA haplotype diversity (h = 0.93 overall) and support for subdivision into four distinct groups of populations, representing important centers of genetic diversity and useful units for prioritizing conservation within the giant otter. We tested these results against the predictions of three hypotheses of Amazonian diversification (Pleistocene Refugia, Paleogeography, and Hydrogeology). While the phylogeographic pattern conformed to the predictions of the Refugia Hypothesis, molecular dating using a relaxed clock revealed the phylogroups diverged from one another between 1.69 and 0.84 Ma, ruling out the influence of Late Pleistocene glacial refugia. However, the role of Plio-Pleistocene climate change could not be rejected. While the molecular dating also makes the influence of geological arches according to the Paleogeography Hypothesis extremely unlikely, the recent Pliocene formation of the Fitzcarrald Arch and its effect of subsequently altering drainage pattern could not be rejected. The data presented here support the interactions of both climatic and hydrological changes resulting from geological activity in the Plio-Pleistocene, in shaping the phylogeographic structure of the giant otter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Brucella Infection in Asian Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris lutris) on Bering Island, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Tristan L; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Burdin, Alexander; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Tuomi, Pamela; Smith, Woutrina A; Goldstein, Tracey

    2017-10-01

    Infection with Brucella spp., long known as a cause of abortion, infertility, and reproductive loss in domestic livestock, has increasingly been documented in marine mammals over the past two decades. We report molecular evidence of Brucella infection in Asian sea otters (Enhydra lutris lutris). Brucella DNA was detected in 3 of 78 (4%) rectal swab samples collected between 2004 and 2006 on Bering Island, Russia. These 78 animals had previously been documented to have a Brucella seroprevalence of 28%, markedly higher than the prevalence documented in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in North America. All of the DNA sequences amplified were identical to one or more previously isolated Brucella spp. including strains from both terrestrial and marine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of this sequence suggested that one animal was shedding Brucella spp. DNA with a sequence matching a Brucella abortus strain, whereas two animals yielded a sequence matching a group of strains including isolates classified as Brucella pinnipedialis and Brucella melitensis. Our results highlight the diversity of Brucella spp. within a single sea otter population.

  6. Discovery of the fossil otter Enhydritherium terraenovae (Carnivora, Mammalia) in Mexico reconciles a palaeozoogeographic mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Z Jack; Pacheco-Castro, Adolfo; Carranza-Castañeda, Oscar; Aranda-Gómez, José Jorge; Wang, Xiaoming; Troncoso, Hilda

    2017-06-01

    The North American fossil otter Enhydritherium terraenovae is thought to be partially convergent in ecological niche with the living sea otter Enhydra lutris , both having low-crowned crushing teeth and a close association with marine environments. Fossil records of Enhydritherium are found in mostly marginal marine deposits in California and Florida; despite presence of very rich records of fossil terrestrial mammals in contemporaneous localities inland, no Enhydritherium fossils are hitherto known in interior North America. Here we report the first occurrence of Enhydritherium outside of Florida and California, in a land-locked terrestrial mammal fauna of the upper Miocene deposits of Juchipila Basin, Zacatecas State, Mexico. This new occurrence of Enhydritherium is at least 200 km from the modern Pacific coastline, and nearly 600 km from the Gulf of Mexico. Besides providing further evidence that Enhydritherium was not dependent on coastal marine environments as originally interpreted, this discovery leads us to propose a new east-to-west dispersal route between the Florida and California Enhydritherium populations through central Mexico. The proximity of the fossil locality to nearby populations of modern neotropical otters Lontra longicaudis suggests that trans-Mexican freshwater corridors for vertebrate species in riparian habitats may have persisted for a prolonged period of time, pre-dating the Great American Biotic Interchange. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Twelve Years of Monitoring Phosphorus and Suspended-Solids Concentrations and Yields in the North Fork Ninnescah River above Cheney Reservoir, South-Central Kansas 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Cheney Reservoir, located on the North Fork Ninnescah River in south-central Kansas, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita and an important recreational resource. Concerns about taste-and-odor occurrences in Cheney Reservoir have drawn attention to potential pollutants, including total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS). July 2009 was the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the Cheney Reservoir Watershed pollution management plan. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has collected water-quality data in the basin since 1996, and has monitored water quality continuously on the North Fork Ninnescah River since 1998. This fact sheet describes 12 years (1997-2008) of computed TP and TSS data and compares these data with water-quality goals for the North Fork Ninnescah River, the main tributary to Cheney Reservoir.

  8. Evaluation Study of the Monitoring Result for River Water Environment Component Around U Mining Research Area at, Kalan West Kalimantan from 1997/1998 up to 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad-Sorot-Soediro

    2004-01-01

    The Uranium research which have been carrying out since 1980/1981 up to now and uranium processing activities which was carried out since 1981/1982 to 1996/1997 have probably decreased environment quality. Therefore the environment component would be monitored through Kalan river water every year. From 1997/1998 up to 2002 the environment quality decreased. So, the environment quality is necessarily to be evaluated doing those period. Aim of study is to recover development information of environmental quality at river water component up to 5 years. Evaluation has been done by comparing research the yearly data obtained and construct the correlation with U mining and processing activities on that year. BOD, COD, As, Ca, Mg, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Mo and radioactivity of U, Th and Ra content with in Kalan water river tends to become lower in accordance with the decreasing of U mining and processing research activities. (author)

  9. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, Curtis M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report is intended to satisfy two concurrent needs: (1) provide a contract deliverable from Oncorh Consulting to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), with emphasis on identification of salient results of value to ongoing Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) planning, and (2) summarize results of research that have broader scientific relevance. This is the second in a series of reports that address reproductive ecological research and monitoring of spring chinook in the Yakima River basin. In addition to within-year comparisons, between-year comparisons will be made to determine if traits of the wild Naches basin control population, the naturally spawning population in the upper Yakima River and the hatchery control population are diverging over time. This annual report summarizes data collected between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2003. In the future, these data will be compared to previous years to identify general trends and make preliminary comparisons. Supplementation success in the Yakima Klickitat Fishery Project's (YKFP) spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) program is defined as increasing natural production and harvest opportunities, while keeping adverse ecological interactions and genetic impacts within acceptable bounds (Busack et al. 1997). Within this context demographics, phenotypic traits, and reproductive ecology have significance because they directly affect natural productivity. In addition, significant changes in locally adapted traits due to hatchery influence, i.e. domestication, would likely be maladaptive resulting in reduced population productivity and fitness (Taylor 1991; Hard 1995). Thus, there is a need to study demographic and phenotypic traits in the YKFP in order to understand hatchery and wild population productivity, reproductive ecology, and the effects of domestication (Busack et al. 1997). Tracking trends in these traits over time is also a critical aspect of domestication monitoring (Busack

  10. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL MARINE BRUCELLA FROM A SOUTHERN SEA OTTER (ENHYDRA LUTRIS NEREIS), CALIFORNIA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Burgess, Tristan L; Dodd, Erin M; Rhyan, Jack C; Jang, Spencer S; Byrne, Barbara A; Gulland, Frances M D; Murray, Michael J; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Conrad, Patricia A; Field, Cara L; Sidor, Inga F; Smith, Woutrina A

    2017-04-01

    We characterize Brucella infection in a wild southern sea otter ( Enhydra lutris nereis) with osteolytic lesions similar to those reported in other marine mammals and humans. This otter stranded twice along the central California coast, US over a 1-yr period and was handled extensively at two wildlife rehabilitation facilities, undergoing multiple surgeries and months of postsurgical care. Ultimately the otter was euthanized due to severe, progressive neurologic disease. Necropsy and postmortem radiographs revealed chronic, severe osteoarthritis spanning the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left hind fifth digit. Numerous coccobacilli within the joint were strongly positive on Brucella immunohistochemical labelling, and Brucella sp. was isolated in pure culture from this lesion. Sparse Brucella-immunopositive bacteria were also observed in the cytoplasm of a pulmonary vascular monocyte, and multifocal granulomas were observed in the spinal cord and liver on histopathology. Findings from biochemical characterization, 16S ribosomal DNA, and bp26 gene sequencing of the bacterial isolate were identical to those from marine-origin brucellae isolated from cetaceans and phocids. Although omp2a gene sequencing revealed 100% homology with marine Brucella spp. infecting pinnipeds, whales, and humans, omp2b gene sequences were identical only to pinniped-origin isolates. Multilocus sequence typing classified the sea otter isolate as ST26, a sequence type previously associated only with cetaceans. Our data suggest that the sea otter Brucella strain represents a novel marine lineage that is distinct from both Brucella pinnipedialis and Brucella ceti. Prior reports document the zoonotic potential of the marine brucellae. Isolation of Brucella sp. from a stranded sea otter highlights the importance of wearing personal protective equipment when handling sea otters and other marine mammals as part of wildlife conservation and rehabilitation efforts.

  11. Feeding habits of giant otters Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora: Mustelidae in the Balbina hydroelectric reservoir, Central Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. M. Cabral

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the diet of giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmermann, 1780 in the Balbina reservoir (01º55'S, 59º29'W, to compare it with literature data on the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas, and to verify the effects of the seasonal changes in water levels on the feeding habits of Balbina otters. A total of 254 feces samples were collected and identified according to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Teleostei fish were present in 100% of the samples; two samples also presented monkey fur (n = 1 and sloth fur (n = 1, suggesting that the diet of P. brasiliensis, in the reservoir, is almost exclusively based on fish. Ten fish families were identified in our samples, six of which were exclusive to the Balbina Lake (not present in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas. These six fish families, however, were present in less than 3% of the samples. The fish families with highest representation in the diet of giant otters from non-dammed areas also appeared with higher frequencies in the Balbina Lake, suggesting that the otters have not changed their diet substantially after the implementation of the reservoir. During the high-water period, when the fish are dispersed into the flooded forest and are not very easy to catch, the otters seem to have an opportunistic feeding habit. By contrast, during the low-water period, when prey items are widely available and easier to catch in the reservoir, their feeding habits are more selective.

  12. Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) - Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs : Annual Report For Fiscal Year, October 2007 – September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenberger, Ryan [Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation

    2009-07-27

    This progress report describes work performed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) portion of the Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project (HRPP) during the 2008 fiscal year. A total of 64,736 hatchery winter steelhead, 12,108 hatchery summer steelhead, and 68,426 hatchery spring Chinook salmon smolts were acclimated and released in the Hood River basin during the spring. The HRPP exceeded program goals for a release of and 50,000 winter steelhead but fell short of the steelhead release goals of 30,000 summer steelhead and 75,000 spring Chinook in 2008. Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT) tags were implanted in 6,652 hatchery winter steelhead, and 1,196 hatchery summer steelhead, to compare migratory attributes and survival rates of hatchery fish released into the Hood River. Water temperatures were recorded at six locations within the Hood River subbasin to monitor for compliance with Oregon Department of Environmental Quality water quality standards. A preseason spring Chinook salmon adult run forecast was generated, which predicted an abundant return adequate to meet escapement goal and brood stock needs. As a result the tribal and sport fisheries were opened. A tribal creel was conducted from May 22 to July 18 during which an estimated 172 spring Chinook were harvested. One hundred sixteen Spring Chinook salmon redds were observed and 72 carcasses were inspected on 19.4 miles of spawning grounds throughout the Hood River Basin during 2008. Annual salvage operations were completed in two irrigation canals resulting in the liberation of 1,641 fish back to the Hood River.

  13. Utilization of Ion-Exclusion Chromatography for Water Quality Monitoring in a Suburban River in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kozaki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the use of ion-exclusion chromatographic systems for analyzing the behavior of inorganic ions (e.g., bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, dissolved silicate, sodium, ammonium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium ions in a suburban river located in Jakarta, Indonesia. Carbonate, phosphate, and silicate ion concentrations were determined using ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column (WCX in the H+-form with water eluent. Other ions were identified by ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography (IEC/CEC on a WCX column with tartaric acid eluent. The use of IEC systems for water quality monitoring was advantageous for the following reasons: (1 the concentrations of analyte ions, except NO3− and silicate ions, increased from upstream to downstream; and (2 the speciation of inorganic nitrogen ions could be analyzed by single injection into the IEC/CEC. The IEC approach provided beneficial information for the construction of sewage treatment facilities in our study area. Results showed that (1 the analyte concentrations for samples obtained in the downstream area were higher than those in the upstream area owing to contamination by domestic sewage; (2 the concentrations of NO3− and NH4+ correlated with the concentration of dissolved oxygen; and (3 bicarbonate concentrations increased downstream, likely due to respiration of bacteria and dissolution of concrete under low-oxygen conditions.

  14. Using SPMDs for monitoring hydrophobic organic compounds in urban river water in Korea compared with using conventional water grab samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un-Jung; Kim, Hee Young; Alvarez, David A.; Lee, In-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to verify the effectiveness of semi-permeablemembrane devices (SPMDs) formonitoring hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), that are not easy to detect using conventional grab samples (because of their low concentrations), in water.We used SPMDs and grab samples to monitor PCBs and PBDEs upstream and downstream of a sewage treatment plant (STP) in the Suyeong River in Busan, Korea. Concentrations in three different phases (freely dissolved, apparently dissolved, and particulate) were measured, to investigate the aquatic fate of PCBs and PBDEs. The freely dissolved (SPMD) concentrations were 2–3 times higher than the apparently dissolved and particulate phase (grab sample) concentrations. No meaningful relationships were found between the total PCB and PBDE concentrations of the grab sample and SPMD sample because of the different partitioning behaviors and detection frequencies of the individual chemicals. However, the summed concentrations of specific PCB and PBDE congeners (that were abundant in all samples) in the grab and SPMD samples correlated well (r2 = 0.7451 for PCBs 28 + 52 + 153, r2 = 0.9987 for PBDEs 28 + 47 + 99). The PBDE concentrations measured using SPMDs decreased with increasing distance from the STP, but no apparent dilution effect was found in the grab samples. Our results show that SPMDs could be used to support grab sampling for specific chemicals, or to trace chemical sources (such as STPs) to the aquatic environment.

  15. Otter Brook Lake, New Hampshire Connecticut River Basin, Flood Control Project, Solid Waste Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... This plan provides guidance to establish policies, and responsibilities, procedures, and instructions for proper handling, storage, disposal and recycling of solid waste generated at the flood control project...

  16. Water Quality and River Plume Monitoring in the Great Barrier Reef: An Overview of Methods Based on Ocean Colour Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J. Devlin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A strong driver of water quality change in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR is the pulsed or intermittent nature of terrestrial inputs into the GBR lagoon, including delivery of increased loads of sediments, nutrients, and toxicants via flood river plumes (hereafter river plumes during the wet season. Cumulative pressures from extreme weather with a high frequency of large scale flooding in recent years has been linked to the large scale reported decline in the health of inshore seagrass systems and coral reefs in the central areas of the GBR, with concerns for the recovery potential of these impacted ecosystems. Management authorities currently rely on remotely-sensed (RS and in situ data for water quality monitoring to guide their assessment of water quality conditions in the GBR. The use of remotely-sensed satellite products provides a quantitative and accessible tool for scientists and managers. These products, coupled with in situ data, and more recently modelled data, are valuable for quantifying the influence of river plumes on seagrass and coral reef habitat in the GBR. This article reviews recent remote sensing techniques developed to monitor river plumes and water quality in the GBR. We also discuss emerging research that integrates hydrodynamic models with remote sensing and in situ data, enabling us to explore impacts of different catchment management strategies on GBR water quality.

  17. Monitoring of river water for free cyanide pollution from mining activity in Papua New Guinea and attenuation of cyanide by biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaraba, Ian; Rao, B K Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) pollution was reported in the downstream areas of Watut and Markham Rivers due to effluent discharges from gold mining and processing activities of Hidden Valley mines in Morobe province of Papua New Guinea. We monitored free cyanide levels in Watut and Markham River waters randomly three times in years for 2 years (2012 and 2013). Besides, a short-term static laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential of river sediment to attenuate externally added cyanide, with and without the presence of biochar material. Results indicated that the free cyanide content ranged between 0.17 and 1.32 μg L(-1) in the river waters. The free cyanide content were found to be significantly (p cyanide levels in all four monitoring sites across three sampling intervals were lower than 0.20 mg L(-1) which is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) permitted according to US Environmental Protection Agency. Under laboratory conditions, the biochar-impregnated sediment showed ∼3 times more attenuation capacity for cyanide than non-amended sediment, thus indicating possibility of using biochar to cleanse cyanide from spills or other sources of pollution.

  18. A web-based Tamsui River flood early-warning system with correction of real-time water stage using monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, H. Y.; Lin, Y. J.; Chang, H. K.; Shang, R. K.; Kuo, H. C.; Lai, J. S.; Tan, Y. C.

    2017-12-01

    Taiwan encounters heavy rainfalls frequently. There are three to four typhoons striking Taiwan every year. To provide lead time for reducing flood damage, this study attempt to build a flood early-warning system (FEWS) in Tanshui River using time series correction techniques. The predicted rainfall is used as the input for the rainfall-runoff model. Then, the discharges calculated by the rainfall-runoff model is converted to the 1-D river routing model. The 1-D river routing model will output the simulating water stages in 487 cross sections for the future 48-hr. The downstream water stage at the estuary in 1-D river routing model is provided by storm surge simulation. Next, the water stages of 487 cross sections are corrected by time series model such as autoregressive (AR) model using real-time water stage measurements to improve the predicted accuracy. The results of simulated water stages are displayed on a web-based platform. In addition, the models can be performed remotely by any users with web browsers through a user interface. The on-line video surveillance images, real-time monitoring water stages, and rainfalls can also be shown on this platform. If the simulated water stage exceeds the embankments of Tanshui River, the alerting lights of FEWS will be flashing on the screen. This platform runs periodically and automatically to generate the simulation graphic data of flood water stages for flood disaster prevention and decision making.

  19. Yakima River Species Interactions Studies; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Temple, Gabriel M.; Fritts, Anthony L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2005-05-01

    This report is intended to satisfy two concurrent needs: (1) provide a contract deliverable from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), with emphasis on identification of salient results of value to ongoing Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) planning, and (2) summarize results of research that have broader scientific relevance. This is the thirteenth of a series of progress reports that address species interactions research and supplementation monitoring of fishes in response to supplementation of salmon and steelhead in the upper Yakima River basin (Hindman et al. 1991; McMichael et al. 1992; Pearsons et al. 1993; Pearsons et al. 1994; Pearsons et al. 1996; Pearsons et al. 1998, Pearsons et al. 1999, Pearsons et al. 2001a, Pearsons et al. 2001b, Pearsons et al. 2002, Pearsons et al. 2003, Pearsons et al. 2004). Journal articles and book chapters have also been published from our work (McMichael 1993; Martin et al. 1995; McMichael et al. 1997; McMichael and Pearsons 1998; McMichael et al. 1998; Pearsons and Fritts 1999; McMichael et al. 1999; McMichael et al. 1999; Pearsons and Hopley 1999; Ham and Pearsons 2000; Ham and Pearsons 2001; Amaral et al. 2001; McMichael and Pearsons 2001; Pearsons 2002, Fritts and Pearsons 2004, Pearsons et al. in press, Major et al. in press). This progress report summarizes data collected between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004. These data were compared to findings from previous years to identify general trends and make preliminary comparisons. Interactions between fish produced as part of the YKFP, termed target species or stocks, and other species or stocks (non-target taxa) may alter the population status of non-target species or stocks. This may occur through a variety of mechanisms, such as competition, predation, and interbreeding (Pearsons et al. 1994; Busack et al. 1997; Pearsons and Hopley 1999). Furthermore, the success of a supplementation program may

  20. Modeling and dynamic monitoring of ecosystem performance in the Yukon River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Zhang, L.; Ji, Lei; Tieszen, Larry L.; Bliss, N.B.

    2008-01-01

    Central Alaska is ecologically sensitive and experiencing stress in response to marked regional warming. Resource managers would benefit from an improved ability to monitor ecosystem processes in response to climate change, fire, insect damage, and management policies and to predict responses to future climate scenarios. We have developed a method for analyzing ecosystem performance as represented by the growing season integral of normalize