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Sample records for monitor river otter

  1. European River Otter Studbook

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    Robin K.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 1985, 106 otters were kept in captivity in Europe. Breeding success and factors influencing this are reviewed, as are the problems facing stud book keeping - lack of information about genetic origin, non-cooperation by otter keepers, supply of siblings to other zoos leading to accidental inbreeding and difficulties in placing all offspring bred.

  2. European River Otter Studbook

    OpenAIRE

    Robin K.

    1987-01-01

    At the end of 1985, 106 otters were kept in captivity in Europe. Breeding success and factors influencing this are reviewed, as are the problems facing stud book keeping - lack of information about genetic origin, non-cooperation by otter keepers, supply of siblings to other zoos leading to accidental inbreeding and difficulties in placing all offspring bred.

  3. Summer movements and activity patterns of river otters in Northeastern Ohio, USA

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    David A. Helon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand river otter (Lontra canadensis movement and activity patterns for successful management and reintroduction plans. As part of a river otter study conducted in the Killbuck Watershed, the largest wetland complex in Ohio, USA outside of the Lake Erie marshes, 11 river otters were radio-tagged and monitored for movements and activity patterns. Twenty-seven 24-hour monitoring surveys were conducted during summer months (June-July of 2002 and 2003. The mean movement distance of female river otters ( MEAN = 1.8 km, SE = 0.23 was less (P = 0.0012 than the mean movement distance of male river otters ( MEAN = 5.2 km, SE = 0.73. River otters were more active than inactive from 2201-0400 hrs (71% active, followed by 0401-1000 hrs (68% active, and 1601-2200 hrs (45% active; they were more inactive than active from 1001-1600 hrs (14% active. These results show that river otters can move long distances and it is important to manage not only wetland systems but riparian corridors that aid in dispersal of river otters to other wetland complexes and watersheds.

  4. Summer Home Range Size and Habitat Use by River Otters in Ohio

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    David A. Helon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Reintroduced river otters (Lontra canadensis are an important component of Ohio’s biological diversity, and are a key indicator of wetland and watershed health and quality. However, few data are available on their home range sizes and habitat use. We monitored river otters using radio-telemetry in the Killbuck Watershed, in northeastern Ohio, during 2002 and 2003 to determine home range and habitat use. Overall, mean home range size was 802.4 ha (range = 84.5–3,376.3, SE = 448.2 for female river otters and 1,101.7 ha (range = 713.8–1,502.6, SE = 102.2 for male river otters. Home range size of female and male river otters did not differ in 2002 (P = 0.763, but males had larger home range size than females during 2003 (P = 0.001. Based on compositional analysis, habitat use differed in proportion to availability of the 5 habitat types available in the study area (marsh, wet meadow, riparian/floodplain, open water, and flooded upland (P < 0.0001. Overall, river otters used marsh habitat with a diverse association of floating aquatics and emergent vegetation in greater proportion than was available. Knowledge and understanding of river otter habitat use and home range size in Ohio will help managers identify habitats suitable for river otters in the Midwestern United States.

  5. Monitoring the otter recolonisation of Poland

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    Jerzy Romanowsky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    The Standard Method was used for three field censuses of the otter Lutra lutra distribution in Poland. In the first national survey in 1991-1994 evidence of otters was found throughout the country, with 80% of positive sites on 2000 sites visited. Only two areas, Silesia in the south and Central Poland, had very few signs of otters. The following censuses in Central and Eastern Poland (1996-1998 and 2003 showed the otter expanded its range and recolonised much area of Central Poland, including about 700 km of rivers in the catchment of River Bzura. The number of positive 10x10 km UTM squares increased twice as compared to first survey (1991-1994. The rate of expansion was very high in comparison to other studies in European countries. This could be due to the functional cohesion of network of rivers and lakelands in Poland. The expansion of otters was accompanied by change in habitat selection: preference for optimal habitats (unregulated rivers with tree and other vegetation cover decreased while suboptimal and marginal habitats (e.g. channels, regulated rivers in towns were occupied more frequently as compared to first survey. The negative side-effect of the expansion of the species is the increase of damages on fishponds, with consequent increase of pressure by fishpond owners to permit shooting of otters and/or to promote damage compensation.
    Riassunto
    Analisi della ricolonizzazione della Lontra in Polonia. Tre censimenti di campo sono stati condotti, mediante metodologia standard, allo scopo di definire la distribuzione della Lontra Lutra lutra in Polonia. Il primo rilevamento nazionale, condotto nel 1991-1994, ha evidenziato una presenza diffusa nel paese, con l’80% dei siti positivi su 2000 siti campionati. Solo due zone, la Sislesia nel sud, e la Polonia centrale, avevano evidenziato una scarsa presenza della specie. I censimenti condotti successivamente in Polonia centrale e orientale (1996

  6. Nephrolithiasis in free-ranging North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) in North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemuth, Jennifer N; Sanders, Charles W; Mooney, Charles B; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; DePerno, Christopher S; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2014-03-01

    The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) serves as an indicator species for environmental monitoring, is prized as a valuable furbearer, and is a popular display animal in zoologic collections. Nephrolithiasis has been reported as a frequent problem in other free-ranging and captive otter species but is rarely reported in North American river otters. In this study, we compared the prevalence of nephrolithiasis diagnosed using routine gross pathologic examination techniques with the use of computed tomography (CT) of excised kidneys. We also evaluated whether otter nephroliths could be accurately classified by their CT densities, and we examined the renal tissue uric acid concentrations in free-ranging otters in North Carolina, USA. Kidneys were collected from carcasses of legally trapped, free-ranging animals. Nephroliths were observed in 16.2% of the individuals (n = 229). Associations were found between age and nephrolith status and between capture location and nephrolith status (P = 0.026 and < 0.001, respectively). Computed tomography Hounsfield unit density measurements were not useful in determining nephrolith chemical composition in this study. Renal tissue uric acid concentrations were similar across genders, age groups, and stone status. The chemical composition of the nephroliths was determined by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to be calcium phosphate in the carbonate form.

  7. Density of river otters (Lontra canadensis) in relation to energy development in the Green River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, B.L.; Albeke, S.E.; Bergman, H.L.; Walters, Annika W.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas have increased in recent years and are expected to expand in the future. Reduction in water quality from energy extraction may negatively affect water supply for agriculture and urban use within catchments as well as down river. We used non-invasive genetic techniques and capture–recapture modeling to estimate the abundance and density of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis), a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems, in Southwestern Wyoming. While densities in two of three river reaches were similar to those reported in other freshwater systems in the western US (1.45–2.39 km per otter), otters appeared to avoid areas near energy development. We found no strong difference in habitat variables, such as overstory cover, at the site or reach level. Also, fish abundance was similar among the three river reaches. Otter activity in our study area could have been affected by elevated levels of disturbance surrounding the industrial gas fields, and by potential surface water contamination as indicated by patterns in water conductivity. Continued monitoring of surface water quality in Southwestern Wyoming with the aid of continuously recording devices and sentinel species is warranted.

  8. Otter ( Lutra lutra ) predation on stocked brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) in two Danish lowland rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate otter predation on stocked trout. Large hatchery-reared trout (16-30 cm) were stocked into two Danish rivers with different fish populations. Otter diet before and after trout stocking was determined by analysing 685 spraints, collected regularly during the 35-day study...... period. Fish composition in the rivers before stocking was assessed by electrofishing. In River Trend, a typical trout river, the proportion of trout in the otter diet increased from 8% before stocking to 33% a few days after stocking. Moreover, trout lengths in the diet changed significantly towards...... the lengths of stocked trout, indicating that newly stocked trout were preferred to wild trout. In River Skals, dominated by cyprinids, there was no change in otter diet after stocking of hatchery trout, i.e., these were ignored by otter. Otter predation should be taken into account together with fish...

  9. Spatio-temporal variations in age structures of a partially re-established population of northern river otters (Lontra canadensis)

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    Barrett, Dominic A.; Leslie,, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Examination of age structures and sex ratios is useful in the management of northern river otters (Lontra canadensis) and other furbearers. Reintroductions and subsequent recolonizations of river otters have been well documented, but changes in demographics between expanding and established populations have not been observed. As a result of reintroduction efforts, immigration from Arkansas and northeastern Texas, and other efforts, river otters have become partially reestablished throughout eastern and central Oklahoma. Our objective was to examine age structures of river otters in Oklahoma and identify trends that relate to space (watersheds, county) and time (USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service county trapping records). We predicted that river otters in western areas of the state were younger than river otters occurring farther east. From 2005–2007, we obtained salvaged river otter carcasses from federal and state agencies, and we live-captured other river otters using leg hold traps. Seventy-two river otters were sampled. Overall, sex ratios were skewed toward females (1F∶0.8M), but they did not differ among spatiotemporal scales examined. Teeth were removed from salvaged and live-captured river otters (n  =  63) for aging. One-year old river otters represented the largest age class (30.2%). Proportion of juveniles (populations of river otters in Oklahoma contained younger ages than more established eastern populations.

  10. Eurasian Otters in Micro Dams of Southern Bulgaria: Where to Place the Monitoring Zones?

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    Dilian Georgiev

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ten micro dam sites were studied in Southern Bulgaria between 2005 and 2007. They were situated below 700 metres above sea level in the Upper Thracian Valley and the Sredna Gora mountain. All the bank perimeters, totaling 24.72 kilometres, were walked searching for otter spraint sites. Most of them were found in the area around the river inflow (n=53, 40.5% followed by those near the wall of the dam (n=39, 29.8%. The other spraint sites were found in the two other zones of equal length in the middle part of the basins. The average levels of preference index showed the highest levels in the river inlet and dam wall zones. They were highest at the river inflow end, 1.6 (min-max=0.7–4.0 and a little lower near the wall, 1.2 (min-max=0.0–3.0. The middle zones of the basin were not so preferentially selected as spraint sites by otters, having index values about three times lower. We recommend otter monitoring at such basins to be focused on the areas close to the main river filling them.

  11. Monitoring and assessment of conservation status of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Bjarne; Madsen, Aksel Bo; Elmeros, Morten

    Monitoring and assessment of conservation status of the Eurasian Otter Lutra lutra in Denmark Søgaard B. ¹, Madsen A.B.¹, Elmeros M.¹ ¹Institute of Bioscience - Kaloe, Aarhus University. Keywords: Eurasian Otter; Monitoring; Conservation status According to the EU Habitats Directive Denmark has...... initiated systematic monitoring of species in the Annex II and IV of the Directive – including the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra). The program focuses on monitoring distribution and range of the otter population in order to provide an assessment of its conservation status. The otter Lutra lutra suffered...... serious declines in Denmark during the 1960s and 1970s. A series of conservation and management projects were initiated to protect the remnant population, including national surveys and the development of a management plan for the otter in Denmark in 1996. The recovery of the otter in Denmark...

  12. Efficacy of two canine distemper vaccines in wild Nearctic river otters (Lontra canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Steven T; Peper, Randall L; Kollias, George V; Brooks, Robert P; Stevens, Sadie S; Serfass, Thomas L

    2014-09-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a contagious morbillivirus, infects families in the order Carnivora, including Nearctic river otters (Lontra canadensis). As a preventative measure, vaccinations against CDV are frequently given to mustelids in captive environments. The Pennsylvania River Otter Reintroduction Project (PRORP) used wild-caught river otters to evaluate the efficacy and need for vaccinations against CDV as part of any reintroduction project. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of exposure to CDV in wild river otters, 2) determine the immunologic response of river otters (i.e., seroconversion) after vaccination with a single (primary) vaccine dose compared to a second (booster) dose of Galaxy-D, a modified live-virus canine distemper (CD) vaccine (MLV CDV), and 3) determine the immunologic response after being vaccinated with a primary vaccination compared to a booster dose of Fervac-D, an MLV CDV. River otters were injected subcutaneously in the nape of the neck with their designated vaccine. Timeframes for collection of blood samples and/or injection of booster vaccines varied depending on the parameters of PRORP. Ten of the 22 river otters had positive prevaccination titer levels to CD. Both vaccines, Galaxy-D and Fervac-D, produced sufficient seroconversion or rise of titer levels (86% and 57%, respectively) to recommend the use of vaccines in wild river otters. Future studies are recommended to evaluate currently produced CD vaccines. Future research should also focus on the number of days required between administration of primary and booster vaccines to achieve sufficient immune response. If only a primary dose is required, then hard-release reintroduction projects for river otters could be recommended. If primary and booster vaccines are required then soft-release reintroduction projects should be recommended. Soft-release projects should include captive management periods that allow for appropriate vaccination intervals

  13. Scale-dependent factors affecting North American river otter distribution in the midwest

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    Jeffress, Mackenzie R.; Paukert, C.P.; Whittier, Joanna B.; Sandercock, B.K.; Gipson, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) is recovering from near extirpation throughout much of its range. Although reintroductions, trapping regulations and habitat improvements have led to the reestablishment of river otters in the Midwest, little is known about how their distribution is influenced by local- and landscape-scale habitat. We conducted river otter sign surveys from Jan. to Apr. in 2008 and 2009 in eastern Kansas to assess how local- and landscape-scale habitat factors affect river otter occupancy. We surveyed three to nine 400-m stretches of stream and reservoir shorelines for 110 sites and measured local-scale variables (e.g., stream order, land cover types) within a 100 m buffer of the survey site and landscape-scale variables (e.g., road density, land cover types) for Hydrological Unit Code 14 watersheds. We then used occupancy models that account for the probability of detection to estimate occupancy as a function of these covariates using Program PRESENCE. The best-fitting model indicated river otter occupancy increased with the proportion of woodland cover and decreased with the proportion of cropland and grassland cover at the local scale. Occupancy also increased with decreased shoreline diversity, waterbody density and stream density at the landscape scale. Occupancy was not affected by land cover or human disturbance at the landscape scale. Understanding the factors and scale important to river otter occurrence will be useful in identifying areas for management and continued restoration. ?? 2011, American Midland Naturalist.

  14. A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.

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    Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated.

  15. Total mercury and methylmercury residues in river otters (Lutra canadensis) from Wisconsin.

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    Strom, Sean M

    2008-04-01

    The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) collected trapper-caught river otter (Lutra canadensis) from 3 distinct areas of Wisconsin (north, central, and south). Otter carcasses were collected from a total of 12 counties during the trapping seasons of 2003 and 2004. Liver, kidney, muscle, brain, and fur tissue was collected for mercury (Hg) analysis. Analysis of variance identified collection zone as the significant factor for differences in tissue Hg levels, with a pattern of decreasing Hg concentrations from north to south (p south, none of the tissue concentrations reached levels known to cause toxicity in either otter or mink.

  16. Factors Influencing Neotropical River Otter Habitat Use in Central Chihuahua, Mexico

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    Eduardo Carillo-Rubio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Research regarding the habitat use of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis is lacking. I assessed habitat use by the species in the San Pedro River of northern México using presence/absence (i.e., detection/non‐detection data from 21 used and 25 randomly‐selected unused sites. The best fitting logistic regression models and principal component ordination reveal that river otters prefer habitat patches dominated by large, deep pools with nearby talus/rock cover and densely vegetated riverbanks. I mention the importance of understanding habitat use patterns for river otter ecology and conservation and the usefulness of presence/absence data in population ecology and conservation planning research.

  17. Bilateral uric acid nephrolithiasis and ureteral hypertrophy in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A.; Bildfell, Rob; Henny, Charles J.; Buhler, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first case of uric acid nephrolithiasis in a free-ranging river otter (Lontra canadensis). A 7 yr old male river otter collected from the Skagit River of western Washington (USA) had bilateral nephrolithiasis and severely enlarged ureters (one of 305 examined [0.33%]). The uroliths were 97% uric acid and 3% protein. Microscopic changes in the kidney were confined to expansion of renal calyces, minor loss of medullary tissue, and multifocal atrophy of the cortical tubules. No inflammation was observed in either kidney or the ureters. The ureters were enlarged due to marked hypertrophy of smooth muscle plus dilation of the lumen. Fusion of the major calyces into a single ureteral lumen was several cm distal to that of two adult male otters used as histopathologic control specimens. This case report is part of a large contaminant study of river otters collected from Oregon and Washington. It is important to understand diseases and lesions of the otter as part of our overall evaluation of this population.

  18. Records of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, from Guyana

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    Barnett A.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews and surveys of status of the giant otter are presented. These include information on Pteronura brasiliensis on the upper Potaro River and other rivers in Guyana. Suggestions are made for future work on giant otters on the Potaro Plateau. These include monitoring the effects of mining, studies of mercury poisoning, ecotourism feasibility studies and autecological studies.

  19. Ranging behaviour and socio-biology of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) on lowland mesotrophic river systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neill, Lughaidh O.; Veldhuizen, Tijmen; de Jongh, Addy; Rochford, John

    2009-01-01

    We examined the spatial structure and sociobiology of a native wild population of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) on mesotrophic rivers in a mild temperate climate. Radio-tracking of 20 individuals revealed exclusive intra-sexual adult home-ranges. Adult female homeranges (7.5 km, SD = 1.5 km, n = 7)

  20. High Mortality of Nearctic River Otters on a Florida, USA Interstate Highway During an Extreme Drought

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    Kinlaw A.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available From 28 December 1999 until 15 July 2000, I recorded 15 river otters killed on a 16 km segment of Interstate highway in Polk County, Florida, USA. This included 9 during a 37 day period, the highest road mortality rate reported for North American otters. This compares to 22 otters killed on a south Florida road during a 2 year period. My sample of 15 killed on I-4 is a negatively biased count of the true number killed, due to the minimal sampling period and sampling method. Possible reasons for such a high number counted during such a short period are discussed, including the impact of a major drought, high traffic density, and possible dieldrin bioaccumulation.

  1. Trophic Spatial Variations in the Southern River Otter, Lontra provocax, in Freshwater Habitats, Chile

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    Ignacio Rodríguez-Jorquera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed spatial differences composition between different water bodies in diet of southern river otter (Lontra provocax, Thomas, 1908 from 196 scats collected between years 2003-2006 during surveys in freshwater environments in south of Chile (39° and 40 S and 71.5° and 73° W. For the whole study area, crustaceans from two genera (Samastacus sp. and Aegla sp. were the otter’s main food category, representing almost 100 % frequency of occurrence of the consumed preys. Fish can be considered as secondary item in a general approximation to otter diet. Predation upon others vertebrates (amphibians, birds and mammals and invertebrate (mussels and insects were rather rare in the diet of the otter, while no reptiles were observed. We described occurrence, frequency of occurrence and quantity of prey items to compare the otter diet between freshwater habitats (rivers, streams and lakes. We discuss implications of our results and compare it with similar diet studies on the species.

  2. Preliminary Findings from a New Study of the Congo Clawless Otter (Aonyx congicus on the Dji Dji River, Ivindo National Park, Gabon (or “Where Have all the Otters Gone?”

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    Lisa C. Davenport

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Congo Clawless Otter (Aonyx congicus, is a little-known otter species that inhabits central African rivers and swamps. We report on the results of 3 field expeditions into the Dji Dji River, (Ivindo National Park, Gabon of varying length (3 days to 6 weeks to collect preliminary observations on this species, the sympatric spot-necked otter (Lutra maculicollis, and the fish community of the Dji Dji River. We also surveyed local people (primarily artisanal fishermen in the Makokou area of Ivindo National Park about their knowledge of otter species and human/wildlife conflicts in the area. Sightings of otters in 2010 indicated both otter species to be common on the Dji Dji River. Fish sampling in 2011 indicated high abundance but low diversity of fishes in this blackwater river. Feeding observations of a solitary animal on the Dji Dji and a family of 3 on the Ivindo River indicate a high dependence on large earthworms (Annelidae captured near the river’s edge. With a severe drought in 2011 affecting the Dji Dji River level, we found fewer otters compared to 2010 observations and no families with young. We speculate on the possibility of seasonal downstream movements, which could affect conservation of the species in the region.

  3. Environmental contaminants in male river otters from Oregon and Washington, USA, 1994-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, R.A.; Henny, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study reports hepatic concentrations and distribution patterns of select metals, organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 180 male river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from Oregon and Washington, 1994-1999. Seven regional locations of western Oregon and Washington were delineated based on associations with major population centers, industry or agriculture. Cadmium (Cd) was not found above 0.5 ??g g-1, dry weight (dw) in juveniles, but increased with age in adults though concentrations were generally low (nd-1.18 ??g g-1, dw). Regional geometric means for total mercury (THg) ranged from 3.63 to 8.05 ??g g-1, dw in juveniles and 3.46-2.6 ??g g-1 (dw) in adults. The highest THg concentration was 148 ??g g-1, dw from an apparently healthy adult male from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington. Although THg increased with age in adult otters, the occurrence of the more toxic form methylmercury (MeHg) was not evaluated. Mean OC and PCB concentrations reported in this study declined dramatically from those reported in 1978-1979 from the lower Columbia River. Organochlorine pesticide and metabolite means for both juvenile and adult river otter males were all below 100 ??g kg-1, wet weight (ww), with only DDE, DDD and HCB having individual concentrations exceeding 500 ??g kg-1, ww. Mean ??PCB concentrations in both juvenile and adult male otters were below 1 ??g g-1 for all regional locations. Mean juvenile and adult concentrations of non-ortho substituted PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs were in the low ng kg-1 for all locations studied. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  4. Large-scale predation by river otters (Lontra canadensis) on Florida cooter (Pseudemys floridana) and Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox).

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    Stacy, Brian A; Wolf, Dan A; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We observed predation by river otters (Lontra canadensis) on large numbers of Florida cooter (Pseudemys floridana) and Florida softshell turtles (Apalone ferox) in two small lakes in North Central Florida, USA during a period of unusually low water levels. Carcasses were strewn on the shoreline and accumulated around floating boat docks, where some residents observed turtles being killed. We found 76 carcasses, including predominantly skeletons, and two live, severely injured turtles from one lake; however, numerous remains undoubtedly were unrecovered. The otters frequently eviscerated the turtles and removed the head and one or more appendages, including the phallus of mature males. In skeletal remains, injuries inflicted by otters were nonspecific, indistinguishable from damage caused by scavengers, or easily missed in incomplete carcasses. This report of large-scale mortality of freshwater turtles in Florida suggests that otters could have a significant impact on local turtle populations.

  5. Bioenergetics assessment of fish and crayfish consumption by river otter (Lontra canadensis): integrating prey availability, diet, and field metabolic rate

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    Dekar, Matthew P.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Beringer, J.

    2010-01-01

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ·day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35 079 to 52 653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

  6. Habitat quality assessment for the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra on the river Jajrood, Iran

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    Roohallah Mirzaei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is little information about the status and ecology of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra in Iran. We assessed the habitat suitability for otters of the River Jajrood, Tehran province, measuring, or visually estimating, 12 environmental parameters along 16 600 m long river stretches (sampling sites. The downstream stretches of the river were found to be more suitable for otters with respect to the upper part of its course. Although the assessments of habitat suitability for the otter may be affected by several limits, the current distribution of the species on the river agrees with the results of this study. The preservation of the otter in Tehran province should involve the restoration of the ecosystem of the River Jajrood in order to improve the length of suitable river stretches.
    Riassunto Stima dell’idoneità ambientale per la lontra (Lutra lutra del fiume Jajrood, Iran. Le informazioni relative alla lontra (Lutra lutra in Iran sono scarse. L’idoneità ambientale per la specie del fiume Jajrood, provincia di Tehran, è stata valutata, misurando o stimando 12 parametri ambientali lungo 16 stazioni di campionamento, coincidenti con tratti di fiume della lunghezza di 600 m. I tratti più a valle sono risultati più idonei rispetto al corso superiore del fiume. Malgrado i numerosi limiti del metodo di stima dell’idoneità ambientale adottato, i risultati sono in accordo con l’attuale distribuzione della lontra lungo il fiume Jajrood. La conservazione della lontra nella provincia di Tehran dovrebbe prevedere miglioramenti ambientali volti a incrementare lo sviluppo lineare degli habitat idonei lungo il fiume Jajrood.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4447

  7. An eDNA assay for river otter detection: A tool for surveying a semi-aquatic mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticha M. Padgett-Stewart; Taylor M. Wilcox; Kellie J. Carim; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Michael K. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an effective tool for the detection of elusive or low-density aquatic organisms. However, it has infrequently been applied to mammalian species. North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) are both broad ranging and semi-aquatic, making them an ideal candidate for examining the uses of eDNA for detection of mammals. We developed...

  8. Mercury poisoning in a free-living northern river otter (Lontra canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M; Cristol, Daniel A; White, Ariel E; Evers, David C; Gerhold, R W; Keel, Michael K

    2010-07-01

    A moribund 5-year-old female northern river otter (Lontra canadensis) was found on the bank of a river known to be extensively contaminated with mercury. It exhibited severe ataxia and scleral injection, made no attempt to flee, and died shortly thereafter of drowning. Tissue mercury levels were among the highest ever reported for a free-living terrestrial mammal: kidney, 353 microg/g; liver, 221 microg/g; muscle, 121 microg/g; brain (three replicates from cerebellum), 142, 151, 151 microg/g (all dry weights); and fur, 183 ug/g (fresh weight). Histopathologic findings including severe, diffuse, chronic glomerulosclerosis and moderate interstitial fibrosis were the presumptive cause of clinical signs and death. This is one of a few reports to document the death of a free-living mammal from presumed mercury poisoning.

  9. Monitoring Peripheral Populations Of The Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra In Southern Italy: New Occurrences In The Sila National Park

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    Manlio Marcelli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available After a period of strong decline, the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra has re-expanded its area of distribution in Italy from 1984 to 2004, mainly toward the southern periphery of its range. The Sila National Park is located in a strategic position along a drainage divide separating southern peripheral otter populations from unoccupied but potentially recolonizable habitats. A research project aimed to evaluate the aquatic habitats of the Sila National Park for otter recolonization is now in progress. At present, we have surveyed 14 sampling sites to detect otter presence in the study area. Two positive sites were found on the Arvo river. These records represent the first evidence of otter presence in the Sila area after extinction apparently occurred in the late 1970s. One of the two positive sites was negative in the 2003. These data seem to indicate that otter recolonization in the southern periphery of Italian distribution range is still in progress. Management actions in the Sila National Park may favour recolonization processes.

  10. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, 1990-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Henny, Charles J.; Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in aquatic mustelid species on the Fraser and Columbia Rivers of northwestern North America. Carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis) (N=24) and mink (Mustela vison) (N=34) were obtained from commercial trappers during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991a??92. Pooled liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Most samples contained detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, although there was substantial variability in patterns and trends among neighboring samples. Concentrations of DDE were in some mink and several otter samples from the lower Columbia River elevated (to 4700 g/kg wet weight); excluding one mink sample from the Wenatchee area, mean DDE levels generally decreased between 1978a??79 and 1990a??92. PCBs were present in all samples. PCB concentrations in otter livers collected from the lower Columbia were ten-fold lower than measured a decade previously; nevertheless, a sample taken near Portland had a mean concentration of 1500 g/kg, within a range of concentrations associated with reproductive effects in captive mink. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and TCDF were generally below detection limits, except for one otter collected near a pulp mill at Castlegar, on the upper Columbia, with 11 ng TCDD/kg in liver. Elevated concentrations of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, probably resulting from use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives, were found in both species; one otter sample from the lower Columbia had 2200 ng OCDD/kg. International TCDD toxic equivalent levels in mink (31 ng/kg) and otter (93 ng/kg) from the lower Columbia River approached toxicity thresholds for effects on reproduction in ranch mink.

  11. Interaction of extender composition and freezing method for effective semen cryopreservation in the North American river otter (Lontra canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Helen L; Swanson, William F

    2017-10-01

    Semen cryopreservation and storage in genome resource banks (GRBs), in combination with artificial insemination (AI), could be invaluable for genetic management and conservation of endangered otter species. For any applied conservation benefit, effective methods for otter sperm processing and cryopreservation first must be established. In this study, our objective was to develop an effective semen cryopreservation method for the North American river otter, evaluating the effect of extender composition (i.e., glycerol concentration, Equex STM paste supplementation) and freezing protocol (timing of glycerol addition, pre-freeze cooling rate, freezing/packaging method) on post-thaw sperm motility, longevity and acrosome status. Semen was collected from 14 otters housed at 9 zoos, and following cryopreservation in an egg-yolk based extender, thawed to assess sperm motility and acrosome status immediately post-thaw and during 6 h of in vitro culture. Results indicated that extender containing 4% glycerol was preferable (p  0.05) post-thaw sperm parameters. Treatments with extender containing Equex and frozen by pelleting on dry ice showed greater (p < 0.05) motility and percentage of intact acrosomes compared to treatments frozen in extender without Equex, regardless of pre-freeze cooling rate. In the absence of Equex, pelleting provided superior post-thaw sperm motility (p < 0.01) and higher (p < 0.001) percentage of sperm with intact acrosomes compared to samples frozen in straws over liquid nitrogen vapor. Results of this study indicate that cryopreservation of otter sperm using an egg-yolk -TEST based extender containing 4% glycerol and 1% Equex, with the pellet freezing method, provided superior post-thaw sperm motility, longevity and acrosomal integrity compared to other combinations. Neither alterations in timing of glycerolated extender addition nor pre-freeze cooling rate had a discernable effect on post-thaw otter sperm parameters. These findings

  12. Ecotoxicology of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra along Loire River (France and Predictable Trends due to Global Change

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    Rene Rosoux

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, about fifty otters from the basin of the Loire River (France were analyzed in the context of a toxicological study funded by the Plan Loire Grandeur Nature. Individuals were recovered non-invasively, using a network of collection of otters killed by traffic collisions with vehicles. The chemical elements analyzed were the organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides, carbamates, pyrethroids, herbicides, anticoagulants, PCBs and metals. Detectable levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs characterized all otters analyzed, with mean values reaching 2-15 mg kg-1, respectively. Concentrations of other analyzed pesticides remained very low. For metals, contamination of otters was systematic for lead and mercury, the latter being relatively abundant in tissues of several individuals. A significant trend to increasing concentrations of pesticides and PCBs by going towards the downstream parts of basins was shown. The inter-individual variations in concentrations were marked. Global values of contamination were below the toxicological threshold defined for the conservation of the species, and the current dynamics of populations within the basin of the Loire seems to confirm this. However, the potential effects of mixtures of compounds remain poorly studied.

  13. Classification of Captive North American River Otters (Lontra canadensis Vocal Repertoires: Individual Variations, and Age Class Comparisons

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    Carla Almonte

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to examine in detail the vocal behaviors of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis, and the results suggest that river otters have complex vocal repertoires comprised of four distinct vocal types and seven sub-call types. The vocalizations and behaviors of ten captive North American river otter adults, one litter of newborn pups and one litter of pups at eight weeks old were recorded using a SONY Handheld DV camera and an infrared surveillance system. A quantitative analysis of 2726 calls on the adults and 299 calls for the pups was conducted for acoustic parameters that included frequencies, powers, and duration. Whine, chirp and chatter call types were the main vocal elements of the vocal repertoire and were present at birth. Pups vocals were structurally underdeveloped versions of the adult vocals and adults call types showed individual variations. This suggests that vocalizations are likely individually modified as pups enter adulthood. A unique whistle was present in newborn pup vocal repertoires but appeared to be reduced in the repertoire by eight weeks old. However, further research needs to be conducted to determine the function of the whistle.

  14. Trophic interactions of the endangered Southern river otter ( Lontra provocax) in a Chilean Ramsar wetland inferred from prey sampling, fecal analysis, and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marcela; Guevara, Giovany; Correa, Loreto; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    Non-invasive methodological approaches are highly recommended and commonly used to study the feeding ecology of elusive and threatened mammals. In this study, we use multiple lines of evidence to assess the feeding strategies of the endangered Southern river otter, by determining seasonal prey availability (electrofishing), analysis of undigested prey remains (spraints), and the use of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) in otter spraints ( n = 262) and prey in a wetland ecosystem of southern Chile (39°49'S, 73°15'W). Fecal and isotopic analyses suggest that the otter diet is restricted to a few prey items, particularly the less-mobile, bottom-living, and larger prey such as crayfish ( Samastacus spinifrons, 86.11 %) and crabs ( Aegla spp., 32.45 %), supplemented opportunistically by cyprinids ( Cyprinus carpio, 9.55 %) and catfish ( Diplomystes camposensis, 5.66 %). The results suggest that the river otter is highly specialized in bottom foraging. Isotopic signatures of food sources and feces revealed a mid-upper trophic position for the Southern river otter, with either higher or lower δ15N values than their potential prey items. δ13C values for river otters were less enriched than their potential food resources. We suggest that due to their narrow trophic niche and possible dependence on only a few food items, this species may be highly vulnerable to the reduction in its prey populations. Finally, maintaining the ecological interactions between Southern river otters and their prey is considered a central priority for the survival of this endangered carnivore mammal.

  15. Non–invasive sampling of endangered neotropical river otters reveals high levels of dispersion in the Lacantun River System of Chiapas, Mexico

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    Ortega, J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic dispersion, levels of population genetic structure, and movement of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis were investigated by screening eight polymorphic microsatellites from DNA extracted from fecal samples, collected in a hydrologic system of the Lacandon rainforest in Chiapas, Mexico. A total of 34 unique genotypes were detected from our surveys along six different rivers, and the effect of landscape genetic structure was studied. We recovered 16 of the 34 individuals in multiple rivers at multiple times. We found high levels of dispersion and low levels of genetic differentiation among otters from the six surveyed rivers (P > 0.05, except for the pairwise comparison among the Lacantún and José rivers (P < 0.05. We recommend that conservation management plans for the species consider the entire Lacantún River System and its tributaries as a single management unit to ensure the maintenance of current levels of population genetic diversity, because the population analyzed seems to follow a source–sink dynamic mainly determined by the existence of the major river.

  16. Modeling Behavior by Coastal River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) in Response to Prey Availability in Prince William Sound, Alaska: A Spatially-Explicit Individual-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albeke, Shannon E; Nibbelink, Nathan P; Ben-David, Merav

    2015-01-01

    Effects of climate change on animal behavior and cascading ecosystem responses are rarely evaluated. In coastal Alaska, social river otters (Lontra Canadensis), largely males, cooperatively forage on schooling fish and use latrine sites to communicate group associations and dominance. Conversely, solitary otters, mainly females, feed on intertidal-demersal fish and display mutual avoidance via scent marking. This behavioral variability creates "hotspots" of nutrient deposition and affects plant productivity and diversity on the terrestrial landscape. Because the abundance of schooling pelagic fish is predicted to decline with climate change, we developed a spatially-explicit individual-based model (IBM) of otter behavior and tested six scenarios based on potential shifts to distribution patterns of schooling fish. Emergent patterns from the IBM closely mimicked observed otter behavior and landscape use in the absence of explicit rules of intraspecific attraction or repulsion. Model results were most sensitive to rules regarding spatial memory and activity state following an encounter with a fish school. With declining availability of schooling fish, the number of social groups and the time simulated otters spent in the company of conspecifics declined. Concurrently, model results suggested an elevation of defecation rate, a 25% increase in nitrogen transport to the terrestrial landscape, and significant changes to the spatial distribution of "hotspots" with declines in schooling fish availability. However, reductions in availability of schooling fish could lead to declines in otter density over time.

  17. Modeling Behavior by Coastal River Otter (Lontra Canadensis in Response to Prey Availability in Prince William Sound, Alaska: A Spatially-Explicit Individual-Based Approach.

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    Shannon E Albeke

    Full Text Available Effects of climate change on animal behavior and cascading ecosystem responses are rarely evaluated. In coastal Alaska, social river otters (Lontra Canadensis, largely males, cooperatively forage on schooling fish and use latrine sites to communicate group associations and dominance. Conversely, solitary otters, mainly females, feed on intertidal-demersal fish and display mutual avoidance via scent marking. This behavioral variability creates "hotspots" of nutrient deposition and affects plant productivity and diversity on the terrestrial landscape. Because the abundance of schooling pelagic fish is predicted to decline with climate change, we developed a spatially-explicit individual-based model (IBM of otter behavior and tested six scenarios based on potential shifts to distribution patterns of schooling fish. Emergent patterns from the IBM closely mimicked observed otter behavior and landscape use in the absence of explicit rules of intraspecific attraction or repulsion. Model results were most sensitive to rules regarding spatial memory and activity state following an encounter with a fish school. With declining availability of schooling fish, the number of social groups and the time simulated otters spent in the company of conspecifics declined. Concurrently, model results suggested an elevation of defecation rate, a 25% increase in nitrogen transport to the terrestrial landscape, and significant changes to the spatial distribution of "hotspots" with declines in schooling fish availability. However, reductions in availability of schooling fish could lead to declines in otter density over time.

  18. Environmental Contaminants in River Otter (Lontra canadensis) Collected from the Willamette River, Oregon, 1996-99

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willamette River originates in the Cascade Mountains southeast of Eugene, Oregon and makes a 300 mile northward journey through the Willamette Valley, joining...

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Niladri [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)]. E-mail: nbasu@uottawa.ca; Scheuhammer, Anton M. [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); O' Brien, Mike [Furbearers and Upland Game, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, Nova Scotia, B4N 4E5 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 {+-} 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 {+-} 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 {+-} 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects.

  20. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  1. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenavic, Katherine [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Champoux, Louise [Service Canadien de la Faune Environnement Canada, 1141 Route de l' Eglise, c.p. 10100, Sainte-Foy, QC G1V 4H5 (Canada)], E-mail: louise.champoux@ec.gc.ca; Mike, O' Brien [Furbearers and Upland Game, Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, NS B4N 4E5 (Canada)], E-mail: obrienms@gov.ns.ca; Daoust, Pierre-Y. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of P.E.I., 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3 (Canada)], E-mail: daoust@upei.ca; Evans, R. Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Evans, Hayla E. [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)], E-mail: hevans@trentu.ca

    2008-11-15

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations.

  2. Records of the otter in Orta and Orfento rivers (Abruzzo, Maiella Massif / Osservazioni preliminari sulla presenza della lontra nei fiumi Orta e Orfento (Abruzzo, Massiccio della Maiella

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    Paolo Barrasso

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of the Otter, Lutra lutra (Linné, 1758, in Orta and Orfento rivers (Central Italy, Maiella massif is discussed. New records confirm the presence in Orta river, although with a very small population. Riassunto La presenza della lontra nei fiumi Orta e Orfento, nel massiccio della Maiella, viene discussa. Recenti rilevamenti ne confermano la presenza, sia pure con una popolazione di dimensioni molto ridotte, nel bacino del fiume Orta.

  3. Monitoring the use of artificial log pile otter holts using hair analysis from bedding

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    Cowell D.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen, approximately ten year old log pile holts (LPH in mid-Wales, UK, were dismantled prior to reconstruction and any bedding from couches removed for analysis. The plant material making up the bedding was identified and animal guard hairs contained within it were determined to species. The bedding material simply consisted of opportunistically available material with little evident selection. Hairs of cow and sheep were clearly brought in with the bedding but it is suggested that hairs of otter, badger, fox, dog, cat, American mink and polecat indicate use of the LPH by the species concerned. A possible pine marten record is also considered.

  4. Distribution of Otters in the Tropeang Roung, Koh Kong Province, Cambodia

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    Tevy Chrin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two species of otters are found along Tropeang Roung River, the smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspecillata and the hairy-nosed otter (Lutra sumatrana. The distribution of these species was studied along a stretch of the Tropeang Roung River in Koh Kong province, Cambodia, between May and June 2009. Their main habitat appears to be both small and big estuary surrounded by Melaleuca, Mangrove and evergreen forest with shoreline vegetation followed by sand (24%, clay (13%, rocky (10% and bank with vegetation (53%, where is rich of food sources, particularly fish. The sprainting sites were found more under open sky then canopy cover, and situated their spraint in average of 4.33 m from water edge and 2.73 m of water depth. Diet compositions in spraint consisted of fish 64%, frog 5%, crab 2%, shrimp 1% and unidentified debris 28%. The study revealed that the distribution of otters along the river has diminished. Hunting for skin to trade, traditional medicine, meat and habitat disturbance such as sand mining and fishing activities might be putting pressure on the population. Conservation measures such as monitoring of the otter population and interviewing locals should be done regularly and restrictions on sand mining, oil spills from shipping and snaring should be imposed along Tropeang Roung River.

  5. Maine River Temperature Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We collect seasonal and annual temperature measurements on an hourly or quarter hourly basis to monitor habitat suitability for ATS and other species. Temperature...

  6. Historic and Current Distributions of River Otters (Lontra canadensis and (Lontra longicaudis in the Río Grande or Río Bravo del Norte Drainage of Colorado and New Mexico, USA and of Chihuahua, Mexico and Adjacent Areas

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    Paul Polechla

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Río Grande drainage is an important and imperiled wetland of the US/Mexican border arid lands. There is a desire to restore otter populations in this river by interested parties. In order to follow IUCN guidelines for restoration, biologists need learn more fully the situation prior to implementation of restoration management. A prerequisite for proper restoration conservation is to know the organism’s taxonomy (i.e., what taxa or species and subspecies one is dealing with, distribution, and relative abundance. The historic and current distribution of the Nearctic otter (Lontra canadensis and Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis in the borderlands of US and Mexico are reviewed in this paper. The evidence indicates that otters were native to the Río Grande valley and has been recorded in the languages and customs of Native Americans such as the Pueblo people prior to European settlement of the area. The first Spanish documents we were able to find whereby otters were recorded, date to the middle 16th century. Otters during historical times were probably more numerous than previously thought and one of the first wildlife laws in the borderlands revolved around a moratorium on trapping the otter and beaver. Presently, populations of otters occur in 1 the Río San Pedro of Chihuahua, a tributary of the Río Conchos entering the Río Grande from the southeast, 2 the upper Río Grande near the Colorado/New Mexico border, and 3 the middle Pecos River in southeastern New Mexico entering the Río Grande from the west. These observations are corroborated by multiple observations by competent observers and in the case of the first population, otter photos and sign. These populations are centered on areas with macro-habitats characterized by a river flowing through 1 deep canyons, or 2 ancillary wetlands. Considerable more detailed survey work is needed to determine the full extent of the distribution of otters in the Río Grande drainage. A genetic

  7. Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis Records in Puebla, Central Mexico

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    Osvaldo Eric Ramírez-Bravo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, there are two species of otters, the river otter (Lontra canadensis and the sea otter (Enhydra lutris. The river otter is considered to be plentiful and ranges throughout a large part of Canada. On the other hand, the sea otter is classified as of Special Concern and only small translocated colonies are found along the coastline of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. The scientific literature was reviewed with respect to both river and sea otter research performed within Canada since 1970 to evaluate the number and topics of research papers that had been published dealing with these otter species. Since 1970, 25 papers have been published, most of the research concentrating on contaminants (mercury, organochlorines in river otters (80%. There is only 1 scientific paper (1978 dealing with the sea otter (4%. Almost half of publications studying river otters were from or in combination from the province of Ontario (48%. Miscellaneous topics made up 16% of the publications. This paper reveals that in Canada very little scientific work has been published dealing with sea otters and that a huge number of the publications deal with river otters found within the province of Ontario. Thus since 1970, there has been a serious lack of research dealing with either otter species and that most of that work has had no structure or focus. It is hoped that government agencies, the scientific community, non government organizations, and interested groups can organize strategies and granting opportunities to increase the amount of scientific studies to further understand and protect future populations of these 2 species in Canada.

  8. Nicho trófico de la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis en un ambiente modificado, Temascaltepec, México Food niche of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis in a modified environment, Temascaltepec, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Monroy-Vilchis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los cambios en espacio y tiempo de dieta de la nutria en Temascaltepec, Estado de México, en 2 ríos que presentan importante intervención humana causada por el establecimiento de criaderos de peces comerciales. Se recolectaron 157 excrementos, identificandose la trucha (Oncorhynchus mykiss como la presa más consumida (92.4%, seguida por invertebrados (3.5%, anfibios (2.9% y plantas (1.8%. La dieta de la nutria no varía significativamente entre estaciones climáticas, mientras que entre ríos, la variación fue significativa. En la zona de estudio, la nutria muestra tendencia a especializarse en el consumo de trucha. Las granjas de trucha influyen en la dieta de la nutria y se presentan como clave para la permanencia de la nutria en la zona de estudio.Spatial and temporal changes in the diet of the river otter in Temascaltepec, Mexico were analyzed on 2 rivers that present important human disturbance caused by aquaculture of commercial fish. 157 scats were collected, the principal prey was trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (92.4% followed by invertebrates (3.5%, amphibians (2.9% and plants (1.8%. Between climatic stations the diet of the river otter did not vary significantly, whereas between rivers it presented significant variation. The river otter showed specialization in the consumption of trout. The trout farms have influenced the diet of the river otter, and appear as key for the permanence of the otter in the study zone.

  9. African Otter Workshop

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    Jan Reed-Smith

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Otter Network website and social media network, apublic Otter Awareness facebook page, encouraging online reporting of otter sightings, conducting otter awareness surveys, and emphasising the need for communication with the public, other members of the network and other professionals. information not shared or documented is information LOST. A Second African Otter Workshop should be held in 2017 elsewhere in Africa to encourage attendance from a wider range of countries.

  10. Otter Conservation In Pakistan

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    Waseem Ahmad Khan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This note describes the conservation status and threats of the two otter species described in Pakistan; Smooth coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata sindica and the Eurasian or common otter (Lutra lutra. It also briefly describes the actors involved as well as the efforts made for its conservation.

  11. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

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    Andreas Kranz

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austria does not formally recognise this as a threat.

  12. Little River NWR Inventory and Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Little River National Wildlife Refuge is a step-down from the Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Forest Habitat Management...

  13. How many otters are there in Italy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Prigioni

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    Mapping available data about otter (Lutra lutra distribution according to the 10x10 km grid of the IGMI (Italian Geographical Military Institute national maps on the scale of 1:25000, we evaluated a current otter range of 9900 km2, disjoined in two areas: Molise region in central Italy, and Basilicata, Campania, Calabria and Apulia in southern Italy. Considering the results of an otter genetic census performed in the Pollino National Park and surroundings (southern Italy in 2004, we extrapolated the values of otter density found (0.18-0.20 otters/km of watercourse to the overall Italian otter range and to the linear development of the watercourses hosting otters (3313 km. The correspondent estimates of the Italian population size amounted to, respectively, 481-523 and 596-663 otters. Considering a correction factor based on the mean sprainting intensity reported, since 2000, for each catchment hosting otters, the estimated population size was reduced to 229-257 otters. We argue that a new extensive otter survey is urgently needed and that monitoring by non-invasive genetic sampling is recommended in order to define the population status and trend.
    Riassunto
    Quante lontre ci sono in Italia? I dati disponibili relativamente alla distribuzione della Lontra (Lutra lutra in Italia, sono stati mappati secondo il reticolo 10 x 10 km IGMI (Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano in scala 1:25000, ottenendo un areale complessivo di 9900 km2, suddiviso tra il Molise (Italia centrale e Puglia, Campania, Basilicata e Calabria (Italia meridionale. I valori di densità della specie (0,18 – 0,20 lontre/km di fiume ottenuti nel 2004 in un’ampia area, perlopiù compresa nel Parco Nazionale del Pollino, sono quindi stati estrapolati alla superficie complessiva dell’areale italiano e alla lunghezza totale dei corsi d’acqua attualmente frequentati dalla Lontra (3313 km. La consistenza della

  14. Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: cyanotoxin (microcystin) transfer from land to sea otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Kudela, Raphael M; Mekebri, Abdu; Crane, Dave; Oates, Stori C; Tinker, M Timothy; Staedler, Michelle; Miller, Woutrina A; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Dominik, Clare; Hardin, Dane; Langlois, Gregg; Murray, Michael; Ward, Kim; Jessup, David A

    2010-09-10

    "Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins) are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb) were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels) and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine "harmful algal

  15. Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: cyanotoxin (microcystin transfer from land to sea otters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Miller

    Full Text Available "Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine

  16. Otters redden moerasgebieden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, H.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Het uitzetten van diersoorten die uit een gebied zijn verdwenen, draait om meer dan het behoud van de soort. Dat stelt Alterra op basis van ervaringen met de herintroductie van otters. Met de otter als ambassadeur is de afgelopen twintig jaar de hele natte natuur er sterk op vooruitgegaan

  17. Large River Monitoring Forum Fish Assemblage Database 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Large River Monitoring Forum compiled fish assemblage data for five large rivers in the U.S. as a part of a coordinated effort to compare and contract river...

  18. Effective Monitoring of Small River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Symader

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As the transport of many pollutants occurs during high floods monitoring programs must focus on these intermittent events. In small rivers the pollutants start their travel as short pulses often associated with fine particles, but disperse on their way downstreams. Therefore the chemical data of a flood event are only representative of a small part of the basin adjacent to the monitoring station. This is usually not taken into account by evaluating water quality data.

  19. Effective Monitoring of Small River Basins

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    As the transport of many pollutants occurs during high floods monitoring programs must focus on these intermittent events. In small rivers the pollutants start their travel as short pulses often associated with fine particles, but disperse on their way downstreams. Therefore the chemical data of a flood event are only representative of a small part of the basin adjacent to the monitoring station. This is usually not taken into account by evaluating water quality data.

  20. Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data.

  1. Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1992-10-01

    To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter`s cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data.

  2. Giant Otters in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenk C.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  3. Bartonella spp. exposure in northern and southern sea otters in Alaska and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Kasten, Rickie W; Byrne, Barbara A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-12-01

    Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (pBartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation.

  4. Otter Distribution, Status and Conservation Problems in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemenes I.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The river otter Lutra lutra has been protected in Hungary since 1974 and became strictly protected in 1978. However, the first and so far only survey of its distribution was carried out by me in 1987-88. I now report the results of this survey and discuss the present status and conservation problems of otter in Hungary. Otters are most plentiful in the south west. Because of contamination of many water courses, otters are dependent on fish farms of various sizes. Until now, these were subsidised, but now they are in private hands, but no compensation for otter-related losses are available, owners on low incomes cannot afford expensive mitigation measures. They would welcome the live-trapping and removal of problem otters, but the government would need to sponsor suitable areas for release of these animals. Conservationists in Hungary are seeking support for such a scheme. We think that it would be in the interest of the conservationists of Europe to help to maintain Hungary as one of the strongholds of otter and we are inviting suggestions and ideas on how to achieve this.

  5. Surveying otter Lutra lutra distribution at the southern limit of its italian range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last 20 years the otter Lutra lutra has expanded its range in the southern part of the Italian peninsula. Populations at the border of otter range suffer a high risk of extinction and need frequent monitoring. Here we report about a survey carride out by the standard method in the central Calabria region (Sila Massif and surroundings, which currently represents the southern limit of otter distribution. Otter presence has been recorded for 7 out of 31 sites (22.6%, all belonging to the catchment of the River Savuto. A previous record for the River Neto has not been confirmed. A total of 22 spraints has been collected and analysed. Salmonids (Salmo trutta formed the bulk of otter diet (Vm% = 52.1. Damming and over-fishing could represent the main obstacles to the recolonisation of the area by otters. Habitat management should be addressed to reinforce the existing population and favour its connection to the core of otter range. Riassunto Monitoraggio della distribuzione della lontra Lutra lutra al limite meridionale del suo areale italiano. Negli ultimi 20 anni, in Italia meridionale si è verificata un'espansione dell'areale della lontra. Le popolazioni che si trovano al margine dell'areale soffrono un più alto rischio di estinzione e necessitano di un frequente monitoraggio. In questo contesto, si relazione di un'indagine distributiva svolta con il metodo standard nella parte centrale della Calabria (Massiccio della sila e aree circostanti, che attualmente rappresenta il limite meridionale della distribuzione della specie. La presenza della lontra è stata accertata in 7 delle 31 stazioni monitorate (22.6%, tutte appartenenti al bacino idrografico dle fiume Savuto. Una segnalazione prcedente, riguardante il fiume Neto, non è stata confermata. Sono state raccolte e analizzate 22 feci. I salmonidi, rappresentati dalla trota Salmo trutta

  6. Conservation Aspects of the Ecology of Asian Small-Clawed and Smooth Otters on the Malay Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster-Turley P.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Between April 1989 and June 1990 I made four six-week study visits to Tanjong Piandang, Perak, Malaysia where I studied otters in collaboration with Mr Burhannudin ("Bond" Mohd of the Department of National parks and Wildlife of Peninsular Malaysia. We mostly studied field signs and collected scats of both smooth (Lutra perspicillata and small clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea inhabiting the rice fields and fringing mangroves of the study site. With experience, smooth and small-clawed otters signs can be easily discriminated in the field. Although previous natural historians have considered mangroves important to smooth otters, the results of this study indicate their importance to small-clawed otters as well. More than 25 % of the remaining mangroves in Malaysia are under threat of conversion to aquaculture projects: a particular problem for the survival of otters, as this brings them into even closer contact with humans who view them as pests. The Kerian rice fields of Perak, Malaysia are also an important habitat for small-clawed and smooth otters. Asian rivers seem to contain fewer otter signs and probably fewer otters than wetlands, marshes and mangroves, so preserving pristine Asian river habitats like Hauy Kha Khaeng and Sungai Tembeling may not be enough to ensure the survival of good populations of otters. I suggest that to be most effective in our Asian otter conservation efforts we need to increasingly link up with our colleagues who are working to protect these fragile habitats.

  7. DIETA DE LA NUTRIA NEOTROPICAL Lontra longicaudis (CARNÍVORA, MUSTELIDAE EN EL RÍO ROBLE, ALTO CAUCA, COLOMBIA DIET OF THE NEOTROPICAL OTTER Lontra Longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae IN THE ROBLE RIVER, UPPER CAUCA BASIN, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Mayor-Victoria

    Full Text Available Se estudio la dieta de la nutria neotropical en el río Roble, sistema del río La Vieja , alto Cauca, Colombia. Desde agosto de 2006 hasta marzo de 2007 dos veces por mes fueron colectadas heces de la nutria en bolsas plásticas en la zona baja del río Roble. En el laboratorio las muestras fueron lavadas, tamizadas y comparadas con una colección de referencia. Se reconocieron 14 categorías alimenticias, dentro los cuales los peces de la Familia Loricariidae , presentaron el mayor porcentaje de frecuencia, particularmente la especie Chetostoma sp. (22,6%, seguida de Hypostomus sp. (9,55% y Ancistrus sp. (8,54%; otras especies de peces aprovechadas por la nutria en menor proporción son: Apteronotus sp. (11,6%, Brycon henni (9,86%, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15%. Los insectos fueron el siguiente grupo en importancia, con la especie Corydalus sp. (9% (Familia Corydalidae, y en menor presencia los reptiles de la Familia Corytophanidae , especie Basiliscus sp. Se encontró diferencias significativa, entre los ítems consumidos por temporada climática (Rs = 0,429; n= 11 p= 0.00001.The diet of Neotropical otters was studied at Roble river, a tributary of La Vieja river, Upper Cauca basin, Colombia . From August 2006 to March 2007 otter scats were collected twice per month using plastic bags, from the lower stretch of the Roble river. In the laboratory, the scats were washed, sieved and items were identified by comparing them with a reference collection. Fourteen food categories were recognized. Ranked by frequency of occurrence, benthic sucker-mouthed catfish were the favored food items, especially Chaetostoma sp (22,6 % followed by Hypostomus sp. (9,55% and Ancistrus sp. (8,54%. Other species of fish eaten by the otters are: Apteronotus sp. (11,6 %, Brycon henni (9,86 %, Lebiasina sp. (0,70%, y Rhamdia sp. (9,15 %; (Family Loricariidae., followed by insects Corydalus sp (9% (Family Corydalidae. The lowest frequency observed was for

  8. Monitoring micropollutants in the Swist river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffels, Ekkehard; Brunsch, Andrea; Wunderlich-Pfeiffer, Jens; Mertens, Franz Michael

    2016-11-01

    Micropollutant pathways were studied for the Swist river basin (Western Germany). The aim was to verify the effectiveness of a monitoring approach to detect micropollutants entering the river. In a separate sewer system, water was frequently found to be contaminated with micropollutants. Improper connections of sewage canals to the stormwater network seemed to be the cause of pollution. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) exerted the largest influence on micropollutants for the receiving river. During a flu outbreak, antibiotics in the Swist stemming from WWTPs increased remarkably. Elevated levels of pharmaceuticals were measured in discharges from a combined sewer overflow (CSO). The study showed that the pharmaceutical load of a CSO was significantly reduced by advanced treatment with a retention soil filter. Painkillers, an anticonvulsant and beta blockers were the most often detected pharmaceuticals in the sewage of urban areas. Herbicides, flame retardants and industrial compounds were also observed frequently. On cropland, Chloridazon and Terbuthylazine compounds were often found in landscape runoff. Fungicides and insecticides were the most frequent positive findings in runoff from orchards. The paper shows that a coherent approach to collecting valid information regarding micropollutants and to addressing relevant pathways as a basis for appropriate management strategies could be established.

  9. Artificial Food Support for Lutra lutra in a River in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Olmo J.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Food Support for Lutra lutra in a River in SpainPages 34 - 36 (ReportJordi Ruiz-OlmoIn the Spanish Pyrenees, otters are only present in six rivers, and populations are fragmented by hydrological schemes, and high, dry mountains. Because of the great water level fluctuations caused by hydroelectricity generation, fish levels often drop very low, endangering the otters. It was decided to restock one of the rivers, the Noguera Ribagorçana, with two species found below the dams and thus native to the river, which are better able to cope with high fluctuations in water level. An ongoing monitoring program shows otters are using this new resource.

  10. Enteric bacterial pathogen detection in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) is associated with coastal urbanization and freshwater runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Jang, Spencer S.; Dodd, Erin M.; Dorfmeier, Elene; Harris, Michael D.; Ames, Jack; Paradies, David; Worcester, Karen; Jessup, David A.; Miller, Woutrina A.

    2009-01-01

    Although protected for nearly a century, California’s sea otters have been slow to recover, in part due to exposure to fecally-associated protozoal pathogens like Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona. However, potential impacts from exposure to fecal bacteria have not been systematically explored. Using selective media, we examined feces from live and dead sea otters from California for specific enteric bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, C. difficile and Escherichia coli O157:H7), and pathogens endemic to the marine environment (Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and Plesiomonas shigelloides). We evaluated statistical associations between detection of these pathogens in otter feces and demographic or environmental risk factors for otter exposure, and found that dead otters were more likely to test positive for C. perfringens, Campylobacter and V. parahaemolyticus than were live otters. Otters from more urbanized coastlines and areas with high freshwater runoff (near outflows of rivers or streams) were more likely to test positive for one or more of these bacterial pathogens. Other risk factors for bacterial detection in otters included male gender and fecal samples collected during the rainy season when surface runoff is maximal. Similar risk factors were reported in prior studies of pathogen exposure for California otters and their invertebrate prey, suggesting that land-sea transfer and/or facilitation of pathogen survival in degraded coastal marine habitat may be impacting sea otter recovery. Because otters and humans share many of the same foods, our findings may also have implications for human health. PMID:19720009

  11. Inventory and Monitoring Plan Coldwater River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Inventory and Monitoring Plan (IMP) documents the inventory and monitoring surveys that will or could be conducted at Coldwater River NWR from 2016 through...

  12. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Two Rivers National Wildlife Refuge.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This inventory and monitoring plan (IMP) documents the inventory and monitoring surveys thatwill be conducted at Two Rivers National Wildlife Refuge from 2014...

  13. The Second Scottish Otter Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green R.

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of the second Scottish otter survey are modestly encouraging and parallel indications of a similar, modest improvement in status in Wales and parts of England. However, in all the areas of apparent improvement the otter probably remains a rather scarce animal whilst environmental change continues to affect otter habitat in an unplanned and sometimes explosive fashion. Of particular concern in Scotland at present is the extension of blanket forestry into wetland habitats in the north and the rapid development of a marine fish farm industry amongst the finest otter habitat in Britain.

  14. Otters And Fisheries - Workshop Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucerová M.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Through history, human and otters have been in competition for resources such as fish. The result of the recovery of otter populations, especially in central Europe, is likely to lead to an escalation of this conflict, and solutions are needed urgently. We recommend not treating fishermen and fish farmers as enemies but as partners, to learn about their problems and how they percieve them, to take those problems seriously as they are our problems too, to remember that it takes time to build confidence between people concerned, to use the knowledge gained to develop clear, useful project objectives and avoid duplication of effort, and to make the results available as soon as possible. Important aspects to consider are sociological (we should carry out studies to find out opinion and perceptions of all parties involved, economic (marketing studies should be carried out not only on the ecotourism potential of otters, but whether fish advertised as being produced using otter-friendly methods from places that protect otters would be an attractive product to the consumer, evaluation (independent estimation of otter damage is needed, along with clear guidelines on what 'damage' consists of, and compensation criteria, preventative measures (electric fences, repellents etc to deter otters from using particular locations and education (the otters' attractive appearance and appeal makes it an ideal species for work with the public, school children and tourists, but a different kind of public relations work is needed for interest groups with years of negative attitudes to otters have to be overcome. The main conclusion of the workshop was that greater cooperation and exchange of information between peope who work with otters is needed. Greater effort must be put into evaluating possible economic losses for fish farmers and fishermen, searching for alternative solutions that can change their attitudes towards otters.

  15. Rediscovering the Eurasian Otter (Lutra Lutra L. in Friuli Venezia Giulia and Notes on its Possible Expansion in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pavanello

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Italy otters occur in two small populations in the South, while in the Alps they have been extinct for about 50 years. In Austria, the species is recovering and re-colonizing the Southern part of the country. The first record of the species in the Italian Alps goes back to 2008, when otters were found in the most upper catchment of the River Drau in the Region Trentino Alto Adige – South Tyrol. In the Region Friuli Venezia Giulia (NE Italy, in 2011 and 2012 two otters were found road killed within the catchment of the River Tagliamento. These findings prompted an otter survey, carried out in spring 2014 along the catchment of the upper Tagliamento and the Italian side of the River Slizza-Gailitz, which drains the area of Tarvisio and joins the River Drau in Austria, near Villach. The survey covered an area of 3200 km2. A total of 138 bridges and 16 stretches of 600 m were checked along the river banks for otter signs, i.e. spraints and tracks. Otter signs were found at 27 of the investigated sites, in the area of Tarvisio along the River Slizza-Gailitz (Drau catchment, but not in the catchment of the Tagliamento. Like for individuals found in Alto Adige – South Tyrol otters living in the area of Tarvisio belong to the River Drau population in Austria.

  16. The Otter Habitat Network Europe (OHNE Project Has Been Started

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuther C.

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available East and west of Central Europe there are thriving otter populations, but in Central Europe, populations are fragmented and isolated. THis could lead to extinction in the middle range, and the development of subspecies on either side. Project OHNE, the Otter Habitat Network for Europe, aims to reverse this by reconnecting otter populations across Central Europe. The decline is due, not to overhunting, but to habitat destruction. The project therefore concentrates on restoration of otter habitats. The only chance for the survival of the otter is a management of riverine habitats and wetlands on a large spatial base. This means that we have to develop management or utilisation strategies for the landscape which allow man to satisfy his economic and social demands as well as allow the otter to survive. The proof of concept for the project is the revitalisation of the River Ise in Lower Saxony, subject to heavy pollution, canalisation and intensive use. Since 1987, led by Aktion Fischotterschutz, approximately 500 hectares of arable land have been transformed into extensive pastureland and more than 20 kilometres of riparian woodland and hedges have been planted, the costs being borne by the Federal Ministry of Environment, the Lower Saxony Ministry of Environment, the county of Gifhorn and the donors and sponsors of Aktion Fischotterschutz. The first phase of OHNE will be the identification of areas suitable as habitat corridors for dispersal or stepping stones for reinforcing locally low populations. The second phase will use this information to induce international, national and private organisations to include these data in planning and to take initiatives for regional otter habitat network programmes.

  17. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.; McEnnis, S.; Berry, P. A. M.;

    2012-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study...... is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements...

  18. Coccidioidomycosis in southern sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nancy J.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Creekmore, Lynn H.; Duncan, Ruth M.

    1994-01-01

    Disseminated coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed postmortem in six southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dying or dead along the Pacific Coast of California at San Luis Obispo County.  These otters were found during winter or summer 1992, 1993, and 1994.  Coccidioides immitis was identified by its morphology in tissue impression smears and by histopathology, and was confirmed by culture.  Positive serologic results were obtained from four of five sea otters tested.  The lungs, pleura, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, liver, and spleen were involved in each case.  There was meningeal involvement in half of the affected animals.  Coccidioidomycosis has been reported in a wild sea otter only once previously, in 1976, and that otter was also found on the coast of San Luis Obispo County.

  19. Otter Training Workshop Phnomh Penh, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Ahmad Khan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available International Otter Survival Fund (IOSF, Conservation International (CI and IUCN Otter Specialist Group (OSG jointly organized an 8-day International Workshop on Asian Otter Conservation in Phnom Penh, Cambodia from February 24 to March 03, 2009. The main objective of the workshop was to raise the interest and awareness about otters and their conservation in Cambodia and to train Cambodian University students in otter research. However, a few international students and researchers were also invited to share their experiences.

  20. The Smooth-Coated Otter in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houghton S.J.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available This study has shown that the Smooth-coated otter is common along the length of the Naryani river and that it relies heavily on fish. It also suggests their feeding habits are sufficiently flexible to adapt to local variations in their food supply. A comparison of river banks suggests human activities decrease the availability of suitable habitat and over-fishing decreases food supply. Extensive deforestation in the hills causes flooding and increases the turbidity of the lowland changing both the aquatic environment and the river's topography. Pollution, resulting from chemical discharge is increasingly an important problem in Nepal. Without an effective management plan controlling these, those animal species dependent on the riverine system may rapidly decrease in number or even disappear permanently.

  1. Contamination of an Otter found Dead in the F.R.G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roechert R.

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available A single dead otter from the River Elbe near the border with G.D.R was analysed for contaminants. A very high level of Mercury and PCBs were found which matched the profile of the highly contaminated river. It also indicates a population exchange between East and West Germany via the river Elbe.

  2. Depredación de aves acuáticas por la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis annectens, en el río Yaqui, Sonora, México Aquatic bird predation by neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis annectens, at Rio Yaqui, Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registra la depredación de aves acuáticas por la nutria neotropical (L. longicaudis annectens en el río Yaqui, Sonora. Se colectaron e identificaron 25 cráneos, porciones de esqueleto postcraneal y plumas de aves encontrados en los comederos de las nutrias; las especies identificadas fueron el cormorán neotropical (Phalacrocorax brasilianus con 16 individuos, el pato de collar (Anas platyrhynchos diazi, 4 individuos; la garza blanca (Ardea alba, 3 individuos; el huaco de corona amarilla (Nyctanassa violacea y el pelícano café (Pelecanus occidentalis, ambos con 1 individuo. En los peces se encontró la tilapia del género Oreochromis. Probablemente los hábitos alimenticios de esta especie responden a la estacionalidad y al consumo de presas más disponibles en el hábitat. Estos registros confirman que las nutrias de río son depredadores oportunistas cuya dieta tiene una amplio rango de uso de especies de los ambientes riparios, además dichos registros son una razón más para considerar la nutria neotropical como especie sombrilla para la conservación de ecosistemas completos, ya que su presencia es un indicador de alta disponibilidad energética y de alta biodiversidad.We report the predation of aquatic birds by neotropical river otters (L. longicaudis annectens at Río Yaqui, Sonora. As many as 25 skulls, post-cranial skeletons and feathers were found at river otter feeding sites. The neotropical cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus was the most predated bird with 16 individuals, followed by Mexican mallard (Anas platyrhynchos diazi with 4 individuals, great egret (Ardea alba with 3 individuals, yellow-crowned night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea, and brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis, both with 1 individual. With respect to fish, the tilapia Oreochromis, was the only species found in scats. Neotropical river otter feeding habits were associated with food availability at different seasons of the year. These records show that

  3. Skagit IMW - Skagit River Estuary Intensively Monitored Watershed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study evaluates system-level effects of several estuary restoration projects on juvenile Chinook salmon production in the Skagit River estuary. The monitoring...

  4. Captive Reproduction Of The Neotropical Otter In The Santa Fe Zoological Park In Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcila D.A.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge regarding reproduction of Lontra longicaudis is lacking. We present the first experience of Neotropical river otters born in captivity in Colombia. Of three parturitions registered, only one was successful. The gestation period for L. longicaudis was estimated at 86 days, with no evidence of delayed implantation. This kind of pregnancy can be classified as short and variable. We recommend further research efforts regarding behaviour and reproduction of Neotropical otters in captivity.

  5. Sea otter studies in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The final objective of the present Fish and Wildlife sea otter program is to learn enough of the ecology, population, reproductive potential, and requirements in...

  6. Structural safety monitoring for Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄方林; 何旭辉; 陈政清; 曾储惠

    2004-01-01

    In order to evaluate objectively and accurately the integrity, safety and operating conditions in real time for the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, a large structural safety monitoring system was described. The monitoring system is composed of three parts: sensor system, signal sampling and processing system, and safety monitoring and assessment system. Combining theoretical analysis with measured data analysis, main monitoring contents and layout of measuring points were determined. The vibration response monitoring was significantly investigated. The main contents of safety monitoring on vibration response monitoring are vibration of the main body of the Nanjing Yangtze river bridge, collision avoidance of the bridge piers, vibration of girders on high piers for the bridge approach and earthquake. As a field laboratory, the safety monitorying system also provides information to investigate the unknown and indeterminate problems on bridge structures and specific environment around bridges.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF A GREAT RIVER ECOSYSTEM: THE UPPER MISSOURI RIVER PILOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great River Ecosystems (GREs) are extensively modified physically, hydrologically, and chemically and are not receiving adequate protection to prevent further habitat degradation and loss of biotic integrity. In the United States, ecological monitoring and assessment of the G...

  8. Range Extent for southern sea otters 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Range extent of southern sea otters 2016" is a simple polyline representing the geographic distribution of the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris...

  9. Sea otter health: challenging a pet hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.

  10. The Otter Trust and the River Otter Studbook

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison C.J.O.

    1988-01-01

    This article responds to Dr Klaus Robin's article in the previous volume. The Trust considers that it need not take part in the Studbook as animals are solely bred for reintroduction, its own pedigree information is kept, only Lutra lutra lutra are bred, and animals are never exchanged or sent to other zoos or collections.

  11. The Otter Trust and the River Otter Studbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison C.J.O.

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to Dr Klaus Robin's article in the previous volume. The Trust considers that it need not take part in the Studbook as animals are solely bred for reintroduction, its own pedigree information is kept, only Lutra lutra lutra are bred, and animals are never exchanged or sent to other zoos or collections.

  12. A Non-Invasive Genetic Survey of Otters (Lutra lutra in an Urban Environment: A Pilot Study with Citizen Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane White

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring reliable estimates for an elusive species' distribution and population size can be problematic. For cryptic species such as the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra, traditional monitoring approaches rely heavily on identifying field signs that may under or overestimate population sizes. Increasingly, non-invasive genetic sampling is effectively applied to assess the abundance and population structure of otters by genotyping faeces (spraints. Here we present the results of a non-invasive survey conducted in Cork City, Ireland, which aimed to estimate otter population size, sex ratio and genetic diversity. We incorporated a citizen science approach by training members of the public in spraint collection, thus increasing our search effort and sample detection rate. From October 2011 to May 2012, 199 spraints were collected and 187 (94% were genetically identified as otter. Of these positive otter samples, 13 spraints (7% yielded genetic information identifying 11 individuals (5 female and 6 male using nine microsatellite loci. The results indicate that the urban environment does not prevent otters from using the area and we consider the implications based upon contemporary knowledge on otter spatial behaviour. This study demonstrates that non-invasive survey techniques combined with a citizen science approach can effectively reveal otter population parameters and increase urban otter awareness within the community.

  13. Distribution and Population Status of the Giant Otter Pteronura brasiliensis in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damme P. van

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis is one of the most endangered mammal species in the Neotropical region. In Bolivia, it has been reduced to very low population numbers as a result of poaching in the 40s and 70s. Recently, 14 researchers on the giant otter, who together estimated that around 350 individuals exist in Bolivia, published a preliminary distribution map. In this report, we briefly present the most recent information on the distribution and population status of this species in the Bolivian Del Plata and Amazon river basins. Moreover, we comment on the superposition of giant otter family groups, hydro-ecoregions, and National Parks. Finally, we present a short discussion on the possibilities of interchange between Bolivian giant otter subpopulations.

  14. Photographic Record of Smooth-Coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata Geoffroy 1826 in Nyamjang Chu Valley, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Medhi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A pair of Smooth-coated otters was sighted in remote temperate parts of the Nyamjang Chu valley (Chu = River in westernmost part of Tawang district, Arunachal Pradesh on 1st April 2014. The otters were photographed basking on a riverside rock and identified based on their morphological features. There were no previously published records of Smooth-coated Otters; normally a species found more in plains, from western Arunachal Pradesh and the state as a whole has very scanty information regarding presence and distribution of otters. The sighting signifies the rich biodiversity of Nyamjang Chu, in Pangchen valley and implies initiation of strong conservation measures to safeguard the future of the otters.

  15. Distributions of small nongame fishes in the lower Yellowstone River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael B.; Bramblett, Robert G.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is the longest unimpounded river in the conterminous United States. It has a relatively natural flow regime, which helps maintain diverse habitats and fish assemblages uncommon in large rivers elsewhere. The lower Yellowstone River was thought to support a diverse nongame fish assemblage including several species of special concern. However, comprehensive data on the small nongame fish assemblage of the lower Yellowstone River is lacking. Therefore, we sampled the Yellowstone River downstream of its confluence with the Clark’s Fork using fyke nets and otter trawls to assess distributions and abundances of small nongame fishes. We captured 42 species (24 native and 18 nonnative) in the lower Yellowstone River with fyke nets. Native species constituted over 99% of the catch. Emerald shiners Notropis atherinoides, western silvery minnows Hybognathus argyritis, flathead chubs Platygobio gracilis, sand shiners Notropis stramineus, and longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae composed nearly 94% of fyke net catch and were caught in every segment of the study area. We captured 24 species by otter trawling downstream of the Tongue River. Sturgeon chubs Macrhybopsis gelida, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, flathead chubs, stonecats Noturus flavus, and sicklefin chubs Macrhybopsis meeki composed 89% of the otter trawl catch. The upstream distributional limit of sturgeon chubs in the Yellowstone River was the Tongue River; few sicklefin chubs were captured above Intake Diversion Dam. This study not only provides biologists with baseline data for future monitoring efforts on the Yellowstone River but serves as a benchmark for management and conservation efforts in large rivers elsewhere as the Yellowstone River represents one of the best references for a naturally functioning Great Plains river.

  16. Energy Efficient Networks for Monitoring Water Quality in Subterranean Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ge

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fresh water in rivers beneath the Earth’s surface is as significant to humans as that on the surface. However, the water quality is difficult to monitor due to its unapproachable nature. In this work, we consider building networks to monitor water quality in subterranean rivers. The network node is designed to have limited functions of floating and staying in these rivers when necessary. We provide the necessary conditions to set up such networks and a topology building method, as well as the communication process between nodes. Furthermore, we provide every an node’s energy consumption model in the network building stage, the data acquiring and transmission stage. The numerical results show that the energy consumption in every node is different, and the node number should be moderate to ensure energy efficiency.

  17. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  18. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  19. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  20. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  1. The monitoring of organic waste pollution in the sibelis river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Thorikul; Jannah, Wirdatul

    2017-03-01

    Has conducted monitoring of organic waste pollution in the River Sibelis of Tegal City of Central Java. Organic wastes that pollute River Sibelis can degrade the quality of well water along the river. Monitoring carried out in the upstream and downstream by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) parameters. COD test methods by titration and the results are used to determine the test sample comparison with the volume of diluent required for analysts BOD. COD test results on the upstream and downstream Sibelis River respectively 58.13 mg/L and 73.97 mg / L so that the ratio of the test sample with diluent volume for BOD analysis is 20: 280 (Sawyer, 1978). BOD test principle is based on the reduction of dissolved oxygen zero day (DO0) and five days (DO5). The result of observation BOD samples at upstream and downstream Sibelis Rivers are 10.7212 mg / L and 5.3792 mg / L respectively. Quality control of BOD testing conducted with measurement accuracy and precision and obtained result are 85.36% and 0.27% respectively. The result of uncertainty measurement for BOD testing at upstream and downstream are ±0.4469 mg/L and ±0.22188 mg/L.

  2. Otter Lutra lutra Predating Dragonflies

    OpenAIRE

    Bailley M.P.

    2000-01-01

    In June 2000, the author found spraints and other signs indicating that at least one otter had been eating quantities of adult Four-Spotted Chasers (Libellula quadrimaculata) common at the location, on the coastal raised bog of Cors Fochno in west Wales.

  3. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a ‘reference’ range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell–cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (CT) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

  4. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; Van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L; Ballachey, Brenda; Estes, James; Tinker, M Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a 'reference' range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell-cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (C(T)) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

  5. Analyses of trawling track and fishing activity based on the data of vessel monitoring system (VMS): A case study of the single otter trawl vessels in the Zhoushan fishing ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Yingbin; Zheng, Ji

    2015-02-01

    The original purpose of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) is for enforcement and control of vessel sailing. With the application of VMS in fishing vessels, more and more population dynamic studies have used VMS data to improve the accuracy of fisheries stock assessment. In this paper, we simulated the trawl trajectory under different time intervals using the cubic Hermite spline (cHs) interpolation method based on the VMS data of 8 single otter trawl vessels (totally 36000 data items) fishing in Zhoushan fishing ground from September 2012 to December 2012, and selected the appropriate time interval. We then determined vessels' activities (fishing or non-fishing) by comparing VMS speed data with the corresponding speeds from logbooks. The results showed that the error of simulated trajectory greatly increased with the increase of time intervals of VMS data when they were longer than 30 minutes. Comparing the speeds from VMS with those from the corresponding logbooks, we found that the vessels' speeds were between 2.5 kn and 5.0 kn in fishing. The cHs interpolation method is a new choice for improving the accuracy of estimation of sailing trajectory, and the VMS can be used to determine the vessels' activities with the analysis of their trajectories and speeds. Therefore, when the fishery information is limited, VMS can be one of the important data sources for fisheries stock assessment, and more attention should be paid to its construction and application to fisheries stock assessment and management.

  6. Sea otter investigation, Amchitka Island, 1954, and proposed plan of research for sea otters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes a sea otter investigation on Amchitka Island during 1954 and a proposed plan of research for sea otters. The report covers capturing wild sea...

  7. Hydroecological monitoring in the headwaters of the Volga River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzovlev, Viacheslav V.; Zhenikov, Yuri N.; Zhenikov, Kyrill Y.; Shaporenko, Sergey I.; Haun, Stefan; Füreder, Leopold; Schletterer, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Europe's largest river, the Volga (3551 km), has experienced multiple stressors from human activities (i.e. the Volga Basin comprises about 40 % of the Russian population, 45 % of the country's industry and more than 50 % of its agriculture). During the research expedition "Upper Volga 2005" an assessment of hydrological, limnochemical and biological parameters was carried out by scientists from the Russian Federation and from Austria. The extensive sampling in 2005 showed that the free-flowing section of the Volga River, located upstream of Tver, represents conditions which are either reference or least disturbed - thus it can be considered as a refugial system for freshwater biota of the European lowlands. Subsequently three stretches in the headwaters of the Volga River (Rzhev, Staritsa, Tver) were selected for the monitoring programme "REFCOND_VOLGA", which is in operation since 2006. These locations correspond also with the sampling sites of ROSHYDROMET, i.e. at Tver physic-chemical samples are taken monthly and at Rzhev samples are taken in the main hydrological periods. The laboratory ship "ROSHYDROMET 11" conducted monthly cruises between Tver and Kalyazin (Ivankovskoye and Uglichskoye reservoirs on Volga) in the headwaters during the navigation period (May - October). This also includes measurements with ADCP, which further allow the analyses of the spatial distribution of the suspended solids within cross sections. In addition sediment fluxes were derived by using the acoustic backscatter signal strength from the acoustic current Doppler profiler (ADCP). We exemplify at the monitoring sites the spatial distribution of different sediments, i.e. choriotope types, according the longitudinal profile of the river. We show that it is highly influenced by morphodynamics in the different river sections and this corresponds with the zoobenthos fauna accordingly. This interdisciplinary approach, including sediment conditions, limnochemistry, hydrology and

  8. Gulf Watch Alaska, Nearshore Monitoring Component: Sea Otter Foraging Observations from Prince William Sound, Katmai National Park and Preserve, and Kenai Fjords National Park, 2012-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data is part of the Gulf Watch Alaska (GWA) long term monitoring program, benthic monitoring component and a seasonal diet study in Kenai Fjords National Park....

  9. 2010 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey, A. L. Johnson

    2010-09-30

    This report documents eh status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with CERLA cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2010 from the River Corridor Closure Contract’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  10. 2011 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, W. J.; Lucas, J. G.; Gano, K. A.

    2011-11-14

    This report documents the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains the vegetation monitoring data that was collected in the spring and summer of 2011 from the River Corridor Closure Contractor’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  11. Operational monitoring of turbidity in rivers: how satellites can contribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucke, Dorothee; Hillebrand, Gudrun; Winterscheid, Axel; Kranz, Susanne; Baschek, Björn

    2016-10-01

    The applications of remote sensing in hydrology are diverse and offer significant benefits for water monitoring. Up to now, operational river monitoring and sediment management in Germany mainly rely on in-situ measurements and on results obtained from numerical modelling. Remote sensing by satellites has a great potential to supplement existing data with two-dimensional information on near-surface turbidity distributions at greater spatial scales than in-situ measurements can offer. Within the project WasMon-CT (WaterMonitoring-Chlorophyll/Turbidity), the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) aims at the implementation of an operational monitoring of turbidity distributions based on satellite images (esp. Sentinel-2, Landsat7 and 8). Initially, selected federal inland and estuarine waterways will be addressed: Rhine, Elbe, Ems, Weser. WasMon-CT is funded within the German Copernicus activities. Within the project, a database of atmospherically corrected, geo-referenced turbidity data will be assembled. The collected corresponding meta-data will include aspects of satellite data as well as hydrological data, e.g. cloud cover and river run-off. Based on this catalogue of spatially linked meta-data, the satellite data will be selected by e.g. cloud cover or run-off. The permanently updated database will include past as well as recent satellite images. It is designed with a long-term perspective to optimize the existing in-situ measurement network, which will serve partly for calibration and partly as validation data set. The aim is to extend, but not to substitute, the existing frequent point measurements with spatially extensive, satellite-derived data from the near surface part of the water column. Here, turbidity is used as proxy for corresponding suspended sediment concentrations. For this, the relationship between turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations will be investigated. Products as e.g. longitudinal profiles or virtual measurement stations will be

  12. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program's activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  13. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  14. Fish farming and otters in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarén U.

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of a questionnaire sent to all fishfarmers in Finland are presented; 45% replied. There appear to be good otter populations in Finland. Frequency and amount of damage to stocks is discussed. An electric fence system that has been found useful in excluding otters from fish farms is described. Only a few farmers consider otters a grave pest. The major threat to otters in Finland seems to be traffic accidents as car numbers increase. Further information is needed to confirm the findings, and to ensure confusion with mink does not occur.

  15. The Otter (Lutra lutra L. Signs and the Banks Tree Cover: A Survey in Central and Eastern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radostina Dimitrova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during 2011 – 2012 at different water basins (rivers and micro dams situated in Central and Eastern Bulgaria. Transects with 600 m length were walked along the banks in otter signs search. The search was stopped when the first otter signs were registered. As a whole we found domination of the very good or excellent bank tree cover. A total of 61% of transects were with tree cover between 50% and 100%. Almost equal were the stretches without or with little tree vegetation. At all transects surveyed the spraints dominated with 61%. All other otter signs were with low percentage. The otter tracks (foot prints were on second place with 20% of occurrence, followed by the food remains with 7%. At 12% of transects we did not find any otter signs. As a whole the otter was registered in 88% of transects, a sign for a good population. Highest preference we registered for walking or feeding of the otter at the open banks with no or with weak tree cover.

  16. Contaminants in Otter, Mink and Marten in British Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harding L.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available As a continuation of studies of mustelids on the Columbia and Fraser River systems in north-western North America, chlorinated hydrocarbon and trace metal contamination of mink, marten and river otter were assessed in relation to physiological and reproductive measures of condition. Mink, marten and river otter were collected during the winters 1994/95 and 1995/96 from commercial trappers. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum (in males masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analysed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and dibenzofurans (PCDFs. Contamination levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-92 of these regional populations. Nutritional condition varied slightly amongst collection regions, but showed no relationships with contaminant burdens. Specifically, mink from the upper Fraser River appeared to have less fat stores (evaluated by stomach contents and omentum mass, but also showed some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had unremarkable contamination profiles. Although a few individuals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between Aroclor 1260 concentrations and baculum length in juvenile mink. The influence of baculum length on reproductive success is unknown, but given similar associations found in juvenile otter from Oregon, the incidence of smaller baculum size and its influence on reproduction needs to be further characterized in a larger subset of these

  17. Habitat and food resources of otters (Mustelidae) in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Patah, P.; Nur-Syuhada, N.; Md-Nor, S.; Sasaki, H.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    Habitat and food resources of otters were studied in several locations in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 210 fecal samples were collected from April 2010 to March 2011 believed to be of otter's were analyzed for their diet composition and their habitat preferences. The DNA testing conducted revealed that only 126 samples were identified as Lultrogale perspicillata and Aonyx cinereus with 105 and 21 samples, respectively. Habitat analyses revealed that these two species preferred paddy fields and mangroves as their main habitats but L. perspicillata preferred to hunt near habitat with large water bodies, such as mangroves, rivers, ponds, and lakes. A. cinereus on the other hand, were mainly found near land-based habitat, such as paddy fields, casuarinas forest and oil palms near mangroves. Habitats chosen were influenced by their food preferences where L. perspicillata consumed a variety of fish species with a supplementary diet of prawns, small mammals, and amphibians, compared to A. cinereus which consumed less fish and more non-fish food items, such as insects, crabs, and snails. Since, the most of the otter habitats in this study are not located within the protected areas, conservation effort involving administrations, landowners, private organizations and public are necessary.

  18. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  19. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossabi, J.

    1993-03-05

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques.

  20. Analyses of Trawling Track and Fishing Activity Based on the Data of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS):A Case Study of the Single Otter Trawl Vessels in the Zhoushan Fishing Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang; WANG Yingbin; ZHENG Ji

    2015-01-01

    The original purpose of Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) is for enforcement and control of vessel sailing. With the ap-plication of VMS in fishing vessels, more and more population dynamic studies have used VMS data to improve the accuracy of fisheries stock assessment. In this paper, we simulated the trawl trajectory under different time intervals using the cubic Hermite spline (cHs) interpolation method based on the VMS data of 8 single otter trawl vessels (totally 36000 data items) fishing in Zhou-shan fishing ground from September 2012 to December 2012, and selected the appropriate time interval. We then determined vessels’ activities (fishing or non-fishing) by comparing VMS speed data with the corresponding speeds from logbooks. The results showed that the error of simulated trajectory greatly increased with the increase of time intervals of VMS data when they were longer than 30 minutes. Comparing the speeds from VMS with those from the corresponding logbooks, we found that the vessels’ speeds were be-tween 2.5kn and 5.0kn in fishing. The cHs interpolation method is a new choice for improving the accuracy of estimation of sailing trajectory, and the VMS can be used to determine the vessels’ activities with the analysis of their trajectories and speeds. Therefore, when the fishery information is limited, VMS can be one of the important data sources for fisheries stock assessment, and more at-tention should be paid to its construction and application to fisheries stock assessment and management.

  1. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Michailovsky

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. The objective of this study is the assessment of the potential for river monitoring from radar altimetry in terms of water level and discharge in the Zambezi River basin. Retracked Envisat altimetry data were extracted over the Zambezi River basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied, the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 4.1 to 6.5% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 6.9 to 13.8% for the second and third methods. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 5.7 and 7.2% of the mean annual in situ gauged amplitude for the first method and from 8.7 to 13.0% for the second and third methods.

  2. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  3. Primer registro de la nutria neotropical de río (Lontra longicaudis en la Reserva de la Biosfera de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Oaxaca, México First record of neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis at the Biosphere Reserve of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Botello

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvo el primer registro de la nutria neotropical de río (Lontra longicaudis en la Reserva de la Biosfera de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Oaxaca, México. Este registro se realizó mediante identificación de excretas en una localidad a 80 km en línea recta del registro histórico más cercano.We report the first record of the Neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve of Oaxaca, Mexico. We collected scats from a locality located 80 km from a previous historical record of this species.

  4. River monitoring from satellite radar altimetry in the Zambezi River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. Michailovsky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite radar altimetry can be used to monitor surface water levels from space. While current and past altimetry missions were designed to study oceans, retracking the waveforms returned over land allows data to be retrieved for smaller water bodies or narrow rivers. In this study, retracked Envisat altimetry data was extracted over the Zambezi River Basin using a detailed river mask based on Landsat imagery. This allowed for stage measurements to be obtained for rivers down to 80 m wide with an RMSE relative to in situ levels of 0.32 to 0.72 m at different locations. The altimetric levels were then converted to discharge using three different methods adapted to different data-availability scenarios: first with an in situ rating curve available, secondly with one simultaneous field measurement of cross-section and discharge, and finally with only historical discharge data available. For the two locations at which all three methods could be applied the accuracies of the different methods were found to be comparable, with RMSE values ranging from 5.5 to 7.4 % terms of high flow estimation relative to in situ gauge measurements. The precision obtained with the different methods was analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations and also showed comparable values for the three approaches with standard deviations found between 8.2 and 25.8 % of the high flow estimates.

  5. Hood River Production Program : Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccoli, Holly; Lambert, Michael

    2000-02-01

    Effective habitat protection and rehabilitation are essential to the long-term recovery of anadromous fish populations in the Hood River subbasin. This Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was prepared to advance the goals of the Hood River Production Program (HRRP) which include restoring self-sustaining runs of spring chinook salmon and winter and summer steelhead. The HRPP is a fish supplementation and monitoring and evaluation program initiated in 1991 and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. The HRPP is a joint effort of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Using recent watershed assessment and federal watershed analysis reports, this Plan reviews the historic and current condition of riparian, instream and upland habitats; natural watershed processes; anadromous and resident fish populations; identifies limiting factors, and indicates those subbasin areas that need protection or are likely to respond to restoration. Primary habitat restoration needs were identified as (1) improved fish screening and upstream adult passage at water diversions; (2) improved spawning gravel availability, instream habitat structure and diversity; and (3) improved water quality and riparian conditions. While several early action projects have been initiated in the Hood River subbasin since the mid 1990s, this Plan outlines additional projects and strategies needed to protect existing high quality habitat, correct known fish survival problems, and improve the habitat capacity for natural production to meet HRPP goals.

  6. Progress towards Acoustic Suspended Sediment Transport Monitoring: Fraser River, BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, M. E.; Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Kostaschuk, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Our ability to predict the timing and quantity of suspended sediment transport is limited because fine sand, silt and clay delivery are supply limited, requiring empirical modeling approaches of limited temporal stability. A solution is the development of continuous monitoring techniques capable of tracking sediment concentrations and grain-size. Here we examine sediment delivery from upstream sources to the lower Fraser River. The sediment budget of the lower Fraser River provides a long-term perspective of the net changes in the channels and in sediment delivery to Fraser Delta. The budget is based on historical sediment rating curves developed from data collected from 1965-1986 by the Water Survey of Canada. We explore the possibility of re-establishing the sediment-monitoring program using hydro-acoustics by evaluating the use of a 300 kHz side-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp), mounted just downstream of the sand-gravel transition at Mission, for continuous measurement of suspended sediment transport. Complementary field observations include conventional bottle sampling with a P-63 sampler, vertical profiles with a downward-looking 600 kHz aDcp, and 1200 kHz aDcp discharge measurements. We have successfully completed calibration of the downward-looking aDcp with the P-63 samples; the side-looking aDcp signals remain under investigation. A comparison of several methods for obtaining total sediment flux indicates that suspended sediment concentration (SSC) closely follows discharge through the freshet and peaks in total SSC and sand SSC coincide with peak measurements of discharge. Low flows are dominated by fine sediment and grain size increases with higher flows. This research assesses several techniques for obtaining sediment flux and contributes to the understanding of sediment delivery to sand-bedded portions of the river.

  7. The End of the Otter and of Otter Reintroduction Plans in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber D.

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Otters are now extinct in Switzerland. Switzerland has to be considered as a country where viable otter populations cannot exist now and in the foreseeable future, because PCB levels in fish are much too high and not decreasing. Reintroduction programs cannot be justified. The message to the public is that sometimes nature cannot be repaired, pollution is out of control and we must learn from the lesson of PCB-caused otter extinction.

  8. Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    1999-07-29

    On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

  9. Sea otter survey, Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Historical records indicate that sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were abundant prior to intensive commercial exploitation (1742- 1911). However, by the end of the 19th...

  10. Census summary of southern sea otter 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Census summary of southern sea otter 2016" provides a standardized tool for examining spatial patterns in abundance and demographic trends of the...

  11. Report on the First International Asian Otter Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster-Turley P.

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available The first International Asian Otter Symposium, held in Bangalore, India from October 17-22, 1988 was a great success.An Asian section of the IUCN Otter Specialist Group is being formed. An Asian Otter newsletter has been started for continued communication with symposium participants and others after the conference. The next Asian Otter Symposium 1s being planned and will be hosted by Japan in 1991. A move to make otters the symbol of wetlands in India is being spearheaded. Otter surveys are now also being initiated throughout Asia.

  12. The Distribution and Conservation Status of Otters in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranga J.

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of otters in Uganda was carried from 1986 onwards, together with other mammals. The information presented here was re-checked in the last three years. All three African otters are found in Uganda: the spotted-necked otter (Lutra maculicollis. the Cape clawless otter (Aonyx capensis and the swamp otter or Congo clawless otter (Aonyx congica. The first two are widely distributed throughout the country with the exception of the dry North eastern region. The swamp otter has a limited distribution in the country and reaches its most easterly extension in western Uganda. Although otters are still relatively common in most of their traditional habitats, they are under pressure from hunters, fishermen, land developers and general habitat destruction. Digging up the stream bed, swamp drainage and destruction of natural vegetation has produced silting, lowered the water table and adversely affected otters in addition to other aquatic biota. The wetland, ecosystem, and therefore otter habitat, are under-represented in Uganda national parks (Baranga 1990. That leaves most of the otters numerically out of the strict conservation areas and thus exposed to potential danger. Suggestions to improve the conservation status of Ugandan otters are made in a more detailed article which will be published as part of the proceedings of the Sixth International Otter Symposium.

  13. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15

  14. Monitoring river morphological changes using high resolution multitemporal sar images: a case study on orco river, italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitidieri, Francesco; Nicolina Papa, Maria; Ruello, Giuseppe; Amitrano, Donato; Bizzi, Simone; Demarchi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Improving the knowledge about river processes by applying innovative monitoring techniques is extremely needed to face the challenge of a better river management. In this paper we test the capability of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to enrich the monitoring of river geomorphological processes. Multitemporal SAR images provide observations and measurements at high spatial (3 m), and in particular temporal resolution (15 days). This information if properly processed and classified may significantly enrich our ability to monitor the evolution of river morphological phenomena (erosion/deposition, narrowing/widening, riparian vegetation's evolution and interferences with river flow). This is expected to lead to an enhancements in the river management capabilities, in particular as regards the assessment of hydro-morphological river quality, as strongly suggested by European Commission's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). A case study on the Italian River Orco is here presented. The case study has used a set of 100 COSMO-SkyMed stripmap images (from October 2008 to November 2014) from Italian Space Agency. All the data were acquired with medium look angle (almost 30°) and HH polarization, also for increasing the land-water contrast. Calibration, registration and despeckling procedures were applied on the acquired dataset. In particular, the optimal weighting multitemporal De Grandi filter was adopted in order to allow an effective extraction of the water surfaces contour. This method was applied to extract water contours over the entire historical series of SAR datasets available. Thanks to the generated information we were able to monitor the lateral dynamic of the water channels and infer on the evolutions of erosion/deposition phenomena. To this aim, an RGB representation of multitemporal SAR data was implemented. The series of detected river channel morphological changes was then analyzed in the light of the series of discharge measurements in

  15. Application of Two Quality Indices as Monitoring and Management Tools of Rivers. Case Study: The Imera Meridionale River, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Giudice, Rosa Lo

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60), the water resources of the member states of the European Community should reach good quality standards by 2015. Although such regulations illustrate the basic points for a comprehensive and effective policy of water monitoring and management, no practical tools are provided to face and solve the issues concerning freshwater ecosystems such as rivers. The Italian government has developed a set of regulations as adoption of the European Directive but failed to indicate feasible procedures for river monitoring and management. On a local scale, Sicilian authorities have implemented monitoring networks of watersheds, aiming at describing the general conditions of rivers. However, such monitoring programs have provided a relatively fragmentary picture of the ecological conditions of the rivers. In this study, the integrated use of environmental quality indices is proposed as a methodology able to provide a practical approach to river monitoring and management. As a case study, the Imera Meridionale River, Sicily’s largest river, was chosen. The water quality index developed by the U.S. National Sanitation Foundation and the floristic quality index based on the Wilhelm method were applied. The former enabled us to describe the water quality according to a spatial-temporal gradient, whereas the latter focused on the ecological quality of riparian vegetation. This study proposes a holistic view of river ecosystems by considering biotic and abiotic factors in agreement with the current European regulations. How the combined use of such indices can guide sustainable management efforts is also discussed.

  16. Aerial survey of sea otters in the Cordova vicinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The movement of significantly large numbers of sea otters into the Cordova vicinity has generated a local storm of protest concerning the ability of sea otters to...

  17. Extra limit counts for southern sea otter 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Extra limit counts of southern sea otters 2016" is a point layer representing the locations of sea otter sightings that fall outside the...

  18. Sea otter transplant Amchika Island to the Pribilofs in 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report h to summarize attempts to hold otters in captivity and to transplant them prior to 1959 and to present (1) the requirements of sea otters...

  19. Platform for monitoring water and solid fluxes in mountainous rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Guillaume; Esteves, Michel; Aubert, Coralie; Belleudy, Philippe; Coulaud, Catherine; Bois, Jérôme; Geay, Thomas; Gratiot, Nicolas; Legout, Cédric; Mercier, Bernard; Némery, Julien; Michielin, Yoann

    2016-04-01

    The project aims to develop a platform that electronically integrates a set of existing sensors for the continuous measurement at high temporal frequency of water and solid fluxes (bed load and suspension), characteristics of suspended solids (distribution in particle size, settling velocity of the particles) and other variables on water quality (color, nutrient concentration). The project is preferentially intended for rivers in mountainous catchments draining areas from 10 to 1000 km², with high suspended sediment concentrations (maxima between 10 and 300 g/l) and highly dynamic behavior, water discharge varying of several orders of magnitude in a short period of time (a few hours). The measurement of water and solid fluxes in this type of river remains a challenge and, to date, there is no built-in device on the market to continuously monitor all these variables. The development of this platform is based on a long experience of measurement of sediment fluxes in rivers within the French Critical Zone Observatories (http://portailrbv.sedoo.fr/), especially in the Draix-Bléone (http://oredraixbleone.irstea.fr/) and OHMCV (http://www.ohmcv.fr/) observatories. The choice was made to integrate in the platform instruments already available on the market and currently used by the scientific community (water level radar, surface velocity radar, turbidity sensor, automatic water sampler, video camera) and to include also newly developed instruments (System for the Characterization of Aggregates and Flocs - see EGU2016-8542 - and hydrophone) or commercial instruments (spectrophotometer and radiometer) to be tested in surface water with high suspended sediment concentration. Priority is given to non-intrusive instruments due to their robustness in this type of environment with high destructive potential. Development work includes the construction of a platform prototype "smart" and remotely configurable for implantation in an isolated environment (absence of electric

  20. The paradox of expert judgment in rivers ecological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feio, M J; Calapez, A R; Elias, C L; Cortes, R M V; Graça, M A S; Pinto, P; Almeida, S F P

    2016-12-15

    permutation), indicating geographic independence in the expert judgment. We concluded that expert judgment could be used in the determination of streams and rivers ecological quality, saving money and time and helping to redirect monitoring funds to actual implementation of restoration measures. Yet, classification' scoring methods may still be useful for a better targeting of restoration measures.

  1. Long-term fish monitoring in large rivers: Utility of “benchmarking” across basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Casper, Andrew F.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Waite, Ian R.; Kosovich, John J.; Chapman, Colin; Irwin, Elise R.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Ickes, Brian; McKerrow, Alexa

    2017-01-01

    In business, benchmarking is a widely used practice of comparing your own business processes to those of other comparable companies and incorporating identified best practices to improve performance. Biologists and resource managers designing and conducting monitoring programs for fish in large river systems tend to focus on single river basins or segments of large rivers, missing opportunities to learn from those conducting fish monitoring in other rivers. We briefly examine five long-term fish monitoring programs in large rivers in the United States (Colorado, Columbia, Mississippi, Illinois, and Tallapoosa rivers) and identify opportunities for learning across programs by detailing best monitoring practices and why these practices were chosen. Although monitoring objectives, methods, and program maturity differ between each river system, examples from these five case studies illustrate the important role that long-term monitoring programs play in interpreting temporal and spatial shifts in fish populations for both established objectives and newly emerging questions. We suggest that deliberate efforts to develop a broader collaborative network through benchmarking will facilitate sharing of ideas and development of more effective monitoring programs.

  2. Treetop shelter of a neotropical river otter cub (Lontra longicaudis - Carnivora: Mustelidae in an Amazonian flooded forest Abrigo em copa de árvore de filhote de lontra neotropical (Lontra longicaudis - Carnivora: Mustelidae em floresta inundável amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel Ribeiro Simões dos Santos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The finding of a Neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis cub occupying a shelter in a hollowed treetop is reported. The observation was made in a seasonally flooded forest in Central Amazonia, during the high water peak of the annual inundation cycle. A literature review indicates that this is the first description of a shelter of the species, both in a hollowed tree and in Amazonia. This observation can indicate a strong relationship between the species' breeding cycle with the annual dynamics of Amazonian rivers. We discuss potential advantages and disadvantages of breeding when water level is high.É relatada a observação de um filhote de lontra (Lontra longicaudis ocupando um abrigo em uma cavidade na copa de uma árvore. A observação foi feita em uma floresta inundada na Amazônia Central, no pico de cheia do ciclo anual de inundação. A revisão da literatura revela que esta é a primeira descrição de um abrigo desta espécie em uma cavidade de árvore na natureza e na Amazônia. Tal observação pode indicar uma forte relação entre o ciclo reprodutivo da espécie e a dinâmica anual dos rios amazônicos. Discutimos vantagens e desvantagens potenciais da reprodução na época da cheia.

  3. Cesium-137 Levels Detected in Otters from Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutleb A.C.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution seems to be one of the most important causes for the decline of the European otter (Lutra lutra. The accident in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant added another aspect to environmental pollution. Few data on cesium-137 contents in otters are available, so levels were measured in 3 otters from Austria. All levels found were very low.

  4. Channel Planform Dynamics Monitoring and Channel Stability Assessment in Two Sediment-Rich Rivers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent flood events induced by typhoons are powerful agents to modify channel morphology in Taiwan’s rivers. Frequent channel migrations reflect highly sensitive valley floors and increase the risk to infrastructure and residents along rivers. Therefore, monitoring channel planforms is essential for analyzing channel stability as well as improving river management. This study analyzed annual channel changes along two sediment-rich rivers, the Zhuoshui River and the Gaoping River, from 2008 to 2015 based on satellite images of FORMOSAT-2. Channel areas were digitized from mid-catchment to river mouth (~90 km. Channel stability for reaches was assessed through analyzing the changes of river indices including braid index, active channel width, and channel activity. In general, the valley width plays a key role in braided degree, active channel width, and channel activity. These indices increase as the valley width expands whereas the braid index decreases slightly close to the river mouth due to the change of river types. This downstream pattern in the Zhuoshui River was interrupted by hydraulic construction which resulted in limited changes downstream from the weir, due to the lack of water and sediment supply. A 200-year flood, Typhoon Morakot in 2009, induced significant changes in the two rivers. The highly active landscape in Taiwan results in very sensitive channels compared to other regions. An integrated Sensitivity Index was proposed for identifying unstable reaches, which could be a useful reference for river authorities when making priorities in river regulation strategy. This study shows that satellite image monitoring coupled with river indices analysis could be an effective tool to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in channel stability in highly dynamic river systems.

  5. Satellite radar altimetry for monitoring small rivers and lakes in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulistioadi, Y.B.; Tseng, K.H.; Shum, C.K.; Hidayat, Hidayat; Sumaryono, M.; Suhardiman, A.; Setiawan, F.; Sunarso, S.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing and satellite geodetic observations are capable of hydrologic monitoring of freshwater resources. Although satellite radar altimetry has been used in monitoring water level or discharge, its use is often limited to monitoring large rivers (>1 km) with longer interval periods (&g

  6. The Savannah River site`s groundwater monitoring program: second quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1997, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. A detailed explanation of the flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1997 are included in this report.

  7. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  8. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  9. Monitoring and Evaluation of Environmental Flow Prescriptions for Five Demonstration Sites of the Sustainable Rivers Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy has been working with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) through the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) to modify operations of dams to achieve ecological objectives in addition to meeting the authorized purposes of the dams. Modifications to dam operations are specified in terms of environmental flow prescriptions that quantify the magnitude, duration, frequency, and seasonal timing of releases to achieve specific ecological outcomes. Outcomes of environmental flow prescriptions implemented from 2002 to 2008 have been monitored and evaluated at demonstration sites in five rivers: Green River, Kentucky; Savannah River, Georgia/South Carolina; Bill Williams River, Arizona; Big Cypress Creek, Texas; and Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon. Monitoring and evaluation have been accomplished through collaborative partnerships of federal and state agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations.

  10. Southern sea otter range expansion and habitat use in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. Tim; Tomoleoni, Joseph; LaRoche, Nicole; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Mike; Staedler, Michelle; Randell, Zachary

    2017-01-17

    The re-colonization of the Santa Barbara channel by sea otters brings these ESA-listed marine mammals closer to active oil and gas production facilities, shipping lanes and naturally occurring oil and gas seeps. However, the degree to which sea otters may actually be affected by human-caused oil spills or exposure to natural oil seeps is currently unknown. Between 2012 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey and collaborating agencies conducted a telemetry-based study of sea otters in Santa Barbara channel, in order to provide critical information for resource managers (specifically the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, henceforth BOEM, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, henceforth USFWS) about the spatial ecology, population status, and potential population threats to sea otters in Santa Barbara Channel, with particular reference to exposure to manmade structures and sources of oil and natural gas. Analysis of spatial monitoring data using a Bayesian-based synoptic model allowed for description of sea otter home ranges, identification of hot-spots of use, and insights into habitat selection behavior by male and female sea otters. Important findings included the deeper modal depth preferred by males versus females, strong preferences by both sexes for areas with persistent kelp canopy, and greater use of soft-sediment areas by males. The synoptic model also provided the ability to predict population-level density distribution for each sex in new habitats: by calculating the value of these probability density distributions at the known locations of natural seeps, we were able to identify those seeps with higher potential for sea otter encounters. The relative probability of occurrence at locations near to some seeps was sufficiently high (about 1% likelihood of occurrence for some of our study animals) that one would anticipate occasional encounters. Data on male and female survival, reproductive success, activity budgets, and body condition all indicated that

  11. The Eurasian Otter in the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgadze G.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Mustelidae are to be found in the south Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia: Lutra lutra, Martes martes, Martes foina, Meles meles, Mustela vison, Mustela nivalis and Vormela peregusna. The rarest of these species are the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and the marbled polecat (Vormela peregusna. The Eurasian otter, one of most endangered species of the south caucasian fauna, is still suffering under the influence of poaching, habitat loss, disturbance and pollution. No fundamental research has been undertaken on otters in any of the south Caucasian countries and, therefore, data provided in the literature are scarce. Further, no DNA analysis has been undertaken in this part of the world and, therefore, the actual number of subspecies is not clear.

  12. Great River & Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuges Inventory and Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Clarence Cannon and Great River National Wildlife Refuges is a step-down from the Habitat Management Plan (HMP) and documents...

  13. Proposal for Red-shouldered Hawk inventory and monitoring Mississippi River- Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal to conduct Red-shouldered Hawk inventory and monitoring research along the Mississippi River. Objectives of the proposed study include: (1)...

  14. Sea otter conservation: report from the sixth joint U.S. - Russia sea otter workshop

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For the first time in one location, people responsible for working with sea otters throughout their range came together in a gathering of four nations at the Sixth...

  15. River chemistry as a monitor of Yosemite Park mountain hydroclimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David; Smith, Richard; Hager, Stephen; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Dettinger, Michael; Huber, King

    2005-01-01

    High-frequency, high-altitude measurements of water chemistry provide insights into processes relating to the hydrology, climate, and geochemistry of mountain catchments. When such observations are combined with stream stage, temperature, snow, weather, and other surface hydroclimate measurements, they are particularly useful in allowing connections between climate, river discharge, river chemistry, and ecosystems to be discerned.

  16. Why Philosophers Should Be Interested In Otters, And Why Otters Should Be Interested In Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liere B.E. van

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article the reintroduction of otters in the Netherlands is discussed in the light of the debate in academic philosphy between ecocentric and biocentric philosophy. The ethical judgement of both ecocentric and biocentric philosophers on reintroduction are extracted and reviewed. The debate described in this article shows the ethical difficulties of the reintroduction of otters in the Netherlands and of reintroductions in general.

  17. Non-Invasive Genetic Mark-Recapture as a Means to Study Population Sizes and Marking Behaviour of the Elusive Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Simone; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Gruber, Bernd; Klenke, Reinhard; Henle, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying population status is a key objective in many ecological studies, but is often difficult to achieve for cryptic or elusive species. Here, non-invasive genetic capture-mark-recapture (CMR) methods have become a very important tool to estimate population parameters, such as population size and sex ratio. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) is such an elusive species of management concern and is increasingly studied using faecal-based genetic sampling. For unbiased sex ratios or population size estimates, the marking behaviour of otters has to be taken into account. Using 2132 otter faeces of a wild otter population in Upper Lusatia (Saxony, Germany) collected over six years (2006-2012), we studied the marking behaviour and applied closed population CMR models accounting for genetic misidentification to estimate population sizes and sex ratios. We detected a sex difference in the marking behaviour of otters with jelly samples being more often defecated by males and placed actively exposed on frequently used marking sites. Since jelly samples are of higher DNA quality, it is important to not only concentrate on this kind of samples or marking sites and to invest in sufficiently high numbers of repetitions of non-jelly samples to ensure an unbiased sex ratio. Furthermore, otters seemed to increase marking intensity due to the handling of their spraints, hence accounting for this behavioural response could be important. We provided the first precise population size estimate with confidence intervals for Upper Lusatia (for 2012: N = 20 ± 2.1, 95% CI = 16-25) and showed that spraint densities are not a reliable index for abundances. We further demonstrated that when minks live in sympatry with otters and have comparably high densities, a non-negligible number of supposed otter samples are actually of mink origin. This could severely bias results of otter monitoring if samples are not genetically identified.

  18. The DPSIR Framework and a Pressure-Oriented Water Quality Monitoring Approach to Ecological River Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Frostell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Without monitoring anthropogenic pressures on the water environment, it is difficult to set realistic river restoration targets in relation to water quality. Therefore a more holistic approach is needed to systematically explore the links between socio-economic drivers and observed water quality-related impacts on river ecosystems. Using the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State of the Environment-Impacts-Responses framework, this study linked ecological river restoration with the socio-economic sector, with the focus on promoting a pressure-oriented water quality monitoring system. Based on the European Water Framework Directive (WFD and relevant literature, it was found that most water quality-related indicators employed today are state/impacts-oriented, while very few are pressure-oriented. As a response, we call for more attention to a DPR (Drivers-Pressures-Responses framework in developing an industrial ecology-based pressure-oriented water quality monitoring system for aiding ecological river restoration planning. This approach is characterized in general by accounting for material-related flows throughout the socio-economic sector in relation to river ecosystem degradation. Then the obtained information would help decision makers take appropriate measures to alleviate various significant human-induced wastes and emissions at their sources. We believe that such a pressure-oriented monitoring system will substantially complement traditional state/impacts-oriented environmental and ecological monitoring and help develop more proactive planning and decision-making processes for specific river restoration projects and general water quality management.

  19. The Need for International Asian Otter Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster-Turley P.

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Not enough is known about the variable ecology and behaviour of the otter species in Asia. Much work is needed with these species throughout their ranges in India and Southeast Asia to determine their status and the relative size of their populations. Because otters, as high-order carnivores, are very susceptible to the pressures of human population, trapping, and habitat destruction, and because they do not survive in waters that are polluted, there is reason to suspect that in many areas of their so-called range throughout Asia they are in trouble. Unless status surveys and ecological research is begun soon to document their status, we may not know in time. For all of these reasons, it is important that an effort be made immediately to heighten the awareness of Asian biologists and conservationists into the plight faced by otters and their habitat in this region. Holding an International Asian Otter Symposium in India will serve this purpose and hopefully stimulate more research and conservation efforts with these species.

  20. Giant Otters and Ecotourism in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staib E.

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Giant otters are the most endangered otters in the world, threatened by rainforest destruction, over fishing, the contamination of the water systems with mercury in areas of gold miners, illegal hunting and, possible infections with diseases of domestic animals. Numbers are so low that every otter is valuable. A new and increasing threat is tourism. Tourists find these animals very memorable and attractive, and guides lead their clients to find them. This disturbs otters, especially in places where tourist visits are irregular, and this can lead to them abandoning an area completely. We presented recommendations to mitigate this at the International Theriological Congress in Australia, 1993: the need for education of tourist guides; the prohibition of tourist groups accompanied by unlicensed guides; co­ordination among tourist agencies to stagger visits; provision of better information to tourists on conduct in the area and their likely impact on the environment; the provision of alternative attractions to relieve pressure on the lakes; limiting the number of lakes that may be visited by tourists and leaving the others undisturbed; and suggestions to improve administration and regulations.

  1. The Water Quality of the River Enborne, UK: Observations from High-Frequency Monitoring in a Rural, Lowland River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Halliday

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a 2-year study of water quality in the River Enborne, a rural river in lowland England. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species and other chemical determinands were monitored both at high-frequency (hourly, using automated in situ instrumentation, and by manual weekly sampling and laboratory analysis. The catchment land use is largely agricultural, with a population density of 123 persons km−2. The river water is largely derived from calcareous groundwater, and there are high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Agricultural fertiliser is the dominant source of annual loads of both nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the data show that sewage effluent discharges have a disproportionate effect on the river nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics. At least 38% of the catchment population use septic tank systems, but the effects are hard to quantify as only 6% are officially registered, and the characteristics of the others are unknown. Only 4% of the phosphorus input and 9% of the nitrogen input is exported from the catchment by the river, highlighting the importance of catchment process understanding in predicting nutrient concentrations. High-frequency monitoring will be a key to developing this vital process understanding.

  2. LCREP growth rates - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  3. LCREP chemistry and lipids - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  4. LCREP catch records - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  5. LCREP genetic stock ID - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  6. LCREP prey data - Lower Columbia River Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to document juvenile salmon habitat occurrence in the Lower Columbia River and estuary, and examine how habitat conditions...

  7. First Record of Ticks in Free-Ranging Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Weber Rosas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Decline in the populations of the Smooth-coated Otter throughout its range of distribution and a perception that it is a 'keystone species' for riverine ecosystem stirred the idea of the presented paper. The species inhabits major freshwater wetlands throughout the south and south-east Asia and often comes into the direct conflict with humans for food and habitat. Further the species is also suffering with neglecting attitude and mismanagement due to lack of baseline information. Thus WWF India initiated the conservation work towards the documentation of the distribution of the species in Punjab in 2010. State wide population assessment surveys and secondary information obtained shows the occurrence of smooth-coated otters along some stretches of Rivers Beas, Sutlej and Ravi and Harike wetland in Punjab.

  8. A simple protocol using underwater epoxy to install annual temperature monitoring sites in rivers and streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Isaak; Dona L. Horan; Sherry P. Wollrab

    2013-01-01

    Thermal regimes in rivers and streams are fundamental determinants of biological processes and are often monitored for regulatory compliance. Here, we describe a simple technique for establishing annual monitoring sites that uses underwater epoxy to attach miniature sensors to large rocks and cement bridge supports, which then serve as protective anchors. More than 500...

  9. Yellow River Icicle Hazard Dynamic Monitoring Using UAV Aerial Remote Sensing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. B.; Wang, G. H.; Tang, X. M.; Li, C. H.

    2014-02-01

    Monitoring the response of Yellow River icicle hazard change requires accurate and repeatable topographic surveys. A new method based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) aerial remote sensing technology is proposed for real-time data processing in Yellow River icicle hazard dynamic monitoring. The monitoring area is located in the Yellow River ice intensive care area in southern BaoTou of Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Monitoring time is from the 20th February to 30th March in 2013. Using the proposed video data processing method, automatic extraction covering area of 7.8 km2 of video key frame image 1832 frames took 34.786 seconds. The stitching and correcting time was 122.34 seconds and the accuracy was better than 0.5 m. Through the comparison of precise processing of sequence video stitching image, the method determines the change of the Yellow River ice and locates accurate positioning of ice bar, improving the traditional visual method by more than 100 times. The results provide accurate aid decision information for the Yellow River ice prevention headquarters. Finally, the effect of dam break is repeatedly monitored and ice break five meter accuracy is calculated through accurate monitoring and evaluation analysis.

  10. Otter Conservation in Portugal: Distribution and Status of Lutra lutra in Five Protected Areas of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Sousa

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Although otter (Lutra lutra L. populations presents a tendency towards regression in much of its european range, portugal still has a fairly stable population. Nevertheless, the exact status of the species is unknown. In this context, it is actually in course the project Otter Conservation in Portugal, insert in a national program for the Knowledge and Managment for the Natural Heritage, cofinanced by LIFE PROGRAM (EC. In this paper are presented the studies carried out in five protected areas of the country: Montesinho and Serra da Estrela Natural Parks, and Serra da Malcata, Paul do Boquilobo and Sado Estuary Natural Reserves, which included habitats as different as rivers, upland oligotrophic streams, dams, lagoons, marshes, lowland rivers and fishfarm ponds. First data concerning the distribution of the otter in that areas, the main threats observed in the areas, and some measures that can be implemented to improve the habitat conditions and the situation of the otter in some disturbed areas, are presented. The last two areas (Paul do Boquilobo and Sado Estuary have the most acute problems for conservation, mainly due to intensive agriculture, and to domestic and industrial pollution in the freshwater and estuarine systems. The first three areas have good conditions to the existence of the species, not only in terms of habitat suitability (adequate presence of vegetation, water and preys, but also because of the relative reduced human disturbance.

  11. CryoSat-2 altimetry for river level monitoring - Evaluation in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Heidi; Andersen, Ole B.; Stenseng, Lars

    2015-01-01

    , the results from the method developed in this study involving virtual stations show that the CryoSat-2 data can indeed be used for such monitoring by utilizing the high spatial coverage and the sub-cycle period of 30 days. The results show that it is possible to capture the peak flow occurring during late...... larger differences. For five virtual stations in the Brahmaputra River, the mean difference between the obtained amplitudes is similar to 10 cm, whereas the mean phase difference is less than 2.7 days. A virtual station in the Ganges River shows a phase difference of around 5 days and a difference...

  12. Morphology and River Monitoring - Topobathymetry as a new level of monitoring and managing the morphology at the river Isar, Munich after the flood flows 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, Frank; Schaufuß, Daniela; Aufleger, Markus; Baran, Ramona; Dobler, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Topobathymetry is a new approach for the very detailed bathymetric survey of water bodies (rivers, lakes, nearshore) as well as the topographic side in a same resolution. This technique was made possible within the scope of a research project between the University of Innsbruck and Riegl LMS (Horn, Lower Austria). This airborne-operated, water-penetrating laser system capturing both sides of water's edge is considered as a technical revolution for the comprehensive and simultaneous survey and research of our countryside. Monitoring our waters area-wide and with a point density lager 20 points/m² a new data level is reached for managing them and performing research on hydraulics and morphology. By now operating the system over three years and due to the flood flows in Austria and Germany in 2013 a dataset before and after the effects of the flood could be analyzed at the river Isar. The changes monitored at the river Isar due to the flood flow will be presented as well as the new possibilities in calibrating hydro- morphologic numerical models. The project offers the city of Munich new knowledge and ways in managing inner-city river structures and planning the future of the close-to-nature approaches at the river Isar.

  13. Impact of human-induced threats on the activity of the otter (Lutra lutra along the Drinos valley, Southern Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ETLEVA HYSAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact of human threats on the activity of the otter along the Drinos valley has been studied during the period 2010-2012. The Drinos river and its tributaries, water reservoirs, and trout fish-farms situated in the Drinos valley were included in the study. The whole 60 km Drinos river was divided in three sections based on a set of environmental factors (vegetation cover, water regime, and human disturbance. Each of the three sections was divided in 200 m long stations. In each station the presence and/or absence of human disturbance or threats were assessed, such as destruction of food sources or feeding sites, habitat destruction, water pollution, animal persecution, roads and traffic, and human interference in hydrological regime of the river. Human disturbance was present in 19.33% of the stations in the river section Kakavie-Virua, 14.00% of the stations in the river section Virua-Andon Poçi and 25.00% of the stations in the river section Andon Poçi-Vjosë. In addition, human disturbance was higher along the western riverbank of Drinos, due to proximity of the national road passing by. Results of our study reveal significant influence of the human disturbance in the activity of the otter along the Drinos river. Thus, the values of the otter marking activity along the western (more disturbed and eastern (less disturbed river banks change significantly during both maximum and minimum river flow seasons, respectively (χ2=428.7*** during maximum river flow season, and (χ2=437.3***, during the minimum river flow.

  14. Carbofuran - A New and Effective Method of Illegal Killing of Otters (Lutra lutra in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Hlaváč

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbofuran - a poison recently used to illegally kill otters - is described from the Czech Republic. Six different cases of illegal poisoning of otters have been discovered since 2006 with a total number of 14 killed individuals. Apart from otters, many other animals - namely raptors and other carnivores - have been poisoned by carbofuran in the Czech Republic as well. The poisoning substance is now banned in the EU, however, it has been widely used in agriculture as insecticide and large supplies are generally available. This fact together with relative ease of using it can pose a threat to otter population, especially in areas with raising conflict between otter protection and fish farming. Therefore, it is important to report any suspicious cases of dead wildlife, to immediately carry out laboratory testing in such cases, and to inform relevant officials including the police. It will help monitor the problem and raise local awareness, and could possibly help to catch some persecutors. Taking these actions should be the first step in trying to stop poisoning wildlife by carbofuran.

  15. Passive acoustic monitoring of bed load discharge in a large gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geay, T.; Belleudy, P.; Gervaise, C.; Habersack, H.; Aigner, J.; Kreisler, A.; Seitz, H.; Laronne, J. B.

    2017-02-01

    Surrogate technologies to monitor bed load discharge have been developed to supplement and ultimately take over traditional direct methods. Our research deals with passive acoustic monitoring of bed load flux using a hydrophone continuously deployed near a river bed. This passive acoustic technology senses any acoustic waves propagated in the river environment and particularly the sound due to interparticle collisions emitted during bed load movement. A data set has been acquired in the large Alpine gravel-bedded Drau River. Analysis of the short-term frequency response of acoustic signals allows us to determine the origin of recorded noises and to consider their frequency variations. Results are compared with ancillary field data of water depth and bed load transport inferred from the signals of a geophone array. Hydrophone and geophone signals are well correlated. Thanks to the large network of deployed geophones, analysis of the spatial resolution of hydrophone measurements shows that the sensor is sensitive to bed load motion not only locally but over distances of 5-10 m (10-20% of river width). Our results are promising in terms of the potential use of hydrophones for monitoring bed load transport in large gravel bed rivers: acoustic signals represent a large river bed area, rather than being local; hydrophones can be installed in large floods; they can be deployed at a low cost and provide continuous monitoring at high temporal resolution.

  16. Data for southern sea otter range expansion and habitat use in the Santa Barbara Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. Tim; Tomoleoni, Joseph; Staedler, Michelle M.; LaRoche, Nicole L.; Randell, Zachary; Bowen, Lizabeth; Murray, Michael J.; Miles, A. Keith

    2017-01-01

    The current study was designed to provide critical information for resource managers (specifically the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, henceforth BOEM, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, henceforth USFWS) about the spatial ecology, population status, and potential population threats to sea otters in Santa Barbara Channel, with particular reference to exposure to manmade structures and sources of oil and natural gas. Our four primary research objectives were: 1. Determine the extent of movements and spatial use patterns by sea otters along the southern California coast2. Identify important sea otter resting and foraging areas adjacent to manmade structures3. Assess sea otter distribution, behavior and habitat selection in the vicinity of natural oil and gas seep areas (e.g., Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara County)4. Combine data on tagged animal movements, habitat use patterns and population distribution (acquired during this study and from previous studies and USGS monitoring activities), to create population-level “risk of exposure” models for spatially explicit threats such as natural oil seeps or hypothetical oil spill scenarios.These data were used to support the folowing publication:Tinker, M.T., Tomoleoni, Joseph, LaRoche, Nicole, Bowen, Lizabeth, Miles, A. Keith, Murray, Mike, Staedler, Michelle, and Randell, Zach, 2017, Southern sea otter range expansion and habitat use in the Santa Barbara Channel, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2017–1001 (OCS Study BOEM 2017-002), 76 p., http://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20171001.

  17. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Third quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-02-04

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Table 1 lists those well series with constituents in the groundwater above Flag 2 during third quarter 1992, organized by location. Results from all laboratory analyses are used to generate this table. Specific conductance and pH data from the field also are included in this table.

  18. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Second quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document contains information concerning the groundwater monitoring program at Savannah River Plant. The EPD/EMS (environmental protection department/environmental monitoring section) is responsible for monitoring constituents in the groundwater at approximately 135 waste sites in 16 areas at SRS. This report consolidates information from field reports, laboratory analysis, and quality control. The groundwater in these areas has been contaminated with radioactive materials, organic compounds, and heavy metals.

  19. Real-time nutrient monitoring in rivers: adaptive sampling strategies, technological challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaen, Phillip; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte; Bradley, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Excessive nutrient concentrations in river waters threaten aquatic ecosystem functioning and can pose substantial risks to human health. Robust monitoring strategies are therefore required to generate reliable estimates of river nutrient loads and to improve understanding of the catchment processes that drive spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient fluxes. Furthermore, these data are vital for prediction of future trends under changing environmental conditions and thus the development of appropriate mitigation measures. In recent years, technological developments have led to an increase in the use of continuous in-situ nutrient analysers, which enable measurements at far higher temporal resolutions than can be achieved with discrete sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. However, such instruments can be costly to run and difficult to maintain (e.g. due to high power consumption and memory requirements), leading to trade-offs between temporal and spatial monitoring resolutions. Here, we highlight how adaptive monitoring strategies, comprising a mixture of temporal sample frequencies controlled by one or more 'trigger variables' (e.g. river stage, turbidity, or nutrient concentration), can advance our understanding of catchment nutrient dynamics while simultaneously overcoming many of the practical and economic challenges encountered in typical in-situ river nutrient monitoring applications. We present examples of short-term variability in river nutrient dynamics, driven by complex catchment behaviour, which support our case for the development of monitoring systems that can adapt in real-time to rapid environmental changes. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current nutrient monitoring techniques, and suggest new research directions based on emerging technologies and highlight how these might improve: 1) monitoring strategies, and 2) understanding of linkages between catchment processes and river nutrient fluxes.

  20. Waterborne Release Monitoring and Surveillance Programs at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-03-26

    This report documents the liquid release environmental compliance programs currently in place at the Savannah river Site (SRS). Included are descriptions of stream monitoring programs, which measure chemical parameters and radionuclides in site streams and the Savannah river and test representative biological communities within the streams for chemical and radiological uptake. This report also explains the field sampling and analytical capabilities that are available at SRS during both normal and emergency conditions.

  1. Assessing Otter Presence In Dams: A Methodological Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Santos-Reis

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Standard otter survey methodology proposed by the IUCN Otter Specialist Group enables comparisons in present/absence data in different countries or in different regions. However, otter presence and distribution assessment in dry areas, such as the Mediterranean region, which are characterized by highly marked seasonal climate with intermittent water flow coupled with different types of habitats or systems such as dams, may gain from adjustment to the methodology. Pressure for dam building still occurs in these regions and the need for studies on ecological communities and species protection is increasing. Dams are very different from usual otter riverine habitat and we need to understand their influence on otter populations. Variation of dam location, reservoir characteristics and season will all influence spraint detectability. Environmental Impact Assessment Studies and ecological studies are frequently limited by both budget and time requiring field researchers to apply more efficient methodologies. Based on experience from studies conducted in Portugal we propose adjustments to the standard survey methodology (using spraints surveying otter presence in dams to be applied specifically to Mediterranean-type ecosystems. We define aspects to be considered regarding survey season, survey length and width, number and location of survey sites, among others. This paper will allow researchers to plan more effective field surveys based on standard otter survey methodology for the purpose of dam surveys, be that to detect otter presence/absence, a more in-depth comparative studies of otter presence, or simply improving the collecting of fresh spraints for molecular spraint analysis.

  2. Remote Monitoring of Subsurface Flow Conditions in Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    measured by the ADV. The colored stars represent the run mean flow magnitudes obtained by the 3 methods: DPIV, OF and SAS. TKE Dissipation The...Mech., vol. 77, 531-560. Korchoka Y. M. (1968). Investigation of the dune movement of sediments on the Polomet’ River. Sov. Hydrol. 541-559. McKenna

  3. Fate and monitoring of hazardous substances in temporary rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ademollo, N.; Capri, S.; Froebrich, J.; Patrolecco, L.; Polesello, S.; Puddu, A.; Rusconi, M.; Valsecchi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Under climate-change conditions, temporary rivers will be the dominant surface-water bodies of the Mediterranean region. In order to manage this kind of water body appropriately, it is necessary to understand the chemical and ecological processes that involve hazardous substances in these environmen

  4. Monitoring, assessment and modelling using water quality data in the Saale River Basin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongartz, Klaus; Steele, Timothy D; Baborowski, Martina; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2007-12-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the overall driver for this environmental study and currently requires the identification of patterns and sources of pollution (monitoring) to support objective ecological sound decision making and specific measures to enhance river water quality (modelling). The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate in a case study the interrelationship between (1) hydrologic and water quality monitoring data for river basin characterization and (2) modelling applications to assess resources management alternatives. The study deals with monitoring assessment and modelling of river water quality data of the main stem Saale River and its principal tributaries. For a period of 6 years the data, which was sampled by Environmental Agencies of the German states of Thuringia, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, was investigated to assess sources and indicators of pollution. In addition to the assessment a modelling exercise of the routing of different pollutants was carried out in the lower part of the test basin. The modelling is a tool to facilitate the evaluation of alternative measures to reduce contaminant loadings and improve ecological status of a water body as required by WFD. The transport of suspended solids, salts and heavy metals was modelled along a selected Saale reach under strong anthropogenic influence in terms of contaminants and river morphology between the city of Halle and the confluence with the Elbe River. The simulations were carried out with the model WASP5 which is a dynamic flood-routing and water quality model package developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  5. Application of a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate biosensor to river water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Y; Ikebukuro, K; Yokoyama, K; Takeuchi, T; Arikawa, Y; Ohno, S; Karube, I

    1998-10-15

    A novel whole cell biosensor was constructed for the detection of anionic surfactants in aquatic environments. The analysis was rapid, convenient and did not require organic reagents. In this report, the application of this sensor to river water samples was investigated when applied to environmental samples; other organic substances present in river water may affect the measurement of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates. In order to deal with this problem, a correction system was developed using whole cells of Trichosporon cutaneum. This system was applied to in situ 24 h continuous monitoring in the Saka river.

  6. Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1, Section 1000 Addendum: Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1994-10-01

    This document -- the Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (SRS EM Plan) -- has been prepared according to guidance contained in the DOE 5400 Series orders, in 10 CFR 834, and in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and environmental Surveillance [DOE, 1991]. The SRS EM Plan`s purpose is to define the criteria, regulations, and guideline requirements with which SRS will comply. These criteria and requirements are applicable to environmental monitoring activities performed in support of the SRS Environmental Monitoring Program (SRS EM Program), WSRC-3Q1-2, Volume 1, Section 1100. They are not applicable to monitoring activities utilized exclusively for process monitoring/control. The environmental monitoring program requirements documented in the SRS EM Plan incorporate all applicable should requirements of DOE/EH-0173T and expand upon them to include nonradiological environmental monitoring program requirements.

  7. Environmental Monitoring at the Savannah River Plant, Annual Report - 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, C.

    2001-07-26

    An environmental monitoring program has been in existence at SRP since 1951. The original preoperational surveys have evolved into an extensive environmental monitoring program in which sample types from approximately 500 locations are analyzed for radiological and/or nonradiological parameters. The results of these analyses for 1981 are presented in this report.

  8. Determination of Hg and diet identification in otter (Lontra longicaudis) feces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Josef, Carla [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA-USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: carlajosef@hotmail.com; Ramos Adriano, Leonardo; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Gustinelli Arantes de Carvalho, Gabriel [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA-USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreira, Jose Roberto [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA-USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Polo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Regional do Centro Sul - APTA, Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios. Rua Alberto Coral 1500, 13400-000 Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    An analytical procedure for the determination of Hg in otter (Lontra longicaudis) feces was developed, to separate fish scales for the identification of the animal diet. Samples were washed with ultra-pure water and the suspension was sampled and transferred for digestion. The solubilization was performed with nitric-perchloric acid mixture, and detection carried out by the atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The quality of the analytical procedure was assessed by analyzing in-house standard solutions and certified reference materials. Total Hg concentrations were in the range of 7.6-156 ng g{sup -1} (July 2004), 25.6-277 ng g{sup -1} (January 2005) and 14.6-744 ng g{sup -1} (May 2005) that is approximately the same order of magnitude for all samples collected in two reservoirs at the Tiete River, Brazil. Although Hg concentrations varied with sampling periods and diet, high levels were correlated to the percentage of carnivorous fish scales present in the otter feces. - The importance of otter feces preparation for Hg analysis, focusing the food web.

  9. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2002 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S. [Westslope Fisheries, Cranbrook, BC, Canada

    2003-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection (MWLAP), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenay they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MWLAP applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that were undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  10. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2000 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.

    2001-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOE), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1.1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenays they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MOE applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that was undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  11. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys and Rotary Screw Trap, 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2006 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 37,938 fish from 15 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 15% of fish enumerated followed by rainbow trout (10%) and mountain whitefish (7%). Day surveys were conducted during the summer period 2007 (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2007 (October) surveys. The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) program from August through November of 2007. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 999 wild Oncorhynchus mykiss and 5,107 wild run O. tshawytscha were PIT tagged during the study period. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 22.3% for juvenile O. tshawytscha and 9.0% for juvenile O. mykiss. Rotary screw traps operated 7 days a week and remote capture operations were conducted when flow and temperature regimes permitted. This is third annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  12. Accuracy of the Missouri River Least Tern and Piping Plover Monitoring Program: considerations for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Anteau, Michael J.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Roche, Erin A.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Buhl, Thomas K.; Dovichin, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    The upper Missouri River system provides nesting and foraging habitat for federally endangered least terns (Sternula antillarum; hereafter “terns”) and threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter “plovers”). These species are the subject of substantial management interest on the Missouri River for several reasons. First, ecosystem recovery is a goal for management agencies that seek to maintain or restore natural functions and native biological communities for the Missouri River system. Terns and plovers are recognized as important ecosystem components that are linked with the river’s ecological functions. Second, although both species breed beyond the Missouri River system, the Missouri River is one of the principal breeding areas in the Northern Great Plains; thus, the river system is a focal area for recovery actions targeted at regional population goals. Third, a Biological Opinion for Missouri River operations established annual productivity goals for terns and plovers, and the recovery plan for each species established annual population goals. Meeting these goals is a key motivation in management decision making and implementation with regard to both species. A myriad of conservation and management interests necessitate understanding numbers, distribution, and productivity of terns and plovers on the Missouri River system. To this end, a Tern and Plover Monitoring Program (TPMP) was implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (hereafter “Corps”) in 1986, and has since provided annual estimates of tern and plover numbers and productivity for five Missouri River reservoirs and four river reaches (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1993). The TPMP has served as the primary source of information about the status of terns and plovers on the Missouri River, and TPMP data have been used for a wide variety of purposes. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) was tasked by the Corps to

  13. Debris Flow Monitoring System and Observed Event in Taiwan: A Case Study at Aiyuzi River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HSIAO Taichung; LEE Bingjean; CHOU Tienyin; LIEN Huipain; CHANG Yinghuei

    2007-01-01

    Since 2002, the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau, which is responsible for the conservation and administrative management of hillside in Taiwan, has been cooperating with Feng Chia University. Together, they have successfully carried out the establishment and maintenance of 13 fixed debris flow monitoring stations over the island and 2 mobile debris flow monitoring stations. During July 2004, a powerful southwest air current brought by Mindulle Typhoon caused serious flood in central and southern Taiwan. This paper aims to describe the establishment of debris flow monitoring systems in Taiwan and the observation of the debris flow event during Mindulle Typhoon at Aiyuzi River in Shenmu Village, Nantou County by the monitoring station.

  14. Columbia River ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for beavers, otters, nutria, mink, muskrats, and Columbian white-tailed deer in the Columbia River area....

  15. 2005 River Corridor Cleanup Contractor Revegetation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Johnson

    2005-09-12

    This report contains a compilation of the results of vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2005 for the Environmental Restoration Contractor's revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  16. Pearl River Fish Kill Post Incident Monitoring Report 2012 - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF) completed a three year fish and mussel monitoring project during the years 2012 through 2014 in the Pearl...

  17. 2009 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano; R. D. Teel

    2009-09-30

    This document details the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2009, including 25 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and three bat mitigation projects.

  18. Water quality monitoring of Jialing-River in Chongqing using advanced ion chromatographic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhiko TANAKA; Chao-Hong SHI; Nobukazu NAKAGOSHI

    2012-01-01

    The water quality monitoring operation to evaluate the water quality of polluted river is an extremely important task for the river-watershed management/control based on the environmental policy.In this study,the novel,simple and convenient water quality monitoring of Jialing-River in Chongqing,China was carried out using an advanced ion chromatography (IC) consisting of ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography (IEC/CEC) with conductivity detection for determining simultaneously the common anions such as SO42 -,Cl -,and NO3- and the cations such as Na+,NH4+,K+,Mg2+,and Ca2+,the ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) with visible detection for determining simultaneously the nutrient components such as phosphate and silicate ions,and the IEC with the enhanced conductivity detection using a post column of K+ -form cation-exchange resin for determining HCO3- -alkalinity as an inorganic-carbon source for biomass synthesis in biological reaction process under the aerobic conditions.According to the ionic balance theory between the total equivalent con-centrations of anions and cations,the water quality evaluation of the Jialing-River waters taking at different sampling sites in Chongqing metropolitan area was carried out using the advanced IC system.As a result,the effectiveness of this novel water quality monitoring methodology using the IC system was demonstrated on the several practical applications to a typical biological sewage treatment plant on Jialing-River of Chongqing.

  19. Environmental surveillance monitoring in the Alligator Rivers Region. Report No. 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report outlines the activities of the Northern Territory Supervising Authorities (NTSAs) in meeting their responsibilities for environmental management and surveillance of environmental monitoring relating to uranium mining in the Alligator Rivers Region for the six-month period to 30 September 1997. Detailed results of assessments, inspections and check monitoring for Nabarlek and Ranger deposits are presented. The current status of Jabiluka and Koongarra projects is briefly outlined. 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: First quarter 1993, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the first quarter of 1993. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  1. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-17

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the fourth quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  2. The Monitoring of River Flows and the Management of Flood Hazards using UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verosub, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing occurrence of extreme precipitation events as well as severe droughts, coupled with greater and greater human occupation of flood plains, makes increased monitoring of flows in rivers an important component of assessing the potential for water-related natural disasters as well as responding to them when they do occur. Unfortunately, this increasing need comes at a time when funding for monitoring activities is generally decreasing. In the United States, for example, gauging stations with daily flow records going back several decades or even a hundred years have been abandoned, and new stations in critical areas have not even been established. A methodology based on periodic UAV-based imaging of an entire river offers the prospect of obtaining inexpensive, real-time, high-resolution data for the determination of the river flows. The method makes use of fact that as the flow in a river rises or falls, the areal extent covered by the river changes accordingly. Furthermore, barring anthropogenic changes, the area inundated by a flow of a particular magnitude is invariant in time. For a given stretch of a river, a sequence of images spanning the full range of flow conditions provides the basic template for determining river flows. The actual flow in the river can be calibrated using previously measured flow data corresponding the dates of old aerial or satellite imagery, or calculated from new imagery by using standard flow equations and the topography of the banks of the river, determined by field surveying or Lidar. Once the basic template has been established, determination of "the state-of-the-river" at any point in time can be obtained by comparing newly-acquired UAV images with those in the database. And because a given image encompasses many topographic features that are inundated to differing extents, the resolution of the flow determination is limited only by the completeness of the imagery in the basic template. Repeat flights at weekly

  3. Assessment of nematode community structure as a bioindicator in river monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.C.; Chen, P.C. [Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuan Rd, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Tsay, T.T., E-mail: tttsay@nchu.edu.t [Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuan Rd, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-15

    Nematode communities from river water and sediments were assessed for the abundance, feeding types, maturity indices and nematode channel ratio (NCR). The sampling sites studied included different levels of pollution and contamination from agricultural, industrial and sewage sources. The nematode abundance found in the sediment samples was more than that in the water samples. The lowest nematode abundance in sediment samples and the lowest NCR in water samples were both found at the industrial pollution site. Water samples showed positive correlation between the NCR and river pollution index (RPI). Mean maturity indices in sediment samples were inversely correlated with RPI. The pollutant source determined the relationship between NCR and pollution level, while maturity index always showed negative correlation with pollutant level regardless of the pollutant sources. The nematode abundance and its community structure were both reliable bioindicators for monitoring long-term river pollution in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. - Nematode community structure in rivers is related to the contamination source and level.

  4. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, First Quarter 1996, Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-10-22

    This report summarizes the Savanna River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by EPD/EMS during the first quarter 1996. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program. It also provides a record of the program`s activities and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  5. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. First quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  6. Protocols for Monitoring Habitat Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roegner, G. Curtis; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2008-04-25

    Protocols for monitoring salmon habitat restoration projects are essential for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' environmental efforts in the Columbia River estuary. This manual provides state-of-the science data collection and analysis methods for landscape features, water quality, and fish species composition, among others.

  7. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. First quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  8. IMPLICATIONS OF INTER-HABITAT VARIATION FOR MONITORING GREAT RIVER ECOSYSTEMS: EMAP-UMR EXPERIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great River ecosystems (GREs) are complex mosaics of habitats that vary at multiple scales. GRE monitoring designs can capture some but not all of this variation. Each discrete habitat, however defined, must either be sampled as a separate strata or "resource population", combine...

  9. Monitoring of Streambank Stabilization and River Restoration Structures on Ice-Affected Rivers in Northern Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Note aggradation on the left bank (looking downstream) has nearly buried the vane...is still aggrading in the vicinity of the upstream cross vane, as the rocks forming the left hand vane (facing downstream) are now nearly buried in...gravel (Figure 24). Flow Aggrading left bank area & nearly buried vane Figure 24. Mad River near Warren, upper cross vane viewed from

  10. A Novel Prototype Model for Monitoring the Factories Remnants on Nile River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Kamel Hussein

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environment faces too many issues including the water pollution problem in the Nile River. This problem could be solved by having a system provides the factory with the control and monitoring to be able to monitor and treat their water remnants according to the standards required by ministry of environment. This project will establish and design a new control system that could be used by factories for monitoring and controlling their remnants. The project based on using an interfacing device for facility management technology (eWON, and also Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA, that support General Packet Radio Service (GPRS for remote data connection.

  11. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  12. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  13. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  14. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, first quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During first quarter 1989 (January--March), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the first quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from first quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  15. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, first quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During first quarter 1989 (January--March), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the first quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from first quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  16. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  17. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  18. A methodological framework for hydromorphological assessment, analysis and monitoring (IDRAIM) aimed at promoting integrated river management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, M.; Surian, N.; Comiti, F.; Bussettini, M.

    2015-12-01

    A methodological framework for hydromorphological assessment, analysis and monitoring (named IDRAIM) has been developed with the specific aim of supporting the management of river processes by integrating the objectives of ecological quality and flood risk mitigation. The framework builds on existing and up-to-date geomorphological concepts and approaches and has been tested on several Italian streams. The framework includes the following four phases: (1) catchment-wide characterization of the fluvial system; (2) evolutionary trajectory reconstruction and assessment of current river conditions; (3) description of future trends of channel evolution; and (4) identification of management options. The framework provides specific consideration of the temporal context, in terms of reconstructing the trajectory of past channel evolution as a basis for interpreting present river conditions and future trends. A series of specific tools has been developed for the assessment of river conditions, in terms of morphological quality and channel dynamics. These include: the Morphological Quality Index (MQI), the Morphological Dynamics Index (MDI), the Event Dynamics Classification (EDC), and the river morphodynamic corridors (MC and EMC). The monitoring of morphological parameters and indicators, alongside the assessment of future scenarios of channel evolution provides knowledge for the identification, planning and prioritization of actions for enhancing morphological quality and risk mitigation.

  19. 2008 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2008 and includes 22 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and two bat habitat mitigation projects.

  20. 2007 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. A. Gano; C. T. Lindsey

    2007-09-27

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2007 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 3 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  1. The need for complementary hydraulic analysis in post-restoration monitoring of river restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endreny, T. A.; Soulman, M. M.

    2011-03-01

    River restoration design methods are incrementally improved by studying and learning from monitoring data in previous projects. In this paper, we report post-restoration monitoring data for a Natural Channel Design (NCD) restoration project along 1600 m (10 channel wavelengths) of the Batavia Kill in the Catskill Mountains, NY, implemented in 2001 and 2002. The NCD project used a reference-reach to determine channel form, empirical relations between the project site and reference site bankfull dimensions to size channel geometry, and hydraulic and sediment computations to test channel capacity and sediment stability. In addition 12 cross-vanes and 48 j-hook vanes used in NCD for river training were installed to protect against bank erosion and maintain scour pools for fish habitat. Changes in pool depths were monitored with surveys from 2002-2004, and then after the channel-altering April 2005 flood. Aggradation in pools was attributed to cross-vane arms not concentrating flow in the center of the channel, which subsequently caused flow splitting and 4 partial point bar avulsions during the 2005 flood. Hydrodynamic simulation at the 18 m3s-1 bankfull flow suggested avulsions occurred where vanes allowed erosive bank scour to initiate the avulsion cut, and once the flow was split, the diminished in-channel flow caused more aggradation in the pools. In this project post-restoration monitoring had detected aggradation and considered it a problem. The lesson for the larger river restoration community is monitoring protocol should include complementary hydraulic and sediment analysis to comprehend potential consequences and develop preventative maintenance. River restoration and monitoring teams should be trained in robust hydraulic and sediment analytical methods that help them extend project restoration goals.

  2. The need for complementary hydraulic analysis in post-restoration monitoring of river restoration projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Endreny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available River restoration design methods are incrementally improved by studying and learning from monitoring data in previous projects. In this paper, we report post-restoration monitoring data for a Natural Channel Design (NCD restoration project along 1600 m (10 channel wavelengths of the Batavia Kill in the Catskill Mountains, NY, implemented in 2001 and 2002. The NCD project used a reference-reach to determine channel form, empirical relations between the project site and reference site bankfull dimensions to size channel geometry, and hydraulic and sediment computations to test channel capacity and sediment stability. In addition 12 cross-vanes and 48 j-hook vanes used in NCD for river training were installed to protect against bank erosion and maintain scour pools for fish habitat. Changes in pool depths were monitored with surveys from 2002–2004, and then after the channel-altering April 2005 flood. Aggradation in pools was attributed to cross-vane arms not concentrating flow in the center of the channel, which subsequently caused flow splitting and 4 partial point bar avulsions during the 2005 flood. Hydrodynamic simulation at the 18 m3s−1 bankfull flow suggested avulsions occurred where vanes allowed erosive bank scour to initiate the avulsion cut, and once the flow was split, the diminished in-channel flow caused more aggradation in the pools. In this project post-restoration monitoring had detected aggradation and considered it a problem. The lesson for the larger river restoration community is monitoring protocol should include complementary hydraulic and sediment analysis to comprehend potential consequences and develop preventative maintenance. River restoration and monitoring teams should be trained in robust hydraulic and sediment analytical methods that help them extend project restoration goals.

  3. Use of online water quality monitoring for assessing the effects of WWTP overflows in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boënne, Wesley; Desmet, Nele; Van Looy, Stijn; Seuntjens, Piet

    2014-05-01

    The effects on river water quality of sewer overflows are not well known. Since the duration of the overflow is in the order of magnitude of minutes to hours, continuous measurements of water quality are needed and traditional grab sampling is unable to quantify the pollution loads. The objective of this paper was to demonstrate the applicability of high frequency measurements for assessing the impacts of waste water treatment plants on the water quality of the receiving surface water. In our in situ water quality monitoring setup, two types of multiparameter sensors mounted on a floating fixed platform were used to determine the dynamics of dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, ammonium-N, nitrate-N and dissolved organic carbon downstream of a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), in combination with data on rainfall, river discharge and WWTP overflow discharge. The monitoring data for water quantity and water quality were used to estimate the pollution load from waste water overflow events and to assess the impact of waste water overflows on the river water quality. The effect of sewer overflow on a small river in terms of N load was shown to be significant. The WWTP overflow events accounted for about 1/3 of the river discharge. The NH4-N loads during overflow events contributed 29% and 21% to the August 2010 and June 2011 load, respectively, in only 8% and 3% of the monthly time span. The results indicate that continuous monitoring is needed to accurately represent the effects of sewer overflows in river systems.

  4. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys, 2006-2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.

    2007-10-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 11 sites during the summer 2006 survey period and at 15 sites during fall 2006 and winter 2007 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 39,898 fish from 14 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 19% of fish enumerated followed by mountain whitefish (18%) and rainbow trout (14%). Day and night surveys were conducted during the summer 2006 period (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2006 (October) and winter 2007 (February/March) surveys. This is second annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  5. Phenotypic plasticity in age at first reproduction of female northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Biela, V.R.; Gill, V.A.; Bodkin, J.L.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that within a species, reproduction and survival rates will differ among populations that differ in resource availability or predation rates through phenotypic plasticity. When populations are near carrying capacity (K) or when they are declining due to reduced prey resources, the average age at 1st reproduction (average AFR) is predicted to be older than in populations below K. Differences between the trajectories of northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) populations in Alaska provides an opportunity to examine phenotypic plasticity. Using premolar teeth or reproductive tracts, we estimated average AFR from demographically distinct populations of sea otters in Alaska. We obtained samples from 2 populations near K, Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Aleutian Archipelago (archived samples), and from 2populations below K, the Kodiak Archipelago and Sitka. The average AFR was lower in populations below K (3.60 years ??0.16 SD)compared to those near K (4.21 ?? 0.13 years, P phenotypic plasticity in sea otters. Our findings highlight the value of using average AFR as a tool for monitoring mammalian populations. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  6. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; Matthews, Gene M.; Kamikawa, Daniel J.

    1995-09-01

    The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the outmigration timing of different wild stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence outmigration timing. The authors PIT tagged wild spring/summer chinook salmon parr in the Snake River Basin in 1993, and subsequently monitored these fish during their smolt migration through Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and McNary Dams during spring, summer, and fall 1994. This report details their findings.

  7. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2002-05-01

    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total

  8. 2006 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Johnson; K. A. Gano

    2006-10-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. One of the objectives of restoration is the revegetation of remediated waste sites to stabilize the soil and restore the land to native vegetation. The report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2006 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 2 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in livers of California sea otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Perrotta, Emily

    2008-03-01

    Concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in livers of 81 adult female sea otters collected along the California coast in 1992-2002. Concentrations of summation operatorPAHs in livers of sea otters were in the range of 588-17400ng/g lipid wt (mean: 3880ng/g, lipid wt). On a wet weight basis, the concentrations ranged from 17 to 1430ng/g (mean: 146ng/g). Overall, di- and tri-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene/anthracene, and acenaphthylene, were the predominant compounds found in the livers. Although petroleum-related sources appear to be the major contributors to PAH exposure in sea otters, exposure sources varied by geographical sub-regions. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene was found to comprise a significant proportion of the summation operatorPAH concentrations in sea otters from the northern sub-region of the study area. No significant difference existed in the concentrations of summation operatorPAHs among sea otters that died from infectious diseases, emaciation, and noninfectious causes. Concentrations of summation operatorPAHs in livers of sea otters decreased significantly from 1992 to 2002. Because of the rapid metabolism of PAHs in marine mammals such as sea otters, further studies examining the association of PAHs with health effects should determine hydroxylated metabolites in livers.

  10. Nuclear incident monitor criticality alarm instrument for the Savannah River Site: Technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, J.B.

    1996-05-21

    The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy facility. The facility stores, processes, and works with fissionable material at a number of locations. Technical standards and US Department of Energy orders, require these locations to be monitored by criticality alarm systems under certain circumstances. The Savannah River Site calls such instruments Nuclear Incident Monitors or NIMs. The Sole purpose of the Nuclear Incident Monitor is to provide an immediate evacuation signal in the case of an accidental criticality in order to minimize personnel exposure to radiation. The new unit is the third generation Nuclear Incident Monitor at the Savannah River Site. The second generation unit was developed in 1979. It was designed to eliminate vacuum-tube circuits, and was the first solid state NIM at SRS. The major design objectives of the second generation NIM were to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Ten prototype units have been built and tested. This report describes the design of the new NIM and the testing that took place to verify its acceptability.

  11. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Habitat Monitoring Study, 2011 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Thom, Ronald M.; Wright, Cynthia L.

    2012-03-22

    The Ecosystem Monitoring Program is a collaborative effort between the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (LCREP), University of Washington, Wetland Ecosystem Team (UW), US Geological Survey, Water Science Center (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-Fisheries, hereafter NOAA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory (PNNL). The goal of the program is to conduct emergent wetland monitoring aimed at characterizing salmonid habitats in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) from the mouth of the estuary to Bonneville Dam (Figure 1). This is an ecosystem based monitoring program focused on evaluating status and trends in habitat and reducing uncertainties regarding these ecosystems to ultimately improve the survival of juvenile salmonids through the LCRE. This project comprehensively assesses habitat, fish, food web, and abiotic conditions in the lower river, focusing on shallow water and vegetated habitats used by juvenile salmonids for feeding, rearing and refugia. The information is intended to be used to guide management actions associated with species recovery, particularly that of threatened and endangered salmonids. PNNL’s role in this multi-year study is to monitor the habitat structure (e.g., vegetation, topography, channel morphology, and sediment type) as well as hydrologic patterns.

  12. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Habitat Monitoring Study, 2011 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaufmann, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cullinan, Valerie I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wright, Cynthia L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Ecosystem Monitoring Program is a collaborative effort between the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (LCREP), University of Washington, Wetland Ecosystem Team (UW), US Geological Survey, Water Science Center (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-Fisheries, hereafter NOAA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory (PNNL). The goal of the program is to conduct emergent wetland monitoring aimed at characterizing salmonid habitats in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) from the mouth of the estuary to Bonneville Dam (Figure 1). This is an ecosystem based monitoring program focused on evaluating status and trends in habitat and reducing uncertainties regarding these ecosystems to ultimately improve the survival of juvenile salmonids through the LCRE. This project comprehensively assesses habitat, fish, food web, and abiotic conditions in the lower river, focusing on shallow water and vegetated habitats used by juvenile salmonids for feeding, rearing and refugia. The information is intended to be used to guide management actions associated with species recovery, particularly that of threatened and endangered salmonids. PNNL’s role in this multi-year study is to monitor the habitat structure (e.g., vegetation, topography, channel morphology, and sediment type) as well as hydrologic patterns.

  13. Colorado River fish monitoring in Grand Canyon, Arizona; 2000 to 2009 summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinster, Andrew S.; Persons, William R.; Avery, Luke A.; Bunch, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term fish monitoring in the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam is an essential component of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP). The GCDAMP is a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the primary mandate of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 to protect resources downstream from Glen Canyon Dam is met. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center is responsible for the program's long-term fish monitoring, which is implemented in cooperation with the Arizona Game and Fish Department, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, SWCA Environmental Consultants, and others. Electrofishing and tagging protocols have been developed and implemented for standardized annual monitoring of Colorado River fishes since 2000. In 2009, sampling occurred throughout the river between Lees Ferry and Lake Mead for 38 nights over two trips. During the two trips, scientists captured 6,826 fish representing 11 species. Based on catch-per-unit-effort, salmonids (for example, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)) increased eightfold between 2006 and 2009. Flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis) catch rates were twice as high in 2009 as in 2006. Humpback chub (Gila cypha) catches were low throughout the 10-year sampling period.

  14. Monitoring Fine Sediment; Grande Ronde and John Day Rivers, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Greene, M. Jonas; Purser, Michael D. (Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, Portland, OR)

    2001-01-01

    Fine sediment in spawning substrate has a major effect on salmon survival from egg to smolt. Basin-wide restoration plans have established targets for fine sediment levels in spawning habitat. The project was initiated to monitor surface fine sediment levels and overwinter intrusion of fine sediment in spring chinook salmon spawning habitat in the North Fork John Day (NFJDR) and Grande Ronde Rivers, for five years. The project is also investigating the potential relationship between surface fine levels and overwinter sedimentation. It will provide data to assess trends in substrate conditions in monitored reaches and whether trends are consistent with efforts to improve salmon habitat conditions. The data on the magnitude of overwinter sedimentation will also be used to estimate salmon survival from egg to emergence. In Sept. 1998, 1999, and Aug. 2000, sites for monitoring overwinter sedimentation were established in salmon spawning habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek (a Grande Ronde tributary), the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), and Granite Creek (a NFJDR tributary). Surface fine sediment levels were measured in these reaches via the grid method and visually estimated to test the relative accuracy of these two methods. In 1999 and 2000, surface fine sediment was also estimated via pebble counts at selected reaches to allow comparison of results among the methods. Overwintering substrate samples were collected in April 1999 and April-May 2000 to estimate the amount of overwinter sedimentation in clean gravels in spawning habitat. Monitoring methods and locations are described.

  15. Developing an environmental water quality monitoring program for Haraz River in Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mitra; Arjmandi, Reza; Shayeghi, Mansoureh; Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Karbassi, Abdolreza

    2017-08-01

    Water quality management plans are an indispensable strategy for conservation and utilization of water resources in a sustainable manner. One common industrial use of water is aquaculture. The present study is an attempt to use statistical analyses in order to prepare an environmental water quality monitoring program for Haraz River, in Northern Iran. For this purpose, the analysis of a total number of 18 physicochemical parameters was performed at 15 stations during a 1-year sampling period. According to the results of the multivariate statistical methods, the optimal monitoring would be possible by only 3 stations and 12 parameters, including NH3, EC, BOD, TSS, DO, PO4, NO3, TDS, temperature, turbidity, coliform, and discharge. In other words, newly designed network, with a total number of 36 measurements (3 stations × 12 parameters = 36 parameters), could achieve exactly the same performance as the former network, designed based on 234 measurements (13 stations × 18 parameters = 234 parameters). Based on the results of cluster, principal component, and factor analyses, the stations were divided into three groups of high pollution (HP), medium pollution (MP), and low pollution (LP). By clustering the stations, it would be possible to track the water quality of Haraz River, only by one station at each cluster, which facilitates rapid assessment of the water quality in the river basin. Emphasizing on three main axes of monitoring program, including measurement parameters, sampling frequency, and spatial pattern of sampling points, the water quality monitoring program was optimized for the river basin based on natural conditions of the study area, monitoring objectives, and required financial resources (a total annual cost of about US $2625, excluding the overhead costs).

  16. CEM ultrasonic flow monitoring design, installation and certification results at the Salt River Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rihs, P.W. [Salt River Project, Saint Johns, AZ (United States). Coronado Generating Station

    1995-12-31

    This presentation will include Salt River Project`s design, installation, experiences and results using ultrasonic flow monitoring equipment for certification of continuous emissions monitoring systems. Flow Monitoring is the newest and has been the most controversial component of CEM systems. Experience in measuring flue gas volumetric flow prior to CEMs was very limited. There are currently three basic techniques used to measure gas flow: (1) thermal sensing using hotwire anemometer or thermal dispersion; (2) differential pressure (pitot tube and annubar); (3) acoustic using ultrasonic transducers. The Salt River Project (SRP) operates a variety of affected generating stations: coal, gas and oil. Ultrasonic flow monitoring technology was chosen for all affected generating stations which the author operates. SRP`s approach and reasoning for choosing ultrasonic systems will be discussed. A review of each generating station`s flow monitoring system will be presented. The presentation will include, but may not be limited to, the following: general facilities, description and schematics; physical installations, plan and section drawings; design considerations; results of flow monitors certification testing; and CEMs Project Manager`s conclusions.

  17. Fatigue damage reliability analysis for Nanjing Yangtze river bridge using structural health monitoring data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xu-hui; CHEN Zheng-qing; YU Zhi-wu; HUANG Fang-lin

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the fatigue damage reliability of critical members of the Nanjing Yangtze river bridge, according to the stress-number curve and Miner's rule, the corresponding expressions for calculating the structural fatigue damage reliability were derived. Fatigue damage reliability analysis of some critical members of the Nanjing Yangtze river bridge was carried out by using the strain-time histories measured by the structural health monitoring system of the bridge. The corresponding stress spectra were obtained by the real-time rain-flow counting method.Results of fatigue damage were calculated respectively by the reliability method at different reliability and compared with Miner's rule. The results show that the fatigue damage of critical members of the Nanjing Yangtze river bridge is very small due to its low live-load stress level.

  18. OTTER 3.0 reference manual and guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    OTTER (Organized Techniques for Theorem-proving and Effective Research) is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first-order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyperresolution, UR-resolution, and binary paramodulation. Some of its other abilities and features are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, evaluable functions and predicates, and Knuth-Bendix completion. OTTER is coded in C, is free, and is portable to many different kinds of computer.

  19. Comparison of anesthetic agents in the sea otter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.D.; Kocher, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    Five anesthetic agents (CI744, etorphine, fentanyl, ketamine hydrochloride, and halothane) were tested to establish the dosage of a safe, effective, short-acting anesthetic for use in the sea otter. Etorphine, at a dosage of 0.75 mg per adult otter and used in conjunction with diazepam, at a dosage of 1.25 mg per adult otter, met most of the requirements for use under field conditions. Halothane, administered through an anesthetic machine, proved to be effective for use in a veterinary hospital.

  20. OTTER 3.0 reference manual and guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    OTTER (Organized Techniques for Theorem-proving and Effective Research) is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first-order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyperresolution, UR-resolution, and binary paramodulation. Some of its other abilities and features are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, evaluable functions and predicates, and Knuth-Bendix completion. OTTER is coded in C, is free, and is portable to many different kinds of computer.

  1. Monitoring suspended sediment transport in an ice-affected river using acoustic Doppler current profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S. A.; Ghareh Aghaji Zare, S.; Rennie, C. D.; Ahmari, H.; Seidou, O.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying sediment budgets and understanding the processes which control fluvial sediment transport is paramount to monitoring river geomorphology and ecological habitat. In regions that are subject to freezing there is the added complexity of ice. River ice processes impact flow distribution, water stage and sediment transport. Ice processes typically have the largest impact on sediment transport and channel morphodynamics when ice jams occur during ice cover formation and breakup. Ice jams may restrict flow and cause local acceleration when released. Additionally, ice can mechanically scour river bed and banks. Under-ice sediment transport measurements are lacking due to obvious safety and logistical reasons, in addition to a lack of adequate measurement techniques. Since some rivers can be covered in ice during six months of the year, the lack of data in winter months leads to large uncertainty in annual sediment load calculations. To address this problem, acoustic profilers are being used to monitor flow velocity, suspended sediment and ice processes in the Lower Nelson River, Manitoba, Canada. Acoustic profilers are ideal for under-ice sediment flux measurements since they can be operated autonomously and continuously, they do not disturb the flow in the zone of measurement and acoustic backscatter can be related to sediment size and concentration. In March 2012 two upward-facing profilers (1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler, 546 KHz acoustic backscatter profiler) were installed through a hole in the ice on the Nelson River, 50 km downstream of the Limestone Generating Station. Data were recorded for four months, including both stable cover and breakup periods. This paper presents suspended sediment fluxes calculated from the acoustic measurements. Velocity data were used to infer the vertical distribution of sediment sizes and concentrations; this information was then used in the interpretation of the backscattered intensity data. It was found that

  2. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-05-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control population under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has demonstrated the successful application of underwater video adult salmon abundance monitoring technology in Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999. Emphasis of the project in 2000 was to determine if the temporary fish counting station could be installed early enough to successfully estimate adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River (a larger stream). Snow pack in the drainage was 93% of the average during the winter of 1999/2000, providing an opportunity to test the temporary count station structure. The temporary fish counting station was not the appropriate technology to determine adult salmon spawner abundance in the Secesh River. Due to its temporary nature it could not be installed early enough, due to high stream discharge, to capture the first upstream migrating salmon. A more permanent structure used with underwater video, or other technology needs to be utilized for accurate salmon escapement monitoring in the Secesh River. A minimum of 813 adult chinook salmon spawners migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. Of these fish, more than 324 migrated upstream into Lake Creek. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River and Lake Creek sites prior to operation of the fish counting stations on June 22. This was 17 and 19 days earlier than the first fish arrival at Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999

  3. Groundwater and surface water monitoring program for karst river basin: example of the Jadro and Žrnovnica Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, D.; Denić-Jukić, V.

    2009-04-01

    The catchment of the Jadro and Žrnovnica Springs is situated in the Dinaric karst mainly formed of carbonate rocks and partly of impermeable flysch. The Jadro Spring has been used for water supply for almost 2000 years. Nowadays, it is the main water supply resource for the wider area of Split, the second largest city in Croatia, and it represents a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from deterioration and chemical pollution. Reliable and comparable methods for groundwater monitoring are an important tool for assessment of groundwater quality and also for choosing the most appropriate measures. The present meteorological, hydrological and water quality monitoring networks have several drawbacks, and consequently, do not provide a coherent and comprehensive overview of meteorological, hydrological or water quality situation within the river basin. Namely, there is no meteorological station located inside the river basin, so continuous measurements of meteorological parameters have not been performed. However, daily precipitations have been measured since 1961 at eight locations: Dugopolje, Lećevica, Dicmo, Muć, Klis, Bisko, Gornje Sitno and Prančević Brana. Hydrological observations have been performed in profiles which are interesting in terms of water use (e.g. determination of spring capacities, or discharge control for proscribed minimum flow rates). The collection of hydrological data including water levels and flow rates started in 1983. In the interim period, some hydrological stations ceased operating, some have unreliable data, mostly due to the changes in riverbeds and the influence of backwater, whereas some stations experience longer periods of very poor coverage of rate of flow measurements, particularly at high water levels. Currently, five hydrological stations are active: Jadro-Majdan, Jadro-Dioklecijanov kanal, Jadro-Novi kanal, Žrnovnica-Izvor and Žrnovnica-Laboratorij. Water temperatures and quantities of sediment

  4. Northern Great Plains Network water quality monitoring design for tributaries to the Missouri National Recreational River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Barbara L.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Yager, Lisa; Wilson, Marcia H.

    2013-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) organized more than 270 parks with important natural resources into 32 ecoregional networks to conduct Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) activities for assessment of natural resources within park units. The Missouri National Recreational River (NRR) is among the 13 parks in the NPS Northern Great Plain Network (NGPN). Park managers and NGPN staff identified surface water resources as a high priority vital sign to monitor in park units. The objectives for the Missouri NRR water quality sampling design are to (1) assess the current status and long-term trends of select water quality parameters; and (2) document trends in streamflow at high-priority stream systems. Due to the large size of the Missouri River main stem, the NGPN water quality design for the Missouri NRR focuses on wadeable tributaries within the park unit. To correlate with the NGPN water quality protocols, monitoring of the Missouri NRR consists of measurement of field core parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature; and streamflow. The purpose of this document is to discuss factors examined for selection of water quality monitoring on segments of the Missouri River tributaries within the Missouri NRR.Awareness of the complex history of the Missouri NRR aids in the current understanding and direction for designing a monitoring plan. Historical and current monitoring data from agencies and entities were examined to assess potential NGPN monitoring sites. In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 303(d) list was examined for the impaired segments on tributaries to the Missouri River main stem. Because major tributaries integrate water quality effects from complex combinations of land use and environmental settings within contributing areas, a 20-mile buffer of the Missouri NRR was used to establish environmental settings that may impact the water quality of tributaries that feed the Missouri River main stem. For selection of

  5. Hood River Monitoring and Evaluation Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    The Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project is co-managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The program is divided up to share responsibilities, provide efficiency, and avoid duplication. From October 2002 to September 2003 (FY 03) project strategies were implemented to monitor, protect, and restore anadromous fish and fish habitat in the Hood River subbasin. A description of the progress during FY 03 is reported here. Additionally an independent review of the entire program was completed in 2003. The purpose of the review was to determine if project goals and actions were achieved, look at critical uncertainties for present and future actions, determine cost effectiveness, and choose remedies that would increase program success. There were some immediate changes to the implementation of the project, but the bulk of the recommendations will be realized in coming years.

  6. Third harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on quiet days at Deep River Neutron Monitoring Station

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Richharia

    2007-06-01

    The cosmic ray (CR) intensity data recorded in Deep River Neutron Monitoring Station have been investigated on quietest days (QD) for third harmonics of daily variation during solar cycles 21 and 22. It has been observed that in spite of abrupt change in the amplitude and phase of tri-diurnal anisotropy in CR intensity, the amplitude is quite significant throughout the period of investigation with larger amplitude during the years 1980 and 1985. Thus, tri-diurnal anisotropy clearly shows 11-year variation at the mid latitude neutron monitoring station.

  7. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. First quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  8. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  9. Colorado River fish monitoring in Grand Canyon, Arizona; 2002–14 humpback chub aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, William R.; Van Haverbeke, David R.; Dodrill, Michael J.

    2017-01-31

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is an endangered cyprinid species endemic to the Colorado River. The largest remaining population of the species spawns and rears in the Little Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has altered the main-stem Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons. Cold, clear water releases from the dam result in a river that is generally unsuitable for successful humpback chub reproduction. During the early 1990s, nine locations within the main-stem Colorado River were identified as humpback chub aggregations—areas with a consistent and disjunct group of fish with no significant exchange of individuals with other aggregations. We monitored main-stem Colorado River aggregations of humpback chub in Grand Canyon during 2010 to 2014 and compared our results to previous investigations. Relative abundance, as described by catch per unit effort (fish per hour) of adult humpback chub at most main-stem aggregations, generally increased from the 1990s to 2014. In addition, distribution of humpback chub in the main-stem Colorado River has increased since the 1990s. Movement of humpback chub between the Little Colorado River and other aggregations likely adds fish to those aggregations. There is clear evidence of reproduction near the 30-Mile aggregation, and reproduction at Middle Granite Gorge and downstream seems likely based on catches of gravid fish and captures of very young fish, especially during relatively warm water releases from Glen Canyon Dam, 2004 to 2011. Humpback chub relative abundance at Shinumo and Havasu Creek inflows increased following translocations of young humpback chub starting in 2009. In light of this information, we modify the original nine aggregations, combining two previously separate aggregations and dropping two locations to form six distinct aggregations of humpback chub. Trends in humpback chub abundance at main-stem aggregations, relative to management actions (for example

  10. Herpetological monitoring and assessment on the Trinity River, Trinity County, California—Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snover, Melissa L.; Adams, Michael J.

    2016-06-14

    The primary goal of the Trinity River Restoration Program is to rehabilitate the fisheries on the dam-controlled Trinity River. However, maintaining and enhancing other wildlife populations through the restoration initiative is also a key objective. Foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) and western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) have been identified as important herpetological species on which to focus monitoring efforts due to their status as California state-listed species of concern and potential listing on the U.S. Endangered Species List. We developed and implemented a monitoring strategy for these species specific to the Trinity River with the objectives of establishing baseline values for probabilities of site occupancy, colonization, and local extinction; identifying site characteristics that correlate with the probability of extinction; and estimating overall trends in abundance. Our 3-year study suggests that foothill yellow-legged frogs declined in the probability of site occupancy. Conversely, our results suggest that western pond turtles increased in both abundance and the probability of site occupancy. The short length of our study period makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions, but these results provide much-needed baseline data. Further monitoring and directed studies are required to assess how habitat changes and management decisions relate to the status and trend of these species over the long term.

  11. Re-Introduction Of Otters - Support Or Risk For Otter Conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongh A.W.J.J. de

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Otters decreased in numbers during the last through decades in many parts of Europe, with populations fragmenting or being extirpated, but this has been lately reversed through wetland improvement and so on. Before re-stocking or re-introducing otters, one has to be sure that the conditions for survival are adequate and that all the original causes for the decline or extinction of the population have been removed. All of the IUCN Guidelines for Re-introductions have to be followed.In many cases, releasing otters is not necessary at all as a natural influx of animals from neighbouring populations will soon follow after the former threats have been removed.In other areas, such as Holland, this could take more than 50 years because the nearest flourishing populations are so far away. Re-introductions help to establish more populations throughout Europe, securing the long-term survival of the entire population. Well-prepared and performed re-introductions give more impact to the otter’s function as a symbol. Re-introductions contribute to a higher bio-diversity. Re-introductions, and even preparations in that direction, provide economic benefits with respect to employment, cash flow and also environmental awareness. Under suitable restrictions, such as those already mentioned, I am in favour of re-introductions and, in some areas, restocking.

  12. OTTER: An Optimized Transit Tool And Easy Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    E. CONTRIBUTIONS AND OUTLINE ....................................................10 II. MODEL ...61 viii APPENDIX D. DYNAMIC OTTER VBA CODE ........................................................67 LIST...31 Figure 16. Frequency of TTSC across all ships modeled ............................................32 Figure

  13. The distribution and status of sea otters in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The original distribution of sea otters, Enhydra lutris (L), included the coastal area of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea from Kamchatka south to Hokkaido...

  14. Tool-use frequency by individual sea otters in California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Sea otters are well-known tool users, employing objects such as rocks or shells to break open invertebrate prey. We used a series of generalized linear mixed effect...

  15. Sea otters and Alaska's developing sea farming industry

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this paper are to give an overview of the current status of the industry in Alaska, identify potential problems between mariculture and sea otters...

  16. Annual California Sea Otter Census—2017 Spring Census Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The spring 2017 mainland sea otter count began on April 30, and although the shore-based counts were completed by May 12, 2017, the aerial counts were not completed...

  17. Annual California Sea Otter Census: 2017 Census Summary Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Census summary of southern sea otter 2017" provides a standardized tool for examining spatial patterns in abundance and demographic trends of the...

  18. Take of sea otters by Alaska natives (through 1986)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — With a few exceptions, passage of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (Act) in 1972 placed a moratorium on the taking of sea otters and other marine mammals. One of the...

  19. Flood monitoring for ungauged rivers: the power of combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Netgeka, Victor; Raynaud, Damien; Thielen, Jutta

    2013-04-01

    Flood warning systems typically rely on forecasts from national meteorological services and in-situ observations from hydrological gauging stations. This capacity is not equally developed in flood-prone developing countries. Low-cost satellite monitoring systems and global flood forecasting systems can be an alternative source of information for national flood authorities. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been develop jointly with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and the Joint Research Centre, and it is running quasi operational now since June 2011. The system couples state-of-the art weather forecasts with a hydrological model driven at a continental scale. The system provides downstream countries with information on upstream river conditions as well as continental and global overviews. In its test phase, this global forecast system provides probabilities for large transnational river flooding at the global scale up to 30 days in advance. It has shown its real-life potential for the first time during the flood in Southeast Asia in 2011, and more recently during the floods in Australia in March 2012, India (Assam, September-October 2012) and Chad Floods (August-October 2012).The Joint Research Centre is working on further research and development, rigorous testing and adaptations of the system to create an operational tool for decision makers, including national and regional water authorities, water resource managers, hydropower companies, civil protection and first line responders, and international humanitarian aid organizations. Currently efforts are being made to link GloFAS to the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS). GFDS is a Space-based river gauging and flood monitoring system using passive microwave remote sensing which was developed by a collaboration between the JRC and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. GFDS provides flood alerts based on daily water surface change measurements from space. Alerts are shown on a

  20. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 3. Bird and Mammal Use of Main Stem Levee Borrow Pits Along the Lower Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    deer (703); 314 beavers, 366 rac- coons, and 87 nutria were also observed. A median one-way analysis (Chi Square approximation) was conducted on...muskrat, nutria , raccoon, red fox, river otter, eastern cottontail, eastern gray squirrel, eastern fox squirrel, swamp rabbit, white-tailed deer, armadillo...landside of the levees, and river otters, beavers, and nutria were found swimming in flood- waters or resting on floating debris inside the levees

  1. Hydraulic analysis of river training cross-vanes as part of post-restoration monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endreny, T. A.; Soulman, M. M.

    2011-07-01

    River restoration design methods are incrementally improved by studying and learning from monitoring data in previous projects. In this paper we report post-restoration monitoring data and simulation analysis for a Natural Channel Design (NCD) restoration project along 1600 m of the Batavia Kill (14 km2 watershed) in the Catskill Mountains, NY. The restoration project was completed in 2002 with goals to reduce bank erosion and determine the efficacy of NCD approaches for restoring headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains, NY. The NCD approach used a reference-reach to determine channel form, empirical relations between the project site and reference site bankfull dimensions to size channel geometry, and hydraulic and sediment computations based on a bankfull (1.3 yr return interval) discharge to test channel capacity and sediment stability. The NCD project included 12 cross-vanes and 48 j-hook vanes as river training structures along 19 meander bends to protect against bank erosion and maintain scour pools for fish habitat. Monitoring data collected from 2002 to 2004 were used to identify aggradation of pools in meander bends and below some structures. Aggradation in pools was attributed to the meandering riffle-pool channel trending toward step-pool morphology and cross-vane arms not concentrating flow in the center of the channel. The aggradation subsequently caused flow splitting and 4 partial point bar avulsions during a spring 2005 flood with a 25-yr return interval. Processing the pre-flood monitoring data with hydraulic analysis software provided clues the reach was unstable and preventative maintenance was needed. River restoration and monitoring teams should be trained in robust hydraulic analytical methods that help them extend project restoration goals and structure stability.

  2. Hydraulic analysis of river training cross-vanes as part of post-restoration monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Endreny

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available River restoration design methods are incrementally improved by studying and learning from monitoring data in previous projects. In this paper we report post-restoration monitoring data and simulation analysis for a Natural Channel Design (NCD restoration project along 1600 m of the Batavia Kill (14 km2 watershed in the Catskill Mountains, NY. The restoration project was completed in 2002 with goals to reduce bank erosion and determine the efficacy of NCD approaches for restoring headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains, NY. The NCD approach used a reference-reach to determine channel form, empirical relations between the project site and reference site bankfull dimensions to size channel geometry, and hydraulic and sediment computations based on a bankfull (1.3 yr return interval discharge to test channel capacity and sediment stability. The NCD project included 12 cross-vanes and 48 j-hook vanes as river training structures along 19 meander bends to protect against bank erosion and maintain scour pools for fish habitat. Monitoring data collected from 2002 to 2004 were used to identify aggradation of pools in meander bends and below some structures. Aggradation in pools was attributed to the meandering riffle-pool channel trending toward step-pool morphology and cross-vane arms not concentrating flow in the center of the channel. The aggradation subsequently caused flow splitting and 4 partial point bar avulsions during a spring 2005 flood with a 25-yr return interval. Processing the pre-flood monitoring data with hydraulic analysis software provided clues the reach was unstable and preventative maintenance was needed. River restoration and monitoring teams should be trained in robust hydraulic analytical methods that help them extend project restoration goals and structure stability.

  3. Monitoring gully erosion at Nyaba river of Enugu state southeastern Nigeria, using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwu-Delunzu, V. U.; Enete, I. C.; Abubakar, A. S.; Lamidi, S.

    2013-10-01

    Erosion is a natural, gradual and continuous process of earth surface displacement caused by various agents of denudation. It is also caused by some anthropogenic activities. Erosion rate of an area at any point in time is dependent mainly on climate and geological factors. Physical aspects of the erosive force experienced in gullies are mainly dependent on the local prevailing climate condition. In this study, remotely sensed data was used in the analysis of gully erosion progression at Nyaba River in Enugu Urban, aimed at mapping and monitoring gully erosion at the study site. Methodologies employed include; data acquisition from field observation and satellite images; data processing and analyses using ilwis 3.7 and Arc GIS 9.3 software. The result showed that gully progressed from 578,713,735 square meters in 1986 to 1, 002,819,723 in 2011. Prediction showed that the magnitude of the gully area is expected to increase as the years go by if measures are not taken to control the expansion rate. The forecast put the expected coverage of gully erosion at Nyaba River to be 45,210,440 square meters by the year 2040. Consequently, recommendations made include: constant monitoring to detect early stages of gully formation; regulation of grazing of pasture in the area; restriction of sand mining from the river bank and construction of water ways to stabilize river flow. In conclusion, monitoring clearly showed that there was a geometric progression in gully formation at Nyaba over years; the expansion was aided more by anthropogenic activities than natural factors.

  4. Sea otter studies on Amchitka Island 27 July to 5 October 1955 including studies on captive otters in Seattle

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During our stay on Amchitka we had three primary objectives: 1. To study otters in their natural environment with the purpose of learning more about feeding habits,...

  5. Time lapse inversion of 2D ERT data for monitoring river water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, E. L.; Johnson, T. C.; Greenwood, W. J.

    2011-12-01

    Uranium transport in the 300 area is driven by both the chemical and physical effects of stage fluctuations in the Columbia River and resulting river water, ground water interaction. Because river water is less conductive than groundwater, it serves as a natural tracer that can be imaged using surface ERT. We've monitored 4 lines for 4 months over the high stage spring runoff interval to identify preferred flowpaths for river water intrusion. The four lines overlay former waste disposal sites including the processing ponds and sanitary leach trenches. We have used this ERT data set to investigate two methods of time lapse inversion, sequential and all-at-once. Each technique is a model difference approach as opposed to a data difference inversion approach. Both use a regularized inversion with model constraints that regularize spatially and temporally. For the sequential inversion, the starting and reference models are taken from the previous inversion. Both starting and reference models are taken from the first inversion for the all-at-once method. In either case an inversion is triggered if data misfit from the starting model exceeds the chi-squared convergence criteria. It was found that starting with a relatively smooth model provided better visualization of temporal conductivity changes when inverting all data sets with the same initial model, while an initial model exhibiting smaller data misfit may be used successfully as the starting point for sequential inversion. Inland conductivity changes within model cells were found to be highly correlated with river stage, and when paired with the characterization model, provide evidence of waste trenches, the processing pond, as well as the existence of a paleo-channel incised into the Ringold Formation and dipping structures on the Hanford-Ringold contact that provide preferred pathways for river water intrusion.

  6. Soil and river sediments radionuclides monitoring at Aramar Experimental Center: an historical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segre, Nadia; Fagundes, Rosane Correa, E-mail: nadia.segre@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTM-SP/CEA/LARE), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar. Lab. Radioecologico; Moraes, Marco Antonio P.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In order to evaluate possible effects to the environment resulting from the implementation of the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha - Centro Experimental Aramar (CTMSP-CEA) at Ipero in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, which came into operation in 1989, an Environmental Monitoring Program (PMA) was established in October, 1987. One of the aims of this program is to monitor the soil and river sediments radionuclides levels at CEA and beyond its boundary. The utilization of statistical tools to evaluate the results of radiometric environmental monitoring is a procedure required by National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The box plot is a simple statistical tool for displaying data. The central tendency and dispersion of the results as well as the observation of unusual results (outliers) in the dataset are easily visualized. Control chart is a graph that maps data and provides a picture of how a process is performing over time. A control chart always has a central line for the mean, an upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for the lower control limit. Box plots and control charts were used to visualize the annual amount of natural uranium, lead-214, actinium-228 and lead-212 in soil and river sediment detected between 1987 and 2011, considering the measurements of all monitored places each year. This historical observation shows that, in average, the results obtained are below than the 1987-1988 levels (CEA's pre-operational) or below than the backgrounds radionuclides values. (author)

  7. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Second quarter, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  8. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-10-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Since 1991, the flagging criteria have been based on the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards and on method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1992 are listed in this report.

  9. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  10. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  11. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  12. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  13. Long-term monitoring of river basins: strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    In a world where equilibrium is more and more uncommon, monitoring is an essential way to discover whether undesirable change is taking place. Monitoring requires a deliberate plan of action: the regular collection and processing of information. Long-term data reveal important patterns, allowing trends, cycles, and rare events to be identified. This is particularly important for complex systems where signals may be subtle and slow to emerge. Moreover, very long data sets are essential to test hypotheses undreamt of at the time the monitoring was started. This overview includes long time series from UK river basins showing how hydrology and water quality have changed over time - and continue to change. An important conclusion is the long time frame of system recovery, well beyond the normal lifetime of individual governments or research grants. At a time of increasing hydroclimatic variability, long time series remain crucially important; in particular, continuity of observations is vital at key benchmark sites.

  14. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-10-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Since 1991, the flagging criteria have been based on the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards and on method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1992 are listed in this report.

  15. Ecological health monitoring of the Mekong River by using benthic algae in 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunpradid, T.

    2005-05-01

    The monitoring of ecological health of the Mekong River by using benthic algae was carried out from 2003 - 2004. Thirty sampling sites along the Mekong River and its tributaries were selected in Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Veitnam. In this investigation, the distribution of some species of benthic algae in different environments revealed that there was a significant relationship in the presence of them to the water quality, and these species could be used as a potential biomonitor of water quality in the Mekong River. One hundred and eighty six species of benthic diatoms and 46 species of macroalgae were found. Some dominant species of benthic algae could be used as biomonitors to assess water quality. Hydrodictyon recticulatum and Microspora floccosa and indicated clean-moderate water quality; Audouinella cylindrica, Cladophora glomerata, Achnanthes inflate and Cymbella turgidula indicated moderate water quality; Stigeoclonium flagelliforum, Aulacoseira granulata and Cymbella tumida indicated moderate-polluted water quality and Caloglossa leprieurii, Gomphonema parvulum and Nitzschia clausii indicated polluted water quality. The ecological health assessment of the Mekong River by using the species of benthic algae as biomonitors reveled that in the upstream and tributaries revealed moderate water quality. In contrast, some sites in the lower Mekong showed moderate-polluted to polluted water quality.

  16. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barber, David S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Betsill, J. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlefield, Adriane C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohagheghi, Amir H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shanks, Sonoya T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yuldashev, Bekhzad [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Saalikhbaev, Umar [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Radyuk, Raisa [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Djuraev, Akram [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Djuraev, Anwar [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Vasilev, Ivan [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Tolongutov, Bajgabyl [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Valentina, Alekhina [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Solodukhin, Vladimir [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Pozniak, Victor [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2003-04-01

    The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. The Project also collects data on basic water quality parameters. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through a world-wide web site (http://www.cmc.sandia.org/Central/centralasia.html), and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. This report includes graphs showing selected data from the Fall 2000 and Spring 2001 sampling seasons. These data include all parameters grouped into six regions, including main rivers and some tributaries in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya river systems. This report also assembles all data (in tabular form) generated by the project from Fall 2000 through Fall 2001. This report comes as the second part of a planned three-part reporting process. The first report is the Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual, SAND 2002-0484. This is the second report.

  17. Monitoring of Fluvial Transport in the Mountain River Bed Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkow, G.; Borkowski, A.; Kasprzak, M.

    2016-06-01

    The fluvial transport is the surface process that has a strong impact on the topography changes, especially in mountain areas. Traditional hydrological measurements usually give a good understanding of the river flow, however, the information of the bedload movement in the rivers is still insufficient. In particular, there is limited knowledge about the movement of the largest clasts, i.e. boulders. This investigation addresses mentioned issues by employing Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) to monitor annual changes of the mountain river bed. The vertical changes were estimated based on the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of difference (DoD) while transported boulders were identified based on the distances between point clouds and RGB-coloured points. Combined RGB point clouds allowed also to measure 3D displacements of boulders. The results showed that the highest dynamic of the fluvial process occurred between years 2012-2013. Obtained DoD clearly indicated alternating zones of erosion and deposition of the sediment finer fractions in the local sedimentary traps. The horizontal displacement of the rock material in the river bed showed high complexity resulting in the displacement of large boulders (major axis about 0.8 m) for the distance up to 2.3 m.

  18. MONITORING OF FLUVIAL TRANSPORT IN THE MOUNTAIN RIVER BED USING TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jozkow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The fluvial transport is the surface process that has a strong impact on the topography changes, especially in mountain areas. Traditional hydrological measurements usually give a good understanding of the river flow, however, the information of the bedload movement in the rivers is still insufficient. In particular, there is limited knowledge about the movement of the largest clasts, i.e. boulders. This investigation addresses mentioned issues by employing Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS to monitor annual changes of the mountain river bed. The vertical changes were estimated based on the Digital Elevation Model (DEM of difference (DoD while transported boulders were identified based on the distances between point clouds and RGB-coloured points. Combined RGB point clouds allowed also to measure 3D displacements of boulders. The results showed that the highest dynamic of the fluvial process occurred between years 2012-2013. Obtained DoD clearly indicated alternating zones of erosion and deposition of the sediment finer fractions in the local sedimentary traps. The horizontal displacement of the rock material in the river bed showed high complexity resulting in the displacement of large boulders (major axis about 0.8 m for the distance up to 2.3 m.

  19. Monitoring and mapping selected riparian habitat along the lower Snake River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J. L; Tiller, B. L [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Witter, M. [Shannon and Wilson, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States). Geotechnical and Environmental Consultants, Seattle, Washington (United States); Mazaika, R. [Corps of Engineers, Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Studies in this document were initiated to establish baseline information on riparian and wetland habitat conditions at the areas studied under the current reservoir operations on the lower Snake River. Two approaches were used to assess habitat at 28 study sites selected on the four pools on the lower Snake River. These areas all contribute significant riparian habitat along the river, and several of these areas are designated habitat management units. At 14 of the 28 sites, we monitored riparian habitat on three dates during the growing season to quantify vegetation abundance and composition along three transects: soil nutrients, moisture, and pH and water level and pH. A second approach involved identifying any differences in the extent and amount of riparian/wetland habitat currently found at the study areas from that previously documented. We used both ground and boat surveys to map and classify the changes in vegetative cover along the shoreline at the 14 monitoring sites and at 14 additional sites along the lower Snake selected to represent various riparian/wetland habitat conditions. Results of these mapping efforts are compared with maps of cover types previously generated using aerial photography taken in 1987.

  20. A spatially intensive approach to water quality monitoring in the Rous River catchment, NSW, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyre, B.D.; Pepperell, P. [Southern Cross Univ., Lismore, New South Wales (Australia). Centre for Coastal Management

    1999-06-01

    The Rous River catchment northern NSW, Australia was used as a case study to evaluate a spatially intensive approach to water quality monitoring, which involved the collection of water quality data from a large number of sample sites over a short period of time. Despite a few potential limitations, the spatially intensive water quality monitoring methodology should allow environmental managers to rapidly and cost-effectively (in the long term) identify point and non-point source impacts on water quality. Three point sources, the Murwillumbah Sewage Treatment Plant, a dairy shed and horse stables had the largest impact on water quality in the Rous River catchment during baseflow conditions. The poorest water quality in the Rous River catchment, due to non-point source inputs, was associated with cane land, which had evaluated total nitrogen, total particulate nitrogen, and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations and temperatures that were significantly greater (Kruskai-Wallis, {proportional_to} {gt}0.05) than other land uses.

  1. Monitoring of metals, organic compounds and coliforms in water catchment points from the Sinos River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, C A; Staggemeier, R; Bianchi, E; Rodrigues, M T; Fabres, R; Soliman, M C; Bortoluzzi, M; Luz, R B; Heinzelmann, L S; Santos, E L; Fleck, J D; Spilki, F R

    2015-05-01

    Unplanned use and occupation of the land without respecting its capacity of assimilation and environmental purification leads to the degradation of the environment and of water used for human consumption. Agricultural areas, industrial plants and urban centres developed without planning and the control of effluent discharges are the main causes of water pollution in river basins that receive all the liquid effluents produced in those places. Over the last decades, environmental management has become part of governmental agendas in search of solutions for the preservation of water quality and the restoration of already degraded resources. This study evaluated the conditions of the main watercourse of the Sinos River basin by monitoring the main physical, chemical and microbiological parameters described in the CONAMA Resolution no. 357/2005.The set of parameters evaluated at five catchment points of water human consumption revealed a river that has different characteristics in each reach, as the upper reach was class 1, whereas the middle and lower reaches of the basin were class 4. Monitoring pointed to households as the main sources of pollutants in those reaches, although metals used in the industrial production of the region were found in the samples analyzed.

  2. Satellite radar altimetry for monitoring small river and lakes in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Sulistioadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and satellite geodetic observations are capable for hydrologic monitoring of freshwater resources. For the case of satellite radar altimetry, limited temporal resolutions (e.g., satellite revisit period prohibit the use of this method for a short ( To address this scientific challenge, this study tries to monitor small (40–200 m width and medium-sized (200–800 m width rivers and lakes using satellite altimetry through identification and choice of the over-water radar waveforms corresponding to the appropriately waveform-retracked water level. This study addresses the humid tropics of Southeast Asia, specifically in Indonesia, where similar studies do not yet exist and makes use Level 2 radar altimeter measurements generated by European Space Agency's (ESA's Envisat (Environmental Satellite mission. This experiment proves that satellite altimetry provides a good alternative, or the only means in some regions, to measure the water level of medium-sized river (200–800 m width and small lake (extent 2 in Southeast Asia humid tropic with reasonable accuracy. In addition, the procedure to choose retracked Envisat altimetry water level heights via identification or selection of standard waveform shapes for inland water is recommended and should be a standard measure especially over small rivers and lakes. This study also found that Ice-1 is not necessarily the best retracker as reported by previous studies, among the four standard waveform retracking algorithms for Envisat radar altimetry observing inland water bodies.

  3. Garonne River monitoring from Signal-to-Noise Ratio data collected by a single geodetic receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Nicolas; Frappart, Frédéric; Darrozes, José; Ramillien, Guillaume; Bonneton, Philippe; Bonneton, Natalie; Detandt, Guillaume; Roques, Manon; Orseau, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) altimetry has demonstrated a strong potential for water level monitoring through the last decades. Interference Pattern Technique (IPT) based on the analysis of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) estimated by a GNSS receiver, presents the main advantage of being applicable everywhere by using a single geodetic antenna and a classical GNSS receiver. Such a technique has already been tested in various configurations of acquisition of surface-reflected GNSS signals with an accuracy of a few centimeters. Nevertheless, classical SNR analysis method used to estimate the variations of the reflecting surface height h(t) has a limited domain of validity due to its variation rate dh/dt(t) assumed to be negligible. In [1], authors solve this problem with a "dynamic SNR method" taking the dynamic of the surface into account to conjointly estimate h(t) and dh/dt(t) over areas characterized by high amplitudes of tides. If the performance of this dynamic SNR method is already well-established for ocean monitoring [1], it was not validated in continental areas (i.e., river monitoring). We carried out a field study during 3 days in August and September, 2015, using a GNSS antenna to measure the water level variations in the Garonne River (France) in Podensac located 140 km downstream of the estuary mouth. In this site, the semi-diurnal tide amplitude reaches ~5 m. The antenna was located ~10 m above the water surface, and reflections of the GNSS electromagnetic waves on the Garonne River occur until 140 m from the antenna. Both classical SNR method and dynamic SNR method are tested and results are compared. [1] N. Roussel, G. Ramillien, F. Frappart, J. Darrozes, A. Gay, R. Biancale, N. Striebig, V. Hanquiez, X. Bertin, D. Allain : "Sea level monitoring and sea state estimate using a single geodetic receiver", Remote Sensing of Environment 171 (2015) 261-277.

  4. Variations of transcript profiles between sea otters Enhydra lutris from Prince William Sound, Alaska, and clinically normal reference otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Bowen, Lizabeth; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Murray, M.; Estes, J.L.; Keister, Robin A.; Stott, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Development of blood leukocyte gene transcript profiles has the potential to expand condition assessments beyond those currently available to evaluate wildlife health, including sea otters Enhydra lutris, both individually and as populations. The 10 genes targeted in our study represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumor suppression, cellular stress-response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and antioxidant enzymes. These genes can be modified by biological, physical, or anthropogenic impacts and consequently provide information on the general type of stressors present in a given environment. We compared gene transcript profiles of sea otters sampled in 2008 among areas within Prince William Sound impacted to varying degrees by the 1989 ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill with those of captive and wild reference sea otters. Profiles of sea otters from Prince William Sound showed elevated transcription in genes associated with tumor formation, cell death, organic exposure, inflammation, and viral exposure when compared to the reference sea otter group, indicating possible recent and chronic exposure to organic contaminants. Sea otters from historically designated oiled areas within Prince William Sound 19 yr after the oil spill had higher transcription of genes associated with tumor formation, cell death, heat shock, and inflammation than those from areas designated as less impacted by the spill.

  5. What are we monitoring and why? Using geomorphic principles to frame eco-hydrological assessments of river condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Gary; Reid, Helen; Fryirs, Kirstie; Trahan, Nadine

    2010-04-01

    Monitoring and assessment are integral components in adaptive management programmes that strive to improve the condition of river systems. Unfortunately, these procedures are generally applied with an emphasis upon biotic attributes and water quality, with limited regard for the geomorphic structure, function and evolutionary trajectory of a river system. Geomorphic principles convey an understanding of the landscape context within which ecohydrologic processes interact. Collectively, geo-eco-hydrologic understanding presents a coherent biophysical template that can be used to frame spatially and temporally rigorous approaches to monitoring that respect the inherent diversity, variability and complexity of any given river system. This understanding aids the development of management programmes that 'work with nature.' Unless an integrative perspective is used to monitor river condition, conservation and rehabilitation plans are unlikely to reach their true potential.

  6. A multitrophic approach to monitoring the effects of metal mining in otherwise pristine and ecologically sensitive rivers in northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Paula; Bowman, Michelle F; Dubé, Monique G

    2008-07-01

    It is not known if current chemical and biological monitoring methods are appropriate for assessing the impacts of growing industrial development on ecologically sensitive northern waters. We used a multitrophic level approach to evaluate current monitoring methods and to determine whether metal-mining activities had affected 2 otherwise pristine rivers that flow into the South Nahanni River, Northwest Territories, a World Heritage Site. We compared upstream reference conditions in the rivers to sites downstream and further downstream of mines. The endpoints we evaluated included concentrations of metals in river water, sediments, and liver and flesh of slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus); benthic algal and macroinvertebrate abundance, richness, diversity, and community composition; and various slimy sculpin measures, our sentinel forage fish species. Elevated concentrations of copper and iron in liver tissue of sculpin from the Flat River were associated with high concentrations of mine-derived iron in river water and copper in sediments that were above national guidelines. In addition, sites downstream of the mine on the Flat River had increased algal abundances and altered benthic macroinvertebrate communities, whereas the sites downstream of the mine on Prairie Creek had increased benthic macroinvertebrate taxa richness and improved sculpin condition. Biological differences in both rivers were consistent with mild enrichment of the rivers downstream of current and historical mining activity. We recommend that monitoring in these northern rivers focus on indicators in epilithon and benthic macroinvertebrate communities due to their responsiveness and as alternatives to lethal fish sampling in habitats with low fish abundance. We also recommend monitoring of metal burdens in periphyton and benthic invertebrates for assessment of exposure to mine effluent and causal association. Although the effects of mining activities on riverine biota currently are limited, our

  7. Sea otter survey, Cordova, Alaska - 1987 (Orca Inlet to Egg Island Channel)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Until recently, sea otters had been absent or at low levels in the vicinity of human populations in Alaska. This situation has changed. As sea otters have expanded...

  8. Sea otter distribution and abundance in western Prince William Sound, Alaska: Progress report 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sea otters recently recolonized Prince William sound (PWS), Alaska after being extirpated in the 18th and 19th centuries. Twenty-five years ago a few otters...

  9. Data for Southern Sea Otter Range Expansion and Habitat Use in the Santa Barbara Channel

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are .csv files of capture data from tagged sea otters in the Santa Barbara Channel Study. Sea otters were captured using highly specialized techniques...

  10. Tissue concentrations of elemental and organochlorine compounds in sea otters in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are found in coastal waters of Alaska from the southeast part of the state through the Aleutian Islands. Sea otters and their principle...

  11. Demonstration of innovative monitoring technologies at the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossabi, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jenkins, R.A.; Wise, M.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an Integrated Demonstration Program at the Savannah River Site in 1989. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate innovative technologies that can improve present-day environmental restoration methods. The Integrated Demonstration Program at SRS is entitled ``Cleanup of Organics in Soils and Groundwater at Non-Arid Sites.`` New technologies in the areas of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation are being demonstrated and evaluated for their technical performance and cost effectiveness in comparison with baseline technologies. Present site characterization and monitoring methods are costly, time-consuming, overly invasive, and often imprecise. Better technologies are required to accurately describe the subsurface geophysical and geochemical features of a site and the nature and extent of contamination. More efficient, nonintrusive characterization and monitoring techniques are necessary for understanding and predicting subsurface transport. More reliable procedures are also needed for interpreting monitoring and characterization data. Site characterization and monitoring are key elements in preventing, identifying, and restoring contaminated sites. The remediation of a site cannot be determined without characterization data, and monitoring may be required for 30 years after site closure.

  12. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. Third quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  13. Establishing of monitoring network on Kosovo Rivers: preliminary measurements on the four main rivers (Drini i Bardhë, Morava e Binqës, Lepenc and Sitnica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, Fatbardh; Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Troni, Naser; Bacaj, Mustafë; Jusufi, Florim

    2011-04-01

    The main goal of this work was to suggest to authorities concerned a monitoring network on main rivers of Kosovo. We aim to suggest application of WFD (Water Framework Directive) in Kosovo as soon as possible. Our present chemical research could be the first step towards it, giving an opportunity to plan the monitoring network in which pollution locations will be highlighted. In addition to chemical, future ecological studies could be performed. Waters of the rivers Drini i Bardhë, Morava e Binçës, Lepenc and Sitnica, which are of supra-regional interest, are investigated systematically along the river course. Sediments of these rivers were also investigated at the same monitoring points and results have recently been published by us. In this paper we present results of mass concentrations of eco-toxic metals: Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Mn(II) in waters of four main rivers of Kosovo, using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV), Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-VIS) Spectrometry. Also some physico-chemical parameters are determined: water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, alkalinity, total hardness and temporary hardness. Results of concentrations of eco-toxic metals in water are compared with concentrations found in sediments at the same locations. Statistical methods are applied to determine anomalous regions Classification of waters at each sampling station of our work was tentatively performed based on metal indicators, using Croatian standards. Our results are showing that concentrations of Zn in all waters are low and pose no risk for living organisms. Exception is water at S5 station, where concentration is above permanent toxic level. Concentrations of Pb and Mn are high at D5 station on Drini i Bardhë River (14 km from boarder to Albania) and at all stations along Sitnica River. Cadmium in high concentrations which is above permanent toxic level is measured in water only at two stations, one (M1) on

  14. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2008-11-06

    Emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in the Missouri River Mainstem System is a critical habitat element for several federally listed bird species: the endangered interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). The Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River and is responsible under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to take actions within its authorities to conserve listed species. To comply with the 2000 USFWS BiOp and the 2003 amended USFWS BiOp, the Corps has created habitats below Gavins Point Dam using mechanical means. Initial monitoring indicates that constructed sandbars provide suitable habitat features for nesting and foraging least terns and piping plovers. Terns and plovers are using constructed sandbars and successfully reproducing at or above levels stipulated in the BiOp. However, whether such positive impacts will persist cannot yet be adequately assessed at this time.

  15. Missouri River Emergent Sandbar Habitat Monitoring Plan - A Conceptual Framework for Adaptive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Anteau, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Habitat conditions are one of the most important factors determining distribution and productivity of least terns (Sternula antillarum) and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) in the upper Missouri River system (Ziewitz and others, 1992; Kruse and others, 2002). Habitat conditions are known to change within and among seasons in response to variation in river flows, weather conditions, and management actions targeted at providing for the needs of terns and plovers. Although these principles are generally agreed upon, there is little empirical information available on the quantity and quality of tern and plover habitats in this system, particularly with reference to the major life history events that must be supported (egg laying, incubation, and brood rearing). Habitat requirements for these events are composed of two major categories: nesting and foraging habitat. In the case of piping plovers, these two requirements must occur on the same area because plover chicks are constrained to foraging near nesting sites prior to fledging (Knetter and others, 2002; Haffner, 2005). In contrast, least terns chicks are fed by the adults, allowing food procurement for broods to occur outside the immediate nesting area; however, food resources must be close enough to nesting locations to minimize foraging time. The complexity and dynamics of the upper Missouri River system introduce considerable uncertainty into how best to manage tern and plover habitats, and how best to evaluate the effectiveness of this management. An extensive program of habitat monitoring will be needed to address this complexity and support the management of least terns and piping plovers under the Missouri River Recovery Program. These needs are being addressed, in part, through a program of habitat creation and management targeted at improving quality and quantity of habitats for terns and plovers. Given the momentum of these projects and their associated costs, it is imperative that the capacity be

  16. Sea otter foraging behavior and hydrocarbon levels in prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroff, Angela M.; Bodkin, James L.; Loughlin, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), Prudhoe Bay crude oil from the vessel spread on the sea surface and covered coastal shores from western Prince William Sound (PWS) to the Alaska Peninsula. In PWS alone. acute mortality of sca otters at the time of the spill was estimated to be greater than 2000 (Doroff et al. 1993; Garrott et al. 1993).Shoreline oiling was observed on approximately 24% of the 1891 km of coastline surveyed within PWS (Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Damage Assessment Geoprocessing Group 1991). The effect of oil on the abundance of nearshore marine invertebrate populations is unclear, and the concentration and persistence of hydrocarbons present in tissues of most of these invertebrate species still remains unknown. What is known is that marine bivalves can accumulate petroleum hydrocarbons from both chronic and acute sources (Blumer et al. 1970; Ehrhardt 1972; Boehun and Quinn 1977). Potential long-term chronic effects of oiled intertidal and subtidal prey on the sea otter population are of concern.Sea otters prey on a wide variety of benthic marine invertebrates (Riedman and Estes 1990) and forage in shallow coastal waters (Wild and Arnes 1974), which vary widely in exposure to the open ocean, substrate type, and community composition. Sea otters have high metabolic demands relative to other marine mammals and can consume 20-25% of their body weight per day in invertebrate prey (Kenyon 1969: Costa and Kooyman 1984). Sca otters have occupied southwestern PWS since at least the early 1950s (Lensink 1962; Garshelis et al. 1986). The sea otter population in the PWS spill region was likely near equilibrium density and limited by prey availability before the oil spill (xcurrel (Estes et al. 1981; Garshelis et al. 1986; Johnson 1987). Sea otters in this region spent 59% of the daylight hours foraging, while otters in recently reoccupied habitats of eastern PWS spent only 27%. (Garshelis et al. 1986). Therefore, small differences in abundance of prey

  17. Monitoring the effects of floods on submerged macrophytes in a large river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Rovira, Albert; Real, Montserrat

    2012-12-01

    The lower Ebro River (Catalonia, Spain) has recently undergone a regime shift from a phytoplankton to a macrophyte-dominated system. Macrophytes started to spread at the end of the 1990s and since 2002 artificial floods (flushing flows) of short duration (1-2 days) are released from the Riba-roja dam once or twice a year in order to reduce macrophyte density. The aim of this study was to analyse the spatiotemporal trends of the submerged macrophytes in two stretches of the lower Ebro River using high-resolution hydroacoustic methods, in order to elucidate the effects of artificial floods and natural floods on its distribution and abundance. Results showed that the mean cover in the two studied stretches (Móra and Ginestar) was not reduced after a flushing flow (from 36.59% to 55.85% in Móra, and from 21.18% to 21.05% in Ginestar), but it was greatly reduced after the natural flood (down to 9.79% in Móra and 2.04% in Ginestar); surprisingly the cover increased in Móra after the artificial flood. In order to increase the efficiency of floods in controlling macrophyte spreading, the magnitude and frequency of them should largely increase, as well as the suspended sediment load, approaching as much as possible to the original flood pattern before dam construction. Hydroacoustic methods combined with geostatistics and interpolation in GIS can accurately monitor spatiotemporal trends of submerged macrophytes in large rivers. This is the first article to apply this monitoring system to submerged macrophytes in rivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  19. SENTINEL-1/2 Data for Ship Traffic Monitoring on the Danube River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negula, I. Dana; Poenaru, V. D.; Olteanu, V. G.; Badea, A.

    2016-06-01

    After a long period of drought, the water level of the Danube River has significantly dropped especially on the Romanian sector, in July-August 2015. Danube reached the lowest water level recorded in the last 12 years, causing the blockage of the ships in the sector located close to Zimnicea Harbour. The rising sand banks in the navigable channel congested the commercial traffic for a few days with more than 100 ships involved. The monitoring of the decreasing water level and the traffic jam was performed based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 free data provided by the European Space Agency and the European Commission within the Copernicus Programme. Specific processing methods (calibration, speckle filtering, geocoding, change detection, image classification, principal component analysis, etc.) were applied in order to generate useful products that the responsible authorities could benefit from. The Sentinel data yielded good results for water mask extraction and ships detection. The analysis continued after the closure of the crisis situation when the water reached the nominal level again. The results indicate that Sentinel data can be successfully used for ship traffic monitoring, building the foundation of future endeavours for a durable monitoring of the Danube River.

  20. SENTINEL-1/2 DATA FOR SHIP TRAFFIC MONITORING ON THE DANUBE RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dana Negula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After a long period of drought, the water level of the Danube River has significantly dropped especially on the Romanian sector, in July-August 2015. Danube reached the lowest water level recorded in the last 12 years, causing the blockage of the ships in the sector located close to Zimnicea Harbour. The rising sand banks in the navigable channel congested the commercial traffic for a few days with more than 100 ships involved. The monitoring of the decreasing water level and the traffic jam was performed based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 free data provided by the European Space Agency and the European Commission within the Copernicus Programme. Specific processing methods (calibration, speckle filtering, geocoding, change detection, image classification, principal component analysis, etc. were applied in order to generate useful products that the responsible authorities could benefit from. The Sentinel data yielded good results for water mask extraction and ships detection. The analysis continued after the closure of the crisis situation when the water reached the nominal level again. The results indicate that Sentinel data can be successfully used for ship traffic monitoring, building the foundation of future endeavours for a durable monitoring of the Danube River.

  1. Analysis of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) reproductive tract: A methods manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Biela, Vanessa R.; Gill, Verena A.

    2007-01-01

    Reproduction in the female sea otter, Enhydra lutris, was relatively unstudied until Sinha et al. (1966) examined 140 reproductive tracts collected 1955-62 and used their findings to describe sea otter reproductive anatomy and biology. Two years later Sinha and Conaway (1968) published a more detailed paper on the ovary of the sea otter. These descriptive papers have been used as the basis for all subsequent studies of sea otter reproductive tracts.

  2. 19 CFR 12.63 - Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. 12.63 Section... OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.63 Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste. Seal-skin or sea-otter-skin waste composed of small pieces not large enough to...

  3. Challenges of flood monitoring in the Senegal river valley using multi-temporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmann, Laurent; Delbart, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, floodplains wetlands play an important role for livelihoods and economy, especially for agriculture and fishing. However, tropical rivers flows are increasingly modified by climate change and dam regulation. In the Senegal river valley, the annual flood, from August to November, is an important water resources creating ecosystems services for people. Senegal river basin face to hydrological changes, due to rainfall diminution during the 1970's and building of large dams during 1980's to secure water resources. Water management and development of irrigation have modified the floodplain functioning. Flood recession agriculture, grazing and fishing are now confronted to a high uncertainty about floods level, duration and extension. Thus, spatiotemporal information of flood extension and duration are important for local communities and stakeholders to ensure food security and ecosystems services. Multi-temporal satellite data demonstrates an important applicability for flood mapping. Aims of this work is to present potentiality of using multi-temporal data from MODIS and new satellite Sentinel-2 for flood monitoring in a Sahelian context. It will also discuss the potential of flood mapping for the analysis of the dynamics of riparian vegetation and flood recession agriculture. This study uses two datasets to explore flood monitoring in Senegal river valley. Firstly, MODIS 8-days data (MOD09A) are first used, because of its temporal resolution of 8 days covering the period from 2000 to 2016. However, MODIS data are limited due to a low spatial resolution, that's why we also use Sentinel-2 data, available since summer 2015. The data were processed by constructing NDWI time-series (NDWI threshold is empirically defined) and extracting NDWI values for each inundated pixel during flood. First results demonstrate that using MODIS on a large scale is enough for analyze interannual variability of the flooded surfaces. We present here maps of flood

  4. Understanding transport pathways in a river system - Monitoring sediments contaminated by an incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, S.; Kleisinger, C.; Hillebrand, G.; Claus, E.; Schwartz, R.; Carls, I.; Winterscheid, A.; Schubert, B.

    2016-12-01

    Experiments to trace transport of sediments and suspended particulate matter on a river scale are an expensive and difficult venture, since it causes a lot of official requirements. In spring 2015, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were released during restoration works at a bridge in the upper part of the Elbe River, near the Czech-German border. In this study, the particle-bound PCB-transport is applied as a tracer for monitoring transport pathways of suspended solids (SS) along a whole river stretch over 700 km length. The incident was monitored by concentration measurements of seven indicator PCB congeners along the inland part of the Elbe River as well as in the Elbe estuary. Data from 15 monitoring stations (settling tanks) as well as from two longitudinal campaigns (grab samples) along the river in July and August 2015 are considered. The total PCB load is calculated for all stations on the basis of monthly contaminant concentrations and daily suspended sediment concentrations. Monte-Carlo simulations assess the uncertainties of the calculated load. 1D water levels and GIS analysis were used to locate temporal storage areas for the SS. It is shown that the ratio of high versus low chlorinated PCB congeners is a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load of the incident from the long-term background signal. Furthermore, the reduction of total PCB load within the upper Elbe indicates that roughly 24% of the SS were transported with the water by wash load. Approximately 600 km downstream of the incident site, the PCB-marked wash load was first identified in July 2015. PCB load transported intermittently in suspension was detected roughly 400 km downstream of the incident site by August 2015. In the Elbe Estuary, PCB-marked SS were only found upstream of the steep slope of water depth (approx. 4 to 15 m) within Hamburg harbor that acts as a major sediment sink. Here, SS from the inland Elbe are mixed with lowly contaminated marine material, which may mask the

  5. Water quality monitoring of the Pirapó River watershed, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Bortoletto

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the Pirapó River watershed in Paraná, Brazil, and identify the critical pollution sites throughout the drainage basin. The water quality was monitored during the period from January 2011 to December 2012. Nine points distributed throughout the main channel of the Pirapó River were sampled for a total of 17 samplings. The water quality was evaluated based on the determination of 14 physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Analysis of the variables monitored in the Pirapó River watershed using factor analysis/principal components analysis (FA/PCA indicated the formation of three distinct groups of parameters: water temperature (Twater, dissolved oxygen (DO and a group composed of total suspended solids (TSS, turbidity and nitrite (NO2–. The parameters Twater and DO exhibited a relationship with the seasonality, and the TSS, turbidity, and NO2– levels were correlated with surface runoff caused by rainfall events. Principal component analysis (PCA of the sampling points enabled the selection of the 10 most important variables from among the 14 evaluated parameters. The results showed that the nitrate (NO3–, NO2–, TSS, turbidity and total phosphorous (TP levels were related to the soil type, and the parameters DO, electrical conductivity (EC, ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3 and thermotolerant coliforms (TC were related to organic matter pollution, with the P5 sampling site being the most critical site. The ordination diagram of the sampling points as a function of the PCA indicated a reduction from 9 to 5 sampling points, indicating the potential for decreasing the costs associated with monitoring.

  6. Why social science matters in river management: involvement of local stakeholders in monitoring the effects of room for the river measures in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugge, Laura; van den Born, Riyan

    2015-04-01

    The Netherlands is a densely populated delta region with a long tradition in flood protection and river management. In response to climate change, adaptive measures are implemented to create more room for the river (and thus increasing water discharge capacity) while at the same time maintaining the multifunctional use of the river system. These functions include for example navigation, water supply, housing and spatial quality, nature development and recreation. The incorporation of social aspects in water management is vital for the development and implementation of sustainable solutions in environmental planning. Active stakeholder involvement has major benefits in terms of trust, public support, social learning and creative decision making. In practice, however, stakeholder involvement is often confined to one-way communication (e.g. information on websites and public hearings) instead of establishing a dialogue with the relevant local stakeholders. Moreover, stakeholders are often involved too late. Our study focusses on stakeholder perceptions and the opportunities for stakeholder participation and collaboration in river management. One way to actively involve stakeholders and invest in a dialogue is through participatory monitoring, i.e. to involve local stakeholders in collecting, analyzing and evaluating monitoring data. Currently, a pilot engineering intervention (2013-2015) is carried out in the Waal river, i.e. the main Rhine branch in The Netherlands. This intervention comprises the substitution of traditional groynes by a 10 km longitudinal dam and will change the appearance of the fluvial landscape dramatically. An interdisciplinary team of scientists, government representatives and other public and private parties is involved in monitoring the hydrological, ecological and socio-economic effects of the longitudinal dam with the aim to develop and improve models, guidelines and tools for integrative river management. This also provides unique

  7. 77 FR 75265 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...) establishing a database for identifying the optimal sustainable population level for the southern sea otter. We... species in kelp forest habitats; the presence of sea otters would enhance biodiversity in southern... biodiversity in southern California waters; the presence of sea otters would enhance the economy by producing...

  8. SNOW COVER MONITORING BY REMOTE SENSING AND SNOWMELT RUNOFF CALCULATION IN THE UPPER HUANGHE RIVER BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The upper Huanghe(Yellow) River basin is situated in the northeast of the Qinghai-Xizang(Tibet)Plateau of China. The melt-water from the snow-cover is main water supply for the rivers in the region during springtime and other arid regions of the northwestern China, and the hydrological conditions of the rivers are directly controlled by the snowmelt water in spring. So snowmelt runoff forecast has importance for hydropower, flood prevention and water resources utilization. The application of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques in snow cover monitoring and snowmelt runoff calculation in the upper Huanghe River basin are introduced amply in this paper. The key parameter- snow cover area can be computed by satellite images from multi-platform, multi-temporal and multi-spectral. A cluster of snow-cover data can be yielded by means of the classification filter method. Meanwhile GIS will provide relevant information for obtaining the parameters and also for zoning. According to the typical samples extracting snow covered mountainous region, the snowmelt runoff calculation models in the upper Huanghe River basin are presented and they are mentioned in detail also. The runoff snowmelt models based on the snow-cover data from NOAA images and observation data of runoff, precipitation and air temperature have been satisfactorily used for predicting the inflow to the Longyangxia Reservoir , which is located at lower end of snow cover region and is one of the largest reservoirs on the upper Huanghe River, during late March to early June. The result shows that remote sensing techniques combined with the ground meteorological and hydrological observation is of great potential in snowmelt runoff forecasting for a large river basin. With the development of remote sensing technique and the progress of the interpretation method, the forecast accuracy of snowmelt runoff will be improved in the near future. Large scale extent and few stations are two

  9. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2001 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.; Bisset, J.E.

    2002-03-01

    The Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The Wigwam River has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region. This report provides a summary of results obtained during the second year (2001) of the juvenile bull trout enumeration and fish habitat assessment program. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the upper Wigwam River valley. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes in the upper Wigwam River, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. Five permanent sampling sites were established August 2000 in the Wigwam river drainage (one site on Bighorn Creek and four sites on the mainstem Wigwam River). At each site, juvenile (0{sup +}, 1{sup +} and 2{sup +} age classes) fish densities and stream habitat conditions were measured over two stream meander wavelengths. Bull trout represented 95.1% of the catch and the mean density of juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 20.7 fish/100m{sup 2} (range 0.9 to 24.0 fish/100m{sup 2}). This compares to 17.2 fish/100m{sup 2} (+20%) for the previous year. Fry (0{sup +}) dominated the catch and this was a direct result of juvenile bull trout ecology and habitat partitioning among life history stages. Site selection was biased towards sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. Comparison of fry density estimates replicated across both the preliminary survey (1997) and the current study (Cope and Morris 2001) illustrate the stable nature of these high densities. Bull trout populations have been shown to be extremely susceptible to habitat degradation and over-harvest and are

  10. Conservation genetics of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmerman, 1780 (Carnivora, Mustelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM. Garcia

    Full Text Available The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis is an aquatic mammal of the Mustelidae family, endemic to South America. Its original distribution corresponds to the region from the Guyanas to Central-North Argentina, but it is extinct or on the verge of extinction in most of its historical range. Currently, the species is considered endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN. Based on its geographic distribution in the South American continent and on some morphological characters, two subspecies were suggested: P. brasiliensis brasiliensis, occurring in the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins, and P. brasiliensis paranensis, in the Paraná and Paraguai River Basins. However, there is no consensus on assuming this subspecies division and no detailed studies have been carried out to elucidate this question. This study aims to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pteronura brasiliensis along its range in Brazil to check the possibility of the existence of two distinct subspecies using also a reciprocal monophyly criterion. We analyzed the control region, and the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I genes of the mitochondrial DNA in several giant otter populations from the Amazon and Paraguai River Basins. Analyses have indicated some degree of geographic correlation and a high level of inter-population divergence, although the subspecies division is not highly supported. As we observed strong population structure, we cannot rule out the existence of further divisions shaping the species distribution. The results suggest that a more complex population structure occurs in P. brasiliensis, and the conservation practice should concentrate on preserving all remaining local populations.

  11. Monitoring Niger River Floods from satellite Rainfall Estimates : overall skill and rainfall uncertainty propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosset, Marielle; Casse, Claire; Peugeot, christophe; boone, aaron; pedinotti, vanessa

    2015-04-01

    Global measurement of rainfall offers new opportunity for hydrological monitoring, especially for some of the largest Tropical river where the rain gauge network is sparse and radar is not available. Member of the GPM constellation, the new French-Indian satellite Mission Megha-Tropiques (MT) dedicated to the water and energy budget in the tropical atmosphere contributes to a better monitoring of rainfall in the inter-tropical zone. As part of this mission, research is developed on the use of satellite rainfall products for hydrological research or operational application such as flood monitoring. A key issue for such applications is how to account for rainfall products biases and uncertainties, and how to propagate them into the end user models ? Another important question is how to choose the best space-time resolution for the rainfall forcing, given that both model performances and rain-product uncertainties are resolution dependent. This paper analyses the potential of satellite rainfall products combined with hydrological modeling to monitor the Niger river floods in the city of Niamey, Niger. A dramatic increase of these floods has been observed in the last decades. The study focuses on the 125000 km2 area in the vicinity of Niamey, where local runoff is responsible for the most extreme floods recorded in recent years. Several rainfall products are tested as forcing to the SURFEX-TRIP hydrological simulations. Differences in terms of rainfall amount, number of rainy days, spatial extension of the rainfall events and frequency distribution of the rain rates are found among the products. Their impacts on the simulated outflow is analyzed. The simulations based on the Real time estimates produce an excess in the discharge. For flood prediction, the problem can be overcome by a prior adjustment of the products - as done here with probability matching - or by analysing the simulated discharge in terms of percentile or anomaly. All tested products exhibit some

  12. Deforestation monitoring in the Amazon River estuary by multi-temporal Envisat ScanSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Ishwaran, N.; Brito Pezzuti, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have capitalized on the all-weather, all-day operational capability of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems and used multi-temporal (from 2002 to 2006), multi-track (track 174, 360 and 447) Envisat ScanSAR amplitude images for deforestation mapping and change detection in the Amazon River estuary. A synergistic approach to deforestation mapping was adopted using SAR backscattering anomalies, the neighbouring forest constraint and DEM-derived slopes based on the three following characteristics: (1) backscattering is reduced in regions suspected to have undergone deforestation; (2) open regions without neighbouring forests were identified for removal; and (3) false-alarms linked to water bodies are mitigated using the shape threshold of flat-slope objects. Our results show that deforestation in the Amazon River estuary continues to be a serious problem, particularly along the rivers, streams or roads, which are more susceptible to anthropogenic activities than other areas. Up to 2006, the deforested portion accounts for 4.6 per cent (3,096,000 pixels) of the entire study site of approximately 458,000 square kilometers (67,320,000 pixels). However, this figure, validated by Landsat ETM images, may have overestimated deforestation to some extent. Nevertheless, multi-temporal analysis using SAR systems, as done in this study, have a clear potential for surveillance of deforestation in the Amazon, particularly in light of the frequent cloud cover typical of the area and the limitations of deforestation monitoring by means of optical satellite imagery.

  13. Real-time Monitoring Network to Characterize Anthropogenic and Natural Events Affecting the Hudson River, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. S.; Bonner, J. S.; Fuller, C.; Kirkey, W.; Ojo, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Hudson River watershed spans 34,700 km2 predominantly in New York State, including agricultural, wilderness, and urban areas. The Hudson River supports many activities including shipping, supplies water for municipal, commercial, and agricultural uses, and is an important recreational resource. As the population increases within this watershed, so does the anthropogenic impact on this natural system. To address the impacts of anthropogenic and natural activities on this ecosystem, the River and Estuary Observatory Network (REON) is being developed through a joint venture between the Beacon Institute, Clarkson University, General Electric Inc. and IBM Inc. to monitor New York's Hudson and Mohawk Rivers in real-time. REON uses four sensor platform types with multiple nodes within the network to capture environmentally relevant episodic events. Sensor platform types include: 1) fixed robotic vertical profiler (FRVP); 2) mobile robotic undulating platform (MRUP); 3) fixed acoustic Doppler current profiler (FADCP) and 4) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The FRVP periodically generates a vertical profile with respect to water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, particle concentration and size distribution, and fluorescence. The MRUP utilizes an undulating tow-body tethered behind a research vessel to measure the same set of water parameters as the FRVP, but does so 'synchronically' over a highly-resolved spatial regime. The fixed ADCP provides continuous water current profiles. The AUV maps four-dimensional (time, latitude, longitude, depth) variation of water quality, water currents and bathymetry along a pre-determined transect route. REON data can be used to identify episodic events, both anthropogenic and natural, that impact the Hudson River. For example, a strong heat signature associated with cooling water discharge from the Indian Point nuclear power plant was detected with the MRUP. The FRVP monitoring platform at Beacon, NY, located in the

  14. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-10-06

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites.

  15. SNOW COVER MONITORING BY REMOTE SENSING AND SNOWMELT RUNOFF CALCULATION IN THE UPPER HUANGHE RIVER BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANYong-chao; MAQua-jie; 等

    2002-01-01

    The upper Huanghe(Yellow) River basin is situated in the northeast of the Qinghai-Xizang(Tibet)Plateau of China.The melt-water from the snow-cover is main water supply for the rivers in the region during springtime and other arid regions of the northwestern China, and the hydrological conditions of the rivers are directly controlled by the snowmelt water in spring .So snowmelt runoff forecast has importance for hydropower,flood prevention and water resources utilize-tion.The application of remote sensing and Geographic Information System(GIS) techniques in snow cover monitoring and snowmelt runoff calculation in the upper Huanghe River basin are introduced amply in this paper.The key parame-ter-snow cover area can be computed by satellite images from multi-platform,multi-templral and multi-spectral.A clus-ter of snow-cover data can be yielded by means of the classification filter method.Meanwhile GIS will provide relevant information for obtaining the parameters and also for zoning .According to the typical samples extracting snow covered moun-tained in detail also.The runoff snowmelt models based on the snow-cover data from NOAA images and observation data of runoff,precipitation and air temperature have been satisfactorily used for predicting the inflow to the Longyangxia Reser-voir,which is located at lower end of snow cover region and is one of the largest reservoirs on the upper Huanghe River, during late March to early June.The result shows that remote sensing techniques combined with the ground meteorological and hydrological observation is of great potential in snowmelt runoff forecasting for a large river basin.With the develop-ment of remote sensing technique and the progress of the interpretation method,the forecast accuracy of snowmelt runoff will be improved in the near future .Large scale extent and few stations are two objective reality situations in Chian,so they should be considered in simulation and forecast.Apart from dividing ,the derivation of

  16. Estimated ground-water use in Becker, Clay, Douglas, Grant, Otter Tail, and Wilkin Counties, Minnesota, for 2030 and 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, is studying six alternatives for delivering water to the Red River of the North Valley in North Dakota and to the cities of Breckenridge, Moorhead, and East Grand Forks, Minnesota. In order to evaluate these alternatives the Bureau of Reclamation needs estimates of ground-water use for 2030 and 2050 for six counties in Minnesota: Becker, Clay, Douglas, Grant, Otter Tail, and Wilkin Counties. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, conducted a study to estimate ground-water use in these counties for 2030 and 2050.

  17. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of restored river corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pasquale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems, leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Up to now a lot of effort has therefore been dedicated worldwide to document the efficiency of restoration actions and to produce new effective guidelines that may help overcoming our deficiencies. At the same time very few attentions focused on illustrating the reasons and the use of certain monitoring and experimental techniques in spite of others, or in relation to the specific ecohydrologic process being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to enrich efforts in this direction by discussing the experimental setup that we designed and installed in order to accomplish some of the research tasks of the multidisciplinary scientific project RECORD (Restored Corridor Dynamics. Therein, we study the morphodynamic evolution of the restored reaches of River Thur near Niederneunforn (Switzerland, also in relation to the role of pioneer vegetation roots in stabilizing the alluvial sediment. In this work we describe and motivate the methodology chosen for monitoring the river morphodynamics, the dynamics of riparian and of in-bed vegetation and their mutual interactions, as well as the need of complementing such observations with experiments and with the hydraulic modeling of the site. We also discuss how the designed installation and the experiments integrate with the needs of other research groups within the project, in particular providing data for a number of investigations ranging from surface water to groundwater, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics.

  18. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pasquale

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Therefore, a significant effort has been dedicated in the recent years worldwide to document the efficiency of restoration actions and to produce new effective guidelines that may help overcoming existing deficiencies. At the same time little attention was paid to illustrate the reasons and the use of certain monitoring and experimental techniques in spite of others, or in relation to the specific ecohydrologic process being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to enrich efforts in this direction by presenting the framework of experimental activities and the related experimental setup that we designed and installed in order to accomplish some of the research tasks of the multidisciplinary scientific project RECORD (Restored Corridor Dynamics. Therein, we studied the morphodynamic evolution of the restored reach of the River Thur near Niederneunforn (Switzerland, also in relation to the role of pioneer vegetation roots in stabilizing the alluvial sediment. In this work we describe the methodology chosen for monitoring the river morphodynamics, the dynamics of riparian and of in-bed vegetation and their mutual interactions, as well as the need of complementing such observations with experiments and with the hydraulic modeling of the site. We also discuss how the designed installation and the experiments integrate with the needs of other research groups within the project, in particular providing data for a number of investigations thereby including surface water and groundwater interactions, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics.

  19. MONITORING OF PHOSPHORUS CONTENT IN “WATER-PARTICULATE MATERIALS-BOTTOM SEDIMENTS SYSTEM” FOR RIVER PRUT

    OpenAIRE

    VASILE RUSU; LARISA POSTOLACHI

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of phosphorus content in “water-particulatematerials-bottom sediments system” for river Prut. Seasonal and spatialdynamics of phosphorus forms in water, particulate materials and bottomsediments of river Prut was elucidated. The scheme for determination ofphosphorus forms in water and particulate materials according to World HealthOrganization classification was evaluated. Additionally, this scheme was tested forestimation of phosphorus content in bottom sediments. The supplemented...

  20. Geothermal solute flux monitoring and the source and fate of solutes in the Snake River, Yellowstone National Park, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Schaper, Jonas; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Heasler, Henry P.; Mahony, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The combined geothermal discharge from over 10,000 features in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) can be can be estimated from the Cl flux in the Madison, Yellowstone, Falls, and Snake Rivers. Over the last 30 years, the Cl flux in YNP Rivers has been calculated using discharge measurements and Cl concentrations determined in discrete water samples and it has been determined that approximately 12% of the Cl flux exiting YNP is from the Snake River. The relationship between electrical conductivity and concentrations of Cl and other geothermal solutes was quantified at a monitoring site located downstream from the thermal inputs in the Snake River. Beginning in 2012, continuous (15 min) electrical conductivity measurements have been made at the monitoring site. Combining continuous electrical conductivity and discharge data, the Cl and other geothermal solute fluxes were determined. The 2013–2015 Cl fluxes (5.3–5.8 kt/yr) determined using electrical conductivity are comparable to historical data. In addition, synoptic water samples and discharge data were obtained from sites along the Snake River under low-flow conditions of September 2014. The synoptic water study extended 17 km upstream from the monitoring site. Surface inflows were sampled to identify sources and to quantify solute loading. The Lewis River was the primary source of Cl, Na, K, Cl, SiO2, Rb, and As loads (50–80%) in the Snake River. The largest source of SO4 was from the upper Snake River (50%). Most of the Ca and Mg (50–55%) originate from the Snake Hot Springs. Chloride, Ca, Mg, Na, K, SiO2, F, HCO3, SO4, B, Li, Rb, and As behave conservatively in the Snake River, and therefore correlate well with conductivity (R2 ≥ 0.97).

  1. Progress on California Otter Research: 1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon S.J.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available One milestone of 1991 was the completion of my study of otter behavioral development when 60-month-old Scarnose gave birth to her first pups. I finally observed the mechanism for female dispersion. This mechanism turned out to be intrasexual aggression, but unexpectedly this took the form of a near fatal attack on one of Scarnose's pups of one mother by her sister Junior. Followed up by a personal attack on Scarnose by her mother, Mama, this led to Scarnose leaving the area with her pups. Junior, who has already given birth, is positioning to replace Mama as matriarch. One of Mama's surviving female pups, One-Eye, fully integrated into the male Clan, but was also driven away by Junior. Also during 1991, Scarnose survived a near-fatal attack of mastitis, appearing moribund, but overnight opening the enormous abscess and draining it herself, and subsequently recovering. For the first time, a pup was observed voluntarily dispersing rather than being abandoned as is normal. Two new behaviors were added to the ethogram: sleep-nipping and closed-mouthed scream.

  2. California sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) census results, Spring 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. Tim; Hatfield, Brian B.

    2017-09-29

    The 2017 census of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) was conducted between late April and early July along the mainland coast of central California and in April at San Nicolas Island in southern California. The 3-year average of combined counts from the mainland range and San Nicolas Island was 3,186, down by 86 sea otters from the previous year. This is the second year that the official index has exceeded 3,090, the Endangered Species Act delisting threshold identified in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Southern Sea Otter Recovery Plan (the threshold would need to be exceeded for 3 consecutive years before delisting consideration). The 5-year average trend in abundance, including both the mainland range and San Nicolas Island populations, remains positive at 2.3 percent per year. Continuing lack of growth in the range peripheries likely explains the cessation of range expansion.

  3. Summary of environmental flow monitoring for the Sustainable Rivers Project on the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, western Oregon, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose; Bervid, Heather D.; Olson, Melissa; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Bach, Leslie

    2016-11-07

    This report presents the results of an ongoing environmental flow monitoring study by The Nature Conservancy (TNC), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and U.S. Geological Survey in support of the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) of TNC and USACE. The overarching goal of this study is to evaluate and characterize relations between streamflow, geomorphic processes, and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) recruitment on the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, western Oregon, that were hypothesized in earlier investigations. The SRP can use this information to plan future monitoring and scientific investigations, and to help mitigate the effects of dam operations on streamflow regimes, geomorphic processes, and biological communities, such as black cottonwood forests, in consultation with regional experts. The four tasks of this study were to:Compare the hydrograph from Water Year (WY) 2015 with hydrographs from WYs 2000–14 and the SRP flow recommendations,Assess short-term and system-wide changes in channel features and vegetation throughout the alluvial valley section of the Middle Fork Willamette River (2005–12),Examine changes in channel features and vegetation over two decades (1994–2014) for two short mapping zones on the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, andComplete a field investigation of summer stage and the growth of black cottonwood and other vegetation on the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers in summer 2015.

  4. Otter Hunting and Trapping, a Traditional Practice of Marsh Arabs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Al-Sheikhly

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of otter inhabit the marshes of southern Iraq: the European otter (Lutra lutra and the smooth-coated otter (endemic subspecies: Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli. Marsh Arabs have targeted otters since at least the 1950s. Nowadays, local marsh inhabitants are still heavily hunting otters for their fur or trapping their cubs to be raised as pets. These practices, together with habitat destruction (i.e., marshland drainage, represent primary threats to the otters’ survival in Iraq, and have caused a dramatic decline in otter populations. We report on traditional hunting and trapping methods in Iraq on European and smooth-coated otter, and on the consequences on the conservation of these endangered species.

  5. Divergent Skull Morphology Supports Two Trophic Specializations in Otters (Lutrinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori L Timm-Davis

    Full Text Available Variation in terrestrial mammalian skull morphology is known to constrain feeding performance, which in turn influences dietary habits and ultimately fitness. Among mustelids, otters have evolved two feeding specializations: underwater raptorial capture of prey (mouth-oriented and capture of prey by hand (hand-oriented, both of which have likely associations with morphology and bite performance. However, feeding biomechanics and performance data for otters are sparse. The first goal of this study was to investigate the relationships between feeding morphology and bite performance among two mouth-oriented piscivores (Pteronura brasiliensis and Lontra canadensis and two hand-oriented invertebrate specialists (Enhydra lutris and Aonyx cinerea. Since other vertebrate taxa that are mouth-oriented piscivores tend to possess longer skulls and mandibles, with jaws designed for increased velocity at the expense of biting capability, we hypothesized that mouth-oriented otters would also possess long, narrow skulls indicative of high velocity jaws. Conversely, hand-oriented otters were expected to possess short, blunt skulls with adaptations to increase bite force and crushing capability. Concomitant with these skull shapes we hypothesized that sea otters would possess a greater mandibular bluntness index, providing for a greater mechanical advantage compared to other otter species investigated. A second goal was to examine morphological variation at a finer scale by assessing variation in cranial morphology among three sea otter subspecies. Since diet varies among these subspecies, and their populations are isolated, we hypothesized that the magnitude of mandibular bluntness and concomitant mechanical advantage, as well as occlusal surface area would also vary within species according to their primary food source (fish versus hard invertebrates. Functional expectations were met for comparisons among and within species. Among species the phylogeny suggests

  6. Status of translocated sea otters at San Nicolas Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, Galen B.; Hatfield, Brian B.; Murphey, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    In the 1970s about 1,650 southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) were restricted to the central California coast (Riedman and Estes, 1990), and a high volume of oil was being shipped through the region. Because of the vulnerability of sea otters to contamination from oil (Costa and Kooyman, 1982; Williams and Davis, 1995) that would likely spread wide- ly along the shore after a large spill (Van- Blaricom and Jameson, 1982), the subspecies was listed as threatened in 1977 under the United States Endangered Species Act.

  7. REASONING ABOUT THE GAME „CLUE“ BY USING OTTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Maliković

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the possibilities of reasoning about the card version of the game Clue by using OTTER - system for automatic theorem proving have been presented. The game Clue, as game based on knowledge have been modelled by PVETO logic - propositional multi-modal epistemic logic with temporal parameter adapted for reasoning with OTTER. PVETO logic is an extension of S5m logic and it’s most important characteristics are the introduction of special derivation predicates for every participant in the card game and introduction of temporal parameter. Temporal parameter refers to the moment of time in which we follow the truthfulness of the epistemic formulae.

  8. Pesticides in the nation's rivers, 1975-1980, and implications for future monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliom, Robert J.; Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    Water samples were taken four times per year and bed-sediment samples two times per year during 1975-80 at 160 to 180 stations on major rivers of the United States. Samples were analyzed for 18 insecticides and 4 herbicides, which together accounted for about one-third of the total amount of all pesticides applied to major crops during 1975-80. Fewer than 10 percent of almost 3,000 water samples and fewer than 20 percent of almost 1,000 bed-sediment samples contained reportable concentrations of any of the compounds. The patterns of detection result from a combination of widely variable detection capabilities, chemical properties, and use. Most detections in water samples were of relatively persistent yet soluble compounds: atrazine (4.8 percent of samples), diazinon (1.2), and lindane (1.1). Most detections in bed-sediment samples were of the hydrophobic and persistent insecticides: DDE (17 percent of samples), DDD (12), dieldrin (12), chlordane (9.9), and DDT (8.5). Only for atrazine in water, and for DDE, DDD, DDT, and chlordane in bed sediments, were geographic patterns of detection correlated (pH<0.10) with use on farms. Detections of organochlorine insecticides in both water and bed sediments appear to have erratically but gradually decreased during 1975-80. For the 1975-79 period, more stations had downtrends than had uptrends in bed-sediment levels of organochlorines. No clear trends were evident in concentrations of organophosphate insecticides or herbicides in either water or bed sediments. Findings suggest that future pesticide monitoring efforts must be responsive to changes in pesticides used and to geographic patterns of use. Different types of monitoring approaches are necesssary for chemicals having different chemical and physical properties. Before an effective dynamic monitoring effort can be designed, however, selected case studies are needed to characterize and refine sampling and analytical capabilities for different types of chemicals, river

  9. Monitoring of jökulhlaups and element fluxes in proglacial Icelandic rivers using osmotic samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Gałeczka, Iwona M.; Gkritzalis-Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Palmer, Martin R.; Mowlem, Matthew C.; Vogfjörð, Kristín; Jónsson, Þorsteinn; Gislason, Sigurður R.

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of volatile emissions from volcanoes is an integral part of understanding magmatic systems, with the exsolution and extent of volcanic degassing having a large impact on the nature of an eruption. Measurements of volatiles have traditionally focused on gas emissions into the atmosphere, but volatiles can also become dissolved in proximal water bodies en route to the surface. Thus the monitoring of rivers draining active volcanic areas can provide insights to identifying changes in activity. This process is particularly important for sub-glacial volcanoes in Iceland, where much of the volatile release is transported within glacial outbreak floods, termed jökulhlaups. Monitoring and characterising these phenomena is hampered by the dependence on spot sampling of stochastic events under challenging field conditions, which often leads to bias in the collected data. A recent technological advance is the osmotic sampler, an electricity-free pump that continuously collects water that can subsequently be divided into time-averaged samples. This technique allows for continued and unsupervised deployment of a sampler for weeks to months, representing a cost-efficient form of chemical monitoring. In this study we deployed osmotic samplers in two rivers in southern Iceland. Skálm is a proglacial river from Mýrdalsjökull glacier and Katla volcano, while Skaftá is a larger drainage system from the western part of Vatnajökull glacier. Both rivers are prone to jökulhlaups from geothermal and volcanic sources, and a small jökulhlaup of geothermal origin occurred during the second deployment in Skaftá in January 2014. The two deployments show that osmotic samplers are capable of delivering accurate chemical data in turbulent conditions for several key elements. Total dissolved fluxes for the deployment at Skaftá are calculated to be Na = 9.9 tonnes/day, Mg = 10.5 t/d, Si = 34.7 t/d, Cl = 11.0 t/d, Ca = 31.6 t/d, DIC = 50.8 t/d, and SO4 = 28.3 t/d, with

  10. Juvenile salmonid monitoring in the White Salmon River, Washington, post-Condit Dam removal, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Hardiman, Jill M.

    2017-06-23

    Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and removed completely in 2012, allowing anadromous salmonids access to habitat that had been blocked for nearly 100 years. A multi-agency workgroup concluded that the preferred salmonid restoration alternative was natural recolonization with monitoring to assess efficacy, followed by a management evaluation 5 years after dam removal. Limited monitoring of salmon and steelhead spawning has occurred since 2011, but no monitoring of juveniles occurred until 2016. During 2016, we operated a rotary screw trap at river kilometer 2.3 (3 kilometers downstream of the former dam site) from late March through May and used backpack electrofishing during summer to assess juvenile salmonid distribution and abundance. The screw trap captured primarily steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; smolts, parr, and fry) and coho salmon (O. kisutch; smolts and fry). We estimated the number of steelhead smolts at 3,851 (standard error = 1,454) and coho smolts at 1,093 (standard error = 412). In this document, we refer to O. mykiss caught at the screw trap as steelhead because they were actively migrating, but because we did not know migratory status of O. mykiss caught in electrofishing surveys, we simply refer to them as O. mykiss or steelhead/rainbow trout. Steelhead and coho smolts tagged with passive integrated transponder tags were subsequently detected downstream at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Few Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) fry were captured, possibly as a result of trap location or effects of a December 2015 flood. Sampling in Mill, Buck, and Rattlesnake Creeks (all upstream of the former dam site) showed that juvenile coho were present in Mill and Buck Creeks, suggesting spawning had occurred there. We compared O. mykiss abundance data in sites on Buck and Rattlesnake Creeks to pre-dam removal data. During 2016, age-0 O. mykiss were more abundant in Buck Creek than in 2009 or

  11. Multiparametric monitoring of microbial faecal pollution reveals the dominance of human contamination along the whole Danube River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, A K T; Reischer, G H; Jakwerth, S; Savio, D; Ixenmaier, S; Toth, E; Sommer, R; Mach, R L; Linke, R; Eiler, A; Kolarevic, S; Farnleitner, A H

    2017-11-01

    The microbial faecal pollution of rivers has wide-ranging impacts on a variety of human activities that rely on appropriate river water quality. Thus, detailed knowledge of the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution is crucial for watershed management activities to maintain safe water use. In this study, the microbial faecal pollution levels were monitored by standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB) along a 2580 km stretch of the Danube, the world's most international river, as well as the Danube's most important tributaries. To track the origin of faecal pollution, host-associated Bacteroidetes genetic faecal marker qPCR assays for different host groups were applied in concert with SFIB. The spatial resolution analysis was followed by a time resolution analysis of faecal pollution patterns over 1 year at three selected sites. In this way, a comprehensive faecal pollution map of the total length of the Danube was created, combining substantiated information on both the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution. Within the environmental data matrix for the river, microbial faecal pollution constituted an independent component and did not cluster with any other measured environmental parameters. Generally, midstream samples representatively depicted the microbial pollution levels at the respective river sites. However, at a few, somewhat unexpected sites, high pollution levels occurred in the lateral zones of the river while the midstream zone had good water quality. Human faecal pollution was demonstrated as the primary pollution source along the whole river, while animal faecal pollution was of minor importance. This study demonstrates that the application of host-associated genetic microbial source tracking markers in concert with the traditional concept of microbial faecal pollution monitoring based on SFIB significantly enhances the knowledge of the extent and origin of microbial faecal pollution patterns in large rivers. It constitutes a

  12. Synthesis of juvenile lamprey migration and passage research and monitoring at Columbia and Snake River Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2016-01-01

    We compiled and summarized previous sources of data and research results related to the presence, numbers, and migration timing characteristics of juvenile (eyed macropthalmia) and larval (ammocoetes) Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus, in the Columbia River basin (CRB). Included were data from various screw trap collections, data from historic fyke net studies, catch records of lampreys at JBS facilities, turbine cooling water strainer collections, and information on the occurrence of lampreys in the diets of avian and piscine predators. We identified key data gaps and uncertainties that should be addressed in a juvenile lamprey passage research program. The goal of this work was to summarize information from disparate sources so that managers can use it to prioritize and guide future research and monitoring efforts related to the downstream migration of juvenile Pacific lamprey within the CRB. A common finding in all datasets was the high level of variation observed for CRB lamprey in numbers present, timing and spatial distribution. This will make developing monitoring programs to accurately characterize lamprey migrations and passage more challenging. Primary data gaps centered around our uncertainty on the numbers of juvenile and larval present in the system which affects the ability to assign risk to passage conditions and prioritize management actions. Recommendations include developing standardized monitoring methods, such as at juvenile bypass systems (JBS’s), to better document numbers and timing of lamprey migrations at dams, and use biotelemetry tracking techniques to estimate survival potentials for different migration histories.

  13. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Tortorici, Cathy; Yerxa, Tracey; Leary, J.; Skalski, John R.

    2008-02-05

    The purpose ofthis document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision-making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows. 1. Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. 2. Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. 3. Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. 4. Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. 5. Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. In conclusion, the estuary RME effort is designed to meet the research and monitoring needs of the estuary Program using an adaptive management process. Estuary RME's success and usefulness will depend on the actual conduct of adaptive management, as embodied in the objectives, implrementation, data, reporting, and synthesis, evaluation, and decision-making described herein.

  14. Design of the Long-term Safety Monitoring System of Zhicheng Yangtze River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The long-term safety monitoring system of Zhicheng Yangtze River Bridge was established in the principle of open information service and standardized systems engineering.The ADSL dynamic IP communication network established by using VPN technology and application of encryption technology,tunnel technology and user identification accreditation technology have made the system safer and more reliable.The system can fulfill real-time,regular and triggered signal collection according to needs and may give notice or alarm for the discovery of real-time failure.Monitored data can be collected and stored to provide reliable data for stipulating technical indicators for safety operation of the large-span railway bridges.The system,after its completion,can maintain its long-term stable running,take hold of the running condition of all locations of bridge under monitoring,evaluate the overall situation and life cycle,and make available the technical reserves for the Infrastructure Inspection Center of MOR.

  15. Beach morphology monitoring in the Columbia River Littoral Cell: 1997-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Peter; Eshleman, Jodi L.; Kingsley, Etienne; Thompson, David M.; Voigt, Brian; Kaminsky, George M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This report describes methods used, data collected, and results of the Beach Morphology Monitoring Program in the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) from 1997 to 2005. A collaborative group primarily consisting of the US Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology performed this work. Beach Monitoring efforts consisted of collecting topographic and bathymetric horizontal and vertical position data using a Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System (RTK-DGPS). Sediment size distribution data was also collected as part of this effort. The monitoring program was designed to: 1) quantify the short- to medium-term (seasonal to interannual) beach change rates and morphological variability along the CRLC and assess the processes responsible for these changes; 2) collect beach state data (i.e., grain size, beach slope, and dune/sandbar height/position) to enhance the conceptual understanding of CRLC functioning and refine predictions of future coastal change and hazards; 3) compare and contrast the scales of environmental forcing and beach morphodynamics in the CRLC to other coastlines of the world; and 4) provide beach change data in a useful format to land use managers.

  16. Dual congenital transmission of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in a late-term aborted pup from a chronically infected southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Karen; Miller, Melissa A; Packham, Andrea E; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A; Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Murray, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona are protozoan parasites with terrestrial definitive hosts, and both pathogens can cause fatal disease in a wide range of marine animals. Close monitoring of threatened southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in California allowed for the diagnosis of dual transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in a wild female otter that was chronically infected with both parasites. Congenital infection resulted in late-term abortion due to disseminated toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii and S. neurona DNA was amplified from placental tissue culture, as well as from fetal lung tissue. Molecular characterization of T. gondii revealed a Type X genotype in isolates derived from placenta and fetal brain, as well as in all tested fetal organs (brain, lung, spleen, liver and thymus). This report provides the first evidence for transplacental transmission of T. gondii in a chronically infected wild sea otter, and the first molecular and immunohistochemical confirmation of concurrent transplacental transmission of T. gondii and S. neurona in any species. Repeated fetal and/or neonatal losses in the sea otter dam also suggested that T. gondii has the potential to reduce fecundity in chronically infected marine mammals through parasite recrudescence and repeated fetal infection.

  17. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; White River Bull Trout Enumeration Project Summary, Progress Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.

    2004-02-01

    This report summarizes the first year of a three-year bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on the White River and is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. The White River has been identified as an important bull trout spawning tributary of the upper Kootenay River in southeastern British Columbia. The objective was to collect information on the returning adult spawning population to the White River through the use of a fish fence and traps, and to conduct redd surveys at the conclusion of spawning to provide an index of spawning escapement and distribution. The fence was installed on September 9th, 2003 and was operated continuously (i.e. no high-water or breaching events) until the fence was removed on October 9th, 2003. Estimation of the spawning population of White River bull trout was incomplete. This was due to a larger and more protracted out-migration than expected. As a result, the bull trout spawning population of the White River was estimated to be somewhere above 899 fish. In comparison, this represents approximately one third the population estimate of the 2003 Wigwam River bull trout spawning population. Based on redd index data, the number of bull trout per redd was over twice that of the Wigwam River or Skookumchuck Creek. This was expected as the index sites on the Wigwam River and Skookumchuck Creek cover the majority of the spawning area. This is not true on the White River. From previous redd counts, it is known that there are approximately twice as many redds in Blackfoot Creek as there are in the index site. Additionally, given the large size of the White River watershed and in particular, the large number of tributaries, there is a high likelihood that important bull trout spawning areas remain unidentified. Both floy tag and radio-telemetry data for the White River bull trout have identified extensive life history migrations

  18. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps, Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008-2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseillier, Tom; Cotter, Michael [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    2009-04-14

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.

  19. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps,Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseiller, Tom; Cotter, Michael (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)

    2009-02-17

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.

  20. Bedload transport monitoring with acoustic sensors in the Swiss Albula mountain river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenmann, Dieter; Antoniazza, Gilles; Wyss, Carlos R.; Fritschi, Bruno; Boss, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Bedload transport measurements with acoustic sensors were obtained during summer 2015 in the Albula River in Switzerland. An impact plate measuring system was used with geophone and accelerometer sensors. This system provides indirect estimations of bedload transport in water courses. In April 2015, 30 impact sensors were installed in a new permanent measuring station to monitor continuously bedload transport in a mountain river with a large annual rate of sediment transport (around 90 000 m3 yr-1). Records of the first year of measurement showed that (i) the signal response in terms of geophone and accelerometer impulses is comparable for both types of sensors; (ii) there is a good correlation between discharge data and impulses recorded by both types of sensors; (iii) the critical discharge at the start of bedload transport is around 5 m3 s-1; (iv) a mean calibration factor for the geophone impulses can be estimated which is in a similar range as values determined from other sites with field calibration measurements.

  1. Ground and river water quality monitoring using a smartphone-based pH sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibasish Dutta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report here the working of a compact and handheld smartphone-based pH sensor for monitoring of ground and river water quality. Using simple laboratory optical components and the camera of the smartphone, we develop a compact spectrophotometer which is operational in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm and having spectral resolution of 0.305 nm/pixel for our equipment. The sensor measures variations in optical absorption band of pH sensitive dye sample in different pH solutions. The transmission image spectra through a transmission grating gets captured by the smartphone, and subsequently converted into intensity vs. wavelengths. Using the designed sensor, we measure water quality of ground water and river water from different locations in Assam and the results are found to be reliable when compared with the standard spectrophotometer tool. The overall cost involved for development of the sensor is relatively low. We envision that the designed sensing technique could emerge as an inexpensive, compact and portable pH sensor that would be useful for in-field applications.

  2. Ground and river water quality monitoring using a smartphone-based pH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sibasish; Sarma, Dhrubajyoti; Nath, Pabitra

    2015-05-01

    We report here the working of a compact and handheld smartphone-based pH sensor for monitoring of ground and river water quality. Using simple laboratory optical components and the camera of the smartphone, we develop a compact spectrophotometer which is operational in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm and having spectral resolution of 0.305 nm/pixel for our equipment. The sensor measures variations in optical absorption band of pH sensitive dye sample in different pH solutions. The transmission image spectra through a transmission grating gets captured by the smartphone, and subsequently converted into intensity vs. wavelengths. Using the designed sensor, we measure water quality of ground water and river water from different locations in Assam and the results are found to be reliable when compared with the standard spectrophotometer tool. The overall cost involved for development of the sensor is relatively low. We envision that the designed sensing technique could emerge as an inexpensive, compact and portable pH sensor that would be useful for in-field applications.

  3. Soil hydrophysical characteristics in the Nitra river basin (Slovakia: Their monitoring, analysis, online publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Igaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the purpose made, or local monitoring of areal unit of the Nitra river basin (Slovakia, Central EU with total area 4501 km2 in order to obtain the inputs on soil, moisture and hydrophysical characteristics of the given area. In this study, there was evaluated the share of individual soil texture classes in the Nitra river basin on the basis of map records and its comparison with the soil samples taken from the 111 selected sites. Soil samples were taken from two depths of soil profile (15-20 cm, 40-45 cm. The sites were chosen according to the percentage representation of individual soil texture classes. Based on the identification of sampling points localization and following analysis of granularity ratio, it can be concluded that the grain composition from the soil samplings does not correspond fully with the map records. Subsequently, drainage branches of moisture retention curves were measured for all sites Obtained hydrophysical data were enabled on the web-portal. With the use of OpenGeo Suite software, version 4.0.2 and its components Geoserver and Geoexplorer, the data on soil characteristics were published online at: http://fzki.uniag.sk/02FacultyStructure/02Departments/KBH/02Research/Hydrophysics.Thus, information about the soil characteristics in the basin is available to specialists.

  4. Solid transport in mountain rivers: monitoring techniques and long term assessment as flood prevention tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Laura; Brambilla, Davide; Ivanov, Vladislav; Messa, Giacomo; Veronelli, Andrea; Radice, Alessio; Papini, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Floods are calamitous phenomena with an ever-increasing frequency around the globe, that often result in socio-economic damage and casualties. The role of the solid fraction in the river dynamic has been widely debated in the last decade and its importance is recognized as critical and not negligible in flood simulations as it has been evidenced that the severity of an event is often the result of the coupling of a flood wave with elevated solid transport rates. Nevertheless, assessing the quantity of sediment mobilized in a particular event is not feasible without a long term analysis of the river's dynamics and its morphological evolution since it is defined by past events. This work is focused on the techniques to improve knowledge about sediment production and transport through hydrological networks as a necessary component of a wise flood prevention planning. In particular, a multidisciplinary approach that combines hydraulic and geological knowledge is required in order to understand the evolution of the river sediment and how it will influence the following critical event. The methods are presented through a case study in Italy where a series of different approaches have been integrated to gain a comprehensive understanding of the problem: the sediment movement has been studied by a Eulerian as well as a Lagrangian approaches while hydraulic properties of the stream have been measured. The research started with an attempt to monitor sediment movements: in June 2016 300 sample pebbles, equipped with RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) transponders, have been deployed in the river and tracked after every major rainfall event. The obtained data-set has been combined with a morphological analysis and a river flow discharge computed through PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method in order to identify the relation between a given rainfall event and sediment transport. Moreover, critical sediment size has been estimated from field data using three approaches: two

  5. WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH IN MUDDY HABITATS: MONITORING THE POPULATION IN THE RIVER IVEL, BEDFORDSHIRE, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEAY S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available White-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes are usually associated with stony substrates, tree roots, or refuges in submerged banks. The River Ivel has the last known population of white-clawed crayfish in Bedfordshire. Prior to 2005, much of the bed comprised uniform silt, plus leaf-litter. Stands of reedmace Typha latifolia and other emergent vegetation were localised in less shaded areas. Initial survey results suggested a population at low abundance. A low-cost monitoring strategy was started in 2001 and continued three times a year to 2005, using engineering bricks, which offer artificial refuges. Crayfish are counted when bricks are lifted periodically. De-silting of c. 430 m river was carried out in February 2005, to improve habitat and to maintain the flood capacity in the channel upstream of a mill weir. Additional bricks were deployed a few weeks in advance of de-silting, then bricks and crayfish were lifted prior to dredging and were returned the next day. Starting upstream, soft, wet mud was dredged out, placed on the bank and searched manually for crayfish. Banks, tree roots and shallow margins were left undisturbed. In all, 4,142 crayfish were found in dredgings from a 430 m length of the mid channel. Crayfish were strongly associated with emergent vegetation, but many were present below the surface of the silt. Crayfish released in the dredged channel immediately burrowed into the silt retained on the channel margins. Monitoring after dredging showed no change in abundance in the main area with in-bank refuges and lots of bricks, but there was an increase in occupancy of bricks in an area where most crayfish had been in emergent vegetation.

  6. Monitoring ice break-up on the Mackenzie River using MODIS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muhammad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study involves the analysis of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Level 3 500 m snow products (MOD/MYD10A1, complemented with 250 m Level 1B data (MOD/MYD02QKM, to monitor ice cover during the break-up period on the Mackenzie River, Canada. Results from the analysis of data for 13 ice seasons (2001–2013 show that first day ice-off dates are observed between days of year (DOY 115–125 and end DOY 145–155, resulting in average melt durations of about 30–40 days. Floating ice transported northbound could therefore generate multiple periods of ice-on and ice-off observations at the same geographic location. During the ice break-up period, ice melt was initiated by in situ (thermodynamic melt over the drainage basin especially between 61–61.8° N (75–300 km. However, ice break-up process north of 61.8° N was more dynamically driven. Furthermore, years with earlier initiation of the ice break-up period correlated with above normal air temperatures and precipitation, whereas later ice break-up period was correlated with below normal precipitation and air temperatures. MODIS observations revealed that ice runs were largely influenced by channel morphology (islands and bars, confluences and channel constriction. It is concluded that the numerous MODIS daily overpasses possible with the Terra and Aqua polar orbiting satellites, provide a powerful means for monitoring ice break-up processes at multiple geographical locations simultaneously along the Mackenzie River.

  7. Genetic diversity among sea otter isolates of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, N.; Cole, R.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Majumdar, D.; Dubey, J.P.; Su, C.

    2008-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) have been reported to become infected with Toxoplasma gondii and at times succumb to clinical disease. Here, we determined genotypes of 39 T. gondii isolates from 37 sea otters in two geographically distant locations (25 from California and 12 from Washington). Six genotypes were identified using 10 PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico, and by DNA sequencing of loci SAG1 and GRA6 in 13 isolates. Of these 39 isolates, 13 (33%) were clonal Type II which can be further divided into two groups at the locus Apico. Two of the 39 isolates had Type II alleles at all loci except a Type I allele at locus L358. One isolate had Type II alleles at all loci except the Type I alleles at loci L358 and Apico. One isolate had Type III alleles at all loci except Type II alleles at SAG2 and Apico. Two sea otter isolates had a mixed infection. Twenty-one (54%) isolates had an unique allele at SAG1 locus. Further genotyping or DNA sequence analysis for 18 of these 21 isolates at loci SAG1 and GRA6 revealed that there were two different genotypes, including the previously identified Type X (four isolates) and a new genotype named Type A (14 isolates). The results from this study suggest that the sea otter isolates are genetically diverse.

  8. Otters And Fyke Nets -Some Aspects Which Need Further Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuther C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Otters And Fyke Nets -Some Aspects Which Need Further AttentionPages 7- 20 (ArticleClaus ReutherEurasian otters (Lutra lutra become attracted by fishes caught in fyke nets, lobster creels or other fishing gear, and they sometimes are drowned by trying to get access to these fish. Numerous publications describe this problem and the attempts to avoid this kind of loss. By comparing these data with unpublished data provided from different European countries, and in trying to prepare recommendations for fishermen, it became obvious that there are some results which are inconsistent or founded on too small a database to offer a background for adequate conservation recommendations. Therefore, some aspects are highlighted here to encourage otter conservationists and researchers to collect more data and to contribute to a more reliable database for conservation measures. In particular, an improvement in the knowledge of fishing techniques and of fishing gear used by fishermen seems to be necessary for a better understanding of the factors which influence the number of otters drowned.

  9. Eagles, Otters, and Unicorns: An Anatomy of Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Stephen R.; King, Margaret J.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes three archetypal workers: eagles who innovate by improvements, otters who innovate by extension, and unicorns who innovate by paradigm. Each of these innovators is discussed in terms of domain-relevant skills, manipulative skills, and motivation. Needs of each type in terms of business culture are discussed. (PB)

  10. Compliance Monitoring of Underwater Blasting for Rock Removal at Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project, 2009/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Skalski, J. R.; Seaburg, Adam

    2011-05-10

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) conducted the 20-year Columbia River Channel Improvement Project (CRCIP) to deepen the navigation channel between Portland, Oregon, and the Pacific Ocean to allow transit of fully loaded Panamax ships (100 ft wide, 600 to 700 ft long, and draft 45 to 50 ft). In the vicinity of Warrior Point, between river miles (RM) 87 and 88 near St. Helens, Oregon, the USACE conducted underwater blasting and dredging to remove 300,000 yd3 of a basalt rock formation to reach a depth of 44 ft in the Columbia River navigation channel. The purpose of this report is to document methods and results of the compliance monitoring study for the blasting project at Warrior Point in the Columbia River.

  11. FBG application in bridge health monitoring system of Wuhan Yangtze River 2nd Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun

    2009-10-01

    For the traditional resistance strain sensor's shortage,for example,their stability,durability and monitoring scorpe could not satisfied the requirement of bridge monitoring system,put forward to adopt advanced fiber-optic bragg grating sensor and its technology to build up the bridge health monitoring system.Analysed the application scope and aim of difference kinds of fiber bragg grating sensors used, including stress strain sensors,temperature sensors,crack sensors and testing force ring sensors.According to the key construction sections as the project designed,expatiated their specific installation methods and construction craftwork in Wuhan Yangtze River 2th bridge.It formed distributed fiber sensing network of bridge with large-scale located fiber-optic bragg grating sensors, and pointed out the becareful prodeeding when to link no more than twenty sensors to one fiber for the demodulator precision.Discussed how to construct the data acquisition system and its function via the sensors and their demodulator.One fiber of the linked sensors connected to one channel of the demodulator and all together reached sixteen channels.The demodulator were connected to the switch through rj45 interface and communicated with the acquisition server.Designed the software program of data acquisition software system and the database,which used the Sqlite of the embed database to storage the configure information and receive the data through the TCP/IP protocol.It has been build a bridge health monitoring system base on fiber bragg grating technology.

  12. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program First Quarter 1998 (January through March 1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-05-26

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Savannah River Site during first quarter 1998. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  13. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program First Quarter 1999 (January through March 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-12-08

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by Savannah River Site during first quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  14. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program - Fourth Quarter 1999 (October through December 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    2000-10-12

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Savannah River site during fourth quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official records of the analytical results.

  15. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program - Third Quarter 1999 (July through September 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    2000-09-05

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program during the third quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  16. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program second quarter 1999 (April through June 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-12-16

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by Savannah River Site during first quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  17. Survey of Danish Free Living Otters Lutra lutra - a Consecutive Collection and Necroscopy of Dead Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madsen A.B.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available During 1979-1993 194 dead Danish otters Lutra lutra were received. Of these, 145 were necropsied and the cause of death, sex, age and body condition determined. Traffic mortality (45.4% and drowning (32.5% constituted the major cause of death. Shot-gun lead pellets were detected in 5% of the otters. Inclusion bodies indicating distemper virus infection were found for the first time in a free living otter population. Angistrongylus vasorum larvae were found in the lungs of free living otters for the first time. No ectoparasites were found. Infectious agents were detected in 22.1 % of the otters although only few otters appeared to have died from infections. The age distribution was not significantly different between the two sexes. Body condition for otters, which died violently in Denmark was comparable to findings in Shetland, where thriving populations exist. The results showed a considerable decrease in number of otters found drowned in fish traps coinciding with the introduction of stop grids in fish traps in 1986. The results suggest that the existing otter population in Denmark is healthy and in good condition but it cannot be excluded that the large number of otters killed by traffic threatens the continued expansion of the species.

  18. Monitoring and Deformation Analysis of Groynes Using Tls at the River Elbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirschwitz, F.; Mechelke, K.; Jansch, H.; Kersten, T. P.

    2016-06-01

    To enter the Port of Hamburg, one of Europe's busiest ports all vessels need to navigate around 145 km along the Elbe river, a tide influenced navigation channel. To protect the Elbe shoreline from erosion and to channel the waterway groynes (rigid hydraulic structures) have been built along the river. In the past years since ca. 2001 there has been a large increase in damage of groynes structural integrity at parts of the German waterways. The reason for this was determined in the ever growing size of container vessels passing by and inducing long periodical primary waves which have such a force that they erode the groynes rock structure. To analyse and improve the groynes structural resistance for vessel-induced long periodical wave loads an in-situ study is carried out at Juelssand, located at the Elbe river estuary. Over a period of two years the change of the geometrical structure of two different groyne shapes is monitored automatically by utilising two terrestrial laser scanners mounted in protective housings, located each on a 12 m high platform. The self-contained monitoring systems perform scanning of the two groynes one to two times a day at low tide, as the structures are fully submerged at high tide. The long-periodical wave loads are also determined using pressure sensors in each groyne. To correlate the captured data with vessel events and analyse the effects, vessel related parameters are recorded utilizing the Automatic Identification System (AIS). This paper describes the automated processes for the data acquisition and focusses on the deformation that is calculated using current, extended and new algorithms of the Point Cloud Library. It shows the process chain from the acquisition of raw scan files from an elevated station to the filtering of point cloud, the registration, the calculation of pointwise changes and the aggregation to a grid for later correlation with ship parameters. When working outdoor in all kinds of weather conditions, the

  19. MONITORING AND DEFORMATION ANALYSIS OF GROYNES USING TLS AT THE RIVER ELBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tschirschwitz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To enter the Port of Hamburg, one of Europe’s busiest ports all vessels need to navigate around 145 km along the Elbe river, a tide influenced navigation channel. To protect the Elbe shoreline from erosion and to channel the waterway groynes (rigid hydraulic structures have been built along the river. In the past years since ca. 2001 there has been a large increase in damage of groynes structural integrity at parts of the German waterways. The reason for this was determined in the ever growing size of container vessels passing by and inducing long periodical primary waves which have such a force that they erode the groynes rock structure. To analyse and improve the groynes structural resistance for vessel-induced long periodical wave loads an in-situ study is carried out at Juelssand, located at the Elbe river estuary. Over a period of two years the change of the geometrical structure of two different groyne shapes is monitored automatically by utilising two terrestrial laser scanners mounted in protective housings, located each on a 12 m high platform. The self-contained monitoring systems perform scanning of the two groynes one to two times a day at low tide, as the structures are fully submerged at high tide. The long-periodical wave loads are also determined using pressure sensors in each groyne. To correlate the captured data with vessel events and analyse the effects, vessel related parameters are recorded utilizing the Automatic Identification System (AIS. This paper describes the automated processes for the data acquisition and focusses on the deformation that is calculated using current, extended and new algorithms of the Point Cloud Library. It shows the process chain from the acquisition of raw scan files from an elevated station to the filtering of point cloud, the registration, the calculation of pointwise changes and the aggregation to a grid for later correlation with ship parameters. When working outdoor in all kinds of weather

  20. Continuous monitoring of dissolved gases with membrane inlet mass spectrometry to fingerprint river biochemical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautier, Camille; Chatton, Eliot; Abbott, Benjamin; Harjung, Astrid; Labasque, Thierry; Guillou, Aurélie; Pannard, Alexandrine; Piscart, Christophe; Laverman, Anniet; Kolbe, Tamara; Massé, Stéphanie; de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Thomas, Zahra; Aquilina, Luc; Pinay, Gilles

    2017-04-01

    Water quality in rivers results from biogeochemical processes in contributing hydrological compartments (soils, aquifers, hyporheic and riparian zones) and biochemical activity in the river network itself. Consequently, chemical fluxes fluctuate on multiple spatial and temporal scales, leading eventually to complex concentration signals in rivers. We characterized these fluctuations with innovative continuous monitoring of dissolved gases, to quantify transport and reaction processes occurring in different hydrological compartments. We performed stream-scale experiments in two headwater streams in Brittany, France. Factorial injections of inorganic nitrogen (NH4NO3), inorganic phosphate (P2O5) and multiple sources of labile carbon (acetate, tryptophan) were implemented in the two streams. We used a new field application of membrane inlet mass spectrometry to continuously monitor dissolved gases for multiple day-night periods (Chatton et al., 2016). Quantified gases included He, O2, N2, CO2, CH4, N2O, and 15N of dissolved N2 and N2O. We calibrated and assessed the methodology with well-established complementary techniques including gas chromatography and high-frequency water quality sensors. Wet chemistry and radon analysis complemented the study. The analyses provided several methodological and ecological insights and demonstrated that high frequency variations linked to background noise can be efficiently determined and filtered to derive effective fluxes. From a more fundamental point of view, the tested stream segments were fully characterized with extensive sampling of riverbeds and laboratory experiments, allowing scaling of point-level microbial and invertebrate diversity and activity on in-stream processing. This innovative technology allows fully-controlled in-situ experiments providing rich information with a high signal to noise ratio. We present the integrated nutrient demand and uptake and discuss limiting processes and elements at the reach and

  1. Diet of otters (Lutra lutra) in various habitat types in the Pannonian biogeographical region compared to other regions of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, István; Kotze, Antoinette; Somers, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the effect of habitat type and region on diet and feeding behaviours of a species facilitates a better understanding of factors impacting populations, which contributes to effective conservation management. Using spraint analysis and relative frequency of occurrence data from the literature, we described the dietary patterns of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in 23 study sites within the Pannonian biogeographical region in Hungary. Our results indicated that diet composition varied by habitat type and is therefore context dependant. The differences among habitat types were however lower than expected. We noticed a decline in the fish consumption with a concomitant increase in trophic niche breadth and amphibian consumption in rivers, ponds (fish farms), backwaters, marshes and small watercourses. The main differences in diet were not attributed to the consumption of primary and secondary food types (fish and amphibians), but rather to differences in other, less important food types (mammals, birds). Using hierarchical cluster analysis, rivers and ponds could clearly be separated from other habitat types. We found the main fish diet of otters in most of these areas consisted of small (amphibian consumption) cluster separate from the other regions. PMID:27602262

  2. Washington Maritime NWRC: Initial Survey Instructions for Sea Otter Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This survey supports both Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) with stock assessments and State Endangered Species Listing recovery objectives to regularly assess the...

  3. Monitoring and evaluation of the water quality of Budeasa Reservoir-Arges River, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Antoanela; Vladescu, Luminita; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Comanescu, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor and record the specific characteristics and properties of the Arges River water in the Budeasa Reservoir (the principal water resources of municipal tap water of the big Romanian city Pitesti and surrounding area) for a period of 5 years (2005-2009). The monitored physical and chemical parameters were turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, 5 days biochemical oxygen demand, free dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia nitrogen, chloride, total dissolved iron ions, sulfate, manganese, phosphate, total alkalinity, and total hardness. The results were discussed in correlation with the precipitation values during the study. Monthly and annual values of each parameter determined in the period January 2005-December 2009 were used as a basis for the classification of Budeasa Reservoir water, according to the European legislation, as well as for assessing its quality as a drinking water supply. Principal component analysis and Pearson correlation coefficients were used as statistical procedures in order to evaluate the data obtained during this study.

  4. Evaluation of TRMM Product for Monitoring Drought in the Kelantan River Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou Leong Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of satellite precipitation products’ capability for monitoring drought is relatively new in tropical regions. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the reliability of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B43 product in estimating the standardized precipitation index (SPI in the Kelantan River Basin, Malaysia from 1998 to 2014, by comparing it with data from 42 rain gauges. Overall, the TMPA-3B43 performed well in the monthly precipitation estimation, but performed moderately in the seasonal scale. Better performance was found in the northeast monsoon (wet season than in the southwest monsoon (dry season. The product is more reliable in the northern and north-eastern regions (coastal zone compared to the central, southern and south-eastern regions (mountainous area. For drought assessment, the correlations between the TMPA-3B43 and ground observations are moderate at various time-scales (one to twelve months, with better performance at shorter time-scales. The TMPA-3B43 shows similar temporal drought behavior by capturing most of the drought events at various time-scales, except for the 2008–2009 drought. These findings show that the TMPA-3B43 is not suitable to be used directly for SPI estimation in this basin. More bias correction and algorithm improvement work are needed to improve the accuracy of the TMPA-3B43 in drought monitoring.

  5. Sea otters in captivity: applications and implications of husbandry development, public display, scientific research and management, and rescue and rehabilitation for sea otter conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.; Belting, Traci F.; Triggs, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sea otters in captivity began in 1932, producing important insights for conservation. Soviet (initiated in 1932) and United States (1951) studies provided information on captive otter husbandry, setting the stage for eventual large-scale translocations as tools for population restoration. Early studies also informed effective housing of animals in zoos and aquaria, with sea otters first publicly displayed in 1954. Surveys credited displayed otters in convincing the public of conservation values. After early studies, initial scientific data for captive sea otters in aquaria came from work initiated in 1956, and from dedicated research facilities beginning in 1968. Significant achievements have been made in studies of behavior, physiology, reproduction, and high-priority management issues. Larger-scale projects involving translocation and oil spill response provided extensive insights into stress reactions, water quality issues in captivity, and effects of oil spills.

  6. Evaluating dryland ecological and river restoration using repeat LiDAR and hydrological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, W. M.; DeLong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent improvements in the collection of multitemporal, high-resolution topographic data such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have done a great deal to increase our ability to quantify the details of landscape change. Both Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) can be used to easily assess how Earth surface processes affect landscape form to a level of precision that was previously more difficult to attain. A comprehensive approach using ALSM, TLS-TLS comparison, and hydrological monitoring is being used to assess the effectiveness of a large scale ecological and river restoration effort by the Cuenca los Ojos Foundation at San Bernardino Ranch near Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico. In the study area, historical arroyo cutting and changes in land use led to the abandonment of a ciénega wetland and resulted in widespread ecological destruction. The current land managers have employed engineering methods in order to restore stream and ciénega ecology, including the installation of large rock gabions, earthen berms, and concrete spillways along channels. Our goal is to test the hypothesis that the use of dam and gabion structures leads to stream aggradation, flash flood dampening, and ultimately, increased available water and reestablishment of historic wetland plant and animal communities. We present results from LiDAR change detection that includes 2007-2011 ALSM to TLS change, and several 2011-2012 TLS-TLS comparisons. We also present results from streamflow monitoring, field observation, and monitoring of shallow groundwater and soil moisture conditions. Preliminary results show that channel aggradation occurs rapidly upstream of engineered structures. However, the apparent dampening of sediment transport by the structures leads to less aggradation and even incision immediately downstream of structures. Peak flood flows are decreased by the reservoirs formed behind large earthen berms. After several years of water retention

  7. Monitoring of the radiocesium in river water in Fukushima using rapid and simultaneous monitoring of particulate and dissolved radiocesium in water with nonwoven fabric cartridge filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, H.; Yasutaka, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan); Kondo, Y. [Japan Vilene Company, Ltd (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Fukushima Agricultural Technology Centre (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The environmental monitoring of dissolved and particulate radiocesium in river became important after the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Traditional monitoring methods, such as evaporative concentration, require time for pre-processing because the concentration of dissolved radiocesium of river water in Fukushima prefecture is currently very low, averagely 0.001 - 0.1 Bq/L. Our research group has developed a monitoring method to investigate the radiocesium concentration in water by each existence form. Yasutaka et al. (2013) and Tsuji et al.(2013) developed a method for rapid and simultaneous monitoring of particulate and dissolved radiocesium in water with nonwoven fabric cartridge filters. This method uses pleated polypropylene nonwoven fabric filter with a pore size of 1-μm to collect particulate radiocesium, and nonwoven fabric impregnated with Prussian blue (PB) to absorb dissolved radiocesium. The fabric was placed into cylindrical plastic cartridges (SS-cartridge and PB-cartridge). This method could catch the 99% of the suspended solid (SS) and absorb 95% of dissolved radiocesium separately in 20 L water within 40 minutes. This device was applied to monitor the water in Abukuma River (January 2013) and upper area of Kuchibuto river (May 2013) at 12 locations, and the results were compared with those obtained by the filtrating and evaporative concentration method. The SS concentration and radioactivity of SS in the Abukuma river water, calculated by weight gain of the SS-cartridge and by sediment weight after filtration with a 0.45-μm membrane filter, agreed well without one location.The radioactivity of the dissolved {sup 137}Cs also agreed well between these two methods. In the Abukuma River, dissolved {sup 137}Cs was 0.006-0.025 Bq/L and particulate {sup 137}Cs was 0.008-0.070 Bq/L by the presented method in January 2013. In addition, the required time for pre-processing was reduced by more than 10 times that by filtrating and

  8. A Data Model for Hydrologic Sensor Networks Monitoring River- Groundwater Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Wombacher, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Real-time operated wireless sensor networks produce large amounts of data, so that typical eyeball based analysis of data comes to its limits. Consequently we have to adapt and automate our data handling and archiving procedures, as well as our data analysis tools. Management of sensor data requires metadata to understand the semantics of observations. While modelers have high demands on metadata, experimentalists prefer to minimize entering metadata, as this is an additional effort. Quite often this is done on subjective basis ("field notes") without following a strict and predefined structure with transparent criteria and consistent vocabulary. Nevertheless, data has to be semantically annotated. The claim of this presentation is to focus on the essentials, being described by location, time, owner, instrument and measurement. The applicability is demonstrated in a case study focussing on monitoring changes of river-groundwater interactions in the context of river restoration. Fundamental steps are (i) a proper storage in a database, (ii) traceable link between data and meta-data and (iii) semantically annotation tagged to the data, e.g. concerning data quality and data interpretation. To some extend this can be done automatically (e.g. plausibility check, if values are in expected range). The scientific challenge lies in identifying periods (data strings) where high resolution data stresses expected system behavior and established process representations/conceptualizations used in well accepted and widely used models. When and where do we measure data which do not match our expectations? As the amount of data will increase dramatically, pre-aggregation and visualization have to be automated to focus on critical parts of time series which needs interpretation with further expert knowledge.

  9. MONITORING OF PHOSPHORUS CONTENT IN “WATER-PARTICULATE MATERIALS-BOTTOM SEDIMENTS SYSTEM” FOR RIVER PRUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE RUSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of phosphorus content in “water-particulatematerials-bottom sediments system” for river Prut. Seasonal and spatialdynamics of phosphorus forms in water, particulate materials and bottomsediments of river Prut was elucidated. The scheme for determination ofphosphorus forms in water and particulate materials according to World HealthOrganization classification was evaluated. Additionally, this scheme was tested forestimation of phosphorus content in bottom sediments. The supplemented schemeallows the analysis of the phosphorus forms for the entirely system “water –particulate materials – bottom sediments”, extending possibilities for interpretationof phosphorus dynamics in natural waters.

  10. Predation or Scavenging of Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis Cubs by Lizards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Weber Rosas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that several species have been mentioned as being giant otter predators, there is no direct evidence of most of them actually preying on P. brasiliensis. In this study we report for the first time a lizard (Tupinambis teguixin, commonly known as a tegu, either preying or scavenging on a giant otter cub. We also present some interactions of free-ranging giant otters with other potential predators, showing that their interactions are not always negative.

  11. Recent Sighting of Smooth-Coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli in Hawizeh Marsh (Southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Al-Sheikhly

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1956, there were very few sightings of Iraq Smooth-coated Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli especially after the Iraqi marshlands inundation. In April 2015, an adult male Iraq Smooth-coated Otter was trapped near Al-Edheam, in the northern part of Hawizeh Marsh (Southern Iraq. The recent sighting along with present photographic record represents very rare evidence documenting the occurrence of L. p. maxwelli otter in Iraq since the1950s.

  12. Otters in the Hawr al Azim wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Mirzaei

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    Currently the Hawr Al Azim Wetland is the largest freshwater wetland in Lower Mesopotamia and represents the remaining fraction of the former Mesopotamian Marshes, whose area has declined dramatically over the past 25 years. Two species of otter, the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and the smooth-coated otter (Lutragale perspicillata have been reported for this area. The sub-species of the latter is endemic to the wetlands, and is thought to be close to extinction. Current knowledge on the distribution and status of the otters within the marshes is minimal, and attempts to obtain more information are being hampered by military operation. In order to determine the otters’ status we conducted a field survey, interviewed local people who had access to the inner marsh and reviewed all available information about otters’ distribution in the wetlands. Although we could find sound evidence of the presence of both species in the past, the survey failed to find any current sign of otters. In contrast, local fishermen claimed that otters are sometimes observed in the inner or upper parts of Hawr Al Azim. The distribution of the two species in the area needs to be further investigated and attempts should be made to protect and restore the best remaining parts of Mesopotamian marshlands.

    Riassunto
    Le lontre dell’area umida di Hawr Al Azim, Iran
    Attualmente, Hawr Al Azim è la maggiore area umida della Mesopotamia inferiore, pur non essendo che una minima frazione residua della vasta area palustre mesopotamica progressivamente prosciugatasi negli ultimi 25 anni. Due specie di lontra vi sono state segnalate: Lutra lutra e Lutragale perspicillata, quest’ultima rappresentata da una sottospecie endemica probabilmente in via di estinzione. Le conoscenze sulla distribuzione delle due specie nell’area sono estremamente scarse, anche

  13. Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Reports for 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Lambert, Michael B.

    1998-01-01

    The primary goals of the Hood River Production Program is to (1) increase subbasin production of wild summer and winter steelhead and (2) reintroduce spring chinook salmon into the Hood River subbasin.

  14. Understanding controls on biotic assemblages and ecological status in Zambian rivers for the development of sustainable monitoring protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael; Gibbins, Chris; Lowe, Steven; Dallas, Helen; Taylor, Jonathan; Lang, Pauline; Saili, Kothelani; Sichingabula, Henry; Murphy, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    catchments with major industrial activity. Data form an important baseline against which to assess future changes related to population growth and climate change, and will therefore help inform policy within Zambia for sustainable river monitoring and management.

  15. Trends in Otter-Related Newspaper Articles in Japan over 135 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the chronological change in people’s interests and attitudes toward the Japanese otter, which became extinct during the 1990s, the number and contents of otter-related newspaper articles over 135 years were investigated. This investigation shows that, in the consciousness of people, the otter shifted gradually from being the animal of a neighborhood in the 19th century, economic value in the early 20th, conservation need in the late 20th, and symbolic value after 2000. Presently, the number of otter articles is progressively decreasing owing to a lack of news.

  16. Factors Influencing Distribution of Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra in Swat and Dir Districts, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Jadoon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pages 24 - 33 (ArticleThis study assessed the distribution of Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra through community-based survey followed by their potential habitat investigation in two districts of Khyber Pukhtoon-khwa (KPK, Pakistan. Results of the study indicated that Sheer Palam, Tormang, Patrak, Kalkot and Tal (Upper Dir, Madyan, Baronial, Mankial and Peshmal (Swat are the key habitats to host Eurasian otters. Secondary data (community questionnaires indicated 79% people consider that Eurasian otters are permanent residents in the study area, 12.5% thought otters were seasonal migrants while 8.5% people were not able to report otter status. Of the 31 sites surveyed, only nine sites were found to be positive for otter presence. The results indicated that the distribution range of the otter covers some potential areas of Swat and Upper Dir in Pakistan. This study concludes that otter population is more vulnerable in areas of dense human population. Anthropogenic activities are greatly influencing the presence of otters in the region and thus need an immediate action for the recovery of this declining population.

  17. Sea otter studies in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Kloecker, K.A.; Esslinger, G.G.; Monson, Daniel H.; DeGroot, J.D.; Doherty, J.

    2002-01-01

    Following translocations to the outer coast of Southeast Alaska in 1965, sea otters have been expanding their range and increasing in abundance. We began conducting surveys for sea otters in Cross Sound, Icy Strait, and Glacier Bay, Alaska in 1994, following initial reports (in 1993) of their presence in Glacier Bay. Since 1995, the number of sea otters in Glacier Bay proper has increased from around 5 to more than 1500. Between 1993 and 1997 sea otters were apparently only occasional visitors to Glacier Bay, but in 1998 long-term residence was established as indicated by the presence of adult females and their dependent pups. Sea otter distribution is limited to the Lower Bay, south of Sandy Cove, and is not continuous within that area. Concentrations occur in the vicinity of Sita Reef and Boulder Island and between Pt. Carolus and Rush Pt. on the west side of the Bay (Figure 1). We describe the diet of sea otters during 2001 in Glacier Bay based on visual observations of prey during 456 successful forage dives. In Glacier Bay, diet consisted of 62% clam, 15% mussel, 9% crab, 7% unidentified, 4& urchins, and 4% other. Most prey recovered by sea otters are commercially, socially, or ecologically important species. Species of clam include Saxidomus gigantea, Protothaca staminea, and Mya truncata. Urchins are primarily Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and the mussel is Modiolus modiolus. Crabs include species of three genera: Cancer, Chinoecetes, and Telmessus. Although we characterize diet at broad geographic scales, we found diet to vary between sites separated by as little as several hundred meters. Dietary variation among and within sites can reflect differences in prey availability and individual specialization. We estimated species composition, density, biomass, and sizes of subtidal clams, urchins, and mussels at 9 sites in lower Glacier Bay. All sites were selected based on the presence of abundant clam siphons. Sites were not selected to allow inference to

  18. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2008-02-20

    The purpose of this document is to describe research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) for the Federal Columbia River Estuary Program, hereafter called 'the Estuary Program'. The intent of this RME effort is to provide data and information to evaluate progress toward meeting program goals and objectives and support decision making in the Estuary Program. The goal of the Estuary Program is to understand, conserve, and restore the estuary ecosystem to improve the performance of listed salmonid populations. The Estuary Program has five general objectives, designed to fulfill the program goal, as follows: (1) Understand the primary stressors affecting ecosystem controlling factors, such as ocean conditions and invasive species. (2) Conserve and restore factors controlling ecosystem structures and processes, such as hydrodynamics and water quality. (3) Increase the quantity and quality of ecosystem structures, i.e., habitats, juvenile salmonids use during migration through the estuary. (4) Maintain the food web to benefit salmonid performance. (5) Improve salmonid performance in terms of life history diversity, foraging success, growth, and survival. The goal of estuary RME is to provide pertinent and timely research and monitoring information to planners, implementers, and managers of the Estuary Program. The goal leads to three primary management questions pertaining to the main focus of the Estuary Program: estuary habitat conservation and restoration. (1) Are the estuary habitat actions achieving the expected biological and environmental performance targets? (2) Are the offsite habitat actions in the estuary improving juvenile salmonid performance and which actions are most effective at addressing the limiting factors preventing achievement of habitat, fish, or wildlife performance objectives? (3) What are the limiting factors or threats in the estuary/ocean preventing the achievement of desired habitat or fish performance objectives? Performance measures

  19. Hydro-sedimentary monitoring of reservoir flushes in the Arc-Isère river system (French Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenen, Benoit; Némery, Julien; Le Coz, Jérôme; Paquier, André; Mano, Vincent; Belleudy, Philippe; Poirel, Alain; Lauters, François; Laperrousaz, Eric

    2010-05-01

    The Isère River is located in the South-East of France (French Alps) and is one of the main tributaries of the Rhône River as regards Suspended Sediment Matter (SSM) fluxes. The Isère River channel was strongly constrained laterally during the two last centuries and was harnessed by a lot of hydroelectric dams along the river network especially in the Arc River, one of its tributaries. The Arc-Isère river hydrology is particularly affected by the EDF (Electricity of France) schemes for producing electricity (river dams and side reservoir). The total SSM flux of the Isère River at Grenoble (5570 km2) was estimated as 2-3 million tons yearly. And large SSM concentrations may be measured at Grenoble during natural flood events (over 10g/L). To prevent SSM retention and siltation of dams, EDF regularly (yearly) conducts hydraulic flushes. The Arc-Isère system was thus instrumented to study the impact of such managements on the SSM dynamics along the downstream Arc-Isère river system. A system of six monitoring stations is under construction and calibration for the continuous survey of water level, discharges and SSM concentrations: two in the Arvan River (tributary of the Arc River), two in the Arc River and two in the Isère River. The SSM concentrations are recorded continually using a turbidity sensor (Hach Lange, 0-50 g/L, time step 30mn). An automatic sampler is coupled and controlled by the turbidity sensor in order to establish a calibration for converting the SSM estimated by the turbidity sensor into SSM concentrations in mg/L. Water discharge is estimated from water elevation measurements using a rating curve, where applicable. Two stations (Grenoble-Isère and Pontamafrey-Arc) are already built and validated, two stations (St Jean de Maurienne-Arvan, Montmélian-Isère) are built but need to be validated, and two stations are still under construction (St Jean d'Arves-Arvan, Randens-Arc). This site study is labelled as an observatory site of the French

  20. Using High Spatio-Temporal Optical Remote Sensing to Monitor Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Arctic River Yenisei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Alexis Herrault

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Arctic regions, a major concern is the release of carbon from melting permafrost that could greatly exceed current human carbon emissions. Arctic rivers drain these organic-rich watersheds (Ob, Lena, Yenisei, Mackenzie, Yukon but field measurements at the outlets of these great Arctic rivers are constrained by limited accessibility of sampling sites. In particular, the highest dissolved organic carbon (DOC fluxes are observed throughout the ice breakup period that occurs over a short two to three-week period in late May or early June during the snowmelt-generated peak flow. The colored fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC which absorbs UV and visible light is designed as chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM. It is highly correlated to DOC in large arctic rivers and streams, allowing for remote sensing to monitor DOC concentrations from satellite imagery. High temporal and spatial resolutions remote sensing tools are highly relevant for the study of DOC fluxes in a large Arctic river. The high temporal resolution allows for correctly assessing this highly dynamic process, especially the spring freshet event (a few weeks in May. The high spatial resolution allows for assessing the spatial variability within the stream and quantifying DOC transfer during the ice break period when the access to the river is almost impossible. In this study, we develop a CDOM retrieval algorithm at a high spatial and a high temporal resolution in the Yenisei River. We used extensive DOC and DOM spectral absorbance datasets from 2014 and 2015. Twelve SPOT5 (Take5 and Landsat 8 (OLI images from 2014 and 2015 were examined for this investigation. Relationships between CDOM and spectral variables were explored using linear models (LM. Results demonstrated the capacity of a CDOM algorithm retrieval to monitor DOC fluxes in the Yenisei River during a whole open water season with a special focus on the peak flow period. Overall, future Sentinel2/Landsat8

  1. BOREAS AFM-04 Twin Otter Aircraft Sounding Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, J. Ian; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-4 team used the National Research Council, Canada (NRC) Twin Otter aircraft to make sounding measurements through the boundary layer. These measurements included concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone, atmospheric pressure, dry bulb temperature, potential temperature, dewpoint temperature, calculated mixing ratio, and wind speed and direction. Aircraft position, heading, and altitude were also recorded. Data were collected at both the Northern Study Area (NSA) and the Southern Study Area (SSA) in 1994 and 1996. These data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The Twin Otter aircraft sounding data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files also are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  2. News from the Giant Otter Project in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Staib

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1994, in Manu National Park, the Otorongo group is now led by Isla; there is further evidence that tourism is affecting breeding adversely. Tourism has doubled this year, but the national park authority have signed an agreement accepting responsibility for protecting the animals, and are building an observation tower for tourists that does not seem to trouble the otters. We organsied a seminar on "Management of tourism in the reserves of Madre de Dios" in the department capital, Puerto Maldonado, and contributed to another organised by the University of Cusco and the park administration. We published a booklet containing the most important results of our study. We investaged the acoustic communication of giant otters under water, finished a study on mercury contamination of fish, produced a book, "Die Wölfe der Flüsse - Riesenotter und ihr Lebensraum Regenwald", and produced a TV film "Die Riesenotter vom Madre de Dios".

  3. Environmental contaminant analysis of sea otters and prey from coastal Washington of the Washington Maritime NWR Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Analyses of blood and liver samples from live captured sea otters and liver samples from beach-cast sea otter carcasses off the remote Washington coast indicate...

  4. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Monitoring and Evaluation Project and Hood River Fish Habitat Project : Annual Progress Report 1999-2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    2001-02-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin. This annual report summarizes work for two consecutive contract periods: the fiscal year (FY) 1999 contract period was 1 October, 1998 through 30 September, 1999 and 1 October, 1999 through 30 September, 2000 for FY 2000. Work implemented during FY 1999 and FY 2000 included (1) acclimation of hatchery spring chinook salmon and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (2) spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys on the West Fork Hood River (3) genetic analysis of steelhead and cutthroat [contractual service with the ODFW], (4) Hood River water temperature studies, (5) Oak Springs Hatchery (OSH) and Round Butte Hatchery (RBH) coded-wire tagging and clipping evaluation, (6) preparation of the Hood River Watershed Assessment (Coccoli et al., December 1999) and the Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (Coccoli et al., February 2000), (7) project implementation of early action habitat protection and restoration projects, (8) Pelton Ladder evaluation studies, (9) management oversight and guidance to BPA and ODFW engineering on HRPP facilities, and (10) preparation of an annual report summarizing project objectives for FY 1999 and FY 2000.

  5. [Monitoring of the Moskva River Water Using Microbiological Parameters and Chlorophyll a Fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosharova, I V; Il'inskii, V V; Matorin, D N; Mosharov, S A; Akulova, A Yu; Protopopov, F F

    2015-01-01

    The results of investigations of three Moskva River sites with different degree of pollution using a complex of microbiological characteristics and the parameters of chlorophyll a fluorescence are presented. We determined that the bacterioplankton seasonal dynamics at less polluted waters (Tushino and Vorobyovy Gory) were similar and differed significantly from one in more polluted waters (Dzerzhinskii). The number of bacteria with active electron transport chain, as well as their share in the bacterioplankton structure, was higher in the water of Dzerzhinskii (average annual values of 0.23 x 10(6) cells/mL and 14%), that in the less polluted water of Tushino and Vorobyovy Gory (0.14 x 10(6) cells/mL; 6% and 0.15 x 10(6) cells/mL; 7%, respectively). From April to October, the content of chlorophyll a and its photosynthetic activity were the highest in Tushino. In Dzerzhinskii, during spring the increase in photosynthetic activity commenced earlier and was more intensive that the increase in chlorophyll a content, i.e., the increase in phytoplankton biomass was temporarily suppressed. We suggest association of this phenomenon with suppression of organic matter synthesis by phytoplankton due to the high water pollution in Dzerzhinskii. The second autumn peak of chlorophyll a content, that was typical of clear water and was observed in Tushino, did not occur in Dzerzhinskii. We recommend combined application of these microbiological parameters and characteristics of chlorophyll a fluorescence for a monitoring.

  6. Flood and Waterlogging Monitoring over Huaihe River Basin by AMSR-E Data Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wei; LIU Chuang; XIN Zhongbao; WANG Zhengxing

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we investigated the potential of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observation System (AMSR-E) for flood monitoring.The proposed approach was based on the polarized ratio index (PRI),which was computed by using AMSR-E data at 37GHz,vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperature values and the water surface fraction (WSF) got by using the PRI at 37GHz.Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used to validate the WSF values.The analysis of flood and waterlogging using the WSF map on July 6,2003 indicates that the use of WSF for flood and waterlogging disaster assessment is feasible.Utilizing the correlation of WSF derived from AMSR-E and water area derived from MODIS,the water area of the Huaihe River Basin were computed by only using AMSR-E data in the summer of 2003,which overcame the influence of cloud on water estimation using MODIS data during flood.

  7. Flow monitoring with a camera: a case study on a flood event in the Tiber River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, F; Olivieri, G; Petroselli, A; Porfiri, M; Grimaldi, S

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring surface water velocity during flood events is a challenging task. Techniques based on deploying instruments in the flow are often unfeasible due to high velocity and abundant sediment transport. A low-cost and versatile technology that provides continuous and automatic observations is still not available. Among remote methods, large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) is an optical method that computes surface water velocity maps from videos recorded with a camera. Here, we implement and critically analyze findings obtained from a recently introduced LSPIV experimental configuration during a flood event in the Tiber River at a cross section located in the center of Rome, Italy. We discuss the potential of LSPIV observations in challenging environmental conditions by presenting results from three tests performed during the hydrograph flood peak and recession limb of the event for different illumination and weather conditions. The obtained surface velocity maps are compared to the rating curve velocity and to benchmark velocity values. Experimental findings show that optical methods should be preferred in extreme conditions. However, their practical implementation may be associated with further hurdles and uncertainties.

  8. Monitoring design for assessing compliance with numeric nutrient standards for rivers and streams using geospatial variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rachel E; Arabi, Mazdak; Loftis, Jim; Elmund, G Keith

    2014-09-01

    Implementation of numeric nutrient standards in Colorado has prompted a need for greater understanding of human impacts on ambient nutrient levels. This study explored the variability of annual nutrient concentrations due to upstream anthropogenic influences and developed a mathematical expression for the number of samples required to estimate median concentrations for standard compliance. A procedure grounded in statistical hypothesis testing was developed to estimate the number of annual samples required at monitoring locations while taking into account the difference between the median concentrations and the water quality standard for a lognormal population. For the Cache La Poudre River in northern Colorado, the relationship between the median and standard deviation of total N (TN) and total P (TP) concentrations and the upstream point and nonpoint concentrations and general hydrologic descriptors was explored using multiple linear regression models. Very strong relationships were evident between the upstream anthropogenic influences and annual medians for TN and TP ( > 0.85, 0.7, 20%, few samples are needed to reach a 95% confidence level. When the median is within 20% of the corresponding water quality standard, however, the required sample size increases rapidly, and hundreds of samples may be required.

  9. Evaluation of radcal gamma thermometers for in-core monitoring of Savannah River Site production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, R.W.; Crowley, J.L. [DELTA M Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Croft, W.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) recently obtained a quantity of Radcal Gamma Thermometer Assemblies (RGTAs) for in-core monitoring of local power in their production reactors. The RGTAs, manufactured by DELTA M Corporation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contained seven Self Calibrating Gamma Thermometer (SCGT) sensors within a 7.26 mm diameter, 3.06 m length with a total length of 5.6 m. All RGTAs contained an isolated segmented heater cable for in-situ calibration. Each SCGT sensor was subjected to a 40 point calibration at discrete power levels from 0.5 to 6 watts per gram (w/g) under both joule and cable power. Calibration equations were developed from this to predict reactor power at each sensor. Additionally three units were calibrated at combined joule and cable heating conditions from 0.5 to 2.5 w/g cable and 0.5 to 6 w/g joule. A statistical analysis of all data was used to derive prediction equations that enable SRS engineers to precisely track any changes in sensor calibration throughout the lifetime of the instruments. This paper presents the detailed configuration of the 36 units manufactured for SRS, reviews the calibration results, and discusses the utility and accuracy of the statistically derived prediction equations for in-situ calibration.

  10. Evaluation of radcal gamma thermometers for in-core monitoring of Savannah River Site production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, R.W.; Crowley, J.L. (DELTA M Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Croft, W.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) recently obtained a quantity of Radcal Gamma Thermometer Assemblies (RGTAs) for in-core monitoring of local power in their production reactors. The RGTAs, manufactured by DELTA M Corporation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contained seven Self Calibrating Gamma Thermometer (SCGT) sensors within a 7.26 mm diameter, 3.06 m length with a total length of 5.6 m. All RGTAs contained an isolated segmented heater cable for in-situ calibration. Each SCGT sensor was subjected to a 40 point calibration at discrete power levels from 0.5 to 6 watts per gram (w/g) under both joule and cable power. Calibration equations were developed from this to predict reactor power at each sensor. Additionally three units were calibrated at combined joule and cable heating conditions from 0.5 to 2.5 w/g cable and 0.5 to 6 w/g joule. A statistical analysis of all data was used to derive prediction equations that enable SRS engineers to precisely track any changes in sensor calibration throughout the lifetime of the instruments. This paper presents the detailed configuration of the 36 units manufactured for SRS, reviews the calibration results, and discusses the utility and accuracy of the statistically derived prediction equations for in-situ calibration.

  11. Design of a monitoring network and assessment of the pollution on the Lerma river and its tributaries by wastewaters disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, C; Hinojosa-Peña, A; Carreño-de-León, M C

    2007-02-01

    While the 2005 progress report of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals stresses out the need of a dramatic increase in investment to meet the sanitation target in the third world, it is important to anticipate about some parallel negative impacts that may have this optimistic programme (extension of sewer networks without sufficient treatment works). Research was initiated on Lerma River (Mexico), subjected to many rejects disposal, to design a monitoring network and evaluate the impact of wastewaters on its water quality. The discharges was inventorized, geo-positioned with a GPS and mapped, while the physico-chemical characteristics of the river water, its tributaries and main rejects were evaluated. Microtox system was used as an additional screening tool. Along the 60 km of the High Course of Lerma River (HCLR), 51 discharges, with a diameter or width larger than 0.3 m (including 7 small tributaries) were identified. Based on the inventory, a monitoring network of 21 sampling stations in the river and 13 in the important discharges (>2 m) was proposed. A great similitude was found between the average characteristics of the discharges and the river itself, in both the wet and dry seasons. Oxygen was found exhausted (river, with COD and TDS average levels of 390 and 1980 mg/L in the dry season, against 150 and 400 mg/L in the wet season. In the dry season, almost all the sites along the river revealed some toxicity to the bacteria test species (2.9 to 150 TU, with an average of 27 TU). Same septic conditions and toxicity levels were observed in many of the discharges. Four of the six evaluated tributaries, as well as the lagoon (origin of the river), were relatively in better conditions (2 to 8 mg/L D.O., TULerma, acting as diluents and renewal of the HCLR flow rate. The river was shown to be quite a main sewer collector. The high surface water contamination by untreated wastewaters that is depicted in this research should be taken into account in the

  12. Ramsar Protected Wetlands of International Importance as Habitats for Otters

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Brooks; Thomas L. Serfass; Maggie Triska; Lisa-Maria Rebelo

    2011-01-01

    Wetlands of International Importance, as listed by the Ramsar Convention, can provide valuable opportunities to conserve otter species worldwide. Adopted in 1971, the Convention originally focused on protecting habitats for waterfowl. Since then the convention has broadened its scope to cover all aspects of wetland conservation and wise use, recognizing wetlands as ecosystems that are extremely important for biodiversity and for the well-being of human communities. By the end of 2011, there w...

  13. Verification of sex from harvested sea otters using DNA testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, K.T.; Green, B.A.; Gorbics, C.; Bodkin, J.

    2005-01-01

    We used molecular genetic methods to determine the sex of 138 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) harvested from 3 regions of Alaska from 1994 to 1997, to assess the accuracy of post-harvest field-sexing. We also tested each of a series of factors associated with errors in field-sexing of sea otters, including male or female bias, age-class bias, regional bias, and bias associated with hunt characteristics. Blind control results indicated that sex was determined with 100% accuracy using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using primers that co-amplify the zinc finger-Y-X gene, located on both the mammalian Y- and X-chromosomes, and Testes Determining Factor (TDF), located on the mammalian Y-chromosome. DNA-based sexing revealed that 12.3% of the harvested sea otters were incorrectly sexed in the field, with most errors (13 of 17) occurring as males incorrectly reported as females. Thus, female harvest was overestimated. Using logistic regression analysis, we detected no statistical association of incorrect determination of sex in the field with age class, hunt region, or hunt type. The error in field-sexing appears to be random, at least with respect to the variables evaluated in this study.

  14. Design of sampling locations for river water quality monitoring considering seasonal variation of point and diffuse pollution loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekar, Vikas; Karmakar, Subhankar; Jha, Ramakar; Ghosh, N C

    2015-06-01

    The design of a water quality monitoring network (WQMN) is a complicated decision-making process because each sampling involves high installation, operational, and maintenance costs. Therefore, data with the highest information content should be collected. The effect of seasonal variation in point and diffuse pollution loadings on river water quality may have a significant impact on the optimal selection of sampling locations, but this possible effect has never been addressed in the evaluation and design of monitoring networks. The present study proposes a systematic approach for siting an optimal number and location of river water quality sampling stations based on seasonal or monsoonal variations in both point and diffuse pollution loadings. The proposed approach conceptualizes water quality monitoring as a two-stage process; the first stage of which is to consider all potential water quality sampling sites, selected based on the existing guidelines or frameworks, and the locations of both point and diffuse pollution sources. The monitoring at all sampling sites thus identified should be continued for an adequate period of time to account for the effect of the monsoon season. In the second stage, the monitoring network is then designed separately for monsoon and non-monsoon periods by optimizing the number and locations of sampling sites, using a modified Sanders approach. The impacts of human interventions on the design of the sampling net are quantified geospatially by estimating diffuse pollution loads and verified with land use map. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, the Kali River basin in the western Uttar Pradesh state of India was selected as a study area. The final design suggests consequential pre- and post-monsoonal changes in the location and priority of water quality monitoring stations based on the seasonal variation of point and diffuse pollution loadings.

  15. Monitoring Earthquake-Damaged Vegetation after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in the Mountainous River Basins, Dujiangyan County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaizhen Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake destroyed large areas of vegetation in the Baisha River and Longxi River basins, in Dujiangyan County, China. There were several debris flow events in these mountainous river basins after 2008. Currently, these damaged vegetation areas are in various stages of recovery. This recovery vegetation improves the resistance of slopes to both surficial erosion and mass wasting. We introduce a probabilistic approach to determining the relationships between damaged vegetation and slope materials’ stability, and model the sediment and flow (hydrological connectivity index to detect the hydrological changes in a given river basin, using the multi-temporal (1994–2014 remote-sensing images to monitor the vegetation recovery processes. Our results demonstrated that the earthquake-damaged vegetation areas have coupling relationships with topographic environment and slope material properties, and can be used to assess the slope material stability. Further, our analysis results showed that the areas with horizontal distance to river streams <500 m are areas that actively contribute sediment to the stream channel network, and are main material sources for debris flow processes in one given mountainous basin.

  16. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network-Based Message Forwarding for a River Pollution Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Villada, Carlos; Donoso, Yezid

    2016-03-25

    Communications from remote areas that may be of interest is still a problem. Many innovative projects applied to remote sites face communications difficulties. The GOLDFISH project was an EU-funded project for river pollution monitoring in developing countries. It had several sensor clusters, with floating WiFi antennas, deployed along a downstream river's course. Sensor clusters sent messages to a Gateway installed on the riverbank. This gateway sent the messages, through a backhaul technology, to an Internet server where data was aggregated over a map. The communication challenge in this scenario was produced by the antennas' movement and network backhaul availability. Since the antennas were floating on the river, communications could be disrupted at any time. Also, 2G/3G availability near the river was not constant. For non-real-time applications, we propose a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN)-based solution where all nodes have persistent storage capabilities and DTN protocols to be able to wait minutes or hours to transmit. A mechanical backhaul will periodically visit the river bank where the gateway is installed and it will automatically collect sensor data to be carried to an Internet-covered spot. The proposed forwarding protocol delivers around 98% of the messages for this scenario, performing better than other well-known DTN routing protocols.

  17. A new methodology for monitoring wood fluxes in rivers using a ground camera: Potential and limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacchio, Véronique; Piégay, Hervé; Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas; Vaudor, Lise

    2017-02-01

    Ground imagery, which produces large amounts of valuable data at high frequencies, is increasingly used by fluvial geomorphologists to survey and understand processes. While such technology provides immense quantities of information, it can be challenging to analyze and requires automatization and associated development of new methodologies. This paper presents a new approach to automate the processing of image analysis to monitor wood delivery from the upstream Rhône River (France). The Génissiat dam is used as an observation window; all pieces of wood coming from the catchment are trapped here, hence a wood raft accumulates over time. In 2011, we installed an Axis 211W camera to acquire oblique images of the reservoir every 10 min with the goal of automatically detecting a wood raft area, in order to transform it to wood weight (t) and flux (t/d). The methodology we developed is based on random forest classification to detect the wood raft surface over time, which provided a good classification rate of 97.2%. Based on 14 mechanical wood extractions that included weight of wood removed each time, conducted during the survey period, we established a relationship between wood weight and wood raft surface area observed just before the extraction (R2 = 0.93). We found that using such techniques to continuously monitor wood flux is difficult because the raft undergoes very significant changes through time in terms of density, with a very high interday and intraday variability. Misclassifications caused by changes in weather conditions can be mitigated as well as errors from variation in pixel resolution (owing to camera position or window size), but a set of effects on raft density and mobility must still be explored (e.g., dam operation effects, wind on the reservoir surface). At this stage, only peak flow contribution to wood delivery can be well calculated, but determining an accurate, continuous series of wood flux is not possible. Several recommendations are

  18. POSTCLOSURE GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION AND MONITORING AT THE SANITARY LANDFILL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TRANSITIONING TO MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J; Walt Kubilius, W; Thomas Kmetz, T; D Noffsinger, D; Karen M Adams, K

    2006-11-17

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for hazardous waste facilities include 30 years of post-closure monitoring. The use of an objective-based monitoring strategy allows for a significant reduction in the amount of groundwater monitoring required, as the groundwater remediation transitions from an active biosparging system to monitored natural attenuation. The lifecycle of groundwater activities at the landfill has progressed from detection monitoring and plume characterization, to active groundwater remediation, and now to monitored natural attenuation and postclosure monitoring. Thus, the objectives of the groundwater monitoring have changed accordingly. Characterization monitoring evaluated what biogeochemical natural attenuation processes were occurring and determined that elevated levels of radium were naturally occurring. Process monitoring of the biosparging system required comprehensive sampling network up- and down-gradient of the horizontal wells to verify its effectiveness. Currently, the scope of monitoring and reporting can be significantly reduced as the objective is to demonstrate that the alternate concentration limits (ACL) are being met at the point of compliance wells and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) is being met at the surface water point of exposure. The proposed reduction is estimated to save about $2M over the course of the remaining 25 years of postclosure monitoring.

  19. De otter terug in Nederland; eerste fase van de herintroductie in Nationaal Park De Weerribben in 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewold, F.J.J.; Lammertsma, D.R.; Jansman, H.A.H.; Kuiters, A.T.

    2003-01-01

    In 2002 is een vijfjarig herintroductieprogramma van de otter van start gegaan. In twee lichtingen zijn in totaal 15 otters uitgezet in het Nationaal Park de Weerribben. De otters waren voor een deel (11 stuks) afkomstig van populaties uit Letland en Wit-Rusland. De overige dieren kwamen uit gevange

  20. Long-term monitoring of sandbars on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert P.; Grams, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 dramatically changed discharge and sediment supply to the downstream Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons. Magnitudes of seasonal flow variation have been suppressed, while daily fluctuations have increased because of hydropower generation. Lake Powell, the upstream reservoir, traps all sediment, leaving the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers as the main suppliers of fine sediment to the system below Glen Canyon Dam. The reduction in sediment supply, along with changes in discharge, have resulted in finesediment deficit (Topping et al., 2000), leading to a decrease in the size and number of alluvial sandbars (Schmidt and Graf, 1990; Schmidt et al., 2004). However, the understanding of these important spatial and temporal changes in sandbars located along the banks of the river have been limited to infrequent measurements mostly made by direct visitation and topographic surveying (Hazel et al., 2010). Aerial photographs are the only data available from which it is possible to evaluate changes in alluvial deposits at a large number of sites and compare recent conditions with those that existed prior to the initiation of ground-based monitoring in the early 1990s. Previous studies have evaluated the effects of Glen Canyon Dam on sandbars by analysis of comprehensive maps of surficial geology that are based on seven sets of aerial imagery taken between 1935 and 1996 for selected reaches in the first 120 km downstream from Lees Ferry, Arizona (Figure 1). These studies showed that the area of exposed sand in eddy-deposition zones was less in the post-dam period than in the pre-dam period (Leschin and Schmidt, 1995; Schmidt et al., 1999b; Sondossi, 2001, Sondossi and Schmidt, 2001, Schmidt et al., 2004). In this study, we extend these analyses to encompass a 74-year period by including maps of sand deposits visible in aerial imagery taken in 2002, 2005, and 2009 for the same reaches that were mapped in the earlier studies. Results

  1. The Fetal Membranes of the Otter Shrews and a Synapomorphy for Afrotheria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M.; Blankenship, T.N.; Enders, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    The otter shrews of mainland Africa are the closest relatives of the Madagascar tenrecs. We sought for similarities in placentation between the two groups and, in a wider context, with other mammals of the Afrotheria clade. Specimens of the Nimba otter shrew (Micropotamogale lamottei) were obtain...

  2. Use of three monitoring approaches to manage a major Chrysosporum ovalisporum bloom in the Murray River, Australia, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Adam; Holliday, Jon; Merrick, Chester; Brayan, John; van Asten, Mark; Bowling, Lee

    2017-04-01

    An unusual bloom of Chrysosporum ovalisporum (basionym Aphanizomenon ovalisporum) occurred for the first time in the Murray River and distributary rivers in New South Wales, Australia, from mid-February to early June 2016. At its greatest extent, it contaminated a combined river length of ca. 2360 km. Chrysosporum ovalisporum usually comprised >99% of the total bloom biovolume at most locations sampled, which at times exceeded 40 mm(3) l(-1). The origins of the bloom were most likely reservoirs on the upper Murray River, with cyanobacterial-infested water released from them contaminating the river systems downstream. An integrated approach using three analytical methods: (1) identification and enumeration by microscopy, (2) multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and (3) toxin analysis, was used to obtain data for the assessment of risk to water users and management of the bloom. qPCR indicated some cyrA and stxA genes responsible for cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin biosynthesis respectively were present, but mostly below the level of quantification. No mcyE genes for microcystin biosynthesis were detected. Toxin analysis also revealed that cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin and microcystin were all below detection. Lack of measurable toxicity in a species usually considered a cylindrospermopsin producer elsewhere meant the possibility of relaxing management guidelines; however, high (Red) alerts needed to be maintained due to risk to water users from other biohazards potentially produced by the cyanobacteria such as contact irritants. A three-tiered monitoring strategy is suggested for monitoring cyanobacterial blooms to provide enhanced data for bloom management.

  3. Understanding the Value of Satellite Altimetry for Monitoring Water Level Dynamics of Large Rivers in Bangladesh Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, F.; Akbor, S.; Sustainability, Satellites, Water; Environment (Saswe) Research Group

    2010-12-01

    Although transboundary river flow accounts for more than 40% of global surface flow across 145 nations (many of them water-stressed and conflict-prone), most of this flow is difficult to monitor in developing nations at operational timescales. For Bangladesh, this situation is particularly acute because it comprises only 7% of the entire Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin and is located at the downstream end of the basin. Thus more than 90% of the water is generated in upstream nations and yet this information is hard to obtain in Bangladesh due to lack of transboundary instrumentation or international treaties. This work therefore investigates the value of satellite radar altimetry in detecting the water level changes for large rivers in the Bangladesh Delta. It is founded on the hypothesis that a satellite altimeter can detect water level to the same accuracy for both inside and outside of Bangladesh. First, the river hydraulic model called HEC-RAS (Hydrologic Engineering Center, River Analysis System) is set up and calibrated over Bangladesh using a comprehensive database on in-situ river bathymetry and observed water level records. Next, the calibrated HEC-RAS model is provided boundary flow conditions upstream and downstream of the model domain. At the upstream end where the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghan enter Bangladesh, high resolution flow data modeled from a well calibrated hydrologic model called MIKE BASIN is provided as input. The observed tidal flow records of the Meghna estuary near the Bay of Bengal are used as the downstream boundary conditions. HEC-RAS is then used to simulate daily water level data for the period of 2003-2005 for major rivers of Bangladesh. These water level simulations are directly compared with altimeter estimates of water level from the ENVISAT mission. Accuracy of ENVISAT data is characterized as a function of season, flow regime and river type. The important question that this study aims to answer is, “To what extent can

  4. Bedload Dynamics of a Lowland Gravel-Bedded River Monitored Using Geophones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, P. W.; Taylor, A.; Soar, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Bedload dynamics of the River Avon (Devon, UK) were monitored using geophones during an extremely wet period in 2012-3 which included multiple overtopping discharges and the instantaneous and daily mean flows of record. Seismic impact plate geophones have been suggested to provide a reliable record of transport of grains in excess of ca.20 mm. Our geophones, positioned in a reach with a central flow thalweg, consistently recorded a lower threshold of bedload movement at ~4 m3s-1 which accords to a shear stress theoretically capable of moving sediment just exceeding 20 mm. The relationship of discharge to bedload rate (i.e., impact frequency) during individual events was highly complex: increasing scatter at discharges in excess of bankfull may in part reflect sensitivity of the device to bedload size and saltation dynamics. Considerable intra-event hysteresis including in-bank transport peaks during flow recession may relate to changing sediment supply dynamics due to local mass and cantilever bank failures. Variation in impact frequencies between events may reflect regional changes in sediment supply dynamics although lateral displacement in the dominant track of bedload would provide the same result: later installation of multiple geophones demonstrated a high degree of cross-stream variability in recorded bedload but the persistent dominance of the central plate meant that the discharge-transport relationship was not significantly improved by using multiple plates. Despite this intra- and inter-event variability, the product of instantaneous discharge versus impact frequency indicated an effective discharge for bedload close to the morphological ';bar-full' level - this may be plausible in this exceptionally wet period during which time 20 mm grains were estimated to be mobile during 66% of daily mean flows and the channel underwent appreciable morphological adjustment. The results generally support the value of impact plates as indicators of relative sediment

  5. An integrated approach to the Environmental Monitoring Plan of the Pertuso spring (Upper Valley of Aniene River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sappa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative assessment of groundwater and surface water is an important tool for sustainable management and protection of these important resources. This paper deals with the design of a multi-disciplinary monitoring plan related to the catchment project of the Pertuso spring, in the Upper Valley of Aniene River, which is going to be exploited to supply an important water network in the South part of Roma district. According to the Legislative Decree 152/2006, as modified by DM 260/2010, any infrastructure design should take in consideration an Environmental Monitoring Plan for the hydrogeological settings of the study area. Thus, the hydrogeological characterization combined with an Environmental Monitoring Plan provides to evaluate the potential adverse environmental impacts due catchment works. For water resources assessment and management, the quantification of groundwater recharge is a preliminary step. As a matter of fact, it has been included the quantitative characterization of the Pertuso spring, in the aim of to protect catchment area, which is directly affect by the natural hydrogeological balance of this aquifer. Thus, a multi-disciplinary monitoring plan has been set up, including quantitative and hydrogeochemical measurements, both for groundwater and surface water of the Upper Valley of Aniene River. The target of this Environmental Monitoring Plan is to set up the background framework on the hydromorphological, physico-chemical and biological properties of water resources in the water basin influenced aim by any potential environmental impact due to the construction activities. The Environmental Monitoring Plan and main features of the monitoring network will be presented in this study.

  6. Assessment of Pollution Risk for the Remaining Otter Populations in Lower Saxony, West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roechert R.

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available Little was known about the threat to West German otters from water-borne contaminants - heavy metals and organochlorines. Aktion Fischotter initiated a study to look at pollution levels in West German otter populations, and compared the results to Swedish data. In order to look at the amount of contaminants available to otters, the levels in roach were examined. Levels found seemed low, especially in the west, which may be the result of trophic conditions of western waters. From the results, otters in F.R.G. are restricted to waters low in PCBs, but the levels found even in the west are similar to levels that in Sweden seriously affected otter populations.

  7. Vitamin A deficiency and hepatic retinol levels in sea otters, Enhydra lutris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Leger, Judy A; Righton, Alison L; Nilson, Erika M; Fascetti, Andrea J; Miller, Melissa A; Tuomi, Pamela A; Goertz, Caroline E C; Puschner, Birgit

    2011-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has rarely been reported in captive or free-ranging wildlife species. Necropsy findings in two captively housed southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) included irregular thickening of the calvaria characterized by diffuse hyperostoses on the internal surface. One animal also had moderate squamous metaplasia of the seromucinous glands of the nose. There was no measurable retinol in the liver of either sea otter. For comparison, hepatic retinol concentration was determined for 23 deceased free-ranging southern and northern (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) sea otters from California and Alaska. Free-ranging otters were found to have similar hepatic retinol concentrations (316 +/- 245 mg/kg wet weight) regardless of their location and subspecies. All of these values were significantly higher than the levels in the affected animals. Consumption of a diet with very low vitamin A concentrations and noncompliance in daily supplementation are hypothesized as the causes of vitamin A deficiency in these two sea otters.

  8. Monitoring of the antioxidant BHT and its metabolite BHT-CHO in German river water and ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Elke; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2004-02-05

    The behavior of anthropogenic polar organic compounds in ground water during infiltration of river water to ground water was studied at the Oderbruch area on the eastern border of Germany. Additionally, waste water sewage treatment works (STWs) discharging their treated waste water into the Oder River and rain water precipitation from the Oderbruch area were investigated. The study was carried out from March 2000 to July 2001 to investigate seasonal variations of the target analytes. Samples were collected from four sites along the Oder River, from 24 ground water monitoring wells located close to the Oder, from one rain water collection station, from two roof runoffs, and from four STWs upstream of the Oderbruch. Results of the investigations of the antioxidant 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-toluene (BHT) and its degradation product 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (BHT-CHO) are presented. BHT and BHT-CHO were detected in all samples of the Oder River with mean concentrations of 178 and 102 ngl(-1), respectively. BHT and BHT-CHO were also detected in effluent waste water samples from municipal STWs at mean concentrations of 132 and 70 ngl(-1), respectively. Both compounds are discharged into river water directly via treated waste water. In the rain water sample, 308 ngl(-1) of BHT and 155 ngl(-1) of BHT-CHO were measured. Both compounds were detected in roof runoff with mean concentrations of 92 ngl(-1) for BHT and 138 ngl(-1) for BHT-CHO. The median values of BHT and BHT-CHO in ground water samples were 132 and 84 ngl(-1), respectively. The chemical composition of ground water from parts of the aquifer located less than 4.5 m distant from the river are greatly influenced by bank filtration. However, wet deposition followed by seepage of rain water into the aquifer is also a source of BHT and BHT-CHO in ground water.

  9. Nationwide monitoring of selected antibiotics: Distribution and sources of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and macrolides in Japanese rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Ayako; Takada, Hideshige; Mutoh, Kunihiro; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Harada, Arata; Nakada, Norihide

    2011-11-15

    We report the results of a nationwide survey of commonly used human and veterinary antibiotics (7 sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and 4 macrolides) in 37 Japanese rivers. Concentrations of the sum of the 12 target antibiotics ranged from undetectable to 626 ng/L, with a median of 7.3 ng/L for the 37 rivers. Antibiotics concentrations were higher in urban rivers than in rural rivers and were correlated with those of molecular markers of sewage (crotamiton and carbamazepine). Macrolides were dominant over sulfonamides in urban rivers. Sulfonamides, especially sulfamethazine (used in animals), were dominant in a few rivers in whose catchment animal husbandry is active. However, these signals of veterinary antibiotics were overwhelmed by those of human antibiotics in lower reaches of most rivers. The analysis of the antibiotics in all 88 samples showed that the target antibiotics in Japanese rivers are derived mainly from urban sewage, even though larger amounts of antibiotics are used in livestock. Most of the livestock waste-derived antibiotics are unlikely to be readily discharged to surface waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Evaluations in the Monitoring of the River Ecosystem Processes: The Adige River as a Case Stu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Braioni

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of analysis and environmental evaluation was applied to 11 stretches of the Adige River, where an innovative procedure was carried out to interpret ecological results. Within each stretch, the most suitable methods were used to assess the quality and processes of flood plains, banks, water column, bed, and interstitial environment. Indices were applied to evaluate the wild state and ecological quality of the banks (wild state index, buffer strip index and the landscape quality of wide areas of the fluvial corridor (environmental landscape index. The biotic components (i.e., macrozoobenthos, phytoplankton and zooplankton, interstitial hyporheic fauna, vegetation in the riparian areas were analysed by both quantitative and functional methods (as productivity, litter – processing and colonisation. The results achieved were then translated into five classes of functional evaluation. These qualitative assessments have thus preserved a high level of precision and sensitivity in quantifying both the quality of the environmental conditions and the integrity of the ecosystem processes. Read together with urban planning data, they indicate what actions are needed to restore and rehabilitate the Adige River corridor.

  11. Functional evaluations in the monitoring of the river ecosystem processes: the Adige River as a case stu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braioni, M G; Salmoiraghi, G; Bracco, F; Villani, M; Braioni, A; Girelli, L

    2002-03-12

    A model of analysis and environmental evaluation was applied to 11 stretches of the Adige River, where an innovative procedure was carried out to interpret ecological results. Within each stretch, the most suitable methods were used to assess the quality and processes of flood plains, banks, water column, bed, and interstitial environment. Indices were applied to evaluate the wild state and ecological quality of the banks (wild state index, buffer strip index) and the landscape quality of wide areas of the fluvial corridor (environmental landscape index). The biotic components (i.e., macrozoobenthos, phytoplankton and zooplankton, interstitial hyporheic fauna, vegetation in the riparian areas) were analysed by both quantitative and functional methods (as productivity, litter--processing and colonisation). The results achieved were then translated into five classes of functional evaluation. These qualitative assessments have thus preserved a high level of precision and sensitivity in quantifying both the quality of the environmental conditions and the integrity of the ecosystem processes. Read together with urban planning data, they indicate what actions are needed to restore and rehabilitate the Adige River corridor.

  12. Novel Bartonella infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris nereis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Kasten, Rickie W; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Byrne, Barbara A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Miller, Melissa A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-06-04

    Since 2002, vegetative valvular endocarditis (VVE), septicemia and meningoencephalitis have contributed to an Unusual Mortality Event (UME) of northern sea otters in southcentral Alaska. Streptococcal organisms were commonly isolated from vegetative lesions and organs from these sea otters. Bartonella infection has also been associated with bacteremia and VVE in terrestrial mammals, but little is known regarding its pathogenic significance in marine mammals. Our study evaluated whether Streptococcus bovis/equinus (SB/E) and Bartonella infections were associated with UME-related disease characterized by VVE and septicemia in Alaskan sea otter carcasses recovered 2004-2008. These bacteria were also evaluated in southern sea otters in California. Streptococcus bovis/equinus were cultured from 45% (23/51) of northern sea otter heart valves, and biochemical testing and sequencing identified these isolates as Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. One-third of sea otter hearts were co-infected with Bartonella spp. Our analysis demonstrated that SB/E was strongly associated with UME-related disease in northern sea otters (Pdetected in 45% (23/51) and 10% (3/30) of heart valves of northern and southern sea otters examined, respectively, it was not associated with disease. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bartonella ITS region allowed detection of two Bartonella species, one novel species closely related to Bartonella spp. JM-1, B. washoensis and Candidatus B. volans and another molecularly identical to B. henselae. Our findings help to elucidate the role of pathogens in northern sea otter mortalities during this UME and suggested that Bartonella spp. is common in sea otters from Alaska and California.

  13. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, K.D.; Mazet, J.A.K.; Gulland, F.M.D.; Estes, James; Staedler, M.; Murray, M.J.; Miller, M.; Jessup, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) population in California (USA) and the Alaskan sea otter (E. lutris kenyoni) population in the Aleutian Islands (USA) chain have recently declined. In order to evaluate disease as a contributing factor to the declines, health assessments of these two sea otter populations were conducted by evaluating hematologic and/or serum biochemical values and exposure to six marine and terrestrial pathogens using blood collected during ongoing studies from 1995 through 2000. Samples from 72 free-ranging Alaskan, 78 free-ranging southern, and (for pathogen exposure only) 41 debilitated southern sea otters in rehabilitation facilities were evaluated and compared to investigate regional differences. Serum chemistry and hematology values did not indicate a specific disease process as a cause for the declines. Statistically significant differences were found between free-ranging adult southern and Alaskan population mean serum levels of creatinine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorous, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, and sodium. These were likely due to varying parasite loads, contaminant exposures, and physiologic or nutrition statuses. No free-ranging sea otters had signs of disease at capture, and prevalences of exposure to calicivirus, Brucella spp., and Leptospira spp. were low. The high prevalence (35%) of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging southern sea otters, lack of antibodies to this parasite in Alaskan sea otters, and the pathogen's propensity to cause mortality in southern sea otters suggests that this parasite may be important to sea otter population dynamics in California but not in Alaska. The evidence for exposure to pathogens of public health importance (e.g., Leptospira spp., T. gondii) in the southern sea otter population, and the nai??vete?? of both populations to other pathogens (e

  14. A reassessment of the suspended sediment load in the Madeira River basin from the Andes of Peru and Bolivia to the Amazon River in Brazil, based on 10 years of data from the HYBAM monitoring programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauchel, Philippe; Santini, William; Guyot, Jean Loup; Moquet, Jean Sébastien; Martinez, Jean Michel; Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Baby, Patrice; Fuertes, Oscar; Noriega, Luis; Puita, Oscar; Sondag, Francis; Fraizy, Pascal; Armijos, Elisa; Cochonneau, Gérard; Timouk, Franck; de Oliveira, Eurides; Filizola, Naziano; Molina, Jorge; Ronchail, Josyane

    2017-10-01

    The Madeira River is the second largest tributary of the Amazon River. It contributes approximately 13% of the Amazon River flow and it may contribute up to 50% of its sediment discharge to the Atlantic Ocean. Until now, the suspended sediment load of the Madeira River was not well known and was estimated in a broad range from 240 to 715 Mt yr-1. Since 2002, the HYBAM international network developed a new monitoring programme specially designed to provide more reliable data than in previous intents. It is based on the continuous monitoring of a set of 11 gauging stations in the Madeira River watershed from the Andes piedmont to the confluence with the Amazon River, and discrete sampling of the suspended sediment concentration every 7 or 10 days. This paper presents the results of the suspended sediment data obtained in the Madeira drainage basin during 2002-2011. The Madeira River suspended sediment load is estimated at 430 Mt yr-1 near its confluence with the Amazon River. The average production of the Madeira River Andean catchment is estimated at 640 Mt yr-1 (±30%), the corresponding sediment yield for the Andes is estimated at 3000 t km-2 yr-1 (±30%), and the average denudation rate is estimated at 1.20 mm yr-1 (±30%). Contrary to previous results that had mentioned high sedimentation rates in the Beni River floodplain, we detected no measurable sedimentation process in this part of the basin. On the Mamoré River basin, we observed heavy sediment deposition of approximately 210 Mt yr-1 that seem to confirm previous studies. But while these studies mentioned heavy sedimentation in the floodplain, we showed that sediment deposition occurred mainly in the Andean piedmont and immediate foreland in rivers (Parapeti, Grande, Pirai, Yapacani, Chimoré, Chaparé, Secure, Maniqui) with discharges that are not sufficiently large to transport their sediment load downstream in the lowlands.

  15. Can riverside seismic monitoring constrain temporal and spatial variations in bedload transport during a controlled flood of the Trinity River?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, M. E.; Schmandt, B.; Gaeuman, D.

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the utility of riverside seismic monitoring for constraining temporal and spatial variations in coarse bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers we collected seismic data during a dam-controlled flood of the Trinity River in northern California in May 2015. This field area was chosen because the Trinity River Restoration Project conducts extensive monitoring of water and sediment transport, and riverbed morphology to guide management of the river with the goal of improving salmon habitat. Four three component broadband seismometers were collocated with water discharge and bedload physical sampling sites along a ~30 km reach of the Trinity River downstream of the Lewiston Dam. Arrays with 10-80 cable-free vertical component geophones were also deployed at each of the four sites in order to constrain spatial variability and amplitude decay of seismic signals emanating from the river. Nominal inter-station spacing within the geophone arrays was ~30 m. The largest geophone array consisted of 83 nodes along a 700 m reach of the Trinity River with a gravel augmentation site at its upstream end. Initial analyses of the seismic data show that ground velocity power from averaged from ~7 - 90 Hz is correlated with discharge at all sites. The array at the gravel injection site shows greater high frequency (>30 Hz) power at the upstream end where gravel was injected during the release compared to ~300 m downstream, consistent with bedload transport providing a significant source of seismic energy in addition to water discharge. Declining seismic power during a ~3 day plateau at peak discharge when physical sampler data shows decreasing bedload flux provides a further indication that the seismic data are sensitive to bedload transport. We will use the array data to back-project the seismic signals in multiple frequency bands into the channel to create maps of the time-varying spatial intensity of seismic energy production. We hypothesize that the greatest seismic

  16. Freshwater mussel, Velesunio angasi - a monitor for radium-226 pollution in the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davy, D.R.; Jeffree, R.A. (Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights. Environmental Science Div.)

    1984-10-01

    The state of knowledge of the biology and radioecology of the freshwater mussel, Velesunio angasi, is reviewed. The theoretical response is calculated, in terms of gross parameters suitable for monitoring purposes, for a range of predicted water contaminating events at the Ranger Uranium Mine site in the Alligator Rivers region of the Northern Territory. These results suggest that mussels would be useful biological monitors for events that lead to an increase in the Ra/Ca ratio for the receiving waters. Suitable measurement parameters are Ra:Ca tissue concentration regression and the microstructure of radium distribution within the mussel shell. On the basis of available field data for one event (enhanced erosion of pit borrow material into Georgetown waterhole during the 1980-81 wet season), which had no conventional water quality fingerprint, mussels were shown to be a suitable monitor of such events.

  17. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network-Based Message Forwarding for a River Pollution Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velásquez-Villada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Communications from remote areas that may be of interest is still a problem. Many innovative projects applied to remote sites face communications difficulties. The GOLDFISH project was an EU-funded project for river pollution monitoring in developing countries. It had several sensor clusters, with floating WiFi antennas, deployed along a downstream river’s course. Sensor clusters sent messages to a Gateway installed on the riverbank. This gateway sent the messages, through a backhaul technology, to an Internet server where data was aggregated over a map. The communication challenge in this scenario was produced by the antennas’ movement and network backhaul availability. Since the antennas were floating on the river, communications could be disrupted at any time. Also, 2G/3G availability near the river was not constant. For non-real-time applications, we propose a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN-based solution where all nodes have persistent storage capabilities and DTN protocols to be able to wait minutes or hours to transmit. A mechanical backhaul will periodically visit the river bank where the gateway is installed and it will automatically collect sensor data to be carried to an Internet-covered spot. The proposed forwarding protocol delivers around 98% of the messages for this scenario, performing better than other well-known DTN routing protocols.

  18. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-04-02

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  19. Streamflow monitoring and statistics for development of water rights claims for Wild and Scenic Rivers, Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness, Idaho, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), collected streamflow data in 2012 and estimated streamflow statistics for stream segments designated "Wild," "Scenic," or "Recreational" under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness in southwestern Idaho. The streamflow statistics were used by BLM to develop and file a draft, federal reserved water right claim in autumn 2012 to protect federally designated "outstanding remarkable values" in the stream segments. BLM determined that the daily mean streamflow equaled or exceeded 20 and 80 percent of the time during bimonthly periods (two periods per month) and the bankfull streamflow are important streamflow thresholds for maintaining outstanding remarkable values. Prior to this study, streamflow statistics estimated using available datasets and tools for the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness were inaccurate for use in the water rights claim. Streamflow measurements were made at varying intervals during February–September 2012 at 14 monitoring sites; 2 of the monitoring sites were equipped with telemetered streamgaging equipment. Synthetic streamflow records were created for 11 of the 14 monitoring sites using a partial‑record method or a drainage-area-ratio method. Streamflow records were obtained directly from an operating, long-term streamgage at one monitoring site, and from discontinued streamgages at two monitoring sites. For 10 sites analyzed using the partial-record method, discrete measurements were related to daily mean streamflow at a nearby, telemetered “index” streamgage. Resulting regression equations were used to estimate daily mean and annual peak streamflow at the monitoring sites during the full period of record for the index sites. A synthetic streamflow record for Sheep Creek was developed using a drainage-area-ratio method, because measured streamflows did not relate well to any index site to allow use of the partial

  20. Escapement Monitoring of Adult Chinook Salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2001-04-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  1. Quality monitoring and assessment of mercury contamination in water and sediments of the Botafogo river, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Moraes Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 80's, the riverside population of Rio Botafogo, in the Santa Cruz channel, Itamaracá has undergone critical environmental situations due to poorly planned growth and inadequate soil occupation, and as a consequence, a loss in environmental quality resulted. In 1963, an industry for production of chlorine and caustic soda produced by electrolytic cell of mercury was installed in the Botafogo river. By mid-1987, a discharge of inorganic mercury between 22 and 35 tones of mercury in this river was estimated. In addition to this industry, others of different types were installed in recent years along the sides of this river. Based on previous studies, we conducted a new assessment of contaminated sites, comparing the changes over the years concerning the quality of water and sediment of the Botafogo river, in which the locations of collection, the need to increase the network of environmental monitoring were investigated. The parameters defined for analysis of water were: pH, dissolved oxygen (OD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, ammonia and phosphorus concentration, color, turbidity and mercury content. It was monitored the concentration of mercury in the sediments. The values of pH, turbidity, DO, BOD and ammonia usually showed values within the limits established by CONAMA Resolution No 357. Color parameters have remained consistently high, probably caused by continuous withdrawal of sand before the points of collection. The content of phosphorus was high, until the beginning of 2005, and remained within standards required by legislation until the end of this research. In the studied area, it has been installed, since 1963, an industry for chlorine and caustic soda production, which uses in its manufacturing process electrolytic cell of mercury. In this experiment, the impact of mercury has been observed.

  2. Time-lapse ERT and DTS for seasonal and short-term monitoring of an alpine river hyporheic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Laura, Busato; Mariateresa, Perri; Giorgio, Cassiani

    2016-04-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is the area located beneath and adjacent to rivers and streams, where the interactions between surface water and groundwater take place. This complex physical domain allows the transport of several substances from a stream to the unconfined aquifer below, and vice versa, thus playing a fundamental role in the river ecosystem. The importance of the hyporheic zone makes its characterization a goal shared by several disciplines, which range from applied geophysics to biogeochemistry, from hydraulics to ecology. The frontier field of HZ characterization stays in applied non-invasive methodologies as Electrical Resistivity Tomography - ERT - and Distributed Temperature Sensing - DTS. ERT is commonly applied in cross-well configuration or with a superficial electrodes deployment while DTS is used in hydro-geophysics in the last decade, revealing a wide applicability to the typical issues of this field of study. DTS for hydro-geophysics studies is based on Raman scattering and employs heat as tracer and uses a fiber-optic cable to acquire temperature values. We applied both techniques for an alpine river case studies located in Val di Sole, TN, Italy. The collected measurements allow high-resolution characterization of the hyporheic zone, overcoming the critical problem of invasive measurements under riverbeds. In this work, we present the preliminary results regarding the characterization of the hyporheic zone of the alpine river obtained combining ERT and DTS time-lapse measurements. The data collection benefits from an innovative instrumentation deployment, which consists of both an ERT multicore cable and a DTS fiber-optic located in two separated boreholes drilled 5m under the watercourse and perpendicular to it. In particular we present the first year monitoring results and a short time-lapse monitoring experiment conducted during summer 2015. The site and the results here described are part of the EU FP7 CLIMB (Climate Induced Changes on the

  3. Braided Reach Cross-Section Monitoring Surveys, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2009, the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho released and implemented the Kootenai River Habitat Restoration Master Plan. This plan aimed to restore, enhance, and maintain...

  4. NWIL Final Report 1983-84 Lead Poisoning Monitoring Program White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Evidence of lead poisoning at White River National Wildlife Refuge was demonstrated by examination of tissues from hunter-killed and trapped waterfowl. Elevated...

  5. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012- Cache River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Cache River National Wildlife Refuge for the CY 2012. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID software...

  6. Tualatin River - Surveying, Monitoring and Combating Invasive Plant Species through Volunteers and Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Refuge, through a Cooperative Agreement with our Friends of the Tualatin River Refuge, proposes to build volunteer capacity for combating invasive species on the...

  7. Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River: Segment 14

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation...

  8. Management, Monitoring and Productivity of the Piping Plover and Least Tern: Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report on the 1993 management program for piping plovers and least terns at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge and at the adjacent Sandy Point State Reservation

  9. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2013- Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge for the CY 2013. Calls were classified using Bat...

  10. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012-2013 - Coldwater River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Coldwater River NWR in 2012 and 2013. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  11. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Cache River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Cache River NWR between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  12. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2013 to 2015 - Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Patoka River NWR between 2013 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  13. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at White River NWR between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  14. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Roanoke River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Roanoke River NWR between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  15. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 - Coldwater River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Coldwater River NWR in 2014. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software and...

  16. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2015- White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at White River National Wildlife Refuge for the CY 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID software...

  17. Aquatic biota monitoring on the Humbolt River, Nevada, in relation to mine dewatering discharges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anthropogenic sources of contamination have the potential to adversely affect the Humboldt River and its terminal wetlands at the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area,...

  18. Passive sampling methods for monitoring endocrine disruptors in the Svratka and Svitava rivers in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabic, Roman; Jurcikova, Jana; Tomsejova, Sarka; Ocelka, Tomas; Halirova, Jarmila; Hypr, Dusan; Kodes, Vit

    2010-03-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are manmade or natural chemicals that have the ability to interfere with the endocrine system of animals. They have not been monitored systematically in the Czech Republic. The goal of the present study was the characterization of aquatic environmental pollution from the Brno (Czech Republic) city agglomeration focusing on EDC. Passive sampling devices, as well as semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), were used for the pilot assessment of EDC. They were deployed for 21- to 28-d periods at nine locations in the Svratka and Svitava Rivers, Brno, Czech Republic, including at the inlet and outlet of Brno's wastewater treatment plant. The SPMDs were used to monitor nonpolar compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorinated pesticides (OCP). The POCIS were used to monitor polar compounds such as pesticides and their metabolites, perfluoro-organic compounds (PFOC), and pharmaceuticals. The passive samplers allowed very low detection limits for soluble (bioavailable) fractions of pollutants. The contribution of PAH, PCB, and HCB in sewage water to pollution of the Svratka River was low. The Brno wastewater treatment plant was identified as the main source of pharmaceuticals, triclosan, methyl triclosan, and some polar pesticides.

  19. Non-target screening analyses of organic contaminants in river systems as a base for monitoring measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, J.

    2009-04-01

    Organic contaminants discharged to the aquatic environment exhibit a high diversity with respect to their molecular structures and the resulting physico-chemical properties. The chemical analysis of anthropogenic contamination in river systems is still an important feature, especially with respect to (i) the identification and structure elucidation of novel contaminants, (ii) to the characterisation of their environmental behaviour and (iii) to their risk for natural systems. A huge proportion of riverine contamination is caused by low-molecular weight organic compounds, like pesticides plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, technical additives etc. Some of them, like PCB or PAH have already been investigated thoroughly and, consequently, their behaviour in aqueous systems is very well described. Although analyses on organic substances in river water traditionally focused on selected pollutants, in particular on common priority pollutants which are monitored routinely, the occurrence of further contaminants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products or chelating agents has received increasing attention within the last decade. Accompanied, screening analyses revealing an enormous diversity of low-molecular weight organic contaminants in waste water effluents and river water become more and more noticed. Since many of these substances have been rarely noticed so far, it will be an important task for the future to study their occurrence and fate in natural environments. Further on, it should be a main issue of environmental studies to provide a comprehensive view on the state of pollution of river water, in particular with respect to lipophilic low molecular weight organic contaminants. However, such non-target-screening analyses has been performed only rarely in the past. Hence, we applied extended non-target screening analyses on longitudinal sections of the rivers Rhine, Rur and Lippe (Germany) on the base of GC/MS analyses. The investigations

  20. Water-quality data from continuously monitored sites in the Pamlico and Neuse River estuaries, North Carolina, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Ronald G.

    1992-01-01

    Water quality measurements were made at six sites in or near North Carolina's Pamlico River estuary and at five sites in or near the Neuse River estuary. Measurements taken at 15-minute intervals included near-surface and near-bottom specific conductance; near-surface water temperature; and near-surface, mid-depth, and near-bottom dissolved-oxygen concentrations. In the Pamlico River estuary, salinities generally ranged from near zero to about 20 parts per thousand during the period April 1989 through September 1991; however, unnaturally high salinities (up to about 51 parts per thousand) were observed at one site on July 11, 1990. Recorded water temperatures in the Pamlico River were between 0 and 33 degrees Celsius during the measurement period. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 20 milligrams per liter. In the Neuse River estuary, salinities ranged from less than 0.1 to nearly 33 parts per thousand between May 1989 and September 1991. During the same period, recorded water temperatures in this estuary were between 0 and 33 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 21 milligrams per liter. Instantaneous values for selected periods are summarized in a series of box plots. Daily mean values of salinity, water temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentrations, and dissolved oxygen, percent saturation, are presented in tables and graphs, as are 5-day mean values for day and night conditions. This is the second in a series of reports summarizing water quality data obtained from these continuously monitored sites.

  1. Using spatial information technologies as monitoring devices in international watershed conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merem, Edmund C; Twumasi, Yaw A

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies-Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing-in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region's entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing techniques by generating spatially referenced data to supplement

  2. Using Spatial Information Technologies as Monitoring Devices in International Watershed Conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A. Twumasi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies—Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing—in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region’s entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing

  3. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; Sandford, Benjamin P.; Hockersmith, Eric E. [Fish Ecology Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-07-09

    This report provides results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior and survival of wild juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon in the Snake River Basin. Data reported is from detections of PIT tagged fish during late summer 2007 through mid-2008. Fish were tagged in summer 2007 by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in Idaho and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) in Oregon. Our analyses include migration behavior and estimated survival of fish at instream PIT-tag monitors and arrival timing and estimated survival to Lower Granite Dam. Principal results from tagging and interrogation during 2007-2008 are: (1) In July and August 2007, we PIT tagged and released 7,390 wild Chinook salmon parr in 12 Idaho streams or sample areas. (2) Overall observed mortality from collection, handling, tagging, and after a 24-hour holding period was 1.4%. (3) Of the 2,524 Chinook salmon parr PIT tagged and released in Valley Creek in summer 2007, 218 (8.6%) were detected at two instream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek from late summer 2007 to the following spring 2008. Of these, 71.6% were detected in late summer/fall, 11.9% in winter, and 16.5% in spring. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam was 15.5% for the late summer/fall group, 48.0% for the winter group, and 58.5% for the spring group. Based on detections at downstream dams, the overall efficiency of VC1 (upper) or VC2 (lower) Valley Creek monitors for detecting these fish was 21.1%. Using this VC1 or VC2 efficiency, an estimated 40.8% of all summer-tagged parr survived to move out of Valley Creek, and their estimated survival from that point to Lower Granite Dam was 26.5%. Overall estimated parr-to-smolt survival for all summer-tagged parr from this stream at the dam was 12.1%. Development and improvement of instream PIT-tag monitoring systems continued throughout 2007 and 2008. (4) Testing of PIT-tag antennas in lower Big Creek during 2007

  4. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; Hodge, Jacob M.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    2005-06-01

    This report provides information on PIT-tagging of wild Chinook salmon parr in Idaho in 2003 and the subsequent monitoring of these fish and similarly tagged fish from Oregon. We report estimated parr-to-smolt survival and arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam, as well as interrogation data collected at several other sites throughout the Snake and Columbia River system. This research continues studies that began under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding in 1991. Results from previous study years were reported by Achord et al. (1994; 1995a,b; 1996a; 1997; 1998; 2000; 2001a,b; 2002, 2003, 2004). Goals of this ongoing study are: (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence migration patterns. (4) Characterize the migration behavior and estimate survival of different wild juvenile fish stocks as they emigrate from their natal rearing areas. This study provides critical information for recovery planning, and ultimately recovery for these ESA-listed wild fish stocks. In 2003-2004, we also continued to measure water temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, water depth, and pH at five monitoring stations in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho for the Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program. These data, along with parr/smolt migration, survival, and timing data, will help to discern patterns or characteristic relationships between fish movement/survival and environmental factors.

  5. The Congo Clawless Otter: State of Knowledge and Needs for Further Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the 4 African otter species, the Congo clawless otter (Aonyx congicus is the least known because of the remoteness of its Central African equatorial rainforest range. Its distribution, status, and biology in the field are now being investigated and preliminary results are introduced. Two missions in Gabon, followed by one in Congo, allowed us to gather local information, to find tracks and to identify otters in their habitat. Further, we were able to start developing a network to gather more information about the 2 otter species present in this region. The current distribution of the Congo clawless otter (Gabon, Congo, Republic Democratic of Congo, south of Cameroon and RCA, north of Angola, and probably west of Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi was mapped from this information network as well as from the locality data of museum specimens. Data about its biology and current status were gathered from local sources and from field biologists working in Gabon and Congo. Threats seem mainly to be deforestation, hunting for bush meat and use for witchcraft materials. Four visits to the collections of natural history museums of London, New York, Paris, and Tervueren (Belgium, provided useful criteria to differentiate Congo clawless otter from Cape clawless otter (Aonyx. capensis. A possible sympatric overlap zone may occur between these species and might imply hybridization. However, this needs to be studied further.

  6. Historic and Contemporary Status of Sea Otters in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Larson, Shawn E.; Bodkin, James L; Vanblaricom, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other species that in recent centuries experienced unregulated human exploitation, sea otters were extirpated throughout large portions of their historic range in the North Pacific. For most of the twentieth century, with cessation of the fur trade and because of concerted efforts at conservation, sea otters recovered much of their historic range and abundance. Late in the twentieth century, increased predation by killer whales in southwest Alaska drove sea otter populations to a few percentage points of their prior abundance, and one of the nation’s largest oil spills in south-central Alaska caused the death of several thousand animals and required more than two decades for recovery. In California, entanglement in fishing gear and environmental degradation, among other factors, have contributed to slow growth in sea otter abundance. We discuss the role of density dependence and spatial structuring of populations in reduced rates of sea otter recovery recently detected in the Northeast Pacific, and consider the potential effects of multiple low-level and cumulative threats on sea otter populations. The resilience demonstrated by sea otters over the past century will be tested in upcoming decades as human activities continue to degrade nearshore coastal areas of the North Pacific.

  7. Environmental surveillance monitoring in the Alligator Rivers Region. Report for the six months period ending 30 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report outlines the activities of the Northern Territory Supervising Authorities in meeting their responsibilities for environmental management and surveillance, occupational safety, relating to uranium mining and environment protection in the Alligator Rivers Region. Environmental monitoring was carried out at the Nabarlek Mine, which site has now been rehabilitated and revegetated, and at Ranger, the only mine currently operating in the region. Other uranium projects such as Jabiluka and Koongarra have been delayed due to the former Commonwealth Government`s `three mines policy`. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  8. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; McNatt, Regan A.; Hockersmith, Eric E. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2004-04-01

    Prior to 1992, decisions on dam operations and use of stored water relied on recoveries of branded hatchery fish, index counts at traps and dams, and flow patterns at the dams. The advent of PIT-tag technology provided the opportunity to precisely track the smolt migrations of many wild stocks as they pass through the hydroelectric complex and other monitoring sites on their way to the ocean. With the availability of the PIT tag, a more complete approach to these decisions was undertaken starting in 1992 with the addition of PIT-tag detections of several wild spring and summer chinook salmon stocks at Lower Granite Dam. Using data from these detections, we initiated development of a database on wild fish, addressing several goals of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning Council and Conservation Act (NPPC 1980). Section 304(d) of the program states, ''The monitoring program will provide information on the migrational characteristics of the various stocks of salmon and steelhead within the Columbia Basin.'' Further, Section 201(b) urges conservation of genetic diversity, which will be possible only if wild stocks are preserved. Section 5.9A.1 of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program states that field monitoring of smolt movement will be used to determine the best timing for water storage releases and Section 5.8A.8 states that continued research is needed on survival of juvenile wild fish before they reach the first dam with special attention to water quantity, quality, and several other factors. The goals of this ongoing study are as follows (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence these patterns. (4) Characterize the migrational behavior and

  9. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  10. Fluvial functional index, extended biotic index and law 152/99 to evaluate the quality of rivers: 'Potenza' river monitoring; Indice di funzionalita fluviale, IBE e D.Lgs. 152/99 nella valutazione della qualita fluviale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuri, Stefania; Morichetti, Luciana; Amici, Valeria; Grappasonni, Iolanda; Petrelli, Fabio; Cocchioni, Mario [Camerino Univ., Camerino (Italy). Dipartimento di medicina sperimentale, sanita pubblica, Sezione scienze igienistiche e sanitarie-ambientali

    2006-01-15

    The article explain at the first the importance of the set of rules evolution concerning the water resources conservation. Illustrates then the latest river monitoring techniques and effects a comparative analysis of the emerged results from their application on the River Potenza. [Italian] L'articolo sottolinea dapprima l'importanza dell'evoluzione normativa nella tutela delle risorse idriche ed effettua poi una analisi comparativa dei risultati emersi dalla loro applicazione sul Fiume Potenza.

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Integrated Hydro-geomorphological Monitoring System of the Upper Bussento river basin (Cilento and Vallo Diano Geopark, S-Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, D.; Cuomo, A.; Longobardi, A.; Villani, P.; Guida, M.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Cestari, A.; Siervo, V.; Benevento, G.; Sorvino, S.; Doto, R.; Verrone, M.; De Vita, A.; Aloia, A.; Positano, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Mediterranean river ecosystem functionings are supported by river-aquifer interactions. The assessment of their ecological services requires interdisciplinary scientific approaches, integrate monitoring systems and inter-institutional planning and management. This poster illustrates the Hydro-geomorphological Monitoring System build-up in the Upper Bussento river basin by the University of Salerno, in agreement with the local Basin Autorities and in extension to the other river basins located in the Cilento and Vallo Diano National Park (southern Italy), recently accepted in the European Geopark Network. The Monitoring System is based on a hierarchical Hydro-geomorphological Model (HGM), improved in a multiscale, nested and object-oriented Hydro-geomorphological Informative System (HGIS, Figure 1). Hydro-objects are topologically linked and functionally bounded by Hydro-elements at various levels of homogeneity (Table 1). Spatial Hydro-geomorpho-system, HG-complex and HG-unit support respectively areal Hydro-objects, as basin, sector and catchment and linear Hydro-objects, as river, segment, reach and section. Runoff initiation points, springs, disappearing points, junctions, gaining and water losing points complete the Hydro-systems. An automatic procedure use the Pfafstetter coding to hierarchically divide a terrain into arbitrarily small hydro-geomorphological units (basin, interfluve, headwater and no-contribution areas, each with a unique label with hierarchical topological properties. To obtain a hierarchy of hydro-geomorphological units, the method is then applied recursively on each basin and interbasin, and labels of the subdivided regions are appended to the existing label of the original region. The monitoring stations are ranked consequently in main, secondary, temporary and random and located progressively at the points or sections representative for the hydro-geomorphological responses by validation control and modeling calibration. The datasets

  14. Eight years of monitoring aquatic Oligochaeta from the Baía and Ivinhema Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RDL. Behrend

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that influence spatial and temporal variations of the Oligochaeta assemblage in the Baía and Ivinhema Rivers, located in the Upper Paraná River floodplain (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Samples of Oligochaeta were collected between February 2000 and November 2007. A total of 27 Oligochaeta species were identified. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the physical and chemical variables was used to summarize the total variation in the data and to identify major environmental gradients. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA was conducted to verify possible spatial and temporal gradients in the Oligochaeta species distribution. The highest Oligochaeta species densities and richness values were recorded during limnophases. The intensity and amplitude of the potamophase influenced the density, richness and composition of Oligochaeta since many species were transported by high water current velocities and/or died due to the low oxygen levels that are characteristic of this phase. L. hoffmeisteri, P. descolei and A. pigueti were recorded in the potamophase and in the limnophase and we concluded that they are adapted to different conditions of rivers (lotic and lentic due to the presence of these species during the entire study period in both rivers. Nevertheless, these species were dominant in the potamophase periods of these rivers as they have body adaptations to survive in these conditions.

  15. The Delaware River Basin Collaborative Environmental Monitoring and Research Initiative: Foundation Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Murdoch; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Richard A. Birdsey

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Park Service formed the Collaborative Environmental Monitoring and Research Initiative (CEMRI) to test strategies for integrated environmental monitoring among the agencies. The initiative combined monitoring and research efforts of the participating Federal programs to evaluate health and...

  16. An intersection model for estimating sea otter mortality along the Kenai Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, J.L.; Udevitz, M.S.; Loughlin, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    We developed an intersection model to integrate parameters estimated from three distinct data sets that resulted from the Exxon Valdez oil spill: (1) the distribution, amount, and movements of spilled oil; (2) the distribution and abundance of sea otters along the Kenai Peninsula; and (3) the estimates of site-specific sea otter mortality relative to oil exposure from otters captured for rehabilitation and from collected carcasses. In this chapter, we describe the data sets and provide examples of how they can be used in the model to generate acute loss estimates. We also examine the assumptions required for the model and provide suggestions for improving and applying the model.

  17. Catastrophes and Conservation: Lessons from Sea Otters and the Exxon Valdez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estes J.A.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available The Exxon Valdez spill is broadly perceived as an environmental catastrophe. However, expected catastrophic declines in the region's sea otter population cannot be demonstrated, not because they didn't occur but because the necessary information is lacking. Furthermore, efforts to rehabilitate oiled sea otters following the spill were extremely expensive and ineffective. Some improvements are possible with better planning. However, post-spill capture and rehabilitation probably can not be used to substantially reduce sea otter losses from future spills, and the use of such measures to conserve populations is unrealistic.

  18. Sarcocystis neurona retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Thomas, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of fatal disease in sea otters in the USA. Encephalitis is the predominant lesion and parasites are confined to the central nervous system and muscles. Here we report retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) found dead on Copalis Beach, WA, USA. Salient lesions were confined to the brain and eye. Multifocal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was present in the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with S. neurona schizonts. The retina of one eye had a focus of inflammation that contained numerous S. neurona schizonts and merozoites. The focus extended from the retinal pigment epithelium inward through all layers of the retina, but inflammation was most concentrated at the inner surface of the tapetum and the outer retina. The inner and outer nuclear layers of the retina were disorganized and irregular at the site of inflammation. There was severe congestion and mild hemorrhage in the choroid, and mild hemorrhage into the vitreous body. Immunohistochemistry with S. neurona-specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies stained schizonts and merozoites. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. neurona-associated retinochoroiditis in any naturally infected animal.

  19. Sarcocystis neurona retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Thomas, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of fatal disease in sea otters in the USA. Encephalitis is the predominant lesion and parasites are confined to the central nervous system and muscles. Here we report retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) found dead on Copalis Beach, WA, USA. Salient lesions were confined to the brain and eye. Multifocal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was present in the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with S. neurona schizonts. The retina of one eye had a focus of inflammation that contained numerous S. neurona schizonts and merozoites. The focus extended from the retinal pigment epithelium inward through all layers of the retina, but inflammation was most concentrated at the inner surface of the tapetum and the outer retina. The inner and outer nuclear layers of the retina were disorganized and irregular at the site of inflammation. There was severe congestion and mild hemorrhage in the choroid, and mild hemorrhage into the vitreous body. Immunohistochemistry with S. neurona-specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies stained schizonts and merozoites. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. neurona-associated retinochoroiditis in any naturally infected animal. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Sarcocystis neurona retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Thomas, N J

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of fatal disease in sea otters in the USA. Encephalitis is the predominant lesion and parasites are confined to the central nervous system and muscles. Here we report retinochoroiditis in a sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) found dead on Copalis Beach, WA, USA. Salient lesions were confined to the brain and eye. Multifocal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was present in the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with S. neurona schizonts. The retina of one eye had a focus of inflammation that contained numerous S. neurona schizonts and merozoites. The focus extended from the retinal pigment epithelium inward through all layers of the retina, but inflammation was most concentrated at the inner surface of the tapetum and the outer retina. The inner and outer nuclear layers of the retina were disorganized and irregular at the site of inflammation. There was severe congestion and mild hemorrhage in the choroid, and mild hemorrhage into the vitreous body. Immunohistochemistry with S. neurona-specific polyclonal rabbit antibodies stained schizonts and merozoites. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. neurona-associated retinochoroiditis in any naturally infected animal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The anthropogenic impact on water quality of the river Danube in Serbia: Microbiological analysis and genotoxicity monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarević S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the impact of urban wastewaters on the water quality of the Danube River in Serbia. Samples of water and sediments for microbiological analysis and genotoxicity monitoring were collected from 6 sites during spring and/or autumn 2010. Sanitary analysis, i.e. enumeration of total and fecal coliforms and intestinal enterococci, indicated moderate to critical fecal contamination, while organic load assessment (oligotroph to heterotroph ratio, index of phosphatase activity revealed the category of moderately polluted water. Mercury-resistant bacteria were detected in all water samples, with high numbers at locations positioned downstream of Belgrade. There was no correlation of the microbiological parameters of the sediment and water samples. Genotoxicity monitoring, performed by the comet assay on hemocytes of mussels Sinanodonta woodiana, indicated a significant increase of DNA damage in mussels collected from the studied sites compared with the control group.

  2. Guidelines for monitoring and adaptively managing restoration of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) on the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, R.J.; Duda, J.J.; Pess, G.R.; Zimmerman, M.; Crain, P.; Hughes, Z.; Wilson, A.; Liermann, M.C.; Morley, S.A.; McMillan, J.; Denton, K.; Warheit, K.

    2014-01-01

    As of January, 2014, the removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams on the Elwha River, Washington, represents the largest dam decommissioning to date in the United States. Dam removal is the single largest step in meeting the goals of the Elwha River Ecosystem and Fisheries Restoration Act of 1992 (The Elwha Act) — full restoration of the Elwha River ecosystem and its native anadromous fisheries (Section 3(a)). However, there is uncertainty about project outcomes with regards to salmon populations, as well as what the ‘best’ management strategy is to fully restore each salmon stock. This uncertainty is due to the magnitude of the action, the large volumes of sediment expected to be released during dam removal, and the duration of the sediment impact period following dam removal. Our task is further complicated by the depleted state of the native salmonid populations remaining in the Elwha, including four federally listed species. This situation lends itself to a monitoring and adaptive management approach to resource management, which allows for flexibility in decision-making processes in the face of uncertain outcomes.

  3. Remote Sensing observations of Cecropia communities along Amazonian rivers: Mapping and monitoring habitat dynamics with time series datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros Casaverde, N. L.; McDonald, K.

    2016-12-01

    Riverine habitats host more than 14% of non-aquatic birds in the Amazon basin, some of them considered vulnerable by the UICN due to habitat destruction. Plant species of the genus Cecropia are known for being a late pioneer species in these riverine habitats creating monospecific stands along the Amazonian rivers. Cecropia biomes are thought to have significant impacts on the avifauna communities and their diversity. Nowadays, these habitats are threatened by the on-going development in the Amazonian countries. There are plans to build hydroelectric facilities, damming important tributaries of the Amazon river. Such large scale land cover change threatens Cecropia communities and the habitats they support and associated biodiversity. Thus, it is imperative to understand the fragility of these ecosystems, their extent and spatial distribution, and seasonal influences to their environments. We employ multiple sources of remote sensing data to assess the ability to use high resolution imagery to map Cecropia communities and multi-temporal observations to assess their seasonal dynamics. This research aims to facilitate the understanding of these communities through time series analyses using remote sensing products such as high resolution images from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Landsat to identify the Cecropia stands along the rivers and lower resolution products such as satellite-borne radiometers and scatterometers to assess seasonality. Our goal is to employ combined remote sensing data sources at map and monitor these important habitats.

  4. Summary of Radiological Monitoring of Columbia and Snake River Sediment, 1988 Through 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dirkes, Roger L.

    2007-10-01

    From 1988 through 2004, samples of upper-layer sediments from the Columbia River and Snake River were collected under the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project to document concentrations and trends of radionuclides. Low concentrations of potassium-40, cesium-137, uranium isotopes, and plutonium isotopes were detected consistently in sediment samples over the entire sampling period. The concentrations of most radionuclides were similar to values measured upstream of the Hanford Site behind Priest Rapids Dam. For all locations, the concentrations of radionuclides in sediment samples from the Columbia and Snake rivers were below concentrations that would result in a 1-mrem effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical exposed individual using a shoreline exposure scenario (i.e., 500 hr/yr of external dose). The DOE limit for public exposure is 100 mrem/yr.

  5. Guidelines for the feasibility study of reintroduction of the otter Lutra lutra in Italy: the project of the Ticino Valley (North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Prigioni

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted in the Ticino valley (north-western Italy taking into account the main factors affecting the survival of the otter (Lutra lutra. The concentration of PCBs and DDT in fish tissues did not exceed the critical level proposed by the National Academy of Sciences of USA for fishes preyed on by carnivores. The biological water quality, assessed by Extended Biotic Index, was fairly good for the entire course of the Ticino river. The availability of fish resources seemed to be suitable to satisfy the feeding requirements of otters. The biological water quality and the food supply were better than those recorded in rivers of central-southern Italy hosting the last strongholds of otters. The habitat suitability of the Ticino valley was assessed by an index calculated considering the availability of different type of habitats (suitable and unsuitable to the otter and their importance for the species survival. The valley was divided into 1114 territorial units of 1 km² each where 26 different habitats were measured. The 16.7% of the study area showed a moderate/very good suitability and the 38.1% a low suitability. About 80 km of the Ticino river were continuously occupied by suitable habitats for otters. It appears that there are no particular contra-indications to advising for the reintroduction of the otter into the Ticino valley. Nevertheless, it would be necessary to combine this operation with a global policy of correct management and restoring of the riverine habitats. Riassunto Linee guida per lo studio di fattibilità della reintroduzione della lontra (Lutra lutra in Italia: il progetto della Valle del Ticino (Italia nord-occidentale - Lo studio è stato condotto nella Valle del Ticino (Italia nord-occidentale prendendo in esame i principali fattori che influenzano la sopravvivenza della lontra (Lutra lutra. Le concentrazioni di PCB e DDT

  6. Source detection in the Lower Jordan River - How to monitor the impossible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillel, Noa; Siebert, Christian; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.

    2016-04-01

    The Lower Jordan River (LJR) is a major ecosystem in the semi-arid to arid Jordan-Dead Sea Graben, the backbone of abundant farming activities in the Lower Jordan Valley and the major inflow to the dying Dead Sea. During the 1960's the Sea of Galilee and the Yarmouk River, the main sources of the river, were dammed, decreasing its annual flow from ˜1.2×109 m3 to less than 0.2×109 m3, leaving a mix of point and non-point sources composing its base flow. Beside natural saline springs along its course, current day anthropogenic sources (e.g. sewage, agricultural return flow and fishpond effluents) have a negative impact on the water quality and the ecosystem, contributing high salinity and causing overall pollution. To enable an environmental assessment of the river and to satisfy the regulations of LJR international treaties, the temporal dynamics of water quantity and quality must be observed on a regular basis. As the LJR forms the highly secured border between Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority, nearly the entire river course is physically inaccessible. To overcome that situation, considerable efforts have been made to install a network of 7 sampling stations along the LJR to identify and separate the different contributing sources. Automatic water samplers in three of the stations collect water daily in addition to continuous measurement of stage, EC, pH and temperature. Sensors at all locations transmit online real-time data. During monthly campaigns a total of 14 sites are manually sampled along the river and some tributaries. Water samples are analyzed for major ions, trace elements and stable isotopes. While the sensor network allows separating events occurring in different reaches along the river course and calculating travel time between stations, water sample analyses enable fingerprinting and separating the actual sources. By doing so, an unusual and very local event was recorded by the most southern station (5.5 km north of the Dead Sea

  7. Using drift nets to capture early life stages and monitor spawning of the yangtze river chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.W.; Kynard, B.; Yang, D.G.; Chen, X.H.; Du, H.; Shen, L.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    A sampling system for capturing sturgeon eggs using a D-shaped bottom anchored drift net was used to capture early life stages (ELS) of Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and monitor annual spawning success at Yichang on the Yangtze River, 1996-2004, before and just after the Three Gorges Dam began operation. Captured were 96 875 ELS (early life stages: eggs, yolk-sac larvae = eleuthero embryos, and larvae); most were eggs and only 2477 were yolk-sac larvae. Most ELS were captured in the main river channel and inside the bend at the Yichang spawning reach. Yolk-sac larvae were captured for a maximum of 3 days after hatching began, indicating quick dispersal downstream. The back-calculated day of egg fertilization over the eight years indicated a maximum spawning window of 23 days (20 October-10 November). Spawning in all years was restricted temporally, occurred mostly at night and during one or two spawning periods, each lasting several days. The brief temporal spawning window may reduce egg predation by opportunistic predators by flooding the river bottom with millions of eggs. During 1996-2002, the percentage of fertilized eggs in an annual 20-egg sample was between 63.5 to 94.1%; however, in 2003 the percentage fertilized was only 23.8%. This sudden decline may be related to the altered environmental conditions at Yichang caused by operation of the Three Gorges Dam. Further studies are needed to monitor spawning and changes in egg fertilization in this threatened population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achord, Stephen; Kamikawa, Daniel J.; Sandford, Benjamin P. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1995-01-01

    The goals of this study are to (1) characterize the outmigration timing of different wild stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon smolts at dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers, (2) determine if consistent patterns are apparent, and (3) determine what environmental factors influence outmigration timing.

  9. Monitoring Changes in Contaminant Fluxes Resulting from Dam Removal in an Urbanized River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of rivers and their associated ecosystems is a growing priority for government agencies (e.g., NOAA, USEPA), as well as conservation organizations. Dam removal is a major component of many restoration projects credited with reintroducing fish species, improving water...

  10. Monitoring the Variation in Ice-Cover Characteristics of the Slave River, Canada Using RADARSAT-2 Data—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Chu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The winter regime of river-ice covers in high northern latitude regions is often a determining factor in the management of water resources, conservation of aquatic ecosystems and preservation of traditional and cultural lifestyles of local peoples. As ground-based monitoring of river-ice regimes in high northern latitudes is expensive and restricted to a few locations due to limited accessibility to most places along rivers from shorelines, remote sensing techniques are a suitable approach for monitoring. This study developed a RADARSAT-2 based method to monitor the spatio-temporal variation of ice covers, as well as ice types during the freeze-up period, along the main channel of the Slave River Delta in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The spatio-temporal variation of ice covers along the river was analyzed using the backscatter-based coefficient of variation (CV in the 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 winters. As a consequence of weather and flow conditions, the ice cover in the 2013–2014 winter had the higher variation than the 2014–2015 winter, particularly in the potential areas of flooded/cracked ice covers. The river sections near active channels (e.g., Middle Channel and Nagle Channel, Big Eddy, and Great Slave Lake also yielded higher intra-annual variation of ice cover characteristics during the winters. With the inclusion of backscatter and texture analysis from RADARSAT-2 data, four water and ice cover classes consisting of open water, thermal ice, juxtaposed ice, and consolidated ice, were discriminated in the images acquired between November and March in both the studied winters. In addition to river geomorphology and climatic conditions such as river width, sinuosity or air temperature, the fluctuation of water flows during the winter has a significant impact on the variation of ice cover as well as the formation of different ice types in the Slave River. The RADARSAT-2 based monitoring algorithm can also be applied to other

  11. Distribution and abundance of sea otters in the Kenai Fiords, May to September 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the distribution and abundance of sea otters in the Kenai Fjords during May to September 1982. The goal of this study was to gather baseline...

  12. Traditional use of sea otters by Alaskan natives: A literature review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The references cited in this report leave no doubt that sea otter fur was commonly used for clothing by all Alaskan natives who lived in contact with populations of...

  13. Geospatial data collected from tagged sea otters in central California, 1998-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data are .csv files of tagged sea otter re-sighting locations (henceforth, resights) collected in the field using a combination of VHF radio telemetry and direct...

  14. Modified-closed castration: a novel technique for sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) orchiectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Alexa J; Clauss, Tonya; Sakals, Sherisse; Mejia, Johanna; Radlinsky, MaryAnn G

    2013-09-01

    A novel surgical technique was used in the routine castrations of two intact male southern sea otters, Enhydra lutris nereis, housed at the Georgia Aquarium (Atlanta, Georgia, USA). This technique involved incising the parietal vaginal tunic to allow placement of double ligation of the ductus deferens, testicular artery, and pampiniform plexus en masse. After ligating and transecting these structures, they were introduced back into the tunic, which was closed with a circumferential ligature. The incision site was closed in a routine manner. Both otters recovered well from the procedure. One otter had mild cutaneous dehiscence postoperatively, and the other had no obvious complications. Benefits of this procedure include reduced risk of ligature slippage or loosening and resultant hemorrhage, as provided by the traditional open portion of the castration, and decreased postoperative swelling, as provided by the closed part of the castration. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time this technique has been described for use in sea otters.

  15. Data for Southern Sea Otter Range Expansion and Habitat Use in the Santa Barbara Channel

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are .csv files of tagged sea otter re-sighting locations (henceforth, resights) collected in the field using a combination of VHF radio telemetry and...

  16. Killer Whale Predation on Sea Otters Linking Oceanic and Nearshore Ecosystems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J. A. Estes; M. T. Tinker; T. M. Williams; D. F. Doak

    1998-01-01

    .... Increased killer whale predation is the likely cause of these declines. Elevated sea urchin density and the consequent deforestation of kelp beds in the nearshore community demonstrate that the otter's keystone role has been reduced or eliminated...

  17. Impact of otter (Lutra lutra predation on amphibians in temporary ponds in Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Cogălniceanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the observation of an event of mortality of ribbed newts (Pleurodeles waltl and Iberian spadefoot toads (Pelobates cultripes due to predation by a pair of otters (Lutra lutra in a temporary pond complex in southern Spain. The peculiar predation mode on ribbed newts, with extraction of soft organs through an incision in the upper part of the thorax, may result in an under estimate of the importance of this species in the diet of otters. The high number of dead amphibians killed by two otters in only several hours suggests that the presence of these predators may pose a serious threat to amphibian populations. The risk is especially high in arid areas, with few ponds, synchronous reproductive migration, and high density of animals. We consider that measures promoting the conservation and population and range increase of otters might have a negative impact on amphibians.

  18. Palynologic and petrographic variation in the Otter Creek coal beds (Stephanian, Upper Carboniferous), Western Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfrich, C.T.; Hower, J.C. (Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond (USA))

    1989-08-30

    The palynology and petrology of the Lisman (Lower Otter Creek) and Upper Otter Creek coals of the Stephanian portion of the Sturgis Formation of the Western Kentucky coal field was investigated in samples from mine and roadcut exposures. The Lisman coal bed exhibits an upward decrease in palynologic diversity and an upward increase in inertinite macerals. These factors suggest a change in swamp paleoecology in response to a climate which was gradually becoming drier. The Upper Creek coal bed exhibits less lateral continuity in palynomorph assemblages than does the Lisman. The Upper Otter Creek palynomorph assemblages are less diverse than the Lisman assemblages. Overall, the variation in the Upper Otter Creek coal bed cannot be attributed with certainty to any factor other than the local relief within the swamp. 17 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. The vocal repertoire of adult and neonate giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A S Mumm

    Full Text Available Animals use vocalizations to exchange information about external events, their own physical or motivational state, or about individuality and social affiliation. Infant babbling can enhance the development of the full adult vocal repertoire by providing ample opportunity for practice. Giant otters are very social and frequently vocalizing animals. They live in highly cohesive groups, generally including a reproductive pair and their offspring born in different years. This basic social structure may vary in the degree of relatedness of the group members. Individuals engage in shared group activities and different social roles and thus, the social organization of giant otters provides a basis for complex and long-term individual relationships. We recorded and analysed the vocalizations of adult and neonate giant otters from wild and captive groups. We classified the adult vocalizations according to their acoustic structure, and described their main behavioural context. Additionally, we present the first description of vocalizations uttered in babbling bouts of new born giant otters. We expected to find 1 a sophisticated vocal repertoire that would reflect the species' complex social organisation, 2 that giant otter vocalizations have a clear relationship between signal structure and function, and 3 that the vocal repertoire of new born giant otters would comprise age-specific vocalizations as well as precursors of the adult repertoire. We found a vocal repertoire with 22 distinct vocalization types produced by adults and 11 vocalization types within the babbling bouts of the neonates. A comparison within the otter subfamily suggests a relation between vocal and social complexity, with the giant otters being the socially and vocally most complex species.

  20. Sea otters homogenize mussel beds and reduce habitat provisioning in a rocky intertidal ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald G Singh

    Full Text Available Sea otters (Enhydra lutris are keystone predators that consume a variety of benthic invertebrates, including the intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus. By virtue of their competitive dominance, large size, and longevity, M. californianus are ecosystem engineers that form structurally complex beds that provide habitat for diverse invertebrate communities. We investigated whether otters affect mussel bed characteristics (i.e. mussel length distributions, mussel bed depth, and biomass and associated community structure (i.e. biomass, alpha and beta diversity by comparing four regions that varied in their histories of sea otter occupancy on the west coast of British Columbia and northern Washington. Mussel bed depth and average mussel lengths were 1.5 times lower in regions occupied by otters for >20 years than those occupied for <5 yrs. Diversity of mussel bed associated communities did not differ between regions; however, the total biomass of species associated with mussel beds was more than three-times higher where sea otters were absent. We examined alternative explanations for differences in mussel bed community structure, including among-region variation in oceanographic conditions and abundance of the predatory sea star Pisaster ochraceus. We cannot discount multiple drivers shaping mussel beds, but our findings indicate the sea otters are an important one. We conclude that, similar to their effects on subtidal benthic invertebrates, sea otters reduce the size distributions of intertidal mussels and, thereby, habitat available to support associated communities. Our study indicates that by reducing populations of habitat-providing intertidal mussels, sea otters may have substantial indirect effects on associated communities.

  1. The Conservation Knowledge and Attitudes of Teenagers in Slovenia toward the Eurasian Otter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkar, Gregor; Mohar, Petra; Gregorc, Tatjana; Nekrep, Igor; Adamic, Marjana Honigsfeld

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on human-otter interactions in Slovenia. The aim of the study was to obtain data about secondary-school students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and its conservation. The survey was carried out in fall 2008 and winter 2008-09 and included 273 teenagers. Their average age was 15.57 (SD = 1.01,…

  2. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  3. Kelp Forests versus Urchin Barrens: Alternate Stable States and Their Effect on Sea Otter Prey Quality in the Aleutian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgal and urchin barren communities are alternately stable and persist in the Aleutians due to sea otter presence and absence. In the early 1990s a rapid otter population decline released urchins from predation and caused a shift to the urchin-dominated state. Despite increases in urchin abundance, otter numbers continued to decline. Although debated, prey quality changes have been implicated in current otter population status. This study examined otter prey abundance, size, biomass, and potential energy density in remnant kelp forest and urchin-dominated communities to determine if alternate stable states affect prey quality. Findings suggest that although urchin barrens provide more abundant urchin prey, individual urchins are smaller and provide lower biomass and potential energy density compared to kelp forests. Shifts to urchin barrens do affect prey quality but changes are likely compensated by increased prey densities and are insufficient in explaining current otter population status in the Aleutians.

  4. Automatic trace metal monitoring station use for early warning and short term events in polluted rivers: application to streams loaded by mining tailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz; Iftekhar, Shafia; Billon, Gabriel; Mikkelsen, Oyvind; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2010-10-06

    An automatic trace metal monitoring station (ATMS) system was implemented to study seasonal and short time changes in selected metal concentrations in two river courses influenced by mine drainage. High frequency monitoring over periods of months revealed daily variations of zinc, iron and copper, and also proved the use of ATMS as an early warning system in such polluted environments. Complementary measurements with ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry), ionic chromatography, and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations also gave some new insights into the geochemical behaviour of the metals in these two rivers.

  5. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir; Skookumchuck Creek Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.

    2003-06-01

    The Skookumchuck Creek juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat-monitoring program is a co-operative initiative of the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection and Bonneville Power Administration. This project was commissioned in planning for fish habitat protection and forest development within the Skookumchuck Creek watershed and was intended to expand upon similar studies initiated within the Wigwam River from 2000 to 2002. The broad intent is to develop a better understanding of juvenile bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout recruitment and the ongoing hydrologic and morphologic processes, especially as they relate to spawning and rearing habitat quality. The 2002 project year represents the first year of a long-term bull trout-monitoring program with current studies focused on collecting baseline information. This report provides a summary of results obtained to date. Bull trout represented 72.4% of the catch. Fry dominated the catch because site selection was biased towards electrofishing sample sites which favored high bull trout fry capture success. The mean density of all juvenile bull trout was estimated to be 6.6 fish/100m{sup 2}. This represents one-half the densities reported for the 2002 Wigwam River enumeration program, even though enumeration of bull trout redds was an order of magnitude higher for the Wigwam River. Typically, areas with combined fry and juvenile densities greater than 1.5 fish per 100 m{sup 2} are cited as critical rearing areas. Trends in abundance appeared to be related to proximity to spawning areas, bed material size, and water depth. Cover components utilized by juvenile and adult bull trout and cutthroat trout were interstices, boulder, depth, overhead vegetation and LWD. The range of morphological stream types encompass the stable and resilient spectrum (C3(1), C3 and B3c). The Skookumchuck can be generalized as a slightly entrenched, meandering, riffle-pool, cobble dominated

  6. Dramatic increase in sea otter mortality from white sharks in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. Tim; Hatfield, Brian B.; Harris, Michael D.; Ames, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Although southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) are not considered prey for white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias), sharks do nonetheless bite sea otters. We analyzed spatial and temporal trends in shark bites on sea otters in California, assessing the frequency of shark bite wounds in 1,870 carcasses collected since 1985. The proportion of stranded sea otters having shark bites has increased sharply since 2003, and white shark bites now account for >50% of recovered carcasses. The trend was most pronounced in the southern part of the range, from Estero Bay to Point Conception, where shark bite frequency has increased eightfold. Seasonal trends were also evident: most shark-bitten carcasses are recovered in late summer and fall; however, the period of elevated shark bite frequency has lengthened. The causes of these trends are unclear, but possible contributing factors include increased white shark abundance and/or changes in white shark behavior and distribution. In particular, the spatiotemporal patterns of shark-bitten sea otters match increases in pinniped populations, and the increased availability of marine mammal prey for white sharks may have led to more sharks spending more time in nearshore waters utilized by both sea otters and pinnipeds.

  7. Mitogenomes and relatedness do not predict frequency of tool-use by sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralls, Katherine; Rotzel McInerney, Nancy; Gagne, Roderick B.; Ernest, Holly B.; Tinker, M. Tim; Fujii, Jessica; Maldonado, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Many ecological aspects of tool-use in sea otters are similar to those in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins. Within an area, most tool-using dolphins share a single mitochondrial haplotype and are more related to each other than to the population as a whole. We asked whether sea otters in California showed similar genetic patterns by sequencing mitogenomes of 43 otters and genotyping 154 otters at 38 microsatellite loci. There were six variable sites in the mitogenome that yielded three haplotypes, one found in only a single individual. The other two haplotypes contained similar percentages (33 and 36%) of frequent tool-users and a variety of diet types. Microsatellite analyses showed that snail specialists, the diet specialist group that most frequently used tools, were no more related to each other than to the population as a whole. The lack of genetic association among tool-using sea otters compared with dolphins may result from the length of time each species has been using tools. Tool-use in dolphins appears to be a relatively recent innovation (less than 200 years) but sea otters have probably been using tools for many thousands or even millions of years.

  8. Habitat Evaluation and Monitoring in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everson, Larry B.; Campbell, Charles J.; Craven, Richard E.; Welsh, Thomas L.

    1986-12-01

    The law established the Northwest Power Planning Council to prepare and adopt a regional conservation and electric power plan, and a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife. The objectives are the development of regional plans and programs related to energy conservation, renewable resources, other resources, and protecting mitigating, and enhancing fish and wildlife resources and to protect, mitigate, and enhance the fish and wildlife, including related spawning grounds and habitat, of the Columbia River and its tributaries. 4 refs.

  9. Analysis of long-term water quality for effective river health monitoring in peri-urban landscapes--a case study of the Hawkesbury-Nepean river system in NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, U; Maheshwari, B L; Ollerton, R L

    2013-06-01

    The Hawkesbury-Nepean River (HNR) system in South-Eastern Australia is the main source of water supply for the Sydney Metropolitan area and is one of the more complex river systems due to the influence of urbanisation and other activities in the peri-urban landscape through which it flows. The long-term monitoring of river water quality is likely to suffer from data gaps due to funding cuts, changes in priority and related reasons. Nevertheless, we need to assess river health based on the available information. In this study, we demonstrated how the Factor Analysis (FA), Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA) and Trend Analysis (TA) can be applied to evaluate long-term historic data sets. Six water quality parameters, viz., temperature, chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, oxides of nitrogen, suspended solids and reactive silicates, measured at weekly intervals between 1985 and 2008 at 12 monitoring stations located along the 300 km length of the HNR system were evaluated to understand the human and natural influences on the river system in a peri-urban landscape. The application of FA extracted three latent factors which explained more than 70 % of the total variance of the data and related to the 'bio-geographical', 'natural' and 'nutrient pollutant' dimensions of the HNR system. The bio-geographical and nutrient pollution factors more likely related to the direct influence of changes and activities of peri-urban natures and accounted for approximately 50 % of variability in water quality. The application of HACA indicated two major clusters representing clean and polluted zones of the river. On the spatial scale, one cluster was represented by the upper and lower sections of the river (clean zone) and accounted for approximately 158 km of the river. The other cluster was represented by the middle section (polluted zone) with a length of approximately 98 km. Trend Analysis indicated how the point sources influence river water quality on spatio

  10. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin ; Volume 1 ; Evaluation of the 1995 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Subyearling Chinook in the Snake River Basin Using Program RealTime.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Richard L.

    1997-06-01

    This project was initiated in response to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) listings in the Snake River Basin of the Columbia River Basin. Primary objectives and management implications of the project include: (1) to address the need for further synthesis of historical tagging and other biological information to improve understanding and to help identify future research and analysis needs; (2) to assist in the development of improved monitoring capabilities, statistical methodologies and software tools to assist in optimizing operational and fish passage strategies to maximize the protection and survival of listed threatened and endangered Snake River salmon populations and other listed and nonlisted stocks in the Columbia River Basin; and (3) to design better analysis tools for evaluation programs; and (4) to provide statistical support to the Bonneville Power Administration and the Northwest fisheries community.

  11. Status and trends of sea otters in the northern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Estes, James A.; Jameson, Ronald J.; LaRoe, E.T.; Farris, G.S.; Puckett, C.E.; Doran, P.D.; Mac, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    About 250 years ago sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were distributed continuously from central Baja California, north and west along the Pacific Rim to Machatka Peninsula in Russia, and south along the Kuril Island to northern Japan (Kenyon 1969; Fig. 1a). Several hundred thousand sea otters may have occurred in the north Pacific region when commercial hunting began in the 18th century (Riedman and Estes 1990). At least two attributes of the sea otter have influenced humans, likely for as long as they have resided together along the coast of the north Pacific Ocean. First, sea otters rely on a dense fur, among the finest in the world, for insulation in the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. The demand for sea otter fur led to their near extinction in the 19th century. The fur harvest, begun about 1740 and halted by international treaty in 1911, left surviving colonies, each likely numbering less than a few hundred animals, in California, south-central Alaska, and the Aleutian, Medney, and Kuril Islands (Fig. 1a). These individuals provided the nucleus for the recovery of the species. Today more than 100,000 sea otters occur throughout about 75% of their original range (fig. 1b). Immigration has resulted in near-complete occupation of the Aleutian and Kuril archipelagos and the Alaska peninsula. Successful translocations have resulted in viable populations in southeast Alaska, Washington, and British Columbia. Large amounts of unoccupied habitat remain along the coasts of Russia, Canada, the United States, and Mexico. The second potential source of conflict between sea otters and humans is that sea otters prey on and often limit some benthic invertebrate populations. Because some of these invertebrates are aso used by humans (Estes and VanBlaricom 1985), human perceptions about the effects of sea otter foraging on invertebrates sometimes differ. By limiting populations of herbivorous invertebrates (e.g., sea urchins [Echinoidea]) otters help maintain the integrity of

  12. Hole-in-the-Rock Backwater Excavation Missouri River Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Project, Thurston County, Nebraska, Missouri River Mile 706

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain Region, Species Conservation Project. http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/sturgeonchub.pdf. April 12, 2013. Sheaffer...wildlife. The 10:1 slope will provide an important foraging site over a wide range of river levels for mammals such as minkJ raccoon) and otter as

  13. Establishment and Application of the Wind and Structural Health Monitoring System for the Runyang Yangtze River Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring can provide a practical platform for detecting the evolution of structural damage or performance deterioration of engineering structures. The final objective is to provide reasonable suggestions for structural maintenance and management and therefore ensure the structural safety according to the real-time recorded data. In this paper, the establishment of the wind and structural health monitoring system (WSHMS implemented on the Runyang Yangtze River Bridge (RYRB in China is introduced. The composition and functions of the WSHMS are presented. Thereinto, the sensory subsystem utilized to measure the input actions and structural output responses is introduced. And the core functions of the data management and analysis subsystem (DMAS including model updating, structural condition identification, and structural condition assessment are illustrated in detail. A three-stage strategy is applied into the FE model updating of RYRB, and a two-phase strategy is proposed to adapt to structural health diagnosis and damage identification. Considering the structural integral security and the fatigue characteristic of steel material, the condition assessment of RYRB is divided into structural reliability assessment and structural fatigue assessment, which are equipped with specific and elaborate module for effective operation. This research can provide references for the establishment of the similar structural health monitoring systems on other cable-supported bridges.

  14. The Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program Fourth Quarter 2000 (October thru December 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, M.D.

    2001-08-02

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by SRS during fourth quarter 2000. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program.

  15. Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge: A Report on Wilderness Character Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the completed effort of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wilderness Fellows program to develop a monitoring strategy and evaluate the status of...

  16. The Savannah River Plant`s Groundwater Monitoring Program - second quarter 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report is a summary of the groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Group of the Health Protection Department in the second quarter of 1987 and includes the analytical results, field data, and detailed documentation for this program. The purpose of this report is twofold. First, the report provides a historical record of the activities and the rationale of the program; second, it provides an official document of the analytical results.

  17. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program: 1990 sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-02-07

    This schedule provides a final record of the 1990 sampling schedule for the SRS groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Section (EPD/EMS). It includes all the wells monitored by EPD/EMS at SRS during 1990 and identifies the constituents sampled, the sampling frequency, and the reasons for sampling. Sampling requests are incorporated into the schedule throughout the year. Drafts of the schedule are produced and revised quarterly.

  18. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico); Huq, M.V. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hamden, CT (United States); Meyers-Schone, L.J. [Frankfurter, Gross-Gerau (Germany); Mohrbacher, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, C.R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Stout, J.G. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  19. Bioaccumulation of mercury in muscle tissue of fish in the Elbe River (Czech Republic): multispecies monitoring study 1991-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, L; Svobodová, Z; Janousková, D; Vykusová, B; Jarkovský, J; Smíd, R; Pavlis, P

    2005-06-01

    The study monitored mercury (Hg) contamination of fish muscle tissue at 13 geographical sites that can be regarded as crucial points for an ecotoxicological assessment of the Czech Republic section of the Elbe River. The descriptive part of the study was primarily aimed at comparative evaluation of the Hg load during the period 1991-1996. The conclusions were supported by multivariate statistical analyses of the content of Hg in the muscle tissue of 1251 fish belonging to 23 species with four dominant indicator species: Perca fluviatilis (n=163), Abramis brama (n=173), Rutilus rutilus (n=148), and Leuciscus cephalus (n=166). Considering data from 3- to 5-year-old fish, significantly increased contamination was detected in typical predators compared to the other fish species in all sites (PElbe River environment. Multivariate multispecies analyses found the age of analyzed individuals and the feeding strategy of a given species as the most important, however mutually interactive, covariates for Hg accumulation in muscle tissue. The analyses revealed decreasing sensitivity of older predator individuals to differentiate highly and moderately contaminated sites. Benthophagous species mostly kept their discrimination capacity toward contaminated sites in all age categories, with the exception of bream that was rather linked to the pattern typical for predator species. The unclear position of omnivorous species, represented namely by roach, corresponded with their weak bioindicator power, mainly in the young age categories.

  20. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achond, Stephen; Hockersmith, Eric E.; Sandford, Benjamin P. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-07-01

    This report details the 2002 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these differences in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration began a cooperative effort with NMFS to expand tagging and interrogation of wild fish. Project goals were to characterize the outmigration timing of these fish, to determine whether consistent migration patterns would emerge, and to investigate the influence of environmental factors on the timing and distribution of these migrations. In 1992, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) began an independent program of PIT tagging wild chinook salmon parr in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Basins in northeast Oregon. Since then, ODFW has reported all tagging, detection, and timing information on fish from these streams. However, with ODFW concurrence, NMFS will continue to report arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam.