WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitor risk state

  1. Core state preconception health indicators - pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system and behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Cheryl L; Zapata, Lauren B; Farr, Sherry L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Morrow, Brian; Ahluwalia, Indu; D'Angelo, Denise V; Barradas, Danielle; Cox, Shanna; Goodman, David; Williams, Letitia; Grigorescu, Violanda; Barfield, Wanda D

    2014-04-25

    Promoting preconception health can potentially improve women's health and pregnancy outcomes. Evidence-based interventions exist to reduce many maternal behaviors and chronic conditions that are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate folic acid intake, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The 2006 national recommendations to improve preconception health included monitoring improvements in preconception health by maximizing public health surveillance (CDC. Recommendations to improve preconception health and health care-United States: a report of the CDC/ATSDR Preconception Care Work Group and the Select Panel on Preconception Care. MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-6]). 2009 for 38 indicators; 2008 for one indicator. DESCRIPTION OF SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS: The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an ongoing state- and population-based surveillance system designed to monitor selected self-reported maternal behaviors, conditions, and experiences that occur shortly before, during, and after pregnancy among women who deliver live-born infants. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing state-based telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the United States that collects state-level data on health-related risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and preventive health services. This surveillance summary includes PRAMS data from 29 reporting areas (n = 40,388 respondents) and BRFSS data from 51 reporting areas (n = 62,875 respondents) for nonpregnant women of reproductive age (aged 18-44 years). To establish a comprehensive, nationally recognized set of indicators to be used for monitoring, evaluation, and response, a volunteer group of policy and program leaders and epidemiologists identified 45 core state preconception health indicators, of which 41 rely on PRAMS or BRFSS as data sources. This report includes 39 of the 41 core state preconception health indicators for which

  2. Monitoring of Persons with Risk for Exposure to Ebola Virus Disease - United States, November 3, 2014-March 8, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Fisher, Emily; Vagi, Sara; Fechter-Leggett, Ethan; Prudent, Natasha; Dott, Mary; Daley, Randolph; Avchen, Rachel Nonkin

    2015-07-03

    On October 27, 2014, CDC released guidance for monitoring and movement of persons with potential Ebola virus disease (Ebola) exposure in the United States. For persons with possible exposure to Ebola, this guidance recommended risk categorization, daily monitoring during the 21-day incubation period, and, for persons in selected risk categories, movement restrictions. The purpose of the guidance was to delineate methods for early identification of symptoms among persons at potential risk for Ebola so that they could be isolated, tested, and if necessary, treated to improve their chance of survival and reduce transmission. Within 7 days, all 50 states and two local jurisdictions (New York City [NYC] and the District of Columbia [DC]) had implemented the guidelines. During November 3, 2014-March 8, 2015, a total of 10,344 persons were monitored for up to 21 days with >99% complete monitoring. This public health response demonstrated the ability of state, territorial, and local health agencies to rapidly implement systems to effectively monitor thousands of persons over a sustained period.

  3. Social and hygienic monitoring today: state and prospects in conjunction with the risk-based supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown in the article that since the establishment in 1992 and until now the social and health monitoring (SHM operates as a complex open system of extended collection and processing of heterogeneous data about the parameters of the environment, socio-economic indicators of living of the population of the country’s regions, medical and demographic characteristics of society as a whole and of individual population groups. As part of the SHM system Rospotrebnadzor annually performs hundreds of thousands of instrumental measurements of objects in the environment of the Russian Federation. These federal and regional information assets have tremendous analytical capacity and allow a knowledge-based processing of information in the "health-environment" system for a variety of management tasks of sanitary and epidemiological situation. Changing of the general paradigm of control and supervisory activities of Rospotrebnadzor and giving a fundamentally new status of control measures to researches and measurements of the system of social and hygienic monitoring without interaction with legal entities and individual entrepreneurs were important bases for further improvement of the SHM. The development of SHM in conjunction with the risk-based supervision model can significantly improve analytical capabilities, effectiveness and efficiency of each system. This development requires the adoption of a new edition of The statements of the SHM, the development of a scientific approach to the formation of "risk profiles" of objects of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance; the development of methodological approaches to the selection of points and formation of programs of instrumental studies of air, water and soil as the control activities in the areas of influence of economic entities. Of great current interest are the development and consolidation of regulatory requirements for the registration of the results of sampling and measurement in the

  4. Shirking, Monitoring, and Risk Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of risk aversion on effort under different monitoring schemes. It uses a theoretical model which relaxes the assumption of agents being risk neutral, and investigates changes of effort as monitoring varies. The predictions of the theoretical model are tested using an original experimental setting where the level of risk aversion is measured and monitoring rates vary exogenously. Our results show that shirking decreases with risk aversion, being female, and monito...

  5. Thunderstorm risk monitoring service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, P.; Arbogast, E.; Bouzom, M.; Reynaud, J.; Autones, F.; Guillou, Y.; Bernard-Bouissières, I.; Sénési, S.

    2009-09-01

    The SIGnificant weather Object Oriented Nowcasting System (SIGOONS) is based on a scheme combining forecaster's expertise and observation data advanced automated processing ; it is an object oriented system for detection and forecasting significant phenomena at a few hours range. Downstream, SIGOONS feed warnings automated generation. Today, SIGOONS manages thunderstorms only. SIGOONS development follows two streams: o Operating a "fully automated” SIGOONS to produce thunderstorm risk warnings, in order to demonstrate the capability of warnings service for Météo-France customers at the short nowcasting range. At this stage of automation, warnings are limited to a range of one hour. o Ensure interaction feasibility and efficiency to match forecaster's expertise on thunderstorms forecasting, for improving warnings timeliness, intensity and location. The 2009 SIGOONS schedule was populated by the marketing of the thunderstorms warnings service named "Thunderstorm risk monitoring service” and by experiments with the seven regional forecasting services in real-time to assess adding expert value to warnings. Beyond, the goals are to operate thunderstorms expertise routinely using SIGOONS, to improve automation in thunderstorms description using new radar data (3D, doppler, polarization data) and mesoscale numerical weather prediction data, to introduce a probabilistic description of warnings location and intensity, and to manage another phenomena, namely the strong wind events.

  6. A double-risk monitoring and movement restriction policy for Ebola entry screening at airports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sheldon H; Yu, Ge; Jokela, Janet A

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an alternative policy for Ebola entry screening at airports in the United States. This alternative policy considers a social contact tracing (SCT) risk level, in addition to the current health risk level used by the CDC. The performances of both policies are compared based on the scenarios that occur and the expected cost associated with implementing such policies. Sensitivity analysis is performed to identify conditions under which one policy dominates the other policy. This analysis takes into account that the alternative policy requires additional data collection, which is balanced by a more cost-effective allocation of resources.

  7. Risk monitor in Balakovo. Watcher Risk; Monitor de riesgo en Balakovo. Risk Watcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio de Rebellon, F.; Lopez, C.; Sanchez, A.

    2011-07-01

    The ultimate goal of the project was the implementation of technology risk monitor VVER-1000, and the transfer of knowledge. The primary outcome was the risk monitor installation Risk Watcher in Balakovo, is currently fully operational to provide quantitative and qualitative information to monitor the safety of the plant.

  8. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  9. Configuration of Risk Monitor System by PLant Defense-In.Depth Monitor and Relability Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Lind, Morten; Yang, Ming;

    2012-01-01

    A new method of risk monitor system of a nuclear power plant has been proposed from the aspect by what degree of safety functions incorporated in the plant system is maintained by multiple barriers of defense-in-depth (DiD). Wherein, the central idea is plant DiD risk monitor and reliability...... monitor derived from the four aspects of (i) design principle of nuclear safety to realize DiD concept, (ii) definition of risk and risk to be monitored, (iii) severe accident phenomena as major risk, (iv) scheme of risk ranking, and (v) dynamic risk display. In this paper, the overall frame...... of the proposed frame on risk monitor system is summarized and the detailed discussion is made on the definitions of major terminologies of risk, risk ranking, anatomy of fault occurrence, two-layer configuration of risk monitor, how to configure individual elements of plant DiD risk monitor and its example...

  10. Monitoring new and emerging risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Douwes, M.; Zondervan, E.; Jongen, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article, based on recent literature, will identify, define and discuss new and emerging OSH-risks together with the driving forces behind these risks. Emerging risks will be described as being related to physical load and musculoskeletal disorders [MSDs], psychosocial risks, and dangerous subst

  11. Monitoring new and emerging risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Douwes, M.; Zondervan, E.; Jongen, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article, based on recent literature, will identify, define and discuss new and emerging OSH-risks together with the driving forces behind these risks. Emerging risks will be described as being related to physical load and musculoskeletal disorders [MSDs], psychosocial risks, and dangerous

  12. Risk-adjusted monitoring of survival times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Reynolds, Marion R.; Woodall, William H.

    2009-02-26

    We consider the monitoring of clinical outcomes, where each patient has a di®erent risk of death prior to undergoing a health care procedure.We propose a risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM chart (RAST CUSUM) for monitoring clinical outcomes where the primary endpoint is a continuous, time-to-event variable that may be right censored. Risk adjustment is accomplished using accelerated failure time regression models. We compare the average run length performance of the RAST CUSUM chart to the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, using data from cardiac surgeries to motivate the details of the comparison. The comparisons show that the RAST CUSUM chart is more efficient at detecting a sudden decrease in the odds of death than the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, especially when the fraction of censored observations is not too high. We also discuss the implementation of a prospective monitoring scheme using the RAST CUSUM chart.

  13. Relationships Between Animal Health Monitoring and the Risk Assessment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman MD

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is part of the risk analysis process as it is used in veterinary medicine to estimate risks related to international trade and food safety. Data from monitoring and surveillance systems (MO&SS are used throughout the risk assessment process for hazard identification, release assessment, exposure assessment and consequence assessment. As the quality of risk assessments depends to a large extent on the availability and quality of input data, there is a close relationship between MO&SS and risk assessment. In order to improve the quality of risk assessments, MO&SS should be designed according to minimum quality standards. Second, recent scientific developments on state-of-the-art design and analysis of surveys need to be translated into field applications and legislation. Finally, knowledge about the risk assessment process among MO&SS planners and managers should be promoted in order to assure high-quality data.

  14. Advanced Risk Management and Monitoring System, ARMMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Yoo; Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ho Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Many risk informed regulation and applications (RIR and A) are approved and used for the nuclear power plants(NPPs), and more RIR and A will be actively applied in Korea. Also, since Korean NPPs are recently exported to other country such as UAE, RIR and A would be applied to the exported NPPs. Thus, a tool which will help the user apply RIR and A is required. KAERI is being developing a tool, called ARMMS (Advanced Risk Management and Monitoring System), for this purpose. The design plan of ARMMS was introduced in the Ref, and in this paper, the actual implementation of ARMMS is introduced, and the performance monitoring module is introduced

  15. [Current state and prospects of military personnel health monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvantsev, M V; Kuznetsov, S M; Ivanov, V V; Zakurdaev, V V

    2014-01-01

    The current article is dedicated to some features of the Russian Federation Armed Forces military personnel health monitoring such as legal and informational provision, methodological basis of functioning, historical aspect of formation and development of the social and hygienic monitoring in the Russian Federation Armed Forces. The term "military personnel health monitoring" is defined as an analytical system of constant and long-term observation, analysis, assessment, studying of factors determined the military personnel health, these factors correlations, health risk factors management in order to minimize them. The current state of the military personnel health monitoring allows coming to the conclusion that the military health system does have forces and resources for state policy of establishing the population health monitoring system implementation. The following directions of the militarily personnel health monitoring improvement are proposed: the Russian Federation Armed Forces medical service record and report system reorganization bringing it closer to the civilian one, implementation of the integrated approach to the medical service informatisation, namely, military personnel health status and medical service resources monitoring. The leading means in this direction are development and introduction of a military serviceman individual health status monitoring system on the basis of a serviceman electronic medical record card. Also it is proposed the current Russian Federation Armed Forces social and hygienic monitoring improvement at the expense of informational interaction between the two subsystems on the basis of unified military medical service space.

  16. Application of Risk Management for Control and Monitoring Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grau, S; Balda, F; Chouvelon, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the state of the art and new trends for risk management of safety-related control and monitoring systems, currently applied in the industry. These techniques not only enable to manage safety and reliability issues but they also help in the control of quality and economic factors affected by the availability and maintenance of the system. The method includes an unambiguous definition of the system in terms of functions and a systematic analysis of hazardous situations, undesired events and possible malfunctions. It also includes the identification and quantification of the risk associated to the system. The required risk reduction is specified in terms of safety integrity levels. The safety integrity level results in requirements, preventive measures, possible improvements and recommendations to assure the satisfactory management of the risk.

  17. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks – ground-based as well space-based – has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. elens (Washington, USA in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-of-the-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  18. Seismic risk mitigation in deep level South African mines by state of the art underground monitoring - Joint South African and Japanese study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, A.; Durrheim, R.; Nakatani, M.; Yabe, Y.; Ogasawara, H.; Naoi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Two underground sites in a deep level gold mine in South Africa were instrumented by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) with tilt meters and seismic monitors. One of the sites was also instrumented by JApanese-German Underground Acoustic emission Research in South Africa (JAGUARS) with a small network, approximately 40m span, of eight Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors. The rate of tilt, defined as quasi-static deformations, and the seismic ground motion, defined as dynamic deformations, were analysed in order to understand the rock mass behavior around deep level mining. In addition the high frequency AE events recorded at hypocentral distances of about 50m located at 3300m below the surface were analysed. A good correspondence between the dynamic and quasi-static deformations was found. The rate of coseismic and aseismic tilt, as well as seismicity recorded by the mine seismic network, are approximately constant until the daily blasting time, which takes place from about 19:30 until shortly before 21:00. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events the coseismic and aseismic tilt shows a rapid increase.Much of the quasi-static deformation, however, occurs independently of the seismic events and was described as 'slow' or aseismic events. During the monitoring period a seismic event with MW 2.2 occurred in the vicinity of the instrumented site. This event was recorded by both the CSIR integrated monitoring system and JAGUARS acoustic emotion network. The tilt changes associated with this event showed a well pronounced after-tilt. The aftershock activities were also well recorded by the acoustic emission and the mine seismic networks. More than 21,000 AE aftershocks were located in the first 150 hours after the main event. Using the distribution of the AE events the position of the fault in the source area was successfully delineated. The distribution of the AE events following the main shock was related to after tilt in order to

  19. Parental Monitoring and Adolescent Alcohol Risk in a Clinic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Boyle, Jennifer R.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the association between parental monitoring and adolescent alcohol risk. Surveys of adolescents in a managed care setting examined alcohol involvement and forms of parent influence. Frequent monitoring related to less likelihood of being engaged in a variety of alcohol risk behaviors or other risk situations. Choosing to share alcohol…

  20. Panel Endorses Active Monitoring for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An independent panel convened this week by NIH has concluded that many men with localized, low-risk prostate cancer should be closely monitored, permitting treatment to be delayed until warranted by disease progression. However, monitoring strategies—such

  1. Development of regulatory technical rationale for risk monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Lee, Yong Suk; Ahn, Kwang Won; Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In Korea, the risk monitoring program will be developed and applied to each plants till 2003 by the severe accident management plan to enhance the safety functions of the nuclear power plants. Through this plan, the risk monitoring for the full power and low power and shutdown operation will be performed. Therefore the development of consistent risk monitoring system and overall regulatory guides for the risk monitoring program are necessary. The objective of this study is the development of regulatory technical rationales for the nuclear power plant risk monitoring program and the derivation of the requirements need for the development of risk monitoring system. Through this the improvement of regulatory effectiveness to assure the safe operation of nuclear power plant, is expected.

  2. Development of regulatory technical rationale for risk monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Lee, Yong Suk; Ahn, Kwang Won; Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In Korea, the risk monitoring program will be developed and applied to each plants till 2003 by the severe accident management plan to enhance the safety functions of the nuclear power plants. Through this plan, the risk monitoring for the full power and low power and shutdown operation will be performed. Therefore the development of consistent risk monitoring system and overall regulatory guides for the risk monitoring program are necessary. The objective of this study is the development of regulatory technical rationales for the nuclear power plant risk monitoring program and the derivation of the requirements need for the development of risk monitoring system. Through this the improvement of regulatory effectiveness to assure the safe operation of nuclear power plant, is expected.

  3. [Dynamic monitoring risk of anti-hepatoma new drug development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Fan, Wei; Li, Hong-Fa; Man, Shu-Li; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wen-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Risk monitoring of new Chinese patent anti-hepatoma drugs is tracking recognized risks and residual risks, identifying emerging risk and ensure the implementation of the plan, estimating the process of reducing effectiveness. The paper is mainly through understanding the status of Chinese patent anti-hepatoma drugs, the content, characteristic and analysis method of dynamic risk monitoring, and then select the risk control indicators, collect risk information. Finally, puts forward the thought of anti-hepatoma drugs listed evaluation in our country, and try to establish the model of dynamic risk management of anti-hepatoma drugs.

  4. Physiologic Monitoring: Improving Safety or Increasing Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Charles G

    2016-08-01

    This paper will present a focused and personal history of physiologic monitoring, beginning with the discovery of modern anesthesia and its development from a technical practice to a scientific discipline. Emphasis will be on the essence of monitoring in the anesthesia evolution, and this work will attempt to answer the question of how to evaluate the impact of monitoring on patient outcome. Understanding that monitors are passive and that only caregivers using monitors can impact outcome is at the crux of this approach to analysis. The limited quality data involving monitoring analysis, including that from pulse oximetry, will be discussed and critiqued. The invention and rapid spread of pulse oximetry will be highlighted and used as an example throughout, but the principles developed will apply to other monitors and patient monitoring in general. The problems created by monitoring alarms will also be discussed. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. THE CURRENT STATE OF RISK-CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of risk-controlling is based on the general theory of risk. The current state of risk-management in our country is reviewed. We also discuss the research on risk-controlling made in the BMSTU Laboratory of economic-mathematical methods in controlling

  6. Historical drivers of extinction risk: using past evidence to direct future monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Moreno; Collen, Ben; Rondinini, Carlo; Mace, Georgina M

    2015-08-22

    Global commitments to halt biodiversity decline mean that it is essential to monitor species' extinction risk. However, the work required to assess extinction risk is intensive. We demonstrate an alternative approach to monitoring extinction risk, based on the response of species to external conditions. Using retrospective International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List assessments, we classify transitions in the extinction risk of 497 mammalian carnivores and ungulates between 1975 and 2013. Species that moved to lower Red List categories, or remained Least Concern, were classified as 'lower risk'; species that stayed in a threatened category, or moved to a higher category of risk, were classified as 'higher risk'. Twenty-four predictor variables were used to predict transitions, including intrinsic traits (species biology) and external conditions (human pressure, distribution state and conservation interventions). The model correctly classified up to 90% of all transitions and revealed complex interactions between variables, such as protected areas (PAs) versus human impact. The most important predictors were: past extinction risk, PA extent, geographical range size, body size, taxonomic family and human impact. Our results suggest that monitoring a targeted set of metrics would efficiently identify species facing a higher risk, and could guide the allocation of resources between monitoring species' extinction risk and monitoring external conditions.

  7. Monitoring underground gas storage for seismic risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Francesco Luigi; Picotti, Vincenzo; Antonellini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Temporary gas storage facilities play a fundamental role in the design of energy supply. The evaluation and recognition of induced seismicity, geodetic displacements and wellbores damages are their main associated risks that should be minimized for a safe management of these facilities, especially in densely populated areas. Injection and withdrawal of gas into/from a porous reservoir generally lead reservoir rocks to deform. Rock deformation is due to variations of the state of stress of rocks, both in the reservoir and the surrounding: subsidence, wellbore damages and induced or activated seismicity are primary consequences of these variations. In this paper we present a case study on induced deformation by an exploited gas reservoir, converted to temporary natural gas storage since 1994, in North-Eastern Italy. The reservoir, composed by 2 independent carbonatic sandstone intervals, approximately 10 meters thick, and 1400 meters deep, has been exploited since 1983, recording a pressure drop of about 16 MPa. The inversion of gas pressure and volume data, together with a 26 year ground displacement dataset monitoring, allow us to define reservoir deformations, modelled by a semi-analytical method based on an equivalent Eshelby's inclusion problem, able to account for mechanical differences between reservoir and surrounding rocks. Stress field changes, and displacement fields around the reservoir and on the ground mainly represent the results of this modelling. A Coulomb Failure Stress analysis, performed by FEA, was applied to define and evaluate the influence of magnitude and shape of stress field changes on rock stability, highlighting rock volumes that mainly suffer stress changes eventually leading to induced/activated earthquakes. The microseismic monitoring provides then the control on failures and their location. The methodology here used provide a solid base for induced or activated seismicity risk assessment: it provides an easy tool to quantify magnitude

  8. Several solutions of remote transmission for state monitoring of bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zong-bao; CHEN Wei-min; ZHU Yong; FU Yu-mei; XU Mou; YANG Hong

    2005-01-01

    The research for remote monitoring of bridges is expected to develop methodologies and tools for collecting state data, monitoring the real-time status of the bridge from distance, and more importantly seeking a best way for remote transmission of bridge monitoring system by comparing the characteristics of each scheme. This paper focuses on the solutions to remote transmission for state monitoring of bridges, which deals with the remote transmission system based on PSTN (Public Service Telephone Network), wireless sensor monitoring system and remote transmission using SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) network. As a result, a combination of wireless sensor monitoring system and the remote sensing system using SDH network is proposed to be the considered way for remote state monitoring of bridges.

  9. Assessment model of dam operation risk based on monitoring data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Although the dams produce remarkable social and economic benefits,the threat made by unsafe dams to the life and property of people who live in the lower river area is un-negligible.Based on the monitoring data which reflect the safety condition of dams,the risk degree concept is proposed and the analysis system and model for evaluating risk degree (rate) are established in this paper by combining the reliability theory and field monitoring data.The analysis method for risk degree is presented based on Bayesian approach.A five-grade risk degree system for dam operation risk and corresponding risk degree is put forward according to the safety condition of dams.The operation risks of four cascade dams on some river are analyzed by the model and approach presented here and the result is adopted by the owner.

  10. Evaluation of Enhanced Risk Monitors for Use on Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Veeramany, Arun; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Ivans, William J.; Coles, Garill A.; Hirt, Evelyn H.

    2016-09-26

    This study provides an overview of the methodology for integrating time-dependent failure probabilities into nuclear power reactor risk monitors. This prototypic enhanced risk monitor (ERM) methodology was evaluated using a hypothetical probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model, generated using a simplified design of a liquid-metal-cooled advanced reactor (AR). Component failure data from industry compilation of failures of components similar to those in the simplified AR model were used to initialize the PRA model. Core damage frequency (CDF) over time were computed and analyzed. In addition, a study on alternative risk metrics for ARs was conducted. Risk metrics that quantify the normalized cost of repairs, replacements, or other operations and management (O&M) actions were defined and used, along with an economic model, to compute the likely economic risk of future actions such as deferred maintenance based on the anticipated change in CDF due to current component condition and future anticipated degradation. Such integration of conventional-risk metrics with alternate-risk metrics provides a convenient mechanism for assessing the impact of O&M decisions on safety and economics of the plant. It is expected that, when integrated with supervisory control algorithms, such integrated-risk monitors will provide a mechanism for real-time control decision-making that ensure safety margins are maintained while operating the plant in an economically viable manner.

  11. Process monitoring to determine electrostatic risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, David E [Affinity Static Control Consulting, LLC 2609 Quanah Drive, Round Rock, TX 78681 (United States)], E-mail: deswenson@affinity-esd.com

    2008-12-01

    Designing a factory electrostatic discharge (ESD) control program requires an understanding of all the processes where unprotected ESD susceptible items are handled either manually or by machine. Human handling aspects are generally understood and control procedures where people are involved are commonly implemented with great care. Personnel grounding systems, monitors, and the like, are installed in order to make sure that personnel do not accumulate and transfer electrostatic charge that could damage sensitive parts during handling or assembly operations. However, the ability to determine what is occurring inside of process equipment has not been particularly easy up to now. Equipment is now available that allows the measurement and recording of electrical field information inside of many process tools. One of the goals of this work is to be able to characterize equipment as capable of handling parts susceptible to specific levels that may be related to component part sensitivity.

  12. Past Quantum States of a Monitored System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    A density matrix ρ(t) yields probabilistic information about the outcome of measurements on a quantum system. We introduce here the past quantum state, which, at time T, accounts for the state of a quantum system at earlier times tstate Ξ(t) is composed of two objects, ρ......(t) and E(t), conditioned on the dynamics and the probing of the system until t and in the time interval [t, T], respectively. The past quantum state is characterized by its ability to make better predictions for the unknown outcome of any measurement at t than the conventional quantum state at that time....... On the one hand, our formalism shows how smoothing procedures for estimation of past classical signals by a quantum probe [M. Tsang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 250403 (2009)] apply also to describe the past state of the quantum system itself. On the other hand, it generalizes theories of pre- and postselected...

  13. Jaguar surveying and monitoring in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie

    2016-06-10

    Because of the jaguar’s (Panthera onca) endangered status under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 throughout its range (from Arizona in the north to Argentina in the south), jaguar individuals and populations are monitored to varying degrees throughout their range. Knowledge gained from monitoring jaguars is helpful for wildlife managers who are responsible for conserving this species. The University of Arizona (UA) has conducted a multiyear surveying and monitoring effort for jaguars and ocelots in southern Arizona and New Mexico. The purpose of this work was to establish an effective surveying and monitoring system for jaguars along the United States-Mexico border. Surveying and monitoring in this study focused on the United States side of the border, but the methods could also be used in Mexico. The intent was to develop and implement a surveying and monitoring system that would provide the greatest probability of recording jaguar presence in, and passage through, the border area.

  14. Monitoring of Credit Risk through the Cycle: Risk Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Yashkir, Olga; Yashkir, Yuriy

    2013-01-01

    The new Credit Risk Indicator (CRI) based on credit rating migration matrices is introduced. We demonstrate strong correlation between CRI and a number of defaults through several business cycles. The new model for the simulation of the annual number of defaults, based on the 1st quarter CRI data, is proposed.

  15. Predicting High Risk Adolescents' Substance Use over Time: The Role of Parental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Hanley, Sean

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether parental monitoring at baseline predicted subsequent substance use in a high-risk youth population. Students in 14 alternative high schools in Washington State completed self-report surveys at three time points over the course of 2 years. Primary analyses included 1,423 students aged 14-20 who lived with at least one parent or…

  16. Predicting High Risk Adolescents' Substance Use over Time: The Role of Parental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Hanley, Sean

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether parental monitoring at baseline predicted subsequent substance use in a high-risk youth population. Students in 14 alternative high schools in Washington State completed self-report surveys at three time points over the course of 2 years. Primary analyses included 1,423 students aged 14-20 who lived with at least one parent or…

  17. Risk-Adjusted Control Charts for Health Care Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Albers

    2011-01-01

    the distribution involved is negative binomial. However, in health care monitoring, (groups of patients will often belong to different risk categories. In the present paper, we will show how information about category membership can be used to adjust the basic negative binomial charts to the actual risk incurred. Attention is also devoted to comparing such conditional charts to their unconditional counterparts. The latter do take possible heterogeneity into account but refrain from risk-adjustment. Note that in the risk adjusted case several parameters are involved, which will all be typically unknown. Hence, the potentially considerable estimation effects of the new charts will be investigated as well.

  18. [Entomological monitoring of an area to assess Dirofilaria transmission risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushkina, L A; Rakova, V M; Ivanova, I B; Supriaga, V G; Sergiev, V P

    2014-01-01

    As the basis for entomological monitoring, the authors first propose to investigate the structure of a season of D. repens invasion transmission in the carrier in relation to the ambient temperature, such as onset of a transmission season, terminaton of mosquito infection, the number of invasion circulations. A calculating procedure has been developed. It is shown that there is a need for entomological monitoring of each specific area irrespective of the latitude to study a risk for local dirofilariasis cases.

  19. Flight Crew State Monitoring Metrics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — eSky will develop specific crew state metrics based on the timeliness, tempo and accuracy of pilot inputs required by the H-mode Flight Control System (HFCS)....

  20. An Updated Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coles, Garill A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonebrake, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivans, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wootan, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment, as AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results on augmenting an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors that integrate real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors. Methods to propagate uncertainty through the enhanced risk monitor are evaluated. Available data to quantify the level of uncertainty and the POF of key components are examined for their relevance, and a status update of this data evaluation is described. Finally, we describe potential targets for developing new risk metrics that may be useful for studying trade-offs for economic

  1. Monitoring challenges: A closer look at parental monitoring, maternal psychopathology, and adolescent sexual risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Wendy; Hunter, Heather L.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Lescano, Celia; Thompson, Ariel; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study sought to examine associations between maternal psychopathology, parental monitoring, and adolescent sexual activity among adolescents in mental health treatment. Method Seven hundred and ninety mother-adolescent dyads recruited from adolescent mental health treatment settings completed audio computer-assisted structured interview assessments examining parent psychiatric symptoms, parental monitoring, and adolescent sexual risk behavior. Path analysis was used to examine the associations between variables of interest. Results Maternal caregivers who reported more mental health symptoms were more likely to have adolescents who reported recent sex and this relationship was mediated by less parental monitoring. Conclusions These findings suggest that maternal caregivers with mental health symptoms may need specific interventions that provide assistance and support in monitoring their teens in order to reduce sexual risk taking among adolescents in mental health treatment. PMID:21417519

  2. 20 CFR 653.108 - State agency self-monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are from MSFW backgrounds, or (2) who speak Spanish or other languages of a significant proportion of... MSFW Monitor Advocate. The State Administrator shall inform farmworker organizations and other... compensation as approved by the civil service classification system and be comparable to other State...

  3. Risk and monitoring based indicators of receiving water status: alternative or complementary elements in IWRM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, J; Richter, S; Borchardt, D; Mohaupt, V

    2013-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) was enacted in the year 2000 with a stepwise approach. After legal implementation in the various member states large efforts were undertaken for the initial characterization of water bodies, risk assessment, to implement extensive monitoring schemes and to develop management plans at different aggregation levels by the year 2010. The initial characterization process and risk assessment had to be finalized by 2004 and delineated water bodies including a typological classification and identified the significant pressures and impacts in a screening procedure. In parallel, monitoring programmes and new biological indicator systems were developed in order to proof and refine the results of the risk assessment with an ecological indicator based assessment in a subsequent step which was finalized in 2009. Although the risk assessment for Germany was based on existing data that were originally collected for other purposes and came from a large variety of environmental or economical sectors, the results differ only slightly from the monitoring and indicator based information with respect to classifications of the 'ecological status' and 'chemical status'. From this result we conclude that a risk assessment based on a careful application and intelligent combination of existing data sources with proven quality allows the recognition of trends and the identification of priorities for action of measures already at an early stage of a management process. However, monitoring schemes and advanced sets of ecological indicators are essential in later management steps both for narrowing uncertainties remaining from the risk assessment and to allow for effect controls of implemented measures. Moreover, these monitoring indicators should differentiate the effects of multiple stressors more factor specific and with respect to ecosystem states and functions. In conclusion, we see risk and indicator based assessments as complementary elements

  4. Runtime Monitoring Composite Web Services Through Stateful Aspect Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Huang; Guo-Quan Wu; Jun Wei

    2009-01-01

    The execution of composite Web services with WS-BPEL relies on externally autonomous Web services. This implies the need to constantly monitor the running behavior of the involved parties. Moreover, monitoring the execution of composite Web services for particular patterns is critical to enhance the reliability of the processes. In this paper,we propose an aspect-oriented framework as a solution to provide monitoring and recovery support for composite Web services. In particular, this framework includes 1) a stateful aspect based template, where history-based pointcut specifies patterns of interest cannot be violated within a range, while advice specifies the associated recovery action; 2) a tool support for runtime monitoring and recovery based on aspect-oriented execution environment. Our experiments indicate that the proposed monitoring approach incurs minimal overhead and is efficient.

  5. Monitoring of newborns at high risk for brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Pisani, Francesco; Spagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing number of surviving preterm newborns and to the recognition of therapeutic hypothermia as the current gold standard in newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, there has been a growing interest in the implementation of brain monitoring tools in newborns at high risk for neurological disorders. Among the most frequent neurological conditions and presentations in the neonatal period, neonatal seizures and neonatal status epilepticus, paroxysmal non-epileptic motor p...

  6. Monitoring for the management of disease risk in animal translocation programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Grand, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring is best viewed as a component of some larger programme focused on science or conservation. The value of monitoring is determined by the extent to which it informs the parent process. Animal translocation programmes are typically designed to augment or establish viable animal populations without changing the local community in any detrimental way. Such programmes seek to minimize disease risk to local wild animals, to translocated animals, and in some cases to humans. Disease monitoring can inform translocation decisions by (1) providing information for state-dependent decisions, (2) assessing progress towards programme objectives, and (3) permitting learning in order to make better decisions in the future. Here we discuss specific decisions that can be informed by both pre-release and post-release disease monitoring programmes. We specify state variables and vital rates needed to inform these decisions. We then discuss monitoring data and analytic methods that can be used to estimate these state variables and vital rates. Our discussion is necessarily general, but hopefully provides a basis for tailoring disease monitoring approaches to specific translocation programmes.

  7. Technical Report on Preliminary Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coles, Garill A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.

    2013-09-17

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. AdvSMRs may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors (LWRs) and SMRs based on integral pressurized water reactor concepts currently being considered. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment. AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors. Some of this loss can be recovered through reduced capital costs through smaller size, fewer components, modular fabrication processes, and the opportunity for modular construction. However, the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments that are a step towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results from an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors by integrating real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors.

  8. A risk-adjusted O-E CUSUM with monitoring bands for monitoring medical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rena Jie; Kalbfleisch, John D

    2013-03-01

    In order to monitor a medical center's survival outcomes using simple plots, we introduce a risk-adjusted Observed-Expected (O-E) Cumulative SUM (CUSUM) along with monitoring bands as decision criterion.The proposed monitoring bands can be used in place of a more traditional but complicated V-shaped mask or the simultaneous use of two one-sided CUSUMs. The resulting plot is designed to simultaneously monitor for failure time outcomes that are "worse than expected" or "better than expected." The slopes of the O-E CUSUM provide direct estimates of the relative risk (as compared to a standard or expected failure rate) for the data being monitored. Appropriate rejection regions are obtained by controlling the false alarm rate (type I error) over a period of given length. Simulation studies are conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. A case study is carried out for 58 liver transplant centers. The use of CUSUM methods for quality improvement is stressed.

  9. Three State-of-the-Art Methods for Condition Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelius, H.T.; Meiler, P.P.; Maas, H.L.M.M.; Bonnier, B.; Grevink, J.S.; Kuilenburg, R.F. van

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three different state-of-the-art condition monitoring techniques: first principles, feature extraction, and neural networks. The focus of the paper is on the application of the techniques, not on the underlying theory. Each technique is described briefly and is acco

  10. Prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Sausan El Burai; Mack, Karin

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the late 1990s, the number of opioid analgesic overdose deaths has quadrupled in the United States of America (from 4 030 deaths in 1999 to 16 651 in 2010). The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the problem of prescription drug overdose in the United States and to discuss actions that could help reduce the problem, with particular attention to the characteristics of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). These programs consist of state-level databases that monitor controlled substances. The information compiled in the databases is at the disposal of authorized persons (e.g., physicians, pharmacists, and other health-care providers) and may be used only for professional purposes. Suppliers can use such information to prevent interaction with other drugs or therapeutic duplication, or to identify drug-search behavior. Law enforcement agencies can use these programs to identify improper drug prescription or dispensing patterns, or drug diversion. PMID:25563153

  11. Hydrothermal monitoring data from the Cascade Range, northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Gelwick, Katrina D.; Randolph-Flagg, Noah G.; Crankshaw, Ilana M.; Lundstrom, Elizabeth A.; McCulloch, Callum L.; Murveit, Anna M.; Newman, Alice C.; Mariner, Robert H.; Bergfeld, D.; Tucker, Dave S.; Schmidt, Mariek E.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Mosbrucker, Adam; Evans, William C.

    2013-01-01

    This database serves as a repository for hydrothermal-monitoring data collected at 25 sites in the U.S. portion of the Cascade Range volcanic arc. These data are intended to quantify baseline hydrothermal variability at most (10 of 12) of the highest-risk volcanoes in the Cascades, as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS’) National Volcanic Early Warning System (NVEWS) report (Ewert and others, 2005).

  12. Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Yvonne

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical risk management (CRM plays a crucial role in enabling hospitals to identify, contain, and manage risks related to patient safety. So far, no instruments are available to measure and monitor the level of implementation of CRM. Therefore, our objective was to develop an instrument for assessing CRM in hospitals. Methods The instrument was developed based on a literature review, which identified key elements of CRM. These elements were then discussed with a panel of patient safety experts. A theoretical model was used to describe the level to which CRM elements have been implemented within the organization. Interviews with CRM practitioners and a pilot evaluation were conducted to revise the instrument. The first nationwide application of the instrument (138 participating Swiss hospitals was complemented by in-depth interviews with 25 CRM practitioners in selected hospitals, for validation purposes. Results The monitoring instrument consists of 28 main questions organized in three sections: 1 Implementation and organizational integration of CRM, 2 Strategic objectives and operational implementation of CRM at hospital level, and 3 Overview of CRM in different services. The instrument is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian. It allows hospitals to gather comprehensive and systematic data on their CRM practice and to identify areas for further improvement. Conclusions We have developed an instrument for assessing development stages of CRM in hospitals that should be feasible for a continuous monitoring of developments in this important area of patient safety.

  13. Linking indices for biodiversity monitoring to extinction risk theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael A; Moore, Alana L; Krauss, Jochen; Morgan, John W; Clements, Christopher F

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity indices often combine data from different species when used in monitoring programs. Heuristic properties can suggest preferred indices, but we lack objective ways to discriminate between indices with similar heuristics. Biodiversity indices can be evaluated by determining how well they reflect management objectives that a monitoring program aims to support. For example, the Convention on Biological Diversity requires reporting about extinction rates, so simple indices that reflect extinction risk would be valuable. We developed 3 biodiversity indices that are based on simple models of population viability that relate extinction risk to abundance. We based the first index on the geometric mean abundance of species and the second on a more general power mean. In a third index, we integrated the geometric mean abundance and trend. These indices require the same data as previous indices, but they also relate directly to extinction risk. Field data for butterflies and woodland plants and experimental studies of protozoan communities show that the indices correlate with local extinction rates. Applying the index based on the geometric mean to global data on changes in avian abundance suggested that the average extinction probability of birds has increased approximately 1% from 1970 to 2009.

  14. Moscow State University near-Earth radiation monitoring satellite system: current status and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Radiation measurements using instruments have been designed and manufacturing in the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University and installed onboard different satellites,i.e. LEO -"Meteor", ISS, GPS - GLONASS, GEO - "Electro" are presented as a basis of radiation monitoring system for control of radiation condition with a goal for to decrease radiation risk of spacecraft's damage on different orbits. Development of this system including radiation measurements onboard "Lomonosov"(LEO) satellite will be presented as well together with future project of multispacecraft LEO system for radiation monitoring.

  15. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described...

  16. AVALANCHES - EXTREME WINTER EVENTS. MONITORING AND AVALANCHE RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NARCISA MILIAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the avalanches monitored by the National Meteorological Administration within the nivo-meteorological program since february 2004. Daily observations and weekly snow measurements are made at the weather stations from Bucegi Mountains - Vârful Omu (2504 m, Sinaia (1500 m şi Predeal (1100m and Făgăraş Mountains – Bâlea-Lac (2055m, to provide data for avalanche risk estimation using the european avalanche danger scale. Increasing winter sport activities had led to several avalanche accidents, some of them fatal.

  17. Monitoring of sport participation and injury risk in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Frisch, Anne; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Careful modulation of training characteristics in high-level sports optimizes performance and avoids inappropriate workloads and associated sports injury risk. The aims of this study were to compare sport participation characteristics in different youth sport categories and to investigate their relationship with injury. Prospective cohort follow-up. Young (12-19 years) high-level athletes (n=154) from a regional sport school were followed during 41 weeks regarding sport participation characteristics and traumatic and overuse sports injuries (time-loss definition). All data were self-recorded by the athletes in an electronic system "TIPPS" (Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports) and subject to a systematic data quality control. Volume and intensity (self-rated perceived exertion) of each sport session were used to compute weekly load, monotony and strain. Sport categories were defined as team, racket, and individual sports. All sport participation characteristics were dependent on sport category (psports were associated with lower injury risk (HR=0.37 and 0.34, p=0.001 and psports. Average sport participation characteristics were not related to injury according to the survival analysis. However, intensity during the week prior to injury was significantly higher (psport participation pattern and injury risk in young athletes. The monitoring method was sensitive to variations according to pertinent variables and might help identify athletes with increased sports injury risk. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The future of monitoring in clinical research - a holistic approach: linking risk-based monitoring with quality management principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Eva B; Hecht, Arthur; Henn, Doris K; Leptien, Sabine; Stelzer, Hans Günther

    2013-01-01

    Since several years risk-based monitoring is the new "magic bullet" for improvement in clinical research. Lots of authors in clinical research ranging from industry and academia to authorities are keen on demonstrating better monitoring-efficiency by reducing monitoring visits, monitoring time on site, monitoring costs and so on, always arguing with the use of risk-based monitoring principles. Mostly forgotten is the fact, that the use of risk-based monitoring is only adequate if all mandatory prerequisites at site and for the monitor and the sponsor are fulfilled.Based on the relevant chapter in ICH GCP (International Conference on Harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use - Good Clinical Practice) this publication takes a holistic approach by identifying and describing the requirements for future monitoring and the use of risk-based monitoring. As the authors are operational managers as well as QA (Quality Assurance) experts, both aspects are represented to come up with efficient and qualitative ways of future monitoring according to ICH GCP.

  19. VIDEOR: cultural heritage risk assessment and monitoring on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Antonio; Dore, Nicole; Giovagnoli, Annamaria; Cacace, C.

    2016-08-01

    Cultural heritage is constantly threatened by several factors, such as anthropic activities (e.g. urbanization, pollution) and natural events (e.g. landslides, subsidence) that compromise cultural assets conservation and integrity over time. Italy is the country with the highest number of UNESCO cultural and natural World Heritage sites (51) containing both monuments and archaeological assets of global significance that need to be preserved for future generations, as declared and requested both by UNESCO and the European Commission. VIDEOR, the first web-service completely dedicated to cultural heritage, arises as support tool to institutions and organisations responsible of CH safeguard, with the goal to guarantee a constant and continuous monitoring of cultural assets considered to be at risk. Thanks to its services, VIDEOR allows a periodic situation evaluation, performed with the use of satellite remote sensing data (both optical and SAR) and aerial platform remote sensing data (UAVs), these last used when satellites identify a critical situation that requires deeper analyses. This constant and periodic monitoring will allow not only always updated information about the asset health status, but also early warnings launched by the operative center (NAIS) directly to experts of the responsible institutions (ISCR) after risk identification. The launch of early warnings will be essential for triggering promptly activities of preventive restoration, a less expensive way of intervention if compared to the post-event restoration, both in economic terms and in terms of historical preservation of a country.

  20. SAFETY ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT FOR BRIDGES HEALTH MONITORING WITH MONTE CARLO METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing requirements of building safety in the past few decades, healthy monitoring and risk assessment of structures is of more and more importance. Especially since traffic loads are heavier, risk Assessment for bridges are essential. In this paper we take advantage of Monte Carlo Methods to analysis the safety of bridge and monitoring the destructive risk. One main goal of health monitoring is to reduce the risk of unexpected damage of artificial objects

  1. Structural health monitoring of bridges in the State of Connecticut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengyin Liu; Joshua Olund; Alan Cardini; Paul D'Attilio; Erie Feldblum; John DeWolf

    2008-01-01

    A joint effort between the Connecticut Department of Transportation and the University of Connecticut has been underway for more than 20 years to utilize various structural monitoring approaches to assess different bridges in Connecticut.This has been done to determine the performance of existing bridges,refine techniques needed to evaluate different bridge components,and develop approaches that can be used to provide a continuous status of a bridge's structural integrity,This paper briefly introduces the background of these studies,with emphasis on recent research and the development of structural health monitoring concepts.This paper presents the results from three different bridge types:a post-tensioned curved concrete box girder bridge,a curved steel box-girder bridge,and a steel multi-girder bridge.The structural health monitoring approaches to be discussed have been successfully tested using field data collected during multi-year monitoring periods,and are based on vibrations,rotations and strains.The goal has been to develop cost-effective strategies to provide critical information needed to manage the State of Connecticut's bridge infrastructure.

  2. Monitoring cryptic amphibians and reptiles in a Florida state park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Richard M; Meshaka, Walter E; Severson, Robert; Severson, Mary Ann; Kaufman, Greg; Groninger, N Paige; Smith, Henry T

    2016-04-01

    We monitored cryptic herpetofauna at Savannas Preserve State Park, Florida, by combining artificial cover counts with a quantitative paradigm for constructing and calculating population indices. Weekly indices were calculated from two consecutive days of data collection each week for 7 months from mid-winter to mid-summer in three habitats. Seventeen species were observed at least once, and time trends using index values were followed for six species. Among these, abundance and seasonal pattern information were obtained for an exotic species (greenhouse frog) and a species identified by the Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals as threatened (Florida scrub lizard). We identified winter as the optimal time in this area to monitor populations for conducting annual assessments. This combined observation and indexing approach could provide managers or researchers with an economical means to quantitatively index population trends for multiple cryptic herpetofauna species simultaneously. Using artificial cover to sample within a population indexing design can be generalized beyond monitoring herpetofauna. Other forms of artificial cover that can be used as observation stations include aquatic artificial substrates, artificial tree cavities, artificial reefs, and other artificial aquatic structures and artificial sea grass units, among many others, and a wide range of taxa are suitable for population monitoring using artificial cover as observation stations in the approach we present, including insects, soil invertebrates, micro and macro aquatic invertebrates, fish, crustaceans, and small mammals.

  3. Monitoring risk: post marketing surveillance and signal detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Richard C

    2009-12-01

    The primary goal of postmarketing surveillance is to provide information for risk assessment of a drug. Drugs affecting the central nervous system form a unique group of products for surveillance because they are often misused, abused, and diverted. These medications include opioid analgesics, stimulants, sedative-hypnotics, muscle relaxants, anticonvulsants and other drug classes. Their adverse events are difficult to monitor because the perpetrator often attempts to conceal the misuse, abuse and diversion of the product. A postmarketing surveillance system for prescription drugs of abuse in the U.S. should include product specific information that is accurate, immediately available, geographically specific and includes all areas of the country. Most producers of branded opioid analgesic products have created systems that measure abuse from multiple vantage points: criminal justice, treatment professionals, susceptible patient populations and acute health events. In the past, the U.S. government has not established similar requirements for the same products produced by generic manufacturers. However, the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 includes generic opioid analgesic products by requiring that all products containing potent opioid drugs perform rigorous surveillance and risk management. While general risk management guidance has been developed by FDA, more specific analyses and guidance are needed to improve surveillance methodology for drugs which are misused, abused, diverted.

  4. Monitoring alert and drowsy states by modeling EEG source nonstationarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Hsiou; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2017-10-01

    monitoring cognitive or mental states of human operators in attention-critical settings or in passive brain-computer interfaces.

  5. Solid-state, resistive hydrogen sensors for safety monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.; Fleming, P.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Nave, S.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Solid-state, resistive hydrogen sensors have been designed and fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Sensor response has been successfully tested with H{sub 2} gas in argon and air under ambient temperature and pressure, while immersed in transformer oil at temperatures between 25{degrees}C and 90{degrees}C, and under site-specific conditions at Westinghouse Savannah River Co. Current versions of the sensors (25 {times} 25 {times} 0.6 mm) are small enough to be incorporated into hand-held leak detectors or distributed sensor systems for safety monitoring throughout a large area. Another foreseeable application is in electrical power transformers where the buildup of hydrogen gas accompanies oil breakdown. The use of these sensors to monitor transformer oil changes could help predict and prevent catastrophic failure.

  6. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Yeong Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m3, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10−4 (central tendency exposure and 0.56 × 10−4 (reasonable maximum exposure, which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10−4. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed.

  7. Sea state monitoring using coastal GNSS-R

    CERN Document Server

    Soulat, F; Germain, O; Lopez-Dekker, P; Taani, M; Ruffini, G

    2004-01-01

    We report on a coastal experiment to study GPS L1 reflections. The campaign was carried out at the Barcelona Port breaker and dedicated to the development of sea-state retrieval algorithms. An experimental system built for this purpose collected and processed GPS data to automatically generate a times series of the interferometric complex field (ICF). The ICF was analyzed off line and compared to a simple developed model that relates ICF coherence time to the ratio of significant wave height (SWH) and mean wave period (MWP). The analysis using this model showed good consistency between the ICF coherence time and nearby oceanographic buoy data. Based on this result, preliminary conclusions are drawn on the potential of coastal GNSS-R for sea state monitoring using semi-empirical modeling to relate GNSS-R ICF coherence time to SWH.

  8. Technical Needs for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Equipment Condition Assessment for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Berglin, Eric J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2013-04-04

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can provide the United States with a safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The controllable day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operation and maintenance costs. Health and condition assessment coupled with online risk monitors can potentially enhance affordability of aSMRs through optimized operational planning and maintenance scheduling. Currently deployed risk monitors are an extension of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For complex engineered systems like nuclear power plants, PRA systematically combines event likelihoods and the probability of failure (POF) of key components, so that when combined with the magnitude of possible adverse consequences to determine risk. Traditional PRA uses population-based POF information to estimate the average plant risk over time. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a PRA that reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant; this model is updated periodically, typically once a year. Risk monitors expand on living PRA by incorporating changes in the day-by-day plant operation and configuration (e.g., changes in equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions). However, population-based POF (or population- and time-based POF) is still used to populate fault trees. Health monitoring techniques can be used to establish condition indicators and monitoring capabilities that indicate the component-specific POF at a desired point in time (or over a desired period), which can then be incorporated in the risk monitor to provide a more accurate estimate of the plant risk in different configurations. This is particularly important for active systems, structures, and components (SSCs) proposed for use in aSMR designs. These SSCs may differ significantly from those used in the operating fleet of light-water reactors (or even in LWR-based SMR designs). Additionally, the operating characteristics of aSMRs can present significantly different

  9. Risk analysis of brucelosis in the state of Tlaxcala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    García-Juárez, Guillermina; Ramírez-Bribiesca, J Efrén; Hernández-Vázquez, Maricela; Hernández-Calva, Luz Marina; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Orozco-Bolaños, Hermila

    2014-01-01

    To identify the risk of brucellosis in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico. A diagnosis of social type was conducted in the municipalities of Huamantla, Ixtenco and Teacalco, located in the eastern region of the state...

  10. The drought risk atlas: Enhancing decision support for drought risk management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Mark D.; Fuchs, Brian A.; Poulsen, Chris C.; Nothwehr, Jeff R.

    2015-07-01

    Decision makers have continuously asked for better tools and resources to help them assess their risks related to climate variability and extremes. Drought is one of the risks they face, and the need for better drought risk tools and resources has also been expressed. With drought continuing to be one of the most problematic and costly natural disasters within the United States, and building on the work of the original National Drought Atlas (NDA) (1996), an updated and expanded Drought Risk Atlas (DRA) decision support tool for the United States was developed and is housed at the National Drought Mitigation Center. The DRA (1) provides weekly calculations of multiple indices/indicators, with more than a billion records made freely available, including the SPI, SPEI, PDSI, scPDSI, Deciles and U.S. Drought Monitor; (2) houses more than 3000 stations with data through 2012, nearly tripling the station count of the original NDA; (3) utilizes a much longer period of record, nearly double that of the NDA in most cases; (4) when fully completed, will house a cache of more than 500,000 gridded drought index maps; (5) will allow us to analyze and assess trends and various characteristics of drought, including frequency, intensity, duration and magnitude; (6) will become a resource for the National Weather Service (NWS) personnel around the country by transferring the application into the field through integration within the NWS's newly developed Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT); and (7) work directly with the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) program office to include the information contained in the DRA into NIDIS's regional drought early warning system pilot basins and the U.S. Drought Portal for broad dissemination to the user community and general public.

  11. State awareness, risk awareness and calibration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    State awareness is a new principle in the advanced vision of Sustainable Safety. In contrast with the three original principles, state awareness focuses on the role of the individual in the prevention of crashes and/or injury. State awareness means knowing what you are capable of – how good do you t

  12. State awareness, risk awareness and calibration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    State awareness is a new principle in the advanced vision of Sustainable Safety. In contrast with the three original principles, state awareness focuses on the role of the individual in the prevention of crashes and/or injury. State awareness means knowing what you are capable of – how good do you

  13. Linking Indices for Biodiversity Monitoring to Extinction Risk Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, Michael A; Moore, Alana L; Krauss, Jochen; Morgan, John W; Clements, Christopher F

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity indices often combine data from different species when used in monitoring programs. Heuristic properties can suggest preferred indices, but we lack objective ways to discriminate between indices with similar heuristics. Biodiversity indices can be evaluated by determining how well they reflect management objectives that a monitoring program aims to support. For example, the Convention on Biological Diversity requires reporting about extinction rates, so simple indices that reflect extinction risk would be valuable. We developed 3 biodiversity indices that are based on simple models of population viability that relate extinction risk to abundance. We based the first index on the geometric mean abundance of species and the second on a more general power mean. In a third index, we integrated the geometric mean abundance and trend. These indices require the same data as previous indices, but they also relate directly to extinction risk. Field data for butterflies and woodland plants and experimental studies of protozoan communities show that the indices correlate with local extinction rates. Applying the index based on the geometric mean to global data on changes in avian abundance suggested that the average extinction probability of birds has increased approximately 1% from 1970 to 2009. Conectando Índices para el Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad con la Teoría de Riesgo de Extinción Resumen Los índices de biodiversidad combinan frecuentemente los datos de diferentes especies cuando se usan en los programas de monitoreo. Las propiedades heurísticas pueden sugerir índices preferidos, pero carecemos de medios objetivos para discriminar a los índices con propiedades heurísticas similares. Los índices de biodiversidad pueden evaluarse al determinar qué tan bien reflejan los objetivos de manejo que un programa de monitoreo busca apoyar. Por ejemplo, la Convención sobre la Diversidad Biológica requiere reportar las tasas de extinción, así que los

  14. Monitoring of regional labour markets in European states

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Der Reader gibt einen Überblick über die europäische Diskussion zum Monitoring in regionalen Arbeitsmärkten. Teil 1 stellt verschiedene Projekte vor, zum einen landesweite Monitoring-Projekte, zum anderen regionale Monitoring-Projekte. Teil 2 bezieht sich auf Monitoring-Projekte zu einzelnen Arbeitsmarktaspekten (Weiterbildung, Statistik) bzw. -personengruppen (Ältere, Jugendliche, Pendler). Der dritte Teil fragt nach den zukünftigen Entwicklungen und Perspektiven des Monitoring und nach der ...

  15. Evidence-based medical perspectives: the evolving role of PSA for early detection, monitoring of treatment response, and as a surrogate end point of efficacy for interventions in men with different clinical risk states for the prevention and progression of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Following FDA approval and introduction into the clinic in the mid-1980s, PSA testing has become arguably the most versatile serum tumor marker in urologic oncology with clinical use for early detection (screening) of prostate cancer (PC), risk stratification for clinical staging, prognosis, intermediate biomarker for monitoring tumor recurrence, and more recently as an intermediate biomarker for assessing therapeutic response to antiandrogens, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. PSA now routinely guides health care providers for the clinical management of PC over a wide range of clinical risk states for men at risk of PC, after local definitive therapy and after systemic therapy to prevent progression to metastatic bone disease, and to palliate men with hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). To further assess the evidence that supports these clinical applications, this commentary reviews and critically evaluates the emerging body of new data focusing on several recently published seminal articles by D'Amico et al and Thompson et al, the new National Comprehensive Cancer Network 2004 recommendations for starting PSA testing at the age of 40 years old, the latest results from 2 phase 3 randomized, controlled trials of taxane-based regimens showing improved survival for men with HRPC, and the recent US FDA Public Workshop on Clinical Trial Endpoints in Prostate Cancer that helped to distill and synthesize the current state of the art and the progress toward validation of PSA metrics (eg, PSA velocity) as a surrogate end point (SE) for treatment efficacy with taxane-based regimens. Furthermore, several randomized, controlled chemoprevention trials in progress evaluating agents such as selenium and vitamin E in high-risk cohorts are well poised to confirm the validity of PSA as an SE for clinical efficacy for the prevention and progression of PC. Although there continues to be a need to validate better biomarkers before diagnosis of PC (more sensitive and specific

  16. Monitoring and validating active site redox states in protein crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Hough, Michael A

    2011-06-01

    High resolution protein crystallography using synchrotron radiation is one of the most powerful tools in modern biology. Improvements in resolution have arisen from the use of X-ray beamlines with higher brightness and flux and the development of advanced detectors. However, it is increasingly recognised that the benefits brought by these advances have an associated cost, namely deleterious effects of X-ray radiation on the sample (radiation damage). In particular, X-ray induced reduction and damage to redox centres has been shown to occur much more rapidly than other radiation damage effects, such as loss of resolution or damage to disulphide bridges. Selection of an appropriate combination of in-situ single crystal spectroscopies during crystallographic experiments, such as UV-visible absorption and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAFS), allows for effective monitoring of redox states in protein crystals in parallel with structure determination. Such approaches are also essential in cases where catalytic intermediate species are generated by exposure to the X-ray beam. In this article, we provide a number of examples in which multiple single crystal spectroscopies have been key to understanding the redox status of Fe and Cu centres in crystal structures. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Structure and Function in the Crystalline State.

  17. Intelligent monitoring of Aedes aegypti in a rural area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argemiro Sanavria

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this research was to monitor the presence of females of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 on the Seropédica municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, from 2010 to 2013. For this purpose, the Intelligent Dengue Monitoring (IM-Dengue and Intelligent Virus Monitoring (IM-Virus developed by Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (Ecovec – Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used. IM-Dengue is a tool that allows achieving a weekly overview of A. aegypti infestation, while IM-Virus is another tool that allows detecting dengue virus directly from the mosquito, by Real Time-PCR. Both tools were developed for diagnosis in a prepathogenesis period of the disease, before infection occurrence. Traps were distributed in 19 locations inside the municipality and the bugs were collected weekly during the years of the research. As a result, the presence of 163 females of A. aegypti was recorded over the period; there was no circulation of the virus in the municipality. In one of the 19 study sites, a high degree of disease transmission risk was verified. The study concluded that the municipality, as a whole, showed no risk of disease transmission throughout the field research period.

  18. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  19. Examining the relationship between adolescent sexual risk-taking and perceptions of monitoring, communication, and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Angela J; Howell, Laurie W

    2003-08-01

    To examine the relationship between adolescent sexual risk-taking and perception of parental monitoring, frequency of parent-adolescent communication, and parenting style. The influences of gender, age, and ethnicity are also of interest. Data were collected from 7th-12th grade students in six rural, ethnically diverse school located in adjacent counties in a Southeastern state. A 174-item instrument assessed adolescent perceptions, behaviors and attitudes. Youth who had engaged in sexual intercourse (n = 1160) were included in the analyses. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify parenting practices that predicted high versus low-risk sex (defined by number of partners and use of condoms). Variables included parental monitoring, parent-adolescent communication, parenting style, parenting process interaction effects and interaction effects among these three parenting processes and gender, age and ethnicity. Analyses included frequencies, cross-tabulations and logistic regression. Parental monitoring, parental monitoring by parent-adolescent communication and parenting style by ethnicity were significant predictors of sexual risk-taking. No gender or age interactions were noted. Parental monitoring, parent-adolescent communication and parenting style are all important variables to consider when examining sexual risk-taking among adolescents.

  20. Space Monitoring Data Center at Moscow State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Barinova, Vera; Myagkova, Irina; Shugay, Yulia; Barinov, Oleg; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Shiroky, Vladimir

    Space monitoring data center of Moscow State University provides operational information on radiation state of the near-Earth space. Internet portal http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/ gives access to the actual data characterizing the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation conditions in the magnetosphere and heliosphere in the real time mode. Operational data coming from space missions (ACE, GOES, ELECTRO-L1, Meteor-M1) at L1, LEO and GEO and from the Earth’s surface are used to represent geomagnetic and radiation state of near-Earth environment. On-line database of measurements is also maintained to allow quick comparison between current conditions and conditions experienced in the past. The models of space environment working in autonomous mode are used to generalize the information obtained from observations on the whole magnetosphere. Interactive applications and operational forecasting services are created on the base of these models. They automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons using data from LEO orbits. Special forecasting services give short-term forecast of SEP penetration to the Earth magnetosphere at low altitudes, as well as relativistic electron fluxes at GEO. Velocities of recurrent high speed solar wind streams on the Earth orbit are predicted with advance time of 3-4 days on the basis of automatic estimation of the coronal hole areas detected on the images of the Sun received from the SDO satellite. By means of neural network approach, Dst and Kp indices online forecasting 0.5-1.5 hours ahead, depending on solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field, measured by ACE satellite, is carried out. Visualization system allows representing experimental and modeling data in 2D and 3D.

  1. State of terror: women at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Karen Women’s Organisation

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two reports researched and written by the Karen Women’sOrganisation – Shattering Silences in 2004 and State ofTerror in 20071 – document the wide range of humanrights abuses against Burmese women and girls.

  2. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage among pregnant women: pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Singleton, James A; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Harrison, Leslie

    2011-05-01

    Since 2004, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) have recommended that pregnant women receive the seasonal influenza vaccine, regardless of pregnancy trimester, because of their increased risk for severe complications from influenza. However, the uptake of the influenza vaccine by pregnant women has been low. During the 2009-2010 influenza season, pregnant women were identified as a priority population to receive the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (2009 H1N1) monovalent vaccine in addition to the seasonal influenza vaccine. In this issue, we highlight information from the 10 states that collected data using the survey administered by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) about seasonal vaccine coverage among women with recent live births and reasons for those who chose not to get vaccinated. The combined estimates from PRAMS of influenza vaccination coverage for the 2009-2010 season, which included data from October 2009 to March 2010, from 10 states were 50.7% for seasonal and 46.6% for 2009 H1N1 vaccine among women with recent live births. Among women who did not get vaccinated, reasons varied from worries about the safety of the vaccines for self and baby to not normally getting the vaccination. Further evaluation is needed on ways to increase influenza vaccination among pregnant women, effectively communicate the risk of influenza illness during pregnancy, and address women's concerns about influenza vaccination safety during pregnancy.

  3. Real-time Monitoring of our Warfighters Health State: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-05

    time Monitoring of our Warfighters Health State: The Good , The Bad , and The Ugly 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Status Physiological Monitor Concept 98 The GOOD Technologies & a solution framework have been greatly advanced. Health state monitoring is no...Medical Monitoring Telemetry System – In Action Results – Physiology, Real Time Display Th e GO OD The BAD Unique challenges make the creation and

  4. Quantitative breast MRI radiomics for cancer risk assessment and the monitoring of high-risk populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Kayla R.; Li, Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2016-03-01

    Breast density is routinely assessed qualitatively in screening mammography. However, it is challenging to quantitatively determine a 3D density from a 2D image such as a mammogram. Furthermore, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is used more frequently in the screening of high-risk populations. The purpose of our study is to segment parenchyma and to quantitatively determine volumetric breast density on pre-contrast axial DCE-MRI images (i.e., non-contrast) using a semi-automated quantitative approach. In this study, we retroactively examined 3D DCE-MRI images taken for breast cancer screening of a high-risk population. We analyzed 66 cases with ages between 28 and 76 (mean 48.8, standard deviation 10.8). DCE-MRIs were obtained on a Philips 3.0 T scanner. Our semi-automated DCE-MRI algorithm includes: (a) segmentation of breast tissue from non-breast tissue using fuzzy cmeans clustering (b) separation of dense and fatty tissues using Otsu's method, and (c) calculation of volumetric density as the ratio of dense voxels to total breast voxels. We examined the relationship between pre-contrast DCE-MRI density and clinical BI-RADS density obtained from radiology reports, and obtained a statistically significant correlation [Spearman ρ-value of 0.66 (p < 0.0001)]. Our method within precision medicine may be useful for monitoring high-risk populations.

  5. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Self-Efficacy for Limiting Sexual Risk Behavior and Parental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, Mary Ann; Scoloveno, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy for sexual risk behaviors, and parental monitoring in a sample of 140 7th and 9th grade adolescents studying in an urban high school in the United States. Further, the study examined differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy and parental monitoring by grade and gender. This study also investigated the effectiveness of an HIV/AIDS peer education program, Teens for AIDS Prevention (TAP), on improving adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine effects of the peer education program (TAP) on adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. Pearson-product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationships among the variables. Independent t-tests were used to compare adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy, and parental monitoring scores by grade and gender. Paired t-tests were used to determine differences in pre-intervention and post-intervention HIV/AIDS knowledge. The results showed that HIV/AIDS knowledge improved significantly in both 7th and 9th grade students after the intervention. HIV/AIDS knowledge was associated with self-efficacy; however it was not associated with parental monitoring. There were no significant differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge and self-efficacy by gender. However, there was a significant difference in parental monitoring by gender. Pediatric nurses are well-positioned to develop and implement evidence-based programs for adolescents. It is essential that pediatric nurses, in conjunction with other professionals and parent groups, take the initiative in implementing peer education programs in schools and community centers to promote healthy behaviors among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Flexible Employment, Risk and the Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P.S. Dekker (Fabian)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In most developed countries, the welfare state provides some form of protection for its citizens. The provision of social arrangements differs substantially between countries but, on the basis of institutional characteristics such as the level of spending on welfare pro

  7. Flexible Employment, Risk and the Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P.S. Dekker (Fabian)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In most developed countries, the welfare state provides some form of protection for its citizens. The provision of social arrangements differs substantially between countries but, on the basis of institutional characteristics such as the level of spending on welfare pro

  8. Integrative Monitoring of Marine and Freshwater Harmful Algae in Washington State for Public Health Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Trainer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP, domoic acid that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP and the first ever US closure in 2011 due to diarrhetic shellfish toxins that cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP. Likewise, the freshwater toxins microcystins, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsins, and saxitoxins have been measured in state lakes, although cylindrospermopsins have not yet been measured above state regulatory guidance levels. This increased incidence of harmful algal blooms (HABs has necessitated the partnering of state regulatory programs with citizen and user-fee sponsored monitoring efforts such as SoundToxins, the Olympic Region Harmful Algal Bloom (ORHAB partnership and the state’s freshwater harmful algal bloom passive (opportunistic surveillance program that allow citizens to share their observations with scientists. Through such integrated programs that provide an effective interface between formalized state and federal programs and observations by the general public, county staff and trained citizen volunteers, the best possible early warning systems can be instituted for surveillance of known HABs, as well as for the reporting and diagnosis of unusual events that may impact the future health of oceans, lakes, wildlife, and humans.

  9. Earth Observation Tools for Risk Exposure Monitoring: Welcoming Sentinel-2 Data in Risk Assessment Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchi, Daniele; Dell'Acqua, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of different FP7 projects, a set of open-source tools has been developed and refined with the aim to monitor the exposure component in risk assessment. The recent launch of Sentinels 1 and 2 with their open data license attracted a lot of attention in the remote sensing community stimulating new research and applications. To our tools, this meant Open Data feed into Open Source code. The similarity in both spectral and geometric resolutions between Landsat and Sentinel-2 satellites raises good hopes for reusability of the developed tools. In this paper, modifications to the original algorithms will be suggested according to the experiments outcome, in view of a new generation of Open Tools in line with the new Copernicus-aware Earth Observation scenario.

  10. Pay at Risk: Compensation and Employment Risk in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John A., Ed.

    This document's seven papers examine compensation and employment risk in the United States and Canada. "Introduction" (John A. Turner) discusses compensation risk bearing in labor markets. "Wage and Job Risk for Workers" (John A. Turner) explores the problems of macroeconomic instability, job turnover, job and earnings…

  11. Migrants in transit: the importance of monitoring HIV risk among migrant flows at the Mexico-US border

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Sipan, Carol L; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    .... Monitoring HIV risk among this vulnerable transnational population is critical for better understanding patterns of risk at different points of the migration process and for informing the development...

  12. The current state of ototoxicity monitoring in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Lotte; Venter, Kinau; O'Beirne, Greg A; Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca; Gibbs, David; Bird, Philip

    2014-07-18

    To explore medical oncologists' and audiologists' knowledge and attitudes regarding ototoxicity monitoring, and to gain an understanding of monitoring currently being implemented at District Health Boards (DHBs) nationwide. We also aimed to identify ways in which audiological outcomes for patients receiving potentially ototoxic treatments could be improved, including examining whether the formulation and implementation of a national ototoxicity monitoring guideline is necessary. Complementary telephonic interviews were conducted with 16 senior or charge audiologists and seven senior medical oncologists from DHBs across New Zealand, and their responses analysed. Responses indicate a comprehensive understanding of ototoxicity across both disciplines; however there is limited familiarity with ototoxicity monitoring protocols. Patients across New Zealand undergo significantly variable ototoxicity monitoring; local practices range from no routine monitoring to audiological assessment prior to each cycle of chemotherapy. No routine audiological follow up is conducted post completion of treatment at any DHB, in contrast with international guidelines. Twenty-two of 23 participants were in favour of development of a national ototoxicity monitoring guideline. There is significant discrepancy in how ototoxicity monitoring is conducted across New Zealand, and implementation of a national ototoxicity monitoring protocol may improve audiological outcomes for patients receiving ototoxic chemotherapy.

  13. Risk monitoring and early-warning technology of coal mine production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Qing-gui; ZHANG Hua; LIU Ji-kun; LIU Xiao-rong

    2007-01-01

    This article was written according to the security information theory and the security cybernetics basic principle, for reducing the accident risk effectively and safeguarding the production safety in coal mine. First, each kind of risk characteristic has carried on the earnest analysis to the coal-mining production process. Then it proposed entire wrap technology system of the risk management and the risk monitoring early warning in the coal-mining production process, and developed the application software-coal mine risk monitoring and the early warning system which runs on the local area network. The coal-mining production risk monitoring and early warning technology system includes risk information gathering, risk identification and management, risk information transmission;saving and analysis, early warning prompt of accident risk, safety dynamic monitoring, and safety control countermeasure and so on. The article specifies implementation method and step of this technology system, and introduces application situations in cooperating mine enterprise, e.g. Xiezhuang coal mine. It may supply the risk management and the accident prevention work of each kind of mine reference.

  14. Development of intergrated accident management assessment technology; development of interface modules of risk-monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. K.; Park, S. K.; Seok, H.; Kim, D. K.; Han, J. K.; Park, B. R. [KOPEC, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Based on the development of interface modules with FORTE.- DynaRM can quantify risk model very fast (Very frequent risk model quantification is needed for configuration risk management).- risk monitoring system technology transfer to foreign NPPs. Contribution to component failure and maintenance control automation with the development of Tagging control System. On-Line risk monitoring system development by joint team between Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and KOPEC is a request by KEPCO. The softwares developed in this study is easily implemented at domestic NPPs without extra study or cost. Economic benefit and Software export to foreign NPPs are expected because of the development of technology related to risk monitoring system and its management. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  15. 78 FR 48173 - Guidance for Industry on Oversight of Clinical Investigations-A Risk-Based Approach to Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Investigations--A Risk-Based Approach to Monitoring; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... guidance for industry entitled ``Oversight of Clinical Investigations--A Risk-Based Approach to Monitoring.'' This guidance assists sponsors in developing risk-based monitoring strategies and plans for...

  16. Study of Commercial Bank Risk Monitoring Model in Individual Consumption Credit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春红

    2003-01-01

    With the development of individual consumption credit (ICC) in China, commercial banks have been exposed to more and more risks. The loan failure has been an important problem that the banking must face and revolve. This paper develops a factor system to explain how the borrower's risk is affected, and then establishes a risk monitoring model with AHP to pre-warn the banks how much the risk is.

  17. Identification of patients at risk for ischaemic cerebral complications after carotid endarterectomy with TCD monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, J; Naylor, A R; Laman, D M;

    2005-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring for micro embolic signals (MES), directly after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) may identify patients at risk of developing ischaemic complications. In this retrospective multicentre study, this hypothesis was investigated.......Transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring for micro embolic signals (MES), directly after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) may identify patients at risk of developing ischaemic complications. In this retrospective multicentre study, this hypothesis was investigated....

  18. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE COMPLEX FOR FUNCTIONAL STATE MONITORING OF MOTHER AND FETUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Tolmachyov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Text abstract Mother’s and fetus’s health are very important in present time. With timely diagnosis perinatal pathology, birth injuries, antenatal stillbirths and newborn perinatal death can be prevented. At the moment in the world there are no complexes which enable monitoring of the fetus without any risk to his health. So the main aim of this work is development of hardware and software system to assess the functional status of the mother and fetus by the analysis of the signals recorded from the abdominal electrodes.Objectives:1 to formulate the requirements to noninvasive monitoring system and functional state assessment of mother and fetus.2 to develop algorithms and software for monitoring system and functional state assessment of mother and fetus.3 to determine fetus functional state at 32–33 week in women with uncomplicated pregnancies and in women with placental insufficiency in the compensation stage and subcompensation.The system concept is based on fetal heart rate recognition and analysis. Fetal heart rate has been extracted from the mixed signals received from abdominal electrodes. This technique is passive for a body so there is no research time limit. Device for simultaneous registration of fetal and maternal electrocardiogram is high sensitive bioamplifier with low level of intrinsic noises, high input resistance and suppression of inphase noises more than 80 DB. Digital processing of a signal is carried out by microcontroller of the registration module and personal computer. Preprocessing is carried out in microcontroller by receiving signals from the analog-to-digital converter on the increased sampling rate, digital filtering, decimation.With the help of the developed complex two-stage study was conducted. At first stage the fetal cardiointervalogram (i.e. fetus heartbeat period and the distribution pattern of these intervals in time was studied. Second stage was carried out to search additional criteria of fetal

  19. Phytotoxic risk assessment of ambient air pollution on agricultural crops in Selangor State, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, S; Bell, J N B; Marshall, F M

    2007-11-01

    The phytotoxic risk of ambient air pollution to local vegetation was assessed in Selangor State, Malaysia. The AOT40 value was calculated by means of the continuously monitored daily maximum concentration and the local diurnal pattern of O3. Together with minor risks associated with the levels of NO2 and SO2, the study found that the monthly AOT40 values in these peri-urban sites were consistently over 1.0 ppm.h, which is well in exceedance of the given European critical level. Linking the O3 level to actual agricultural crop production in Selangor State also indicated that the extent of yield losses could have ranged from 1.6 to 5.0% (by weight) in 2000. Despite a number of uncertainties, the study showed a simple but useful methodological framework for phytotoxic risk assessment with a limited data set, which could contribute to appropriate policy discussion and countermeasures in countries under similar conditions.

  20. GISMOWA: Geospatial Risk-Based Analysis Identifying Water Quality Monitoring Sites in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sille Lyster; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring water quality in drinking water distribution systems is the basis for proactive approaches to prevent or manage emerging water quality issues, and such a monitoring requires a strategic selection of relevant and representative monitoring sites. GISMOWA is a new GIS and risk......-based analysis tool to identify and prioritize pipe segments for water quality monitoring and to comply with existing monitoring and sampling guidelines. The tool was designed to integrate multiple parameters categorized as (1) hydraulic and structural weaknesses in the system, e.g., residence time; (2) external...... threats, e.g., contaminated sites; and (3) sensitive consumers, e.g., hospitals, in a GIS environment. The tool used a multicriteria decision analysis to evaluate multiple monitoring site parameters and map zones particularly suitable for water quality monitoring. GISMOWA was applied to Danish water...

  1. Credit Monitoring – a Core of Credit Risk Management: Theory and Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevičienė

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Purpose of the article is to identify credit monitoring as a keystone of credit risk management in banks. CRM is widely discussed in scientific literature and in reports of institutions undertaking credit risk or supervisory bodies. However majority of such investigations are based on implementation of numerous quantitative or qualitative methods used for credit risk assessment before granting a loan or for credit portfolio risk management. There is a lack of information or investigations made on estimation of the need of credit monitoring in credit risk management process. Scientific aim: Scientific aim is to structure the early warning signs that reflect the condition of credits. Methodology/methods: The paper is based on analysis and resumption of various scientific and professional articles related to organization of credit process in banks. It combines results of assessments of credit monitoring importance in credit risk management process made by theoretical studies as well as investigation of experts. Findings: Finding of the article is presentation of credit monitoring tools that should be applied for corporate (and individual clients via modification of original credit agreement. Conclusions: (limits, implications etc Conclusion of the article is that credit monitoring is a keystone in credit risk management process. The purpose of credit monitoring is to detect in time possible worsening of the loan and to react (make changes in loan agreement. The simplest tool for credit monitoring is to identify early warning signs in time that could be assorted into four groups: EWS of business environment; EWS with regard to management, EWS regarding collateral, EWS in financial analysis. Limitation of investigation is impossibility of evaluation of importance of monitoring process in practice except investigation of experts (employees directly responsible for credit business.

  2. An Autopsy Checklist: A Monitor of Safety and Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkrum, Michael James; Kent, Jessica

    2016-09-01

    Any autopsy has safety and risk management issues, which can arise in the preautopsy, autopsy, and postautopsy phases. The London Health Sciences Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Autopsy Checklist was developed to address these issues. The current study assessed 1 measure of autopsy safety: the effectiveness of the checklist in documenting pathologists' communication of the actual or potential risk of blood-borne infections to support staff. Autopsy checklists for cases done in 2012 and 2013 were reviewed. The frequency of communication, as recorded in checklists, by pathologists to staff of previously diagnosed blood-borne infections (hepatitis B/C and human immunodeficiency virus) or the risk of infection based on lifestyle (eg, intravenous drug abuse) was tabulated. These data were compared with medical histories of the deceased and circumstances of their deaths described in the final autopsy reports. Information about blood-borne infections was recorded less frequently in the checklists compared with the final reports. Of 4 known human immunodeficiency virus cases, there was no checklist documentation in 3. All 11 hand injuries were documented. None of these cases had known infectious risks. The Autopsy Checklist is a standardized means of documenting safety and risk issues arising during the autopsy process, but its effectiveness relies on accurate completion.

  3. Metabolic state alters economic decision making under risk in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkael Symmonds

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals' attitudes to risk are profoundly influenced by metabolic state (hunger and baseline energy stores. Specifically, animals often express a preference for risky (more variable food sources when below a metabolic reference point (hungry, and safe (less variable food sources when sated. Circulating hormones report the status of energy reserves and acute nutrient intake to widespread targets in the central nervous system that regulate feeding behaviour, including brain regions strongly implicated in risk and reward based decision-making in humans. Despite this, physiological influences per se have not been considered previously to influence economic decisions in humans. We hypothesised that baseline metabolic reserves and alterations in metabolic state would systematically modulate decision-making and financial risk-taking in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a controlled feeding manipulation and assayed decision-making preferences across different metabolic states following a meal. To elicit risk-preference, we presented a sequence of 200 paired lotteries, subjects' task being to select their preferred option from each pair. We also measured prandial suppression of circulating acyl-ghrelin (a centrally-acting orexigenic hormone signalling acute nutrient intake, and circulating leptin levels (providing an assay of energy reserves. We show both immediate and delayed effects on risky decision-making following a meal, and that these changes correlate with an individual's baseline leptin and changes in acyl-ghrelin levels respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that human risk preferences are exquisitely sensitive to current metabolic state, in a direction consistent with ecological models of feeding behaviour but not predicted by normative economic theory. These substantive effects of state changes on economic decisions perhaps reflect shared evolutionarily conserved neurobiological mechanisms. We suggest that

  4. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Springer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982. After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  5. Noninvasive Monitoring of Soil Static Characteristics and Dynamic States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassiani, Giorgio; Ursino, Nadia; Deiana, Rita

    2012-01-01

    emission, texture analysis, and laboratory calibration of an electrical constitutive relationship on soil samples complete the dataset. We observe that the growth of vegetation, with the associated below-ground allocation of biomass, has a significant impact on the soil moisture dynamics. It is well known......In this paper we present the results of seasonal monitoring and irrigation tests performed on an experimental farm in a semiarid region of Southern Sardinia. The goal of the study is to understand the soil–vegetation interactions and how they can affect the soil water balance, particularly in view...... of possible climatic changes. We used long-term electromagnetic induction (EMI) time lapse monitoring and short-term irrigation experiments monitored using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and EMI, supported by time domain reflectometry (TDR) soil moisture measurements. Mapping of natural ?-ray...

  6. Development of a new risk-based framework to guide investment in water quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Dani J; Ghadouani, Anas; Sinang, Som Cit; Ivey, Gregory N

    2014-04-01

    An innovative framework for optimising investments in water quality monitoring has been developed for use by water and environmental agencies. By utilising historical data, investigating the accuracy of monitoring methods and considering the risk tolerance of the management agency, this new methodology calculates optimum water quality monitoring frequencies for individual water bodies. Such information can be applied to water quality constituents of concern in both engineered and natural water bodies and will guide the investment of monitoring resources. Here we present both the development of the framework itself and a proof of concept by applying it to the occurrence of hazardous cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater lakes. This application to existing data demonstrates the robustness of the approach and the capacity of the framework to optimise the allocation of both monitoring and mitigation resources. When applied to cyanobacterial blooms in the Swan Coastal Plain of Western Australia, we determined that optimising the monitoring regime at individual lakes could greatly alter the overall monitoring schedule for the region, rendering it more risk averse without increasing the amount of monitoring resources required. For water resources with high-density temporal data related to constituents of concern, a similar reduction in risk may be observed by applying the framework.

  7. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteijn, J M; White, B C; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Holm, F; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; McCarron, P A; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    Benefit-risk assessment in medicine has been a valuable tool in the regulation of medicines since the 1960s. Benefit-risk assessment takes place in multiple stages during a medicine's life-cycle and can be conducted in a variety of ways, using methods ranging from qualitative to quantitative. Each benefit-risk assessment method is subject to its own specific strengths and limitations. Despite its widespread and long-time use, benefit-risk assessment in medicine is subject to debate and suffers from a number of limitations and is currently still under development. This state of the art review paper will discuss the various aspects and approaches to benefit-risk assessment in medicine in a chronological pathway. The review will discuss all types of benefit-risk assessment a medicinal product will undergo during its lifecycle, from Phase I clinical trials to post-marketing surveillance and health technology assessment for inclusion in public formularies. The benefit-risk profile of a drug is dynamic and differs for different indications and patient groups. In the end of this review we conclude benefit-risk analysis in medicine is a developed practice that is subject to continuous improvement and modernisation. Improvement not only in methodology, but also in cooperation between organizations can improve benefit-risk assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic risks of the system of state and municipal procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokrylova Olga, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the audit of economic risks at all stages of procurement for state and municipal needs from both customers and bidders is carried out on the basis of the implementation of the integrated approach . Stages in the procurement under a single contract system, which is characterized by the high economic risks are planning, supplier selection, conclusion and execution of the contract. A number of the measures according to the localization of economic risks are offered, in particular the implementation of compliance programs, which institutionalize the compliance by the organization, anti-corruption legislation; increasing qualification of specialists in public procurement and increased control through centralization of procurement.

  9. [Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Sarah; Jantzer, Vanessa; Haffner, Johann; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz

    2016-10-01

    Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample Numerous research studies emphasize parental monitoring as a protective factor for adolescent problem behaviour. The purpose of the study presented was to use Stattin and Kerr's (2000) monitoring subscales for the first time in a German-speaking area and to explore the relations to behaviour problems in an adolescent school sample. The two active monitoring strategies "parental control" and "parental solicitation" as well as "parental knowledge" and "child disclosure" relating to behaviour problems and risk behaviour were examined. A sample of 494 pupils, grades 5, 7 and 9, of German secondary schools and their parents answered questions on "parental knowledge", "control", "solicitation" and "child disclosure". Adolescents also answered the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and items about risk behaviour like frequency of violence, delinquency, substance abuse, self-injuring behaviour and school absenteeism. Behaviour problems in terms of the SDQ could be predicted sufficiently by "parental knowledge", but for the prediction of risk behaviour, the active parental monitoring strategies were of importance, too. More "parental knowledge", more "control" and less "solicitation" could predict less risk behaviour. Results confirm "parental knowledge" as a general protective factor for problem behaviour. However, they show the importance of "parental control" for adolescent risk behaviour.

  10. Comparison of risk-based versus random sampling in the monitoring of antimicrobial residues in Danish finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lis; Rugbjerg, Helene; Petersen, Jesper Valentin; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2016-06-01

    In Denmark, a monitoring program for residues of antimicrobials in pork is in place involving annual testing of around 20,000 samples from finishing pigs corresponding to 0.1% of the animals slaughtered. Annually, zero to two samples are found above the maximum residue limit. Both authorities and industry have expressed interest in adjusting the monitoring to a risk-based system. The objective of this study was to assess the opportunities and consequences of the monitoring considering: 1) replacing the current bioassay with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC LC-MS/MS), 2) replacing kidney with muscles as sample matrix, and 3) using indicators to identify high-risk (HR) herds and increase sampling intensity in these herds, lowering sampling in the low-risk (LR) herds, while aiming at continued detection of similar numbers of test-positives at the lowest possible costs. A state-of-the-art stochastic scenario tree modelling approach including economic evaluation of different model outcomes was used. A total of six scenarios were run for penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. Relevant information was obtained through the literature, statistical analysis of existing data as well as consultations with laboratory and slaughterhouse experts. Abattoir recordings of chronic pleuritis were used as an indicator for finishing pig herds (HR=within-herd prevalence>40%). Such risk-based monitoring would have to use muscles and not kidneys, because of logistic challenges in identifying and storing of plucks until testing. However, the bioassay cannot be used on muscle tissue due to low sensitivity for tetracyclines. Different plausible combinations of sample sizes were also modelled. The HPLC LC-MS/MS method detected the same number of cases compared to the bioassay when kidney was used as matrix. HPLC LC-MS/MS has a higher sensitivity when used on muscle but it is almost twice as costly as the bioassay. Risk-based sampling resulted in detection of

  11. Epidural electrocorticography for monitoring of arousal in locked-in state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza eGharabaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography often fails to assess both the level (i.e. arousal and the content (i.e. awareness of pathologically altered consciousness in patients without motor responsiveness. This might be related to a decline of awareness, to episodes of low arousal and disturbed sleep patterns, and/or to distorting and attenuating effects of the skull and intermediate tissue on the recorded brain signals. Novel approaches are required to overcome these limitations.We introduced epidural electrocorticography (ECoG for monitoring of cortical physiology in a late-stage amytrophic lateral sclerosis patient in completely locked-in state. Despite long-term application for a period of six months, no implant-related complications occurred. Recordings from the left frontal cortex were sufficient to identify three arousal states. Spectral analysis of the intrinsic oscillatory activity enabled us to extract state-dependent dominant frequencies at < 4, ~ 7 and ~ 20 Hz, representing sleep-like periods, and phases of low and elevated arousal, respectively. In the absence of other biomarkers, ECoG proved to be a reliable tool for monitoring circadian rhythmicity, i.e. avoiding interference with the patient when he was sleeping and exploiting time windows of responsiveness. Moreover, the effects of interventions addressing the patient’s arousal, e.g. amantadine medication, could be evaluated objectively on the basis of physiological markers, even in the absence of behavioral parameters.Epidural ECoG constitutes a feasible trade-off between surgical risk and quality of recorded brain signals to gain information on the patient’s present level of arousal. This approach enables us to optimize the timing of interactions and medical interventions, all of which should take place when the patient is in a phase of high arousal. Furthermore, avoiding low-responsiveness periods will facilitate measures to implement alternative communication pathways involving brain

  12. Rainfall monitoring with microwave link networks -state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Lotte; Overeem, Aart; Ríos Gaona, Manuel; van Leth, Tommy; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2017-04-01

    For the purpose of hydrological applications, meteorology, climate monitoring and agriculture, accurate high resolution rainfall monitoring is highly desirable. Often used techniques to measure rainfall include rain gauge networks and radar. However, accurate rainfall information is lacking in large areas in the world, and the number of rain gauges is even severely declining in Europe, South-America and Africa. The investments required for the installation and maintenance of dense sensor networks can form a large obstacle. Over the past decade, various investigations have shown that microwave links from cellular communication networks may be used for rainfall monitoring. These commercial networks are installed for the purpose of cellular communication. These consist of antennas that transmit microwave link signals through the atmosphere over a path of typically several kilometers. Microwave signals are sensitive to rainfall at the frequencies that are typically used. The loss of signal (attenuation) over the link-path, which is logged in real-time by cellular communication companies for quality monitoring, can therefore be interpreted as a rainfall measurement. In recent years, various techniques have been developed to quantitatively determine rainfall from these microwave link attenuations. An overview of error sources in this process, quantitative rainfall determination techniques, as well as the results of various validation studies are provided. These studies show that there is considerable potential in using commercial microwave link networks for rainfall monitoring. This is a promising development, as these networks cover 20% of the land surface of the earth and have high density, especially in urban areas where there is generally a lack of in situ ground measurements.

  13. A Study on the Estimation Method of Risk Based Area for Jetty Safety Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Wook Nam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the importance of safety-monitoring systems was highlighted by the unprecedented collision between a ship and a jetty in Yeosu. Accordingly, in this study, we introduce the concept of risk based area and develop a methodology for a jetty safety-monitoring system. By calculating the risk based areas for a ship and a jetty, the risk of collision was evaluated. To calculate the risk based areas, we employed an automatic identification system for the ship, stopping-distance equations, and the regulation velocity near the jetty. In this paper, we suggest a risk calculation method for jetty safety monitoring that can determine the collision probability in real time and predict collisions using the amount of overlap between the two calculated risk based areas. A test was conducted at a jetty control center at GS Caltex, and the effectiveness of the proposed risk calculation method was verified. The method is currently applied to the jetty-monitoring system at GS Caltex in Yeosu for the prevention of collisions.

  14. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  15. Suicide Attempt Risk in Youths: Utility of the Harkavy-Asnis Suicide Scale for Monitoring Risk Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan; McArthur, David; Hughes, Jennifer; Barbery, Veronica; Berk, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The Harkavy-Asnis Suicide Scale (HASS), one of the few self-report scales assessing suicidal behavior was evaluated and ideation, was evaluated and predictors of suicide attempts (SAs) were identified with the goal of developing a model that clinicians can use for monitoring SA risk. Participants were 131 pediatric emergency department (ED)…

  16. Fourier transformed steady-state flash evoked potentials for continuous monitoring of visual pathway function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholz, R; Lehmann, T N; Fritz, G; Rüther, K

    2008-05-01

    Monitoring of somatosensory, motor and auditory pathway function by evoked potentials is routine in surgery placing these pathways at risk. However, visual pathway function remains yet inaccessible to a reliable monitoring. For this study, a method of continuous recordings was developed and tested. Steady-state visual evoked potentials were elicited by flash stimulation at 16 Hz and analysed using discrete Fourier transform. Amplitude and phase of the fundamental response were dynamically averaged and continuously plotted in a trend graph. The method was applied on awake individuals with normal vision and on patients undergoing neurosurgery. In most individuals it was possible to continuously record significant responses. Surprisingly, characteristic time-courses of amplitude and phase were observed in several subjects. These findings were attributed mainly to flicker-adaptation. During anesthesia, amplitude and signal-to-noise ratio were markedly smaller. Signal recognition was facilitated when potentials were recorded with a subdural electrode placed directly at the occipital pole. The anesthetic agent propofol had a major impact on the recordings.

  17. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…

  18. Gender-based model comparisons of maternal values, monitoring, communication, and early adolescent risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Lesley; Yu, Shuli; Liu, Hongjie; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Bain, Rosa Mae; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-10-01

    To examine the relationships among maternal values, monitoring knowledge, parent-adolescent communication, and adolescent risk involvement based on adolescent gender. Parental reports of their personal values, monitoring knowledge, and communication with their children were compared with adolescent reports of risk involvement using information gathered from 647 Bahamian mother-adolescent (9-13 years) dyads. Parental values of conservation (e.g., conformity) were positively associated with greater parent-adolescent communication and communication was significantly associated with greater monitoring knowledge for both genders. Among mother-son dyads only, group-based parental values of self-transcendence (e.g., universalism) were significantly associated with greater perceived parental monitoring knowledge; individualized self-enhancement values (e.g., hedonism) were negatively associated with open and supportive parent-adolescent communication. Parental values influence other parenting processes such as monitoring and communication. Parental monitoring, in turn, inversely influences adolescent risk involvement. These influences appear to differ based on the adolescent's gender, as many of the relationships were stronger among mother-son dyads. These findings highlight a need to better understand the nature of the relationship between maternal values, parent-adolescent interactions, and adolescents' risk decisions.

  19. Risk analysis of brucelosis in the state of Tlaxcala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina García-Juárez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the risk of brucellosis in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico. Materials and methods. A diagnosis of social type was conducted in the municipalities of Huamantla, Ixtenco and Teacalco, located in the eastern region of the state. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats and humans was determined. Results. 46.9% of producers know the programs of vaccination against brucellosis; 19.7% apply the vaccine and 80.3% do not apply the vaccine. Huamantla had the highest seroprevalence of animal brucellosis in 66.8%; San Jose Teacalco distributes unpasteurized cheeses to a distance of 270 km, increasing the risk of infection with brucellosis. Ixtenco recorded the highest prevalence of brucellosis in humans, with 1.51%. Conclusion. The municipalities studied present risks of infection and spread of brucellosis.

  20. [Risk analysis of brucelosis in the state of Tlaxcala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Juárez, Guillermina; Ramírez-Bribiesca, J Efrén; Hernández-Vázquez, Maricela; Hernández-Calva, Luz Marina; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Orozco-Bolaños, Hermila

    2014-01-01

    To identify the risk of brucellosis in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico. A diagnosis of social type was conducted in the municipalities of Huamantla, Ixtenco and Teacalco, located in the eastern region of the state. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats and humans was determined. 46.9% of producers know the programs of vaccination against brucellosis; 19.7% apply the vaccine and 80.3% do not apply the vaccine. Huamantla had the highest seroprevalence of animal brucellosis in 66.8%; San Jose Teacalco distributes unpasteurized cheeses to a distance of 270 km, increasing the risk of infection with brucellosis. Ixtenco recorded the highest prevalence of brucellosis in humans, with 1.51%. The municipalities studied present risks of infection and spread of brucellosis.

  1. Integrated risk and recovery monitoring of ecosystem restorations on contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J; Glomb, Stephen J; Harper, David D; Hoelzle, Timothy B; McIntosh, Lisa M; Mulligan, David R

    2016-04-01

    Ecological restorations of contaminated sites balance the human and ecological risks of residual contamination with the benefits of ecological recovery and the return of lost ecological function and ecosystem services. Risk and recovery are interrelated dynamic conditions, changing as remediation and restoration activities progress through implementation into long-term management and ecosystem maturation. Monitoring restoration progress provides data critical to minimizing residual contaminant risk and uncertainty, while measuring ecological advancement toward recovery goals. Effective monitoring plans are designed concurrently with restoration plan development and implementation and are focused on assessing the effectiveness of activities performed in support of restoration goals for the site. Physical, chemical, and biotic measures characterize progress toward desired structural and functional ecosystem components of the goals. Structural metrics, linked to ecosystem functions and services, inform restoration practitioners of work plan modifications or more substantial adaptive management actions necessary to maintain desired recovery. Monitoring frequency, duration, and scale depend on specific attributes and goals of the restoration project. Often tied to restoration milestones, critical assessment of monitoring metrics ensures attainment of risk minimization and ecosystem recovery. Finally, interpretation and communication of monitoring findings inform and engage regulators, other stakeholders, the scientific community, and the public. Because restoration activities will likely cease before full ecosystem recovery, monitoring endpoints should demonstrate risk reduction and a successional trajectory toward the condition established in the restoration goals. A detailed assessment of the completed project's achievements, as well as unrealized objectives, attained through project monitoring, will determine if contaminant risk has been minimized, if injured

  2. Integrated risk and recovery monitoring of ecosystem restorations on contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael J.; Glomb, Stephen J.; Harper, David; Hoelzle, Timothy B.; McIntosh, Lisa M.; Mulligan, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological restorations of contaminated sites balance the human and ecological risks of residual contamination with the benefits of ecological recovery and the return of lost ecological function and ecosystem services. Risk and recovery are interrelated dynamic conditions, changing as remediation and restoration activities progress through implementation into long-term management and ecosystem maturation. Monitoring restoration progress provides data critical to minimizing residual contaminant risk and uncertainty, while measuring ecological advancement toward recovery goals. Effective monitoring plans are designed concurrently with restoration plan development and implementation and are focused on assessing the effectiveness of activities performed in support of restoration goals for the site. Physical, chemical, and biotic measures characterize progress toward desired structural and functional ecosystem components of the goals. Structural metrics, linked to ecosystem functions and services, inform restoration practitioners of work plan modifications or more substantial adaptive management actions necessary to maintain desired recovery. Monitoring frequency, duration, and scale depend on specific attributes and goals of the restoration project. Often tied to restoration milestones, critical assessment of monitoring metrics ensures attainment of risk minimization and ecosystem recovery. Finally, interpretation and communication of monitoring findings inform and engage regulators, other stakeholders, the scientific community, and the public. Because restoration activities will likely cease before full ecosystem recovery, monitoring endpoints should demonstrate risk reduction and a successional trajectory toward the condition established in the restoration goals. A detailed assessment of the completed project's achievements, as well as unrealized objectives, attained through project monitoring, will determine if contaminant risk has been minimized, if injured

  3. Qubit State Monitoring by Measurement of Three Complementary Observables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruskov, Rusko; Korotkov, Alexander N.; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    We consider the evolution of a qubit (spin 1/2) under the simultaneous continuous measurement of three noncommuting qubit operators σ̂x, σ̂y, and σ̂z. For identical ideal detectors, the qubit state evolves by approaching a pure state with a random direction in the Bloch vector space...

  4. Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

  5. Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Blay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM mission is an ESA pay load which will be installed in the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS. ASIM is optimized to the observation and monitoring of luminescent phenomena in the upper atmosphere, the so called Transient Luminous Event (TLEs and Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes(TGFs. Both TLEs and TGFs have been discovered recently (past two decades and opened a new field of research in high energetic phenomena in the atmosphere. We will review the capabilities of ASIM and how it will help researchers to gain deeper knowledge of TGFs, TLEs, their inter-relationship and how they are linked to severe thunderstorms and the phenomena of lightning.

  6. Monitoring the Cure State of Thermosetting Resins by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Maffezzoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of low intensity ultrasound in a curing resin, acting as a high frequency oscillatory excitation, has been recently proposed as an ultrasonic dynamic mechanical analysis (UDMA for cure monitoring. The technique measures sound velocity and attenuation, which are very sensitive to changes in the viscoelastic characteristics of the curing resin, since the velocity is related to the resin storage modulus and density, while the attenuation is related to the energy dissipation and scattering in the curing resin. The paper reviews the results obtained by the authors’ research group in the last decade by means of in-house made ultrasonic set-ups for both contact and air-coupled ultrasonic experiments. The basics of the ultrasonic wave propagation in polymers and examples of measurements of the time-evolution of ultrasonic longitudinal modulus and chemical conversion of different thermosetting resins are presented. The effect of temperature on the cure kinetics, the comparison with rheological, low frequency dynamic mechanical and calorimetric results, and the correlation between ultrasonic modulus and crosslinking density will be also discussed. The paper highlights the reliability of ultrasonic wave propagation for monitoring the physical changes taking place during curing and the potential for online monitoring during polymer and polymer matrix composite processing.

  7. Data-driven risk identification in phase III clinical trials using central statistical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Catherine; Venet, David; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2016-02-01

    Our interest lies in quality control for clinical trials, in the context of risk-based monitoring (RBM). We specifically study the use of central statistical monitoring (CSM) to support RBM. Under an RBM paradigm, we claim that CSM has a key role to play in identifying the "risks to the most critical data elements and processes" that will drive targeted oversight. In order to support this claim, we first see how to characterize the risks that may affect clinical trials. We then discuss how CSM can be understood as a tool for providing a set of data-driven key risk indicators (KRIs), which help to organize adaptive targeted monitoring. Several case studies are provided where issues in a clinical trial have been identified thanks to targeted investigation after the identification of a risk using CSM. Using CSM to build data-driven KRIs helps to identify different kinds of issues in clinical trials. This ability is directly linked with the exhaustiveness of the CSM approach and its flexibility in the definition of the risks that are searched for when identifying the KRIs. In practice, a CSM assessment of the clinical database seems essential to ensure data quality. The atypical data patterns found in some centers and variables are seen as KRIs under a RBM approach. Targeted monitoring or data management queries can be used to confirm whether the KRIs point to an actual issue or not.

  8. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, H; Tijhuis, M J; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Holm, F

    2012-01-01

    Risk-taking is normal in everyday life if there are associated (perceived) benefits. Benefit-Risk Analysis (BRA) compares the risk of a situation to its related benefits and addresses the acceptability of the risk. Over the past years BRA in relation to food and food ingredients has gained attention. Food, and even the same food ingredient, may confer both beneficial and adverse effects. Measures directed at food safety may lead to suboptimal or insufficient levels of ingredients from a benefit perspective. In BRA, benefits and risks of food (ingredients) are assessed in one go and may conditionally be expressed into one currency. This allows the comparison of adverse and beneficial effects to be qualitative and quantitative. A BRA should help policy-makers to make more informed and balanced benefit-risk management decisions. Not allowing food benefits to occur in order to guarantee food safety is a risk management decision much the same as accepting some risk in order to achieve more benefits. BRA in food and nutrition is making progress, but difficulties remain. The field may benefit from looking across its borders to learn from other research areas. The BEPRARIBEAN project (Best Practices for Risk-Benefit Analysis: experience from out of food into food; http://en.opasnet.org/w/Bepraribean) aims to do so, by working together with Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics & Marketing-Finance and Consumer Perception. All perspectives are reviewed and subsequently integrated to identify opportunities for further development of BRA for food and food ingredients. Interesting issues that emerge are the varying degrees of risk that are deemed acceptable within the areas and the trend towards more open and participatory BRA processes. A set of 6 'state of the art' papers covering the above areas and a paper integrating the separate (re)views are published in this volume.

  9. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D. [comps.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  10. Monitoring recreational impacts in wilderness of Kamchatka (on example of Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anya V. Zavadskaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment and monitoring program that was designed and initiated for monitoring recreational impacts in a wilderness in Kamchatka. The framework of the recreational assessment was tested through its application to a case study conducted during the summers of 2008 and 2009 in the Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve (Kamchatka peninsula,...

  11. Ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers (INWORKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    Since July 2015 the study ''ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers (INWORKS) - an international cohort study'' is available. INWORKS comprised data from 300.000 occupational exposed and dosimetric monitored persons from France, USA and UK. The contribution is a critical discussion of this study with respect to the conclusion of a strong evidence of positive associations between protracted low-dose irradiation exposure and leukemia.

  12. A risk-based sampling plan for monitoring of histamine in fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillier, L; Thébault, A; Gauchard, F; Pommepuy, M; Guignard, A; Malle, P

    2011-02-01

    In 2008, the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance reported an increase in the number of histamine food poisoning outbreaks and cases in France. The aim of this study was to propose a new monitoring plan for characterizing consumers' exposure to histamine through fishery products. As fish products of concern are numerous, we proposed that the number of samples allocated for a fish category be chosen based on the risk associated with the category. Point risk estimates of histamine poisoning were assessed with the Risk Ranger tool. Fresh fish with high histidine content was found to contribute most to the number of cases. The (estimated) risks associated with the consumption of canned and deep-frozen fish appear marginal as compared with the risk associated with fresh fish with high histidine concentrations. Accordingly, we recommend excluding canned and deep-frozen fish from the monitoring plan, although these risk estimates can be biased. Within a category, samples were proportional to the relative food consumption of the different fishes. The spatial and seasonal consumption patterns were also taken into account for the design of the new monitoring plan. By testing appropriate numbers of samples from categories of fish products of concern, this plan will permit investigation of trends or comparison of product categories presenting risks of histamine poisoning.

  13. Management of bank risks in the system of internal financial monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lysenok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk is an integral part of banking activities. That is why there are many researches on definition, measurement and monitoring of banking risks. Nowadays it is important to improve the risk management process of legalization (laundering of proceeds from crime or terrorist financing, especially in the present conditions of socio-economic development. This will improve the quality of financial monitoring in the country as a whole and will reduce the risk of attracting banks to laundering money from crime. The article reviews and examines modern management techniques and risk assessment of laundering proceeds from crime. The authors make suggestions to strengthen the tracking and detection of illegal schemes and appropriate approaches to «launder» criminal money. They also offer an appropriate model to manage the risks which accompany the process of laundering the proceeds from crime. According to the study carried out the authors provide their conclusions and recommendations to improve risk management in the system of internal financial monitoring of banks.

  14. The Transformation of Energy Risk in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonavičius Vylius

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the process of energy risk transformation, which creates concrete hazards for citizens of the Baltic States. The article analyzes two sides of the same problem - district heating (DH and the renovation of multi-apartment houses. The article will show that the transformation of energy risk is affected by the legacy of a specific constellation of technological, economic and social elements of Soviet infrastructure that appears in a specific and particularly precarious shape under conditions of liberal market capitalism as regards energy security.

  15. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  16. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  17. Characterization, Monitoring, and Risk Assessment at the IEA GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, R.; Chalaturnyk, R.; Gardner, C.; Hawkes, C.; Johnson, J.; White, D.; Whittaker, S.

    2008-12-01

    In July 2000, a major research project was initiated to study the geological storage of CO2 as part of a 5000 tonnes/day EOR project planned for the Weyburn Field in Saskatchewan, Canada. Major objectives of the IEA GHG Weyburn CO2 monitoring and storage project included: assessing the integrity of the geosphere encompassing the Weyburn oil pool for effective long-term storage of CO2; monitoring the movement of the injected CO2, and assessing the risk of migration of CO2 from the injection zone (approximately 1500 metres depth) to the surface. Over the period 2000-2004, a diverse group of 80+ researchers worked on: geological, geophysical, and hydrogeological characterizations at both the regional (100 km beyond the field) and detailed scale (10 km around the field); conducted time-lapse geophysical surveys; carried out surface and subsurface geochemical surveys; and undertook numerical reservoir simulations. Results of the characterization were used for a performance assessment that concluded the risk of CO2 movement to the biosphere was very small. By September 2007, more than 14 Mtonnes of CO2 had been injected into the Weyburn reservoir, including approximately 3 Mtonnes recycled from oil production. A "Final Phase" research project was initiated (2007- 2011) to contribute to a "Best Practices" guide for long-term CO2 storage in EOR settings. Research objectives include: improving the geoscience characterization; further detailed analysis and data collection on the role of wellbores; additional geochemical and geophysical monitoring activities; and an emphasis on quantitative risk assessments using multiple analysis techniques. In this talk a review of results from Phase I will be presented followed by plans and initial results for the Final Phase.

  18. Revamping State Monitoring Process: A Means of Program Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Fukue S.

    In 1981, when Chapter 1 replaced Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I and with the advent of the effective schools movement, the Hawaii state administrators of Chapter 1 made a long term commitment to program improvement, especially in the area of instruction and quality delivery of services to the target students. In this program…

  19. ONLINE MONITORING STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMIT PADA SISTEM INTERKONEKSI SULSELRABAR

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Pada beberapa dekade terakhir, fenomena black-out (pemadaman total)akibat voltage collapse mengalami peningkatan.Hal ini disebabkan oleh peningkatan konsumen pemakai listrik yang tidak sebanding dengan peningkatan pembangkit dan pengembangan jaringan transmisi. Berdasarkan kenyataan dilapangan, ketidakstabilan steady state sangat berhubungan dengan rendahnya ketersediaan daya aktif/reaktif, level tegangan yang rendah, dan besarnya perubahan tegangan untuk perubahan beban atau daya pembangkit....

  20. Perioperative cardiovascular monitoring of high-risk patients: a consensus of 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Pelosi, Paolo; Pearse, Rupert; Payen, Didier; Perel, Azriel; Hoeft, Andreas; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ranieri, V Marco; Ichai, Carole; Forget, Patrice; Della Rocca, Giorgio; Rhodes, Andrew

    2015-05-08

    A significant number of surgical patients are at risk of intra- or post-operative complications or both, which are associated with increased lengths of stay, costs, and mortality. Reducing these risks is important for the individual patient but also for health-care planners and managers. Insufficient tissue perfusion and cellular oxygenation due to hypovolemia, heart dysfunction or both is one of the leading causes of perioperative complications. Adequate perioperative management guided by effective and timely hemodynamic monitoring can help reduce the risk of complications and thus potentially improve outcomes. In this review, we describe the various available hemodynamic monitoring systems and how they can best be used to guide cardiovascular and fluid management in the perioperative period in high-risk surgical patients.

  1. Globalization at Risk: The Changing Preferences of States and Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Quirk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available After long, wide trends toward freer and more integratedmarkets, peoples and ideas, reluctance to subordinate the ideals of globalization to state interests shows signs of serious erosion. Recent examples include the breakdown of international institutions, the rise in state control over energy resources and their use as diplomatic leverage, and US abandonment of the principles of globalization. The sources of these changing preferences are both ideological and utilitarian. The result is that key elements of globalization are at risk, but with unpredictable consequences.

  2. Long term variability of Cygnus X-1 V. State definitions with all sky monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Grinberg, V; Pottschmidt, K; Böck, M; Nowak, M A; Rodriguez, J; Bodaghee, A; Bel, M Cadolle; Case, G L; Hanke, M; Kühnel, M; Markoff, S B; Pooley, G G; Rothschild, R E; Tomsick, J A; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Wilms, J

    2013-01-01

    We present a scheme to determine the spectral state of the canonical black hole Cyg X-1 using data from previous and current X-ray all sky monitors (RXTE-ASM, Swift-BAT, MAXI, and Fermi-GBM). State determinations of the hard/intermediate and soft state agree to better than 10% between different monitors, facilitating the determination of the state and its context for any observation of the source, potentially over the lifetimes of different individual monitors. A separation of the hard and the intermediate state, which strongly differ in their spectral shape and short-term timing behavior, is only possible when monitor data in the soft X-rays (<5 keV) are available. A statistical analysis of the states confirms the different activity patterns of the source (e.g., months to years long hard state periods or phases during which numerous transitions occurs). It also shows the hard and soft states to be stable, with the probability of Cyg X-1 remaining in a given state for at least one week to be larger than 85...

  3. Nitrogen emissions, deposition, and monitoring in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Richard Haeuber; Gail S. Tonnesen; Jill S. Baron; Susanne Grossman-Clarke; Diane Hope; Daniel A. Jaffe; Scott Copeland; Linda Geiser; Heather M. Rueth; James O. Sickman

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition in the western United States ranges from 1 to 4 kilograms (kg) per hectare (ha) per year over much of the region to as high as 30 to 90 kg per ha per year downwind of major urban and agricultural areas. Primary N emissions sources are transportation, agriculture, and industry. Emissions of N as ammonia are about 50% as great as emissions of N as...

  4. The risk assessment of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Smaglo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article has explored the features of the risk assessment of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring. The author has grounded the necessity and importance of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring as they can both directly carry out financial transactions for legalization of illegal proceeds, and also facilitate their implementation. The paper has proposed the method of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceeds by a commercial bank. The method is based on the point scale and is characterized by the following advantages in comparison with the existing ones: it gives enough accurate assessment, it combines the evaluation of quantitative and qualitative indicators, it is simple and convenient in use. The developed method of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceed based on the point scale, can be used by a commercial bank to determine the effectiveness of the system of risk management legalization of proceeds or for the purpose of determining the comprehensive risk of legalization of criminal proceeds of a particular financial transaction, and by the National Bank of Ukraine to determine the frequency of inspections of commercial banks on the issues of financial monitoring.

  5. Public health responses to the risks of climate variability and change in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Kristie L

    2009-01-01

    Discuss issues related to the capacity of the United States to effectively adapt to current and future climate change. Review literature on public health adaptation measures to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive health outcomes. Most health risks of concern with climate change already exist in the United States. Current interventions may need to be augmented or deployed in new regions to prevent additional climate change-related morbidity and mortality. Monitoring and surveillance systems will need to be modified to ensure programs remain effective under a changing climate. Explicit consideration of climate change is needed in the many programs and research activities within federal, state, and local agencies that are relevant to adaptation to ensure that they have maximum effectiveness in reducing future vulnerability to the projected health impacts of climate change.

  6. Environmental radiation monitoring of low-level wastes by the State of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L. [Dept. of Health, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1989-11-01

    The Washington State Department of Health, as the state`s regulatory agency for radiation, monitors several forms of low-level radioactive wastes. The monitoring is done to assess the potential impact on the environment and on public health. The emphasis of the monitoring program is placed on the solid and liquid wastes from defense activities on the Hanford Reservation, commercial wastes at the site located on leased land at Hanford and uranium mill tailings in Northeastern Washington. Although not classified as low-level waste, monitoring is also periodically conducted at selected landfills and sewage treatment facilities and other licensees, where radioactive wastes are known or suspected to be present. Environmental pathways associated with waste disposal are monitored independently, and/or in conjunction with the waste site operators to verify their results and evaluate their programs. The Department also participates in many site investigations conducted by site operators and other agencies, and conducts it`s own special investigations when deemed necessary. Past investigations and special projects have included allegations of adverse environmental impact of I-129, uranium in ground water, impacts of wastes on the agricultural industry, radioactivity in seeps into the Columbia River from waste sites, identifying lost waste sites at Hanford, differentiating groundwater contamination from defense versus commercial sources, and radioactivity in municipal landfills and sewers. The state`s environmental radiation monitoring program has identified and verified a number of environmental problems associated with radioactive waste disposal, but has, to date, identified no adverse offsite impacts to public health.

  7. Risk Costs for New Dams: Economic Analysis and Effects of Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paté-Cornell, M. Elisabeth; Tagaras, George

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents new developments and illustrations of the introduction of risk and costs in cost-benefit analysis for new dams. The emphasis is on a method of evaluation of the risk costs based on the structure of the local economy. Costs to agricultural property as well as residential, commercial, industrial, and public property are studied in detail. Of particular interest is the case of sequential dam failure and the evaluation of the risk costs attributable to a new dam upstream from an existing one. Three real cases are presented as illustrations of the method: the Auburn Dam, the Dickey-Lincoln School Project, and the Teton Dam, which failed in 1976. This last case provides a calibration tool for the estimation of loss ratios. For these three projects, the risk-modified benefit-cost ratios are computed to assess the effect of the risk on the economic performance of the project. The role of a warning system provided by systematic monitoring of the dam is analyzed: by reducing the risk costs, the warning system attenuates their effect on the benefit-cost ratio. The precursors, however, can be missed or misinterpreted: monitoring does not guarantee that the risks to human life can be reduced to zero. This study shows, in particular, that it is critical to consider the risk costs in the decision to build a new dam when the flood area is large and densely populated.

  8. Monitoring of health care personnel employee and occupational health immunization program practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Ruth M; Sorrells, Nikka; Westhusing, Kelly; Wiemken, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have identified concerns with various elements of health care personnel immunization programs, including the handling and management of the vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess monitoring processes that support evaluation of the care of vaccines in health care settings. An 11-question survey instrument was developed for use in scripted telephone surveys. State health departments in all 50 states in the United States and the District of Columbia were the target audience for the surveys. Data from a total of 47 states were obtained and analyzed. No states reported an existing monitoring process for evaluation of health care personnel immunization programs in their states. Our assessment indicates that vaccine evaluation processes for health care facilities are rare to nonexistent in the United States. Identifying existing practice gaps and resultant opportunities for improvements may be an important safety initiative that protects patients and health care personnel.

  9. Monitoring Socio-Demographic Risk: A Cohort Analysis of Families Using Census Micro-Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Peter; McPherson, Mervyl; Wheldon, Mark; von Randow, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We apply cohort techniques to monitor four indicators of socio-demographic risk crucial to family wellbeing; namely, income, employment, education, and housing. The data were derived from New Zealand's five-yearly Census for the period 1981-2006. This allowed us to track birth cohorts of mothers (and their families) over six successive New Zealand…

  10. Financial risk monitoring and transaction costs in coffee & soybean trading companies and processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Costa Bignotto

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the use of risk monitoring mechanisms by coffee and soybean trading and processing companies. It also investigates the role these mechanisms play in the mitigation of certain transaction costs associated to bounded rationality, information asymmetry, and business opportunism in negotiations involving derivatives. The results presented are based on literature and original research, which consisted of interviews with 19 coffee and soybean trading and processing company agents that deal with the management and execution of derivatives trades. The interviews suggest that the interest in formal risk monitoring mechanisms depends strongly on the organizational structure of the business. In family businesses, in which the owner participates actively in negotiations, the interest is limited. In non-family businesses, where there is a clear separation between supervisory upper-management and agents involved with trading, the interest in risk monitoring systems is more evident. This result seems to indicate that the mitigation of transaction costs associated with information asymmetry and opportunism might be stronger motivations for interest in risk monitoring mechanisms than the costs resulting from bounded rationality.

  11. Reservoir engineering of a mechanical resonator: generating a macroscopic superposition state and monitoring its decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asjad, Muhammad; Vitali, David

    2014-02-01

    A deterministic scheme for generating a macroscopic superposition state of a nanomechanical resonator is proposed. The nonclassical state is generated through a suitably engineered dissipative dynamics exploiting the optomechanical quadratic interaction with a bichromatically driven optical cavity mode. The resulting driven dissipative dynamics can be employed for monitoring and testing the decoherence processes affecting the nanomechanical resonator under controlled conditions.

  12. Self-monitoring effects of ecological momentary assessment on smokers' perceived risk and worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Renee E; Köblitz, Amber R; McCaul, Kevin D; Dillard, Amanda J

    2013-06-01

    Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), we sought to determine whether differences in reporting would exist for smokers who self-monitored their smoking-related negative thoughts five times daily in comparison to a non-EMA control group. One hundred seventeen smokers were randomly assigned to two conditions. Eighty-eight smokers carried personal digital assistants (PDAs) for 2 weeks and monitored negative thoughts each day, and 29 smokers did not self-monitor their negative thoughts. All smokers completed pretest and posttest assessments reporting their perceived risk and worry associated with smoking consequences. The data revealed evidence of self-monitoring effects, as smokers in the EMA condition reported less worry after 2 weeks of self-monitoring compared to smokers in the control condition. The two conditions did not differ in their reports of perceived risk of smoking consequences. These data suggest that EMA procedures asking respondents to self-monitor their thoughts about smoking may influence feelings about their smoking behavior.

  13. Ecological monitoring for assessing the state of the nearshore and open waters of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Melanie A.; Painter, D. Scott; Warren, Glenn; Hites, Ronald A.; Basu, Ilora; Weseloh, D.V. Chip; Whittle, D. Michael; Christie, Gavin; Barbiero, Richard; Tuchman, Marc; Johannsson, Ora E.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Fleischer, Guy; Bronte, Charles; Smith, Stephen B.; Baumann, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement stipulates that the Governments of Canada and the United States are responsible for restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. Due to varying mandates and areas of expertise, monitoring to assess progress towards this objective is conducted by a multitude of Canadian and U.S. federal and provincial/state agencies, in cooperation with academia and regional authorities. This paper highlights selected long-term monitoring programs and discusses a number of documented ecological changes that indicate the present state of the open and nearshore waters of the Great Lakes.

  14. Use of multi-objective air pollution monitoring sites and online air pollution monitoring system for total health risk assessment in Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyulu, Y; Jayakumar, I; Hima Bindu, V; Sagareswar, G; Mukunda Rao, P V; Rambabu, N; Ramani, K V

    2005-08-01

    A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.). On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad "it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM". These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000-15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real-time monitoring system was designed using advanced

  15. Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Ramani

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.. On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad “it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM”. These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000–15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real

  16. Patient repositioning and pressure ulcer risk--monitoring interface pressures of at-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Matthew J; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Schwab, Wilhelm K; van Oostrom, Johannes H; Caruso, Lawrence J

    2013-01-01

    Repositioning patients regularly to prevent pressure ulcers and reduce interface pressures is the standard of care, yet prior work has found that standard repositioning does not relieve all areas of at-risk tissue in nondisabled subjects. To determine whether this holds true for high-risk patients, we assessed the effectiveness of routine repositioning in relieving at-risk tissue of the perisacral area using interface pressure mapping. Bedridden patients at risk for pressure ulcer formation (n = 23, Braden score pressures recorded every 30 s while they received routine repositioning care for 4-6 h. All participants had specific skin areas (206 +/- 182 cm(2)) that exceeded elevated pressure thresholds for >95% of the observation period. Thirteen participants were observed in three distinct positions (supine, turned left, turned right), and all had specific skin areas (166 +/- 184 cm(2)) that exceeded pressure thresholds for >95% of the observation period. At-risk patients have skin areas that are likely always at risk throughout their hospital stay despite repositioning. Healthcare providers are unaware of the actual tissue-relieving effectiveness (or lack thereof) of their repositioning interventions, which may partially explain why pressure ulcer mitigation strategies are not always successful. Relieving at-risk tissue is a necessary part of pressure ulcer prevention, but the repositioning practice itself needs improvement.

  17. Monitoring Cocrystal Formation via In Situ Solid-State NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Venkata S; Loewus, Sarel J; Mehta, Manish A

    2014-10-02

    A detailed understanding of the mechanism of organic cocrystal formation remains elusive. Techniques that interrogate a reacting system in situ are preferred, though experimentally challenging. We report here the results of a solid-state in situ NMR study of the spontaneous formation of a cocrystal between a pharmaceutical mimic (caffeine) and a coformer (malonic acid). Using (13)C magic angle spinning NMR, we show that the formation of the cocrystal may be tracked in real time. We find no direct evidence for a short-lived, chemical shift-resolved amorphous solid intermediate. However, changes in the line width and line center of the malonic acid methylene resonance, in the course of the reaction, provide subtle clues to the mode of mass transfer that underlies cocrystal formation.

  18. What are the basic self-monitoring components for cardiovascular risk management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunan David

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-monitoring is increasingly recommended as a method of managing cardiovascular disease. However, the design, implementation and reproducibility of the self-monitoring interventions appear to vary considerably. We examined the interventions included in systematic reviews of self-monitoring for four clinical problems that increase cardiovascular disease risk. Methods We searched Medline and Cochrane databases for systematic reviews of self-monitoring for: heart failure, oral anticoagulation therapy, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. We extracted data using a pre-specified template for the identifiable components of the interventions for each disease. Data was also extracted on the theoretical basis of the education provided, the rationale given for the self-monitoring regime adopted and the compliance with the self-monitoring regime by the patients. Results From 52 randomized controlled trials (10,388 patients we identified four main components in self-monitoring interventions: education, self-measurement, adjustment/adherence and contact with health professionals. Considerable variation in these components occurred across trials and conditions, and often components were poorly described. Few trials gave evidence-based rationales for the components included and self-measurement regimes adopted. Conclusions The components of self-monitoring interventions are not well defined despite current guidelines for self-monitoring in cardiovascular disease management. Few trials gave evidence-based rationales for the components included and self-measurement regimes adopted. We propose a checklist of factors to be considered in the design of self-monitoring interventions which may aid in the provision of an evidence-based rationale for each component as well as increase the reproducibility of effective interventions for clinicians and researchers.

  19. Drought risk mapping of south-western state in the Indian peninsula - A web based application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Girish; Ambili, G K; Gregory, Shery Joseph; Anusha, C K

    2015-09-15

    Application of geospatial technology is very shimmering in drought monitoring. Drought severity in crops for six northern districts of Kerala has been attempted using Geospatial Techniques. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is the major parameter used to measure vegetation health obtained from MODIS, Terra satellite products MOD13Q1, MOD02QKM. The mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of Kerala state over 13 years was calculated. The daily anomalies of NDVI from its long term mean NDVI over the same period was determined based on which drought risk classification was done. High negative NDVI anomaly areas are susceptible to drought and the severity of drought risk on each crop can be identified using Land Use/Land Cover data. Overlaying daily NDVI Anomaly based drought risk map on land use/land cover map gives the drought risk for different crops. Based on this, a web application has been developed for Northern districts of Kerala state in India. This web application can be used to plan for drought management measures and can also serve as a database for drought analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Implementation of a Simplified State Estimator for Wind Turbine Monitoring on an Embedded System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2017-01-01

    The transition towards a cyber-physical energy system (CPES) entails an increased dependency on valid data. Simultaneously, an increasing implementation of renewable generation leads to possible control actions at individual distributed energy resources (DERs). A state estimation covering the whole...... system, including individual DER, is time consuming and numerically challenging. This paper presents the approach and results of implementing a simplified state estimator onto an embedded system for improving DER monitoring. The implemented state estimator is based on numerically robust orthogonal...

  1. Efforts Toward an Early Warning Crop Monitor for Countries at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M. E.; Verdin, J. P.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.; Magadzire, T.; Galu, G.; Rodriguez, M.; Jayanthi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing crop growing conditions is a crucial aspect of monitoring food security in the developing world. One of the core components of the Group on Earth Observations - Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) targets monitoring Countries at Risk (component 3). The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has a long history of utilizing remote sensing and crop modeling to address food security threats in the form of drought, floods, pest infestation, and climate change in some of the world's most at risk countries. FEWS NET scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of Maryland Department of Geography have undertaken efforts to address component 3, by promoting the development of a collaborative Early Warning Crop Monitor (EWCM) that would specifically address Countries at Risk. A number of organizations utilize combinations of satellite earth observations, field campaigns, network partner inputs, and crop modeling techniques to monitor crop conditions throughout the world. Agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations World Food Programme (WFP), and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) provide agricultural monitoring information and reporting across a broad number of areas at risk and in many cases, organizations routinely report on the same countries. The latter offers an opportunity for collaboration on crop growing conditions among agencies. The reduction of uncertainty and achievement of consensus will help strengthen confidence in decisions to commit resources for mitigation of acute food insecurity and support for resilience and development programs. In addition, the development of a collaborative global EWCM will provide each of the partner agencies with the ability to quickly gather crop condition information for areas where they may not typically work or have access to local networks. Using a framework

  2. The Ocean State Report of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schuckmann, Karina

    2017-04-01

    COPERNICUS is the European Earth observation and monitoring programme, which aims to give the European Union autonomous and operational capability in space-based observation facilities (see the Sentinel missions) and in situ (measurements in the atmosphere, in the ocean and on the ground), and to operate six interlinked environmental monitoring services for the oceans, the atmosphere, territorial development, emergency situations, security and climate change. In this context, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service provides an open and free access to regular and systematic information about the physical state and dynamics of the ocean and marine ecosystems for the global ocean and six European regional seas. Mercator Ocean, the French center of global ocean analysis and forecast has been entrusted by the EU to implement and operate the Copernicus Marine Service. The first Ocean State Report Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service has been prepared, and is planned to appear at an annual basis (fall each year) as a unique reference for ocean state reporting. This report contains a state-of-the-art value-added synthesis of the ocean state for the global ocean and the European regional seas from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service data products and expert analysis. This activity is aiming to reach a wide audience -from the scientific community, over climate and environmental service and agencies, environmental reporting and bodies to the general public. We will give here an overview on the report, highlight main outcomes, and introduce future plans and developments.

  3. Monitoring tetracycline through a solid-state nanopore sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuechuan; Chen, Yanling; Fu, Yongqi; Ying, Cuifeng; Feng, Yanxiao; Huang, Qimeng; Wang, Chao; Pei, De-Sheng; Wang, Deqiang

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics as emerging environmental contaminants, are widely used in both human and veterinary medicines. A solid-state nanopore sensing method is reported in this article to detect Tetracycline, which is based on Tet-off and Tet-on systems. rtTA (reverse tetracycline-controlled trans-activator) and TRE (Tetracycline Responsive Element) could bind each other under the action of Tetracycline to form one complex. When the complex passes through nanopores with 8 ~ 9 nanometers in diameter, we could detect the concentrations of Tet from 2 ng/mL to 2000 ng/mL. According to the Logistic model, we could define three growth zones of Tetracycline for rtTA and TRE. The slow growth zone is 0-39.5 ng/mL. The rapid growth zone is 39.5-529.7 ng/mL. The saturated zone is > 529.7 ng/mL. Compared to the previous methods, the nanopore sensor could detect and quantify these different kinds of molecule at the single-molecule level.

  4. Trends in anuran occupancy from northeastern states of the North American Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Linda; Fiske, Ian J.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We present the first multi-year occupancy trends from North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) data in 10 northeastern states using seven years of data (2001-2007). NAAMP uses a calling survey technique where observers listen for anuran vocalizations along assigned random roadside routes. We were able to assess occupancy trends in 10 northeastern states for 16 species and one species complex, for 94 species/state combinations. We found no significant trends for 64 species/state combinations. For the remaining 30 species/state combinations with significant trends, these split between declining and increasing trends. On a species-by-species basis, two species had declining trends, with significant trends in six states for Pseudacris crucifer and four states for Bufo americanus. The trends of Rana catesbeiana significantly increased in four states, but had no trend in the remaining states.

  5. Construction of the State and the Risks of Its Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Joxe

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the danger of war and insecurity in the Mediterranean countries is dependant upon existing fracture lines within states moreso than it does upon the risk of armed inter-state confrontation. Internal instability is related to, according to Alain Joxe, the end of Russian-American strategic bipolarity in the Mediterranean, inasmuch as the subsequent changes brought about in the international system have impacted on the Mediterranean political societies and on intra-state violence. Though the Mediterranean represents a place where antinomies exist between the economies of the North and South, the policies of Europe and the United States, and matters belonging to civilisation - Islam, Judaism, the Christian world and the modernist secular tradition, the intrusion of the great systems of world power via the globalising economy causes ruptures in localsocieties and leads to the weakening of the states. In order to create a system of security in the Mediterranean, it is therefore necessary to apply a critical method that discards cultural and historical stereotypes, looks again at the supposed successes obtained by the different peace agreements, and identifies the negative aspects of economic globalisation. Such a method must be accompanied by the objective of forcing negotiations to take place among the true actors in Mediterranean society –the states– and also among the other ethnic, linguistic or religious entities, large organisations like the EU, NATO and the Arab League, and commercial groups and business leaders who must integrate themselves in a regimented international economy.

  6. Role of fetal monitoring in high risk pregnancy by fetal electrocardiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somya Girish Goyal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-stress test is an external monitoring of fetal heart rate by electrocardiograph. Although intermittent auscultation of fetal heart rate is equivalent to continuous electronic fetal monitoring in detecting fetal compromise1 but continuous electronic fetal monitoring is indicated in high risk patients women whose foetuses are at high risk for neonatal encephalopathy or cerebral palsy.2 Objective of current study was to study the efficacy and diagnostic value of non-stress Test for surveillance and its usefulness to detect fetal distress at early stage which help to decide further management in mode of delivery. Methods: Design: prospective study. NST was done in 50 high risk patients for minimum of 20 minutes and in patients with non-reactive non stress test it was continued for 40 minutes. Maternal age, parity, complications during labour, and delivery, mode of delivery, indications of caesarean section and perinatal outcome were noted. Results: Out of total 50 cases studied patient delivered vaginally were 24 and Caesarean was done in 26 cases. Most LSCS were performed due to PIH (35% and related complications like IUGR, eclampsia (10%, fetal distress, previous caesarean pregnancy, IUGR, oligohydraminos and meconium stained liquor. 52% patients were delivered by caesarean and 48% by normal delivery. Conclusions: Routine use of electronic fetal heart monitoring helped in reduction of neonatal morbidity and mortality with increased rate of caesarean section. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 893-897

  7. Continuous glucose monitoring system and new era of early diagnosis of diabetes in high risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM systems are an emerging technology that allows frequent glucose measurements to monitor glucose trends in real time. Their use as a diagnostic tool is still developing and appears to be promising. Combining intermittent glucose self-monitoring (SGM and CGM combines the benefits of both. Significant improvement in the treatment modalities that may prevent the progress of prediabetes to diabetes have been achieved recently and dictates screening of high risk patients for early diagnosis and management of glycemic abnormalities. The use of CGMS in the diagnosis of early dysglycemia (prediabetes especially in high risk patients appears to be an attractive approach. In this review we searched the literature to investigate the value of using CGMS as a diagnostic tool compared to other known tools, namely oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C in high risk groups. Those categories of patients include adolescents and adults with obesity especially those with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO, gestational diabetes, cystic fibrosis, thalassemia major, acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and after renal transplantation. It appears that the ability of the CGMS for frequently monitoring (every 5 min glucose changes during real-life settings for 3 to 5 days stretches the chance to detect more glycemic abnormalities during basal and postprandial conditions compared to other short-timed methods.

  8. Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring studies: a new study method for risk management in pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Deborah; Shakir, Saad A W

    2015-02-01

    The evolving regulatory landscape has heightened the need for innovative, proactive, efficient and more meaningful solutions for 'real-world' post-authorization safety studies (PASS) that not only align with risk management objectives to gather additional safety monitoring information or assess a pattern of drug utilization, but also satisfy key regulatory requirements for marketing authorization holder risk management planning and execution needs. There is a need for data capture across the primary care and secondary care interface, or for exploring use of new medicines in secondary care to support conducting PASS. To fulfil this need, event monitoring has evolved. The Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring (SCEM) study is a new application that enables a cohort of patients prescribed a medicine in the hospital and secondary care settings to be monitored. The method also permits the inclusion of a comparator cohort of patients receiving standard care, or another counterfactual comparator group, to be monitored concurrently, depending on the study question. The approach has been developed in parallel with the new legislative requirement for pharmaceutical companies to undertake a risk management plan as part of post-authorization safety monitoring. SCEM studies recognize that the study population comprises those patients who may have treatment initiated under the care of specialist health care professionals and who are more complex in terms of underlying disease, co-morbidities and concomitant medications than the general disease population treated in primary care. The aims of this paper are to discuss the SCEM new-user study design, rationale and features that aim to address possible bias (such as selection bias) and current applications.

  9. State trends in ecological risk assessment and standard setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, M R; Fowler, K M; Bilyard, G R

    1993-02-01

    The purposes of this paper are (1) to identify key states' activities and plans related to setting cleanup standards using the ecological risk assessment process, and (2) to discuss the impacts these actions may have on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) environmental restoration program. This report is prepared as part of a larger task, the purpose of which is to identify and assess state regulatory trends and legal developments that may impact DOE's environmental restoration program. Results of this task are intended to provide DOE with advance notice of potentially significant regulatory developments so as to enhance DOE's ability to influence these developments and to incorporate possible regulatory and policy changes into its planning process.

  10. Potential for the Use of Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring of CO2 Leakage Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, R.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Han, Q.; Jayasumana, A.

    2015-12-01

    Storage of supercritical CO2 in deep saline geologic formation is under study as a means to mitigate potential global climate change from green house gas loading to the atmosphere. Leakage of CO2 from these formations poses risk to the storage permanence goal of 99% of injected CO2 remaining sequestered from the atmosphere,. Leaked CO2 that migrates into overlying groundwater aquifers may cause changes in groundwater quality that pose risks to environmental and human health. For these reasons, technologies for monitoring, measuring and accounting of injected CO2 are necessary for permitting of CO2 sequestration projects under EPA's class VI CO2 injection well regulations. While the probability of leakage related to CO2 injection is thought to be small at characterized and permitted sites, it is still very important to protect the groundwater resources and develop methods that can efficiently and accurately detect CO2 leakage. Methods that have been proposed for leakage detection include remote sensing, soil gas monitoring, geophysical techniques, pressure monitoring, vegetation stress and eddy covariance measurements. We have demonstrated the use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) for monitoring of subsurface contaminant plumes. The adaptability of this technology for leakage monitoring of CO2 through geochemical changes in the shallow subsurface is explored. For this technology to be viable, it is necessary to identify geochemical indicators such as pH or electrical conductivity that have high potential for significant change in groundwater in the event of CO2 leakage. This talk presents a conceptual approach to use WSNs for CO2 leakage monitoring. Based on our past work on the use of WSN for subsurface monitoring, some of the challenges that need to be over come for this technology to be viable for leakage detection will be discussed.

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERINATAL OUTCOME IN LOW RISK PREGNANCIES WITH CTG MONITORING AND INTERMITTENT AUSCULTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimala Ratna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available EFM was introduced into widespread clinical practice in the 1970s to 1980s on the premise that it would facilitate early detection of abnormal FHR patterns thought to be associated with hypoxia thus allowing earlier intervention to prevent foetal neurological damage and/or death. There is a lack of evidence of benefit supporting the use of the admission CTG in low-risk pregnancy. In this study we the aim to evaluate the effects of Cardiotocograph Foetal Monitoring on perinatal outcome in low risk Obstetric population and determine the cost effective and reliable method of fetal monitoring that is applicable to low-risk population. METHODOLOGY A prospective randomized study conducted on 200 low risk pregnant women in labour divided into 2 groups of 100 each. Group A includes those monitored with admission CTG and Group B includes those monitored with intermittent auscultation (IA. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS The demographic features, parity and gestational age in both the groups were comparable; 10 out of the 100 in CTG group had meconium stained liquor whereas 15 of them had meconium in IA group; 71% of the patients in CTG group had normal delivery, whereas it was 84% in IA group. Incidence of LSCS was 23% in CTG group as against 9% in IA group. A ‘P’ value of 0.02, RR of 2 5 for operative deliveries in CTG group was observed which was significant. Incidence of AVD was 6% in CTG group and 7% in IA group with a p value of <0.05, which is statistically significant. The incidence of MSL, APGAR scores at 1, 5 and 10 minutes and NICU admissions were comparable in both the groups. There was no significant difference in babies with low APGAR <7 at 5 min and NICU admissions in both the groups. In our study the sensitivity of CTG was 63.63%, specificity 80.35%, positive predictive value 33.3%, negative predictive value 94.93%. The low sensitivity and high false positives led to the intervention in delivery and increase in operative delivery with no

  12. A look at state-level risk assessment in the United States: making decisions in the absence of federal risk values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effio, Diana G; Kroner, Oliver; Maier, Andrew; Hayes, William; Willis, Alison; Strawson, Joan

    2013-01-01

    State environmental agencies in the United States are charged with making risk management decisions that protect public health and the environment while managing limited technical, financial, and human resources. Meanwhile, the federal risk assessment community that provides risk assessment guidance to state agencies is challenged by the rapid growth of the global chemical inventory. When chemical toxicity profiles are unavailable on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Integrated Risk Information System or other federal resources, each state agency must act independently to identify and select appropriate chemical risk values for application in human health risk assessment. This practice can lead to broad interstate variation in the toxicity values selected for any one chemical. Within this context, this article describes the decision-making process and resources used by the federal government and individual U.S. states. The risk management of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the United States is presented as a case study to demonstrate the need for a collaborative approach among U.S. states toward identification and selection of chemical risk values while awaiting federal risk values to be set. The regulatory experience with TCE is contrasted with collaborative risk science models, such as the European Union's efforts in risk assessment harmonization. Finally, we introduce State Environmental Agency Risk Collaboration for Harmonization, a free online interactive tool designed to help to create a collaborative network among state agencies to provide a vehicle for efficiently sharing information and resources, and for the advancement of harmonization in risk values used among U.S. states when federal guidance is unavailable. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Monitoring high-risk patients: minimally invasive and non-invasive possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Jochen; Grünewald, Matthias; Bein, Berthold

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, there has been considerable progress in the field of less invasive haemodynamic monitoring technologies. Substantial evidence has accumulated, which supports the continuous measurement and optimization of flow-based variables such as stroke volume, that is, cardiac output, in order to prevent occult hypoperfusion and consequently to improve patients' outcome in the perioperative setting. However, there is a striking gap between the developments in haemodynamic monitoring and the increasing evidence to implement defined treatment protocols based on the measured variables, and daily clinical routine. Recent trials have shown that perioperative morbidity and mortality is higher than anticipated. This emphasizes the need for the anaesthesia community to address this issue and promotes the implementation of proven concepts into clinical practice in order to improve patients' outcome, especially in high-risk patients. The advances in minimally invasive and non-invasive monitoring techniques can be seen as a driving force in this respect, as the degree of invasiveness of any monitoring tool determines the frequency of its application, especially in the operating room (OR). From this point of view, we are very confident that some of these minimally invasive and non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring technologies will become an inherent part of our monitoring armamentarium in the OR and in the intensive care unit (ICU).

  14. Risk based bridge data collection and asset management and the role of structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenzetter, Piotr; Bush, Simon; Henning, Theunis; McCarten, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Bridges are critical to the operation and functionality of the whole road networks. It is therefore essential that specific data is collected regarding bridge asset condition and performance, as this allows proactive management of the assets and associated risks and more accurate short and long term financial planning. This paper proposes and discusses a strategy for collection of data on bridge condition and performance. Recognizing that risk management is the primary driver of asset management, the proposed strategy prioritizes bridges for levels of data collection including core, intermediate and advanced. Individual bridges are seen as parts of wider networks and bridge risk and criticality assessment emphasizes bridge failure or underperformance risk in the network context. The paper demonstrates how more reliable and detailed data can assist in managing network and bridge risks and provides a rationale for application of higher data collection levels for bridges characterized by higher risk and criticality. As the bridge risk and/or criticality increases planned and proactive integration of structural health monitoring (SHM) data into asset management is outlined. An example of bridge prioritization for data collection using several bridges taken from a national highway network is provided using an existing risk and criticality scoring methodology. The paper concludes with a discussion on the role of SHM in data collection for bridge asset management and where SHM can make the largest impacts.

  15. A novel method for monitoring high-risk breast cancer with tumor markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Nielsen, D; Schiøler, V

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An early and reliable diagnosis of metastatic spread has increased interest in serum tumor markers. This study investigated the ability of CA 15.3, CEA, and TPA to identify, predict, and exclude metastases in bone/viscera during adjuvant treatment and follow-up of high-risk breast...... cancer. METHODS: Ninety females with high-risk breast cancer were included in the study. Response evaluation was based upon clinical examination, x-rays or histology and elaborated marker criteria. RESULTS: During the marker monitoring period, metastases in four patients were confined to skin or lymph...

  16. Measuring and monitoring to understand and reduce the fall-of-ground risk

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogt, D

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available -1 ICSMRI 2013: 35th International Conference of Safety in Mines Research Institutes, Central Hall, Westminster, London, UK, 15-17 October 2013 Measuring and monitoring to understand and reduce the fall-of-ground risk Declan Vogt, CSIR Centre...-of-ground still constitute the single largest cause of fatalities. The data show that small falls of between 4 m2 and 10 m2, affecting single people, are the major cause of fatalities. The critical parameters that characterize the risk of rockfalls are: rock...

  17. Analysing risk factors for urinary tract infection based on automated monitoring of hospital-acquired infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redder, J D; Leth, R A; Møller, J K

    2016-04-01

    Urinary tract infections account for as much as one-third of all nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to examine previously reported characteristics of patients with hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (HA-UTI) using an automated infection monitoring system (Hospital-Acquired Infection Registry: HAIR). A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate the association of risk factors with HA-UTI. Patients with HA-UTI more frequently had indwelling urinary catheters or a disease in the genitourinary or nervous system than the controls. Automated hospital-acquired infection monitoring enables documentation of key risk factors to better evaluate infection control interventions in general or for selected groups of patients.

  18. Monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in irrigation systems in Debra Zeit, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Since Ethiopia is going through a rapid transformation of its agricultural sector, we assessed the human health and environmental risks due to the past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as well as the risks of the current pesticide use by farmers. A monitoring programme and risk assessment was carried out for the Wedecha-Belbela irrigation system in the Debra Zeit area. The Wedecha and Belbela rivers and adjacent temporary ponds were sampled and examined for the presence of OCPs between August and October 2014, while data on the current pesticide use by small- and large-scale farmers was collected by interviews. The usage patterns were evaluated for risks of using the river or temporary ponds as source of drinking water and for risks for the aquatic ecosystems in the river and ponds with the aid of the PRIMET_Registration_Ethiopa_1.1 model. The samples were collected in five sampling periods, and results indicate that most of the 18 target OCPs were not detected above the detection limit, while g-chlordane may pose chronic risks when surface water is used as drinking water. Endosulfan and heptachlor pose risks to aquatic organisms at second-tier level, while for heptachlor-epoxide B, g-chlordane and b-BHC only risks could be determined at the first tier due to a lack of data. For all nine pesticides used by small-scale farmers the calculated acute risks to humans were low. Second tier risk assessment for the aquatic ecosystem indicated that lambda-cyhalothrin, endosulfan, profenofos, and diazinon may pose high risks.

  19. Hemodynamic monitoring and management in patients undergoing high risk surgery: a survey among North American and European anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannesson, Maxime; Pestel, Gunther; Ricks, Cameron; Hoeft, Andreas; Perel, Azriel

    2011-08-15

    Several studies have demonstrated that perioperative hemodynamic optimization has the ability to improve postoperative outcome in high-risk surgical patients. All of these studies aimed at optimizing cardiac output and/or oxygen delivery in the perioperative period. We conducted a survey with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) to assess current hemodynamic management practices in patients undergoing high-risk surgery in Europe and in the United States. A survey including 33 specific questions was emailed to 2,500 randomly selected active members of the ASA and to active ESA members. Overall, 368 questionnaires were completed, 57.1% from ASA and 42.9% from ESA members. Cardiac output is monitored by only 34% of ASA and ESA respondents (P = 0.49) while central venous pressure is monitored by 73% of ASA respondents and 84% of ESA respondents (P < 0.01). Specifically, the pulmonary artery catheter is being used much more frequently in the US than in Europe in the setup of high-risk surgery (85.1% vs. 55.3% respectively, P < 0.001). Clinical experience, blood pressure, central venous pressure, and urine output are the most widely indicators of volume expansion. Finally, 86.5% of ASA respondents and 98.1% of ESA respondents believe that their current hemodynamic management could be improved. In conclusion, these results point to a considerable gap between the accumulating evidence about the benefits of perioperative hemodynamic optimization and the available technologies that may facilitate its clinical implementation, and clinical practices in both Europe and the United States.

  20. Countries at Risk: Heightened Human Security Risk to States With Transboundary Water Resources and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, J. C.; Sullivan, G. S.; Paola, C.; Starget, A.; Watson, J. E.; Hwang, Y. J.; Picucci, J. A.; Choi, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Countries at Risk project is a global assessment of countries with transboundary water resources that are at risk for conflict because of high human security instability. Building upon Basins at Risk (BAR) research, our team used updated Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database georeferenced social and environmental data, quantitative data from global indices, and qualitative data from news media sources. Our assessment considered a combination of analyzing 15 global indices related to water or human security to identify which countries scored as highest risk in each index. From this information, we were able to assess the highest risk countries' human security risk by using a new human security measurement tool, as well as comparing this analysis to the World Bank's Fragile States Index and the experimental Human Security Index. In addition, we identified which countries have the highest number of shared basins, the highest percentage of territory covered by a transboundary basin, and the highest dependency of withdrawal from transboundary waters from outside their country boundaries. By synthesizing these social and environmental data assessments, we identified five countries to analyze as case studies. These five countries are Afghanistan, China, Iraq, Moldova, and Sudan. We created a series of 30 maps to spatial analyze the relationship between the transboundary basins and social and environmental parameters to include population, institutional capacity, and physical geography by country. Finally, we synthesized our spatial analysis, Human Security Key scores, and current events scored by using the BAR scale to determine what aspects and which basins are most at risk with each country in our case studies and how this concerns future global water resources.

  1. Monitoring of Microbial Loads During Long Duration Missions as a Risk Reduction Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.

    2011-01-01

    Humans have been exploring space for more than 40 years. For all those years microorganisms have accompanied, first un-manned spacecraft/cargo and later manned vessels. Microorganisms are everywhere on Earth, could easily adapt to new environments and/or can rapidly mutate to survive in very harsh conditions. Their presence in spacecraft and cargo have caused a few inconveniences over the years of humans spaceflight, ranging from crew health, life support systems challenges and material degradation. The sterilization of spacecraft that will host humans in long duration mission would be a costly operation that will not provide a long-term solution to the microbial colonization of the vessels. As soon as a human is exposed to the spacecraft, during the mission, microorganisms will start to populate the new environment. As the hum an presence in space increases in length, the risk from the microbial load, to hardware and crew will also increase. Mitigation of this risk includes several different strategies that will include minimizing the microbial load (in numbers and diversity) and monitoring. This presentation will provide a list of the risk mitigation strategies that should be implemented during ground processing, and during the mission. It will also discuss the areas that should be discussed before an effective in-flight microbial monitoring regimen is implemented. Microbial monitoring technologies will also be presented.

  2. An experimental system for flood risk forecasting and monitoring at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Kalas, Milan; Lorini, Valerio; Salamon, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Global flood forecasting and monitoring systems are nowadays a reality and are being applied by a wide range of users and practitioners in disaster risk management. Furthermore, there is an increasing demand from users to integrate flood early warning systems with risk based forecasting, combining streamflow estimations with expected inundated areas and flood impacts. Finally, emerging technologies such as crowdsourcing and social media monitoring can play a crucial role in flood disaster management and preparedness. Here, we present some recent advances of an experimental procedure for near-real time flood mapping and impact assessment. The procedure translates in near real-time the daily streamflow forecasts issued by the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) into event-based flood hazard maps, which are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information at global scale to derive risk forecast. Impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, and affected population, infrastructures and cities. To increase the reliability of our forecasts we propose the integration of model-based estimations with an innovative methodology for social media monitoring, which allows for real-time verification and correction of impact forecasts. Finally, we present the results of preliminary tests which show the potential of the proposed procedure in supporting emergency response and management.

  3. Insightful monitoring of natural flood risk management features using a low-cost and participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Pressures associated with flooding and climate change have significantly increased over recent years. Natural Flood Risk Management (NFRM) is now seen as being a more appropriate and favourable approach in some locations. At the same time, catchment managers are also encouraged to adopt a more integrated, evidence-based and bottom-up approach. This includes engaging with local communities. Although NFRM features are being more readily installed, there is still limited evidence associated with their ability to reduce flood risk and offer multiple benefits. In particular, local communities and land owners are still uncertain about what the features entail and how they will perform, which is a huge barrier affecting widespread uptake. Traditional hydrometric monitoring techniques are well established but they still struggle to successfully monitor and capture NFRM performance spatially and temporally in a visual and more meaningful way for those directly affected on the ground. Two UK-based case studies are presented here where unique NFRM features have been carefully designed and installed in rural headwater catchments. This includes a 1km2 sub-catchment of the Haltwhistle Burn (northern England) and a 2km2 sub-catchment of Eddleston Water (southern Scotland). Both of these pilot sites are subject to prolonged flooding in winter and flash flooding in summer. This exacerbates sediment, debris and water quality issues downstream. Examples of NFRM features include ponds, woody debris and a log feature inspired by the children's game 'Kerplunk'. They have been tested and monitored over the 2015-2016 winter storms using low-cost techniques by both researchers and members of the community ('citizen scientists'). Results show that monitoring techniques such as regular consumer specification time-lapse cameras, photographs, videos and 'kite-cams' are suitable for long-term and low-cost monitoring of a variety of NFRM features. These techniques have been compared against

  4. Groundwater monitoring plan for the proposed state-approved land disposal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidel, S.P.

    1993-10-13

    This document outlines a detection-level groundwater monitoring program for the state-approved land disposal structure (SALDS). The SALDS is an infiltration basin proposed for disposal of treated effluent from the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this plan is to present a groundwater monitoring program that is capable of determining the impact of effluent disposal at the SALDS on the quality of groundwater in the uppermost aquifer. This groundwater monitoring plan presents an overview of the SALDS, the geology and hydrology of the area, the background and indicator evaluation (detection) groundwater monitoring program, and an outline of a groundwater quality assessment (compliance) program. This plan does not provide a plan for institutional controls to track tritium beyond the SALDS.

  5. Natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy: a practical approach to risk profiling and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, David; Giovannoni, Gavin

    2012-02-01

    Natalizumab reduces relapse frequency, delays onset of disease progression and improves disease outcomes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and is a cost-effective treatment for rapidly evolving severe relapsing-remitting MS. However, it is associated with the development of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), a serious opportunistic brain infection caused by a neurotropic strain of the JC virus (JCV). Until May 2011, 83 300 patients had received natalizumab for MS. One hundred and twenty-four patients had developed PML, of whom 23 (19%) died. In order to maximise the benefit-risk ratio of natalizumab for MS patients it is important to develop a strategy for risk profiling and monitoring for PML. Central to this is an understanding of the biology of the JCV and the emerging clinical picture of natalizumab-associated PML. This paper reviews the evidence for managing the risk of PML in natalizumab-treated patients and the authors propose an algorithm for risk profiling and risk management. Key features of this algorithm include risk stratification based on emerging risk factors, heightened clinical vigilance for the clinical features of natalizumab-associated PML and considerations for temporary and permanent cessation of natalizumab dosing.

  6. Estimates of lifetime infertility from three states: the behavioral risk factor surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sara; Fussman, Chris; Bailey, Marie; Bernson, Dana; Jamieson, Denise J; Murray-Jordan, Melissa; Kissin, Dmitry M

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of state-specific infertility is limited. The objectives of this study were to explore state-specific estimates of lifetime prevalence of having ever experienced infertility, sought treatment for infertility, types of treatments sought, and treatment outcomes. Male and female adult residents aged 18-50 years from three states involved in the States Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology Collaborative (Florida, Massachusetts, and Michigan) were asked state-added infertility questions as part of the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based, health-related telephone survey. Analysis involved estimation of lifetime prevalence of infertility. The estimated lifetime prevalence of infertility among 1,285 adults in Florida, 1,302 in Massachusetts, and 3,360 in Michigan was 9.7%, 6.0%, and 4.2%, respectively. Among 736 adults in Florida, 1,246 in Massachusetts, and 2,742 in Michigan that have ever tried to get pregnant, the lifetime infertility prevalence was 25.3% in Florida, 9.9% in Massachusetts, and 5.8% in Michigan. Among those with a history of infertility, over half sought treatment (60.7% in Florida, 70.6% in Massachusetts, and 51.6% in Michigan), the most common being non-assisted reproductive technology fertility treatments (61.3% in Florida, 66.0% in Massachusetts, and 75.9% in Michigan). State-specific estimates of lifetime infertility prevalence in Florida, Massachusetts, and Michigan varied. Variations across states are difficult to interpret, as they likely reflect both true differences in prevalence and differences in data collection questionnaires. State-specific estimates are needed for the prevention, detection, and management of infertility, but estimates should be based on a common set of questions appropriate for these goals.

  7. On-line estimation of physiological states for monitoring and control of bioprocesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velislava N Lyubenova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach for monitoring of main physiological states of a class processes is proposed. This class is characterized by production and consumption of intermediate metabolite related to target product. The balance between these two phenomena is considered as key parameter for recognizing the process physiological states. A general structure of cascade software sensor of the key parameter is derived and applied for process monitoring and control. Two type processes are considered as case study. The first one is mono culture for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the second one is mixed culture for biopolymer production by L. delbrulckii and R. Eutropha. The good properties of the proposed monitoring and control schemes are demonstrated by simulation investigations.

  8. United States-Chile binational exchange for volcanic risk reduction, 2015—Activities and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Lara Pulgar, Luis E.; Ramos Amigo, Álvaro

    2017-07-25

    In 2015, representatives from the United States and Chile exchanged visits to discuss and share their expertise and experiences dealing with volcano hazards. Communities in both countries are at risk from various volcano hazards. Risks to lives and property posed by these hazards are a function not only of the type and size of future eruptions but also of distances from volcanoes, structural integrity of volcanic edifices, landscape changes imposed by recent past eruptions, exposure of people and resources to harm, and any mitigative measures taken (or not taken) to reduce risk. Thus, effective risk-reduction efforts require the knowledge and consideration of many factors, and firsthand experience with past volcano crises provides a tremendous advantage for this work. However, most scientists monitoring volcanoes and most officials delegated with the responsibility for emergency response and management in volcanic areas have little or no firsthand experience with eruptions or volcano hazards. The reality is that eruptions are infrequent in most regions, and individual volcanoes may have dormant periods lasting hundreds to thousands of years. Knowledge may be lacking about how to best plan for and manage future volcanic crises, and much can be learned from the sharing of insights and experiences among counterpart specialists who have had direct, recent, or different experiences in dealing with restless volcanoes and threatened populations. The sharing of information and best practices can help all volcano scientists and officials to better prepare for future eruptions or noneruptive volcano hazards, such as large volcanic mudflows (lahars), which could affect their communities.

  9. Monitoring the metabolic state of fungal hyphae and the presence of melanin by nonlinear spectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaus, H.; Blab, G.; Agronskaia, A.V.; van den Heuvel, D.J.; Gerritsen, H.C.; Wösten, H.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Label-free nonlinear spectral imaging microscopy (NLSM) records two-photon-excited fluorescence emission spectra of endogenous fluorophores within the specimen. Here, NLSM is introduced as a novel, minimally invasive method to analyze the metabolic state of fungal hyphae by monitoring the autofluore

  10. Is perceived parental monitoring associated with sexual risk behaviors of young Black males?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Crosby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined whether perceived parental monitoring is associated with any of twelve selected outcomes related to sexual risk behaviors of young Black males. Recruitment occurred in clinics diagnosing and treating sexually transmitted infections. Young Black males living with a parent or guardian (N = 324 were administered a 9-item scale assessing level of perceived parental monitoring. The obtained range was 10–45, with higher scores representing more frequent monitoring. The mean was 29.3 (sd = 7.0. Eight of the twelve outcomes had significant associations with perceived parental monitoring (all in a direction indicating a protective effect. Of these eight, five retained significance in age-adjusted models were ever causing a pregnancy, discussing pregnancy prevention, safer sex, and condom use with sex partners, and using a condom during the last act of penile–vaginal sex. Monitoring by a parent figure may be partly protective against conceiving a pregnancy for Black males 15–23 years of age.

  11. Development of Information Support of the Automated System for Monitoring the State of the Gas Transportation System’s Industrial Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Skrynkovskyy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to developing the information security of the automated system for monitoring the state of industrial safety of the gas transportation system within the framework of the safety management system, which will enable timely and objective detection of adverse accident hazards (hazardous events and taking the necessary specific measures to eliminate them and operate the gas transport system safely. It is proved that the basis of the information provision of the automated system for monitoring the state of the industrial safety of the gas transmission system is a methodology that includes the following basic procedures: identifying hazards; qualitative and quantitative assessment of emergencies; establishing of unacceptable (unallowable risks and their introduction to the information base (register of unacceptable risks of objects of the gas transportation system; comprehensive assessment and certification of the state of industrial safety of objects of the gas transportation system; identification of effective, productive (efficient risk management measures. The prospect of further research in this area is the development and implementation of an automated system for monitoring the state of industrial safety of the objects of the gas transmission system based on the results of the research (of the submitted information provision.

  12. Poverty risk among older immigrants in a Scandinavian welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2016-01-01

    Focus in the paper is on poverty among immigrants and refugees 50 years and older coming to Denmark from countries outside the OECD, with main emphasis on immigrants coming as guest workers before 1974, as refugees and as family members and marriage partners – tied movers – relative to individuals...... where you become eligible for State pension. Poverty rates by national background are described using alternative household concepts. Next, a number of background factors of relevance for poverty are summarized. We focus on age, gender, marital status, occupational status at age 55 and duration...... of residence. We find major differences between migrant groups and between migrants and natives regarding how income is composed at different ages on market income, pensions and benefits. Next, we present a number of regressions aiming at explaining differences in the poverty risk with differences in a number...

  13. INFORMATION: Management Alert on the Department's Monitoring of the Weatherization Assistance Program in the State of Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-01

    Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program received $5 billion to improve the energy efficiency of homes owned or occupied by low income persons, reduce their total residential expenditures, and improve their health and safety. Since the Recovery Act was enacted in February 2009, the Department has awarded weatherization grants to every state, the District of Columbia and five territories. Because of the unprecedented level of funding and the risks associated with spending vast amounts of money in a relatively short period of time, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) initiated a series of audits designed to evaluate the Program's internal control structures at both the Federal and state levels. As part of our work, we are in the process of reviewing Weatherization Program internal controls for the State of Illinois. We are also currently performing identical audits in the States of North Carolina, Pennsylvania and Virginia. Under the Recovery Act and the Department's Program, the State of Illinois received $242 million to weatherize 26,933 homes. The State of Illinois awarded these funds to 35 local agencies responsible for determining recipients' eligibility, contracting for the installation of the weatherization work, and conducting final inspections to ensure that work on homes was done in accordance with requirements. Inspectors working for the local agencies are required to evaluate the quality of mechanical and architectural improvements, such as furnace installations and window caulking, and certify that the work performed meets established standards. Under a Department approved plan in place at the time of our review, state officials were required to evaluate the sufficiency of local agency monitoring controls and to inspect the work performed on at least five percent of the units weatherized with Department funds during the program year for each

  14. Cancer risk of insulation workers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selikoff, I.J.; Hammond, E.C.; Seidman, H.

    1972-10-04

    Three investigations were made of workers exposed to asbestos-insulation materials. In one study, the entire membership of the insulation workers union in the United States and Canada was registered for observation. Another group consisted of workers hired between 1941 and 1945 by a factory which manufactured amosite asbestos insulation materials until 1954. Among asbestos-insulation workers in the U.S., approximately one death in five has been the result of lung cancer. Incidence of gastro-intestinal cancer was more than double that of the general population, and mesothelioma was responsible for 7% of all deaths. Increased incidence of lung cancer was seen as soon as 10 to 14 years from onset of exposure. It is suspected that more intense exposure experienced by factory workers is associated with earlier appearance of asbestos lung cancer. However, although early lung cancer increase was seen, the greater increase occurred 30 to 45 years from exposure onset, especially among the less intensely exposed insulation workers. Data indicate that these risks were associated with the asbestos insulation materials per se. There was no evidence that chrysotile was associated with greater risk than amosite, or vice versa.

  15. Home Monitoring Program Reduces Mortality in High-Risk Sociodemographic Single-Ventricle Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Daniel Alexander; Herrington, Cynthia; Adler, Stacey; Haas, Karen; Ram Kumar, S; Kung, Grace C

    2016-12-01

    A clinician-driven home monitoring program can improve interstage outcomes in single-ventricle patients. Sociodemographic factors have been independently associated with mortality in interstage patients. We hypothesized that even in a population with high-risk sociodemographic characteristics, a home monitoring program is effective in reducing interstage mortality. We defined interstage period as the time period between discharge following Norwood palliation and second-stage surgery. We reviewed the charts of patients for the three-year period before (group 1) and after (group 2) implementation of the home monitoring program. Clinical variables around Norwood palliation, during the interstage period, and at the time of second-stage surgery were analyzed. There were 74 patients in group 1 and 52 in group 2. 59 % patients were Hispanic, and 84 % lived in neighborhoods where over 5 % families lived below poverty line. There was no significant difference in pre-Norwood variables, Norwood discharge variables, age at second surgery, or outcomes at second surgery. There were more Sano shunts performed at the Norwood procedure as the source of pulmonary blood flow in group 2 (p value <0.05). There were more unplanned hospital admissions and percutaneous re-interventions in group 2. Patients in group 2 whose admission criteria included desaturation had a 45 % likelihood of having an unplanned re-intervention. Group 2 noted an 80 % relative reduction in interstage mortality (p < 0.01). In a multiple regression analysis, after accounting for ethnicity, socio-economic status, and source of pulmonary blood flow, enrollment in a home monitoring program independently predicted improved interstage survival (p < 0.01). A clinician-driven home monitoring program reduces interstage mortality even when the majority of patients has high-risk sociodemographic characteristics.

  16. Identification of electrical resistance of fresh state concrete for nondestructive setting process monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Woo [Dept. of Safety Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Concrete undergoes significant phase changes from liquid to solid states as hydration progresses. These phase changes are known as the setting process. A liquid state concrete is electrically conductive because of the presence of water and ions. However, since the conductive elements in the liquid state of concrete are consumed to produce non-conductive hydration products, the electrical conductivity of hydrating concrete decreases during the setting process. Therefore, the electrical properties of hydrating concrete can be used to monitor the setting process of concrete. In this study, a parameter identification method to estimate electrical parameters such as ohmic resistance of concrete is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed method for monitoring the setting process of concrete is experimentally validated.

  17. Risk factors for legal induced abortion-related mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Linda A; Berg, Cynthia J; Shulman, Holly B; Zane, Suzanne B; Green, Clarice A; Whitehead, Sara; Atrash, Hani K

    2004-04-01

    To assess risk factors for legal induced abortion-related deaths. This is a descriptive epidemiologic study of women dying of complications of induced abortions. Numerator data are from the Abortion Mortality Surveillance System. Denominator data are from the Abortion Surveillance System, which monitors the number and characteristics of women who have legal induced abortions in the United States. Risk factors examined include age of the woman, gestational length of pregnancy at the time of termination, race, and procedure. Main outcome measures include crude, adjusted, and risk factor-specific mortality rates. During 1988-1997, the overall death rate for women obtaining legally induced abortions was 0.7 per 100000 legal induced abortions. The risk of death increased exponentially by 38% for each additional week of gestation. Compared with women whose abortions were performed at or before 8 weeks of gestation, women whose abortions were performed in the second trimester were significantly more likely to die of abortion-related causes. The relative risk (unadjusted) of abortion-related mortality was 14.7 at 13-15 weeks of gestation (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2, 34.7), 29.5 at 16-20 weeks (95% CI 12.9, 67.4), and 76.6 at or after 21 weeks (95% CI 32.5, 180.8). Up to 87% of deaths in women who chose to terminate their pregnancies after 8 weeks of gestation may have been avoidable if these women had accessed abortion services before 8 weeks of gestation. Although primary prevention of unintended pregnancy is optimal, among women who choose to terminate their pregnancies, increased access to surgical and nonsurgical abortion services may increase the proportion of abortions performed at lower-risk, early gestational ages and help further decrease deaths. II-2

  18. Simultaneous On-State Voltage and Bond-Wire Resistance Monitoring of Silicon Carbide MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Baker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In fast switching power semiconductors, the use of a fourth terminal to provide the reference potential for the gate signal—known as a kelvin-source terminal—is becoming common. The introduction of this terminal presents opportunities for condition monitoring systems. This article demonstrates how the voltage between the kelvin-source and power-source can be used to specifically monitor bond-wire degradation. Meanwhile, the drain to kelvin-source voltage can be monitored to track defects in the semiconductor die or gate driver. Through an accelerated aging test on 20 A Silicon Carbide Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs, it is shown that there are opposing trends in the evolution of the on-state resistances of both the bond-wires and the MOSFET die. In summary, after 50,000 temperature cycles, the resistance of the bond-wires increased by up to 2 mΩ, while the on-state resistance of the MOSFET dies decreased by approximately 1 mΩ. The conventional failure precursor (monitoring a single forward voltage cannot distinguish between semiconductor die or bond-wire degradation. Therefore, the ability to monitor both these parameters due to the presence of an auxiliary-source terminal can provide more detailed information regarding the aging process of a device.

  19. In-situ material state monitoring using embedded CdSe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Cole D.; Frecker, Talitha M.; Njoroge, Ian; Shane, Dylan O.; Smudde, Christine M.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.; Jennings, G. Kane; Adams, Douglas E.

    2016-04-01

    The development of new, smart materials capable of intrinsically detecting and communicating the occurrence of external loads and resultant damage present in a material will be crucial in the advancement of future structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies. Traditionally, many SHM and NDE approaches have relied on the use of physical sensors to monitor a structure for damage, but are often hindered by their requirements for power consumption and large-scale data collection. In this work, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasmall, white-light emitting Cadmium Selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) as an alternative to providing in-situ material state monitoring capabilities, while also aiming to reduce reliance on data collection and power consumption to effectively monitor a material and structure for damage. To achieve this goal, CdSe QDs are embedded in an optically clear epoxy composite matrix and exposed to external mechanical loadings. Initial results show a corresponding relationship between the shifts in observed emission spectra and external load for samples containing CdSe QDs. The effectiveness of CdSe QDs as a surface strain gauge on aluminum and fiberglass are also investigated in this paper. By monitoring changes in the emission spectra for materials containing CdSe QDs before, during and after the application of external loads, the effectiveness of CdSe QDs for communicating the occurrence of external loads acting on a material and detecting changes in material state is evaluated.

  20. Multisensor monitoring system for assessment of locust hazard risk in the Lake Balkhash drainage basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propastin, Pavel

    2012-12-01

    Satellite and ground-based data were combined in a monitoring system to quantify the link between climate conditions and the risk of locust infestations in the southern part of Lake Balkhash's drainage basin in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In this monitoring system, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), derived from the SPOT-VGT satellite, was used for mapping potential locust habitats and monitoring their area throughout 1998 to 2007. TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason 1 altimeter data were used to track the interannual dynamics of water level in Balkhash Lake. Climate conditions were represented by weather records for air temperature and precipitation during the same period. The classification procedure, based on an analysis of multitemporal dynamics of SPOT-VGT NDVI values observed by individual vegetation classes, generated annual areas of ten land-cover types, which were then categorized as areas with low, medium, and high risk for locust infestation. Statistical analyses showed significant influences of the climatic parameters and the Balkhash Lake hydrological regime on the spatial extend of annual areas of potential locust habitats. The results also indicate that the linkages between locust infestation risk and environmental factors are characterized by time lags. The expansion of locust risk areas are usually preceded by dry, hot years and lower water levels in Balkhash Lake when larger areas of reed grass are free from seasonal flooding. Years with such conditions are favourable for locust outbreaks due to expansion of the habitat areas suitable for locust oviposition and nymphal development. In contrast, years with higher water levels in Balkhash Lake and lower temperature decrease the potential locust habitat area.

  1. Applications of MODIS satellite data and products for monitoring air quality in the state of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith D.

    The Center for Space Research (CSR), in conjunction with the Monitoring Operations Division (MOD) of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), is evaluating the use of remotely sensed satellite data to assist in monitoring and predicting air quality in Texas. The challenges of meeting air quality standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) are impacted by the transport of pollution into Texas that originates from outside our borders and are cumulative with those generated by local sources. In an attempt to quantify the concentrations of all pollution sources, MOD has installed ground-based monitoring stations in rural regions along the Texas geographic boundaries including the Gulf coast, as well as urban regions that are the predominant sources of domestic pollution. However, analysis of time-lapse GOES satellite imagery at MOD, clearly demonstrates the shortcomings of using only ground-based observations for monitoring air quality across Texas. These shortcomings include the vastness of State borders, that can only be monitored with a large number of ground-based sensors, and gradients in pollution concentration that depend upon the location of the point source, the meteorology governing its transport to Texas, and its diffusion across the region. With the launch of NASA's MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the transport of aerosol-borne pollutants can now be monitored over land and ocean surfaces. Thus, CSR and MOD personnel have applied MODIS data to several classes of pollution that routinely impact Texas air quality. Results demonstrate MODIS data and products can detect and track the migration of pollutants. This paper presents one case study in which continental haze from the northeast moved into the region and subsequently required health advisories to be issued for 150 counties in Texas. It is concluded that MODIS provides the basis for developing advanced data products that will, when used in

  2. [The relationship between narcissistic personality traits and risk-taking behavior is mediated by self-monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Itsuko; Yazawa, Hisashi

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that narcissistic personality traits would affect risk-taking behaviors through self-monitoring. The Narcissistic Personality Inventory Short Version (NPI-S), the Self-monitoring Scale (SM), and the Risk-taking Behavior Scale for Undergraduates (RIBS-U) were administered to 192 university and graduate students. There were three NPI-S factors ("sense of superiority and competence", "need for attention and praise", and "self-assertion"), two SM factors ("extraversion" and "other-directedness"), and the single risk-taking factor of the RIBS-U. Covariance structure analysis was then conducted to test whether narcissistic personality traits would affect risk-taking behaviors through self-monitoring. Analysis showed that the factors of "sense of superiority and competence" and "need for attention and praise" affected risk-taking behavior through the "other-directedness" factor. However, the "self-assertion" factor was found to have a direct effect on risk-taking behavior.

  3. Recommended methods for range-wide monitoring of prairie dogs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lyman L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Otis, David L.; Biggins, Dean E.; Stevens, Patricia D.; Koprowski, John L.; Ballard, Warren

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for conserving grassland, prairie scrub, and shrub-steppe ecosystems is maintaining prairie dog populations across the landscape. Of the four species of prairie dogs found in the United States, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as threatened, the Gunnison's prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) is a candidate for listing in a portion of its range, and the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) have each been petitioned for listing at least once in recent history. Although the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) determined listing is not warranted for either the black-tailed prairie dog or white-tailed prairie dog, the petitions and associated reviews demonstrated the need for the States to monitor and manage for self-sustaining populations. In response to these findings, a multi-State conservation effort was initiated for the nonlisted species which included the following proposed actions: (1) completing an assessment of each prairie dog species in each State, (2) developing a range-wide monitoring protocol for each species using a statistically valid sampling procedure that would allow comparable analyses across States, and (3) monitoring prairie dog status every 3-5 years depending upon the species. To date, each State has completed an assessment and currently is monitoring prairie dog status; however, for some species, the inconsistency in survey methodology has made it difficult to compare data year-to-year or State-to-State. At the Prairie Dog Conservation Team meeting held in November 2008, there was discussion regarding the use of different methods to survey prairie dogs. A recommendation from this meeting was to convene a panel in a workshop-type forum and have the panel review the different methods being used and provide recommendations for range-wide monitoring protocols for each species of prairie dog. Consequently, the Western

  4. State-of-the-art lab chip sensors for environmental water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Am; Zou, Zhiwei; Kug Lee, Kang; Ahn, Chong H.; Bishop, Paul L.

    2011-03-01

    As a result of increased water demand and water pollution, both surface water and groundwater quantity and quality are of major concern worldwide. In particular, the presence of nutrients and heavy metals in water is a serious threat to human health. The initial step for the effective management of surface waters and groundwater requires regular, continuous monitoring of water quality in terms of contaminant distribution and source identification. Because of this, there is a need for screening and monitoring measurements of these compounds at contaminated areas. However, traditional monitoring techniques are typically still based on laboratory analyses of representative field-collected samples; this necessitates considerable effort and expense, and the sample may change before analysis. Furthermore, currently available equipment is so large that it cannot usually be made portable. Alternatively, lab chip and electrochemical sensing-based portable monitoring systems appear well suited to complement standard analytical methods for a number of environmental monitoring applications. In addition, this type of portable system could save tremendous amounts of time, reagent, and sample if it is installed at contaminated sites such as Superfund sites (the USA's worst toxic waste sites) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facilities or in rivers and lakes. Accordingly, state-of-the-art monitoring equipment is necessary for accurate assessments of water quality. This article reviews details on our development of these lab-on-a-chip (LOC) sensors.

  5. Platelet function monitoring guided antiplatelet therapy in patients receiving high-risk coronary interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Li; Wang Lefeng; Yang Xinchun; Li Kuibao; Sun Hao; Zhang Dapeng; Wang Hongshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Large-scale clinical trials have shown that routine monitoring of the platelet function in patients after percutanous coronary intervention (PCI) is not necessary.However,it is still unclear whether patients received high-risk PCI would benefit from a therapy which is guided by a selective platelet function monitoring.This explanatory study sought to assess the benefit of a therapy guided by platelet function monitoring for these patients.Methods Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients (n=384) who received high-risk,complex PCI were randomized into two groups.PCI in the two types of lesions described below was defined as high-risk,complex PCI:lesions that could result in severe clinical outcomes if stent thrombosis occurred or lesions at high risk for stent thrombosis.The patients in the conventionally treated group received standard dual antiplatelet therapy.The patients in the platelet function monitoring guided group received an antiplated therapy guided by a modified thromboelastography (TEG) platelet mapping:If inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) induced by arachidonic acid (AA) was less than 50% the aspirin dosage was raised to 200 mg/d; if IPA induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was less than 30% the clopidogrel dosage was raised to 150 mg/d,for three months.The primary efficacy endpoint was a composite of myocardial infarction,emergency target vessel revascularization (eTVR),stent thrombosis,and death in six months.Results This study included 384 patients; 191 and 193 in the conventionally treated group and platelet function monitoring guided group,respectively.No significant differences were observed in the baseline clinical characteristics and interventional data between the two groups.In the platelet function monitoring guided group,the mean IPA induced by AA and ADP were (69.2±24.5)% (range,4.8% to 100.0%) and (51.4±29.8)% (range,0.2% to 100.0%),respectively.The AAinduced IPA of forty-three (22.2%) patients was less

  6. GBM Monitoring of Cyg X-1 During the Recent State Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Case, G L; Cherry, M L; Camero-Arranz, A; Finger, M; Jenke, P; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Chaplin, V

    2011-01-01

    Cygnus X-1 is a high-mass x-ray binary with a black hole compact object. It is normally extremely bright in hard x-rays and low energy gamma rays and resides in the canonical hard spectral state. Recently, however, Cyg X-1 made a transition to the canonical soft state, with a rise in the soft x-ray flux and a decrease in the flux in the hard x-ray and low energy gamma-ray energy bands. We have been using the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor on Fermi to monitor the fluxes of a number of sources in the 8--1000 keV energy range, including Cyg X-1. We present light curves of Cyg X-1 showing the flux decrease in hard x-ray and low energy gamma-ray energy bands during the state transition as well as the several long flares observed in these higher energies during the soft state. We also present preliminary spectra from GBM for the pre-transition state, showing the spectral evolution to the soft state, and the post-transition state.

  7. Prognosis-a wearable health-monitoring system for people at risk: methodology and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelopoulos, Alexandros; Bourbakis, Nikolaos G

    2010-05-01

    Wearable health-monitoring systems (WHMSs) represent the new generation of healthcare by providing real-time unobtrusive monitoring of patients' physiological parameters through the deployment of several on-body and even intrabody biosensors. Although several technological issues regarding WHMS still need to be resolved in order to become more applicable in real-life scenarios, it is expected that continuous ambulatory monitoring of vital signs will enable proactive personal health management and better treatment of patients suffering from chronic diseases, of the elderly population, and of emergency situations. In this paper, we present a physiological data fusion model for multisensor WHMS called Prognosis. The proposed methodology is based on a fuzzy regular language for the generation of the prognoses of the health conditions of the patient, whereby the current state of the corresponding fuzzy finite-state machine signifies the current estimated health state and context of the patient. The operation of the proposed scheme is explained via detailed examples in hypothetical scenarios. Finally, a stochastic Petri net model of the human-device interaction is presented, which illustrates how additional health status feedback can be obtained from the WHMS' user.

  8. The Crop Risk Zones Monitoring System for resilience to drought in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignaroli, Patrizio; Rocchi, Leandro; De Filippis, Tiziana; Tarchiani, Vieri; Bacci, Maurizio; Toscano, Piero; Pasqui, Massimiliano; Rapisardi, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Food security is still one of the major concerns that Sahelian populations have to face. In the Sahel, agriculture is primarily based on rainfed crops and it is often structurally inadequate to manage the climatic variability. The predominantly rainfed cropping system of Sahel region is dependent on season quality on a year-to-year basis, and susceptible to weather extremes of droughts and extreme temperatures. Low water-storage capacity and high dependence on rainfed agriculture leave the agriculture sector even more vulnerable to climate risks. Crop yields may suffer significantly with either a late onset or early cessation of the rainy season, as well as with a high frequency of damaging dry spells. Early rains at the beginning of the season are frequently followed by dry spells which may last a week or longer. As the amount of water stored in the soil at this time of the year is negligible, early planted crops can suffer water shortage stresses during a prolonged dry spell. Therefore, the choice of the sowing date is of fundamental importance for farmers. The ability to estimate effectively the onset of the season and potentially dangerous dry spells becomes therefore vital for planning rainfed agriculture practices aiming to minimize risks and maximize yields. In this context, advices to farmers are key drivers for prevention allowing a better adaptation of traditional crop calendar to climatic variability. In the Sahel, particularly in CILSS (Permanent Interstates Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel) countries, national Early Warning System (EWS) for food security are underpinned by Multidisciplinary Working Groups (MWGs) lead by National Meteorological Services (NMS). The EWSs are mainly based on tools and models utilizing numeric forecasts and satellite data to outlook and monitor the growing season. This approach is focused on the early identification of risks and on the production of information within the prescribed time period for decision

  9. Ketamine-Based Anesthetic Protocols and Evoked Potential Monitoring: A Risk/Benefit Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Versteeg, Gregory; Florescu, Diana; Joseph, Nicholas; Fiorda-Diaz, Juan; Navarrete, Víctor; Bergese, Sergio D.

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery, ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist related to phencyclidine, has been linked to multiple adverse reactions sometimes described as “out of body” and “near death experiences,” including emergence phenomena, delusions, hallucinations, delirium, and confusion. Due to these effects, ketamine has been withdrawn from mainstream anesthetic use in adult patients. Evoked potentials (EPs) are utilized to monitor neural pathways during surgery, detect intraoperative stress or damage, detect and define the level of neural lesions, and define abnormalities. Unfortunately, many of the volatile anesthetics commonly used during spinal and neurologic procedures suppress EP amplitude and monitoring. Ketamine has been found in several preclinical and clinical studies to actually increase EP amplitude and thus has been used as an analgesic adjunct in procedures where EP monitoring is critical. Once the gap in our knowledge of ketamine's risks has been sufficiently addressed in animal models, informed clinical trials should be conducted in order to properly incorporate ketamine-based anesthetic regimens during EP-monitored neurosurgeries. PMID:26909017

  10. Global positioning system measurements over a strain monitoring network in the eastern two-thirds of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strange, W.E.

    1991-09-01

    A 45-station geodetic network was established in 1987 using global positioning system (GPS) technology to provide a means of monitoring strain and deformation in the central and eastern United States. Reduction of the initial epoch data showed that accuracies of 1 to 3 cm can be achieved for horizontal position, provided sufficient observations are available and there are four or more fiducial stations whose positions are known a priori, for example from Very Long Baseline Interferometry measurements. Accuracies obtained provide the ability to determine strain at the 1:10{sup 7} to 1:10{sup 8} level. Vertical positions are less accurate because of problems in modeling refraction and are determined at the 5 to 7 cm level. It is planned to remeasure this network at regular intervals in the coming years to place bounds on the strain occurring in the central and eastern United States. This network is also expected to serve as a reference network for more detailed monitoring networks in areas of high risk such as the New Madrid area. Future measurements are expected to provide more accurate results because of increased numbers of GPS satellites available and improved computation software. The improved software will also allow future upgrading of the accuracy of the 1987 observations. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Prognostic Health Monitoring System: Component Selection Based on Risk Criteria and Economic Benefit Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binh T. Pham; Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J Lybeck; Magdy S Tawfik

    2012-05-01

    Prognostic health monitoring (PHM) is a proactive approach to monitor the ability of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) to withstand structural, thermal, and chemical loadings over the SSCs planned service lifespans. The current efforts to extend the operational license lifetime of the aging fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants from 40 to 60 years and beyond can benefit from a systematic application of PHM technology. Implementing a PHM system would strengthen the safety of nuclear power plants, reduce plant outage time, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. However, a nuclear power plant has thousands of SSCs, so implementing a PHM system that covers all SSCs requires careful planning and prioritization. This paper therefore focuses on a component selection that is based on the analysis of a component's failure probability, risk, and cost. Ultimately, the decision on component selection depend on the overall economical benefits arising from safety and operational considerations associated with implementing the PHM system.

  12. A Rough Set-Based Effective State Identification Method of Multisensor Tool Condition Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multisensor improves the accuracy of machine tool condition monitoring system, which provides the critical feedback information to the manufacture process controller. Multisensor monitoring system needs to collect abundant data to employ attribute extraction, election, reduction, and classification to form the decision knowledge. A machine tool condition monitoring system has been built and the method of tool condition decision knowledge discovery is also presented. Multiple sensors include vibration, force, acoustic emission, and main spindle current. The novel approach engages rough theory as a knowledge extraction tool to work on the data that are obtained from both multisensor and machining parameters and then extracts a set of minimal state identification rules encoding the preference pattern of decision making by domain experts. By means of the knowledge acquired, the tool conditions are identified. A case study is presented to illustrate that the approach produces effective and minimal rules and provides satisfactory accuracy.

  13. State-of-the-art risk-based approach to spill contingency planning and risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Etkin, Dagmar [Environmental Research Consulting (United States)], email: etkin@environmental-research.com; Reilly, Timothy [Lighthouse Technical Consultants, Inc (United States); French McCay, Deborah [Applied Science Associates, Inc (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The paper proposes incorporating a comprehensive examination of spill risk into risk management and contingency planning, and applying state-of-the-art modeling tools to evaluate various alternatives for appropriate spill response measures and optimize protective responses. The approach allows spill contingency planners and decision-makers to determine the types of spill scenarios that may occur in a particular location or from a particular source and calculate the probability distribution of the various scenarios. The spill probability information is useful in assessing and putting into perspective the various costs options for spill control systems that will be recommended ultimately. Using advanced modeling tools helps in estimating the potential environmental and socioeconomic consequences of each spill scenario based on location-specific factors over a range of stochastic possibilities, simulating spill scenarios and determining optimal responses and protection strategies. The benefits and costs of various response alternatives and variations in response time can be calculated and modeling tools for training and risk allocation/transfer purposes used.

  14. Determinants of Parental Monitoring and Preadolescent Sexual Risk Situations among African American Families Living in Urban Public Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Donna R.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Miller, Scott R.; Mcbride, Cami K.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated determinants of parental monitoring and the association between parental monitoring and preadolescent sexual risk situations among low-income, African American families living in urban public housing. Preadolescents and their parents or caregivers who participated in a longitudinal study of familial and contextual influences on…

  15. Available data sources for monitoring non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandai, M.; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens; Day, C.

    2017-01-01

    mortality owing to exposure to risk factors arising from obesity that include physical inactivity and accessible, cheap but unhealthy diets. The National Strategic Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases 2013 - 17 developed by the SA National Department of Health outlines targets......Background. Health information systems for monitoring chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in South Africa (SA) are relatively less advanced than those for infectious diseases (particularly tuberculosis and HIV) and for maternal and child health. NCDs are now the largest cause of premature......, categories used, timeliness, disease coverage and biomarker measurement....

  16. RECREATION MONITORING OF RESOURCE CONDITIONS IN THE KRONOTSKY STATE NATURAL BIOSPHERE PRESERVE (KAMCHATKA: AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zavadskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes assessment and monitoring program which has been designed and initiated for monitoring recreational impacts in some wildernesses areas of Kamchatka. The framework of the recreational assessment was tested through its application in a case study conducted during the summer 2008 in the Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve (the Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. The overall objective of the case study was to assess the existing campsite and trail recreation impacts and to establish a network of key sites for the subsequent long-term impact monitoring. The detailed assessment of different components of natural complexes of the Kronotsky State Natural Preserve and the obtained maps of their ecological conditions showed that some sites had been highly disturbed. The results of these works have given rise to a concern that the intensive use of these areas would make an unacceptable impact on the nature. Findings of our initial work corroborate the importance of founding wilderness management programs on knowledge about the trail and campsite impacts and emphasize the necessity of adopting the recreational assessment and monitoring framework to the practice of decision-making.

  17. Nonintrusive biological signal monitoring in a car to evaluate a driver's stress and health state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Lee, Haet Bit; Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Jong Min; Kim, Ko Keun; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-03-01

    Nonintrusive monitoring of a driver's physiological signals was introduced and evaluated in a car as a test of extending the concept of ubiquitous healthcare to vehicles. Electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, galvanic skin response, and respiration were measured in the ubiquitous healthcare car (U-car) using nonintrusively installed sensors on the steering wheel, driver's seat, and seat belt. Measured signals were transmitted to the embedded computer via Bluetooth(R) communication and processed. We collected and analyzed physiological signals during driving in order to estimate a driver's stress state while using this system. In order to compare the effect of stress on physical and mental conditions, two categories of stresses were defined. Experimental results show that a driver's physiological signals were measured with acceptable quality for analysis without interrupting driving, and they were changed meaningfully due to elicited stress. This nonintrusive monitoring can be used to evaluate a driver's state of health and stress.

  18. Monitoring TeV Gamma-ray Sources for Flaring States with HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisher, Ian; Weisgarber, Thomas; HAWC Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The flux of many TeV gamma-ray emitters exhibits time variability. Detection of these flaring states across multiple wavelengths will lead to a better understanding of the acceleration processes occurring in the source. The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is an extensive air-shower detector located near Pico de Orizaba in Mexico which is sensitive to TeV gamma rays. Designed as a survey instrument, the HAWC detector has a large field of view and nearly 100% uptime. This makes HAWC an ideal instrument to monitor sources for transient flaring states. We will present a method of monitoring sources using a Bayesian blocks algorithm to detect changes in the flux and report on the sensitivity of the method. We also discuss results from several bright AGN flares which occurred during the construction phase of HAWC.

  19. Biochemical methods for monitoring protein thiol redox states in biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Rudyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative post-translational modifications of proteins resulting from events that increase cellular oxidant levels play important roles in physiological and pathophysiological processes. Evaluation of alterations to protein redox states is increasingly common place because of methodological advances that have enabled detection, quantification and identification of such changes in cells and tissues. This mini-review provides a synopsis of biochemical methods that can be utilized to monitor the array of different oxidative and electrophilic modifications that can occur to protein thiols and can be important in the regulatory or maladaptive impact oxidants can have on biological systems. Several of the methods discussed are valuable for monitoring the redox state of established redox sensing proteins such as Keap1.

  20. Applications of state estimation in multi-sensor information fusion for the monitoring of open pit mine slope deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Hua; LIU Yin-ping; XIAO Jian

    2008-01-01

    The traditional open pit mine slope deformation monitoring system can not use the monitoring information coming from many monitoring points at the same time,can only using the monitoring data coming from a key monitoring point, and that is to say it can only handle one-dimensional time series. Given this shortage in the monitoring,the multi-sensor information fusion in the state estimation techniques would be introduced to the slope deformation monitoring system, and by the dynamic characteristics of deformation slope, the open pit slope would be regarded as a dynamic goal, the condition monitoring of which would be regarded as a dynamic target tracking. Distributed Information fusion technology with feedback was used to process the monitoring data and on this basis Klman filtering algorithms was introduced, and the simulation examples was used to prove its effectivenes.

  1. The strategy for improving water-quality monitoring in the United States; final report of the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality; technical appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) prepared this report in collaboration with representatives of all levels of government and the private sector. The report recommends a strategy for nationwide water-quality monitoring and technical monitoring improvements to support sound water-quality decisionmaking. The strategy is intended to achieve a better return on public and private investments in monitoring, environmental protection, and natural resources management. It is also designed to expand the base of information useful to a variety of users at multiple geographic scales. Institutional and technical changes are needed to improve water-quality monitoring and to meet the full range of monitoring requirements. Monitoring must be incorporated as a critical element of program planning, implementation, and evaluation. The strategy includes recommendations in many key elements, such as the development of goal-oriented monitoring and indicators, institutional collaboration, and methods comparability. Initial actions have been taken to implement the strategy. Several Federal agencies have jointly purchased and shared remotely sensed land-cover information needed for water assessment. Major agency data systems are using common data-element names and reference tables that will ensure easy sharing of data. A number of States have held meetings with collectors of water information to initiate statewide monitoring strategies. New monitoring guidance has been developed for Federal water-quality grants to States. Many State offices have changed monitoring programs to place emphasis on priority watersheds and to improve assessment of water quality. As the competition increases for adequate supplies of clean water, concerns about public health and the environment escalate, and more demands are placed on the water information infrastructure. To meet these demands, the collaborative approach has already produced benefits, which will continue to grow as

  2. Monitoring and Management of Coastal Zones Which are Under Flooding Risk with Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direk, S.; Seker, D. Z.; Musaoglu, N.; Gazioglu, C.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal zone areas play an important role in value to the welfare of nations and provides natural, social, cultural and economic benefits and increased quality of life. A great majority of the earth population live in coastal zone areas and they are under flooding risk due to tsunamies, storm surge, typhoon, sea level rise, precipitation and dam destruction. Global warming from the grenhouse effect raises sea level by expanding seawater, melting water and causing ice sheets to melt. Based on a selection of nine long, high quality tide gauge records, Holgate analyzed that the Mean Sea Level (MSL) rise over the period of 1904-2003 was found to be 1.74 ± 0.16 mm/year. Consider the whole century showed that the high decadal rates of change in global MSL was observed during the last 20 years of the records. Based on 4 tide gauge records in Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea and Eastern Mediterranean, Yildiz analyzed that MSL rise during 1984-2002 was found to be 9.6 ± 0.9 mm/year, 5.1 ± 1 mm/year and 8.7 ± 0.8 mm/year respectively. By analyzing the whole recorded data, it is found that the annual MSL rise in eastern mediterranean was 4-7 mm/year which was higher than the global prediction. A rise in sea level would accelerate coastal erosion, aggravate flooding, threaten coastal area structures and inundate wetlands. The salinity of rivers and bays would increase. A 1 meter in sea level rise would enable a 15-20 year storm to flood many areas. Higher water levels would reduce coastal drainage which would cause an increase flooding by rain storms. Finally, a rise in sea level would raise water tables and would flood basements. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a state of art technology and operationally being used more frequently by commercial and scientific society. GIS system provides a stable platform for the integration of data from different sources, allows a large quantity of data to be stored and processed, provides a seamless geographical database and provides a

  3. On the use of RADARSAT-1 for monitoring malaria risk in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S. G.; Thomson, M. C.; Pultz, T.; Mbogo, C. M.; Regens, J. L.; Swalm, C.; Githure, J.; Yan, G.; Gu, W.; Beier, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The incidence and spread of vector-borne infectious diseases are increasing concerns in many parts of the world. Earth obervation techniques provide a recognised means for monitoring and mapping disease risk as well as correlating environmental indicators with various disease vectors. Because the areas most impacted by vector-borne disease are remote and not easily monitored using traditional, labor intensive survey techniques, high spatial and temporal coverage provided by spaceborne sensors allows for the investigation of large areas in a timely manner. However, since the majority of infectious diseases occur in tropical areas, one of the main barriers to earth observation techniques is persistent cloud-cover. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology offers a solution to this problem by providing all-weather, day and night imaging capability. Based on SAR's sensitivity to target moisture conditions, sensors such as RADARSAT-1 can be readily used to map wetland and swampy areas that are conducive to functioning as aquatic larval habitats. Irrigation patterns, deforestation practises and the effects of local flooding can be monitored using SAR imagery, and related to potential disease vector abundance and proximity to populated areas. This paper discusses the contribution of C-band radar remote sensing technology to monitoring and mapping malaria. Preliminary results using RADARSAT-1 for identifying areas of high mosquito (Anopheles gambiae s.l.) abundance along the Kenya coast will be discussed. The authors consider the potential of RADARSAT-1 data based on SAR sensor characteristics and the preliminary results obtained. Further potential of spaceborne SAR data for monitoring vector-borne disease is discussed with respect to future advanced SAR sensors such as RADARSAT-2.

  4. Monitoring of Spectral Map Changes from Normal State to Superconducting State in High-TC Superconductor Films Using Raman Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. González-Solís

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have explored the chemical structure of TlBa2Ca2Cu3O9 high-TC superconductor films with Tl-1223 phase to monitor spectral map changes from normal state to superconducting state using the technique of Raman imaging. Raman images were performed for 12 different temperatures in the 77–293 K range. At room temperature, the Raman images were characterized by a single color but as the temperature dropped a new color appeared and when the temperature of 77 K is reached and the superconducting state is assured, the Raman images were characterized by the red, green, and blue colors. Our study could suggest that the superconducting state emerged around 133 K, in full agreement with those reported in the literature. A cross-checking was done applying principal component analysis (PCA to other sets of Raman spectra of our films measured at different temperatures. PCA result showed that the spectra can be grouped into two temperature ranges, one in the 293–153 K range and the other in the 133–77 K range suggesting that transition to the superconducting state occurred at some temperature around 133 K. This is the first report of preliminary results evaluating the usefulness of Raman imaging in determination of transition temperature of superconductor films.

  5. GEMAS: Use of monitoring data for risk assessment of metals in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oorts, Koen; Schoeters, Ilse

    2014-05-01

    For a number of years, Europe has legislation in place (e.g. the REACH regulation) to ensure chemicals are produced and used safely in Europe. Accurate risk assessments of metals in the soil compartment at regional scale were, however, difficult due to the absence of a robust harmonised monitoring database. The background concentration of metals in soils typically varies orders of magnitude at a national or continental scale. Similarly, soil properties affecting the fate, behaviour and bioavailability of metals in the terrestrial environment, e.g., pH, clay content, organic matter content, effective cation exchange capacity, vary strongly among soil types. High (bioavailable) metal concentrations may result in toxic effects to terrestrial organisms, while low concentrations of essential elements may entail a risk for deficiency and suboptimal ecosystem functioning. A sound risk assessment on toxicity or deficiency of elements in soil takes into account this spatial variation. Data availability for all these properties, however, differs largely across countries or regions, and where data is lacking, conservative assumptions are often made. Differences in data availability, therefore, preclude accurate risk assessments on a large (e.g., regional or continental) scale and it makes comparison of country or region specific assessments difficult. The GEMAS project filled this important data gap by providing high quality European wide geo-referenced data on metal concentrations and properties influencing metal bioavailability in agricultural and grazing land soil. The GEMAS data provide a strong basis for more robust risk assessments in Europe, taking into account the spatial variability of both exposure (metal concentrations) and bioavailability of metals in soil. The results allow for a uniform approach for assessment of the risks for both toxicity and deficiency. The use of the GEMAS monitoring data for regional and local risk assessments will be discussed and

  6. Barriers, Risks and Policies for Renewables in the Gulf States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lilliestam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC have both large fossil fuel resources and vast renewable energy potentials. Here, we investigate in a literature meta-analysis and a survey, whether there is a need for renewables in the GCC, what barriers and risks presently deter investments, and what possible policy-solutions could be. We find that there is a long-term need for renewables, to diversify the economy and prepare for a post-fossil fuel era. In the short term, two main obstacles deter investments: inefficient bureaucracy, and the combination of fossil fuel/electricity subsidies and the absence of renewable energy support. Removing fossil fuel and consumption subsidies or introducing a support scheme could make investments in renewables profitable. Eliminating energy subsidies appears particularly beneficial to the economic outlook but this seems particularly difficult to implement, due to the political economy of rentier states. Increased bureaucratic transparency and efficiency is needed, so that potentially attractive investments can rapidly and predictably obtain the necessary permissions. Hence, the administrative and economic environment for renewable energy investments in the GCC is not right today, and no breakthrough is on the horizon, but there is a range of policy solutions to enable investments in the future.

  7. The development of state/region owned goods management’s monitoring instrument design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhwanto Yogy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems in state/region owned goods in Indonesian state and local governments are suspected to occur because of weak monitoring programs, according to many studies. A tool or instrument in implementing this monitoring program is expected to address this problem. Such tool currently doesn’t exist yet. This research aims to fill that gap by developing a monitoring instrument design for state/region owned goods by using Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY Local Government as a research context in order to take valuable inputs for the design. This research is using developmental research method. Government Regulation were used for normative reference and Friedman’s results-based accountability quadrat were used in developing good indicators for the instrument. This research is succeeded in formulating the indicators that made up the instrument. Indicators compiled are divided into compliance-based indicators and results-based indicators. Indicators are formulated based on the validation and inputs from employees of DIY’s Assets Management Agency and experts from academia. This instrument still has some limitations that need improvement through further research.

  8. Monitoring, Human Health Risk Assessment and Optimized Management for Typical Pollutants in Indoor Air from Random Families of University Staff, Wuhan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyao Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 31 workers at a university were randomly selected for indoor environmental monitoring in Wuhan. Two indicators, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC, and using 139 monitoring points, monitored the indoor environment (including home and workplace as well as the interior space of the main furniture. This study carried out the environmental quality assessment for TVOC based on the dB index method and the health risk assessment of indoor formaldehyde for the university staff receptors and, then focused on health risk in home environment to carry out detailed environmental health management. The results showed that TVOC in the three types of home spaces exceeded about 80% of the national standard. The excessive formaldehyde ratios for kitchens (79%, bedrooms (77% and living rooms (74% were calculated. Formaldehyde health risks all exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency, (USEPA acceptable risk threshold. The formaldehyde concentrations in workplaces were about 0.03 mg·m−3. While the risk contribution of the home environment to the total average health risk (0.0014, whether male and female is about 96%. For the adapted and unadapted persons, 90% and 55% of the monitoring points were located within the long-term tolerable range of TVOC decibel application, respectively. Long-term exposure to such an environment can lead to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS. On the other hand, through comparison of the concentration of pollutants in the interior spaces of furniture and home spaces, it was determined tentatively that the pollutants were mainly concentrated in rarely used furniture. In summary, the air pollution in the studied homes of university staff was much serious than that in workplaces, which showed a need to manage TVOC and formaldehyde pollution by the three means: the purchase of green products, removal of internal pollution from furniture, and creating a good indoor volatile diffusion

  9. Stratification and monitoring of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk: recommendations from an expert group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, C; Craner, M; Guadagno, J; Kapoor, R; Mazibrada, G; Molyneux, P; Nicholas, R; Palace, J; Pearson, O R; Rog, D; Young, C A

    2016-02-01

    The use of natalizumab for highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by the occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Through measurement of the anti-JCV antibody index, and in combination with the presence or absence of other known risk factors, it may be possible to stratify patients with MS according to their risk of developing PML during treatment with natalizumab and detect early suspected PML using MRI including a diffusion-weighted imaging sequence. This paper describes a practical consensus guideline for treating neurologists, based on current evidence, for the introduction into routine clinical practice of anti-JCV antibody index testing of immunosuppressant-naïve patients with MS, either currently being treated with, or initiating, natalizumab, based on their anti-JCV antibody status. Recommendations for the frequency and type of MRI screening in patients with varying index-associated PML risks are also discussed. This consensus paper presents a simple and pragmatic algorithm to support the introduction of anti-JCV antibody index testing and MRI monitoring into standard PML safety protocols, in order to allow some JCV positive patients who wish to begin or continue natalizumab treatment to be managed with a more individualised analysis of their PML risk.

  10. Lipidomics: potential role in risk prediction and therapeutic monitoring for diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Peter J; Wong, Gerard; Barlow, Christopher K; Kingwell, Bronwyn A

    2014-07-01

    Lipidomics has developed rapidly over the past decade to the point where clinical application may soon be possible. Developments including high throughput technologies enable the simultaneous quantification of several hundred lipid species, thereby providing a global assessment of lipid metabolism. Given the key role of lipids in the pathophysiology of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, lipidomics has the potential to: i) Significantly improve prediction of future disease risk, ii) Inform on mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, iii) Identify patient groups responsive to particular therapies and iv) More closely monitor response to therapy. Lipidomic analyses of both whole plasma and lipoprotein subfractions are integral to the current initiative to understand the relationships between lipoprotein composition and function and how these are affected by disease and treatment. This approach will not only aid in appropriate targeting of existing lipid lowering therapies such as statins and fibrates, but will be important in unravelling the controversies surrounding HDL-based therapies which have failed in clinical trials to date. The ultimate utility of lipidomics to clinical practice will depend firstly on the ability of risk prediction models incorporating lipidomic parameters to significantly improve upon conventional clinical risk markers in predicting future disease risk. Secondly, for widespread application, lipidomic-based measurements must be practical and accessible through standard pathology laboratories. This review will cover developments in lipidomics including methodology, bioinformatics/statistics, insights into disease pathophysiology, the effect of therapeutic interventions, the role of large clinical outcome trials in validating lipidomic approaches to patient management and potential applications in clinical practice.

  11. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2013. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). Surveillance Summaries. Volume 63, Number SS-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari L.; Flint, Katherine H.; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Taylor, Eboni; Demissie, Zewditu; Brener, Nancy; Thornton, Jemekia; Moore, John; Zaza, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults. Population-based data on these behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth nationwide. Reporting…

  12. Surveillance for Certain Health Behaviors and Conditions Among States and Selected Local Areas - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Sonya; Mawokomatanda, Tebitha; Xu, Fang; Chowdhury, Pranesh P; Pierannunzi, Carol; Flegel, David; Garvin, William; Town, Machell

    2017-09-15

    Chronic diseases and conditions (e.g., heart diseases, stroke, arthritis, and diabetes) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. These conditions are costly to the U.S. economy, yet they are often preventable or controllable. Behavioral risk factors (e.g., excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use, poor diet, frequent mental distress, and insufficient sleep) are linked to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Adopting positive health behaviors (e.g., staying physically active, quitting tobacco use, obtaining routine physical checkups, and checking blood pressure and cholesterol levels) can reduce morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and conditions. Monitoring the health risk behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions, access to health care, and use of preventive health services at multilevel public health points (states, territories, and metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas [MMSA]) can provide important information for development and evaluation of health intervention programs. 2013 and 2014. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing, state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. BRFSS collects data on health risk behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions, access to health care, and use of preventive health services and practices related to the leading causes of death and disability in the United States and participating territories. This is the first BRFSS report to include age-adjusted prevalence estimates. For 2013 and 2014, these age-adjusted prevalence estimates are presented for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, and selected MMSA. Age-adjusted prevalence estimates of health status indicators, health care access and preventive practices, health risk behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions, and cardiovascular conditions vary by state, territory

  13. MONITORING AND EARLY-WARNING OF METEOROLOGICAL RISK SITUATIONS IN OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURADA CRISTINA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the natural hazards affecting the human well-being and properties, meterological events are first to come in mind, due to their frequency, (immediate effects and (improving predictability. Assesment of these components are the first step in risk management, when the knowledge on the hazard type and characteristics is essential for defining the vulnerability and exposure and thus for preparing the mitigation plans. The spatial scale of dangerous meteorological situations is, in most cases, the regional one, but sometimes the area of major intensity or even the area of manifestation is small enough (e.g. hail, heavy rain showers to be classifed as ‚local’. Furthermore, other factors like the local geographical features, population density, goods and properties at risk (e.g. cultivated areas, buildings, infrastructure etc come into play in defining the severity of the weather event and/or the needs for interventions aiming to reduce the effects of the weather situation. In this context, the monitoring of potentially dangerous meteorological conditions and the improved forecasting capabilities and accuracy become increasingly important. In this paper, we present a short overview of the severe meteorological events affecting the Oltenia region along with aspects regarding their monitoring, early-warning and socio-economical impact in the area of interest, with a focus on the Dolj county during the 2013-2015 period.

  14. Current Biochemical Monitoring and Risk Management of Immunosuppressive Therapy after Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catić-Đorđević Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressive drugs play a crucial role in the inhibition of immune reaction and prevention of graft rejection as well as in the pharmacotherapy of autoimmune disorders. Effective immunosuppression should provide an adequate safety profile and improve treatment outcomes and the patients’ quality of life. High-risk transplant recipients may be identified, but a definitive prediction model has still not been recognized. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM for immunosuppressive drugs is an essential, but at the same time insufficient tool due to low predictability of drug exposition and marked pharmacokinetic variability. Parallel therapeutic, biochemical and clinical monitoring may successfully optimize and individualize therapy for transplanted recipients, providing optimal medical outcomes. Modern pharmacotherapy management should include new biomarkers with better sensitivity and specificity that can identify early cell damage. The aim of this study was to point out the importance of finding new biomarkers that would enable early detection of adverse drug events and cell damage in organ transplant recipients. We wanted to confirm the importance of routine biochemical monitoring in improving the safety of immunosuppressive treatment.

  15. States Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (SMART) Collaborative: data collection, linkage, dissemination, and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimneh, Allison S; Boulet, Sheree L; Sunderam, Saswati; Zhang, Yujia; Jamieson, Denise J; Crawford, Sara; McKane, Patricia; Copeland, Glenn; Mersol-Barg, Michael; Grigorescu, Violanda; Cohen, Bruce; Steele, JoAnn; Sappenfield, William; Diop, Hafsatou; Kirby, Russell S; Kissin, Dmitry M

    2013-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) refers to fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled outside the body. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) oversees the National ART Surveillance System (NASS), which collects data on all ART procedures performed in the United States. The NASS, while a comprehensive source of data on ART patient demographics and clinical procedures, includes limited information on outcomes related to women's and children's health. To examine ART-related health outcomes, CDC and three states (Massachusetts, Florida, and Michigan) established the States Monitoring ART (SMART) Collaborative to evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes of ART and improve state-based ART surveillance. To date, NASS data have been linked with states' vital records, disease registries, and hospital discharge data with a linkage rate of 90.2%. The probabilistic linkage methodology used in the SMART Collaborative has been validated and found to be both accurate and efficient. A wide breadth of applied research within the Collaborative is planned or ongoing, including examinations of the impact of insurance mandates on ART use as well as the relationships between ART and birth defects and cancer, among others. The SMART Collaborative is working to improve state-based ART surveillance by developing state surveillance plans, establishing partnerships, and conducting data analyses. The SMART Collaborative has been instrumental in creating linked datasets and strengthening epidemiologic and research capacity for improving maternal and infant health programs and evaluating the public health impact of ART.

  16. Monitoring of high-risk pregnancies using E3 and HPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieglmayer, Ch.; Spona, J.

    1981-01-01

    Routine determinations of HPL and E3 together with other clinical and laboratory checks offer usable information on the state of pregnancy and assist the doctor in taking decisions on the use of therapeutical measures. The anamnesis, the presence of placental insufficiency of EPH-gestosis are important indications for monitoring the pregnancy using HPL and E3. A commercial RIA apparatus (Centria 2) allowing the determination of HPL in a mere hour was compared with our established laboratory method. In 140 determinations, the correlation was r=0.75. Considering its capacity and method, the instrument seems to be more suitable for a small specialized laboratory.

  17. Breast Cancer Risk From Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Risk Factors Among White Women in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maas, Paige; Barrdahl, Myrto; Joshi, Amit D;

    2016-01-01

    Importance: An improved model for risk stratification can be useful for guiding public health strategies of breast cancer prevention. Objective: To evaluate combined risk stratification utility of common low penetrant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epidemiologic risk factors. Design, ...

  18. Satellite gravity measurement monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hang; Wen, Lianxing

    2016-01-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) change in the continental United States (US) from 2003 to 2012, and establish a GRACE-based Hydrological Drought Index (GHDI) for drought monitoring. GRACE-inferred TWS exhibits opposite patterns between north and south of the continental US from 2003 to 2012, with the equivalent water thickness increasing from -4.0 to 9.4 cm in the north and decreasing from 4.1 to -6.7 cm in the south. The equivalent water thickness also decreases by -5.1 cm in the middle south in 2006. GHDI is established to represent the extent of GRACE-inferred TWS anomaly departing from its historical average and is calibrated to resemble traditional Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) in the continental US. GHDI exhibits good correlations with PHDI in the continental US, indicating its feasibility for drought monitoring. Since GHDI is GRACE-based and has minimal dependence of hydrological parameters on the ground, it can be extended for global drought monitoring, particularly useful for the countries that lack sufficient hydrological monitoring infrastructures on the ground.

  19. Application of nonlinear ultrasonic method for monitoring of stress state in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyu Jin; Kwak, Hyo Gyoung [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun Jong [Dept. of Structural System and Site Safety Evaluation, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    As the lifespan of concrete structures increases, their load carrying capacity decreases owing to cyclic loads and long-term effects such as creep and shrinkage. For these reasons, there is a necessity for stress state monitoring of concrete members. Particularly, it is necessary to evaluate the concrete structures for behavioral changes by using a technique that can overcome the measuring limitations of usual ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods. This paper proposes the use of a nonlinear ultrasonic method, namely, nonlinear resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NRUS) for the measurement of nonlinearity parameters for stress monitoring. An experiment compared the use of NRUS method and a linear ultrasonic method, namely, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) to study the effects of continuously increasing loads and cyclic loads on the nonlinearity parameter. Both NRUS and UPV methods found a similar direct relationship between load level and that parameter. The NRUS method showed a higher sensitivity to micro-structural changes of concrete than UPV method. Thus, the experiment confirms the possibility of using the nonlinear ultrasonic method for stress state monitoring of concrete members.

  20. Systemic Case Formulation, Individualized Process Monitoring, and State Dynamics in a Case of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter K; Stöger-Schmidinger, Barbara; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Schöller, Helmut; Aas, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this case report is to demonstrate the feasibility of a systemic procedure (synergetic process management) including modeling of the idiographic psychological system and continuous high-frequency monitoring of change dynamics in a case of dissociative identity disorder. The psychotherapy was realized in a day treatment center with a female client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and dissociative identity disorder. Methods: A three hour long co-creative session at the beginning of the treatment period allowed for modeling the systemic network of the client's dynamics of cognitions, emotions, and behavior. The components (variables) of this idiographic system model (ISM) were used to create items for an individualized process questionnaire for the client. The questionnaire was administered daily through an internet-based monitoring tool (Synergetic Navigation System, SNS), to capture the client's individual change process continuously throughout the therapy and after-care period. The resulting time series were reflected by therapist and client in therapeutic feedback sessions. Results: For the client it was important to see how the personality states dominating her daily life were represented by her idiographic system model and how the transitions between each state could be explained and understood by the activating and inhibiting relations between the cognitive-emotional components of that system. Continuous monitoring of her cognitions, emotions, and behavior via SNS allowed for identification of important triggers, dynamic patterns, and psychological mechanisms behind seemingly erratic state fluctuations. These insights enabled a change in management of the dynamics and an intensified trauma-focused therapy. Conclusion: By making use of the systemic case formulation technique and subsequent daily online monitoring, client and therapist continuously refer to detailed visualizations of the mental and behavioral network and

  1. Systemic Case Formulation, Individualized Process Monitoring, and State Dynamics in a Case of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenter Karl Schiepek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this case report is to demonstrate the feasibility of a systemic procedure (synergetic process management including modeling of the idiographic psychological system and continuous high-frequency monitoring of change dynamics in a case of dissociative identity disorder. The psychotherapy was realized in a day treatment center with a female client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD and dissociative identity disorder. Methods. A three hour long co-creative session at the beginning of the treatment period allowed for modeling the systemic network of the client’s dynamics of cognitions, emotions, and behavior. The components (variables of this idiographic system model (ISM were used to create items for an individualized process questionnaire for the client. The questionnaire was administered daily through an internet-based monitoring tool (Synergetic Navigation System, SNS, to capture the client’s individual change process continuously throughout the therapy and after-care period. The resulting time series were reflected by therapist and client in therapeutic feedback sessions. Results. For the client it was important to see how the personality states dominating her daily life were represented by her idiographic system model and how the transitions between each state could be explained and understood by the activating and inhibiting relations between the cognitive-emotional components of that system. Continuous monitoring of her cognitions, emotions, and behavior via SNS allowed for identification of important triggers, dynamic patterns, and psychological mechanisms behind seemingly erratic state fluctuations. These insights enabled a change in management of the dynamics and an intensified trauma-focused therapy. Conclusion. By making use of the systemic case formulation technique and subsequent daily online monitoring, client and therapist continuously refer to detailed visualizations of the mental and

  2. Systemic Case Formulation, Individualized Process Monitoring, and State Dynamics in a Case of Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter K.; Stöger-Schmidinger, Barbara; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Schöller, Helmut; Aas, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this case report is to demonstrate the feasibility of a systemic procedure (synergetic process management) including modeling of the idiographic psychological system and continuous high-frequency monitoring of change dynamics in a case of dissociative identity disorder. The psychotherapy was realized in a day treatment center with a female client diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and dissociative identity disorder. Methods: A three hour long co-creative session at the beginning of the treatment period allowed for modeling the systemic network of the client's dynamics of cognitions, emotions, and behavior. The components (variables) of this idiographic system model (ISM) were used to create items for an individualized process questionnaire for the client. The questionnaire was administered daily through an internet-based monitoring tool (Synergetic Navigation System, SNS), to capture the client's individual change process continuously throughout the therapy and after-care period. The resulting time series were reflected by therapist and client in therapeutic feedback sessions. Results: For the client it was important to see how the personality states dominating her daily life were represented by her idiographic system model and how the transitions between each state could be explained and understood by the activating and inhibiting relations between the cognitive-emotional components of that system. Continuous monitoring of her cognitions, emotions, and behavior via SNS allowed for identification of important triggers, dynamic patterns, and psychological mechanisms behind seemingly erratic state fluctuations. These insights enabled a change in management of the dynamics and an intensified trauma-focused therapy. Conclusion: By making use of the systemic case formulation technique and subsequent daily online monitoring, client and therapist continuously refer to detailed visualizations of the mental and behavioral network and

  3. Dangerousness and risk assessment: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Arie; Rosca, Paula; Khawalled, Razak; Gruzniewski, Adrian; Grinshpoon, Alex

    2003-01-01

    Risk or dangerousness is an issue which burdens the minds of all mental health and law enforcement professionals. Researchers have attempted to define its extent and constituent elements and to predict and assess it. Risk assessment is a complex task, influenced by the interaction of many variables, such as previous pattern of violence, biological, sociological and psychological factors, divided into facilitating and inhibiting factors. In our paper we discuss the theoretical concepts linked with dangerousness prediction and assessment, and then review the "first" and "second" generations of literature on dangerousness and risk assessment, including the actuarial instruments. We then present the current trends in the field, concentrating on the correlation between dangerousness and mental disorders, dangerousness analysis and risk management, a wider concept including prevention, treatment and communication of risk. Although great progress has been made in this field, there are still many unresolved issues, among them the development of valid instruments for the assessment of risk.

  4. Prescription Opioid Usage and Abuse Relationships: An Evaluation of State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Reisman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The dramatic rise in the use of prescription opioids to treat non-cancer pain has been paralleled by increasing prescription opioid abuse. However, detailed analyses of these trends and programs to address them are lacking.Objective: To study the association between state shipments of prescription opioids for medical use and prescription opioid abuse admissions and to assess the effects of state prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs on prescription opioid abuse admissions.Design and Setting: A retrospective ecological cohort study comparing state prescription opioid shipments (source: Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders Systems database and inpatient admissions for prescription opioid abuse (source: Treatment Episode Data Set in 14 states with PDMPs (intervention group and 36 states without PDMPs (control group for the period 1997–2003.Results: From 1997 to 2003, oxycodone, morphine, and hydrocodone shipments increased by 479%, 100%, and 148% respectively. Increasing prescription oxycodone shipments were significantly associated with increasing prescription opioid admission rates (p 0.001. PDMP states had significantly lower oxycodone shipments than the control group. PDMP states had less increase in prescription opioid admissions per year (p = 0.063. A patient admitted to an inpatient drug abuse rehabilitation program in a PDMP state was less likely to be admitted for prescription opioid drug abuse (Odds ratio = 0.775, 95% Confidence Interval 0.764–0.785.Conclusions: PDMPs appear to decrease the quantity of oxycodone shipments and the prescription opioid admission rate for states with these programs. Overall, opioid shipments rose significantly in PDMP states during the study period indicating a negligible “chilling effect” on physician prescribing.

  5. GRS 1758–258: RXTE Monitoring of a Rare Persistent Hard State Black Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Obst

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available GRS 1758–258 is the least studied of the three persistent black hole X-ray binaries in our Galaxy. It is also one of only two known black hole candidates, including all black hole transients, which shows a decrease of its 3-10 keV flux when entering the thermally dominated soft state, rather than an increase.We present the spectral evolution of GRS 1758–258 from RXTE-PCA observations spanning a time of about 11 years from 1996 to 2007. During this time, seven dim soft states are detected. We also consider INTEGRAL monitoring observations of the source and compare the long-term behavior to that of the bright persistent black hole X-ray binary Cygnus X-1. We discuss the observed state transitions in the light of physical scenarios for black hole transitions.

  6. Application and state of development for remote chemical sensors in environmental monitoring: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabron, J.F.; Niss, N.D.; Hart, B.K.

    1991-09-01

    A study was performed on chemical sensor technology currently available and under development. The information was compiled into a format wherein information on the sensors is listed in a comparable manner. An introductory section is provided to illustrate the regulatory environment in which such sensor technology will be used. This information should allow corporations or federal agencies ready access to useful information for the potential licensing of sensor technology for commercial development or specific environmental monitoring operations. Although every attempt was made to identify as many chemical sensors as possible, we recognize that some may be missed inadvertently. The accuracy of the information provided by the various sources regarding the state of development for the various sensors was not verified. Judgments or opinions regarding the actual state of development or utility of these devices are not included in this report. However, we feel that this report accurately reflects the state of the art at the present time.

  7. Application and state of development for remote chemical sensors in environmental monitoring: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabron, J.F.; Niss, N.D.; Hart, B.K.

    1991-09-01

    A study was performed on chemical sensor technology currently available and under development. The information was compiled into a format wherein information on the sensors is listed in a comparable manner. As introductory section is provided to illustrate the regulatory environment in which such sensor technology will be used. This information should allow corporations or federal agencies ready access to useful information for the potential licensing of sensor technology for commercial development or specific environmental monitoring operations. Although every attempt was made to identify as many chemical sensors as possible, we recognize that some may be missed inadvertently. The accuracy of the information provided by the various sources regarding the state of development for the various sensors was not verified. Judgments or opinions regarding the actual state of development or utility of these devices are not included in this report. However, we feel that this report accurately reflects the state of the art at the present time.

  8. Application and state of development for remote chemical sensors in environmental monitoring: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabron, J.F.; Niss, N.D.; Hart, B.K.

    1991-09-01

    A study was performed on chemical sensor technology currently available and under development. The information was compiled into a format wherein information on the sensors is listed in a comparable manner. An introductory section is provided to illustrate the regulatory environment in which such sensor technology will be used. This information should allow corporations or federal agencies ready access to useful information for the potential licensing of sensor technology for commercial development or specific environmental monitoring operations. Although every attempt was made to identify as many chemical sensors as possible, we recognize that some may be missed inadvertently. The accuracy of the information provided by the various sources regarding the state of development for the various sensors was not verified. Judgments or opinions regarding the actual state of development or utility of these devices are not included in this report. However, we feel that this report accurately reflects the state of the art at the present time.

  9. Application and state of development for remote chemical sensors in environmental monitoring: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabron, J.F.; Niss, N.D.; Hart, B.K.

    1991-09-01

    A study was performed on chemical sensor technology currently available and under development. The information was compiled into a format wherein information on the sensors is listed in a comparable manner. As introductory section is provided to illustrate the regulatory environment in which such sensor technology will be used. This information should allow corporations or federal agencies ready access to useful information for the potential licensing of sensor technology for commercial development or specific environmental monitoring operations. Although every attempt was made to identify as many chemical sensors as possible, we recognize that some may be missed inadvertently. The accuracy of the information provided by the various sources regarding the state of development for the various sensors was not verified. Judgments or opinions regarding the actual state of development or utility of these devices are not included in this report. However, we feel that this report accurately reflects the state of the art at the present time.

  10. Preventing Disability: The Influence Of Modifiable Risk Factors On State And National Disability Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil K; Patel, Shivani A; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K.M. Venkat

    2017-04-01

    Disability levels in the United States declined during the 1980s and 1990s, but these declines stalled more recently. Using data for 2013 from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we estimated the percentages of national and state disability that could be prevented through reductions in five modifiable health risk factors associated with disability: cigarette smoking, obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, and hypertension. Taking into account risk-factor prevalence and the association between each risk factor and disability, we evaluated the fraction of disability preventable if risk factors were reduced under two scenarios: complete elimination of risk factors and reduction in all states to the lowest levels observed in states. If all five risk factors were eliminated, 53 percent of disability could be prevented nationally. The largest contributors were smoking (17 percent), obesity (16 percent), and hypertension (12 percent). If all states reduced risk-factor levels to the lowest observed levels, up to 7 percent of disability could be prevented nationally. Many states in the South and Midwest could experience disability reductions of more than 10 percent by attaining the same risk-factor levels as in states that had the lowest levels. Improved risk-factor prevention could result in the resumption of longer-term declines in US disability. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of spot and passive sampling for monitoring, flux estimation and risk assessment of pesticides within the constraints of a typical regulatory monitoring scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zulin; Troldborg, Mads; Yates, Kyari; Osprey, Mark; Kerr, Christine; Hallett, Paul D; Baggaley, Nikki; Rhind, Stewart M; Dawson, Julian J C; Hough, Rupert L

    2016-11-01

    In many agricultural catchments of Europe and North America, pesticides occur at generally low concentrations with significant temporal variation. This poses several challenges for both monitoring and understanding ecological risks/impacts of these chemicals. This study aimed to compare the performance of passive and spot sampling strategies given the constraints of typical regulatory monitoring. Nine pesticides were investigated in a river currently undergoing regulatory monitoring (River Ugie, Scotland). Within this regulatory framework, spot and passive sampling were undertaken to understand spatiotemporal occurrence, mass loads and ecological risks. All the target pesticides were detected in water by both sampling strategies. Chlorotoluron was observed to be the dominant pesticide by both spot (maximum: 111.8ng/l, mean: 9.35ng/l) and passive sampling (maximum: 39.24ng/l, mean: 4.76ng/l). The annual pesticide loads were estimated to be 2735g and 1837g based on the spot and passive sampling data, respectively. The spatiotemporal trend suggested that agricultural activities were the primary source of the compounds with variability in loads explained in large by timing of pesticide applications and rainfall. The risk assessment showed chlorotoluron and chlorpyrifos posed the highest ecological risks with 23% of the chlorotoluron spot samples and 36% of the chlorpyrifos passive samples resulting in a Risk Quotient greater than 0.1. This suggests that mitigation measures might need to be taken to reduce the input of pesticides into the river. The overall comparison of the two sampling strategies supported the hypothesis that passive sampling tends to integrate the contaminants over a period of exposure and allows quantification of contamination at low concentration. The results suggested that within a regulatory monitoring context passive sampling was more suitable for flux estimation and risk assessment of trace contaminants which cannot be diagnosed by spot

  12. AN OVERVIEW ON STATE OF KNOWLEDGE OF RISK AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN ECONOMICS FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela NICHITA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a history and an evolution of concepts of risk and risk management in economic, respectively financial fields, highlighting the usefulness (or not and complexity of tools for risk assessment developed over time. The main objective of risk management is to reduce costs and increase the value of company and stakeholders gains; also, a coherent risk management strategy may improve entity capital structure which will derive in a healthy financing policy. The risk and risk management field has been developed merely after the second world war and creates the favourable context of a new C position in business chart – Chief Risk Officer. The paper will explore the etymology of term risk correlated with the uncertainty. Research on risk and risk management is not possible without taking into account the derivatives market.

  13. AN OVERVIEW ON STATE OF KNOWLEDGE OF RISK AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN ECONOMICS FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela NICHITA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a history and an evolution of concepts of risk and risk management in economic, respectively financial fields, highlighting the usefulness (or not and complexity of tools for risk assessment developed over time. The main objective of risk management is to reduce costs and increase the value of company and stakeholders gains; also, a coherent risk management strategy may improve entity capital structure which will derive in a healthy financing policy. The risk and risk management field has been developed merely after the second world war and creates the favourable context of a new C position in business chart – Chief Risk Officer. The paper will explore the etymology of term risk correlated with the uncertainty. Research on risk and risk management is not possible without taking into account the derivatives market.

  14. Prevalence of major risk factors and use of screening tests for cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Sauer, Ann Goding; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-04-01

    Much of the suffering and death from cancer could be prevented by more systematic efforts to reduce tobacco use, improve diet, increase physical activity, reduce obesity, and expand the use of established screening tests. Monitoring the prevalence of cancer risk factors and screening is important to measure progress and strengthen cancer prevention and early detection efforts. In this review article, we provide recent prevalence estimates for several cancer risk factors, including tobacco, obesity, physical activity, nutrition, ultraviolet radiation exposure as well as human papillomavirus and hepatitis B vaccination coverage and cancer screening prevalence in the United States. In 2013, cigarette smoking prevalence was 17.8% among adults nationally, but ranged from 10.3% in Utah to 27.3% in West Virginia. In addition, 15.7% of U.S. high school students were current smokers. In 2011-2012, obesity prevalence was high among both adults (34.9%) and adolescents (20.5%), but has leveled off since 2002. About 20.2% of high school girls were users of indoor tanning devices, compared with 5.3% of boys. In 2013, cancer screening prevalence ranged from 58.6% for colorectal cancer to 80.8% for cervical cancer and remains low among the uninsured, particularly for colorectal cancer screening where only 21.9% of eligible adults received recommended colorectal cancer screening. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Monitoring the evolution of crystallization processes by in-situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kenneth D M; Hughes, Colan E; Williams, P Andrew

    2015-02-01

    Crystallization processes play a crucial role in many aspects of biological and physical sciences. Progress in deepening our fundamental understanding of such processes relies, to a large extent, on the development and application of new experimental strategies that allow direct in-situ monitoring of the process. In this paper, we give an overview of an in-situ solid-state NMR strategy that we have developed in recent years for monitoring the time-evolution of different polymorphic forms (or other solid forms) that arise as the function of time during crystallization from solution. The background to the strategy is described and several examples of the application of the technique are highlighted, focusing on both the evolution of different polymorphs during crystallization and the discovery of new polymorphs.

  16. Stress-state monitoring of coal pillars during room and pillar extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Waclawik

    2016-01-01

    To determine pillar stability, vertical stress was measured in two adjacent coal pillars which are diamond in shape and located within a row of pillars forming the panel. Two pillars diamond in shape and slightly irregular sides were approximately 860 m2 and 1200 m2 in size and 3.5 m high To measure the increase in vertical stress due to mining, four stress cells were installed in each coal pillar. Four 5-level multipoint rib extensometers measured displacements of all sides within each monitored pillar. The results of stress-state and pillar displacement monitoring allowed pillar loading and yielding characteristics to be described. This data and other analyses are essential to establishing procedures for a safe room and pillar method of mining within the Upper Silesian Coal Basin.

  17. State and use of monitoring and evaluation systems in national and provincial departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futhi Umlaw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, South Africa has seen a major shift in emphasis concerning monitoring and evaluation (M&E systems. This shift was partially stimulated by the South African government being faced with a number of pressures, key amongst which were persistent poverty and inequality and widespread service delivery protests. These pressures resulted ina greater willingness by government to address the poor quality of public services, and other governance problems that needed a greater focus on M&E to address these challenges. This led to the establishment of the Department of Performance Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME in early 2010. A comprehensive survey on the state and use of M&E systems in national and provincial government was conducted by the DPME as an attempt to understand the M&E landscape since 1994. The results were used to make informed policy and programme decisions. This paper outlines the findings of the survey.

  18. Analysis In-depth People Risk in the Stated Commercial Banks in China and Its Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Li

    2013-01-01

    When the risk has been occurred in a commercial bank, it will affect the whole banking system. The commercial banks do the well risk precaution to be a significant issue in the society. People is the fundamental element in the development of organizations, in other words, all risks are human risk. Grasping the prevention of people risk means that seize the foundation of bank’s risk. Recently, operational risk brings large amount losses to Chinese state-owned commercial banks. Most of them are...

  19. Parental monitoring, parent-adolescent communication about sex, and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Brian C; Huebner, David M

    2014-08-01

    Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including "coming out" to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically diverse YMSM ages 14-19 provided cross-sectional data (n = 257). Monitoring and outness to parents interacted to predict recent same-sex unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). For YMSM who reported mixed or uncertain outness to parents, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with greater risk of UAI. Higher levels of communication about sex were associated with greater risk of UAI for YMSM out to parents. Parental monitoring and communication about sex might not protect YMSM against sexual risk in the same way they protect heterosexual youth. Future research should examine whether adapted forms of family factors could protect YMSM, and family-based HIV risk-reduction interventions for YMSM should be attuned to the unique ways family factors function within this group.

  20. AN OVERVIEW ON STATE OF KNOWLEDGE OF RISK AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN ECONOMICS FIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela NICHITA

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a history and an evolution of concepts of risk and risk management in economic, respectively financial fields, highlighting the usefulness (or not) and complexity of tools for risk assessment developed over time. The main objective of risk management is to reduce costs and increase the value of company and stakeholders gains; also, a coherent risk management strategy may improve entity capital structure which will derive in a healthy financing policy. T...

  1. Risk assessment and risk management at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA): a perspective on the monitoring of foods for chemical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietlot, Henri P; Kolakowski, Beata

    2012-08-01

    The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) uses 'Ranked Risk Assessment' (RRA) to prioritize chemical hazards for inclusion in monitoring programmes or method development projects based on their relative risk. The relative risk is calculated for a chemical by scoring toxicity and exposure in the 'risk model scoring system' of the Risk Priority Compound List (RPCL). The relative ranking and the risk management options are maintained and updated in the RPCL. The ranking may be refined by the data generated by the sampling and testing programs. The two principal sampling and testing programmes are the National Chemical Residue Monitoring Program (NCRMP) and the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP). The NCRMP sampling plans focus on the analysis of federally registered products (dairy, eggs, honey, meat and poultry, fresh and processed fruit and vegetable commodities, and maple syrup) for residues of veterinary drugs, pesticides, environmental contaminants, mycotoxins, and metals. The NCRMP is complemented by the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP) targeted surveys. These surveys focus on emerging chemical hazards associated with specific foods or geographical regions for which applicable maximum residue limits (MRLs) are not set. The data from the NCRMP and FSAP also influence the risk management (follow-up) options. Follow-up actions vary according to the magnitude of the health risk, all with the objective of preventing any repeat occurrence to minimize consumer exposure to a product representing a potential risk to human health. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Risk and performance based techniques in system health and maintenance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadavi, Seyed Mohammad Hadi

    Integrating the risk and reliability analysis, system topology, and database manipulation methodologies into a unified system-health and performance monitoring tool has a great potential for improving plant operation and safety. A methodology has been developed in this study to integrate three basic elements of a performance monitoring system: data, analytical models, and system relations. In this methodology, the plant topology plays the major role. It defines the relationships among plant components, systems and structures. It provides the system configurations and causal relationships needed for performing risk and performance analyses. The causal relationships modeled by the plant topology are very crucial for evaluating the plant condition, safety. Integrating performance analysis tool with plant topology and also integrating it with the various classes of information is another aspect of the methodology proposed by this research. The use of plant topology is a replacement for arrays of logics which usually construct the knowledge-base of an inference engine. The expansion of the plant topology as the basis for explaining the relationships among plant components, systems, and structures, captures the dynamics of plant condition. It is one of the major contributions of this study. In addition, a maintenance schedule optimization technique has been developed and integrated. The main objective of this optimizer, build based on the genetic algorithm methodology, has been to reduce the risk and the cost of maintenance operation. The genetic algorithm is a relatively new technology which mimics the concept of natural evolution processes. The general features of a traditional genetic algorithm have been modified in this study to better fit the requirements of maintenance activities and conditions. The impact of each potential schedule on both plant safety and economy, has been evaluated using a disvalue function. The impact of schedule lineup on plant safety is

  3. Comparison of PAM Systems for Acoustic Monitoring and Further Risk Mitigation Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Stefan; Kreimeyer, Roman; Knoll, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    We present results of the SIRENA 2011 research cruises conducted by the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and the Universities of Kiel and Pavia. The cruises were carried out in the Ligurian Sea. The main aim of the FWG was to test and evaluate the newly developed towed hydrophone array as a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool for risk mitigation applications. The system was compared with the PAM equipment used by the other participating institutions. Recorded sounds were used to improve an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals, and validated acoustic detections by observers were compared with the results of the classifier.

  4. Risk Exposure and Net Flow in Investment Funds: Do Shareholders Monitor Asset Allocation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of asset allocation on the net flow of fixed income funds in the Brazilian market, by exploiting the exogenous variation in the risk perception of bank liabilities (CDs caused by the financial turmoil that followed Lehman Brothers’ demise in September 2008. The central hypothesis is that the exposure to assets negatively affected by the crisis impacts negatively the fund’s net flow. We find that, for mutual funds, the larger proportion of assets negatively affected by the crisis the larger the net outflow of resources, indicating that shareholders monitor asset allocation and exert disciplining power on fund managers by withdrawing their resources. In exclusive (fundos exclusivos, i.e., funds with a single shareholder, for which the shareholder is presumed to exert more influence on asset reallocation, we find no significant relationship between the exposure to assets negatively affected by the crisis and net flows.

  5. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-05-21

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

  6. Two States CBR Modeling of Data Source in Dynamic Traffic Monitoring Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Real traffic information was analyzed in the statistical characteristics and approximated as a Gaussian time series. A data source model, called two states constant bit rate (TSCBR), was proposed in dynamic traffic monitoring sensor networks. Analysis of autocorrelation of the models shows that the proposed TSCBR model matches with the statistical characteristics of real data source closely. To further verify the validity of the TSCBR data source model, the performance metrics of power consumption and network lifetime was studied in the evaluation of sensor media access control (SMAC) algorithm. The simulation results show that compared with traditional data source models, TSCBR model can significantly improve accuracy of the algorithm evaluation.

  7. Process monitoring of multicrystalline silicon solar cells with quasi-steady state photoconductance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocks, M.; Cuevas, A.; Blakers, A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Dept. of Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cell efficiency is strongly related to the bulk material lifetime due to the low electronic quality. The minority carrier lifetime of multicrystalline silicon can vary greatly during the high temperature furnace steps involved in cell processing. Quasi-steady state photoconductance (QssPc) measurements were used to monitor the lifetime of different mc-Si substrates and process sequences. It is important to identify the beneficial or detrimental processing steps, to minimize recombination (and therefore efficiency) at the completion of processing. The benefits of phosphorus diffusions and aluminum alloys were identified, while oxidations of ungettered substrates and metallization contributed to increased recombination and decreased effective lifetimes.

  8. State-of-the-art steam generator on-line chemistry monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Koul, L.J.; Mc Clendon, M.E.; Richards, J.E.; Wozniak, S.M.

    1986-04-01

    Recent understanding of corrosion mechanisms has changed the industry's approach to one of establishing and maintaining proper water chemistry conditions to increase steam generator life and availability. A rigorous sampling and analysis program, along with management's commitment to proper water chemistry, are integral to the success of this approach. This paper describes Virginia Power's recent commitment to better maintenance of secondary side water chemistry conditions at its nuclear power stations through an on-line, comprehensive, state-of-the-art chemistry monitoring system.

  9. Measuring Vapors To Monitor the State of Cure of a Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2006-01-01

    A proposed noninvasive method of monitoring the cure path and the state of cure of an epoxy or other resin involves measurement of the concentration( s) of one or more compound(s) in the vaporous effluent emitted during the curing process. The method is based on the following general ideas: (1) The concentrations of the effluent compounds in the vicinity of the curing resin are approximately proportional to the instantaneous rate of curing. (2) As curing proceeds at a given temperature, subsequent decreases in the concentrations are indicative of approaching completion of cure; that is, the lower are the concentrations, the more nearly complete is the cure.

  10. Optical State-of-Change Monitor for Lead-Acid Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1998-07-24

    A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cdl or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

  11. Multiparameter System for Monitoring the State of Urbanospherum Based on Multivendor Devices of Data Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipenko Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors explain the problem of partitioning of the control object on the controlled elements, and give a description of the mathematical apparatus. The authors propose different types of portable devices for collecting information about the state of urbanospherum on the basis of different hardware and software platforms that combine integrated information system. In the work the presented algorithms and block diagrams of data collection devices are based on the controller NI MyRIO, micro-computer Raspberry Pi and Arduino microcontroller system. The authors explain the approach to the optimization of systems of management of urban resources and processes with the using of systems condition monitoring of urbanospherum.

  12. Interim data monitoring to enroll higher-risk participants in HIV prevention trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umo-Otong John

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower-than-expected incidence of HIV undermines sample size calculations and compromises the power of a HIV prevention trial. We evaluated the effectiveness of interim monitoring of HIV infection rates and on-going modification of recruitment strategies to enroll women at higher risk of HIV in the Cellulose Sulfate Phase III study in Nigeria. Methods We analyzed prevalence and incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, demographic and sexual behavior characteristics aggregated over the treatment groups on a quarterly basis. The site investigators were advised on their recruitment strategies based on the findings of the interim analyses. Results A total of 3619 women were screened and 1644 enrolled at the Ikeja and Apapa clinics in Lagos, and at the Central and Peripheral clinics in Port Harcourt. Twelve months after study initiation, the overall incidence of HIV was less than one-third of the pre-study assumption, with rates of HIV that varied substantially between clinics. Due to the low prevalence and incidence rates of HIV, it was decided to close the Ikeja clinic in Lagos and to find new catchment areas in Port Harcourt. This strategy was associated with an almost two-fold increase in observed HIV incidence during the second year of the study. Conclusion Given the difficulties in estimating HIV incidence, a close monitoring of HIV prevalence and incidence rates during a trial is warranted. The on-going modification of recruitment strategies based on the regular analysis of HIV rates appeared to be an efficient method for targeting populations at greatest risk of HIV infection and increasing study power in the Nigeria trial. Trial Registration The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov registry under #NCT00120770 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00120770

  13. New techniques for environmental monitoring and risk assessment in water surface systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Alexakis, Athanasios-Theodosios; Maniatis, Georgios; Hoey, Trevor; Escudero, Javier; Vagras, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Our society is continuously impacted by significant weather events many times resulting in catastrophes that interrupt our normal way of life. In the context of climate change and increasing urbanisation these "extreme" hydrologic events are intensified both in magnitude and frequency, inducing costs of the order of billions of pounds. The vast majority of such costs and impacts (even more to developed societies) are due to water related catastrophes such as the geomorphic action of flowing water (including scouring of critical infrastructure, bed and bank destabilisation) and flooding. New tools and radically novel concepts are in need, to enable our society becoming more resilient. In this presentation, new research at the interface of sensors and water engineering is presented, focusing on addressing the above challenges in a holistic and comprehensive manner. In particular, the design, development, testing and calibration, as well as preliminary field implementation of a new tool for risk assessment and environmental monitoring in water surface systems, is explored in this work. It is demonstrated that novel advances in conceptual approaches in water engineering and specifically in the field of hydrodynamic transport of solids (such as the impulse and energy criteria) can be successfully combined with rapid advances in sensors to help monitor and increase the resilience of our society against catastrophic hydrologic events.

  14. 76 FR 38360 - Workshop-Monitoring Changes in Extreme Storm Statistics: State of Knowledge; Notice of Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Workshop--Monitoring Changes in Extreme Storm Statistics: State of Knowledge; Notice of Open Public Workshop AGENCY: National Environmental Satellite, Data,...

  15. Heavy vehicle state estimation and rollover risk evaluation using Kalman Filter and Sliding Mode Observer

    OpenAIRE

    DAKHLALLAH, Jamil; Imine, Hocine; Sellami, Yamine; BELLOT, D

    2007-01-01

    Safety driving is due to the prevention of risks situation, one of the important risk is the rollover of a heavy vehicle. Preventing this accident requires the knowledge of the rollover coefficient which depends on the vehicle dynamic state and other vehicle parameters. Thus, we estimate the vehicle dynamic state using the Extended and Unscented Kalman Filter and the Sliding Mode Observer. Thereafter, we calculate the probability to have a rollover risk using the previous result and Monte-Car...

  16. Exotic Plant Invasion Risk in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This model was constructed to model the risk of invasion by exotic plant species. Roads may directly influence exotic plant dispersal via disturbance during road...

  17. Turnover intentions and voluntary turnover: the moderating roles of self-monitoring, locus of control, proactive personality, and risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David G; Weeks, Kelly P; Moffitt, Karen R

    2005-09-01

    This article explores moderators of the relationship between turnover intentions and turnover behavior to better explain why some employees translate intentions into behavior and other employees do not. Individual differences in self-monitoring, locus of control, proactive personality, and risk aversion were examined. Results indicate that self-monitoring and risk aversion moderate the intentions-turnover link. Specifically, the relationship between turnover intentions and turnover is stronger for low self-monitors and those lower in risk aversion. Locus of control moderated the relationship in 1 of 2 samples such that the relationship was stronger for those with an internal locus of control. Proactive personality, however, did not directly moderate the relationship between intentions and turnover behaviors.

  18. Using multi-state markov models to identify credit card risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Evangelista Régis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main interest of this work is to analyze the application of multi-state Markov models to evaluate credit card risk by investigating the characteristics of different state transitions in client-institution relationships over time, thereby generating score models for various purposes. We also used logistic regression models to compare the results with those obtained using multi-state Markov models. The models were applied to an actual database of a Brazilian financial institution. In this application, multi-state Markov models performed better than logistic regression models in predicting default risk, and logistic regression models performed better in predicting cancellation risk.

  19. Innovative approaches to the organization of monitoring of physical state schoolchildren in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharova N.N.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim - explore the experience of using information technologies in physical education and to develop an automated system to control physical state of primary school children. Experience of using information technology in the process of physical education of children of primary school age, which allowed to establish their fragmented nature, lack of an integrated approach to control the physical condition of children and insufficient methodological approaches to the substantiation its correction. Proposed automated system for monitoring the physical state primary school children which consists of blocks "Diagnostics", "Health Handbook", "Sports Ground", "Diary of self-control" and through an integrated approach can provide control components being of children in the dynamics of learning in elementary school, provides methodological tools for its correction and the theoretical framework for healthy living.

  20. Spatial Assessment of Groundwater Quality Monitoring Wells Using Indicator Kriging and Risk Mapping, Amol-Babol Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahoora Sheikhy Narany

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of monitoring wells is to assess the conditions of groundwater quality in the aquifer system. An inappropriate distribution of sampling wells could produce insufficient or redundant data concerning groundwater quality. An optimal selection of representative monitoring well locations can be obtained by considering the natural and anthropogenic potential of pollution sources; the hydrogeological setting; and assessment of any existing data regarding monitoring networks. The main objective of this paper was to develop a new approach to identifying areas with a high risk of nitrate pollution for the Amol-Babol Plain, Iran. The indicator kriging method was applied to identify regions with a high probability of nitrate contamination using data obtained from 147 monitoring wells. The US-EPA DRASTIC method was then used in a GIS environment to assess groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination, and combined with data concerning the distribution of sources to produce a risk map. In the study area, around 3% of the total area has a strong probability of exceeding the nitrate threshold and a high–moderate risk of pollution, but is not covered adequately by sampling wells. However, the number of monitoring wells could be reduced in most parts of the study area to minimize redundant data and the cost of monitoring.

  1. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Zhijian; Hashim, Muhammad [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Lind, Morten [Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Djibouti); Tamayama, Kiyoshi; Okusa, Kyoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tsuruga (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    A new concept is first proposed of distributed human interface system to integrate both operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. Then, a method of constructing human interface system is introduced by integrating the plant knowledge database system based on Multilevel Flow Model (MFM) with the risk monitor to watch Defense-in Depth plant safety functions. The proposed concept is applied for a liquid metal fast reactor Monju and necessary R and D subjects are reviewed to realize human interface system for the maintenance work in Monju plant. Because of using high temperature liquid sodium as reactor coolant in Monju plant, the maintenance for Monju should utilize more automated equipment of remote control and robotics than that of light water reactor. It is necessary to design optimum task allocation between human and automated machine as the requisites for good communication design of human interface systems to support the collaboration work between workers at local workplace and the main control room. In this paper, the general issues are reviewed on how to configure the whole human interface system for helping proactive trouble prevention and risk evaluation on the basis of the presented target plant model before the concrete proposition of the hardware and software systems development to be used by both the staffs of operation and maintenance of NPP.

  2. Using Bayesian Belief Networks To Assess Volcano State from Multiple Monitoring Timeseries And Other Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odbert, Henry; Aspinall, Willy

    2013-04-01

    When volcanoes exhibit unrest or become eruptively active, science-based decision support invariably is sought by civil authorities. Evidence available to scientists about a volcano's internal state is usually indirect, secondary or very nebulous.Advancement of volcano monitoring technology in recent decades has increased the variety and resolution of multi-parameter timeseries data recorded at volcanoes. Monitoring timeseries may be interpreted in real time by observatory staff and are often later subjected to further analytic scrutiny by the research community at large. With increasing variety and resolution of data, interpreting these multiple strands of parallel, partial evidence has become increasingly complex. In practice, interpretation of many timeseries involves familiarity with the idiosyncracies of the volcano, the monitoring techniques, the configuration of the recording instrumentation, observations from other datasets, and so on. Assimilation of this knowledge is necessary in order to select and apply the appropriate statistical techniques required to extract the required information. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) use probability theory to treat and evaluate uncertainties in a rational and auditable scientific manner, but only to the extent warranted by the strength of the available evidence. The concept is a suitable framework for marshalling multiple observations, model results and interpretations - and associated uncertainties - in a methodical manner. The formulation is usually implemented in graphical form and could be developed as a tool for near real-time, ongoing use in a volcano observatory, for example. We explore the application of BBNs in analysing volcanic timeseries, the certainty with which inferences may be drawn, and how they can be updated dynamically. Such approaches provide a route to developing analytical interface(s) between volcano monitoring analyses and probabilistic hazard analysis. We discuss the use of BBNs in hazard

  3. Challenges and the state of the technology for printed sensor arrays for structural monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shiv; Bland, Scott; DeMott, Robert; Anderson, Nickolas; Jursich, Gregory

    2017-04-01

    Printed sensor arrays are attractive for reliable, low-cost, and large-area mapping of structural systems. These sensor arrays can be printed on flexible substrates or directly on monitored structural parts. This technology is sought for continuous or on-demand real-time diagnosis and prognosis of complex structural components. In the past decade, many innovative technologies and functional materials have been explored to develop printed electronics and sensors. For example, an all-printed strain sensor array is a recent example of a low-cost, flexible and light-weight system that provides a reliable method for monitoring the state of aircraft structural parts. Among all-printing techniques, screen and inkjet printing methods are well suited for smaller-scale prototyping and have drawn much interest due to maturity of printing procedures and availability of compatible inks and substrates. Screen printing relies on a mask (screen) to transfer a pattern onto a substrate. Screen printing is widely used because of the high printing speed, large selection of ink/substrate materials, and capability of making complex multilayer devices. The complexity of collecting signals from a large number of sensors over a large area necessitates signal multiplexing electronics that need to be printed on flexible substrate or structure. As a result, these components are subjected to same deformation, temperature and other parameters for which sensor arrays are designed. The characteristics of these electronic components, such as transistors, are affected by deformation and other environmental parameters which can lead to erroneous sensed parameters. The manufacturing and functional challenges of the technology of printed sensor array systems for structural state monitoring are the focus of this presentation. Specific examples of strain sensor arrays will be presented to highlight the technical challenges.

  4. Risk assessment and monitoring programme of nitrates through vegetables in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Leyre; Yusà, Vicent; Font, Guillermina; McAllister, Claudia; Torres, Concepción; Pardo, Olga

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine current levels of nitrate in vegetables marketed in the Region of Valencia (Spain) and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. A total of 533 samples of seven vegetable species were studied. Nitrate levels were derived from the Valencia Region monitoring programme carried out from 2009 to 2013 and food consumption levels were taken from the first Valencia Food Consumption Survey, conducted in 2010. The exposure was estimated using a probabilistic approach and two scenarios were assumed for left-censored data: the lower-bound scenario, in which unquantified results (below the limit of quantification) were set to zero and the upper-bound scenario, in which unquantified results were set to the limit of quantification value. The exposure of the Valencia consumers to nitrate through the consumption of vegetable products appears to be relatively low. In the adult population (16-95 years) the P99.9 was 3.13 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) and 3.15 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) in the lower bound and upper bound scenario, respectively. On the other hand, for young people (6-15 years) the P99.9 of the exposure was 4.20 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) and 4.40 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) in the lower bound and upper bound scenario, respectively. The risk characterisation indicates that, under the upper bound scenario, 0.79% of adults and 1.39% of young people can exceed the Acceptable Daily Intake of nitrate. This percentage could join the vegetable extreme consumers (such as vegetarians) of vegetables. Overall, the estimated exposures to nitrate from vegetables are unlikely to result in appreciable health risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Contact State Monitoring for Seal End Faces Based on Acoustic Emission Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the contact state of seal end faces would help the early warning of the seal failure. In the acoustic emission (AE detection for mechanical seal, the main difficulty is to reduce the background noise and to classify the dispersed features. To solve these problems and achieve higher detection rates, a new approach based on genetic particle filter with autoregression (AR-GPF and hypersphere support vector machine (HSSVM is presented. First, AR model is used to build the dynamic state space (DSS of the AE signal, and GPF is used for signal filtering. Then, multiple features are extracted, and a classification model based on HSSVM is constructed for state recognition. In this approach, AR-GPF is an excellent time-domain method for noise reduction, and HSSVM has advantage on those dispersed features. Finally experimental data shows that the proposed method can effectively detect the contact state of the seal end faces and has higher accuracy rates than some other existing methods.

  6. Critical aspects of integrated monitoring systems for landslides risk management: strategies for a reliable approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnetti, C.; Bertacchini, E.; Capra, A.; Corsini, A.

    2012-04-01

    The use of advanced technologies for remotely monitor surface processes is a successful way for improving the knowledge of phenomena evolution. In addition, the integration of various techniques is becoming more and more common in order to implement early warning systems that can monitor the evolution of landslides in time and prevent emergencies. The reliability of those systems plays a key role when Public Administrations have to plan actions in case of disasters or for preventing an incoming emergency. To have confidence in the information given by the system is an essential condition for a successful policy aiming to protect the population. The research deals with the major critical aspects to be taken into account when implementing a reliable monitoring system for unstable slopes. The importance of those aspects is often neglected, unlike the effects of a not careful implementation and management of the system can lead to erroneous interpretations of the phenomenon itself. The case study which ruled the research and highlighted the actual need of guidelines for setting up a reliable monitoring system is the Valoria landslide, located in the Northern Italy. The system is based on the integration of an automatic Total Station (TS) measuring 45 reflectors and a master GPS, acting as the reference station for three rovers placed within the landslide. In order to monitor local disturbing effects, a bi-dimensional clinometer has been applied on the TS pillar. Topographic measurements have been also integrated with geotechnical sensors (inclinometers and piezometers) in a GIS for landslide risk management. At the very beginning, periodic measurements were carried out, while the system is now performing continuously since 2008. The system permitted to evaluate movements from few millimeter till some meters per day in most dangerous areas. A more spatially continuous description has been also provided by LiDAR and terrestrial SAR interferometry. Some of the most

  7. Simulation of Daily Snapshot Rhythm Monitoring to Identify Atrial Fibrillation in Continuously Monitored Patients with Stroke Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Yano

    Full Text Available New technologies are diffusing into medical practice swiftly. Hand-held devices such as smartphones can record short-duration (e.g., 1-minute ECGs, but their effectiveness in identifying patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF is unknown.We used data from the TRENDS study, which included 370 patients (mean age 71 years, 71% men, CHADS2 score≥1 point: mean 2.3 points who had no documentation of atrial tachycardia (AT/AF or antiarrhythmic or anticoagulant drug use at baseline. All were subsequently newly diagnosed with AT/AF by a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED over one year of follow-up. Using a computer simulation approach (5,000 repetitions, we estimated the detection rate for paroxysmal AT/AF via daily snapshot ECG monitoring over various periods, with the probability of detection equal to the percent AT/AF burden on each day.The estimated AT/AF detection rates with snapshot monitoring periods of 14, 28, 56, 112, and 365 days were 10%, 15%, 21%, 28%, and 50% respectively. The detection rate over 365 days of monitoring was higher in those with CHADS2 scores ≥2 than in those with CHADS2 scores of 1 (53% vs. 38%, and was higher in those with AT/AF burden ≥0.044 hours/day compared to those with AT/AF burden <0.044 hours/day (91% vs. 14%; both P<0.05.Daily snapshot ECG monitoring over 365 days detects half of patients who developed AT/AF as detected by CIED, and shorter intervals of monitoring detected fewer AT/AF patients. The detection rate was associated with individual CHADS2 score and AT/AF burden.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00279981.

  8. [Monitoring the physical processes of sterilization in hospitals in the state of Goiás].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; Pires, Francine Vieira; Guadagnin, Simone Vieira Toledo; Melo, Dulcelene de Sousa

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this descriptive study was to identify the physical, chemical and biological controls of the sterilization process by saturated steam in Pasteur autoclaves at Material and Sterilization Centers (MSC). The data was obtained by interviewing the worker responsible for the MSC of the largest hospital in every city in the interior of Goiás that had population of at least 20,000, in the period from August 2005 to June 2006. A total 44 municipalities participated. The analysis was performed using SPSS software. In 31 (94.0%) hospitals there were no nurses exclusive to the MSC, the workers responsible for the center were nursing aides and technicians. Most did not perform any physical, chemical and biological control of the sterilization process, and, in one case only these controls were performed simultaneously. Failing to monitor the sterilization cycles, and thus not ensuring the quality of the processes, is a risk to the population being assisted.

  9. Shellfish and residual chemical contaminants: hazards, monitoring, and health risk assessment along French coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Marielle; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Arnich, Nathalie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Claisse, Didier; Guérin, Thierry; Vernoux, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    .The human health risks associated with consuming chemical contaminants in shellfish are difficult to assess for several reasons: effects may only surface after long-term exposure (chronic risk), exposures may be discontinuous, and contamination may derive from multiple sources (food, air, occupational exposure, etc.).Therefore, it is not possible to attribute a high body burden specifically to shellfish consumption even if seafood is a major dietary contributor of any contaminant, e.g.,arsenic and mercury.The data assembled in this review provide the arguments for maintaining the chemical contaminant monitoring programs for shellfish. Moreover, the results presented herein suggest that monitoring programs should be extended to other chemicals that are suspected of presenting a risk to consumers, as illustrated by the high concentration reported for arsenic (in urine) of high consumers of seafood products from the CALIPSO study. In addition, the research conducted in shellfish-farming areas of Arcachon Bay highlights the need to monitor TBT and PAH contamination levels to ensure that these chemical pollutants do not migrate from the harbor to oyster farms.Finally, we have concluded that shellfish contamination from seawater offers a rather low risk to the general French population, because shellfish do not constitute a major contributor to dietary exposure of chemical contaminants. Notwithstanding,consumer vigilance is necessary among regular shellfish consumers, and especially for those residing in fishing communities, for pregnant and breast-feeding women,and for very young children.

  10. At risk of being risky: The relationship between “brain age” under emotional states and risk preference

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Marc D.; Oscar Miranda-Domínguez; Alexandra O. Cohen; Kaitlyn Breiner; Laurence Steinberg; Bonnie, Richard J.; Scott, Elizabeth S.; Kim Taylor-Thompson; Jason Chein; Fettich, Karla C.; Richeson, Jennifer A.; Dellarco, Danielle V.; Adriana Galván; Casey, B. J.; Fair, Damien A.

    2017-01-01

    Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N = 212; 10–25y) examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the “brain age” of a ...

  11. Identification and ranking of the risk factors of cloud computing in State-Owned organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad Yaghoubi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of processing and storage technologies and the success of the Internet have made computing resources cheaper, more powerful and more available than before. This technological trend has enabled the realization of a new computing model called cloud computing. Recently, the State-Owned organizations have begun to utilize cloud computing architectures, platforms, and applications to deliver services and meet constituents’ needs. Despite all of the advantages and opportunities of cloud computing technology, there are so many risks that State-Owned organizations need to know about before their migration to cloud environment. The purpose of this study is to identify and rank the risks factors of cloud computing in State-Owned organizations by making use of IT experts’ opinion. Firstly, by reviewing key articles, a comprehensive list of risks factors were extracted and classified into two categories: tangible and intangible. Then, six experts were interviewed about these risks and their classifications, and 10 risks were identified. After that, process of ranking the risks was done by seeking help from 52 experts and by fuzzy analytic hierarchy process. The results show that experts have identified intangible risks as the most important risks in cloud computing usage by State-Owned organizations. As the results indicate, "data confidentiality" risk has the highest place among the other risks.

  12. Poverty risk among older immigrants in a Scandinavian welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2016-01-01

    of residence. We find major differences between migrant groups and between migrants and natives regarding how income is composed at different ages on market income, pensions and benefits. Next, we present a number of regressions aiming at explaining differences in the poverty risk with differences in a number...

  13. Modeling of Flood Risk for the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, D.; Li, S.; Katz, B.; Goteti, G.; Kaheil, Y. H.; Vojjala, R.

    2011-12-01

    The science of catastrophic risk modeling helps people to understand the physical and financial implications of natural catastrophes (hurricanes, flood, earthquakes, etc.), terrorism, and the risks associated with changes in life expectancy. As such it depends on simulation techniques that integrate multiple disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, structural engineering, statistics, computer science, financial engineering, actuarial science, and more in virtually every field of technology. In this talk we will explain the techniques and underlying assumptions of building the RMS US flood risk model. We especially will pay attention to correlation (spatial and temporal), simulation and uncertainty in each of the various components in the development process. Recent extreme floods (e.g. US Midwest flood 2008, US Northeast flood, 2010) have increased the concern of flood risk. Consequently, there are growing needs to adequately assess the flood risk. The RMS flood hazard model is mainly comprised of three major components. (1) Stochastic precipitation simulation module based on a Monte-Carlo analogue technique, which is capable of producing correlated rainfall events for the continental US. (2) Rainfall-runoff and routing module. A semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model was developed to properly assess the antecedent conditions, determine the saturation area and runoff. The runoff is further routed downstream along the rivers by a routing model. Combined with the precipitation model, it allows us to correlate the streamflow and hence flooding from different rivers, as well as low and high return-periods across the continental US. (3) Flood inundation module. It transforms the discharge (output from the flow routing) into water level, which is further combined with a two-dimensional off-floodplain inundation model to produce comprehensive flood hazard map. The performance of the model is demonstrated by comparing to the observation and published data. Output from

  14. Satellite Monitoring for Early Warning and Triggering Disaster Risk Financing in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalembe, C. L.; Owor, M.

    2016-12-01

    Natural disasters typically occur with little warning and can have grave and long-lasting negative consequences especially for populations fully dependent on rainfed agriculture. Disaster risk financing (DRF) aims to scale up alternative livelihoods such as Labour Intensive Public Works (LIPW) when a disaster hits to minimize the likely impacts on communities. In data-rich regions triggering DRF or crop insurances payouts can be easily implemented e.g in the case of agriculture, yield losses due to drought can be measured directly. This is constrained in Uganda, because seasonal/annual production data are scarce due to the subsistence and smallholder nature of agriculture in addition to low capacity for data collection and analysis in the country. Satellite remote sensing based indices, in particular the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), provides an objective and dependable solution to this challenge. Using MODIS satellite imagery provided through the GLAM East-Africa portal (Global Agricultural Monitoring system adapted for East-Africa) for obtaining NDVI time-series in near real-time, the Office of the Prime Minister of Uganda (OPM) is designing an operational crop conditions monitoring system in support of its recently initiated DRF Project, under the Third Northern Uganda Social Action Fund (NUSAF 2). The basis for triggering the DRF mechanism under this project is the deviation from the long-term NDVI (NDVI Anomaly data) within the growing season beyond a defined threshold. The NDVI data that are preprocessed in the GLAM system offer spatially explicit information on vegetation and crop conditions forming an adequate base for assessing generalized growing season conditions and enabling the quick implementation of DRF using transparent and objective criteria. The system and criteria serve also as an early-warning mechanism as the NDVI anomaly approaches the triggering threshold allowing time for planning and implementing LIPW projects.

  15. Clinical utility of early amplitude integrated EEG in monitoring term newborns at risk of neurological injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina A. Toso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to test the clinical utility of an early amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG to predict short-term neurological outcome in term newborns at risk of neurology injury. METHODS: this was a prospective, descriptive study. The inclusion criteria were neonatal encephalopathy, neurologic disturbances, and severe respiratory distress syndrome. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratio (LR were calculated. Clinical and demographic data were analyzed. Neurological outcome was defined as the sum of clinical, electroimaging, and neuroimaging findings. RESULTS: ten of the 21 monitored infants (48% presented altered short-term neurologic outcome. The aEEG had 90% sensitivity, 82% specificity, 82% positive predictive value, and 90% negative predictive value. The positive LR was 4.95, and the negative LR was 0.12. In three of 12 (25% encephalopathic infants, the aEEG allowed for a better definition of the severity of their condition. Seizures were detected in eight infants (38%, all subclinical at baseline, and none had a normal aEEG background pattern. The status of three infants (43% evolved and required two or more drugs for treatment. CONCLUSIONS: in infants with encephalopathy or other severe illness, aEEG disturbances occur frequently. aEEG provided a better classification of the severity of encephalopathy, detected early subclinical seizures, and allowed for monitoring of the response to treatment. aEEG was a useful tool at the neonatal intensive care unit for predicting poor short-term neurological outcomes for all sick newborn.

  16. Use of the Safety probabilistic analysis for the risk monitor before maintenance; Uso del Analisis probabilistico de seguridad para el monitor de riesgo antes de mantenimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, M. [Emersis S.A. de C.V., Tabachines 9-bis, 62589 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: cuesta@emersis.com

    2004-07-01

    In this work the use of the Safety Probabilistic Analysis (APS) of the Laguna Verde Power plant to quantify the risk before maintenance is presented. Beginning to describe the nature of the Rule of Maintenance and their risk evaluations, it is planned about the paper of the APS for that purpose, and a systematic form to establish the reaches for this use open of the model is delineated. The work provides some technique details of the implantation methods of the APS like risk monitor, including the form of introducing the systems, trains and components to the user, as well as the fitness to the models and improvements to the used platform. There are covered some of the measures taken to achieve the objectives of preserving the base model approved, to facilitate the periodic realize, and to achieve acceptable times of execution for their efficient use. (Author)

  17. Identification of high-risk areas for harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena bycatch using remote electronic monitoring and satellite telemetry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt-Larsen, Lotte; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Tougaard, J.

    2016-01-01

    and lower risk of porpoise bycatch. From May 2010 to April 2011, 4 commercial gillnet vessels were equipped with remote electronic monitoring (REM) systems. The REM system recorded time, GPS position and closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage of all gillnet hauls. REM data were used to identify fishing...

  18. Final Report for the ZERT Project: Basic Science of Retention Issues, Risk Assessment & Measurement, Monitoring and Verification for Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, Lee; Cunningham, Alfred; Lageson, David; Melick, Jesse; Gardner, Mike; Dobeck, Laura; Repasky, Kevin; Shaw, Joseph; Bajura, Richard; McGrail, B Peter; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Wagoner, Jeff; Pawar, Rajesh

    2011-03-31

    ZERT has made major contributions to five main areas of sequestration science: improvement of computational tools; measurement and monitoring techniques to verify storage and track migration of CO{sub 2}; development of a comprehensive performance and risk assessment framework; fundamental geophysical, geochemical and hydrological investigations of CO{sub 2} storage; and investigate innovative, bio-based mitigation strategies.

  19. Randomized controlled trial on cardiovascular risk management by practice nurses supported by self-monitoring in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiessen, Ans H.; Smit, Andries J.; Broer, Jan; Groenier, Klaas H.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    Background: Treatment goals for cardiovascular risk management are generally not achieved. Specialized practice nurses are increasingly facilitating the work of general practitioners and self-monitoring devices have been developed as counseling aid. The aim of this study was to compare standard trea

  20. A new state-observer of the inner PEM fuel cell pressures for enhanced system monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethoux, Olivier; Godoy, Emmanuel; Roche, Ivan; Naccari, Bruno; Amira Taleb, Miassa; Koteiche, Mohamad; Nassif, Younane

    2014-06-01

    In embedded systems such as electric vehicles, Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been an attractive technology for many years especially in automotive applications. This paper deals with PEMFC operation monitoring which is a current target for improvement for attaining extended durability. In this paper, supervision of the PEMFC is done using knowledge-based models. Without extra sensors, it enables a clear insight of state variables of the gases in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) which gives the PEMFC controller the ability to prevent abnormal operating conditions and associated irreversible degradations. First, a new state-observer oriented model of the PEM fuel cell is detailed. Based on this model, theoretical and practical observability issues are discussed. This analysis shows that convection phenomena can be considered negligible from the dynamic point of view; this leads to a reduced model. Finally a state-observer enables the estimation of the inner partial pressure of the cathode by using only the current and voltage measurements. This proposed model-based approach has been successfully tested on a PEM fuel cell simulator using a set of possible fault scenarios.

  1. Geoelectrical Tomography for landslide monitoring: state-of-the-art and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, V.; Perrone, A.; Piscitelli, S.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, novel algorithms for tomographic data inversion, robust models for describing the hydrogeophysical processes and new sensor networks for the field data acquisition have rapidly transformed the geoelectrical methods in a powerful and cost-effective tool for geo-hazard monitoring. These technological and methodological improvements disclose the way for a wide spectra of interesting and challenging applications in geo-hazards monitoring: reconstruction of landslide geometry; identification of fluid and gas uprising in volcanic areas; electrical imaging of seismic faults etc.. We briefly resume the current state-of-the-art of the geoelectrical methods in landslide monitoring and introduce new and emerging applications of the geoelectrical tomographic methods. An overview of the more interesting results obtained in different areas of Italian territory affected by wide and diffuse hydrogeological instability phenomena will be presented and discussed. We will focus the attention to some recent results obtained in the frame of national and international projects (Morfeo, Eurorisk/Preview, DORIS). One of the key challenges for the future will be the integration of active (Resistivity) and passive (Self-Potential) measurements for obtaining 2D, 3D and 4D (time-lapse) electrical tomographies able to follow the spatial and temporal dynamics of electrical parameters (i.e. resistivity, self-potential) inside the landslide body. The resistivity imaging can be applied for illuminating the sliding surfaces and for mapping the time-dependent changes of water content in vadose zones, while the Self Potential imaging could give a significant contribute for delineating the groundwater circulation patterns and to the early identification of triggering factors.

  2. Assessing the Invasion Risk of Eucalyptus in the United States Using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doria R. Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many agricultural species have undergone selection for traits that are consistent with those that increase the probability that a species will become invasive. However, the risk of invasion may be accurately predicted for the majority of plant species tested using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment (WRA. This system has been tested in multiple climates and geographies and, on average, correctly identifies 90% of the major plant invaders as having high invasion risk, and 70% of the noninvaders as having low risk. We used this tool to evaluate the invasion risk of 38 Eucalyptus taxa currently being tested and cultivated in the USA for pulp, biofuel, and other purposes. We predict 15 taxa to have low risk of invasion, 14 taxa to have high risk, and 9 taxa to require further information. In addition to a history of naturalization and invasiveness elsewhere, the traits that significantly contribute to a high invasion risk conclusion include having prolific seed production and a short generation time. Selection against these traits should reduce the probability that eucalypts cultivated in the USA will become invasive threats to natural areas and agricultural systems.

  3. A Brief Review of Non-invasive Monitoring of Respiratory Condition for Extubated Patients with or at Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea after Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezheng; Kassem, Mahmoud Attia Mohamed; Zhou, Ying; Shabsigh, Muhammad; Wang, Quanguang; Xu, Xuzhong

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the important risk factors contributing to postoperative airway complications. OSA alters the respiratory physiology and increases the sensitivity of muscle tone of the upper airway after surgery to residual anesthetic medication. In addition, the prevalence of OSA was reported to be much higher among surgical patients than the general population. Therefore, appropriate monitoring to detect early respiratory impairment in postoperative extubated patients with possible OSA is challenging. Based on the comprehensive clinical observation, several equipment have been used for monitoring the respiratory conditions of OSA patients after surgery, including the continuous pulse oximetry, capnography, photoplethysmography (PPG), and respiratory volume monitor (RVM). To date, there has been no consensus on the most suitable device as a recommended standard of care. In this review, we describe the advantages and disadvantages of some possible monitoring strategies under certain clinical conditions. According to the literature, the continuous pulse oximetry, with its high sensitivity, is still the most widely used device. It is also cost-effective and convenient to use but has low specificity and does not reflect ventilation. Capnography is the most widely used device for detection of hypoventilation, but it may not provide reliable data for extubated patients. Even normal capnography cannot exclude the existence of hypoxia. PPG shows the state of both ventilation and oxygenation, but its sensitivity needs further improvement. RVM provides real-time detection of hypoventilation, quantitative precise demonstration of respiratory rate, tidal volume, and MV for extubated patients, but no reflection of oxygenation. Altogether, the sole use of any of these devices is not ideal for monitoring of extubated patients with or at risk for OSA after surgery. However, we expect that the combined use of continuous pulse oximetry and RVM may be

  4. A Brief Review of Non-invasive Monitoring of Respiratory Condition for Extubated Patients with or at Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea after Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezheng; Kassem, Mahmoud Attia Mohamed; Zhou, Ying; Shabsigh, Muhammad; Wang, Quanguang; Xu, Xuzhong

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the important risk factors contributing to postoperative airway complications. OSA alters the respiratory physiology and increases the sensitivity of muscle tone of the upper airway after surgery to residual anesthetic medication. In addition, the prevalence of OSA was reported to be much higher among surgical patients than the general population. Therefore, appropriate monitoring to detect early respiratory impairment in postoperative extubated patients with possible OSA is challenging. Based on the comprehensive clinical observation, several equipment have been used for monitoring the respiratory conditions of OSA patients after surgery, including the continuous pulse oximetry, capnography, photoplethysmography (PPG), and respiratory volume monitor (RVM). To date, there has been no consensus on the most suitable device as a recommended standard of care. In this review, we describe the advantages and disadvantages of some possible monitoring strategies under certain clinical conditions. According to the literature, the continuous pulse oximetry, with its high sensitivity, is still the most widely used device. It is also cost-effective and convenient to use but has low specificity and does not reflect ventilation. Capnography is the most widely used device for detection of hypoventilation, but it may not provide reliable data for extubated patients. Even normal capnography cannot exclude the existence of hypoxia. PPG shows the state of both ventilation and oxygenation, but its sensitivity needs further improvement. RVM provides real-time detection of hypoventilation, quantitative precise demonstration of respiratory rate, tidal volume, and MV for extubated patients, but no reflection of oxygenation. Altogether, the sole use of any of these devices is not ideal for monitoring of extubated patients with or at risk for OSA after surgery. However, we expect that the combined use of continuous pulse oximetry and RVM may be

  5. Peculiarities of cardiac intervalography and psychological state of young people at different risk of arterial hypertension development state of students with different risk of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Denefil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, the problem of students’ adaptation to the educational process proves to be urgent, cardiovascular diseases ranking first among adaptation disorders. Early development of arterial hypertension (AH is of peculiar concern. However, the mechanisms of adaptation to the educational process as well as the causes accounting for the development of AH in young people have not been studied sufficiently so far. The objective is to find out the peculiarities of cardiac intervalography and psychological state of virtually healthy young males and females at different risk of AH development. Materials and methods. 150 boys and 173 girls aged 16 to 21 years, all of them were students of the medical university, were examined. Measurement of the arterial pressure (AP in the lying position was followed by the calculation of the mean hemodynamic pressure. The level above 90 mmHg pointed at high risk of AH development, whereas 90 mmHg and lower suggested its insignificant probability. Cardiac activity of autonomous regulation was estimated at the starting point and on the sixth minute of the postural test according to R.M.Baevsky method. The “BHC-Микро” device (Russia was used. Psychological characteristics were studied by FPI questionnaire (form B. Parametric methods of statistical analysis were used. The sampling contingent was formed by means of stratified randomization. Results. It was found that in the lying position the activity of the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS prevailed in boys and girls at high risk of AH development compared to those with the lower one. Adequate regulatory mechanisms were activated in orthostasis, specifically, the tone of the ANS sympathetic part increased. Students at low risk of AH development revealed enhanced intensity of regulatory mechanisms due to activation of both ANS parts. This appears to be adequate for the given group and indicates larger adaptation reserves, since

  6. Evaluating a fish monitoring protocol using state-space hierarchical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.; Schmetterling, David A.; Guy, Chris S.; Shepard, Bradley B.; McFarland, Robert; Skaar, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from three river reaches in Montana, we evaluated our ability to detect population trends and predict fish future fish abundance. Data were collected as part of a long-term monitoring program conducted by Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks to primarily estimate rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) abundance in numerous rivers across Montana. We used a hierarchical Bayesian mark-recapture model to estimate fish abundance over time in each of the three river reaches. We then fit a state-space Gompertz model to estimate current trends and future fish populations. Density dependent effects were detected in 1 of the 6 fish populations. Predictions of future fish populations displayed wide credible intervals. Our simulations indicated that given the observed variation in the abundance estimates, the probability of detecting a 30% decline in fish populations over a five-year period was less than 50%. We recommend a monitoring program that is closely tied to management objectives and reflects the precision necessary to make informed management decisions.

  7. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  8. Monitoring the expansion of built-up areas in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, N.

    2014-02-01

    Rapid urbanization has caused land use transformation and encroachment of built environment into arable agriculture land. Uncontrolled expansion could bring negative impacts to society, space and the environment. Therefore, information on expansion and future spatial pattern of built-up areas would be useful for planners and decision makers in formulating policies towards managing and planning for sustainable urban development. This study demonstrates the usage of Geographic Information System in monitoring the expansion of built-up area in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia. Built-up area has increased by approximately 20% between 1990 and 2001 and further increased by 12% between 2001 and 2007. New development is expected to continue encroach into existing open space and agriculture area since those are the only available land in this study area. The information on statistics of the expansion of built-up area and future spatial pattern of urban expansion were useful in planning and managing urban spatial growth.

  9. Distributed Dynamic State Estimator, Generator Parameter Estimation and Stability Monitoring Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliopoulos, Sakis [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Cokkinides, George [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fardanesh, Bruce [New York Power Authority, NY (United States); Hedrington, Clinton [U.S. Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA), St. Croix (U.S. Virgin Islands)

    2013-12-31

    This is the final report for this project that was performed in the period: October1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. In this project, a fully distributed high-fidelity dynamic state estimator (DSE) that continuously tracks the real time dynamic model of a wide area system with update rates better than 60 times per second is achieved. The proposed technology is based on GPS-synchronized measurements but also utilizes data from all available Intelligent Electronic Devices in the system (numerical relays, digital fault recorders, digital meters, etc.). The distributed state estimator provides the real time model of the system not only the voltage phasors. The proposed system provides the infrastructure for a variety of applications and two very important applications (a) a high fidelity generating unit parameters estimation and (b) an energy function based transient stability monitoring of a wide area electric power system with predictive capability. Also the dynamic distributed state estimation results are stored (the storage scheme includes data and coincidental model) enabling an automatic reconstruction and “play back” of a system wide disturbance. This approach enables complete play back capability with fidelity equal to that of real time with the advantage of “playing back” at a user selected speed. The proposed technologies were developed and tested in the lab during the first 18 months of the project and then demonstrated on two actual systems, the USVI Water and Power Administration system and the New York Power Authority’s Blenheim-Gilboa pumped hydro plant in the last 18 months of the project. The four main thrusts of this project, mentioned above, are extremely important to the industry. The DSE with the achieved update rates (more than 60 times per second) provides a superior solution to the “grid visibility” question. The generator parameter identification method fills an important and practical need of the industry. The “energy function” based

  10. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system in Ireland: methods and response rates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Keeffe, Linda M.

    2014-06-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers’ information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland.

  11. Furan in commercially processed foods: four-year field monitoring and risk assessment study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Kyu; Lee, Yun-Kyung; Kim, Simhae; Park, Young Sig; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor and assess the risk associated with the presence of furan in various food products consumed in Korea. An optimized analytical method was used for the analysis of furan levels. The optimized solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber exposure conditions as follows for temperature, time, and amount of sample were 50 degrees C, 20 min, and 5 g (ml), respectively. Furan was detected in all food samples tested, at levels ranging from 0.4 ng/g in canned crab to 814 ng/g in ground roasted coffee powder. The furan levels in coffee, canned fish, canned meats, sauce, soup, retort, canned vegetables, baby foods, nutritional/diet drinks, confectionary and biscuits and snacks, juice, jams, and canned fruit were (ng/g) 169, 56.1, 30.1, 21.1, 18.1, 15.6, 10.9, 10.6, 7.1, 5.4, 3.7, 3.2, and 2.9, respectively. Furan concentrations in baby food products were between 1 and 102.5 ng/g. The total exposure estimate of furan was determined to be 10.6 ng/kg/d (maximum, 20 ng/kg/d) for adults, and 17.4 ng/kg/d (maximum. 84.9 ng/kg/d) for babies. Exposure estimates found in this study are lower than those prescribed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

  12. Interactive voice response self-monitoring to assess risk behaviors in rural substance users living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A; Blum, Elizabeth R; Xie, Lili; Roth, David L; Simpson, Cathy A

    2012-02-01

    Community-dwelling HIV/AIDS patients in rural Alabama self-monitored (SM) daily HIV risk behaviors using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system, which may enhance reporting, reduce monitored behaviors, and extend the reach of care. Sexually active substance users (35 men, 19 women) engaged in IVR SM of sex, substance use, and surrounding contexts for 4-10 weeks. Baseline predictors of IVR utilization were assessed, and longitudinal IVR SM effects on risk behaviors were examined. Frequent (n = 22), infrequent (n = 22), and non-caller (n = 10) groups were analyzed. Non-callers had shorter durations of HIV medical care and lower safer sex self-efficacy and tended to be older heterosexuals. Among callers, frequent callers had lost less social support. Longitudinal logistic regression models indicated reductions in risky sex and drug use with IVR SM over time. IVR systems appear to have utility for risk assessment and reduction for rural populations living with HIV disease.

  13. A novel alternative to environmental monitoring to detect workers at risk for beryllium exposure-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, Elizabeth; Lerman, Yehuda; Stark, Moshe; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Van Dyke, Michael V; Elliot, Jill; Barkes, Briana; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a methodology for surveillance and monitoring of beryllium exposure using biological monitoring to complement environmental monitoring. Eighty-three Israeli dental technicians (mean age 41.6 ± 1.36 years) and 80 American nuclear machining workers (54.9 ± 1.21 years) were enrolled. Biological monitoring was carried out by analyzing particle size (laser technique) and shape (image analysis) in 131/163 (80.3%) induced sputum samples (Dipa Analyser, Donner Tech, Or Aquiva, Israel). Environmental monitoring was carried out only in the United States (Sioutas impactor, SKC, Inc., Eighty Four, Pa.). Pulmonary function testing performance and induced sputum retrieval were done by conventional methods. Sixty-three Israeli workers and 37 American workers were followed up for at least 2 years. Biological monitoring by induced sputum indicated that a >92% accumulation of beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test result (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-11.4, p = 0.015) among all participants. Environmental monitoring showed that beryllium particles were machining workers compared to dental technicians. The small fractions positively correlated with induced sputum macrophages (r = 0.21 p = 0.01) and negatively correlated with diffusion lung carbon monoxide single breath (DLCO-SB r = 0.180 p = 0.04) in all subjects. Years of exposure were positively correlated to the number of accumulated particles 2-3 μ in diameter (r = 0.2, p = 0.02) and negatively correlated to forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity findings (r = -0.18, p = 0.02). DLCO was decreased in both groups after two years of monitoring. Biological monitoring is more informative than environmental monitoring in the surveillance and monitoring of workers in beryllium industries. Induced sputum is a feasible and promising biomonitoring method that should be included in the surveillance of exposed workers.

  14. Prototypic Enhanced Risk Monitor Framework and Evaluation - Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M3AT-15PN2301054

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Veeramany, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonebrake, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivans, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coles, Garill A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coble, Jamie B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Liu, X. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wootan, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brass, Mary F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    This research report summaries the development and evaluation of a prototypic enhanced risk monitor (ERM) methodology (framework) that includes alternative risk metrics and uncertainty analysis. This updated ERM methodology accounts for uncertainty in the equipment condition assessment (ECA), the prognostic result, and the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model. It is anticipated that the ability to characterize uncertainty in the estimated risk and update the risk estimates in real-time based on equipment condition assessment (ECA)will provide a mechanism for optimizing plant performance while staying within specified safety margins. These results (based on impacting active component O&M using real-time equipment condition information) are a step towards ERMs that, if integrated with AR supervisory plant control systems, can help control O&M costs and improve affordability of advanced reactors.

  15. What is the Risk for Exposure to Vector-Borne Pathogens in United States National Parks?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, Lars; Wong, David; SHELUS, VICTORIA; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    United States national parks attract >275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. We assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal National Park Service documents and organisma...

  16. From Mobile Phone Monitoring of Depressive States using GPS Traces Analysis to Data-Driven Behaviour Change Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Canzian

    2015-10-01

    We have also shown that it is possible to develop inference algorithms as a basis for unobtrusive monitoring and prediction of depressive mood disorders. The key open question is how to exploit the correlations between mobility metrics and depressive states we observe in the data. We are currently exploring a variety of possible solutions for enabling automatic delivery of behaviour intervention through real-time analysis of the sensed data. The focus of this initial work is on a specific modality, i.e., GPS location, but the results of this work can be indeed exploited to build more complex system based on the analysis of data extracted by means of other sensors, such as accelerometers, and other sources of information, such as call and SMS logs. We indeed plan to use the application in future studies that will focus on specific populations, such as clinically-diagnosed depressed individuals. Ethical considerations are also an important part of our investigation: we believe that the potential risks associated to the delivery of incorrect behaviour interventions should be analysed in depth. A possible solution might consist in mixed intervention methods, based on the automatic delivery of behaviour interventions by means of mobile phones with the involvement of mental healthcare officers and clinicians, at least in case of mild and severe depressive cases.

  17. The geography of private forests that support at-risk species in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos D. Robles; Curtis H. Flather; Susan M. Stein; Mark D. Nelson; Andrew Cutko

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we present a coarse-scale, first approximation of the geographic areas where privately owned forests support at-risk species in the conterminous United States. At-risk species are defined as those species listed under the US Endangered Species Act or with a global conservation status rank of critically imperiled, imperiled, or vulnerable. Our results...

  18. 电力安全风险现场监控系统的设计%Research and Design of Power Security Risk on Site Monitoring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 杨涛; 栗庆吉

    2013-01-01

    In light of the better mobility and flexibility of the mobile terminal, this paper proposes a design of Android-based power se-curity risk on site monitoring system. With this software, users can view and operate the instructions during the operation in real-time, monitor and record the information of the job sites, to achieve the assessment, warning and containment of the full state of standardized job security risk. And it comprehensively improves the level of standardization of operating risk containment.%基于移动终端具有移动性、灵活性等优点,提出一种基于Android的电力安全风险现场监控系统。应用该软件系统,用户可在作业过程中对指导书进行实时查看与操作,对作业现场进行实时监控与记录,实现标准化作业安全风险全程实时评估、预警和控制,全面提高标准化作业风险防控水平。

  19. Assessment of independent risk factors of conversion into psychosis in the ultra-high risk state group of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gawłowska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the independent psychosis risk factors assessment in a group of subjects fulfilling the criteria of at risk mental state, under specialist outpatient psychiatric care. Participants: Seventy-one patients – 33 women and 38 men, were involved into this study, aged on average 17.34, all under psychiatric care. The patients were recruited into the study in the sequence of their outpatient clinic admission. The criterion to be included into the study was the diagnosis of ultra-high risk state (UHRS – defined according to the Australian research group principles. Subsequently, the patients were divided into subgroups according to the clinical features of their mental state. Method: The author’s demographic questionnaire was applied in the study. Information regarding the family history of psychosis was obtained from patients and/or their relatives or carers. The patients’ mental state was assessed monthly – according to the presence of psychotic symptoms, change of their incidence and duration, presence of depressive symptoms or aggressive behaviour (measured by a three-level scale. On the basis of the obtained information, we evaluated: 1 conversion into psychosis time – measured from diagnosing of UHRS to the development of full-symptom psychosis, 2 therapeutic methods used (psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy or both, 3 use of psychoactive substances after being diagnosed with UHRS, 4 presence of serious life stressors (the patients’ subjective estimation – during the six-month period preceding the conversion into psychosis. Results: 1 In the UHRS group of patients, staying under professional outpatient psychiatric care, the use of marijuana was an independent risk factor of conversion into psychosis. 2 In the investigated group of patients with at risk mental state we did not find any correlation between modulating factors (including: therapeutic methods used, depressive symptoms, aggression or

  20. Study of the associated factors risks in specialist library in Lara state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leomar Montilla Peña

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Presented are the results of a study on the risk factors associated to a specialized library in Lara State, Venezuela. The objective of this research was to analyze the risk factors that may represent sources of hazards in all elements of the organization of information. The research is descriptive, field and quasi-experimental. Was performed identification the of risk factors and risk quantification was performed by the probability (frequency and intensity (severity that can produce the harmful effects. The results indicate that 25 of the 32 analyzed risk factors may be related to the element of information sources, also in the same way 12 of the 32 may be associated risk factors with human talent element, 12 of the 32 risk factors with user element, 12 of the 32 risk factors with the building element and 10 of the 32 risk factors with the equipments element. The study conclusions show that the risk factors that require further attention and priority, are: relative humidity (risk value 45, dust (risk value 45 and technical cleaning preventive (risk value 15.

  1. Do Parents Meet Adolescents' Monitoring Standards? Examination of the Impact on Teen Risk Disclosure and Behaviors if They Don't.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Lesley; Rishel, Carrie; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Scott; Metzger, Aaron; Ahmadi, Halima; Wang, Bo; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined how adolescents compare monitoring efforts by their parents to those of a "good parent" standard and assessed the impact of these comparisons on adolescent self-disclosure and risk behavior and their perceptions of their parents' monitoring knowledge. Survey responses from 519 adolescents (12-17 years) at baseline of a larger, longitudinal study examining parental monitoring and adolescent risk were examined. Adolescents' "good parent comparisons" differed greatly by monitoring areas (e.g., telephone use, health, money); however, between 5.5% and 25.8% of adolescents believed their parents needed to monitor their activities more than they currently were monitoring. Alternatively, between 8.5% and 23.8% of adolescents believed their parents needed to monitor their activities less often. These perceptions significantly distinguished adolescents in terms of their level of disclosure, perceived monitoring knowledge, and risk involvement. Adolescents who viewed their parents as needing to monitor more were less likely to disclose information to their parents (padolescents who perceived their parents needed no change. Adolescent disclosure to a parent is a powerful predictor of adolescent risk and poor health outcomes. These findings demonstrate that adolescents' comparisons of their parents' monitoring efforts can predict differences in adolescent disclosure and future risk. Obtaining adolescent "good parent" comparisons may successfully identify intervention opportunities with the adolescent and parent by noting the areas of need and direction of monitoring improvement.

  2. Fluorescence technique for on-line monitoring of state of hydrogen-producing microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Michael; Makarova, Valeriya; Tsygankov, Anatoly A.; Rubin, Andrew B.

    2007-06-12

    In situ fluorescence method to monitor state of sulfur-deprived algal culture's ability to produce H.sub.2 under sulfur depletion, comprising: a) providing sulfur-deprived algal culture; b) illuminating culture; c) measuring onset of H.sub.2 percentage in produced gas phase at multiple times to ascertain point immediately after anerobiosis to obtain H.sub.2 data as function of time; and d) determining any abrupt change in three in situ fluorescence parameters; i) increase in F.sub.t (steady-state level of chlorophyll fluorescence in light adapted cells); ii) decrease in F.sub.m', (maximal saturating light induced fluorescence level in light adapted cells); and iii) decrease in .DELTA.F/F.sub.m'=(F.sub.m'-F.sub.t)/F.sub.m' (calculated photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII) signaling full reduction of plastoquinone pool between PSII and PSI, which indicates start of anaerobic conditions that induces synthesis of hydrogenase enzyme for subsequent H.sub.2 production that signal oxidation of plastoquinone pool asmain factor to regulate H.sub.2 under sulfur depletion.

  3. Using MODIS NDVI products for vegetation state monitoring on the oil production territory in Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes the results of using remote sensing data for vegetation state monitoring on the oil field territories in Western Siberia. We used MODIS data product providing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI values. Average NDVI values of each studied area were calculated for the period from 2010 to 2015 with one year interval for June, July and August. Analysis was carried out via an open tool of geographic information system QGIS used for spatial analysis and calculation of statistical parameters within chosen polygons. Results are presented in graphs showing the variation of NDVI for each study area and explaining the changes in trend lines for each field. It is shown that the majority of graphs are similar in shape which is caused by similar weather conditions. To confirm these results, we have conducted data analysis including temperature conditions and information about the accidents for each area. Abnormal changes in NDVI values revealed an emergency situation on the Priobskoe oil field caused by the flood in 2015. To sum up, the research results show that vegetation of studied areas is in a sufficiently stable state.

  4. Operational control of radiation conditions in Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Shugay, Yulia; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Barinova, Vera; Myagkova, Irina; Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Space Monitoring Data Center (SMDC) of Moscow State University provides mission support for Russian satellites and give operational analysis of radiation conditions in space. SMDC Web-sites (http://smdc.sinp.msu.ru/ and http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/) give access to current data on the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation state of Earth's magnetosphere and heliosphere in near-real time. For data analysis the models of space environment factors working online have been implemented. Interactive services allow one to retrieve and analyze data at a given time moment. Forecasting applications including solar wind parameters, geomagnetic and radiation condition forecasts have been developed. Radiation dose and SEE rate control are of particular importance in practical satellite operation. Satellites are always under the influence of high-energy particle fluxes during their orbital flight. The three main sources of particle fluxes: the Earth's radiation belts, the galactic cosmic rays, and the solar energetic particles (SEP), are taken into account by SMDC operational services to estimate the radiation dose caused by high-energy particles to a satellite at LEO orbits. ISO 15039 and AP8/AE8 physical models are used to estimate effects of galactic cosmic rays and radiation belt particle fluxes. Data of geosynchronous satellites (GOES or Electro-L1) allow to reconstruct the SEP fluxes spectra at a given low Earth orbit taking into account the geomagnetic cut-off depending on geomagnetic activity level.

  5. Thermal monitoring as a method for estimation of technical state of digital devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrich Yu. N.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Requirements to the reliability level of modern element base are so high that traditional methods of assessing the technical condition of electronics become ineffective, the modern theory of reliability has almost no practical applications [1], and reliability index does not reflect the true state of an electronic device due to an insufficient amount of information received during testing of electronic devices. The majority of modern electronics are limitedly easy-to-test. They are equipped with small number of tools for direct measurement that leads to a delayed troubleshooting and the inability to take measures efficiently. Despite the fact that new generations of electronics use modern components and new design technologies, their performance is still defined by two states — serviceability or failure, and the failure still happens unexpectedly. We may note, that failure is an uncontrolled result of an irreversible degradation process, taking place in time and having appropriate time parameters, but it's not the critical act. Research of various structural and hierarchical levels of functional units of digital electronics show that temperature control can be used for automatic condition monitoring of such devices in real time. As a generalized control parameter, it is advisable to use the temperature of the case of the element, and the case itself — as a generalized point.

  6. Evaluation of risk and benefit in thermal effusivity sensor for monitoring lubrication process in pharmaceutical product manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Jumpei; Kato, Yoshiteru; Uemoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-08-01

    In the process design of tablet manufacturing, understanding and control of the lubrication process is important from various viewpoints. A detailed analysis of thermal effusivity data in the lubrication process was conducted in this study. In addition, we evaluated the risk and benefit in the lubrication process by a detailed investigation. It was found that monitoring of thermal effusivity detected mainly the physical change of bulk density, which was changed by dispersal of the lubricant and the coating powder particle by the lubricant. The monitoring of thermal effusivity was almost the monitoring of bulk density, thermal effusivity could have a high correlation with tablet hardness. Moreover, as thermal effusivity sensor could detect not only the change of the conventional bulk density but also the fractional change of thermal conductivity and thermal capacity, two-phase progress of lubrication process could be revealed. However, each contribution of density, thermal conductivity, or heat capacity to thermal effusivity has the risk of fluctuation by formulation. After carefully considering the change factor with the risk to be changed by formulation, thermal effusivity sensor can be a useful tool for monitoring as process analytical technology, estimating tablet hardness and investigating the detailed mechanism of the lubrication process.

  7. Mother's and father's monitoring is more important than parental social support regarding sexual risk behaviour among 15-year-old adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Klein, Daniel; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives There is strong evidence that parental processes such as monitoring and social support play an important role with regard to sexual risk behaviour among adolescents. We wished to explore the influence of both parents 'monitoring and support on sexual risk behaviour among ad

  8. Long-term dust climatology in the western United States reconstructed from routine aerosol ground monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. Tong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an observation-based dust identification approach and applies it to reconstruct long-term dust climatology in the western United States. Long-term dust climatology is important for quantifying the effects of atmospheric aerosols on regional and global climate. Although many routine aerosol monitoring networks exist, it is often difficult to obtain dust records from these networks, because these monitors are either deployed far away from dust active regions (most likely collocated with dense population or contaminated by anthropogenic sources and other natural sources, such as wildfires and vegetation detritus. Here we propose an approach to identify local dust events relying solely on aerosol mass and composition from general-purpose aerosol measurements. Through analyzing the chemical and physical characteristics of aerosol observations during satellite-detected dust episodes, we select five indicators to be used to identify local dust records: (1 high PM10 concentrations; (2 low PM2.5/PM10 ratio; (3 higher concentrations and percentage of crustal elements; (4 lower percentage of anthropogenic pollutants; and (5 low enrichment factors of anthropogenic elements. After establishing these identification criteria, we conduct hierarchical cluster analysis for all validated aerosol measurement data over 68 IMPROVE sites in the western United States. A total of 182 local dust events were identified over 30 of the 68 locations from 2000 to 2007. These locations are either close to the four US Deserts, namely the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave Desert, the Sonoran Desert, and the Chihuahuan Desert, or in the high wind power region (Colorado. During the eight-year study period, the total number of dust events displays an interesting four-year activity cycle (one in 2000–2003 and the other in 2004–2007. The years of 2003, 2002 and 2007 are the three most active dust periods, with 46, 31 and 24

  9. Holter monitoring to detect silent atrial fibrillation in high-risk subjects: the Perugia General Practitioner Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, Valentina; Becattini, Cecilia; Laureti, Stefano; Baglioni, Gregorio; Germini, Fabrizio; Grilli, Piero; Guercini, Francesco; Filippucci, Esmeralda; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2015-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is diagnosed for the first time in about 5 % of patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke. Advanced aged and arterial hypertension are risk factors for AF. We evaluated the prevalence of silent AF in subjects with advanced age and systemic arterial hypertension. Subjects of both gender, aged 65 years or more with systemic arterial hypertension were randomly identified from the patient lists of the participating general practitioners in the Perugia area, in Italy. Study subjects underwent baseline 12-lead ECG and, if this did not show AF, 48-h Holter monitoring was performed. AF was known and confirmed by 12-lead ECG in 4 out of the 308 evaluated subjects (1.3 %). Baseline 12-lead ECG showed no cases of silent AF. Holter monitoring was performed in 300 subjects, mean age 70 ± 4. Twenty-six recordings were not evaluable for the presence of artifacts; therefore, 274 subjects were included in the analysis. Holter monitoring showed AF in 27 out of 274 subjects (10 %; 95 % confidence interval 6.4-13.5 %); AF was longer than 30 s in four of the subjects. In 56 additional subjects, Holter monitoring revealed excessive supraventricular ectopic activity (20 %; 95 % confidence interval 15.3-24.7 %). Holter monitoring was able to detect silent AF in about 10 % of subjects aged 65 or above with systemic arterial hypertension. The risk of stroke associated with screened silent AF should be carefully evaluated.

  10. Occurrence and risk factors associated with infection by Toxoplasma gondii in goats in the State of Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulliano Aires Anderlini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Goats are considered very susceptible to infection by Toxoplasma gondii and when this occurs during pregnancy, it may cause fetal death with subsequent fetal resorption, abortion, mummification, stillborn or the birth of weak goats. The objective of this work was to determine the occurrence of and identify risk factors for T. gondii infection in goats in different mesoregions in the State of Alagoas. METHODS: The research was conducted on 24 goat breeding farms in 10 municipalities. A total of 454 blood samples were examined for anti-T. gondii antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. To evaluate the risk factors of toxoplasmosis in goats, questionnaires were applied analyzing the farm's production system and nutritional, reproductive and sanitary management. RESULTS: Disease occurrence was 39% with 95.8% of farms presenting seropositive animals. Significant associations were observed for mesoregion (OR = 0.23; 95%CI = 0.09 - 0.57, age (OR = 0.36; 95%CI = 0.20 - 0.64, semi-intensive herd management (OR = 8.70; 95%CI = 1.87 - 40.43, access of cats to water provided for goats (OR = 3.38; 95%CI = 1.89-6.02 and cats feeding on placental remnants (OR = 2.73; 95%CI = 1.38 - 5.40. CONCLUSIONS: Toxoplasma gondii infection is disseminated in the State of Alagoas and the adoption of a program that monitors infection foci is required to reduce the risk factors identified in the present study.

  11. CHIPS: A New Way to Monitor Colonias Along the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Humberson, Delbert G.

    2007-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. Colonia residents live in poverty and lack adequate health care, potable water, and sanitation systems. These conditions create substantial health risks for colonias and surrounding communities. By 2001, more than 1,400 colonias were identified in Texas. Cooperation with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Offices of the Texas Attorney General, Secretary of State, and the Texas Water Development Board has allowed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to improve colonia Geographic Information System (GIS) boundaries and develop the Colonia Health, Infrastructure, and Platting Status tool (CHIPS). Together, the GIS boundaries and CHIPS aid the Texas government in prioritizing the limited funds that are available for infrastructure improvement. CHIPS's report generator can be tailored to the needs of the user, providing either broad or specific output. For example, a congressman could use CHIPS to list colonias with wastewater issues in a specific county, whereas a health researcher could list all colonias without clinical access. To help cities along the United States-Mexico border manage issues related to colonias growth, CHIPS will become publicly available in an Internet-enabled GIS as part of a cooperative study between the USGS, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica.

  12. The Consequences of State-Level Intrusions: A Risk Worth Taking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdoch Watney

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the years states have intruded the cyberspace of other states. Does the offending state consider the consequences it may face for the intrusion under international law and/or at international level? Is the position at present so uncertain that a state may decide that the risk is worth taking in view of the problems experienced with establishing attribution or is the injured state being second guessed on its reaction? This discussion explores, with reference to examples of state-level intrusions, whether the intrusion is prohibited under the international law or not and the possible consequences the offending state may face. The danger exists that as countries develop and/or improve their cyber capabilities, they may follow the example of countries who had intruded the cyberspace of other countries. It will be difficult for the latter to preach restraint from the moral high ground. Past state behaviour illustrates that states will put national interests and aspirations above trust, openness and transparency in cyberspace. Cyberspace is becoming a crowded place where state behaviour necessitates governance otherwise cyberspace will become lawless to the detriment of all states including those states who in the past may have decided state-intrusion is a risk worth taking.

  13. Surveillance of certain health behaviors and conditions among states and selected local areas - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Pranesh; Balluz, Lina; Town, Machell; Chowdhury, Farah M; Bartolis, William; Garvin, William; Akcin, Haci; Greenlund, Kurt J; Giles, Wayne

    2010-02-05

    Chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes) are the leading causes of death in the United States. Controlling health risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical inactivity, poor diet, and excessive drinking) and using preventive health-care services (e.g., cancer, hypertension, and cholesterol screenings) can reduce morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Monitoring health-risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and preventive care practices is essential to develop health promotion activities, intervention programs, and health policies at the state, city, and county levels. January 2007-December 2007. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based, on-going, random--digit-dialed household telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged >or=18 years residing in the United States. BRFSS collects data on health-risk behaviors and use of preventative health services related to the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. This report presents results for 2007 for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, 184 metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas (MMSAs), and 298 counties. In 2007, prevalence estimates of risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and the use of preventive services varied substantially by state and territory, MMSA, and county. The following is a summary of results listed by BRFSS question topic. Each set of proportions refers to the range of estimated prevalence for the disease, condition, or behavior, as reported by the survey subject. Adults who reported fair or poor health: 11% to 32% for states and territories and 6% to 31% for MMSAs and counties. Adults with health-care coverage: 71% to 94% for states and territories and 51% to 97% for MMSAs and counties. Annual influenza vaccination among adults aged >or=65 years: 32% to 80% for states and territories, 48% to 83% for MMSAs, and 44% to 88% for counties

  14. AgroClimate: Simulating and Monitoring the Risk of Extreme Weather Events from a Crop Phenology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisse, C.; Pequeno, D.; Staub, C. G.; Perry, C.

    2016-12-01

    Climate variability, particularly the occurrence of extreme weather conditions such as dry spells and heat stress during sensitive crop developmental phases can substantially increase the prospect of reduced crop yields. Yield losses or crop failure risk due to stressful weather conditions vary mainly due to stress severity and exposure time and duration. The magnitude of stress effects is also crop specific, differing in terms of thresholds and adaptation to environmental conditions. To help producers in the Southeast USA mitigate and monitor the risk of crop losses due to extreme weather events we developed a web-based tool that evaluates the risk of extreme weather events during the season taking into account the crop development stages. Producers can enter their plans for the upcoming season in a given field (e.g. crop, variety, planting date, acreage etc.), select or not a specific El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase, and will be presented with the probabilities (ranging from 0 -100%) of extreme weather events occurring during sensitive phases of the growing season for the selected conditions. The DSSAT models CERES-Maize, CROPGRO-Soybean, CROPGRO-Cotton, and N-Wheat phenology models have been translated from FORTRAN to a standalone versions in R language. These models have been tested in collaboration with Extension faculty and producers during the 2016 season and their usefulness for risk mitigation and monitoring evaluated. A companion AgroClimate app was also developed to help producers track and monitor phenology development during the cropping season.

  15. Multivariate chemometric approach to thermal solid-state FT-IR monitoring of pharmaceutical drug compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Jian; Widjaja, Effendi

    2008-08-01

    The study of thermal-related solid-state reaction monitored by spectroscopic method needs the use of advanced multivariate chemometric approach. It is because visual inspection of spectral data on particular functional groups or spectral bands is difficult to reveal the complete physical and chemical information. The spectral contributions from various species involved in the solid-state changes are generally highly overlapping and the spectral differences between reactant and product are usually quite minute. In this article, we demonstrate the use of multivariate chemometric approach to resolve the in situ thermal-dependent Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) mixture spectra of lisinopril dihydrate when it was heated from 24 to 170 degrees C. The collected FT-IR mixture spectra were first subjected to singular value decomposition (SVD) to obtain the right singular vectors. The right singular vectors were rotated into a set of pure component spectral estimates based on entropy minimization and spectral dissimilarity objective functions. The resulting pure component spectral estimates were then further refined using alternating least squares (ALS). In current study, four pure component spectra, that is, lisinopril dihydrate, monohydrate, anhydrate, and diketopiperazine (DKP) were all resolved and the relative thermal-dependent contributions of each component were also obtained. These relative contributions revealed the critical temperature for each transformation and degradation. This novel approach provides better interpretation of the pathway of dehydration and intramolecular cyclization of lisinopril dihydrate in the solid state. In addition, it can be used to complement the information obtained from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  16. Crew State Monitoring and Line-Oriented Flight Training for Attention Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Chad; Harrivel, Angela; Prinzel, Lawrence; Comstock, Ray; Abraham, Nijo; Pope, Alan; Wilkerson, James; Kiggins, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Loss of control - inflight (LOC-I) has historically represented the largest category of commercial aviation fatal accidents. A review of worldwide transport airplane accidents (2001-2010) indicated that loss of airplane state awareness (ASA) was responsible for the majority of the LOC-I fatality rate. The Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) ASA study identified 12 major themes that were indicated across the ASA accident and incident events. One of the themes was crew distraction or ineffective attention management, which was found to be involved in all 18 events including flight crew channelized attention, startle/surprise, diverted attention, and/or confirmation bias. Safety Enhancement (SE)-211, "Training for Attention Management" was formed to conduct research to develop and assess commercial airline training methods and realistic scenarios that can address these attention-related human performance limitations. This paper describes NASA SE-211 research for new design approaches and validation of line-oriented flight training (LOFT). Recent accident and incident data suggests that Spatial Disorientation (SD) and Loss-of-Energy State Awareness (LESA) for transport category aircraft are becoming an increasingly prevalent safety concern in all domestic and international operations (Commercial Aviation Safety Team, 2014a). SD is defined as an erroneous perception of aircraft attitude that can lead directly to a Loss-of-Control Inflight (LOC-I) event and result in an accident or incident. LESA is typically characterized by a failure to monitor or understand energy state indications (e.g., airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, commanded thrust) and a resultant failure to maintain safe flight.

  17. Stored CO2 and Methane Leakage Risk Assessment and Monitoring Tool Development: CO2 Capture Project Phase 2 (CCP2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Kieki

    2008-09-30

    The primary project goal is to develop and test tools for optimization of ECBM recovery and geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds, in addition to tools for monitoring CO{sub 2} sequestration in coalbeds to support risk assessment. Three critical topics identified are (1) the integrity of coal bed methane geologic and engineered systems, (2) the optimization of the coal bed storage process, and (3) reliable monitoring and verification systems appropriate to the special conditions of CO{sub 2} storage and flow in coals.

  18. Fructose: Toxic effect on cardiorenal risk factors and redox state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane V Francisqueti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effects of fructose consumption on the antioxidant capacity in heart and kidney, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and evaluation of these variables after its removal. Methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 36 were divided into control group (n = 12: standard chow + water or F group: standard chow + fructose in drinking water (30% for 15 weeks. After, F group was divided to continue receiving standard chow + fructose in drinking water (30% (n = 12 or standard chow + water (Ex group, n = 12 for 9 weeks. Water, chow and caloric diaries intake, final body weight, adiposity index, plasma glucose and triacylglycerol, systolic blood pressure, and cardiac and renal hydrophilic antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Results: Control and Ex groups consumed less chow and water compared to F group. Caloric intake was higher in control group. There was no difference in final body weight and adiposity index. Systolic blood pressure and cardiac and renal hydrophilic antioxidant capacity were worst in F group. Conclusion: Prolonged exposure to fructose induces oxidative stress, systolic blood pressure, and increase in triacylglycerol. When stopped fructose consumption, Ex group presented improvement in these variables, suggesting the toxicity effect of fructose when consumed in high amounts and prolonged exposure.

  19. Regional monitoring programs in the United States: Synthesis of four case studies from Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Schiff, K.; Trowbridge, P.R.; Sherwood, E.T.; Batiuk, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is a cornerstone of environmental protection and ambient monitoring provides managers with the critical data they need to take informed action. Unlike site-specific monitoring that is at the heart of regulatory permit compliance, regional monitoring can provide an integrated, holistic view of the environment, allowing managers to obtain a more complete picture of natural variability and cumulative impacts, and more effectively prioritize management actions. By reviewing four long-standing regional monitoring programs that cover portions of all three coasts in the United States – Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Southern California Bight, and San Francisco Bay – important insights can be gleaned about the benefits that regional monitoring provides to managers. These insights include the underlying reasons that make regional monitoring programs successful, the challenges to maintain relevance and viability in the face of ever-changing technology, competing demands and shifting management priorities. The lessons learned can help other managers achieve similar successes as they seek to establish and reinvigorate their own monitoring programs.

  20. Hyperspectral Monitoring of Green Roof Vegetation Health State in Sub-Mediterranean Climate: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Patrizia; Porti, Michele; Veltri, Simone; Lupo, Emanuela; Moroni, Monica

    2017-03-23

    In urban and industrial environments, the constant increase of impermeable surfaces has produced drastic changes in the natural hydrological cycle. Decreasing green areas not only produce negative effects from a hydrological-hydraulic perspective, but also from an energy point of view, modifying the urban microclimate and generating, as shown in the literature, heat islands in our cities. In this context, green infrastructures may represent an environmental compensation action that can be used to re-equilibrate the hydrological and energy balance and reduce the impact of pollutant load on receiving water bodies. To ensure that a green infrastructure will work properly, vegetated areas have to be continuously monitored to verify their health state. This paper presents a ground spectroscopy monitoring survey of a green roof installed at the University of Calabria fulfilled via the acquisition and analysis of hyperspectral data. This study is part of a larger research project financed by European Structural funds aimed at understanding the influence of green roofs on rainwater management and energy consumption for air conditioning in the Mediterranean area. Reflectance values were acquired with a field-portable spectroradiometer that operates in the range of wavelengths 350-2500 nm. The survey was carried out during the time period November 2014-June 2015 and data were acquired weekly. Climatic, thermo-physical, hydrological and hydraulic quantities were acquired as well and related to spectral data. Broadband and narrowband spectral indices, related to chlorophyll content and to chlorophyll-carotenoid ratio, were computed. The two narrowband indices NDVI705 and SIPI turned out to be the most representative indices to detect the plant health status.

  1. Validity of satellite measurements used for the monitoring of UV radiation risk on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jégou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to test the validity of ultraviolet index (UVI satellite products and UVI model simulations for general public information, intercomparison involving three satellite instruments (SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2, the Chemistry and Transport Model, Modélisation de la Chimie Atmosphérique Grande Echelle (MOCAGE, and ground-based instruments was performed in 2008 and 2009. The intercomparison highlighted a systematic high bias of ~1 UVI in the OMI clear-sky products compared to the SCIAMACHY and TUV model clear-sky products. The OMI and GOME-2 all-sky products are close to the ground-based observations with a low 6 % positive bias, comparable to the results found during the satellite validation campaigns. This result shows that OMI and GOME-2 all-sky products are well appropriate to evaluate the UV-risk on health. The study has pointed out the difficulty to take into account either in the retrieval algorithms or in the models, the large spatial and temporal cloud modification effect on UV radiation. This factor is crucial to provide good quality UV information. OMI and GOME-2 show a realistic UV variability as a function of the cloud cover. Nevertheless these satellite products do not sufficiently take into account the radiation reflected by clouds. MOCAGE numerical forecasts show good results during periods with low cloud covers, but are actually not adequate for overcast conditions; this is why Météo-France currently uses human-expertised cloudiness (rather than direct outputs from Numerical Prediction Models together with MOCAGE clear-sky UV indices for its operational forecasts. From now on, the UV monitoring could be done using free satellite products (OMI, GOME-2 and operational forecast for general public by using modelling, as long as cloud forecasts and the parametrisation of the impact of cloudiness on UV radiation are adequate.

  2. Predicting risk-taking behavior from prefrontal resting-state activity and personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Studer

    Full Text Available Risk-taking is subject to considerable individual differences. In the current study, we tested whether resting-state activity in the prefrontal cortex and trait sensitivity to reward and punishment can help predict risk-taking behavior. Prefrontal activity at rest was assessed in seventy healthy volunteers using electroencephalography, and compared to their choice behavior on an economic risk-taking task. The Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale was used to measure participants' trait sensitivity to reward and punishment. Our results confirmed both prefrontal resting-state activity and personality traits as sources of individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Right-left asymmetry in prefrontal activity and scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale, reflecting trait sensitivity to punishment, were correlated with the level of risk-taking on the task. We further discovered that scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale modulated the relationship between asymmetry in prefrontal resting-state activity and risk-taking. The results of this study demonstrate that heterogeneity in risk-taking behavior can be traced back to differences in the basic physiology of decision-makers' brains, and suggest that baseline prefrontal activity and personality traits might interplay in guiding risk-taking behavior.

  3. Risky Business and the American Climate Prospectus: Economic Risks of Climate Change in the United States"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K.; Houser, T.; Kopp, R. E., III; Hsiang, S. M.; Larsen, K.; Jina, A.; Delgado, M.; Muir-Wood, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Rising, J.; Mastrandrea, M.; Wilson, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    The United States faces a range of economic risks from global climate change - from increased flooding and storm damage, to climate-driven changes in crop yields and labor productivity, to heat-related strains on energy and public health systems. The Risky Business Project commissioned a groundbreaking new analysis of these and other climate risks by region of the country and sector of the economy. The American Climate Prospectus (ACP) links state-of-the-art climate models with econometric research of human responses to climate variability and cutting edge private sector risk assessment tools, the ACP offers decision-makers a data driven assessment of the specific risks they face. We describe the challenge, methods, findings, and policy implications of the national risk analysis, with particular focus on methodological innovations and novel insights.

  4. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France: dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  5. Substance use and sexual risk among at-risk adolescents in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Morrison

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the difference in prevalence of substance use and sexual risk behaviors among at-risk youth participants in programs offered by community-based organizations in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, by gender and organization type (governmental vs. non-governmental. 388 adolescents were recruited from 25 intervention-based organizations servicing at-risk youth between the ages of 12 and 17 in Juiz de Fora. Participants completed a 15-item survey assessing substance use and sexual risk behaviors, along with socio-demographic predictors of these behaviors. Males were more likely to report drug and alcohol use associated with homelessness and abandonment. Females were more likely to report sexual risk taking associated with neighborhood crime. Participants from non-governmental organizations were less likely to engage in all measured risk behaviors. The present analysis points to the need to understand how Brazil’s Child and Adolescent Act is being applied and the implications this has for intervention and the promotion of positive health outcomes for young people.

  6. X-Band wave radar system for monitoring and risk management of the coastal infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The presence of the infrastructures in coastal region entails an increase of the sea level and the shift of the sediment on the bottom with a continuous change of the coastline. In order to preserve the coastline, it has been necessary to resort the use of applications coastal engineering, as the construction of the breakwaters for preventing the coastal erosion. In this frame, the knowledge of the sea state parameters, as wavelength, period and significant wave height and of surface current and bathymetry can be used for the harbor operations and to prevent environmental disasters. In the last years, the study of the coastal phenomena and monitoring of the sea waves impact on the coastal infrastructures through the analysis of images acquired by marine X-band radars is of great interest [1-3]. The possibility to observe the sea surface from radar images is due to the fact that the X-band electromagnetic waves interact with the sea capillary waves (Bragg resonance), which ride on the gravity waves. However, the image acquired by a X-band radar is not the direct representation of the sea state, but it represents the sea surface as seen by the radar. Accordingly, to estimate the sea state parameters as, direction, wavelength, period of dominant waves, the significant wave height as well as the bathymetry and surface current, through a time stack of radar data are required advanced data processing procedures. In particular, in the coastal areas due to the non-uniformity of sea surface current and bathymetry fields is necessary a local analysis of the sea state parameters. In order to analyze the data acquired in coastal area an inversion procedure defined "Local Method" is adopted, which is based on the spatial partitioning of the investigated area in partially overlapping sub-areas. In addition, the analysis of the sea spectrum of each sub-area allows us to retrieve the local sea state parameters. In particular, this local analysis allows us to detect the reflected

  7. Definition of a unique model for the improvement of the monitoring network and seismic risk reduction of the school buildings in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, M.; Console, R.; Colangelo, A.; Cioè, A.; Trivigno, L.

    2015-12-01

    In the latest decade the safety of the Italian schools against seismic risk is a crucial subject for the Italian legislation as well as to the UN Convention on the DRR and the more specific priorities adopted even within the OECD. Recently, the Italian Parliament approved a law (L98/2013) which launched the Commissioning Safety of School Buildings Plan and the Definition of a Unique Model, to be developed by the CGIAM, in order to improve monitoring network and seismic risk reduction (SRR). The objectives of such a law deals with increasing in the knowledge of public actions aimed to improve the effectiveness of the SRR policy on school buildings. The actions of the CGIAM will consist in the identification of a significant number of school buildings in Italy, mainly in terms of type of construction and material, on which calibrate specific synthetic parameters and test models. Furthermore, the activities are addressed to quantitatively evaluation of intervention efficacy, to set up simple systems of instrumental monitoring, even able to test the possibility of periodical checks of the state of general preservation. The main issues carried on by the CGIAM mainly concern the completion and enrichment of the existing data base of school buildings, even through the collaboration of the Ministries and other relevant Italian research institutions, the evaluation of seismic hazard and site condition analysis as well as the definition of other seismic risk factors. Nevertheless a cost-benefit analysis as well as application and dissemination of such tools are proposed too. At the same time, the CGIAM contributes to the definition of experimental installation and use of a Simplified Accelerometric Monitoring Network for school buildings comprehensive of testing phase on a limited number of structures. The work proposes a synthetic overview of the employed methodologies as well as the first results arising from the research and implementation activities.

  8. Using Pipelined XNOR Logic to Reduce SEU Risks in State Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Martin; Zheng, Xin; Katanyoutant, Sunant

    2008-01-01

    Single-event upsets (SEUs) pose great threats to avionic systems state machine control logic, which are frequently used to control sequence of events and to qualify protocols. The risks of SEUs manifest in two ways: (a) the state machine s state information is changed, causing the state machine to unexpectedly transition to another state; (b) due to the asynchronous nature of SEU, the state machine's state registers become metastable, consequently causing any combinational logic associated with the metastable registers to malfunction temporarily. Effect (a) can be mitigated with methods such as triplemodular redundancy (TMR). However, effect (b) cannot be eliminated and can degrade the effectiveness of any mitigation method of effect (a). Although there is no way to completely eliminate the risk of SEU-induced errors, the risk can be made very small by use of a combination of very fast state-machine logic and error-detection logic. Therefore, one goal of two main elements of the present method is to design the fastest state-machine logic circuitry by basing it on the fastest generic state-machine design, which is that of a one-hot state machine. The other of the two main design elements is to design fast error-detection logic circuitry and to optimize it for implementation in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture: In the resulting design, the one-hot state machine is fitted with a multiple-input XNOR gate for detection of illegal states. The XNOR gate is implemented with lookup tables and with pipelines for high speed. In this method, the task of designing all the logic must be performed manually because no currently available logic synthesis software tool can produce optimal solutions of design problems of this type. However, some assistance is provided by a script, written for this purpose in the Python language (an object-oriented interpretive computer language) to automatically generate hardware description language (HDL) code from state

  9. Cloud-Based Smart Health Monitoring System for Automatic Cardiovascular and Fall Risk Assessment in Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, P; Orrico, A; Scala, P; Crispino, F; Pecchia, L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the design and the preliminary validation of a platform developed to collect and automatically analyze biomedical signals for risk assessment of vascular events and falls in hypertensive patients. This m-health platform, based on cloud computing, was designed to be flexible, extensible, and transparent, and to provide proactive remote monitoring via data-mining functionalities. A retrospective study was conducted to train and test the platform. The developed system was able to predict a future vascular event within the next 12 months with an accuracy rate of 84 % and to identify fallers with an accuracy rate of 72 %. In an ongoing prospective trial, almost all the recruited patients accepted favorably the system with a limited rate of inadherences causing data losses (<20 %). The developed platform supported clinical decision by processing tele-monitored data and providing quick and accurate risk assessment of vascular events and falls.

  10. Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-09

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Hanford Reservation. Attention is focused on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. All Hanford contractors reviewed potential sources of contamination. A facility effluent monitoring plan was written for each facility with the potential to release significant quantities of hazardous materials, addressing both radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring. The environmental surveillance program assesses onsite and offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health exposures. The program monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife. In addition, independent onsite surveillance is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Hanford Site effluent controls in order to comply with applicable environmental standards and regulations.

  11. Improvement of Bank Risks Management on the Basis of “Monitoring – Identification – Protection” Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabezhaylo Ivan Mikhaylovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The banking system in contemporary conditions becomes the critically important subsystem of any national economy. To ensure a successful and profitable operation of the bank the effective management of associated risks is necessary. A technique of banking risk management, which includes three functional blocks: monitoring, identification and protection against risks, is proposed in the article. A key element of the proposed method is the stage of optimization of risk management in the context of the particular situation of data analysis and decision making. The two-factor model of optimizing the choice of means of risk management is argued. This model implies two options: to minimize the level of allowable risks when you fix the volume of the resources required for reliable risk management in this particular situation on an acceptable (target, desired level; or to minimize the volume of the resources required for reliable in this situation analyzed risk management when you fixed appropriate risks at an acceptable level. The technique is based on an integrated approach, the basic elements of which are the abilities to work with different types of data, and to use common methods and means of data processing. The proposed method makes it possible to integrate qualitative and quantitative risk management tools in a single process of data analysis and decision making support. The proposed method of banking risk management is a tool to detail the national regulators recommendations by taking into account the specific (context features of a particular financial institution management during its implementation. The technique allows for contextual tools setting, depending on the application field.

  12. Research on the method of information system risk state estimation based on clustering particle filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Jia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of reinforcing correlation analysis of risk assessment threat factors, a dynamic assessment method of safety risks based on particle filtering is proposed, which takes threat analysis as the core. Based on the risk assessment standards, the method selects threat indicates, applies a particle filtering algorithm to calculate influencing weight of threat indications, and confirms information system risk levels by combining with state estimation theory. In order to improve the calculating efficiency of the particle filtering algorithm, the k-means cluster algorithm is introduced to the particle filtering algorithm. By clustering all particles, the author regards centroid as the representative to operate, so as to reduce calculated amount. The empirical experience indicates that the method can embody the relation of mutual dependence and influence in risk elements reasonably. Under the circumstance of limited information, it provides the scientific basis on fabricating a risk management control strategy.

  13. Research on the method of information system risk state estimation based on clustering particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jia; Hong, Bei; Jiang, Xuepeng; Chen, Qinghua

    2017-05-01

    With the purpose of reinforcing correlation analysis of risk assessment threat factors, a dynamic assessment method of safety risks based on particle filtering is proposed, which takes threat analysis as the core. Based on the risk assessment standards, the method selects threat indicates, applies a particle filtering algorithm to calculate influencing weight of threat indications, and confirms information system risk levels by combining with state estimation theory. In order to improve the calculating efficiency of the particle filtering algorithm, the k-means cluster algorithm is introduced to the particle filtering algorithm. By clustering all particles, the author regards centroid as the representative to operate, so as to reduce calculated amount. The empirical experience indicates that the method can embody the relation of mutual dependence and influence in risk elements reasonably. Under the circumstance of limited information, it provides the scientific basis on fabricating a risk management control strategy.

  14. Monitoring of mass distribution interventions for trachoma in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Cromwell

    Full Text Available Mass drug administration (MDA with antibiotics is a key component of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control. Guidelines recommend that where MDA is warranted the whole population be targeted with 80% considered the minimum acceptable coverage. In other countries, MDA is usually conducted by salaried Ministry of Health personnel (MOH. In Plateau State, Nigeria, the existing network of volunteer Community Directed Distributors (CDD was used for the first trachoma MDA. We conducted a population-based cluster random survey (CRS of MDA participation to determine the true coverage and compared this to coverage reported from CDD registers. We surveyed 1,791 people from 352 randomly selected households in 24 clusters in three districts in Plateau State in January 2011, following the implementation of MDA. Households were enumerated and all individuals present were asked about MDA participation. Household heads were questioned about household-level characteristics and predictors of participation. Individual responses were compared with the CDD registers. MDA coverage was estimated as 60.3% (95% CI 47.9-73.8% by the survey compared with 75.8% from administrative program reports. CDD registration books for comparison with responses were available in 19 of the 24 clusters; there was a match for 658/682 (96% of verifiable responses. CDD registers did not list 481 (41.3% of the individuals surveyed. Gender and age were not associated with individual participation. Overall MDA coverage was lower than the minimum 80% target. The observed discrepancy between the administrative coverage estimate from program reports and the CRS was largely due to identification of communities missed by the MDA and not reported in the registers. CRS for evaluation of MDA provides a useful additional monitoring tool to CDD registers. These data support modification of distributor training and MDA delivery to increase coverage in subsequent rounds of MDA.

  15. The Autonomous Stress Indicator for Remotely Monitoring Power System State and Watching for Potential Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geza Joos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed Autonomous Stress Indicator (ASI is a device that monitors the contents of the protection relays on a suspect weak power system bus and generates a performance level related to the degree of system performance degradation or instability. This gives the system operators some time (minutes to take corrective action. In a given operating area there would not likely be a need for an ASI on every bus. Note that the ASI does not trip any breakers; it is an INFORMATION ONLY device. An important feature is that the system operator can subsequently interrogate the ASI to determine the factor(s that led to the performance level that has been initially annunciated, thereby leading to a course of action. This paper traces the development of the ASI which is an ongoing project. The ASI could be also described as a stress-alert device whose function is to alert the System Operator of a stressful condition at its location. The characteristics (or essential qualities of this device are autonomy, selectivity, accuracy and intelligence. These will fulfill the requirements of the recommendation of the Canada –US Task Force in the August 2003 system collapse. Preliminary tests on the IEEE 39-bus model indicate that the concept has merit and development work is in progress. While the ASI can be applied to all power system operating conditions, its principal application is to the degraded state of the system where the System Operator must act to restore the system to the secure state before it migrates to a stage of collapse. The work of ASI actually begins with the Areas of Vulnerability and ends with the Predictive Module as described in detail in this paper. An application example of a degraded system using the IEEE 39-bus system is included.

  16. Comparison of Glucose Monitoring Methods during Steady-State Exercise in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L. Pritchett

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Data from Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM systems may help improve overall daily glycemia; however, the accuracy of CGM during exercise remains questionable. The objective of this single group experimental study was to compare CGM-estimated values to venous plasma glucose (VPG and capillary plasma glucose (CPG during steady-state exercise. Twelve recreationally active females without diabetes (aged 21.8 ± 2.4 years, from Central Washington University completed the study. CGM is used by individuals with diabetes, however the purpose of this study was to first validate the use of this device during exercise for anyone. Data were collected between November 2009 and April 2010. Participants performed two identical 45-min steady-state cycling trials (~60% Pmax on non-consecutive days. Glucose concentrations (CGM-estimated, VPG, and CPG values were measured every 5 min. Two carbohydrate gel supplements along with 360 mL of water were consumed 15 min into exercise. A product-moment correlation was used to assess the relationship and a Bland-Altman analysis determined error between the three glucose measurement methods. It was found that the CGM system overestimated mean VPG (mean absolute difference 17.4 mg/dL (0.97 mmol/L and mean CPG (mean absolute difference 15.5 mg/dL (0.86 mmol/L. Bland-Altman analysis displayed wide limits of agreement (95% confidence interval of 44.3 mg/dL (2.46 mmol/L (VPG compared with CGM and 41.2 mg/dL (2.29 mmol/L (CPG compared with CGM. Results from the current study support that data from CGM did not meet accuracy standards from the 15197 International Organization for Standardization (ISO.

  17. 77 FR 19995 - Funding Opportunity Title: Risk Management Education in Targeted States (Targeted States Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... insurance can affect other risk management decisions, such as the use of marketing and financial tools; How... marketing systems to pursue new markets. II. Award Information A. Type of Application Only electronic... applicable ethical standards). Applications in which the applicant or any of the partners are ineligible...

  18. Estimating successive cancer risks in Lynch Syndrome families using a progressive three-state model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Briollais, Laurent; Green, Jane; Parfrey, Patrick; Kopciuk, Karen

    2014-02-20

    Lynch Syndrome (LS) families harbor mutated mismatch repair genes,which predispose them to specific types of cancer. Because individuals within LS families can experience multiple cancers over their lifetime, we developed a progressive three-state model to estimate the disease risk from a healthy (state 0) to a first cancer (state 1) and then to a second cancer (state 2). Ascertainment correction of the likelihood was made to adjust for complex sampling designs with carrier probabilities for family members with missing genotype information estimated using their family's observed genotype and phenotype information in a one-step expectation-maximization algorithm. A sandwich variance estimator was employed to overcome possible model misspecification. The main objective of this paper is to estimate the disease risk (penetrance) for age at a second cancer after someone has experienced a first cancer that is also associated with a mutated gene. Simulation study results indicate that our approach generally provides unbiased risk estimates and low root mean squared errors across different family study designs, proportions of missing genotypes, and risk heterogeneities. An application to 12 large LS families from Newfoundland demonstrates that the risk for a second cancer was substantial and that the age at a first colorectal cancer significantly impacted the age at any LS subsequent cancer. This study provides new insights for developing more effective management of mutation carriers in LS families by providing more accurate multiple cancer risk estimates.

  19. Development of an area monitor for neutrons using solid state nuclear track detector; Desenvolvimento de um monitor de area para neutrons utilizando detector solido de tracos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, G.S.

    1994-12-31

    An area monitor for neutrons composed of the solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) Makrofol DE, together with a (n,{alpha}) converter, in the center of a 25 cm diameter polyethylene sphere, is developed. The optimal electrochemical etching conditions for the detection of thermal neutrons by the Makrofol DE using the BN converter are studied, leading to the choice of 55 min, at 30{sup 0} C, under a 44,2 kV.cm{sup -1} electric field with oscillation frequency of 2,0 khz. The response of this system to thermal neutrons, in the optimal conditions, is of 2,76(10)x 10{sup -3} tr/n. Changing from the BN converter to a 2,73(3)g compressed boric acid tablet this value lowers to 3,88(17)x 10{sup -4} tr/n. The performance of the whole monitor in the detection of fast neutrons is examined using the BN converter and neutrons from a {sup 241} Am Be source, with a response of 4,4(2)x 10{sup 3} tr.mSv{sup -1}.cm{sup -2} and operational limits between 7(3){mu}Sv and 5,6(2)mSv. The result of the monitoring of the control room of the IPEN Cyclotron accelerator are also presented as a final test for the viability of the practical use of the monitor. (author). 34 refs, 15 figs, 6 tabs, 1 app.

  20. Self-Monitoring Interventions for At-Risk Middle School Students: The Importance of Considering Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Donald E., III; Simonsen, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Self-monitoring is a popular, efficient, and effective intervention that is associated with improved academic and social behavior for students across age and ability levels. To date, this is the first study to directly compare the outcomes of self-monitoring functionally relevant and non-relevant replacement behaviors. Specifically, we used an…

  1. Tank monitor and control system (TMACS) performance analysis - under steady-state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, R.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    A means to predict the performance impacts to the TMACS computer system prior to further increases in the TMACS point configuration is studied. A series of CPU utilization measurements are made on the TMACS production and development computers. These measurements are under steady-state operating conditions for I/O point processing and remote terminal support.The data from these measurements are used to derive formulas that are then used to project CPU utilization for other configuration profiles. A configuration profile is described for (1) the current TMACS production system, (2) the maximum capacity of the current TMACS production system, and (3) a much larger target system, which reflects the anticipated size of the monitoring system for the upgrade project, W-314. The derived formulas are used to calculate CPU utilization for each of these configuration profiles. The formulas are validated by comparing the calculated with the measured results for the current production configuration. An analysis is performed that shows that the current system of 1.600 points can be expanded to 4,000 points without any changes. Furthermore, the current system can be expanded to 10,000 points to meet the requirements of the target system with the planned purchase of new-generation hardware and modifications to the logging and delta-check routines.

  2. An automated method to quantify microglia morphology and application to monitor activation state longitudinally in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Kozlowski

    Full Text Available Microglia are specialized immune cells of the brain. Upon insult, microglia initiate a cascade of cellular responses including a characteristic change in cell morphology. To study the dynamics of microglia immune response in situ, we developed an automated image analysis method that enables the quantitative assessment of microglia activation state within tissue based solely on cell morphology. Per cell morphometric analysis of fluorescently labeled microglia is achieved through local iterative threshold segmentation, which reduces errors caused by signal-to-noise variation across large volumes. We demonstrate, utilizing systemic application of lipopolysaccharide as a model of immune challenge, that several morphological parameters, including cell perimeter length, cell roundness and soma size, quantitatively distinguish resting versus activated populations of microglia within tissue comparable to traditional immunohistochemistry methods. Furthermore, we provide proof-of-concept data that monitoring soma size enables the longitudinal assessment of microglia activation in the mouse neocortex imaged via 2-photon in vivo microscopy. The ability to quantify microglia activation automatically by shape alone allows unbiased and rapid analysis of both fixed and in vivo central nervous system tissue.

  3. Wind Turbine Tower Vibration Modeling and Monitoring by the Nonlinear State Estimation Technique (NSET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Guo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With appropriate vibration modeling and analysis the incipient failure of key components such as the tower, drive train and rotor of a large wind turbine can be detected. In this paper, the Nonlinear State Estimation Technique (NSET has been applied to model turbine tower vibration to good effect, providing an understanding of the tower vibration dynamic characteristics and the main factors influencing these. The developed tower vibration model comprises two different parts: a sub-model used for below rated wind speed; and another for above rated wind speed. Supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA data from a single wind turbine collected from March to April 2006 is used in the modeling. Model validation has been subsequently undertaken and is presented. This research has demonstrated the effectiveness of the NSET approach to tower vibration; in particular its conceptual simplicity, clear physical interpretation and high accuracy. The developed and validated tower vibration model was then used to successfully detect blade angle asymmetry that is a common fault that should be remedied promptly to improve turbine performance and limit fatigue damage. The work also shows that condition monitoring is improved significantly if the information from the vibration signals is complemented by analysis of other relevant SCADA data such as power performance, wind speed, and rotor loads.

  4. ADVANCES IN CLOG STATE MONITORING FOR USE IN AUTOMATED REED BED INSTALLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore HUGHES-RILEY

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetlands are a popular form of waste-water treatment that have proliferated across Europe and the rest of the world in recent years as an environmentally conscious form of waste water treatment. The ability to monitor the conditions in the bed and control input factors such as heating and aeration may extend the lifetime of the reed bed substantially beyond the ten year lifetime normally reached. The Autonomous Reed Bed Installation (ARBI project is an EU FP7 initiative to develop a reed bed with automated control over input parameters based on readings taken from embedded sensors. Automated remedial action may improve bed treatment efficiency, and prolong the life of the bed and avoiding the need to refurbish the bed, which is both time consuming and costly. One critical parameter to observe is the clog state of the reed bed, as this can severely impact on the efficiency of water treatment to the point of the bed becoming non-operable. Magnetic resonance (MR sensors can be a powerful tool in determining clogging levels, and has previously been explored in the literature. This work is based on a conference paper (2nd International Conference "Water resources and wetlands", 2014 and details magnetic sensors suitable for long-term embedding into a constructed wetland. Unlike previous studies this work examines a probe embedded into a wetland.

  5. ON-BOARD MONITORING OF TECHNICAL STATE FOR POWER UNITS OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Karpievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers new methodologies pertaining to on-board diagnosis of wear-out rate for friction linings of a clutch driven disk and friction discs of a hydraulic press clutch of transmission gear boxes which are based on physical process that uses friction work as an integrated indicator. A new methodology in determination of life-span rate for engine oil has been developed in the paper. The paper presents block schematic diagrams for on-board monitoring of technical state for power units of wheeled and tracked vehicles. Usage of friction work as an integrated indicator for determination of wear-out rate for friction linings of clutch driven disk and friction discs of a haydraulic press clutch makes it possible timely at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine their residual operation life and forecast their replacement.While taking volume of the used fuel for determination of engine oil life-span rate it permits quickly and effectively at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine residual useful life of the engine oil and also forecast its replacement.

  6. Integrated functional modeling method for NPP plant DiD risk monitor and its application for conventional PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Zhijian [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2014-08-15

    The development of a new risk monitor system is introduced in this paper, which can be applied not only to severe accident prevention in daily operation but also to serve as to mitigate the radiological hazard just after severe accident happens and long term management of post-severe accident consequences. The summary of the fundamental method is summarized on how to configure the Plant Defense in-Depth (Did) Risk Monitor by object-oriented software system based on functional modeling approach. Following the authors??preceding preliminary study for AP1000, the way of realizing the proposed method of configuring the plant Did risk monitor was investigated for a safety-enhanced Japanese PWR design to meet with the tight anti-severe accident requirements set by national regulation in Japan after Fukushima Daiichi accident. The result of this example practice of the presented preliminary study for Japanese PWR was for the level 4 of the Did in case of beyond design basis accident, that is, loss of all AC power + RCP seal LOCA, against the former case of AP1000 for level 3 Did in case of large LOCA.

  7. Ambulatory ECG-based T-wave alternans monitoring for risk assessment and guiding medical therapy: mechanisms and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Richard L; Ikeda, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    Identification of individuals at risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD), the main cause of adult mortality in developed countries, remains a major challenge. The main contemporary noninvasive marker, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), has not proved adequately reliable, as the majority of individuals who die suddenly have relatively preserved cardiac mechanical function. Monitoring of T-wave alternans (TWA), a beat-to-beat fluctuation in ST-segment or T-wave morphology, on ambulatory electrocardiogram (AECG) is an attractive approach on both scientific and clinical grounds. Specifically, TWA's capacity to assess risk for malignant arrhythmias has been shown to rest on sound electrophysiologic principles and AECG-based TWA monitoring can be performed in the flow of routine clinical evaluation. This review addresses: (1) electrophysiologic and ionic mechanisms underlying TWA's predictivity, (2) principles and practical aspects of AECG-based TWA monitoring, (3) clinical evidence supporting this approach to SCD risk stratification, and (4) current and potential applications in guiding medical therapy.

  8. Embedded fiber-optic sensing for accurate internal monitoring of cell state in advanced battery management systems part 2: Internal cell signals and utility for state estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Anurag; Saha, Bhaskar; Raghavan, Ajay; Kiesel, Peter; Arakaki, Kyle; Schuh, Andreas; Schwartz, Julian; Hegyi, Alex; Sommer, Lars Wilko; Lochbaum, Alexander; Sahu, Saroj; Alamgir, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    A key challenge hindering the mass adoption of Lithium-ion and other next-gen chemistries in advanced battery applications such as hybrid/electric vehicles (xEVs) has been management of their functional performance for more effective battery utilization and control over their life. Contemporary battery management systems (BMS) reliant on monitoring external parameters such as voltage and current to ensure safe battery operation with the required performance usually result in overdesign and inefficient use of capacity. More informative embedded sensors are desirable for internal cell state monitoring, which could provide accurate state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) estimates and early failure indicators. Here we present a promising new embedded sensing option developed by our team for cell monitoring, fiber-optic (FO) sensors. High-performance large-format pouch cells with embedded FO sensors were fabricated. This second part of the paper focuses on the internal signals obtained from these FO sensors. The details of the method to isolate intercalation strain and temperature signals are discussed. Data collected under various xEV operational conditions are presented. An algorithm employing dynamic time warping and Kalman filtering was used to estimate state-of-charge with high accuracy from these internal FO signals. Their utility for high-accuracy, predictive state-of-health estimation is also explored.

  9. Choreographing Partnerships within an Organizational Structure of Accountability: Maryland State Department of Education's Shift from Compliance Monitor to Breakthrough Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickling, Laura Rutter; Doneker, Karen Lee

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon data from twenty-five interviews, this paper examines how the Maryland State Department of Education's Cross-functional Team navigates its changing role from compliance monitor to breakthrough partner in terms of discourse, time, and flexibility, as it carries out the work of the Breakthrough Center. It also examines how the role of…

  10. Integrated monitoring approach to investigate the contamination, mobilization and risks of sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölscher, Jens; Schulte, Achim; Terytze, Konstantin

    2017-04-01

    The use of surface water bodies for manufacturing purposes has been common not only in Germany since the beginning of industrialization, and this has led to a high accumulation of different chemical contaminants in the sediments of aquatic ecosystems. In particular, water bodies with very low flow conditions like the "Rummelsburger See", an anabranch of the Spree River located in the centre of Berlin, have been highly affected. Given that, it has become necessary to obtain improved knowledge concerning the current sediment dynamics, the rate of sedimentation and the current level of contamination and toxicity compared to earlier conditions. Against this background, a survey was set up, consisting of an integrated monitoring approach that focuses on hydraulics, sediment dynamics and contamination, including boundary conditions, such as weather and motor-boat activities to find information, which would help design appropriate treatment in the future. To detect the spatial distribution of pollutants in the sediment, over 200 sediment samples were collected via drill cores at 16 locations. The upper 15 cm of each drill core was systematically divided into 5 layers (each of 3 cm) for separate examination. The investigation of sediment deposition and remobilisation rates was accomplished by installing 18 sediment traps. The presence of selected heavy metals and organic pollutants in the sediments was determined for every sampling location and layer of the drill cores, as well as for all sediment traps. Changes in boundary conditions which influence the spatial and temporal distribution of deposition and resuspension were monitored by placing devices within the water body and taking different mobile measurements (3-D flow conditions, oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll-a, temperature). The analysis of sediment and suspended matter included the determination of the total content of inorganic (Hg, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn) and organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  11. Possibilities of using the German Federal States' permanent soil monitoring program for the monitoring of potential effects of genetically modified organisms (GMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschki, Andreas; Jänsch, Stephan; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Römbke, Jörg; Züghart, Wiebke

    2015-01-01

    In the Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMO) into the environment, a monitoring of potential risks is prescribed after their deliberate release or placing on the market. Experience and data of already existing monitoring networks should be included. The present paper summarizes the major findings of a project funded by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (Nutzungsmöglichkeiten der Boden-Dauerbeobachtung der Länder für das Monitoring der Umweltwirkungen gentechnisch veränderter Pflanzen. BfN Skripten, Bonn-Bad Godesberg 369, 2014). The full report in german language can be accessed on http://www.bfn.de and is available as Additional file 1. The aim of the project was to check if it is possible to use the German permanent soil monitoring program (PSM) for the monitoring of GMO. Soil organism communities are highly diverse and relevant with respect to the sustainability of soil functions. They are exposed to GMO material directly by feeding or indirectly through food chain interactions. Other impacts are possible due to their close association to soil particles. The PSM program can be considered as representative with regard to different soil types and ecoregions in Germany, but not for all habitat types relevant for soil organisms. Nevertheless, it is suitable as a basic grid for monitoring the potential effects of GMO on soil invertebrates. PSM sites should be used to derive reference values, i.e. range of abundance and presence of different relevant species of soil organisms. Based on these references, it is possible to derive threshold values to define the limit of acceptable change or impact. Therefore, a minimum set of sites and minimum set of standardized methods are needed, i.e. characterization of each site, sampling of selected soil organism groups, adequate adaptation of methods for the purpose of monitoring of potential effects of GMO. Finally, and probably most demanding, it is needed to develop

  12. Risks of Educational Inclusion: The Experience of Regional Studies in Tyumen State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volosnikova L.M.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of sociological research in the universities of the Tyumen Province, Russia (2081 questionnaires from 9 state institutions of higher education, 2016, April. In the paper, we consider only one aspect of inclusion, namely, joint training of healthy students and students with disabilities. The aim of the study is to assess the risks of inclusive education and its risk factors. Inclusive education is interpreted as 1 a social value, 2 an alternative to social exclusion 3 a resource for development, and 4 an educational innovation with risk potential. The authors developed the concept of «risk» and «risk-factor» for inclusive education, offering their classification. The responses is structured and grouped into three risks mega-groups: 1 general social risks, 2 institutional and group risks, and 3 risks for education actors. These include the risks of falling quality of general, tertiary and vocational education, the risks of social dependency, organizational risks, threat of simulation inclusion and the formal inclusion, personal and professional risks of students, teachers, parents and administrators. Insufficient level of inclusive educational environments in institutions of general, vocational and higher education, lack of skills and competences of teachers for inclusive education, the deficit tolerant attitudes towards persons with disabilities in society and school class are all identified as risk factors. The research leads to conclusions about the need for a conscious administrative influence on the factors to overcome their negative consequences for the success of inclusion. This work was supported by grant 543873-TEMPUS-1-2013-1-DE-TEMPUS-JPCR.

  13. Ionosphere Plasma State Determination in Low Earth Orbit from International Space Station Plasma Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic package is deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The system - a Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) - is used by NASA to monitor the electrical floating potential of the vehicle to assure astronaut safety during extravehicular activity. However, data from the unit also reflects the ionosphere state and seems to represent an unutilized scientific resource in the form of an archive of scientific plasma state data. The unit comprises a Floating Potential probe and two Langmuir probes. There is also an unused but active plasma impedance probe. The data, at one second cadence, are collected, typically for a two week period surrounding extravehicular activity events. Data is also collected any time a visiting vehicle docks with ISS and also when any large solar events occur. The telemetry system is unusual because the package is mounted on a television camera stanchion and its data is impressed on a video signal that is transmitted to the ground and streamed by internet to two off center laboratory locations. The data quality has in the past been challenged by weaknesses in the integrated ground station and distribution systems. These issues, since mid-2010, have been largely resolved and the ground stations have been upgraded. Downstream data reduction has been developed using physics based modeling of the electron and ion collecting character in the plasma. Recursive algorithms determine plasma density and temperature from the raw Langmuir probe current voltage sweeps and this is made available in real time for situational awareness. The purpose of this paper is to describe and record the algorithm for data reduction and to show that the Floating probe and Langmuir probes are capable of providing long term plasma state measurement in the ionosphere. Geophysical features such as the Appleton anomaly and high latitude modulation at the edge of the Auroral zones are regularly observed in the nearly circular, 51 deg inclined, 400 km

  14. Combining MODIS and AMSR-E-based vegetation moisture retrievals for improved fire risk monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Swarvanu; Qu, John J.

    2006-08-01

    justified if the detail images containing the high frequency components of the image change slowly. Correlation analysis of detail images from consecutive time steps shows that this is approximately true, at-least for the low spatial resolution detail images. Our approach yields accuracy of around 77% on the average over the selected study region and temporal period. This technique thus has the potential for ensuring the data continuity of high spatial resolution VWC products, a requirement essential for fire risk monitoring.

  15. Monitoring environmental risk in fibrous minerals in New Caledonia: a comparison between different analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriglieri, Jasmine Rita; Laporte-Magoni, Christine; Salvioli-Mariani, Emma; Gunkel-Grillon, Peggy; Tribaudino, Mario; Mantovani, Luciana; Bersani, Danilo; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Tomatis, Maura

    2017-04-01

    The New Caledonia is covered by ultrabasic units for more than a third of its surface, and it is one of the largest world producers of nickel ore. Mining activity, focused on extraction from lateritic ore deposits formed by the alteration of ultramafic rocks, must deal with the natural occurrence of asbestos and fibrous minerals. Almost all outcrops of geological units in open mines contain serpentine and amphibole, also as asbestos varieties (Lahondère, 2007). Owing to humid tropical to sub-tropical conditions, weathering processes and supergene mineralization are one of the main responsible for fibrogenesis of asbestos minerals. The presence of fibrous minerals in mining and storage sites requires attention due to public health problems and for the safety of the operators. In this context, the evaluation of risk and health hazard to prevent the effects due to exposition is closely linked to the formation, alteration and release of fibers into the environment. It has been demonstrated that different fibrous minerals have different toxicity (Fubini & Otero-Arean, 1999; Fubini & Fenoglio, 2007). An analytical strategy to discriminate and characterize, with certainty, the different varieties of the asbestiform phases is required to the establishment of an environmental monitoring system. We have therefore analyzed by different methods a set of about fifty asbestos sampled for mapping environmental risk in fibrous minerals in New Caledonia. The samples contain serpentines (chrysotile, antigorite) and amphibole (tremolite), all fibrous and have been sorted by their different degree of alteration. Data obtained with the more traditional mineralogical and petrological analytical techniques - such as optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, secondary electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and transmission electron microscopy - have been completed by the employment of more specialized tools as phase contrast microscopy (PCM), Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analysis (DTA). Moreover

  16. Submarine-Installed Machinery Monitoring and Diagnostics: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    of automated system in use at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant . The system continuously monitors the plant and when an alarm condition is sensed...and Strunk, W.D., "On-line Vibration Monitoring and Analysis System at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant ," Proceedings of the 6th International Modal...ignored. In the process of conducting research of these programs, several plant engineers told stories of how they found condition monitoring equipment

  17. 76 FR 34953 - Funding Opportunity Title: Risk Management Education in Targeted States (Targeted States Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... or cooperative partnership; a determination of a violation of applicable ethical standards..., ``Certification Regarding Drug- Free Workplace Requirements (Grants) Alternative I--For Grantees Other Than... Targeted State, panel members shall score each application according to the criteria and point values...

  18. The future of monitoring in clinical research – a holistic approach: Linking risk-based monitoring with quality management principles [Die Zukunft des Monitorings in der Klinischen Forschung – ganzheitlich gesehen: Die Abhängigkeiten zwischen Risiko-basiertem Monitoring und Qualitätsmanagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leptien, Sabine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Since several years risk-based monitoring is the new “magic bullet” for improvement in clinical research. Lots of authors in clinical research ranging from industry and academia to authorities are keen on demonstrating better monitoring-efficiency by reducing monitoring visits, monitoring time on site, monitoring costs and so on, always arguing with the use of risk-based monitoring principles. Mostly forgotten is the fact, that the use of risk-based monitoring is only adequate if all mandatory prerequisites at site and for the monitor and the sponsor are fulfilled.Based on the relevant chapter in ICH GCP (International Conference on Harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use – Good Clinical Practice this publication takes a holistic approach by identifying and describing the requirements for future monitoring and the use of risk-based monitoring. As the authors are operational managers as well as QA (Quality Assurance experts, both aspects are represented to come up with efficient and qualitative ways of future monitoring according to ICH GCP.[german] Seit einigen Jahren wird von den verschiedensten Autoren – aus den industriellen, akademischen oder behördlichen Bereichen der Klinischen Forschung – das Risiko-basierte Monitoring fast wie eine Wunderformel beschworen und bewertet. Um die damit erzielten Verbesserungsmöglichkeiten nachzuweisen, werden generelle Effizienzsteigerungen und Kosteneinsparungen bei den unterschiedlichen Monitoringaktivitäten beschrieben: weniger Monitoringbesuche am Zentrum, reduzierte Dauer der Monitoringbesuche oder mehr technisch unterstütztes Monitoring.Direkt oder indirekt enthalten die Publikationen oft auch Hinweise auf die notwendigen Voraussetzungen sowohl beim Zentrum als auch bei Monitor und Sponsor, um Risiko-basiertes Monitoring adequat einzusetzen; bei der Umsetzung werden diese Bedingungen gerne vergessen.Durch den ganzheitlichen

  19. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in women under combined oral contraceptive. The PILl Genetic RIsk Monitoring (PILGRIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchon, Pierre; Al Frouh, Fadi; Henneuse, Agathe; Ibrahim, Manal; Brunet, Dominique; Barthet, Marie-Christine; Aillaud, Marie-Françoise; Venton, Geoffroy; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Identifying women at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to identify environmental and genetic determinants of VTE risk in a large sample of women under combined oral contraceptives (COC). A total of 968 women who had had one event of VTE during COC use were compared to 874 women under COC but with no personal history of VTE. Clinical data were collected and a systematic thrombophilia screening was performed together with ABO blood group assessment. After adjusting for age, family history, and type and duration of COC use, main environmental determinants of VTE were smoking (odds ratio [OR] =1.65, 95% confidence interval [1.30-2.10]) and a body mass index higher than 35 kg.m⁻² (OR=3.46 [1.81-7.03]). In addition, severe inherited thrombophilia (OR=2.13 [1.32-3.51]) and non-O blood groups (OR=1.98 [1.57-2.49]) were strong genetic risk factors for VTE. Family history poorly predicted thrombophilia as its prevalence was similar in patients with or without first degree family history of VTE (29.3% vs 23.9%, p=0.09). In conclusion, this study confirms the influence of smoking and obesity and shows for the first time the impact of ABO blood group on the risk of VTE in women under COC. It also confirms the inaccuracy of the family history of VTE to detect inherited thrombophilia.

  20. Risk analysis and prediction of visceral leishmaniasis dispersion in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liang; Galvis-Ovallos, Fredy; Tucker Lima, Joanna Marie; Valle, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important neglected disease caused by a protozoan parasite, and represents a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. It is zoonotic in Europe and Latin America, where infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoir for the parasite and play a key role in VL transmission to humans. In Brazil this disease is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum chagasi, and is transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Despite programs aimed at eliminating infection sources, the disease continues to spread throughout the Country. VL in São Paulo State, Brazil, first appeared in the northwestern region, spreading in a southeasterly direction over time. We integrate data on the VL vector, infected dogs and infected human dispersion from 1999 to 2013 through an innovative spatial temporal Bayesian model in conjunction with geographic information system. This model is used to infer the drivers of the invasion process and predict the future progression of VL through the State. We found that vector dispersion was influenced by vector presence in nearby municipalities at the previous time step, proximity to the Bolívia-Brazil gas pipeline, and high temperatures (i.e., annual average between 20 and 23°C). Key factors affecting infected dog dispersion included proximity to the Marechal Rondon Highway, high temperatures, and presence of the competent vector within the same municipality. Finally, vector presence, presence of infected dogs, and rainfall (approx. 270 to 540mm/year) drove the dispersion of human VL cases. Surprisingly, economic factors exhibited no noticeable influence on disease dispersion. Based on these drivers and stochastic simulations, we identified which municipalities are most likely to be invaded by vectors and infected hosts in the future. Prioritizing prevention and control strategies within the identified municipalities may help halt the spread of VL while reducing monitoring costs. Our results

  1. Workers’ Health Risk Behaviors by State, Demographic Characteristics, and Health Insurance Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang, MD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionEmployers often lack data about their workers’ health risk behaviors. We analyzed state-level prevalence data among workers for 4 common health risk behaviors: obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and missed influenza vaccination (among workers older than 50 years.MethodsWe analyzed 2007 and 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, restricting the sample to employed respondents aged 18 to 64 years. We stratified health risk behavior prevalence by annual household income, educational attainment, health insurance status, and race/ethnicity.ResultsFor all 4 health risk behaviors, we found significant differences across states and significant disparities related to social determinants of health — income, education, and race/ethnicity. Among uninsured workers, prevalence of smoking was high and influenza vaccinations were lacking.ConclusionIn this national survey study, we found that workers’ health risk behaviors vary substantially by state and by workers’ socioeconomic status, insurance status, and race/ethnicity. Employers and workplace health promotion practitioners can use the prevalence tables presented in this article to inform their workplace health promotion programs.

  2. Utility of the plasma level of suPAR in monitoring risk of mortality during TB treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether changes in the plasma level of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) can be used to monitor tuberculosis (TB) treatment efficacy. Design: This prospective cohort study included 278 patients diagnosed with active pulmonary TB and followed...... throughout the 8-month treatment period. Results: Mortality during treatment was higher in the highest inclusion quartile of suPAR (23%) compared to the lowest three quartiles (7%), the risk ratio being 3.1 (95% CI 1.65–6.07). No association between early smear conversion and subsequent mortality...... that elevated suPAR level at time of initiation of TB treatment is associated with increased risk of mortality. Furthermore, increased suPAR levels after one month of treatment was associated with increased risk of mortality during the remaining 7-month treatment period....

  3. Financial monitoring of the port industry companies on the basis of risk-oriented approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svitlana Oneshko; Svitlana Ilchenko

    2017-01-01

    The paper determines that the need in financial monitoring of Ukrainian companies of the port sector is caused by financial consequences related to the need to protect the environment, the existence...

  4. Doppler Endoscopic Probe Monitoring of Blood Flow Improves Risk Stratification and Outcomes of Patients With Severe Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Dennis M; Kovacs, Thomas O G; Ohning, Gordon V; Ghassemi, Kevin; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S; Sedarat, Alireza; Jutabha, Rome; Gornbein, Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    For 4 decades, stigmata of recent hemorrhage in patients with nonvariceal lesions have been used for risk stratification and endoscopic hemostasis. The arterial blood flow that underlies the stigmata rarely is monitored, but can be used to determine risk for rebleeding. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether Doppler endoscopic probe monitoring of blood flow improves risk stratification and outcomes in patients with severe nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. In a single-blind study performed at 2 referral centers we assigned 148 patients with severe nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (125 with ulcers, 19 with Dieulafoy's lesions, and 4 with Mallory Weiss tears) to groups that underwent standard, visually guided endoscopic hemostasis (control, n = 76), or endoscopic hemostasis assisted by Doppler monitoring of blood flow under the stigmata (n = 72). The primary outcome was the rate of rebleeding after 30 days; secondary outcomes were complications, death, and need for transfusions, surgery, or angiography. There was a significant difference in the rates of lesion rebleeding within 30 days of endoscopic hemostasis in the control group (26.3%) vs the Doppler group (11.1%) (P = .0214). The odds ratio for rebleeding with Doppler monitoring was 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.143-0.8565) and the number needed to treat was 7. In a randomized controlled trial of patients with severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage from ulcers or other lesions, Doppler probe guided endoscopic hemostasis significantly reduced 30-day rates of rebleeding compared with standard, visually guided hemostasis. Guidelines for nonvariceal gastrointestinal bleeding should incorporate these results. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00732212 (CLIN-013-07F). Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Induced arousal following zolpidem treatment in a vegetative state after brain injury in 7 cases Analysis using visual single photon emission computerized tomography and digitized cerebral state monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Du; Aijun Shan; Di Yang; Wei Xiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported the use of zolpidem for induced arousal after permanent vegetative states. However, changes in brain function and EMG after zolpidem treatment requires further investigation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of zolpidem, an unconventional drug, on inducing arousal in patients in a permanent vegetative state after brain injury using visual single photon emission computerized tomography and digitized cerebral state monitor. DESIGN: A self-controlled observation. SETTING: Shenzhen People's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Seven patients in a permanent vegetative state were selected from the Department of Neurosurgery, Shenzhen People's Hospital from March 2005 to May 2007. The group included 5 males and 2 females, 24–55 years of age, with a mean age of 38.5 years. All seven patients had been in a permanent vegetative statement for at least six months. The patient group included three comatose patients, who had sustained injuries to the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, or thalamus in motor vehicle accidents, and four patients, who had suffered primary/secondary brain stem injury. Informed consents were obtained from the patients’ relatives. METHODS: The patients brains were imaged by 99Tcm ECD single photon emission computerized tomography prior to treatment with zolpidem [Sanofi Winthrop Industrie, France, code number approved by the State Food & Drug Administration (SFDA) J20040033, specification 10 mg per tablet. At 8:00 p.m., 10 mg zolpidem was dissolved with distilled water and administered through a nasogastric tube at 1 hour before and after treatment and 1 week following treatment, respectively. Visual analysis of cerebral perfusion changes in the injured brain regions before and after treatment was performed. Simultaneously, three monitoring parameters were obtained though a cerebral state monitor, which included cerebral state index, electromyographic index, and burst suppression index. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison

  6. Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring in spine surgery. Developments and state of the art in France in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaret, M; Jouve, J L; Péréon, Y; Accadbled, F; André-Obadia, N; Azabou, E; Blondel, B; Bollini, G; Delécrin, J; Farcy, J-P; Fournet-Fayard, J; Garin, C; Henry, P; Manel, V; Mutschler, V; Perrin, G; Sales de Gauzy, J

    2013-10-01

    Intraoperative spinal cord monitoring consists in a subcontinuous evaluation of spinal cord sensory-motor functions and allows the reduction the incidence of neurological complications resulting from spinal surgery. A combination of techniques is used: somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), neurogenic motor evoked potentials (NMEP), D waves, and pedicular screw testing. In absence of intraoperative neurophysiological testing, the intraoperative wake-up test is a true form of monitoring even if its latency long and its precision variable. A 2011 survey of 117 French spinal surgeons showed that only 36% had neurophysiological monitoring available (public healthcare facilities, 42%; private facilities, 27%). Monitoring can be performed by a neurophysiologist in the operating room, remotely using a network, or directly by the surgeon. Intraoperative alerts allow real-time diagnosis of impending neurological injury. Use of spinal electrodes, moved along the medullary canal, can determine the lesion level (NMEP, D waves). The response to a monitoring alert should take into account the phase of the surgical intervention and does not systematically lead to interruption of the intervention. Multimodal intraoperative monitoring, in presence of a neurophysiologist, in collaboration with the anesthesiologist, is the most reliable technique available. However, no monitoring technique can predict a delayed-onset paraplegia that appears after the end of surgery. In cases of preexisting neurological deficit, monitoring contributes little. Monitoring of the L1-L4 spinal roots also shows low reliability. Therefore, monitoring has no indication in discal and degenerative surgery of the spinal surgery. However, testing pedicular screws can be useful. All in all, thoracic and thoracolumbar vertebral deviations, with normal preoperative neurological examination are currently the essential indication for spinal cord monitoring. Its absence in this

  7. Risk profile for Chlamydia infection in women from public health clinics in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y; Morse, D L; Lawrence, C E; Murphy, D; Hipp, S

    1993-02-01

    The prevalence of chlamydial infection and associated risk factors were studied in 1531 women from ten clinics in New York State excluding New York City. Overall Chlamydia infection rates were 13.6%; 17.6% in eight high risk family planning and STD clinics, and 5.7% in two low risk college and private clinics. Risk factors for Chlamydia infection included: age oral contraceptives (odds ratio 2.0), a history of having more than one sexual partner (odds ratio 1.7) and, in one clinic where data was available, inflammation on Papanicolaou smears (odds ratio 2.1). These data helped secure funding for Chlamydia preventive services and permitted development of a risk profile (score card) of Chlamydia for each age group. Use of such a score card can be most helpful in assigning which patients could benefit most from Chlamydia cultures, especially in those areas where testing is unavailable or too costly to screen all patients.

  8. Assessing and monitoring the risk of desertification in Dobrogea, Romania, using Landsat data and decision tree classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorovencii, Iosif

    2015-04-01

    The risk of the desertification of a part of Romania is increasingly evident, constituting a serious problem for the environment and the society. This article attempts to assess and monitor the risk of desertification in Dobrogea using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite images acquired in 1987, 1994, 2000, 2007 and 2011. In order to assess the risk of desertification, we used as indicators the Modified Soil Adjustment Vegetation Index 1 (MSAVI1), the Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI) and the albedo, indices relating to the vegetation conditions, the landscape pattern and micrometeorology. The decision tree classifier (DTC) was also used on the basis of pre-established rules, and maps displaying six grades of desertification risk were obtained: non, very low, low, medium, high and severe. Land surface temperature (LST) was also used for the analysis. The results indicate that, according to pre-established rules for the period of 1987-2011, there are two grades of desertification risk that have an ascending trend in Dobrogea, namely very low and medium desertification. An investigation into the causes of the desertification risk revealed that high temperature is the main factor, accompanied by the destruction of forest shelterbelts and of the irrigation system and, to a smaller extent, by the fragmentation of agricultural land and the deforestation in the study area.

  9. Depleted uranium risk assessment for Jefferson Proving Ground using data from environmental monitoring and site characterization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1996-10-01

    This report documents the third risk assessment completed for the depleted uranium (DU) munitions testing range at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG), Indiana, for the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation command. Jefferson Proving Ground was closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act and the testing mission was moved to Yuma Proving Ground. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This report integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options.

  10. Ecological Forecasting of West Nile Virus Outbreaks in a High-Risk Area of the North-Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Kightlinger, L.; Vincent, G.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread and important mosquito-borne pathogen in North America. Since its emergence in the western hemisphere in 1999, human WNV disease has continued to exhibit recurrent outbreaks. Perplexingly, the incidence of this tropical disease has been highest in the cold-temperate climates of the Northern Great Plains (NGP). The spatial and temporal distributions of the vector mosquitoes and bird hosts, and consequently the risk of disease in humans, are strongly influenced by temperature, precipitation, vegetation, soils, and land use. We have utilized satellite remote sensing to map these environmental factors through time and develop models of disease risk. Outbreak years in South Dakota were preceded by warm winters, and WNV cases were most likely to occur during the hottest weeks of summer. Hot spots of persistent WNV transmission within the state were associated with rural land cover as well as patterns of physiography and climate. These models are currently being integrated into the South Dakota Mosquito Early Warning system (SDMIS), an automated WNV outbreak detection system that integrates remotely-sensed environmental indicators with vector abundance and infection data from a statewide mosquito surveillance network. The major goal of this effort is to leverage global environmental monitoring datasets to provide up-to-date, locally relevant information that can improve the effectiveness of mosquito control and disease prevention activities. This system was implemented for the first time during the summer of 2015. We will review the outcomes of this implementation, including the underlying influences of temperature on WNV risk, a preliminary statewide WNV risk map, and dynamic risk predictions made during the 2015 WNV season. Lessons learned as well as plans for future years will be discussed.

  11. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: consumer perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Ø; Gunnlaugsdottir, H; Holm, F; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tijhuis, M J; Tuomisto, J T; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    Benefit and risk perception with respect to food consumption, have been a part of human daily life from beginning of time. In today's society the food chain is long with many different types of actors and low degree of transparency. Making informed food choices where knowledge of benefits and risks is part of the decision making process are therefore complicated for consumers. Thus, to understand how consumers perceive benefits and risks of foods, their importance in relation to quality evaluations are aspects that need to be addressed. The objective of this paper is to discuss state of the art in understanding consumer perceptions of benefits and risks of foods in order to improve understanding of consumer behaviour in the food domain. Risks may be associated with both acute and long term consequences, some of which may have serious effects. Perceived risks are connected to morbidity and mortality along two dimensions relating to unknown risk, and to which extent the risk is dreaded by the consumer. Unfamiliar, uncertain, unknown, uncontrollable, and severe consequences are some factors associated with risk perception. Novel food processing techniques, for instance, score high on several of these parameters and are consequently regarded with suspicion and perceived as risky by consumers. On a daily basis, benefits of foods and food consumption are more important in most consumers' minds than risks. Benefits are often associated with food's ability to assuage hunger, and to provide pleasure through eating and socialising. In addition, two main categories of benefits that are important for acceptance of product innovations are health and environmental benefits. Benefit and risk perception of foods seem to be inversely correlated, so when something is perceived as being highly beneficial, it is correspondingly perceived as having low risk. However, slightly different paths are used in the formation of these perceptions; benefit perception is based on heuristics and

  12. Evaluating the Potential Use of Remotely-Sensed and Model-Simulated Soil Moisture for Agricultural Drought Risk Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongxiang; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Current two datasets provide spatial and temporal resolution of soil moisture at large-scale: the remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals and the model-simulated soil moisture products. Drought monitoring using remotely-sensed soil moisture is emerging, and the soil moisture simulated using land surface models (LSMs) have been used operationally to monitor agriculture drought in United States. Although these two datasets yield important drought information, their drought monitoring skill still needs further quantification. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the potential of remotely-sensed and model-simulated soil moisture data in monitoring agricultural drought over the Columbia River Basin (CRB), Pacific Northwest. Two satellite soil moisture datasets were evaluated, the LPRM-AMSR-E (unscaled, 2002-2011) and ESA-CCI (scaled, 1979-2013). The USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) is used to simulate the soil moisture from 1979-2011. The drought monitoring skill is quantified with two indices: drought area coverage (the ability of drought detection) and drought severity (according to USDM categories). The effects of satellite sensors (active, passive), multi-satellite combined, length of climatology, climate change effect, and statistical methods are also examined in this study.

  13. Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in the U.S. State of Georgia (2002–2006): Associations with Concentrations of 11 Ambient Air Pollutants Estimated by Combining Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) Simulations with Stationary Monitor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hua; Chang, Howard H.; Holmes, Heather A.; Mulholland, James A.; Klein, Mitch; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Strickland, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous epidemiologic studies suggest associations between preterm birth and ambient air pollution. Objective: We investigated associations between 11 ambient air pollutants, estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulations with measurements from stationary monitors, and risk of preterm birth (Darrow LA, Strickland MJ. 2016. Air pollution and preterm birth in the U.S. state of Georgia (2002–2006): associations with concentrations of 11 ambient air pollutants estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) simulations with stationary monitor measurements. Environ Health Perspect 124:875–880; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409651 PMID:26485731

  14. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    focused on sex trafficking . In recent years, there has been a pronounced shift to- wards labor trafficking . Legal guest workers are at risk of being...allegations of Trafficking in Persons (TIP)5. In 2002, the United States adopted a zero tolerance TIP policy regarding U.S. government employees and... trafficking and improving security and risk control through local engagement. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of government-led re

  15. At risk of being risky: The relationship between “brain age” under emotional states and risk preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc D. Rudolph

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N = 212; 10–25y examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the “brain age” of a given individual then validate it with an independent measure of cortical thickness. We then show, on average, that “brain age” across the group during the teen years has the propensity to look younger in emotional contexts. Further, we show this phenotype (i.e. a younger brain age in emotional contexts relates to a group mean difference in risk perception − a pattern exemplified greatest in young-adults (ages 18–21. The results are suggestive of a specified functional brain phenotype that relates to being at “risk to be risky.”

  16. A service dedicated to Cultural Heritage Risk Assessment and Monitoring on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Nicole; Monteleone, Antonio; Benenati, Luca; Bernardi, Lorenzo; Giovagnoli, Annamaria; Cacace, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    VIDEOR project, financed by the Italian Ministry of Economic Development (MISE) and strongly supported by the Ministry of Cultural Heritage (MiBACT), is developed by NAIS (Nextant Applications and Innovative Solutions) in collaboration with ISCR (Institute for Conservation and Restoration, MiBACT) and SUPERELECTRIC s.r.l. The project has the aim to provide a service to public institutions responsible of CH preservation, maintenance and restoration, for the assessment of the potential level of aggressiveness of factors responsible for cultural heritage degradation. VIDEOR represents the first example of a continuative monitoring, consultable on the web and constantly updated. VIDEOR is based on the production of a set of products that will help institutions in the evaluation of threats linked to damages and/or loss of the cultural asset. This new approach of cultural heritage condition assessment will support "Carta del Rischio" Italian methodology, a GIS for a scientific and administrative support furnished to Public Entities and developed by ISCR. Test site selected for project demonstration is the archaeological area of Villa Adriana, UNESCO site since 1999. The property, located near Tivoli town (30 km east from Rome), has an extension of 80ha and the buffer zone has an extension of 500ha. This area, near Tivoli and not far from Rome -political and administrative location of the Roman Empire- was chosen by Adriano emperor for the construction of his magnificent residence. VIDEOR products and analyses are based on data coming from several sensors, such as satellites images (optical and SAR) and drones, these last used when satellites spatial resolution is considered not appropriate or when, after severe events, deeper evaluations are necessary. After the earthquake swarm that interested Italy from August 2016 to January 2017 and that destroyed a huge amount of unmovable cultural properties close to zone of the epicenter, analyses were performed over the test site

  17. Longitudinal associations between BMI, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk in US youth: Monitoring implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined whether change in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC)is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between cardiovascular disease specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by ...

  18. Risk assessment during pregnancy and labor: optimal fetal growth and monitoring of contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasak, B

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on risk assessment during pregnancy and labor. Part 1 of this thesis describes risk assessment during pregnancy concentrating on fetal growth in relation to perinatal morbidity, perinatal mortality and implications for maternal health. Perinatal mortality related to fetal growth

  19. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Non-invasive methods for archaeological research, like geophysical prospecting, aerial and satellite remote sensing, integrated with field survey activity, can make a large quantity of data essential for both operational uses and scientific purposes: from the detection of buried remains to risk assessment and monitoring (Lasaponara & Masini 2012; 2013; Lasaponara et al. 2016). Among the latest non-invasive methods there are the unmanned air vehicle (UAV) platforms, a real innovation, which proved to be capable for a variety of fields of applications, from the topographic survey to the monitoring of infrastructures. In the field of cultural heritage, for purposes ranging from the documentation to the detection of archaeological features, the use of UAVs is extremely functional, efficient and low-cost. Moreover, UAV flight requires much less time than that required by an Aircraft. A traditional aircraft must take off from an airport, sometimes far from the work area, while a drone, particularly rotary wing, can be transported in the area of interest and take off directly from there in a few minutes. The reason of the success of UAV are also the innovative vision, the very high-resolution of the obtainable products (orthophoto, digital elevations models) and the availability of easy tools of image processing based on Structure from Motion (SfM). (Neitzel & Klonowski 2011; Nex & Remondino 2013). SfM is a range imaging technique which allows to estimate three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional image sequences which may be coupled with local motion signals. Respect to conventional photogrammetry which requires a single stereo-pair, SfM needs multiple, overlapping photographs as input to feature extraction and 3-D reconstruction algorithms. In SfM the geometry of the scene, camera positions and orientation are solved simultaneously using a highly redundant, iterative bundle adjustment procedure, based on a database of features automatically extracted from a set of

  20. An Improved Calibration Method for Hydrazine Monitors for the United States Air Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K

    2003-07-07

    This report documents the results of Phase 1 of the ''Air Force Hydrazine Detector Characterization and Calibration Project''. A method for calibrating model MDA 7100 hydrazine detectors in the United States Air Force (AF) inventory has been developed. The calibration system consists of a Kintek 491 reference gas generation system, a humidifier/mixer system which combines the dry reference hydrazine gas with humidified diluent or carrier gas to generate the required humidified reference for calibrations, and a gas sampling interface. The Kintek reference gas generation system itself is periodically calibrated using an ORNL-constructed coulometric titration system to verify the hydrazine concentration of the sample atmosphere in the interface module. The Kintek reference gas is then used to calibrate the hydrazine monitors. Thus, coulometric titration is only used to periodically assess the performance of the Kintek reference gas generation system, and is not required for hydrazine monitor calibrations. One advantage of using coulometric titration for verifying the concentration of the reference gas is that it is a primary standard (if used for simple solutions), thereby guaranteeing, in principle, that measurements will be traceable to SI units (i.e., to the mole). The effect of humidity of the reference gas was characterized by using the results of concentrations determined by coulometric titration to develop a humidity correction graph for the Kintek 491 reference gas generation system. Using this calibration method, calibration uncertainty has been reduced by 50% compared to the current method used to calibrate hydrazine monitors in the Air Force inventory and calibration time has also been reduced by more than 20%. Significant findings from studies documented in this report are the following: (1) The Kintek 491 reference gas generation system (generator, humidifier and interface module) can be used to calibrate hydrazine detectors. (2) The

  1. [Apnea states in infants, anxiety of parents and pediatricians, and home monitoring of respiration in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygalewicz, J; Mazurkiewicz, H; Załeska-Ponganis, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine parental reasons of the use of home apnea/respiration monitors and to estimate the grounds of these decisions correspondence contact was achieved with the parents of 71 infants monitored by means of the APNEAL-1 device. Filled up questionnaires were the source of data regarding the families (structure, health practices, mothers' age and education, course of pregnancy and delivery), monitored infants (birth weight, Apgar score, apnea events) and the reasons of monitoring. Also opinions concerning monitor usefulness and performance were gathered. The majority of our families (> 97%) consisted of both parents, their socio-economic status was medium (52.11%) or good (46.48%) and they were residents of cities (88.73%). Cigarette smoking was present in 22 families (31%) with 13 smoking mothers (18.31%). Mothers' mean age was 29.11 years (SD 4.84), 45% of them had high school education and 36.62%-university education. As many as 45% of the pregnancies had a pathological course and 34.3% were terminated by a preterm delivery. Mean birth weight of monitored children was 2914.93 g (SD 971.4), mean Apgar score was 8.31 (SD 2.46). More than 60% of children were breast fed during the first six months of life, and 30% of them--during first year of life. Bed sharing was reported in only 8% of children. Apnea episodes were observed in 30 infants (42.25 of whole group), in 20 of them only during the neonatal period. More apnea episodes were present in premature infants (48% of premature versus 30% of full term infants). Only 12 children (16.9% of whole group) manifested apnea events during the monitoring period. However, almost all the parents (97%) had a high opinion of the role played by the monitor (mean monitoring time 7.12 months, SD 4.44). In 27 families (38%) a cause of monitoring was a preceeding apnea event. The decision of remaining parents was based exclusively on fear. This fear was justified only in a small number of families (previous SIDS victim

  2. Electrocardiographic and signal monitoring in ischaemic heart disease: state of the art and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, M; Taddei, A; Varanini, M; Raciti, M; Pola, S; Marchesi, C; L'Abbate, A

    1997-01-01

    The current role of ECG and signal monitoring in the diagnosis of Ischaemic Heart Disease is outlined in relation to imaging techniques giving accurate information on myocardial anatomy and function. ECG monitoring during stress testing remains the first step non-invasive method providing pathophysiological information. Long term continuous monitoring of the ECG and of other signals (e.g. arterial blood pressure and respiration) is commonly used to control patients with suspected or ascertained IHD. Progress of technology and of signal processing methods are driving the exploitation of signal information for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy control of ischaemic patients.

  3. Risk Assessment and Monitoring of Stored CO2 in Organic Rocks Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Vivak

    2014-06-30

    shale cores, which were pressurized with high pressure CO2, determine the fate of sequestered CO2 in these cores. Our results suggested that Illinois bituminous coal in its unperturbed state, i.e., when not pressurized with CO2, showed large variations in the mechanical properties. Modulus varied from 0.7 GPa to 3.4 GPa even though samples were extracted from a single large chunk of coal. We did not observe any glass transition for Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ≤ T ≤ 300oC, however, when the coal was pressurized with CO2 at ambient ≤ P ≤ 20.7 MPa, the viscosity of the coal decreased and inversely scaled with the CO2 pressure. The decrease in viscosity as a function of pressure could pose CO2 injection problems for coal as lower viscosity would allow the solid coal to flow to plug the fractures, fissures, and cleats. Our experiments also showed a very small fraction of CO2 was absorbed in coal; and when CO2 pressurized coals were exposed to atmospheric conditions, the loss of CO2 from coals was massive. Half of the sequestered gas from the coal cores was lost in less than 20 minutes. Our shockwave experiments on Illinois bituminous coal, New Albany shale (Illinois), Devonian shale (Ohio), and Utica shale (Ohio) presented clear evidence that the significant emission of the sequestered CO2 from these formations cannot be discounted during seismic activity, especially if caprock is compromised. It is argued that additional shockwave studies, both compressive and transverse, would be required for successfully mapping the risks associated with sequestering high pressure CO2 in coal and shale formations.

  4. Early detection of tumor relapse/regrowth by consecutive minimal residual disease monitoring in high-risk neuroblastoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirase, Satoshi; Saitoh, Atsuro; Hartomo, Tri Budi; Kozaki, Aiko; Yanai, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Kawasaki, Keiichiro; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Matsuo, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Mori, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Iijima, Kazumoto; Nishio, Hisahide; Nishimura, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an aggressive pediatric tumor accounting for ~15% of cancer-associated mortalities in children. Despite the current intensive therapy, >50% of high-risk patients experience tumor relapse or regrowth caused by the activation of minimal residual disease (MRD). Although several MRD detection protocols using various reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) markers have been reported to evaluate the therapeutic response and disease status of neuroblastoma patients, their clinical significance remains elusive. The present study reports two high-risk neuroblastoma patients, whose MRD was consecutively monitored using 11 RT-qPCR markers (CHRNA3, CRMP1, DBH, DCX, DDC, GABRB3, GAP43, ISL1, KIF1A, PHOX2B and TH) during their course of treatment. The two patients initially responded to the induction therapy and reached MRD-negative status. The patients' MRD subsequently became positive with no elevation of their urinary homovanillic acid, urinary vanillylmandelic acid and serum neuron-specific enolase levels at 13 or 19 weeks prior to the clinical diagnosis of tumor relapse or regrowth. The present cases highlight the possibility of consecutive MRD monitoring using 11 markers to enable an early detection of tumor relapse or regrowth in high-risk neuroblastoma patients. PMID:27446404

  5. Risk factors for prethrombotic state in elderly patients with chronic atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会玖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between prethrombotic state (PTS) and chronic atrial fibrillation in elderly patients,and to analyze the risk factors.Methods A total of 142 elderly patients with chronic atrial fibrillation from May 2009 to May 2011 were selected.Patients were divided into the PTS group (n=90) and

  6. EPA guidance on the early intervention in clinical high risk states of psychoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, S J; Schultze-Lutter, F; Schimmelmann, B G

    2015-01-01

    This guidance paper from the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) aims to provide evidence-based recommendations on early intervention in clinical high risk (CHR) states of psychosis, assessed according to the EPA guidance on early detection. The recommendations were derived from a meta-analysi...

  7. Collective Protection for New Social Risks : Childcare and the Dutch Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yerkes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Issues such as caring and family policy have received increased attention within the sociological literature on the welfare state during the past decades. At the same time, there has been much debate about the protection of social risks. In particular, scholars have questioned the ability of welfare

  8. Collective Protection for New Social Risks : Childcare and the Dutch Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yerkes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Issues such as caring and family policy have received increased attention within the sociological literature on the welfare state during the past decades. At the same time, there has been much debate about the protection of social risks. In particular, scholars have questioned the ability of welfare

  9. Media Messages and Perception of Risk for Ebola Virus Infection, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddie, Crystal; McGinty, Emma E.; Pollack, Keshia; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Burke, Thomas A.; Rutkow, Lainie

    2017-01-01

    News media have been blamed for sensationalizing Ebola in the United States, causing unnecessary alarm. To investigate this issue, we analyzed US-focused news stories about Ebola virus disease during July 1–November 30, 2014. We found frequent use of risk-elevating messages, which may have contributed to increased public concern. PMID:27983495

  10. Potential use of an arthropod database to support the non-target risk assessment and monitoring of transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeis, Jörg; Meissle, Michael; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Bigler, Franz; Bohan, David A; Devos, Yann; Malone, Louise A; Pons, Xavier; Rauschen, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, plants obtained through genetic modification are subject to a risk analysis and regulatory approval before they can enter the market. An area of concern addressed in environmental risk assessments is the potential of genetically modified (GM) plants to adversely affect non-target arthropods and the valued ecosystem services they provide. Environmental risk assessments are conducted case-by-case for each GM plant taking into account the plant species, its trait(s), the receiving environments into which the GM plant is to be released and its intended uses, and the combination of these characteristics. To facilitate the non-target risk assessment of GM plants, information on arthropods found in relevant agro-ecosystems in Europe has been compiled in a publicly available database of bio-ecological information during a project commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Using different hypothetical GM maize case studies, we demonstrate how the information contained in the database can assist in identifying valued species that may be at risk and in selecting suitable species for laboratory testing, higher-tier studies, as well as post-market environmental monitoring.

  11. Spectroscopic monitoring of Southern Galactic O and WN stars: State of the Art in 2007

    CERN Document Server

    Gamen, R; Morrell, N; Arias, J; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Sota, A; Walborn, N R; Alfaro, E

    2008-01-01

    We are conducting a spectroscopic monitoring of O and WN -type stars in our Galaxy. In this work, we summarize some of our first results related to the search for radial-velocity variations indicative of orbital motion.

  12. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-10

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan`s purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner.

  13. Monitoring schistosomiasis risk in East China over space and time using a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Ward, Michael P; Xia, Congcong; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-04-07

    Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem and causes substantial economic impact in east China, particularly along the Yangtze River Basin. Disease forecasting and surveillance can assist in the development and implementation of more effective intervention measures to control disease. In this study, we applied a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model to describe trends in schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China, using annual parasitological and environmental data for the period 1997-2010. A computationally efficient approach-Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation-was used for model inference. A zero-inflated, negative binomial model best described the spatio-temporal dynamics of schistosomiasis risk. It predicted that the disease risk would generally be low and stable except for some specific, local areas during the period 2011-2014. High-risk counties were identified in the forecasting maps: three in which the risk remained high, and two in which risk would become high. The results indicated that schistosomiasis risk has been reduced to consistently low levels throughout much of this region of China; however, some counties were identified in which progress in schistosomiasis control was less than satisfactory. Whilst maintaining overall control, specific interventions in the future should focus on these refractive counties as part of a strategy to eliminate schistosomiasis from this region.

  14. Monitoring volcanic activity with satellite remote sensing to reduce aviation hazard and mitigate the risk: application to the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanic activity across the North Pacific (NOPAC) occurs on a daily basis and as such monitoring needs to occur on a 24 hour, 365 days a year basis. The risk to the local population and aviation traffic is too high for this not to happen. Given the size and remoteness of the NOPAC region, satellite remote sensing has become an invaluable tool to monitor the ground activity from the regions volcanoes as well as observe, detect and analyze the volcanic ash clouds that transverse across the Pacific. Here, we describe the satellite data collection, data analysis, real-time alert/alarm systems, observational database and nearly 20-year archive of both automated and manual observations of volcanic activity. We provide examples of where satellite remote sensing has detected precursory activity at volcanoes, prior to the volcanic eruption, as well as different types of eruptive behavior that can be inferred from the time series data. Additionally, we illustrate how the remote sensing data be used to detect volcanic ash in the atmosphere, with some of the pro's and con's to the method as applied to the NOPAC, and how the data can be used with other volcano monitoring techniques, such as seismic monitoring and infrasound, to provide a more complete understanding of a volcanoes behavior. We focus on several large volcanic events across the region, since our archive started in 1993, and show how the system can detect both these large scale events as well as the smaller in size but higher in frequency type events. It's all about how to reduce the risk, improve scenario planning and situational awareness and at the same time providing the best and most reliable hazard assessment from any volcanic activity.

  15. State of Idaho Augmented Anadromous Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foott, J. Scott; Hauch, A. Kent

    1989-05-01

    This report documents the progress in the assigned tasks which have occurred during the second year of the Augmented Anadromous Fish Health Monitoring Project. Fish at seven Idaho Department of Fish and Game facilities were monitored for various pathogens and organosomatic analyses were performed on smolts prior to their release in the Spring of 1989. A disease database has been developed and facility impediments to fish health have been identified.

  16. North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) anuran detection data from the eastern and central United States (1994-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Tasha M.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Weir, Linda A.

    2017-01-01

    The North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) was a collaborative citizen science effort between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and 26 Partners (state agencies, universities, and nonprofits) for monitoring calling amphibian populations over much of the eastern and central United States. Initiated in 1997 in response to needs set forth by the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force in 1994 regarding increased anecdotal observations of global amphibian declines, NAAMP was designed to provide scientifically and statistically defensible, long-term distribution and trends data for calling amphibian populations at the state and regional level in the United States. The USGS discontinued coordination of the program at the conclusion of the 2015 field season. Modeled after the USGS Breeding Bird Survey, NAAMP used a network of random and state-requested non-random roadside routes with listening stops near wetlands to collect frog and toad occupancy and environmental data in predominantly unprotected lands. Data collection and verification under a unified protocol began in 2001 and continued through 2015 with the addition of observer assessment scores in 2006. The USGS utilized verified 2001-2015 data from random routes to produce occupancy trend reports for anuran species of the Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest regions and states of the United States. This dataset includes all raw, verified NAAMP data from 1997 through 2015 and also raw, verified data from Partner States that precede the program (1994-1996). Data preceding 2001 followed variations of the unified protocol. Please refer to metadata for additional information regarding protocol and a list of the represented states and see the Species.csv file for the list of 58 represented species.

  17. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: food and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijhuis, M J; de Jong, N; Pohjola, M V; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Hendriksen, M; Hoekstra, J; Holm, F; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; van Leeuwen, F X R; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Rompelberg, C; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Verhagen, H

    2012-01-01

    Benefit-risk assessment in food and nutrition is relatively new. It weighs the beneficial and adverse effects that a food (component) may have, in order to facilitate more informed management decisions regarding public health issues. It is rooted in the recognition that good food and nutrition can improve health and that some risk may be acceptable if benefit is expected to outweigh it. This paper presents an overview of current concepts and practices in benefit-risk analysis for food and nutrition. It aims to facilitate scientists and policy makers in performing, interpreting and evaluating benefit-risk assessments. Historically, the assessments of risks and benefits have been separate processes. Risk assessment is mainly addressed by toxicology, as demanded by regulation. It traditionally assumes that a maximum safe dose can be determined from experimental studies (usually in animals) and that applying appropriate uncertainty factors then defines the 'safe' intake for human populations. There is a minor role for other research traditions in risk assessment, such as epidemiology, which quantifies associations between determinants and health effects in humans. These effects can be both adverse and beneficial. Benefit assessment is newly developing in regulatory terms, but has been the subject of research for a long time within nutrition and epidemiology. The exact scope is yet to be defined. Reductions in risk can be termed benefits, but also states rising above 'the average health' are explored as benefits. In nutrition, current interest is in 'optimal' intake; from a population perspective, but also from a more individualised perspective. In current approaches to combine benefit and risk assessment, benefit assessment mirrors the traditional risk assessment paradigm of hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Benefit-risk comparison can be qualitative and quantitative. In a quantitative comparison, benefits

  18. Upcoming Role of Condition Monitoring in Risk-Based Asset Management for the Power Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehairjan, R.P.Y.; Zhuang, Q.; Djairam, D.; Smit, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical power sector is stimulated to evolve under the pressures of the energy transition, the deregulation of electricity markets and the introduction of intelligent grids. In general, engineers believe that technologies such as monitoring, control and diagnostic devices, can realize this ev

  19. Upcoming Role of Condition Monitoring in Risk-Based Asset Management for the Power Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehairjan, R.P.Y.; Zhuang, Q.; Djairam, D.; Smit, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical power sector is stimulated to evolve under the pressures of the energy transition, the deregulation of electricity markets and the introduction of intelligent grids. In general, engineers believe that technologies such as monitoring, control and diagnostic devices, can realize this ev

  20. Budget Monitoring and Control in South African Township Schools: Democratic Governance at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestry, Raj; Naidoo, Gans

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates budget monitoring and control in township schools in South Africa. The enactment of the Schools Act 1996 revolutionized school financial management in South Africa, making it part of the drive for democratic school governance. School governing bodies had to be established, whose responsibility it became to manage finances…

  1. General demonstration of principal states of polarization and real-time monitoring of polarization mode dispersion in optical fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hui; Wu Chong-Qing; Fu Song-Nian

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the general properties of polarization effects in optical fibres and demonstrated the existence of socalled principal states of polarization (PSP), which mean the fixed points in mathematics, in different polarization effects,such as birefringence and polarization mode dispersion, by using fixed point theory. Furthermore, a time evolution vector is defined to describe the time evolution of polarization state in optical fibres, which is used to investigate the time evolution of polarization mode dispersion vector (PDV), including differential group delay and PSP. The experimentalresults of real-time monitoring of PDV by using this method are reported. To our knowledge, this is the first report on monitoring PSP evolution in optical fibres.

  2. Conceptual design of the PANDA luminosity monitor and reconstruction strategy to measure the width of the X(3872) state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randriamalala, Tsitohaina

    2012-04-19

    The PANDA experiment has a great potential to test with high precision QCD in the low momentum transfer region using an antiproton beam of unprecedented quality. The resonance scan method will be used to determine the lineshape of specific hadronic states. It requires a precise knowledge of the luminosity. This thesis develops the conceptual design of the PANDA luminosity monitor and a scan simulation to determine the width resolution of the X(3872) state. The luminosity monitor concept is based on the reconstruction of elastically scattered antiprotons from the interaction region. Monte Carlo performance studies of the detector were carried out. The implementation test was done using a detector prototype instrumented at the COSY accelerator and testing it with proton beam. The studies show that a precision of better than 3% on the luminosity and a width resolution for the X(3872) of about 2% can be achieved.

  3. Correlated mortality risks of siblings in Kenya: The role of state dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rajulton

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Random-effect models have been useful in demonstrating how unobserved factors are related to infant or child death clustering. Another potential hypothesis is state dependence whereby the death of an older sibling affects the risk of death of a subsequent sibling. Probit regression models incorporating state dependence and unobserved heterogeneity are applied to the 1998 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS data for Kenya. We find that mortality risks of adjacent siblings are dependent: a child whose preceding sibling died is 1.8 times more likely to die. After adjusting for unobserved heterogeneity, the death of the previous child accounts for 40% of child death clustering. Further, eliminating state dependence would reduce infant mortality among second- and higher-order births by 12.5%.

  4. Kissing bugs in the United States: risk for vector-borne disease in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Stephen A; Dorn, Patricia L; Mosbacher, Mark; Schmidt, Justin O

    2014-01-01

    Eleven species of kissing bugs are found in the United States. Their home ranges may be expanding northward, perhaps as a consequence of climate change. At least eight of the species, perhaps all, are reported to harbor Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Because humans are encroaching on kissing bug habitat, there is concern for vector-transmitted Chagas disease in the United States. To date, documented autochthonous cases of Chagas in humans in the United States are rare. Kissing bugs are capable of adapting to new habitats such as human domiciles; however, they do not colonize homes in the United States as in Central and South America. We review the biology, behavior, and medical importance of kissing bugs and the risk they pose for transmission of Chagas disease in the United States. Where possible, descriptions of US species are compared to the epidemiologically important Latin American species.

  5. Predicting, Monitoring, and Managing Hypercalcemia Secondary to 13-Cis-Retinoic Acid Therapy in Children With High-risk Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suet Ching; Murphy, Dermot; Sastry, Jairam; Shaikh, Mohamad G

    2015-08-01

    13-cis-retinoic acid is an established component of treatment for children with high-risk neuroblastoma. However, significant hypercalcemia is increasingly recognized as a potentially life-threatening dosage-related side effect. We present 2 patients with significant hypercalcemia secondary to 13-cis-retinoic acid and their management, and identified the predictive factors for susceptibility to hypercalcemia. Assessing glomerular filtration rate and concomitant medication help predict individual susceptibility to hypercalcemia. Calcium levels should be monitored at days 1, 7, and 14 of each course of retinoic acid. An algorithm for the management of hypercalcemia during the affected and subsequent cycles of retinoid therapy is proposed.

  6. Ten Years Of Subsidence Monitoring With SAR Interferometry And Its Contribution To Risk Management In Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Ruben; Castaneda, Laura; Taud, Hind; Lira, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    A Study involving GPS and differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) monitoring is developed to investigate a subsidence phenomenon in Aguascalientes valley and to obtain displacement models concerned with risk management applications and geodetic purposes. DInSAR study with archived Envisat data allows accumulated displacement mapping yearly, and recent TerraSAR-X data implementation provides a more accurate estimation of displacements, which is used for developing models to correct geodetic positions. The maximum subsidence rate calculated is 15 cm/year with a decreasing rate throughout time in some areas.

  7. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight-obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood, and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i for major potential confounders, and (ii where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000-500,000 and 395,000 (372,000-414,000 deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight-obesity (216,000; 188,000-237,000 and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000-222,000 were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000-107,000, low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000-96,000, and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000-97,000 were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000-40,000 deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were outweighed by

  8. Screening for and monitoring of cardio-metabolic risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessments of risk factors with standard clinical measurements were done after healthcare workers and ..... Disparities in diabetes care - Impact of mental ... Mubbashar MH, Farooq S. Mental health literacy in developing countries. The British ...

  9. Risk Stratification by Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Across JNC Classes of Conventional Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brguljan-Hitij, Jana; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan;

    2014-01-01

    ) in predicting risk across CBP strata, we analyzed outcomes in 7,826 untreated people recruited from 11 populations. RESULTS: During an 11.3-year period, 809 participants died (276 cardiovascular deaths) and 639, 383, and 225 experienced a cardiovascular, cardiac, or cerebrovascular event. Compared...... with normotension (n = 2,639), prehypertension (n = 3,076) carried higher risk (P ≤ 0.015) of cardiovascular (+41%) and cerebrovascular (+92%) endpoints; compared with hypertension (n = 2,111) prehypertension entailed lower risk (P ≤ 0.005) of total mortality (-14%) and cardiovascular mortality (-29...... (daytime ABP ≥135/≥85 mm Hg). Compared with true normotension (P ≤ 0.01), HRs for stroke were 3.02 in normotension and 2.97 in prehypertension associated with masked hypertension with no difference between the latter two conditions (P = 0.93). CONCLUSION: ABP refines risk stratification in normotension...

  10. Monitoring of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in cereals and cereal products from the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, K

    2001-03-01

    A Fusarium and Fusarium toxin monitoring programme has been established within the food and feed control authorities of Saxony-Anhalt for the 2001-2003 period. The first results of the deoxynivalenol analyses of cereals and cereal products with assured origin in this federal state, showed a contamination rate of 42% for wheat and wheat products. The contamination incidence reached only 14% in rye and rye products. Zearalenone couldn't be detected at all in the analyzed samples.

  11. Monitoring the cluster of high-risk mortality areas in the southwest of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Buxó-Pujolràs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by a previous study showing a striking geographical mortality clustering, not attributable to chance, in the south-western region of Spain in 1987-1995, the authors have conducted an ecological study of time trends in all-cause mortality risk between 1987-1995 and 1996-2004 in 2,218 small areas of Spain. To identify high-risk areas, age-adjusted relative risks for each area, stratified by sex and time period, were computed using a Bayesian approach. Areas of high-risk in both periods, or in the second period only, were identified. Annual excess mortality and percentage of people living in these high-risk areas, again stratified by sex and time period, were estimated. The cluster of high mortality risk areas identified in the southwest of Spain during 1987-1995 persisted in the period 1996-2004 with an increase in the number of highrisk areas and in annual excess of mortality. These increases showed a gender difference, being more pronounced in women.

  12. Trends in Vascular Complications in High-Risk Patients Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tomo; Akintoye, Emmanuel; Telila, Tesfaye; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Takagi, Hisato; Grines, Cindy L; Afonso, Luis

    2017-02-10

    Vascular complications (VC) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are associated with worse outcomes. The trend of VC incidence in patients considered high risk is unclear. We sought to assess the trend of VC after TAVR in patients at high risk. We investigated the VC trend in female, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) patients. Patients who underwent TAVR from 2011 to 2014 in the United States were identified using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision code 35.05 from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Frequency of any VC (per 100 transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedure or hospital discharges) for each year from 2011 to 2014 was assessed for the overall population as well as within each category of high-risk cohorts. The overall VC rate was 6.0% (2,044/33,790). Patients who had VC were more likely to be female and had higher rates of PVD at baseline. The annual rate of VC in the overall population from 2011 to 2014 was 4.6%, 9.4%, 6.8%, and 4.4%, respectively. There was a significant increase in VC rate from 2011 to 2012 (p = 0.03), whereas there was a significant decrease in VC rate from 2012 to 2014 (p <0.001). The rate of VC between 2011 and 2014 was similar (p = 0.82). The rate of VC did not increase in any of the high-risk groups from 2011 to 2012. However, the rate of VC from 2012 to 2014 decreased significantly in all the high-risk groups. The VC rate was similar for groups between 2011 and 2014. The overall VC rate among TAVR patients initially increased from 2011 to 2012 but decreased thereafter. Similar trend in VC rate was found among high-risk patients except that the initial increase in rates from 2011 to 2012 did not reach statistical significance. Whether further reduction in VC with improvement in devices and operator/center experience for both overall and high-risk groups in TAVR occurs will require continuous longitudinal monitoring.

  13. A Data Filter for Identifying Steady-State Operating Points in Engine Flight Data for Condition Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that automatically identifies and extracts steady-state engine operating points from engine flight data. It calculates the mean and standard deviation of select parameters contained in the incoming flight data stream. If the standard deviation of the data falls below defined constraints, the engine is assumed to be at a steady-state operating point, and the mean measurement data at that point are archived for subsequent condition monitoring purposes. The fundamental design of the steady-state data filter is completely generic and applicable for any dynamic system. Additional domain-specific logic constraints are applied to reduce data outliers and variance within the collected steady-state data. The filter is designed for on-line real-time processing of streaming data as opposed to post-processing of the data in batch mode. Results of applying the steady-state data filter to recorded helicopter engine flight data are shown, demonstrating its utility for engine condition monitoring applications.

  14. A pesticide monitoring survey in rivers and lakes of northern Greece and its human and ecotoxicological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmaluel N; Vryzas, Zisis; Kotopoulou, Athena; Kintzikoglou, Katerina; Makris, Konstantinos C; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2015-06-01

    A pesticide monitoring study covering the main rivers and lakes of Northern Greece (Macedonia, Thrace and Thessaly) was undertaken. A total of 416 samples were collected over a 1.5-year sampling period (September 1999- February 2001) from six rivers and ten lakes. The water samples were analyzed with an off-line solid phase extraction technique coupled with a gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometer using an analytical method for 147 pesticides and their metabolites, including organochlorines, organophosphates, triazines, chloroacetanilides, pyrethroids, carbamates, phthalimides and other pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides). Based on the pesticide survey results, a human health carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk assessment was conducted for adults and children. Ecotoxicological risk assessment was also conducted using default endpoint values and the risk quotient method. Results showed that the herbicides metolachlor, prometryn, alachlor and molinate, were the most frequently detected pesticides (29%, 12.5%, 12.5% and 10%, respectively). They also exhibited the highest concentration values, often exceeding 1 μg/L. Chlorpyrifos ethyl was the most frequently detected insecticide (7%). Seasonal variations in measured pesticide concentrations were observed in all rivers and lakes. The highest concentrations were recorded during May-June period, right after pesticide application. Concentrations of six pesticides were above the maximum allowable limit of 0.1 μg/L set for drinking water. Alachlor, atrazine and a-HCH showed unacceptable carcinogenic risk estimates (4.5E-06, 4.6E-06 and 1.3E-04, respectively). Annual average concentrations of chlorpyriphos ethyl (0.031 μg L), dicofol (0.01 μg/L), dieldrin (0.02 μg/L) and endosulfan a (0.065 μg/L) exceeded the EU environmental quality standards. The risk quotient estimates for the insecticides chorpyrifos ethyl, diazinon and parathion methyl and herbicide prometryn were above acceptable risk

  15. Assessing threats to species at risk using stage-structured state-space models: mortality trends in skate populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Douglas P; Jonsen, Ian D; Simon, James E; Myers, Ransom A

    2009-07-01

    Population models are needed to assess the threats to species at risk and to evaluate alternative management actions. Data to support modeling is limited for many species at risk, and commonly used approaches generally assume stationary vital rates, a questionable assumption given widespread ecosystem change. We describe a modeling approach that can be applied to time series of length composition data to estimate vital rates and test for changes in these rates. Our approach uses stage-structured population models fit within a Bayesian state-space model. This approach simultaneously allows for both process and observation uncertainty, and it facilitates incorporating prior information on population dynamics and on the monitoring process. We apply these models to populations of winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata) that have been designated as "endangered" or "threatened." These models indicate that natural mortality has decreased for juveniles and increased for adults in these populations. The declines observed in these populations had been attributed to unsustainable rates of bycatch in fisheries for other groundfishes; our analyses indicate that increased natural mortality of adults is also an important factor contributing to these declines. Adult natural mortality was positively related to grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) abundance, suggesting the hypothesis that increased adult mortality reflected increased predation by expanding grey seal herds. Population projections indicated that the threatened population would be expected to stabilize at a low level of abundance if all fishery removals were eliminated, but that the endangered population would likely continue to decline even in the absence of fishery removals. We note that time series of size distributions are available for most marine fish populations monitored by research surveys, and we suggest that a similar approach could be used to extract information from these time series in order to estimate mortality

  16. Quantitative health risk assessment of Cryptosporidium in rivers of southern China based on continuous monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Wei; Zhang, Dongqing; Xiao, Shumin; Yu, Jianwei; Yang, Min

    2011-06-01

    The concentrations of Cryptosporidium in the source water of several cities of Zhejiang Province, China were determined to be in the range of 0-17 oocysts/10 L in the rainy season in 2008, with a mean value of 7 oocysts/10 L. Based on the investigation data, comprehensive risk assessment of Cryptosporidium infection was performed by considering different water intake routes as well as water consumption. Intakes of unboiled tapwater (including drinking and tooth-brushing and food and dish washing) and source water (through swimming in rivers) were estimated to be 2.59-25.9 and 0.32-0.74 L/year-person, respectively. The mortality due to Cryptosporidium infection for people in this region, excluding HIV-infected patients, was calculated as 0-0.0146 per 10(5) persons using a conditional probability formula. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were used to quantify the risk of Cryptosporidium infection, for which uncertainty was analyzed. For people who consumed conventionally treated water, the DALYs due to Cryptosporidium infection were 6.51 per 10(5) (95% CI: 2.16 × 10(-5)-22.35 × 10(-5)) persons, which were higher than a risk judged acceptable by some (1.97 × 10(-5) DALYs per year), and the risk for those consuming ozone-treated water became 0.0689 × 10(-5) DALYs per year. The major risk of infection resulted from swimming in the river. This study provides a method to establish the risk of Cryptosporidium infection and optimize the scheme for reducing the risk effectively, which is useful for the modification of water quality standards based on cost utility analysis given use of DALYs.

  17. Wearable monitoring systems for psychological and physiological state assessment in a naturalistic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, R; Faetti, T; Werner, S

    2011-01-01

    Wearable monitoring systems based on Smart Fibers and Interactive Textile (SFIT) platforms combine imperceptible sensing and computing functions with an interactive communication network. The integration into clothes of bio-potential sensors for health monitoring provides daily physiological parameters through a continuous, personalized, self-made detection of vital signs and the tracking of behavioral indicators of the subject. SFIT platforms can be used unobtrusively into the routinely daily activity to perform remote monitoring of persons in different circumstances and situations: during controlled exercises and diagnostic procedures as a biofeedback tool, during the usual daily life, during sleep or even to monitor behavioral indexes and mood disorders. Treatment of stress may include also training in cognitive-behavioral skills. Moreover, physiological signs and behavioral monitoring based on a multivariable approach leads to an enhanced sensitivity and specificity of these systems for the prediction of critical events. This paper presents two applications: a platform used in the frame of PSYCHE project, based on textile platforms and portable sensing devices for the long term and short term acquisition of data from patients affected by mood disorders and a platform addressing healthy subjects, based on biofeedback methodology, designed for the training of professional drivers named Mental Bio.

  18. A Novel Series Connected Batteries State of High Voltage Safety Monitor System for Electric Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Jiaxi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle, are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS, the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  19. Environmental Monitoring Report - United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Facilities, Calendar Year 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Each year since 1972, a report has been prepared on the environmental monitoring activities for the DOE facilities in oak Ridge, Tennessee, for the previous calendar year. previously, the individual facilities published quarterly and annual progress reports that contained some environmental monitoring data. The environmental monitoring program for 1984 includes sampling and analysis of air, water from surface streams, groundwater, creek sediment, biota, and soil for both radioactive and nonradioactive (including hazardous) materials. Special environmental studies that have been conducted in the Oak Ridge area are included in this report, primarily as abstracts or brief summaries. The annual report for 1984 on environmental monitoring and surveillance of the Oak Ridge community by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) is included as an appendix. A brief description of the topography and climate of the Oak Ridge area and a short description of the three DOE facilities are provided below to enhance the reader's understanding of the direction and contents of the environmental monitoring program for Oak Ridge.

  20. From Vitality to Vital Exhaustion and Other States of "Tense Tiredness": A New Biopsychosocial Risk Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Alan; Cohen, Randy

    2017-04-01

    Fatigue is a common prodromal symptom for various medical conditions, including acute myocardial infarction. Fatigue is also the core component of vital exhaustion, which consists of a specific triad: excessive fatigue, increased irritability, and feelings of demoralization. In this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, Frestad and Prescott present a meta-analysis of 16 studies, involving 53,337 participants, which found vital exhaustion to be associated with an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and recurrent cardiac events among individuals with established CHD. After discussing methodological limitations of the studies included in this meta-analysis, we describe these findings in terms of a larger genre of risk that is biopsychosocial in origin and tied to two types of tiredness: "calm tiredness" and "tense tiredness." The former is regenerative, while the latter enhances disease risk. We propose that besides vital exhaustion, other symptoms of negative affect may combine with tiredness to produce increased clinical risk, such as the presence of depressed mood, an inability to relax or recover after work, and symptoms of burnout. We further propose that vital exhaustion can be considered as part of a larger paradigm, ranging from a positive state of vitality to a negative state of exhaustion of vitality. We conclude this editorial by emphasizing the importance of improving vitality and the need to clarify biobehavioral mechanisms that play a role in the association between vital exhaustion and adverse CHD outcomes. New interventions are needed that target reducing exhaustion and improving vitality for individuals at high risk of CHD.

  1. Identification of soil erosion risk areas for conservation planning in different states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, V N; Mandal, Debashis; Ojasvi, P R

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of soil erosion risks, especially in the developing countries, is a challenging task mainly due to non-availability or insufficiency of relevant data. In this paper, the soil erosion risks have been estimated by integrating the spatial data on potential erosion rates and soil loss tolerance limits for conservation planning at state level in India. The erosion risk classes have been prioritized based upon the difference between the prevailing erosion rates and the permissible erosion limits. The analysis revealed that about 50% of total geographical area (TGA) of India, falling in five priority erosion risk classes, requires different intensity of conservation measures though about 91% area suffers from potential erosion rates varying from 40 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Statewise analysis indicated that Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan share about 75% of total area under priority Class 1 (6.4 M ha) though they account for only 19.4% of the total area (36.2 M ha) under very severe potential erosion rate category (> 40 t ha(-1)yr(-1)). It was observed that about 75% of total geographical area (TGA) in the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala and Punjab does not require any specific soil conservation measure as the potential erosion rates are well within the tolerance limits. The developed methodology can be successfully employed for prioritization of erosion risk areas at watershed, region or country level.

  2. Hypertension in rural communities in Delta State, Nigeria: Prevalence, risk factors and barriers to health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary I. Ofili

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension is a global health challenge and its prevalence is increasing rapidly amongst adults in many African countries. Some studies on the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension have been conducted in Nigeria, but none within Delta State. We assessed the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors amongst adults in three villages in the Ibusa community in Delta State, Nigeria.Method: Homesteads were randomly selected and all consenting adults (≥ 18 years of age were recruited for this cross-sectional study (134 individuals: 48 men, 86 women. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric measurements (weight, height and abdominal circumference were recorded. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on blood pressure≥ 140/90 mmHg.Result: Hypertension prevalence in this rural community was 44%. Results from one village (Ogboli: 82% and ethnic group (Ibo: 50% were significantly higher than in others in the same variable category. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested increasing age, increasing body mass index and high salt intake as prominent risk factors for hypertension. Lack of funds and equipment shortage in clinics were most often reported as barriers to healthcare.Conclusion: A nutritional education programme to promote low-cholesterol and low-salt diets is recommended to specifically target people in higher-risk areas and of higher-risk ethnicity. Local barriers to accessing health care need to be addressed.

  3. A quantitative risk assessment model for Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw oysters in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Paulo de S Costa; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M; Landgraf, Mariza

    2014-06-16

    A risk assessment of Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with raw oysters produced and consumed in São Paulo State was developed. The model was built according to the United States Food and Drug Administration framework for risk assessment. The outcome of the exposure assessment estimated the prevalence and density of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters from harvest to consumption. The result of the exposure step was combined with a Beta-Poisson dose-response model to estimate the probability of illness. The model predicted that the average risks per serving of raw oysters were 4.7×10(-4), 6.0×10(-4), 4.7×10(-4) and 3.1×10(-4) for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the most influential variables on the risk of illness were the total density of V. parahaemolyticus at harvest, transport temperature, relative prevalence of pathogenic strains and storage time at retail. Only storage time under refrigeration at retail showed negative correlation with the risk of illness.

  4. [Rights of the child, parents' rights, and state monitoring : When is state intervention in parental autonomy permissible?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Jörg

    2016-10-01

    Children have their own rights from the outset. It is primarily their parents who are responsible for the implementation of these rights. But state instances also carry responsibility for child rights. The state should only intervene in the parental autonomy against the will of the parents when a child's well-being is endangered. The subject under investigation is whether the development of Frühe Hilfen may have led to a subtle bringing forward of the threshold to state intervention, and how this should be assessed from the perspective of the rights of the child. The relevant legal and sociological literature is surveyed and evaluated with this question in mind. Findings indicate that there has been no change in the threshold to state intervention on a legal level. However, there are obvious signs that with the application of existing norms, more than before, the state no longer waits to intervene until actual harm has been done to a child, but already does so when there is a concrete threat to the child's well-being. The discussion shows that from the rights of the child perspective there is no existing reason to bring forward the threshold to state intervention in the parental autonomy. However, there is need for improvement in regard to specialist as well as legal measures. It is suggested that an approach based on the child's rights should be established across all professional fields, the child's position in various points of social law, and the rights of the child anchored in constitutional law.

  5. Assessing and monitoring the risk of land degradation in Baragan Plain, Romania, using spectral mixture analysis and Landsat imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorovencii, Iosif

    2016-07-01

    The fall of the communist regime in Romania at the end of 1989 and the ensuing transition to the market economy brought about many changes in the use of agricultural land. These changes combined with the action of climatic factors led, in most cases, to negative effects increasing the risk of degradation of agricultural land. This study aims to assess and monitor the risk of land degradation in Baragan Plain, Romania, for the period 1988-2011 using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA). Each satellite image was classified through the Decision Tree Classifier (DTC) method; then, on the basis of certain threshold values, we obtained maps of land degradation and maps showing the passage from various classes of land use/land cover (LULC) to land degradation. The results indicate that during the intermediary periods there was an ascending and descending trend in the risk of land degradation determined by the interaction of climatic factors with the social-economic ones. For the entire period, the overall trend was ascending, the risk of land degradation increasing by around 4.60 % of the studied surface. Out of the climatic factors, high temperatures and, implicitly, drought were the most significant. The social-economic factors are the result of the changes which occurred after the fall of the communist regime, the most important being the fragmentation of agricultural land and the destruction of the irrigation system.

  6. Long-term environmental monitoring of persistent organic pollutants and metals in a chemical/petrochemical area: Human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, Marti [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, Jose L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as some metals are periodically monitored in soil and vegetation samples collected in Tarragona County (Spain). We here report the temporal trends of the concentrations of the above pollutants between the initial survey (2002) and that recently (2009) performed. The area under evaluation was divided into 4 sections (chemical, petrochemical, urban/residential and unpolluted). In general terms, urban soils presented the highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCNs and PAHs, confirming that traffic is a very important emission source of these pollutants. In addition, substantially higher levels of PAHs and some metals were found in vegetation samples from the petrochemical complex. The assessment of health risks of these contaminants indicated that the current concentrations of micropollutants did not mean additional non-carcinogenic or cancer risks for the population living in the zone. - Highlights: > Traffic is an important emission source of persistent organic pollutants. > Oil refineries could be notable releasers of PAHs and some metals in the area. > Soil pollutant levels are notably lower than threshold values. > The air quality of Tarragona area is not greatly affected by metals and POPs. > The current exposure to micropollutants does not mean additional health risks. - Human exposure to environmental micropollutants in the industrial area of Tarragona does not mean additional health risks.

  7. Intraocular Pressure Fluctuations and 24-Hour Continuous Monitoring for Glaucoma Risk in Wind Instrument Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Crom, Ronald M P C; Webers, Carroll A B; van Kooten-Noordzij, Marina A W; Michiels, Agnes C; Schouten, Jan S A G; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Beckers, Henny J M

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of playing a wind instrument on intraocular pressure (IOP) and to monitor 24-hour (IOP) fluctuations in wind musicians of symphony and wind orchestras to compare IOP levels during normal daily activities with IOP levels during playing. Professional and amateur musicians of symphony and wind orchestras were invited to participate. A total of 42 participants, 9 with glaucoma, underwent a routine ophthalmologic examination. IOP measurements were taken before and immediately after 20 minutes of playing wind instruments. In addition, 6 participants underwent 24-hour IOP monitoring with the Triggerfish (Sensimed AG, Switzerland) sensing contact lens, during which they kept an activity logbook. Eleven professionals and 31 amateur musicians participated in the study. A total of 7 eyes of 6 patients underwent additional 24-hour IOP monitoring. Mean IOP before playing was 13.6±2.6 mm Hg, IOP change after playing was +1.5±2.2 mm Hg with a significant difference between professionals (2.5±1.5 mm Hg) and amateurs (1.1±2.3 mm Hg). There were no significant differences in IOP change between subjects with or without glaucoma. During 24-hour IOP monitoring there were slight increases in IOP while playing an instrument, but also during other activities and overnight. These latter IOP levels were similar or even higher than the IOP rise caused by playing a wind instrument. IOP often rises after playing wind instruments, but similar or even higher IOP levels seem to occur during common other daily activities or at night. These peaks may be relevant for glaucomatous field progression and treatment of glaucoma patients.

  8. Flexible risk metrics for identifying and monitoring conservation-priority species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jessica C.; Semmens, Brice X.; McKann, Patrick C.; Will, Tom; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2016-01-01

    Region-specific conservation programs should have objective, reliable metrics for species prioritization and progress evaluation that are customizable to the goals of a program, easy to comprehend and communicate, and standardized across time. Regional programs may have vastly different goals, spatial coverage, or management agendas, and one-size-fits-all schemes may not always be the best approach. We propose a quantitative and objective framework for generating metrics for prioritizing species that is straightforward to implement and update, customizable to different spatial resolutions, and based on readily available time-series data. This framework is also well-suited to handling missing-data and observer error. We demonstrate this approach using North American Breeding Bird Survey (NABBS) data to identify conservation priority species from a list of over 300 landbirds across 33 bird conservation regions (BCRs). To highlight the flexibility of the framework for different management goals and timeframes we calculate two different metrics. The first identifies species that may be inadequately monitored by NABBS protocols in the near future (TMT, time to monitoring threshold), and the other identifies species likely to decline significantly in the near future based on recent trends (TPD, time to percent decline). Within the individual BCRs we found up to 45% (mean 28%) of the species analyzed had overall declining population trajectories, which could result in up to 37 species declining below a minimum NABBS monitoring threshold in at least one currently occupied BCR within the next 50 years. Additionally, up to 26% (mean 8%) of the species analyzed within the individual BCRs may decline by 30% within the next decade. Conservation workers interested in conserving avian diversity and abundance within these BCRs can use these metrics to plan alternative monitoring schemes or highlight the urgency of those populations experiencing the fastest declines. However, this

  9. Monitoring the Damage State of Fiber Reinforced Composites Using an FBG Network for Failure Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Selim Kocaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A structural health monitoring (SHM study of biaxial glass fibre-reinforced epoxy matrix composites under a constant, high strain uniaxial fatigue loading is performed using fibre Bragg grating (FBG optical sensors embedded in composites at various locations to monitor the evolution of local strains, thereby understanding the damage mechanisms. Concurrently, the temperature changes of the samples during the fatigue test have also been monitored at the same locations. Close to fracture, significant variations in local temperatures and strains are observed, and it is shown that the variations in temperature and strain can be used to predict imminent fracture. It is noted that the latter information cannot be obtained using external strain gages, which underlines the importance of the tracking of local strains internally.

  10. Multiple States of Financially Distressed Companies : Tests using a Competing-risks Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongnit Chancharat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the determinants of multiple states of financial distress by applying a competing-risksmodel. It investigates the effect of financial ratios, market-based variables and company-specific variables,including company age, size and squared size on three different states of corporate financial distress: activecompanies; distressed external administration companies; and distressed takeover, merger or acquisitioncompanies. A sample of 1,081 publicly listed Australian non-financial companies over the period 1989 to2005 using a competing-risks model is used to determine the possible differences in the factors of enteringvarious states of financial distress. It is found that specifically, distressed external administration companieshave a higher leverage, lower past excess returns and a larger size; while distressed takeover, merger oracquisition companies have a lower leverage, a higher capital utilisation efficiency and a larger size comparedto active companies. Comparing the results from both the single-risk model and the competing-risks modelreveals the need to distinguish between financial distress states.

  11. POSSIBLE RISKS OF THE WITHDRAWAL OF A MEMBER STATE FROM THE EUROZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu-Marius SEITAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available By taking into consideration the actual difficult macroeconomic situation of some of the Member States of the Euro Zone, as it was already published, as a scenario, about the possibility of the avoiding the member State position, the present paper will propose, as analyzing subjects, the main impact elements on the other European national economies of such producing scenario.The main risks associated of such scenario, even if such process is an administrated one, are the following ones: the depreciation of the Euro as a result of the economic instability perception at the Euro Zone level; the reducing of the European Budget incomes; the reducing of the European Central banks working founds; a very important risk which also have the character of a political risk and which have an important position being a source of complex and difficult European macroeconomic problems and also which could become the precedent thus created towards other member states possible process of avoiding the member state position.

  12. Obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk among women from Tripura - A Northeastern State of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnajita Sen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiometabolic health status of women is a serious public health concern. Markers of body fat content and their distribution are important indicators of cardiometabolic health risk in participants. In addition, socio-demographic status plays a determinant role. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of adiposity markers and socio-demographic determinants on various cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in Indian women. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 388 women (age 25–65 years from Tripura, a Northeastern state of India. Various obesity and atherogenic markers such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio, waist - height ratio, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C/total cholesterol, HDL-C/low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and traditional cardiometabolic risk factors such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance were evaluated in participant. The socio-demographic status included the level of education and monthly family income. Results: The cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women were higher than premenopausal women. The risk increases with age in both groups. Women with lower educational level and higher income group were found to be prone to higher cardiometabolic risk. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed central obesity marked by increased WC was a better predictor of cardiometabolic risk than general obesity marked by increased BMI. Conclusion: The cardiometabolic risk among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women are associated with central obesity which can be predicted by increased WC in the subject. Socio-demographic status of the participant plays a definitive role in determining cardiometabolic risk in women.

  13. RISK FOR MALARIA IN UNITED STATES DONORS DEFERRED FOR TRAVEL TO MALARIA-ENDEMIC AREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan; Steele, Whitney; Custer, Brian; Kleinman, Steven; Cable, Ritchard; Wilkinson, Susan; Wright, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Deferral for travel to malaria-endemic areas excludes many blood donors in the United States. Most transfusion-transmitted malaria is associated with lengthy residence in malaria-endemic areas rather than routine travel. This study compares the impact of existing deferral requirements to the risk that a presenting donor with malaria travel history harbors malaria parasites under current and hypothetical alternate regulations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Deferred donors from six blood centers were sampled to estimate a national cohort of donors deferred annually for malaria travel to different geographic regions. Risk for malaria infection following travel to each region, and distribution of incubation periods for each malaria species were estimated for U.S. travelers. Region-specific travel risks were used to estimate the risk that a presenting blood donor with malaria travel might asymptomatically harbor malaria parasites at different intervals following return to the United States. RESULTS Travel to Africa presents risk for malaria infection >1000 times that of travel to malaria-endemic parts of Mexico, yet Mexico accounts for >10 times as many deferred donors. Shortening the deferral period from 12 to 3 months for travelers to Mexico increases the risk of collecting a contaminated unit by only 1 unit per 57 years (sensitivity analysis, 1 every 29 - 114 years), at annual gain of >56,000 donations. CONCLUSION This study provides the first systematic appraisal of the U.S. requirements for donor qualification regarding travel to malarial areas. Consideration should be given to relaxing the guidelines for travel to very low-risk areas such as Mexico. PMID:19903290

  14. Monitoring human factor risk characteristics at nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia in support of radiation safety regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheblanov, V Y; Sneve, M K; Bobrov, A F

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes research aimed at improving regulatory supervision of radiation safety during work associated with the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste at legacy sites in northwest Russia through timely identification of employees presenting unfavourable human factor risk characteristics. The legacy sites of interest include sites of temporary storage now operated by SevRAO on behalf of Rosatom. The sites were previously operational bases for servicing nuclear powered submarines and are now subject to major remediation activities. These activities include hazardous operations for recovery of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from sub-optimal storage conditions. The paper describes the results of analysis of methods, procedures, techniques and informational issues leading to the development of an expert-diagnostic information system for monitoring of workers involved in carrying out the most hazardous operations. The system serves as a tool for human factor and professional reliability risk monitoring and has been tested in practical working environments and implemented as part of regulatory supervision. The work has been carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center, within the framework of the regulatory cooperation programme between the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority.

  15. Legal aspects of orthodontic practice: risk management concepts. Diagnosis, root resorption, and progress monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machen, D E

    1989-03-01

    In this and succeeding issues of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, factual risk management scenarios will be presented. These scenarios are based on composites of actual court cases that have been tried to verdict or decision. Valuable risk management lessons may be learned from careful analysis of the course of the events described. Please be advised that the standard of care determined in any case is specific for that jurisdiction and that set of facts as established by expert testimony for the prevailing party.

  16. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) as the reference standard for diagnosis of hypertension and assessment of vascular risk in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Smolensky, Michael H; Ayala, Diana E; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    New information has become available since the ISC, AAMCC, and SECAC released their first extensive guidedelines to improve the diagnosis and treatment of adult arterial hypertension. A critical assessment of evidence and a comparison of what international guidelines now propose are the basis for the following statements, which update the recommendations first issued in 2013. Office blood pressure (BP) measurements should no longer be considered to be the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of hypertension and assessment of cardiovascular risk. Relying on office BP, even when supplemented with at-home wake-time self-measurements, to identify high-risk individuals, disregarding circadian BP patterning and asleep BP level, leads to potential misclassification of 50% of all evaluated persons. Accordingly, ambulatory BP monitoring is the recommended reference standard for the diagnosis of true hypertension and accurate assessment of cardiovascular risk in all adults ≥18 yrs of age, regardless of whether office BP is normal or elevated. Asleep systolic BP mean is the most significant independent predictor of cardiovascular events. The sleep-time relative SBP decline adds prognostic value to the statistical model that already includes the asleep systolic BP mean and corrected for relevant confounding variables. Accordingly, the asleep systolic BP mean is the recommended protocol to diagnose hypertension, assess cardiovascular risk, and predict cardiovascular event-free interval. In men, and in the absence of compelling clinical conditions, reference thresholds for diagnosing hypertension are 120/70 mmHg for the asleep systolic/diastolic BP means derived from ambulatory BP monitoring. However, in women, in the absence of complicating co-morbidities, the same thresholds are lower by 10/5 mmHg, i.e., 110/65 mmHg for the asleep means. In high-risk patients, including those diagnosed with diabetes or chronic kidney disease, and/or those having experienced past

  17. Failing States as Epidemiologic Risk Zones: Implications for Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Katherine

    Failed states commonly experience health and mortality crises that include outbreaks of infectious disease, violent conflict, reductions in life expectancy, and increased infant and maternal mortality. This article draws from recent research in political science, security studies, and international relations to explore how the process of state failure generates health declines and outbreaks of infectious disease. The key innovation of this model is a revised definition of "the state" as a geographically dynamic rather than static political space. This makes it easier to understand how phases of territorial contraction, collapse, and regeneration interrupt public health programs, destabilize the natural environment, reduce human security, and increase risks of epidemic infectious disease and other humanitarian crises. Better understanding of these dynamics will help international health agencies predict and prepare for future health and mortality crises created by failing states.

  18. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides: state of the art and prospective improvement from science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Arnaud; Poulsen, Véronique

    2017-03-01

    Pesticide risk assessment in the European regulatory framework is mandatory performed for active substances (pesticides) and the plant protection products they are constituents of. The aim is to guarantee that safe use can be achieved for the intended use of the product. This paper provides a feedback on the regulatory environmental risk assessment performed for pesticide registration at the EU and member state levels. The different steps of pesticide registration are addressed considering both exposure and hazard. In this paper, we focus on the environmental fate and behaviour in surface water together with the aquatic ecotoxicity of the substances to illustrate pesticide regulatory risk assessment performed for aquatic organisms. Current methodologies are presented along with highlights on potential improvements. For instance, as regards exposure aspects, moving from field based to landscape risk assessments is promising. Regarding ecotoxicology, ecological models may be valuable tools when applied to chemical risk assessment. In addition, interest and further developments to better take into account mitigation measures in risk assessment and management are also presented.

  19. Human health risk assessment related to contaminated land: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartjes, F A

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of humans to contaminants from contaminated land may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is generally considered as a major protection target. State-of-the-art possibilities and limitations of human health risk assessment tools are described in this paper. Human health risk assessment includes two different activities, i.e. the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment. The combination of these is called the risk characterization, which results in an appraisal of the contaminated land. Exposure assessment covers a smart combination of calculations, using exposure models, and measurements in contact media and body liquids and tissue (biomonitoring). Regarding the time frame represented by exposure estimates, biomonitoring generally relates to exposure history, measurements in contact media to actual exposures, while exposure calculations enable a focus on exposure in future situations. The hazard assessment, which is different for contaminants with or without a threshold for effects, results in a critical exposure value. Good human health risk assessment practice accounts for tiered approaches and multiple lines of evidence. Specific attention is given here to phenomena such as the time factor in human health risk assessment, suitability for the local situation, background exposure, combined exposure and harmonization of human health risk assessment tools.

  20. Spies, Surveillance and Stakeouts: Monitoring Muslim Moves in British State Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sian, Katy Pal

    2015-01-01

    This article will provide a critique of the PVE initiative and its implementation within the context of primary education following the events of 9/11, the 2001 riots and 7/7. Drawing upon empirical data I will argue that the monitoring of young Muslims and "extremism" is problematic and reinforces the logics of Islamophobia through…

  1. Spies, Surveillance and Stakeouts: Monitoring Muslim Moves in British State Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sian, Katy Pal

    2015-01-01

    This article will provide a critique of the PVE initiative and its implementation within the context of primary education following the events of 9/11, the 2001 riots and 7/7. Drawing upon empirical data I will argue that the monitoring of young Muslims and "extremism" is problematic and reinforces the logics of Islamophobia through…

  2. State-of-the-art technologies of forest inventory and monitoring in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong-Long Feng

    2000-01-01

    Ground surveys, remote sensing (RS), global positioning systems (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), and permanent sampling plots (PSP) were used to inventory and monitor forests in the development of an ecosystem management plan for the island of Taiwan. While the entire island has been surveyed, this study concentrates on the Hui-Sun and Hsin-Hua Experimental...

  3. Aerosols Monitoring Network to Create a Volcanic ASH Risk Management System in Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quel Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two main decisions were made in Argentina to mitigate the impact of the recent volcanic activity in de country basically affected by the presence of volcanic ash in the air and deposited over the Argentinean territory. The first one was to create a risk management commission were this risk between others were studied, and second to develop new ground based remote sensing technologies to be able to identify and inform the risk close to the airports. In addition the Japanese government program for Science and Technology joint Research Partnership between Argentina, Chile and Japan for Sustainable Development (SATREPS accepted to fund this cooperation due to the potential future utilization of the research outcomes to the benefit of the society. This work present the actual achievements and expected advance of these projects that try to joint efforts between national and international agencies as well as countries on behalf of a better understanding of the risks and a joint collaboration on the mitigation of suspended ashes impact over the aerial navigation.

  4. 78 FR 71817 - Liquidity Coverage Ratio: Liquidity Risk Measurement, Standards, and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    .... Liquidity Characteristics of HQLA a. Risk Profile b. Market-based Characteristics c. Central Bank... supervision of Federal branches and agencies of foreign banks before considering applying a liquidity coverage... liquidity coverage ratio as an enhanced prudential standard for bank holding companies and savings and...

  5. Aerosols Monitoring Network to Create a Volcanic ASH Risk Management System in Argentina and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quel, Eduardo; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Otero, Lidia; Jin, Yoshitaka; Ristori, Pablo; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; González, Francisco; Papandrea, Sebastián; Shimizu, Atsushi; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Two main decisions were made in Argentina to mitigate the impact of the recent volcanic activity in de country basically affected by the presence of volcanic ash in the air and deposited over the Argentinean territory. The first one was to create a risk management commission were this risk between others were studied, and second to develop new ground based remote sensing technologies to be able to identify and inform the risk close to the airports. In addition the Japanese government program for Science and Technology joint Research Partnership between Argentina, Chile and Japan for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) accepted to fund this cooperation due to the potential future utilization of the research outcomes to the benefit of the society. This work present the actual achievements and expected advance of these projects that try to joint efforts between national and international agencies as well as countries on behalf of a better understanding of the risks and a joint collaboration on the mitigation of suspended ashes impact over the aerial navigation.

  6. The use of variability of repolarization for monitoring of arrhythmic risk : "the rocking of the boat"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhoff, P.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of deaths in the western world are of cardiovascular origin. Approximately 60% of these cardiovascular deaths are sudden. Implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has been proven effective in preventing sudden cardiac death in patients at increased risk. An ICD ca

  7. Development of Risk Monitor for Nuclear Power Plant%核电厂风险监测器系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高巍; 张琴芳

    2012-01-01

    介绍了风险监测器的概念和功能,根据其功能需求开发了基于浏览器/服务器架构的风险监测器系统.结合某核电厂风险监测器模型对本系统进行了应用.结果表明,本文开发的风险监测器系统能较好地完成系统功能,正确反映核电厂状态并为核电厂人员制定运行决策提供支持.%The concept of risk monitor as well as its expected function was introduced in the paper. Based on the requirement of risk monitor, a risk monitor system upon the browser/server structure was developed. Several practical applications were made to the system based on one specific risk monitor model. The result shows that this risk monitor system is able to successfully implement all the required functions and is competent for correctly reflecting the nuclear power plant risk, and can support the nuclear power plant staffs for their decision-making.

  8. The Study of Framework of Monitoring Mode for State-owned Enterprises%国有企业监控模式的框架研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震伟

    2012-01-01

    When the role of the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission is converted to the "clean investor", the design of the framework of the monitoring mode for state-owned enterprises should include several aspects. First aspect, the key elements of control environment, risk assessment, control activities, information communication and continuous monitoring should be contained. The second aspect is to straighten out the interface of power and responsibility and the implementation means of related subjects of state-owned assets. The last aspect is to mainly exercise the three main rights entitled to the investor institutions by the law, which are sharing the assets income, participating in major decisions and choosing administrator. At the same time, the SASAC role transition need to realize through deepening reform.%在国资委的角色转换为“干净的出资人”时,设计国有企业监控模式的框架要包括控制环境、风险评估、控制活动、信息沟通和持续监控几个方面的要素,理顺国有资产各相关主体的权责界面和行权方式,围绕法律赋予出资人机构的享有资产收益、参与重大决策、选择管理者等三大权利充分行权。同时,需要通过深化改革真正实现对于国资委的角色转换。

  9. Disaster risk reduction and sustainable development for small island developing states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M.; Cohen, Madeline A.; Hermosilla, Sabrina; Espinel, Zelde; McLean, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In contrast to continental nations, the world's 52 small island developing states (SIDS) are recognized as a collective of countries that experience disproportionate challenges for sustainable development related to their geography, small size, and physical isolation. These same states also face elevated risks for disaster incidence and consequences particularly in the realms of climate change, sea level rise, natural disasters (tropical cyclones, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes), and marine hazardous materials spills. Cyclone Winston's direct impact on Fiji in 2016 and Cyclone Pam's landfall over Vanuatu in 2015 provide case examples illustrating the special vulnerabilities of the SIDS.

  10. Monitoring Persistent Volcanic Emissions from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia: A Community Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic and geothermal emissions are known natural sources of volatiles to the atmosphere. Volcanogenic air pollutants known to cause the most serious impact are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Some studies into the potential for volcanic emissions to produce chronic diseases in humans indicate that areas of major concern include respiratory problems, particularly silicosis (Allen et al. 2000; Baxter et al. 1999; Buist et al. 1986), psychological stress (Shore et al. 1986), and chemical impacts of gas or ash (Giammanco et al. 1998). Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia has a very high recreational value with >200,000 visitors annually, while the nearby town of Soufrière has >8,400 residents. Residents and visitors have raised concerns about the volcanic emissions and its health effects. As part of the volcanic surveillance programme undertaken by the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in Saint Lucia, a new monitoring network has been established for quantifying the ambient SO2 in air, to which staff and visitors at the volcanic park are exposed to. The implementation and continued operation of this network has involved the training of local personnel in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations, using a low cost monitor as well as commercial passive samplers. This approach recognizes that environmental hazards are a usual part of life and productive livelihoods, and to minimize post-disaster response and recovery it is beneficial to promote preparedness and mitigation, which is best achieved at the local level with community involvement. It is also intended that the volcanic emissions monitoring network could be used as a method to establish and maintain community-based initiatives that would also be helpful when volcanic threat manifests.

  11. Monitoring an ecosystem at risk: what is the degree of grassland fragmentation in the Canadian Prairies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Laura; Jaeger, Jochen A G

    2014-04-01

    Increasing fragmentation of grassland habitats by human activities is a major threat to biodiversity and landscape quality. Monitoring their degree of fragmentation has been identified as an urgent need. This study quantifies for the first time the current degree of grassland fragmentation in the Canadian Prairies using four fragmentation geometries (FGs) of increasing specificity (i.e. more restrictive grassland classification) and five types of reporting units (7 ecoregions, 50 census divisions, 1,166 municipalities, 17 sub-basins, and 108 watersheds). We evaluated the suitability of 11 datasets based on 8 suitability criteria and applied the effective mesh size (m(eff)) method to quantify fragmentation. We recommend the combination of the Crop Inventory Mapping of the Prairies and the CanVec datasets as the most suitable for monitoring grassland fragmentation. The grassland area remaining amounts to 87,570.45 km(2) in FG4 (strict grassland definition) and 183,242.042 km(2) in FG1 (broad grassland definition), out of 461,503.97 km(2) (entire Prairie Ecozone area). The very low values of m(eff) of 14.23 km(2) in FG4 and 25.44 km(2) in FG1 indicate an extremely high level of grassland fragmentation. The m(eff) method is supported in this study as highly suitable and recommended for long-term monitoring of grasslands in the Canadian Prairies; it can help set measurable targets and/or limits for regions to guide management efforts and as a tool for performance review of protection efforts, for increasing awareness, and for guiding efforts to minimize grassland fragmentation. This approach can also be applied in other parts of the world and to other ecosystems.

  12. An Examination of Farmworker Pesticide Educators in a Southeastern State: Informal Science Educators and Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePrevost, Catherine E.

    2011-12-01

    Because pesticide exposure is a significant hazard to farmworkers in their working and living environments, basic pesticide toxicology is a topic for farmworker science education that has implications beyond scientific literacy to encompass farmworkers' safety and health. Migrant and seasonal farmworkers have been identified as an at-risk population because of the cultural and linguistic barriers they face, their temporary employment and tenuous documentation status, and their low literacy levels and limited formal education. Despite the key role of pesticide educators in promoting farmworker scientific literacy, safety, and health, data regarding pesticide educators are absent in the literature. This dissertation investigated the nature of pesticide educators in a southeastern state. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative methods, the three studies contained within this body of work characterize the personal beliefs---including pesticide risk, self-efficacy, and teaching beliefs---of pesticide educators, as well as educators' personal goals and their beliefs about the environments in which they pursue those goals. The research allowed for the creation of a profile of the organizations that and individuals who provide pesticide education to farmworkers in a highly agricultural state. The first study details the development and field testing of the Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory, a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs, with a sample of pesticide educators (n=43) in a southeastern state. The 19-item, Likert-type inventory was found to be psychometrically sound with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.780 and a valuable tool in capturing pesticide educators' beliefs about pesticide risk, assessing beliefs in four key categories. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory could be useful in exploring beliefs about pesticide risks and guiding efforts to address misconceptions held by a variety of formal and informal science learners, educators, practitioners, the

  13. SAR Inteferometry and GPS Surveying for Subsidence Monitoring and its Contribution to Risk Management, the Case Study of Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, R.; Castaneda, L. P.

    2013-05-01

    Aguascalientes valley is just one of many regions affected by ground subsidence in Mexico, results of GPS monitoring from 2003 to date and differential SAR interferometry using Envisat archived data show subsidence maximums of 15 centimeters but with a decreasing rate with time. Recent implementation of TerraSAR-X stripmap mode images allowed a more accurate estimation of displacements, which are being used for subsidence mapping and to develop models for corrections to geodetic positions. In addition, results of the study are also being used to the development of the State's atlas of hazards and will contribute by detecting new ground failures and areas susceptible to failure.

  14. How information resources are used by state agencies in risk assessment applications - Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.S.

    1990-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Illinois (Illinois EPA) has programs in water, air, and land pollution and water supplies paralleling those of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The organization is part of a tripartite arrangement in which the Pollution Control Board is the judicial arm, the Department of Energy and Natural Resources is the research arm, and the Illinois EPA is the enforcement arm. Other state agencies are also concerned with various aspects of the environment and may do risk assessments for chemicals. Although there are various risk assessment activities, both formal and informal, in our agency and in others, this paper will discuss only recent initiatives in water quality criteria.

  15. Leptospirosis seroprevalence and risk factors for sheep in Maranhão state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Sônia Maria; Mineiro, Ana Lys B B; Castro, Vanessa; Genovez, Margareth E; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Costa, Francisco A L

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine leptospirosis seroprevalence in sheep and their spatial distribution as well as identify risk factors associated with seropositivity in sheep from 37 herds and 11 municipalities in the Presidente Dutra microregion, Maranhão state, Brazil. We analyzed 379 blood serum samples using a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The individual seroprevalence was 32%. Of the 37 herds studied, 30 (81%, 95% CI 69-94%) had at least one seropositive animal. In seven municipalities, we observed infection in 100% of the herds. The serovars recorded were Grippotyphosa (67%), Wollfi with Hardjo (9%), Bratislava (9%), Hardjo (5%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (5%), Pomona (2%), Castellonis (2%) and Copenhageni (0.8%). We concluded that the Leptospira spp. in sheep is widespread in the area of sheep farms in Maranhão state, and a risk factor is the animals' water source.

  16. Indoor location-aware medical systems for smart homecare and telehealth monitoring: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Fendy; Redmond, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of current progress in the application of state-of-the-art indoor positioning systems for telecare and telehealth monitoring. This review is the first in the literature that provides a comprehensive discussion on how existing wireless indoor positioning systems can benefit the development of home-based care systems. More specifically, this review provides an in-depth comparative study of how both system users and medical practitioners can get benefit from indoor positioning technologies; e.g. for real-time monitoring of patients suffering chronic cardiovascular conditions, general monitoring of activities of daily living (ADLs), fall detection systems for the elderly as well as indoor navigation systems for those suffering from visual impairments. Furthermore, it also details various aspects worth considering when choosing a certain technology for a specific healthcare application; e.g. the spatial precision demanded by the application, trade-offs between unobtrusiveness and complexity, and issues surrounding compliance and adherence with the use of wearable tags. Beyond the current state-of-the-art, this review also rigorously discusses several research opportunities and the challenges associated with each.

  17. A framework for assessing global change risks to forest carbon stocks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Christopher W; Domke, Grant M; Riley, Karin L; Oswalt, Christopher M; Crocker, Susan J; Yohe, Gary W

    2013-01-01

    Among terrestrial environments, forests are not only the largest long-term sink of atmospheric carbon (C), but are also susceptible to global change themselves, with potential consequences including alterations of C cycles and potential C emission. To inform global change risk assessment of forest C across large spatial/temporal scales, this study constructed and evaluated a basic risk framework which combined the magnitude of C stocks and their associated probability of stock change in the context of global change across the US. For the purposes of this analysis, forest C was divided into five pools, two live (aboveground and belowground biomass) and three dead (dead wood, soil organic matter, and forest floor) with a risk framework parameterized using the US's national greenhouse gas inventory and associated forest inventory data across current and projected future Köppen-Geiger climate zones (A1F1 scenario). Results suggest that an initial forest C risk matrix may be constructed to focus attention on short- and long-term risks to forest C stocks (as opposed to implementation in decision making) using inventory-based estimates of total stocks and associated estimates of variability (i.e., coefficient of variation) among climate zones. The empirical parameterization of such a risk matrix highlighted numerous knowledge gaps: 1) robust measures of the likelihood of forest C stock change under climate change scenarios, 2) projections of forest C stocks given unforeseen socioeconomic conditions (i.e., land-use change), and 3) appropriate social responses to global change events for which there is no contemporary climate/disturbance analog (e.g., severe droughts in the Lake States). Coupling these current technical/social limits of developing a risk matrix to the biological processes of forest ecosystems (i.e., disturbance events and interaction among diverse forest C pools, potential positive feedbacks, and forest resiliency/recovery) suggests an operational forest C

  18. A framework for assessing global change risks to forest carbon stocks in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Woodall

    Full Text Available Among terrestrial environments, forests are not only the largest long-term sink of atmospheric carbon (C, but are also susceptible to global change themselves, with potential consequences including alterations of C cycles and potential C emission. To inform global change risk assessment of forest C across large spatial/temporal scales, this study constructed and evaluated a basic risk framework which combined the magnitude of C stocks and their associated probability of stock change in the context of global change across the US. For the purposes of this analysis, forest C was divided into five pools, two live (aboveground and belowground biomass and three dead (dead wood, soil organic matter, and forest floor with a risk framework parameterized using the US's national greenhouse gas inventory and associated forest inventory data across current and projected future Köppen-Geiger climate zones (A1F1 scenario. Results suggest that an initial forest C risk matrix may be constructed to focus attention on short- and long-term risks to forest C stocks (as opposed to implementation in decision making using inventory-based estimates of total stocks and associated estimates of variability (i.e., coefficient of variation among climate zones. The empirical parameterization of such a risk matrix highlighted numerous knowledge gaps: 1 robust measures of the likelihood of forest C stock change under climate change scenarios, 2 projections of forest C stocks given unforeseen socioeconomic conditions (i.e., land-use change, and 3 appropriate social responses to global change events for which there is no contemporary climate/disturbance analog (e.g., severe droughts in the Lake States. Coupling these current technical/social limits of developing a risk matrix to the biological processes of forest ecosystems (i.e., disturbance events and interaction among diverse forest C pools, potential positive feedbacks, and forest resiliency/recovery suggests an operational

  19. Tuberculosis in Humans and Cattle in Jigawa State, Nigeria: Risk Factors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2008 to March 2009 to identify risk factors for BTB in cattle and humans in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of 855 cattle belonging to 17 households were subjected to comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT while interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtains information on the risk factors. Twenty-two (22 respondent (5% amongst the families sampled had TB or clinical signs suggestive of TB, while 9 (2% had reactor cattle in their herds; However, no statistically significant association (≥0.05 was observed between reactor cattle and human TB cases in the households. The habit of milk and meat consumption was found to be affected by occupation and location of the household residence. None of these risk factors (food consumption, living with livestock in the same house, and presence of BTB-positive cattle were found to be statistically significant.

  20. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in goats in Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Pires Topazio

    Full Text Available Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Neospora caninum. Knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of Santa Catarina (SC, southern Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for N. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of SC. Blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. The indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against N. caninum. Thirty samples (4.58% were seropositive, with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in order to identify risk factors for neosporosis in goats. It was found that reproductive problems on the farms, as well as the diet and direct contact with dogs were casual risks for neosporosis. These results indicate that N. caninum infects goats in these regions, which may lead to reproductive problems.

  1. Risks and threats of tax state security and methods of their neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Lebedzevych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the relevance of the study to ensure security of the state tax. Scientists studied different approaches to defining the essence of the concept of "security tax" on the key features that would satisfy the interests of all subjects of tax relations and the necessity of legal consolidation of this concept. Analyzed the economic, social and legal nature of the existence of the security tax, identified key indicators of fiscal security of Ukraine. To determine the effectiveness of the tax administration in the interests of the tax security highlights the main threats, tax security risks caused by external and internal factors, and propose measures for their elimination and prevent the possibility of their occurrence. The stages of tax risk management with effective building security tax, designed structurally-logic of the tax risk management security.

  2. Climate uncertainty and implications for U.S. state-level risk assessment through 2050.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne W.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Kelic, Andjelka; Backus, George A.; Warren, Drake E.; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Klise, Geoffrey T.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2009-10-01

    Decisions for climate policy will need to take place in advance of climate science resolving all relevant uncertainties. Further, if the concern of policy is to reduce risk, then the best-estimate of climate change impacts may not be so important as the currently understood uncertainty associated with realizable conditions having high consequence. This study focuses on one of the most uncertain aspects of future climate change - precipitation - to understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and the near-term justification for interventions to mitigate the course of climate change. We show that the mean risk of damage to the economy from climate change, at the national level, is on the order of one trillion dollars over the next 40 years, with employment impacts of nearly 7 million labor-years. At a 1% exceedance-probability, the impact is over twice the mean-risk value. Impacts at the level of individual U.S. states are then typically in the multiple tens of billions dollar range with employment losses exceeding hundreds of thousands of labor-years. We used results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report 4 (AR4) climate-model ensemble as the referent for climate uncertainty over the next 40 years, mapped the simulated weather hydrologically to the county level for determining the physical consequence to economic activity at the state level, and then performed a detailed, seventy-industry, analysis of economic impact among the interacting lower-48 states. We determined industry GDP and employment impacts at the state level, as well as interstate population migration, effect on personal income, and the consequences for the U.S. trade balance.

  3. Obesity and risk of pancreatic cancer among postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative (United States)

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, J.; Margolis, K L.; Adami, H-O; LaCroix, A. (Andrea); Ye, W.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 138 503 women in the Women's Health Initiative in the United States were followed (for an average of 7.7 years) through 12 September 2005 to examine obesity, especially central obesity in relation to pancreatic cancer (n=251). Women in the highest quintile of waist-to-hip ratio had 70% (95% confidence interval 10–160%) excess risk of pancreatic cancer compared with women in the lowest quintile.

  4. Risk factors associated with calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chika C; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Pearl, David L; Yang, Mingyin; Wang, Mansen; Blois, Shauna L; Lund, Elizabeth M; Dewey, Cate E

    2014-08-01

    Calcium oxalate urolithiasis results from the formation of aggregates of calcium salts in the urinary tract. Difficulties associated with effectively treating calcium oxalate urolithiasis and the proportional increase in the prevalence of calcium oxalate uroliths relative to other urolith types over the last 2 decades has increased the concern of clinicians about this disease. To determine factors associated with the development of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States, a retrospective case-control study was performed. A national electronic database of medical records of all dogs evaluated between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010 at 787 general care veterinary hospitals in the United States was reviewed. Dogs were selected as cases at the first-time diagnosis of a laboratory-confirmed urolith comprised of at least 70% calcium oxalate (n=452). Two sets of control dogs with no history of urolithiasis diagnosis were randomly selected after the medical records of all remaining dogs were reviewed: urinalysis examination was a requirement in the selection of one set (n=1808) but was not required in the other set (n=1808). Historical information extracted included urolith composition, dog's diet, age, sex, neuter status, breed size category, hospital location, date of diagnosis, and urinalysis results. Multivariable analysis showed that the odds of first-time diagnosis of calcium oxalate urolithiasis were significantly (P30 mg/dL (OR: 1.55, 1.04-2.30). Patient demographics and urinalysis results are important factors that can support risk assessment and early identification of canine oxalate urolithiasis. Therefore, periodic urolith screening and monitoring of urine parameters should be encouraged for dogs at risk of developing these uroliths.

  5. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  6. Understanding for convergence monitoring for probabilistic risk assessment based on Markov Chain Monte Carl