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Sample records for monitor onboard accelerations

  1. Gas monitoring onboard ISS using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisi, Michael; Stettner, Armin; Seurig, Roland; Honne, Atle; Witt, Johannes; Rebeyre, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    In the confined, enclosed environment of a spacecraft, the air quality must be monitored continuously in order to safeguard the crew's health. For this reason, OHB builds the ANITA2 (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) technology demonstrator for trace gas monitoring onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The measurement principle of ANITA2 is based on the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) technology with dedicated gas analysis software from the Norwegian partner SINTEF. This combination proved to provide high sensitivity, accuracy and precision for parallel measurements of 33 trace gases simultaneously onboard ISS by the precursor instrument ANITA1. The paper gives a technical overview about the opto-mechanical components of ANITA2, such as the interferometer, the reference Laser, the infrared source and the gas cell design and a quick overview about the gas analysis. ANITA2 is very well suited for measuring gas concentrations specifically but not limited to usage onboard spacecraft, as no consumables are required and measurements are performed autonomously. ANITA2 is a programme under the contract of the European Space Agency, and the air quality monitoring system is a stepping stone into the future, as a precursor system for manned exploration missions.

  2. Onboard calibration and monitoring for the SWIFT instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, P; McDade, I; Shepherd, G; Gault, W

    2012-01-01

    The SWIFT (Stratospheric Wind Interferometer for Transport studies) instrument is a proposed space-based field-widened Doppler Michelson interferometer designed to measure stratospheric winds and ozone densities using a passive optical technique called Doppler Michelson imaging interferometry. The onboard calibration and monitoring procedures for the SWIFT instrument are described in this paper. Sample results of the simulations of onboard calibration measurements are presented and discussed. This paper also discusses the results of the derivation of the calibrations and monitoring requirements for the SWIFT instrument. SWIFT's measurement technique and viewing geometry are briefly described. The reference phase calibration and filter monitoring for the SWIFT instrument are two of the main critical design issues. In this paper it is shown that in order to meet SWIFT's science requirements, Michelson interferometer optical path difference monitoring corresponding to a phase calibration accuracy of ∼10 −3 radians, filter passband monitoring corresponding to phase accuracy of ∼5 × 10 −3 radians and a thermal stability of 10 −3 K s −1 are required. (paper)

  3. Onboard monitoring of fatigue damage rates in the hull girder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2011-01-01

    Most new advanced ships have extensive data collection systems to be used for continuous monitoring of engine and hull performance, for voyage performance evaluation etc. Such systems could be expanded to include also procedures for stress monitoring and for decision support, where the most...... critical wave-induced ship extreme responses and fatigue damage accumulation can be estimated for hypothetical changes in ship course and speed in the automatically estimated wave environment.The aim of this paper is to outline a calculation procedure for fatigue damage rate prediction in hull girders...... taking into account whipping stresses. It is conceptually shown how such a method, which integrates onboard estimation of sea states, can be used to deduce decision support with respect to the accumulated fatigue damage in the hull girder.The paper firstly presents a set of measured full-scale wave...

  4. Calibration of the radiation monitor onboard Akebono using Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Keiko; Takashima, Takeshi; Koi, Tatsumi; Nagai, Tsugunobu

    Natural high-energy electrons and protons (keV-MeV) in the space contaminate the data re-ciprocally. In order to calibrate the energy ranges and to remove data contamination on the radiation monitor (RDM) onboard the Japanese satellite, Akebono (EXOS-D), the detector is investigated using the Geant4 simulation toolkit of computational particle tracing. The semi-polar orbiting Akebono, launched in February 1989, is active now. This satellite has been observed the space environment at altitudes of several thousands km. The RDM instrument onboard Akebono monitors energetic particles in the Earth's radiation belt and gives important data accumulated for about two solar cycles. The data from RDM are for electrons in three energy channels of 0.3 MeV, protons in three energy channels of ¿ 30 MeV, and alpha particles in one energy channels of 15-45 MeV. The energy ranges are however based on information of about 20 years ago so that the data seem to include some errors actuary. In addition, these data include contamination of electrons and protons reciprocally. Actuary it is noticed that the electron data are contaminated by the solar protons but unknown quantitative amount of the contamination. Therefore we need data calibration in order to correct the energy ranges and to remove data contamination. The Geant4 simulation gives information of trajectories of incident and secondary particles whose are interacted with materials. We examine the RDM monitor using the Geant4 simulation. We find from the results that relativistic electrons of MeV behave quite complicatedly because of particle-material interaction in the instrument. The results indicate that efficiencies of detection and contamination are dependent on energy. This study compares the electron data from Akebono RDM with the simultaneous observation of CRRES and tries to lead the values of correction for each of the energy channels.

  5. Radiation monitoring around accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shinichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The present status of a network of radiation monitors (NORM) working at KEK is described in detail. NORM consists of there parts; stand-alone radiation monitors (SARM), local-monitoring stations (STATION) and a central data-handling system (CENTER). NORM has developed to a large-scaled monitoring system in which more than 250 SARMs are under operation for monitoring the radiation fields and radioactivities around accelerators in KEK. (author)

  6. Performance assessment of an onboard monitoring system for CMV drivers : a field operational test : research brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The primary goal of an onboard monitoring system (OBMS) is to enhance driver performance and safety. OBMSs are employed with the expectation that feedback provided concurrently (via flashing feedback lights in the vehicle) and cumulatively (via coach...

  7. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-Board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial intelligence monitoring system developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment in time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a graphical display, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, platform structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments based on the acceleration environment associated with a specific event. This monitoring system is focused primarily on detecting the vibratory disturbance sources, but could be used as well to detect some of the transient disturbance sources, depending on the events duration. The system has built-in capability to detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance sources. Several soft computing techniques such as Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map, Learning Vector Quantization, Back-Propagation Neural Networks, and Fuzzy Logic were used to design the system.

  8. Study of X-ray transients with Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) onboard ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. C. RAMADEVI

    MS received 1 September 2017; accepted 19 December 2017; published online 10 February 2018. Abstract. Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) onboard AstroSat is an X-ray sky monitor in the ..... 31(2–3), 99. Ramadevi M. C., Seetha S., Babu V. C., Ashoka B. N., Sreeku- mar P. 2006, Optimization of Gas Proportional Coun-.

  9. A novel approach for navigational guidance of ships using onboard monitoring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach and conceptual ideas are outlined for risk-based navigational guidance of ships using decision support systems in combination with onboard, in-service monitoring systems. The guidance has as the main objective to advise on speed and/or course changes; in particular with focus...

  10. SE83-9 'Chix in Space' student experimenter monitors STS-29 onboard activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Student experimenter John C. Vellinger watches monitor in the JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Customer Support Room (CSR) during the STS-29 mission. Crewmembers are working with his Student Experiment (SE) 83-9 Chicken Embryo Development in Space or 'Chix in Space' onboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The student's sponsor is Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC).

  11. Fault-Tolerant Onboard Monitoring and Decision Support Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran

    a crude and simple estimation of the actual sea state (Hs and Tz), information about the longitudinal hull girder loading, seakeeping performance of the ship, and decision support on how to operate the ship within acceptable limits. The system is able to identify critical forthcoming events and to give...... advice regarding speed and course changes to decrease the wave-induced loads. The SeaSense system is based on the combined use of a mathematical model and measurements from a set of sensors. The overall dependability of a shipboard monitoring and decision support system such as the SeaSense system can...

  12. Information processing requirements for on-board monitoring of automatic landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Karmarkar, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic procedure is presented for determining the information processing requirements for on-board monitoring of automatic landing systems. The monitoring system detects landing anomalies through use of appropriate statistical tests. The time-to-correct aircraft perturbations is determined from covariance analyses using a sequence of suitable aircraft/autoland/pilot models. The covariance results are used to establish landing safety and a fault recovery operating envelope via an event outcome tree. This procedure is demonstrated with examples using the NASA Terminal Configured Vehicle (B-737 aircraft). The procedure can also be used to define decision height, assess monitoring implementation requirements, and evaluate alternate autoland configurations.

  13. Long-term monitoring of air crew exposure onboard of Czech Airlines aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Ploc, O.

    2007-01-01

    This contribution presents new results related to the aircraft crew exposure onboard aircraft of Czech air companies. First, the results of long term monitoring onboard of an aircraft of Czech Airlines are presented. In the period May-December 2005, 494 individual flights have been followed using MDU-Liulin Si-diode based spectrometer, together with thermoluminescent and track detectors. The results of measurements are analyzed and compared with those of calculation performed with CARI6 and EPCARD3.2 codes. Monitoring period represented about 4.6 times more than usual annual engagement of an aircrew (600 hours). Total effective dose during these 2 755 hours was between Il and 12 mSv, following the considered method of evaluation. Both the measuring and calculation methods correlate well. This fact leads to confirmation of the routine method evaluating the level of aircraft crew exposure using CARI6 code as correct for this purpose. Second, the results of individual monitoring of aircrew members obtained during few last years by this routine method are presented; general tendencies of aircraft crew onboard exposure of Czech air companies are outlined. The contribution of aircrew exposure to total occupational exposure in the Czech Republic represents about 20%. (authors)

  14. An artificial intelligence approach to onboard fault monitoring and diagnosis for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, P. C.; Abbott, K. H.

    1986-01-01

    Real-time onboard fault monitoring and diagnosis for aircraft applications, whether performed by the human pilot or by automation, presents many difficult problems. Quick response to failures may be critical, the pilot often must compensate for the failure while diagnosing it, his information about the state of the aircraft is often incomplete, and the behavior of the aircraft changes as the effect of the failure propagates through the system. A research effort was initiated to identify guidelines for automation of onboard fault monitoring and diagnosis and associated crew interfaces. The effort began by determining the flight crew's information requirements for fault monitoring and diagnosis and the various reasoning strategies they use. Based on this information, a conceptual architecture was developed for the fault monitoring and diagnosis process. This architecture represents an approach and a framework which, once incorporated with the necessary detail and knowledge, can be a fully operational fault monitoring and diagnosis system, as well as providing the basis for comparison of this approach to other fault monitoring and diagnosis concepts. The architecture encompasses all aspects of the aircraft's operation, including navigation, guidance and controls, and subsystem status. The portion of the architecture that encompasses subsystem monitoring and diagnosis was implemented for an aircraft turbofan engine to explore and demonstrate the AI concepts involved. This paper describes the architecture and the implementation for the engine subsystem.

  15. Implementation of a research prototype onboard fault monitoring and diagnosis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael T.; Abbott, Kathy H.; Schutte, Paul C.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the dynamic and complex nature of in-flight fault monitoring and diagnosis, a research effort was undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center to investigate the application of artificial intelligence techniques for improved situational awareness. Under this research effort, concepts were developed and a software architecture was designed to address the complexities of onboard monitoring and diagnosis. This paper describes the implementation of these concepts in a computer program called FaultFinder. The implementation of the monitoring, diagnosis, and interface functions as separate modules is discussed, as well as the blackboard designed for the communication of these modules. Some related issues concerning the future installation of FaultFinder in an aircraft are also discussed.

  16. Exploiting Auto-Collimation for Real-Time Onboard Monitoring of Space Optical Camera Geometric Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Wang, H.; Liu, D.; Miu, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Precise geometric parameters are essential to ensure the positioning accuracy for space optical cameras. However, state-of-the-art onorbit calibration method inevitably suffers from long update cycle and poor timeliness performance. To this end, in this paper we exploit the optical auto-collimation principle and propose a real-time onboard calibration scheme for monitoring key geometric parameters. Specifically, in the proposed scheme, auto-collimation devices are first designed by installing collimated light sources, area-array CCDs, and prisms inside the satellite payload system. Through utilizing those devices, the changes in the geometric parameters are elegantly converted into changes in the spot image positions. The variation of geometric parameters can be derived via extracting and processing the spot images. An experimental platform is then set up to verify the feasibility and analyze the precision index of the proposed scheme. The experiment results demonstrate that it is feasible to apply the optical auto-collimation principle for real-time onboard monitoring.

  17. An Integrated Architecture for On-Board Aircraft Engine Performance Trend Monitoring and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics are closely related technologies that assist operators in managing the health of their gas turbine engine assets. Trend monitoring is the process of monitoring the gradual performance change that an aircraft engine will naturally incur over time due to turbomachinery deterioration, while gas path diagnostics is the process of detecting and isolating the occurrence of any faults impacting engine flow-path performance. Today, performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic functions are performed by a combination of on-board and off-board strategies. On-board engine control computers contain logic that monitors for anomalous engine operation in real-time. Off-board ground stations are used to conduct fleet-wide engine trend monitoring and fault diagnostics based on data collected from each engine each flight. Continuing advances in avionics are enabling the migration of portions of the ground-based functionality on-board, giving rise to more sophisticated on-board engine health management capabilities. This paper reviews the conventional engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic architecture commonly applied today, and presents a proposed enhanced on-board architecture for future applications. The enhanced architecture gains real-time access to an expanded quantity of engine parameters, and provides advanced on-board model-based estimation capabilities. The benefits of the enhanced architecture include the real-time continuous monitoring of engine health, the early diagnosis of fault conditions, and the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters. A future vision to advance the enhanced architecture is also presented and discussed

  18. ON-BOARD MONITORING OF TECHNICAL STATE FOR POWER UNITS OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Karpievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers new methodologies pertaining to on-board diagnosis of wear-out rate for friction linings of a clutch driven disk and friction discs of a hydraulic press clutch of transmission gear boxes which are based on physical process that uses friction work as an integrated indicator. A new methodology in determination of life-span rate for engine oil has been developed in the paper. The paper presents block schematic diagrams for on-board monitoring of technical state for power units of wheeled and tracked vehicles. Usage of friction work as an integrated indicator for determination of wear-out rate for friction linings of clutch driven disk and friction discs of a haydraulic press clutch makes it possible timely at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine their residual operation life and forecast their replacement.While taking volume of the used fuel for determination of engine oil life-span rate it permits quickly and effectively at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine residual useful life of the engine oil and also forecast its replacement.

  19. Beam losses monitor for superconducting accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurochkin, I.A.; Lapitskij, S.N.; Mokhov, N.V.; Seleznev, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    A special beam losses monitor (BLM) for SC accelerators -colliders as an integral part od SC magnet (quadrupole or/and corrector) design is proposed. The main BLM parameters calculated under the real UNK and SSC conditions are presented in comparison with the traditional BLM ones which is planned to be used at SSC now. 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. Respiratory monitoring with an acceleration sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Tomohiro; Takegawa, Hideki; Ageishi, Tatsuya; Takashina, Masaaki; Numasaki, Hodaka; Matsumoto, Masao; Teshima, Teruki

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory gating radiotherapy is used to irradiate a local area and to reduce normal tissue toxicity. There are certain methods for the detection of tumor motions, for example, using internal markers or an external respiration signal. However, because some of these respiratory monitoring systems require special or expensive equipment, respiratory monitoring can usually be performed only in limited facilities. In this study, the feasibility of using an acceleration sensor for respiratory monitoring was evaluated. The respiratory motion was represented by means of a platform and measured five times with the iPod touch (registered) at 3, 4 and 5 s periods of five breathing cycles. For these three periods of the reference waveform, the absolute means ± standard deviation (SD) of displacement were 0.45 ± 0.34 mm, 0.33 ± 0.24 mm and 0.31 ± 0.23 mm, respectively. On the other hand, the corresponding absolute means ± SD for the periods were 0.04 ± 0.09 s, 0.04 ± 0.02 s and 0.06 ± 0.04 s. The accuracy of respiratory monitoring using the acceleration sensor was satisfactory in terms of the absolute means ± SD. Using the iPod touch (registered) for respiratory monitoring does not need special equipment and makes respiratory monitoring easier. For these reasons, this system is a viable alternative to other respiratory monitoring systems.

  1. Fermilab accelerator control system: Analog monitoring facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, K.; Anderson, L.; Smedinghoff, J.

    1987-10-01

    Thousands of analog signals are monitored in different areas of the Fermilab accelerator complex. For general purposes, analog signals are sent over coaxial or twinaxial cables with varying lengths, collected at fan-in boxes and digitized with 12 bit multiplexed ADCs. For higher resolution requirements, analog signals are digitized at sources and are serially sent to the control system. This paper surveys ADC subsystems that are used with the accelerator control systems and discusses practical problems and solutions, and it describes how analog data are presented on the console system

  2. Linear accelerator calibration monitor with a memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.L.; Ekstrand, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    A calibration monitor has been designed for measuring the constancy of linear accelerator or cobalt unit output between full calibrations. This monitor is battery-operated, light-weight, and slides into the shadow tray attachment on a linear accelerator or cobalt unit for easy setup. It provides a digital readout of the dose delivered, and a consistency check can be made in less than two minutes. The precision of the monitor, determined by cobalt-60 irradiations over a 2 1/2 month period, is +- 0.6% (standard deviation). The monitor also retains the dose reading in a CMOS digital counter indefinitely, hence it can be used in the same fashion as mailed thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for calibration checks at remote facilities without the complicated readout procedures associated with TLD. The monitor can be mailed to a remote facility, positioned without ambiguity, and irradiated; and the reading can be verified on return to the originating center simply by pressing a switch. The monitor can easily be set up to carry out a ''blind'' check in which the reading obtained is not known to the remote facility

  3. Wakefield monitor development for CLIC accelerating structure

    CERN Document Server

    Peauger, F; Girardot, P; Andersson, A; Riddone, G; Samoshkin, A; Solodko, A; Zennaro, R; Ruber, R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract To achieve high luminosity in CLIC, the accelerating structures must be aligned to an accuracy of 5 μm with respect to the beam trajectory. Position detectors called Wakefield Monitors (WFM) are integrated to the structure for a beam based alignment. This paper describes the requirements of such monitors. Detailed RF design and electromagnetic simulations of the WFM itself are presented. In particular, time domain computations are performed and an evaluation of the resolution is done for two higher order modes at 18 and 24 GHz. The mechanical design of a prototype accelerating structure with WFM is also presented as well as the fabrication status of three complete structures. The objective is to implement two of them in CTF3 at CERN for a feasibility demonstration with beam and high power rf.

  4. An energy monitor for electron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geske, G. (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Klinik und Poliklinik des Bereiches Medizin)

    1990-09-01

    A monitor useful for checks of the energy selector scale of medical electron accelerators was developed and tested. It consists of a linear array of flat ionization chambers sandwiched between absorber plates of low-Z material. The first chamber at the electron beam entrance may be used to produce a reference signal S{sub r}, if not another suitable reference signal is taken. The following chambers are electrically connected and deliver the measuring signal S{sub m}. A clinical dosimeter can be used for recording current or charge. The energy-dependent electron range parameters R{sub p}, R{sub 50} and R{sub 80} in water vary as linear functions of the ratio reference singal/measuring signal. The best linear fit was obtained for the half value layer R{sub 50}. Three types of the energy monitor are described, and experimental results obtained with a linear accelerator and a betatron between 5 and 25 MeV are reported. Uncertainties for checks of R{sub 50} with a calibrated energy monitor were not larger than 1 to 2 mm. Theoretical considerations by a computer model support these results. (orig./HP).

  5. An energy monitor for electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geske, G.

    1990-01-01

    A monitor useful for checks of the energy selector scale of medical electron accelerators was developed and tested. It consists of a linear array of flat ionization chambers sandwiched between absorber plates of low-Z material. The first chamber at the electron beam entrance may be used to produce a reference signal S r , if not another suitable reference signal is taken. The following chambers are electrically connected and deliver the measuring signal S m . A clinical dosimeter can be used for recording current or charge. The energy-dependent electron range parameters R p , R 50 and R 80 in water vary as linear functions of the ratio reference singal/measuring signal. The best linear fit was obtained for the half value layer R 50 . Three types of the energy monitor are described, and experimental results obtained with a linear accelerator and a betatron between 5 and 25 MeV are reported. Uncertainties for checks of R 50 with a calibrated energy monitor were not larger than 1 to 2 mm. Theoretical considerations by a computer model support these results. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions....

  7. Monitoring the Microgravity Environment Quality On-board the International Space Station Using Soft Computing Techniques. Part 2; Preliminary System Performance Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.; Weiss, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary performance results of the artificial intelligence monitoring system in full operational mode using near real time acceleration data downlinked from the International Space Station. Preliminary microgravity environment characterization analysis result for the International Space Station (Increment-2), using the monitoring system is presented. Also, comparison between the system predicted performance based on ground test data for the US laboratory "Destiny" module and actual on-orbit performance, using measured acceleration data from the U.S. laboratory module of the International Space Station is presented. Finally, preliminary on-orbit disturbance magnitude levels are presented for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space, which are compared with on ground test data. The ground test data for the Experiment of Physics of Colloids in Space were acquired from the Microgravity Emission Laboratory, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The artificial intelligence was developed by the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services Project to help the principal investigator teams identify the primary vibratory disturbance sources that are active, at any moment of time, on-board the International Space Station, which might impact the microgravity environment their experiments are exposed to. From the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services' web site, the principal investigator teams can monitor via a dynamic graphical display, implemented in Java, in near real time, which event(s) is/are on, such as crew activities, pumps, fans, centrifuges, compressor, crew exercise, structural modes, etc., and decide whether or not to run their experiments, whenever that is an option, based on the acceleration magnitude and frequency sensitivity associated with that experiment. This monitoring system detects primarily the vibratory disturbance sources. The system has built-in capability to detect both known

  8. Data Products From Particle Detectors On-Board NOAA's Newest Space Weather Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, B. T.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Onsager, T. G.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's newest Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, GOES-16, was launched on 19 November 2016. Instrumentation on-board GOES-16 includes the new Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS), which has been collecting data since 8 January 2017. SEISS is composed of five magnetospheric particle sensor units: an electrostatic analyzer for measuring 30 eV - 30 keV ions and electrons (MPS-LO), a high energy particle sensor (MPS-HI) that measures keV to MeV electrons and protons, east and west facing Solar and Galactic Proton Sensor (SGPS) units with 13 differential channels between 1-500 MeV, and an Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) that measures 30 species of heavy ions (He-Ni) in five energy bands in the 10-200 MeV/nuc range. Measurement of low energy magnetospheric particles by MPS-LO and heavy ions by EHIS are new capabilities not previously flown on the GOES system. Real-time data from GOES-16 will support space weather monitoring and first-principles space weather modeling by NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). Space weather level 2+ data products under development at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) include the Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) Event Detection algorithm. Legacy components of the SEP event detection algorithm (currently produced by SWPC) include the Solar Radiation Storm Scales. New components will include, e.g., event fluences. New level 2+ data products also include the SEP event Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Algorithm, for transforming energy spectra from EHIS into LET spectra, and the Density and Temperature Moments and Spacecraft Charging algorithm. The moments and charging algorithm identifies electron and ion signatures of spacecraft surface (frame) charging in the MPS-LO fluxes. Densities and temperatures from MPS-LO will also be used to support a magnetopause crossing detection algorithm. The new data products will provide real-time indicators of potential radiation hazards for the satellite

  9. Monitoring sleepiness with on-board electrophysiological recordings for preventing sleep-deprived traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadelis, Christos; Chen, Zhe; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Bekiaris, Evangelos; Maglaveras, Nikos

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study is the development and evaluation of efficient neurophysiological signal statistics, which may assess the driver's alertness level and serve as potential indicators of sleepiness in the design of an on-board countermeasure system. Multichannel EEG, EOG, EMG, and ECG were recorded from sleep-deprived subjects exposed to real field driving conditions. A number of severe driving errors occurred during the experiments. The analysis was performed in two main dimensions: the macroscopic analysis that estimates the on-going temporal evolution of physiological measurements during the driving task, and the microscopic event analysis that focuses on the physiological measurements' alterations just before, during, and after the driving errors. Two independent neurophysiologists visually interpreted the measurements. The EEG data were analyzed by using both linear and non-linear analysis tools. We observed the occurrence of brief paroxysmal bursts of alpha activity and an increased synchrony among EEG channels before the driving errors. The alpha relative band ratio (RBR) significantly increased, and the Cross Approximate Entropy that quantifies the synchrony among channels also significantly decreased before the driving errors. Quantitative EEG analysis revealed significant variations of RBR by driving time in the frequency bands of delta, alpha, beta, and gamma. Most of the estimated EEG statistics, such as the Shannon Entropy, Kullback-Leibler Entropy, Coherence, and Cross-Approximate Entropy, were significantly affected by driving time. We also observed an alteration of eyes blinking duration by increased driving time and a significant increase of eye blinks' number and duration before driving errors. EEG and EOG are promising neurophysiological indicators of driver sleepiness and have the potential of monitoring sleepiness in occupational settings incorporated in a sleepiness countermeasure device. The occurrence of brief paroxysmal bursts of

  10. Wide-Field Gamma-Spectrometer BDRG: GRB Monitor On-Board the Lomonosov Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svertilov, S. I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Amelushkin, A. M.; Barinova, V. O.; Galkin, V. I.; Iyudin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Petrov, V. L.; Rozhkov, G. V.; Yashin, I. V.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Lipunov, V. M.; Park, I. H.; Jeong, S.; Kim, M. B.

    2018-02-01

    The study of GRB prompt emissions (PE) is one of the main goals of the Lomonosov space mission. The payloads of the GRB monitor (BDRG) with the wide-field optical cameras (SHOK) and the ultra-fast flash observatory (UFFO) onboard the Lomonosov satellite are intended for the observation of GRBs, and in particular, their prompt emissions. The BDRG gamma-ray spectrometer is designed to obtain the temporal and spectral information of GRBs in the energy range of 10-3000 keV as well as to provide GRB triggers on several time scales (10 ms, 1 s and 20 s) for ground and space telescopes, including the UFFO and SHOK. The BDRG instrument consists of three identical detector boxes with axes shifted by 90° from each other. This configuration allows us to localize a GRB source in the sky with an accuracy of ˜ 2°. Each BDRG box contains a phoswich NaI(Tl)/CsI(Tl) scintillator detector. A thick CsI(Tl) crystal in size of \\varnothing 130 × 17 mm is placed underneath the NaI(Tl) as an active shield in the soft energy range and as the main detector in the hard energy range. The ratio of the CsI(Tl) to NaI(Tl) event rates at varying energies can be employed as an independent metric to distinguish legitimate GRB signals from false positives originating from electrons in near-Earth vicinities. The data from three detectors are collected in a BA BDRG information unit, which generates a GRB trigger and a set of data frames in output format. The scientific data output is ˜ 500 Mb per day, including ˜ 180 Mb of continuous data for events with durations in excess of 100 ms for 16 channels in each detector, detailed energy spectra, and sets of frames with ˜ 5 Mb of detailed information for each burst-like event. A number of pre-flight tests including those for the trigger algorithm and calibration were carried out to confirm the reliability of the BDRG for operation in space.

  11. Bunch monitor for an S-band electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Yuji; Nakahara, Kazuo

    1991-01-01

    The measurement of bunch characteristics in an S-band electron linear accelerator is required in order to evaluate the quality of accelerated electron beams. A new-type bunch monitor has been developed which combines micro-stripline technology with an air insulator and wall-current monitoring technology. The obtained time resolution of the monitor was more than 150 ps. This result shows that the monitor can handle the bunch number of an S-band linac. The structure of the monitor is suitable for being installed in the vacuum area, since it is constructed of only metal and ceramic parts. It can therefore easily be employed in an actual machine

  12. Reactivity Monitoring of Accelerator-Driven Nuclear Reactor Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttenhove, W.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis provides a methodology and set-up of a reactivity monitoring tool for Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS). The reactivity monitoring tool should guarantee the operation of an ADS at a safe margin from criticality. Robustness is assured in different aspects of the monitoring tool: the choice

  13. Beam Position Monitoring in the CSU Accelerator Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Joshua; Vankeuren, Max; Watras, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    A Beam Position Monitoring (BPM) system is an integral part of an accelerator beamline, and modern accelerators can take advantage of newer technologies and designs when creating a BPM system. The Colorado State University (CSU) Accelerator Facility will include four stripline detectors mounted around the beamline, a low-noise analog front-end, and digitization and interface circuitry. The design will support a sampling rate greater than 10 Hz and sub-100 μm accuracy.

  14. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. The spacecraft environment subjects the traveler to noise, chemical and microbiological contaminants, increased radiation, and variable gravity forces. As humans prepare for long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond, effective measures must be developed, verified and implemented to ensure mission success. Limited biomedical quantitative capabilities are currently available onboard the ISS. Therefore, the development of versatile instruments to perform space biological analysis and to monitor astronauts' health is needed. We are developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring gene expression on small spacecraft in order to better understand the influence of the space environment on biological systems. This low-cost, low-power, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation. The current system will support growth of microorganisms, extract and purify the RNA, hybridize it to the array, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis, and transmit the measurements to Earth. The system will help discover how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and how pathogenic bacteria sometimes increase their virulence in space, facilitating the development of adequate countermeasures to decrease risks associated with human spaceflight. The current stand-alone technology could be used as an integrated platform onboard the ISS to perform similar genetic analyses on any biological systems from the tree of life. Additionally, with some modification the system could be implemented to perform real-time in-situ microbial monitoring of the ISS environment (air, surface and water samples) and the astronaut's microbiome using 16SrRNA microarray technology. Furthermore, the current system can be enhanced

  15. Limb clouds and dust on Mars from images obtained by the Visual Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Chen-Chen, H.; Ordoñez-Etxeberria, I.; Hueso, R.; del Río-Gaztelurrutia, T.; Garro, A.; Cardesín-Moinelo, A.; Titov, D.; Wood, S.

    2018-01-01

    The Visual Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard the Mars Express (MEx) spacecraft is a simple camera aimed to monitor the release of the Beagle-2 lander on Mars Express and later used for public outreach. Here, we employ VMC as a scientific instrument to study and characterize high altitude aerosols events (dust and condensates) observed at the Martian limb. More than 21,000 images taken between 2007 and 2016 have been examined to detect and characterize elevated layers of dust in the limb, dust storms and clouds. We report a total of 18 events for which we give their main properties (areographic location, maximum altitude, limb projected size, Martian solar longitude and local time of occurrence). The top altitudes of these phenomena ranged from 40 to 85 km and their horizontal extent at the limb ranged from 120 to 2000 km. They mostly occurred at Equatorial and Tropical latitudes (between ∼30°N and 30°S) at morning and afternoon local times in the southern fall and northern winter seasons. None of them are related to the orographic clouds that typically form around volcanoes. Three of these events have been studied in detail using simultaneous images taken by the MARCI instrument onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and studying the properties of the atmosphere using the predictions from the Mars Climate Database (MCD) General Circulation Model. This has allowed us to determine the three-dimensional structure and nature of these events, with one of them being a regional dust storm and the two others water ice clouds. Analyses based on MCD and/or MARCI images for the other cases studied indicate that the rest of the events correspond most probably to water ice clouds.

  16. Imaging design of the wide field x-ray monitor onboard the HETE satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zand, J.J.M. In'T; Fenimore, E.E.; Kawai, N.; Yoshida, A.; Matsuoka, M.; Yamauchi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE), to be launched in 1995, will study Gamma-Ray Bursts in an unprecendented wide wavelength range from Gamma- and X-ray to UV wavelengths. The X-ray range (2 to 25 keV) will be covered by 2 perpendicularly oriented 1-dimensional coded aperture cameras. These instruments cover a wide field of view of 2 sr and thus have a relatively large potential to locate GRBs to a fraction of a degree, which is an order of magnitude better than BATSE. The imaging design of these coded aperture cameras relates to the design of the coded apertures and the decoding algorithm. The aperture pattern is to a large extent determined by the high background in this wide field application and the low number of pattern elements (∼100) in each direction. The result is a random pattern with an open fraction of 33%. The onboard decoding algorithm is dedicated to the localization of a single point source

  17. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: long-term dose monitoring onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on Earth, consisting mostly of highly energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on Earth for occupational radiation workers. Since the beginning of the space era, the radiation exposure during space missions has been monitored with various active and passive radiation instruments. Also onboard the International Space Station (ISS, a number of area monitoring devices provide data related to the spatial and temporal variation of the radiation field in and outside the ISS. The aim of the DOSIS (2009–2011 and the DOSIS 3D (2012–ongoing experiments was and is to measure the radiation environment within the European Columbus Laboratory of the ISS. These measurements are, on the one hand, performed with passive radiation detectors mounted at 11 locations within Columbus for the determination of the spatial distribution of the radiation field parameters and, on the other, with two active radiation detectors mounted at a fixed position inside Columbus for the determination of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. Data measured with passive radiation detectors showed that the absorbed dose values inside the Columbus Laboratory follow a pattern, based on the local shielding configuration of the radiation detectors, with minimum dose values observed in the year 2010 of 195–270 μGy/day and maximum values observed in the year 2012 with values ranging from 260 to 360 μGy/day. The absorbed dose is modulated by (a the variation in solar activity and (b the changes in ISS altitude.

  18. Clinical Experiences With Onboard Imager KV Images for Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy Setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Linda X.; Chen, Chin C.; Garg, Madhur; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Mah, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To report our clinical experiences with on-board imager (OBI) kV image verification for cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and radiotherapy (SRT) treatments. Methods and Materials: Between January 2007 and May 2008, 42 patients (57 lesions) were treated with SRS with head frame immobilization and 13 patients (14 lesions) were treated with SRT with face mask immobilization at our institution. No margin was added to the gross tumor for SRS patients, and a 3-mm three-dimensional margin was added to the gross tumor to create the planning target volume for SRT patients. After localizing the patient with stereotactic target positioner (TaPo), orthogonal kV images using OBI were taken and fused to planning digital reconstructed radiographs. Suggested couch shifts in vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions were recorded. kV images were also taken immediately after treatment for 21 SRS patients and on a weekly basis for 6 SRT patients to assess any intrafraction changes. Results: For SRS patients, 57 pretreatment kV images were evaluated and the suggested shifts were all within 1 mm in any direction (i.e., within the accuracy of image fusion). For SRT patients, the suggested shifts were out of the 3-mm tolerance for 31 of 309 setups. Intrafraction motions were detected in 3 SRT patients. Conclusions: kV imaging provided a useful tool for SRS or SRT setups. For SRS setup with head frame, it provides radiographic confirmation of localization using the stereotactic target positioner. For SRT with mask, a 3-mm margin is adequate and feasible for routine setup when TaPo is combined with kV imaging

  19. Ambient dose equivalent H*(d) - an appropriate philosophy for radiation monitoring onboard aircraft and in space?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, N.; Hajek, M.; Berger, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper authors deals with the ambient dose equivalent H * (d) and their application for onboard Aircraft and Space station. The discussion and the carried out experiments demonstrated that the philosophy of H * (10) leads to an underestimation of the whole-body radiation exposure when applied onboard aircraft and in space. It therefore has to be considered to introduce a new concept that could be based on microdosimetric principles, offering the unique potential of a more direct correlation to radiobiological parameters

  20. Work place monitoring in accelerator facilities using thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.S.; Sanches, M.P.; Osima, A.M.; Rodriguez, D.L.; Carvalho, R.N.; Somessari, R.N.

    1998-01-01

    The increase in the use of large amounts of energy and large particles accelerators in development or in industrial processes for the reticulation, polymerization and sterilization of cables and wires allowed to discover and monitor work places in facilities having particle accelerators at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Inquiries Comissao National de Energy Nuclear. Measures previously taken by technicians in routine monitoring, show that radiation doses found in the beams tube and at the door of the accelerator area is high enough to require routine programs to monitor work places at the installation. That is why, fifteen thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) where placed in different points of the facility where doses must be measured along a three month period and at the same time readings must be taken from control dosimeters kept within a shielded container. The monitor had a small double layer with three pellets of TLD CaSO4 Dy inside of a route carrier adopted in routine workers dosimetry usually. Outcomes show that the radiological protection program must be implemented to ameliorate and guarantee safety procedures

  1. A Failure Detection Strategy for Intrafraction Prostate Motion Monitoring With On-Board Imagers for Fixed-Gantry IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wu; Luxton, Gary; Xing Lei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop methods to monitor prostate intrafraction motion during fixed-gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy using MV treatment beam imaging together with minimal kV imaging for a failure detection strategy that ensures prompt detection when target displacement exceeds a preset threshold. Methods and Materials: Real-time two-dimensional (2D) marker position in the MV image plane was obtained by analyzing cine-MV images. The marker's in-line movement, and thus its time-varying three-dimensional (3D) position, was estimated by combining the 2D projection data with a previously established correlative relationship between the directional components of prostate motion. A confirmation request for more accurate localization using MV-kV triangulation was triggered when the estimated prostate displacement based on the cine-MV data was greater than 3 mm. An interventional action alert followed on positive MV-kV confirmation. To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method, simulation studies of conventional-fraction intensity-modulated radiotherapy sessions were done using 536 Calypso-measured prostate trajectories from 17 radiotherapy patients. Results: A technique for intrafraction prostate motion management has been developed. The technique, using 'freely available' cine-MV images and minimum on-board kV imaging (on average 2.5 images/fraction), successfully limited 3D prostate movement to within a range of 3 mm relative to the MV beam for 99.4% of the total treatment time. On average, only approximately one intervention/fraction was needed to achieve this level of accuracy. Conclusion: Instead of seeking to accurately and continuously localize the prostate target as existing motion tracking systems do, the present technique effectively uses cine-MV data to provide a clinically valuable way to minimize kV usage, while maintaining high targeting accuracy.

  2. Standalone, battery powered radiation monitors for accelerator electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, T; Spiezia, G

    2009-01-01

    A technical description of the design of a new type of radiation monitors is given. The key point in the design is the low power consumption inferior to 17 mW in radiation sensing mode and inferior to 0.3 mW in standby mode. The radiation monitors can operate without any external power or signal cabling and measure and store radiation data for a maximum period of 800 days. To read the radiation data, a standard PC can be connected via a USB interface to the device at any time. Only a few seconds are required to read out a single monitor. This makes it possible to survey a large network of monitoring devices in a short period of time, for example during a stop of the accelerator.

  3. Monitoring and control system of the Saclay electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafontaine, Antoine

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the automatic monitoring and control system of the 60MeV electron linear accelerator of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. The paper is mostly concerned with the programmation of the system. However, in a real time device, there is a very close association between computer and electronics, the latter are therefore described in details and make up most of the paper. [fr

  4. Monitoring Traffic Information with a Developed Acceleration Sensing Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhoujing Ye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an acceleration sensing node for pavement vibration was developed to monitor traffic information, including vehicle speed, vehicle types, and traffic flow, where a hardware design with low energy consumption and node encapsulation could be accomplished. The service performance of the sensing node was evaluated, by methods including waterproof test, compression test, sensing performance analysis, and comparison test. The results demonstrate that the sensing node is low in energy consumption, high in strength, IPX8 waterproof, and high in sensitivity and resolution. These characteristics can be applied to practical road environments. Two sensing nodes were spaced apart in the direction of travelling. In the experiment, three types of vehicles passed by the monitoring points at several different speeds and values of d (the distance between the sensor and the nearest tire center line. Based on cross-correlation with kernel pre-smoothing, a calculation method was applied to process the raw data. New algorithms for traffic flow, speed, and axle length were proposed. Finally, the effects of vehicle speed, vehicle weight, and d value on acceleration amplitude were statistically evaluated. It was found that the acceleration sensing node can be used for traffic flow, vehicle speed, and other types of monitoring.

  5. Monitoring Traffic Information with a Developed Acceleration Sensing Node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhoujing; Wang, Linbing; Xu, Wen; Gao, Zhifei; Yan, Guannan

    2017-12-05

    In this paper, an acceleration sensing node for pavement vibration was developed to monitor traffic information, including vehicle speed, vehicle types, and traffic flow, where a hardware design with low energy consumption and node encapsulation could be accomplished. The service performance of the sensing node was evaluated, by methods including waterproof test, compression test, sensing performance analysis, and comparison test. The results demonstrate that the sensing node is low in energy consumption, high in strength, IPX8 waterproof, and high in sensitivity and resolution. These characteristics can be applied to practical road environments. Two sensing nodes were spaced apart in the direction of travelling. In the experiment, three types of vehicles passed by the monitoring points at several different speeds and values of d (the distance between the sensor and the nearest tire center line). Based on cross-correlation with kernel pre-smoothing, a calculation method was applied to process the raw data. New algorithms for traffic flow, speed, and axle length were proposed. Finally, the effects of vehicle speed, vehicle weight, and d value on acceleration amplitude were statistically evaluated. It was found that the acceleration sensing node can be used for traffic flow, vehicle speed, and other types of monitoring.

  6. Mesoscale circulation at the upper cloud level at middle latitudes from the imaging by Venus Monitoring Camera onboard Venus Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsaeva, Marina; Ignatiev, Nikolay; Markiewicz, Wojciech; Khatuntsev, Igor; Titov, Dmitrij; Patsaev, Dmitry

    The Venus Monitoring Camera onboard ESA Venus Express spacecraft acquired a great number of UV images (365 nm) allowing us to track the motion of cloud features at the upper cloud layer of Venus. A digital method developed to analyze correlation functions between two UV images provided wind vector fields on the Venus day side (9-16 hours local time) from the equator to high latitudes. Sizes and regions for the correlation were chosen empirically, as a trade-off of sensitivity against noise immunity and vary from 10(°) x7.5(°) to 20(°) x10(°) depending on the grid step, making this method suitable to investigate the mesoscale circulation. Previously, the digital method was used for investigation of the circulation at low latitudes and provided good agreement with manual tracking of the motion of cloud patterns. Here we present first results obtained by this method for middle latitudes (25(°) S-75(°) S) on the basis of 270 orbits. Comparing obtained vector fields with images for certain orbits, we found a relationship between morphological patterns of the cloud cover at middle latitudes and parameters of the circulation. Elongated cloud features, so-called streaks, are typical for middle latitudes, and their orientation varies over wide range. The behavior of the vector field of velocities depends on the angle between the streak and latitude circles. In the middle latitudes the average angle of the flow deviation from the zonal direction is equal to -5.6(°) ± 1(°) (the sign “-“ means the poleward flow, the standard error is given). For certain orbits, this angle varies from -15.6(°) ± 1(°) to 1.4(°) ± 1(°) . In some regions at latitudes above 60(°) S the meridional wind is equatorward in the morning. The relationship between the cloud cover morphology and circulation peculiarity can be attributed to the motion of the Y-feature in the upper cloud layer due to the super-rotation of the atmosphere.

  7. Evaluation of the photon monitor backscatter in medical electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrenner, M.; Krieger, H.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Modern linear accelerators permit the use of irregular fields due to their flexible collimator systems with separately movable jaws or multileaf collimators. When using such irregular fields in the clinical practice output factors have to be corrected for enhanced backscatter to the dose monitor as compared with the conventional block shieldings. Methods: A method is presented to detect the monitor backscatter contributions to the output factor for irregular field settings. Results: The monitor backscatter factors have been measured using a telescopic device for 2 different treatment head geometries (Varian Clinac 2100C/D, General Electric Saturne 15) and for 3 photon radiation qualities (nominal energies X6, X18, X12). A method is introduced to calculate the monitor backscatter for arbitrary irregular treatment fields from the experimental data for square or rectangular fields. Conclusions: Besides the corrections for changes in phantom scatter and changes in the aperture, corrections for monitor backscatter have to be taken into account in many clinical cases. They can contribute up to more than 10% compared with the monitor values for free regular fields. (orig.) [de

  8. Monitoring Linear Accelerator Output Constancy Using the PTW Linacheck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, Garry M.; Buckle, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    The PTW-Linacheck was assessed for its ability to monitor linear accelerator radiation output constancy. The key issues that were considered were the setup for daily output measurements, e.g., requirements for build-up and backscatter material, and the reproducibility and linearity of the device with linear accelerator output. An appropriate measurement setup includes a 10 x 10 cm field at 100 cm FSD, 5 cm backscatter, and no added build-up for 4 MeV electron beams, 1 cm added build-up for 6-16 MeV electron beams and 5 cm added build-up for 6-15 MV photon beams. Using this measurement setup, the dose linearity and short-term reproducibility were acceptable; however, the Linacheck should be recalibrated on a monthly basis to ensure acceptable long-term reproducibility.

  9. An end-to-end examination of geometric accuracy of IGRT using a new digital accelerator equipped with onboard imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Kielar, Kayla N; Mok, Ed; Hsu, Annie; Dieterich, Sonja; Xing, Lei

    2012-02-07

    The Varian's new digital linear accelerator (LINAC), TrueBeam STx, is equipped with a high dose rate flattening filter free (FFF) mode (6 MV and 10 MV), a high definition multileaf collimator (2.5 mm leaf width), as well as onboard imaging capabilities. A series of end-to-end phantom tests were performed, TrueBeam-based image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), to determine the geometric accuracy of the image-guided setup and dose delivery process for all beam modalities delivered using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and RapidArc. In these tests, an anthropomorphic phantom with a Ball Cube II insert and the analysis software (FilmQA (3cognition)) were used to evaluate the accuracy of TrueBeam image-guided setup and dose delivery. Laser cut EBT2 films with 0.15 mm accuracy were embedded into the phantom. The phantom with the film inserted was first scanned with a GE Discovery-ST CT scanner, and the images were then imported to the planning system. Plans with steep dose fall off surrounding hypothetical targets of different sizes were created using RapidArc and IMRT with FFF and WFF (with flattening filter) beams. Four RapidArc plans (6 MV and 10 MV FFF) and five IMRT plans (6 MV and 10 MV FFF; 6 MV, 10 MV and 15 MV WFF) were studied. The RapidArc plans with 6 MV FFF were planned with target diameters of 1 cm (0.52 cc), 2 cm (4.2 cc) and 3 cm (14.1 cc), and all other plans with a target diameter of 3 cm. Both onboard planar and volumetric imaging procedures were used for phantom setup and target localization. The IMRT and RapidArc plans were then delivered, and the film measurements were compared with the original treatment plans using a gamma criteria of 3%/1 mm and 3%/2 mm. The shifts required in order to align the film measured dose with the calculated dose distributions was attributed to be the targeting error. Targeting accuracy of image-guided treatment using TrueBeam was found to be within 1 mm. For irradiation of the 3 cm target, the gammas (3%, 1

  10. Expert Water Quality Panel Review of Responses to the NASA Request for Information for the International Space Station On-Board Environmental Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Julianna L.; Mudgett, Paul D.; Packham, Nigel J.; Schultz, John R.; Straub, John E., II

    2005-01-01

    On August 9, 2003, NASA, with the cooperative support of the Vehicle Office of the International Space Station Program, the Advanced Human Support Technology Program, and the Johnson Space Center Habitability and Environmental Factors Office released a Request for Information, or RFI, to identify next-generation environmental monitoring systems that have demonstrated ability or the potential to meet defined requirements for monitoring air and water quality onboard the International Space Station. This report summarizes the review and analysis of the proposed solutions submitted to meet the water quality monitoring requirements. Proposals were to improve upon the functionality of the existing Space Station Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (TOCA) and monitor additional contaminants in water samples. The TOCA is responsible for in-flight measurement of total organic carbon, total inorganic carbon, total carbon, pH, and conductivity in the Space Station potable water supplies. The current TOCA requires hazardous reagents to accomplish the carbon analyses. NASA is using the request for information process to investigate new technologies that may improve upon existing capabilities, as well as reduce or eliminate the need for hazardous reagents. Ideally, a replacement for the TOCA would be deployed in conjunction with the delivery of the Node 3 water recovery system currently scheduled for November 2007.

  11. Monitoring of multiphase flows for superconducting accelerators and others applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Yu. P.; Kakorin, I. D.; Kovrizhnykh, A. M.; Miklayev, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    This paper is a review on implementation of measuring systems for two-phase helium, hydrogen, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and oil-formation/salty water flows. Two types of such systems are presented. The first type is based on two-phase flow-meters combining void fraction radio-frequency (RF) sensors and narrowing devices. They can be applied for superconducting accelerators cooled with two-phase helium, refueling hydrogen system for space ships and some applications in oil production industry. The second one is based on combination of a gamma-densitometer and a narrowing device. These systems can be used to monitor large two-phase LNG and oil-formation water flows. An electronics system based on a modular industrial computer is described as well. The metrological characteristics for different flow-meters are presented and the obtained results are discussed. It is also shown that the experience gained allows separationless flow-meter for three-phase oil-gas-formation water flows to be produced.

  12. Processing of acceleration and dive data on-board satellite relay tags to investigate diving and foraging behaviour in free-ranging marine predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sam L; Orgeret, Florian; Gesta, Mathieu; Rodde, Charles; Heizer, Isaac; Weimerskirch, Henri; Guinet, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Biologging technologies are changing the way in which the marine environment is observed and monitored. However, because device retrieval is typically required to access the high-resolution data they collect, their use is generally restricted to those animals that predictably return to land. Data abstraction and transmission techniques aim to address this, although currently these are limited in scope and do not incorporate, for example, acceleration measurements which can quantify animal behaviours and movement patterns over fine-scales.In this study, we present a new method for the collection, abstraction and transmission of accelerometer data from free-ranging marine predators via the Argos satellite system. We test run the technique on 20 juvenile southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina from the Kerguelen Islands during their first months at sea following weaning. Using retrieved archival data from nine individuals that returned to the colony, we compare and validate abstracted transmissions against outputs from established accelerometer processing procedures.Abstracted transmissions included estimates, across five segments of a dive profile, of time spent in prey catch attempt (PrCA) behaviours, swimming effort and pitch. These were then summarised and compared to archival outputs across three dive phases: descent, bottom and ascent. Correlations between the two datasets were variable but generally good (dependent on dive phase, marginal R 2 values of between .45 and .6 to >.9) and consistent between individuals. Transmitted estimates of PrCA behaviours and swimming effort were positively biased to those from archival processing.Data from this study represent some of the first remotely transmitted quantifications from accelerometers. The methods presented and analysed can be used to provide novel insight towards the behaviours and movements of free-ranging marine predators, such as juvenile southern elephant seals, from whom logger retrieval is challenging

  13. Set of instruments for solar EUV and soft X-ray monitoring onboard satellite Coronas-Photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Yury; Kochemasov, Alexey; Kuzin, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Sylwester, Janusz; Yurov, Vitaly

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation. The main goal of the "Coronas-Photon" is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation (2000MeV). Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three types of instruments: Monitors (Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2, Penguin-M, BRM, PHOKA, Sphin-X, SOKOL spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation have timing in flare/burst mode up to one msec. Instruments Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays (15keV to 2000MeV) and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations. Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators. For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors, gas proportional counter, CdZnTe assembly and filter-covered Si-diodes are used. Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays has angular resolution up to 1arcsec in three spectral lines. Satellite platform and scientific payload is under construction to be launched in autumn 2008. Satellite orbit is circular with initial height 550km and inclination 82.5degrees. Accuracy of the spacecraft orientation to the Sun is better 3arcmin. In the report the capability of PHOKA, SphinX, SOKOL and TESIS as well as the observation program are described and discussed.

  14. Distributed Radiation Monitoring System for Linear Accelerators based on CAN Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Kozak, T; Napieralski, A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—Gamma and neutron radiation is produced during the normal operation of linear accelerators like Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) or X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL). Gamma radiation cause general degeneration of electronics devices and neutron fluence can be a reason of soft error in memories and microcontrollers. X-FEL accelerator will be built only in one tunnel, therefore most of electronic control systems will be placed in radiation environment. Exposing control systems to radiation may lead to many errors and unexpected failure of the whole accelerator system. Thus, the radiation monitoring system able to monitor radiation doses produced near controlling systems is crucial. Knowledge of produced radiation doses allows to detect errors caused by radiation, make plans of essential exchange of control systems and prevent accelerator from serious damages. The paper presents the project of radiation monitoring system able to monitor radiation environment in real time.

  15. Measurement result of the neutron monitor onboard the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment - Attached Payload (SEDA-AP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, K.; Muraki, Y.; Shibata, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Okudaira, O.; Kawano, H.; Yumoto, K.

    2013-12-01

    To support future space activities, it is crucial to acquire space environmental data related to the space-radiation degradation of space parts and materials, and spacecraft anomalies. Such data are useful for spacecraft design and manned space activity. SEDA-AP was mounted on 'Kibo' of the ISS (International Space Station) to measure the space environment at a 400-kilometer altitude. Neutrons are very harmful radiation, with electrical neutrality that makes them strongly permeable. SEDA-AP measures the energy of neutrons from thermal to 100 MeV in real time using a Bonner Ball Detector (BBND) and a Scintillation Fiber Detector (FIB). BBND detects neutrons using He-3 counters, which have high sensitivity to thermal neutrons. Neutron energy is derived using the relative response function of polyethylene moderators of 6 different thicknesses. FIB measures the tracks of recoil protons caused by neutrons within a cubic arrayed sensor of 512 scintillation fibers. The charged particles are excluded using an anti-scintillator which surrounds the cube sensor, and the neutron energy is obtained from the track length of a recoil proton. There are three sources of neutrons in space; 1. Albedo Neutrons Produced by reactions of galactic cosmic rays or radiation belt particles with the atmosphere 2. Local Neutrons Produced by the reactions of galactic cosmic rays or radiation belt particles with spacecraft 3. Solar Neutrons Produced by accelerated particles in solar flares An accurate energy spectrum of the solar neutrons includes important information on high-energy particle generation mechanism in a solar flare, because neutrons are unaffected by interplanetary magnetic fields. These data will become useful to forecast solar energetic particles in future. Some candidate events involving solar neutrons were found as a result of analyzing data of the solar flare of M>2 since September 2009. Moreover, it is important to measure albedo neutrons, since protons generated by neutron

  16. JMS-based SOA monitors CERN particle accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Seeley, Rich

    2007-01-01

    "Service-oriented architecture (SOA) may not exactly be nuclear physics, but at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) physics laboratory on the border of France and Switzerland, an SOA system is watching over giant particle accelerators." (1,5 page)

  17. A dose-per-pulse monitor for a dual-mode medical accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbraith, D.M.; Martell, E.S.; Fueurstake, T.; Norrlinger, B.; Schwendener, H.; Rawlinson, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    On a radiotherapy accelerator, the dose monitoring system is the last level of protection between the patient and the extremely high dose rate which all accelerators are capable of producing. The risk of losing this level of protection is substantially reduced if two or more dose monitoring systems are used which are mechanically and electrically independent in design. This paper describes the installation of an independent radiation monitor in a dual-mode, computer-controlled accelerator with a moveable monitor chamber. The added device is fixed in the beam path, is capable of monitoring each beam pulse, and is capable of terminating irradiation within the pulse repetition period if any measured pulse is unacceptably high

  18. Application of the personnel photographic monitoring method to determine equivalent radiation dose beyond proton accelerator shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, E.K.; Komochkov, M.M.; Man'ko, B.V.; Salatskaya, M.I.; Sychev, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of regularities to form radiation dose beyond proton accelerator shielding are carried out. Numerical data on photographic monitoring dosemeter in radiation fields investigated are obtained. It was shown how to determine the total equivalent dose of radiation fields beyond proton accelerator shielding by means of the photographic monitoring method by introduction into the procedure of considering nuclear emulsions of division of particle tracks into the black and grey ones. A comparison of experimental and calculational data has shown the applicability of the used calculation method for modelling dose radiation characteristics beyond proton accelerator shielding [ru

  19. A system for monitoring the radiation effects of a proton linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorkin, V. M., E-mail: skorkin@inr.ru; Belyanski, K. L.; Skorkin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The system for real-time monitoring of radioactivity of a high-current proton linear accelerator detects secondary neutron emission from proton beam losses in transport channels and measures the activity of radionuclides in gas and aerosol emissions and the radiation background in the environment affected by a linear accelerator. The data provided by gamma, beta, and neutron detectors are transferred over a computer network to the central server. The system allows one to monitor proton beam losses, the activity of gas and aerosol emissions, and the radiation emission level of a linear accelerator in operation.

  20. Wireless acceleration sensor of moving elements for condition monitoring of mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsin, Vladimir V.; Shestakov, Aleksandr L.

    2017-09-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the angular and linear accelerations of moving elements (shafts, gears) allows an increase in the quality of the condition monitoring of mechanisms. However, existing tools and methods measure either linear or angular acceleration with postprocessing. This paper suggests a new construction design of an angular acceleration sensor for moving elements. The sensor is mounted on a moving element and, among other things, the data transfer and electric power supply are carried out wirelessly. In addition, the authors introduce a method for processing the received information which makes it possible to divide the measured acceleration into the angular and linear components. The design has been validated by the results of laboratory tests of an experimental model of the sensor. The study has shown that this method provides a definite separation of the measured acceleration into linear and angular components, even in noise. This research contributes an advance in the range of methods and tools for condition monitoring of mechanisms.

  1. Wireless acceleration sensor of moving elements for condition monitoring of mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsin, Vladimir V; Shestakov, Aleksandr L

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the angular and linear accelerations of moving elements (shafts, gears) allows an increase in the quality of the condition monitoring of mechanisms. However, existing tools and methods measure either linear or angular acceleration with postprocessing. This paper suggests a new construction design of an angular acceleration sensor for moving elements. The sensor is mounted on a moving element and, among other things, the data transfer and electric power supply are carried out wirelessly. In addition, the authors introduce a method for processing the received information which makes it possible to divide the measured acceleration into the angular and linear components. The design has been validated by the results of laboratory tests of an experimental model of the sensor. The study has shown that this method provides a definite separation of the measured acceleration into linear and angular components, even in noise. This research contributes an advance in the range of methods and tools for condition monitoring of mechanisms. (paper)

  2. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center] annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This progress report discusses environmental monitoring activities at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for 1989. Topics include climate, site geology, site water usage, land use, demography, unusual events or releases, radioactive and nonradioactive releases, compliance summary, environmental nonradiological program information, environmental radiological program information, groundwater protection monitoring ad quality assurance. 5 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Monitoring System for Slope Stability under Rainfall by using MEMS Acceleration Sensor IC tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S; Dairaku, A; Komine, H; Saito, O; Sakai, N; Isizawa, T; Maruyama, I

    2013-01-01

    Real-time warning system for slope failure under rainfall is available to disaster prevention and mitigation. Monitoring of multi-point and wireless measurements is effective because it is difficult to conclude the most dangerous part in a slope. The purpose of this study is to propose a method of monitoring system with multi-point and wireless measurements for a slope stability using MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is an acceleration sensor microminiaturized by a technology of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems on board IC tag. Especially, low cost of the sensor will yield to the realization of the system. In order to investigate the applicability of the proposed system, a large-scale model test of artificial slope subjected to rainfall has been performed. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags has been located on the slope and ground acceleration caused by forced vibration has been measured until the model slope collapses. The experimental results show that the MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is comfortably available under rainfall, the characteristics of ground accelerations varies with changing the condition of the slope subjected to rainfall, and the proposed method can be applied to a real-time monitoring system for slope failure under rainfall.

  4. The Development and Optimization of Techniques for Monitoring Water Quality on-Board Spacecraft Using Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction (C-SPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, April Ann [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The main focus of this dissertation is the design, development, and ground and microgravity validation of methods for monitoring drinking water quality on-board NASA spacecraft using clorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE). The Introduction will overview the need for in-flight water quality analysis and will detail some of the challenges associated with operations in the absence of gravity. The ability of C-SPE methods to meet these challenges will then be discussed, followed by a literature review on existing applications of C-SPE and similar techniques. Finally, a brief discussion of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy theory, which provides a means for analyte identification and quantification in C-SPE analyses, is presented. Following the Introduction, four research chapters are presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 reports the results from microgravity testing of existing C-SPE methods and procedures aboard NASA's C-9 microgravity simulator. Chapter 2 discusses the development of a C-SPE method for determining the total concentration of biocidal silver (i.e., in both dissolved and colloidal forms) in water samples. Chapter 3 presents the first application of the C-SPE technique to the determination of an organic analyte (i.e., formaldehyde). Chapter 4, which is a departure from the main focus of the thesis, details the results of an investigation into the effect of substrate rotation on the kinetics involved in the antigen and labeling steps in sandwich immunoassays. These research chapters are followed by general conclusions and a prospectus section.

  5. Study of behaviour of the monitor chambers of a linear accelerator for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosed, A.; Lopez-Bote, M.A.; Blanco, M.A.; Galvez, M.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental procedure to study the nature and behaviour of the monitor chambers of a linear accelerator for medical use is presented. The procedure has been applied to a Siemens accelerator, Mevatron-77, that has two different types of monitor chambers: sealed for the photon beam and unsealed for the electron ones. As it was expected, no deviations in the dose per monitor unit has been obtained for the photon beam. Variations in the absorbed dose per monitor unit have been observed for the electron beams up to 6% along the working day. Practical solutions compensating this fact are pointed out and the standard recommendations on the control of dose per monitor unit are discussed. (Author)

  6. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  7. Beam Position Monitor and Energy Analysis at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David Juarez [Univ. of Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-08-01

    Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility has produced its first beam with an energy of 20 MeV. This energy is obtained by the acceleration at the Electron Gun and the Capture Cavity 2 (CC2). When fully completed, the accelerator will consist of a photoinjector, one International Liner Collider (ILC)-type cryomodule, multiple accelerator R&D beamlines, and a downstream beamline to inject 300 MeV electrons into the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). We calculated the total energy of the beam and the corresponding energy to the Electron Gun and CC2. Subsequently, a Beam Position Monitors (BPM) error analysis was done, to calculate the device actual resolution.

  8. Effluent Monitoring System Design for the Proton Accelerator Research Center of PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Mun, Kyeong Jun; Cho, Jang Hyung; Jo, Jeong Hee

    2010-01-01

    Since host site host site was selected Gyeong-ju city in January, 2006. we need design revision of Proton Accelerator research center to reflect on host site characteristics and several conditions. Also the IAC recommended maximization of space utilization and construction cost saving. After GA(General Arrangement) is made a decision, it is necessary to evaluate the radiation analysis of every controlled area in the proton accelerator research center such as accelerator tunnel, Klystron gallery, beam experimental hall, target rooms and ion beam application building to keep dose rate below the ALARA(As Low As Reasonably achievable) objective. Our staff has reviewed and made a shielding design of them. In this paper, According to accelerator operation mode and access conditions based on radiation analysis and shielding design, we made the exhaust system configuration of controlled area in the proton accelerator research center. Also, we installed radiation monitor and set its alarm value for each radiation area

  9. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable to the high intensity proton accelerator facility. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the environmental equivalent dose rate using area monitors for neutrons in clinical linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, Ana Paula; Pereira, Walsan Wagner; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da; Batista, Delano V.S.

    2009-01-01

    The Neutron Laboratory of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute - IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, initiated studies on the process of calibration of neutron area monitors and the results of the measurements performed at radiotherapy treatment rooms, containing clinical accelerators

  11. Principal component analysis-based imaging angle determination for 3D motion monitoring using single-slice on-board imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Zhang, Miao; Jabbour, Salma; Wang, Hesheng; Barbee, David; Das, Indra J; Yue, Ning

    2018-04-10

    Through-plane motion introduces uncertainty in three-dimensional (3D) motion monitoring when using single-slice on-board imaging (OBI) modalities such as cine MRI. We propose a principal component analysis (PCA)-based framework to determine the optimal imaging plane to minimize the through-plane motion for single-slice imaging-based motion monitoring. Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images of eight thoracic cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed. The target volumes were manually delineated at different respiratory phases of 4DCT. We performed automated image registration to establish the 4D respiratory target motion trajectories for all patients. PCA was conducted using the motion information to define the three principal components of the respiratory motion trajectories. Two imaging planes were determined perpendicular to the second and third principal component, respectively, to avoid imaging with the primary principal component of the through-plane motion. Single-slice images were reconstructed from 4DCT in the PCA-derived orthogonal imaging planes and were compared against the traditional AP/Lateral image pairs on through-plane motion, residual error in motion monitoring, absolute motion amplitude error and the similarity between target segmentations at different phases. We evaluated the significance of the proposed motion monitoring improvement using paired t test analysis. The PCA-determined imaging planes had overall less through-plane motion compared against the AP/Lateral image pairs. For all patients, the average through-plane motion was 3.6 mm (range: 1.6-5.6 mm) for the AP view and 1.7 mm (range: 0.6-2.7 mm) for the Lateral view. With PCA optimization, the average through-plane motion was 2.5 mm (range: 1.3-3.9 mm) and 0.6 mm (range: 0.2-1.5 mm) for the two imaging planes, respectively. The absolute residual error of the reconstructed max-exhale-to-inhale motion averaged 0.7 mm (range: 0.4-1.3 mm, 95% CI: 0.4-1.1 mm) using

  12. Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The talk summarizes the principles of particle acceleration and addresses problems related to storage rings like LEP and LHC. Special emphasis will be given to orbit stability, long term stability of the particle motion, collective effects and synchrotron radiation.

  13. Gamma-ray and neutron area monitoring system of linear IFMIF prototype accelerator building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Kojima, Toshiyuki; Narita, Takahiro; Tsutsumi, Kazuyoshi; Maebara, Sunao; Sakaki, Hironao; Nishiyama, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Area monitoring system and control system are needed for LIPAc radiation management. • To secure the radiation safety, these systems are linked with two kinds of data path. • Hardwired data paths are adopted to realize the fast transfer of interlock signals. • Dual LAN and shared memory are adopted to the reliable transfer of monitoring data. • Data transfers without unnecessary load are designed and configured for these systems. -- Abstract: The linear IFMIF prototype accelerator (LIPAc) produces deuteron beam with 1 MW power. Since huge number of neutrons occur from such a high power beam, therefore, it is important for the radiation management to design a high reliability area monitoring system for gamma-rays and neutrons. To obtain the valuable operation data of the high-power deuteron beam at LIPAc, it is important to link and record the beam operation data and the area monitoring data. We realize the reliable data transfer to provide the area monitoring data to the accelerator control system which needs a high reliability using the shared-memory data link method. This paper describes the area monitoring system in the LIPAc building and the data-link between this system and the LIPAc control system

  14. Real time monitoring of accelerated chemical reactions by ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hsuan; Lo, Ta-Ju; Kuo, Fang-Yin; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonication has been used to accelerate chemical reactions. It would be ideal if ultrasonication-assisted chemical reactions could be monitored by suitable detection tools such as mass spectrometry in real time. It would be helpful to clarify reaction intermediates/products and to have a better understanding of reaction mechanism. In this work, we developed a system for ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry (UASI-MS) with an ~1.7 MHz ultrasonic transducer to monitor chemical reactions in real time. We demonstrated that simply depositing a sample solution on the MHz-based ultrasonic transducer, which was placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, the analyte signals can be readily detected by the mass spectrometer. Singly and multiply charged ions from small and large molecules, respectively, can be observed in the UASI mass spectra. Furthermore, the ultrasonic transducer used in the UASI setup accelerates the chemical reactions while being monitored via UASI-MS. The feasibility of using this approach for real-time acceleration/monitoring of chemical reactions was demonstrated. The reactions of Girard T reagent and hydroxylamine with steroids were used as the model reactions. Upon the deposition of reactant solutions on the ultrasonic transducer, the intermediate/product ions are readily generated and instantaneously monitored using MS within 1 s. Additionally, we also showed the possibility of using this reactive UASI-MS approach to assist the confirmation of trace steroids from complex urine samples by monitoring the generation of the product ions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. On-line monitoring system development for single-phase flow accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Na Young; Lee, Seung Gi; Ryu, Kyung Ha; Hwang, Il Soon

    2007-01-01

    Aged nuclear piping has been reported to undergo corrosion-induced accelerated failures, often without giving signatures to current inspection campaigns. Therefore, we need diverse sensors which can cover a wide area in an on-line application. We suggest an integrated approach to monitor the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) susceptible piping. Since FAC is a combined phenomenon, we need to monitor as many parameters as possible and that cover wide area, since we do not know where the FAC occurs. For this purpose, we introduce the wearing rate model which focuses on the electrochemical parameters. Using this model, we can predict the wearing rate and then compare testing results. Through analysis we identified feasibility and then developed electrochemical sensors for high temperature application; we also introduced a mechanical monitoring system which is still under development. To support the validation of the monitored results, we adopted high temperature ultrasonic transducer (UT), which shows good resolution in the testing environment. As such, all the monitored results can be compared in terms of thickness. Our validation tests demonstrated the feasibility of sensors. To support direct thickness measurement for a wide-area, the direct current potential drop (DCPD) method will be researched to integrate into the developed framework

  16. Flexusi Interface Builder For Computer Based Accelerator Monitoring And Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Kurakin, V G; Kurakin, P V

    2004-01-01

    We have developed computer code for any desired graphics user interface designing for monitoring and control system at the executable level. This means that operator can build up measurement console consisting of virtual devices before or even during real experiment without recompiling source file. Such functionality results in number of advantages comparing with traditional programming. First of all any risk disappears to introduce bug into source code. Another important thing is the fact the both program developers and operator staff do not interface in developing ultimate product (measurement console). Thus, small team without detailed project can design even very complicated monitoring and control system. For the reason mentioned below, approach suggested is especially helpful for large complexes to be monitored and control, accelerator being among them. The program code consists of several modules, responsible for data acquisition, control and representation. Borland C++ Builder technologies based on VCL...

  17. Oil condition monitoring of gears onboard ships using a regression approach for multivariate T2 control charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Morten; Jørgensen, Bent; Eriksen, René Lynge

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an oil condition and wear debris evaluation method for ship thruster gears using T2 statistics to form control charts from a multi-sensor platform. The proposed method takes into account the different ambient conditions by multiple linear regression on the mean value...... only quasi-stationary data are included in phase I of the T2 statistics. Data from two thruster gears onboard two different ships are presented and analyzed, and the selection of the phase I data size is discussed. A graphic overview for quick localization of T2 signaling is also demonstrated using...... spider plots. Finally, progression and trending of the T2 statistics are investigated using orthogonal polynomials for a fix-sized data window....

  18. The ANTARES accelerator: a facility for environmental monitoring and materials characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical facility for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) has been under development since 1989 on the 8-MV tandem accelerator ANTARES at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre. Three beamlines are presently dedicated to the AMS analysis of long-lived radionuclides and one is used for the study of multilayered semiconductor structures by heavy ion recoil spectrometry. Having accomplished the task of transforming the old nuclear physics accelerator from Rutgers University into a world-class analytical facility, ANSTO scientists are now promoting research projects based on the capability of the ANTARES instruments. New instruments are being constructed on the ANTARES accelerator for future programs in environmental monitoring, safeguards, nuclear waste disposal and applications in advanced materials. A new AMS beamline has been designed that is expected to be capable of measuring rare heavy radionuclides, such as 236 U, 229 , 230T h and 244 Pu, in natural samples with ultra-high sensitivity. A novel, heavy ion microprobe will allow IBA of surfaces with a spatial resolution of 10 μm for high-energy ions (20-100 MeV) from chlorine to iodine. These instruments are complementary to other advanced analytical tools developed by ANSTO, such as the synchrotron radiation beamline at the Australian National Beamline Facility

  19. Present state and problems of radiological protection monitoring for high energy electron accelerator facilities in SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yukihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Ueda, Hisao

    1998-09-01

    The present state and problems of the radiological protection monitoring for the high-energy electron accelerator are summarized. In the radiological protection monitoring for SPring-8, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility, there are many problems specific to the high-energy electron accelerator. This report describes the monitoring technique of pulsed radiation, high-energy radiation and low-energy radiation, and their problems. The management of induced radioactivity and the effects of electro-magnetic noise to monitoring instruments are also discussed. (author)

  20. Development of on-line monitoring system for flow accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, N.Y.; Lee, S.G.; Hwang, I.S.; Kim, J.T.; Luk, V.K.

    2005-01-01

    Aged nuclear piping has been reported to undergo corrosion-induced accelerated failures, often without giving signatures to current inspection campaigns. Therefore, we need diverse sensors which can cover wide area in the on-line application. We suggested integrated approach to monitor the FAC-susceptible piping. Since FAC is a combined phenomenon, we need to monitor as many parameters as possible, and that cover wide area, since we don't know where the FAC occurs. For this purpose, we introduced wearing rate model, which concentrates on the electrochemical parameters. By the model, we can predict the wearing rate and then can compare the testing result. After we identified feasibility by analytical way, we developed electrochemical sensors for high temperature application, and introduced mechanical monitoring system, which is still under development. To support the validation of the monitored results, we adopted high temperature UT, which shows good resolution in the testing environment. By this way, all the monitored results can be compared in terms of thickness. Validation test shows the feasibility of sensors. To support direct thickness measurement for wide-area, Direct Current Potential Drop method will be researched to integrate to the developed framework. (authors)

  1. Development of a synchrotron radiation beam monitor for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, Andrea [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear integrable optics applied to beam dynamics may mitigate multi-particle instabilities, but proof of principle experiments have never been carried out. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron and proton storage ring currently being built at Fermilab, which addresses tests of nonlinear lattice elements in a real machine in addition to experiments on optical stochastic cooling and on the single-electron wave function. These experiments require an outstanding control over the lattice parameters, achievable with fast and precise beam monitoring systems. This work describes the steps for designing and building a beam monitor for IOTA based on synchrotron radiation, able to measure intensity, position and transverse cross-section beam.

  2. A beam-profile monitor for the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.P.; McDonald, K.T.

    1989-01-01

    A beam-profile monitor has been designed to diagnose the 5-MeV high-brightness electron beam from the rf gun of the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The monitor consists of a phosphor screen viewed by a CCD camera. The video images are digitized and stored by a framegrabber and analyzed by an IBM PC-AT to extract the emittance. Details of the hardware configuration are presented, along with the spatial resolution of the system measured as a function of phosphor-screen thickness. The strategies which will be used to measure the transverse and longitudinal emittances are briefly mentioned. The system should be capable of measuring a transverse geometric emittance of around 1 mm-mrad, as will be typical of the ATF beam. 6 refs., 2 figs

  3. Comparison of Raw Acceleration from the GENEA and ActiGraph™ GT3X+ Activity Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh John

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare raw acceleration output of the ActiGraph™ GT3X+ and GENEA activity monitors. Methods: A GT3X+ and GENEA were oscillated in an orbital shaker at frequencies ranging from 0.7 to 4.0 Hz (ten 2-min trials/frequency on a fixed radius of 5.08 cm. Additionally, 10 participants (age = 23.8 ± 5.4 years wore the GT3X+ and GENEA on the dominant wrist and performed treadmill walking (2.0 and 3.5 mph and running (5.5 and 7.5 mph and simulated free-living activities (computer work, cleaning a room, vacuuming and throwing a ball for 2-min each. A linear mixed model was used to compare the mean triaxial vector magnitude (VM from the GT3X+ and GENEA at each oscillation frequency. For the human testing protocol, random forest machine-learning technique was used to develop two models using frequency domain (FD and time domain (TD features for each monitor. We compared activity type recognition accuracy between the GT3X+ and GENEA when the prediction model was fit using one monitor and then applied to the other. Z-statistics were used to compare the proportion of accurate predictions from the GT3X+ and GENEA for each model. Results: GENEA produced significantly higher (p < 0.05, 3.5 to 6.2% mean VM than GT3X+ at all frequencies during shaker testing. Training the model using TD input features on the GENEA and applied to GT3X+ data yielded significantly lower (p < 0.05 prediction accuracy. Prediction accuracy was not compromised when interchangeably using FD models between monitors. Conclusions: It may be inappropriate to apply a model developed on the GENEA to predict activity type using GT3X+ data when input features are TD attributes of raw acceleration.

  4. Stability of electron-beam energy monitor for quality assurance of the electron-beam energy from radiotherapy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Koichi; Zuguchi, Masayuki; Saito, Haruo; Takai, Yoshihiro; Mitsuya, Masatoshi; Sakakida, Hideharu; Yamada, Shogo; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2002-01-01

    Information on electron energy is important in planning radiation therapy using electrons. The Geske 3405 electron beam energy monitor (Geske monitor, PTW Nuclear Associates, Carle Place, NY, USA) is a device containing nine ionization chambers for checking the energy of the electron beams produced by radiotherapy accelerators. We wondered whether this might increase the likelihood of ionization chamber trouble. In spite of the importance of the stability of such a quality assurance (QA) device, there are no reports on the stability of values measured with a Geske monitor. The purpose of this paper was therefore to describe the stability of a Geske monitor. It was found that the largest coefficient of variation (CV) of the Geske monitor measurements was approximately 0.96% over a 21-week period. In conclusion, the stability of Geske monitor measurements of the energy of electron beams from a linear accelerator was excellent. (author)

  5. Ultrasound monitoring of the influence of different accelerating admixtures and cement types for shotcrete on setting and hardening behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belie, N. de; Grosse, C.U.; Kurz, J.; Reinhardt, H.-W.

    2005-01-01

    The possible use of ultrasound measurements for monitoring setting and hardening of mortar containing different accelerating admixtures for shotcrete was investigated. The sensitivity to accelerator type (alkaline aluminate or alkali-free) and dosage, and accelerator-cement compatibility were evaluated. Furthermore, a new automatic onset picking algorithm for ultrasound signals was tested. A stepwise increase of the accelerator dosage resulted in increasing values for the ultrasound pulse velocity at early ages. In the accelerated mortar no dormant period could be noticed before the pulse velocity started to increase sharply, indicating a quick change in solid phase connectivity. The alkaline accelerator had a larger effect than the alkali-free accelerator, especially at ages below 90 min. The effect of the alkali-free accelerator was at very early age more pronounced on mortar containing CEM I in comparison with CEM II, while the alkaline accelerator had a larger influence on mortar containing CEM II. The increase of ultrasound energy could be related to the setting phenomenon and the maximum energy was reached when the end of workability was approached. Only the alkaline accelerator caused a significant reduction in compressive strength and this for all the dosages tested

  6. About the Big Graphs Arising when Forming the Diagnostic Models in a Reconfigurable Computing Field of Functional Monitoring and Diagnostics System of the Spacecraft Onboard Control Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Savkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in implementation of the multipurpose complete systems based on the reconfigurable computing fields (RCF is the problem of optimum redistribution of logicalarithmetic resources in growing scope of functional tasks. Irrespective of complexity, all of them are transformed into an orgraph, which functional and topological structure is appropriately imposed on the RCF based, as a rule, on the field programmable gate array (FPGA.Due to limitation of the hardware configurations and functions realized by means of the switched logical blocks (SLB, the abovementioned problem becomes even more critical when there is a need, within the strictly allocated RCF fragment, to realize even more complex challenge in comparison with the problem which was solved during the previous computing step. In such cases it is possible to speak about graphs of big dimensions with respect to allocated RCF fragment.The article considers this problem through development of diagnostic algorithms to implement diagnostics and control of an onboard control complex of the spacecraft using RCF. It gives examples of big graphs arising with respect to allocated RCF fragment when forming the hardware levels of a diagnostic model, which, in this case, is any hardware-based algorithm of diagnostics in RCF.The article reviews examples of arising big graphs when forming the complicated diagnostic models due to drastic difference in formation of hardware levels on closely located RCF fragments. It also pays attention to big graphs emerging when the multichannel diagnostic models are formed.Three main ways to solve the problem of big graphs with respect to allocated RCF fragment are given. These are: splitting the graph into fragments, use of pop-up windows with relocating and memorizing intermediate values of functions of high hardware levels of diagnostic models, and deep adaptive update of diagnostic model.It is shown that the last of three ways is the most efficient

  7. Small-sized monitor of beam current and profile for the proton pulse electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    Design and principle of operation of current monitor and beam profile of range-coordinate type are described. Monitor operation peculiarities are discussed using diagnostics of a beam of 330-420 keV electrostatic pulse proton accelerator with a beam current of up to 20 mA, at a current density of up to 23 mA x cm -2 and wth pulse duraton of about 20 μs. The monitor consists of a vacuum-dense foil of 3.0+-0.1 μm in thickness (or 0.81+-0.0x- mg x cm -2 ) two grid electrodes, each containing 12 wires, and as solid copper bottom. Foil serves for chopping off background particles with a path lesser 3.0 μm and stands thermal pulse load up to 0.5 J/cm -2 . Grid electrode wires are oriented perpendicularly to lach other and form a two-coordinate secondary-emisson roughness indicator. The bothhom is used for measuring an absolute value of beam current

  8. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors Based Monitoring System for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Chiuchiolo, A; Perez, J C; Bajas, H; Consales, M; Giordano, M; Breglio, G; Cusano, A

    2014-01-01

    New generation of accelerator magnets for high energy applications currently designed, manufactured and tested at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) require the implementation of precise cryogenic sensors with long-term robustness and reliability able to withstand cryogenic temperature and to monitor the mechanical stresses affecting the winding during all the stages of his service life, assembly, cool down and powering. Monitoring the mechanical behavior of the magnet from assembly to operation is a critical task which aims to assure the integrity of the magnet and to safely handle the coils made of new brittle material. This contribution deals with the first successful embedding of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors in a subscale Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole magnet in order to monitor the strain developed in the coil during the cool down to 1.9 K, the powering up to 15.8 kA and the warm up, offering new perspectives for the development of a complementary sensing technology based on fiber optic sensors.

  9. Monitoring of Rotor-Stator Interaction in Pump-Turbine Using Vibrations Measured with On-Board Sensors Rotating with Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian G. Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in design of pump-turbines have led into higher rotor-stator interaction (RSI loads over impeller-runner. These dynamic loads are of special interest having produced catastrophic failures in pump-turbines. Determining RSI characteristics facilitates the proposal of actions that will prevent these failures. Pressure measurements all around the perimeter of the impeller-runner are appropriate to monitor and detect RSI characteristics. Unfortunately most installed pump-turbines are not manufactured with in-built pressure sensors in appropriate positions to monitor RSI. For this reason, vibration measurements are the preferred method to monitor RSI in industry. Usually vibrations are measured in two perpendicular radial directions in bearings where valuable information could be lost due to bearing response. In this work, in order to avoid the effect of bearing response on measurement, two vibration sensors are installed rotating with the shaft. The RSI characteristics obtained with pressure measurements were compared to those determined using vibration measurements. The RSI characteristics obtained with pressure measurements were also determined using vibrations measured rotating with shaft. These RSI characteristics were not possible to be determined using the vibrations measured in guide bearing. Finally, it is recommended to measure vibrations rotating with shaft to detect RSI characteristics in installed pump-turbines as a more practical and reliable method to monitor RSI characteristics.

  10. Bunch-shape monitor for a picosecond single-bunch beam of a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Yoneichi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    1995-01-01

    A non-interactive-type bunch-shape and beam intensity monitor for a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator (linac) has been developed. The monitor consists of an electric SMA-type connector and an Al pipe of 50 mm inner diameter. Test measurements of the present monitor have been made under the conditions of the accelerated charges of lower than 27 nC/pulse and the pulse width ranging from 6 to 30 ps (Full Width at Half Maximum). The results show that the present monitor is applicable to bunch-shape measurement of the picosecond single-bunch beam. The monitor output is also found to be proportional to the beam intensity of more than 0.05 nC/pulse. (author)

  11. Integrated condition monitoring of a fleet of offshore wind turbines with focus on acceleration streaming processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsen, Jan; Gioia, Nicoletta; Peeters, Cédric; Jordaens, Pieter-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Particularly offshore there is a trend to cluster wind turbines in large wind farms, and in the near future to operate such a farm as an integrated power production plant. Predictability of individual turbine behavior across the entire fleet is key in such a strategy. Failure of turbine subcomponents should be detected well in advance to allow early planning of all necessary maintenance actions; Such that they can be performed during low wind and low electricity demand periods. In order to obtain the insights to predict component failure, it is necessary to have an integrated clean dataset spanning all turbines of the fleet for a sufficiently long period of time. This paper illustrates our big-data approach to do this. In addition, advanced failure detection algorithms are necessary to detect failures in this dataset. This paper discusses a multi-level monitoring approach that consists of a combination of machine learning and advanced physics based signal-processing techniques. The advantage of combining different data sources to detect system degradation is in the higher certainty due to multivariable criteria. In order to able to perform long-term acceleration data signal processing at high frequency a streaming processing approach is necessary. This allows the data to be analysed as the sensors generate it. This paper illustrates this streaming concept on 5kHz acceleration data. A continuous spectrogram is generated from the data-stream. Real-life offshore wind turbine data is used. Using this streaming approach for calculating bearing failure features on continuous acceleration data will support failure propagation detection. (paper)

  12. Cavity beam position monitor system for the Accelerator Test Facility 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2 is a scaled demonstrator system for final focus beam lines of linear high energy colliders. This paper describes the high resolution cavity beam position monitor (BPM system, which is a part of the ATF2 diagnostics. Two types of cavity BPMs are used, C-band operating at 6.423 GHz, and S-band at 2.888 GHz with an increased beam aperture. The cavities, electronics, and digital processing are described. The resolution of the C-band system with attenuators was determined to be approximately 250 nm and 1  μm for the S-band system. Without attenuation the best recorded C-band cavity resolution was 27 nm.

  13. Cavity beam position monitor system for the Accelerator Test Facility 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. I.; Ainsworth, R.; Aryshev, A.; Boogert, S. T.; Boorman, G.; Frisch, J.; Heo, A.; Honda, Y.; Hwang, W. H.; Huang, J. Y.; Kim, E.-S.; Kim, S. H.; Lyapin, A.; Naito, T.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Mellor, R. E.; Molloy, S.; Nelson, J.; Park, S. J.; Park, Y. J.; Ross, M.; Shin, S.; Swinson, C.; Smith, T.; Terunuma, N.; Tauchi, T.; Urakawa, J.; White, G. R.

    2012-04-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) is a scaled demonstrator system for final focus beam lines of linear high energy colliders. This paper describes the high resolution cavity beam position monitor (BPM) system, which is a part of the ATF2 diagnostics. Two types of cavity BPMs are used, C-band operating at 6.423 GHz, and S-band at 2.888 GHz with an increased beam aperture. The cavities, electronics, and digital processing are described. The resolution of the C-band system with attenuators was determined to be approximately 250 nm and 1μm for the S-band system. Without attenuation the best recorded C-band cavity resolution was 27 nm.

  14. Neutron spectrometry with Bonner spheres for area monitoring in particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedogni, R.

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the instruments to determine the operational quantities in the neutron fields produced by particle accelerators involves a combination of aspects, which is peculiar to these environments: the energy distribution of the neutron field, the continuous or pulsed time structure of the beam, the presence of other radiations to which the neutron instruments could have significant response and the large variability in the dose rate, which can be observed when moving from areas near the beam line to free-access areas. The use of spectrometric techniques in support of traditional instruments is highly recommended to improve the accuracy of dosimetric evaluations. The multi-sphere or Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) is certainly the most used device, due to characteristics such as the wide energy range, large variety of active and passive detectors suited for different workplaces, good photon discrimination and the simple signal management. Disadvantages are the poor energy resolution, weight and need to sequentially irradiate the spheres, leading to usually long measurement sessions. Moreover, complex unfolding analyses are needed to obtain the neutron spectra. This work is an overview of the BSS for area monitoring in particle accelerators. (authors)

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry of Strontium-90 for homeland security, environmental monitoring, and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumey, S J; Brown, T A; Hamilton, T F; Hillegonds, D J

    2008-03-03

    Strontium-90 is one of the most hazardous materials managed by agencies charged with protecting the public from radiation. Traditional radiometric methods have been limited by low sample throughput and slow turnaround times. Mass spectrometry offers the advantage of shorter analysis times and the ability to measure samples immediately after processing, however conventional mass spectrometric techniques are susceptible to molecular isobaric interferences that limit their overall sensitivity. In contrast, accelerator mass spectrometry is insensitive to molecular interferences and we have therefore begun developing a method for determination of {sup 90}Sr by accelerator mass spectrometry. Despite a pervasive interference from {sup 90}Zr, our initial development has yielded an instrumental background of {approx} 10{sup 8} atoms (75 mBq) per sample. Further refinement of our system (e.g., redesign of our detector, use of alternative target materials) is expected to push the background below 10{sup 6} atoms, close to the theoretical limit for AMS. Once we have refined our system and developed suitable sample preparation protocols, we will utilize our capability in applications to homeland security, environmental monitoring, and human health.

  16. Accuracy evaluation of the optical surface monitoring system on EDGE linear accelerator in a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Fogliata, Antonella; Stravato, Antonella; Tomatis, Stefano; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) requires dedicated systems to monitor the patient position during the treatment to avoid target underdosage due to involuntary shift. The optical surface monitoring system (OSMS) is here evaluated in a phantom-based study. The new EDGE linear accelerator from Varian (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) integrates, for cranial lesions, the common cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and kV-MV portal images to the optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), a device able to detect real-time patient׳s face movements in all 6 couch axes (vertical, longitudinal, lateral, rotation along the vertical axis, pitch, and roll). We have evaluated the OSMS imaging capability in checking the phantoms׳ position and monitoring its motion. With this aim, a home-made cranial phantom was developed to evaluate the OSMS accuracy in 4 different experiments: (1) comparison with CBCT in isocenter location, (2) capability to recognize predefined shifts up to 2° or 3cm, (3) evaluation at different couch angles, (4) ability to properly reconstruct the surface when the linac gantry visually block one of the cameras. The OSMS system showed, with a phantom, to be accurate for positioning in respect to the CBCT imaging system with differences of 0.6 ± 0.3mm for linear vector displacement, with a maximum rotational inaccuracy of 0.3°. OSMS presented an accuracy of 0.3mm for displacement up to 1cm and 1°, and 0.5mm for larger displacements. Different couch angles (45° and 90°) induced a mean vector uncertainty < 0.4mm. Coverage of 1 camera produced an uncertainty < 0.5mm. Translations and rotations of a phantom can be accurately detect with the optical surface detector system. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-powered detector probes for electron and gamma-ray beam monitoring in high-power industrial accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lone, M.A.

    1992-08-01

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPDs are used in nuclear reactors for monitoring neutron and gamma ray fields. Responses of various SPDs to electron and gamma ray beams from industrial accelerators were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. By judicious choice of transmission filters, threshold SPD probes were investigated for on-line monitoring of the beam energy spectrum of the high-power IMPELA industrial electron accelerator. (Author) (14 figs, 16 refs.)

  18. Development of a Compton camera for online monitoring and dosimetry of laser-accelerated proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirolf, Peter G.; Lang, Christian; Aldawood, Saad; Parodi, Katia [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Habs, Dietrich [LMU Muenchen (Germany); MPI fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Maier, Ludwig [TU Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    A Compton camera is presently under construction in Garching, designed for monitoring and dosimetry of laser-accelerated protons for bio-medical applications via position-resolved prompt γ-ray detection. When ion beams suitable for hadron therapy (protons, carbon ions) interact with tissue (or tissue-equivalent plastic or water phantoms), nuclear reactions induce prompt γ rays that can be utilized, e.g., to verify the ion beam range (i.e. monitor the Bragg peak position) by exploiting the Compton scattering kinematics of these photons. Our Compton camera (formed by a combination of scatter and absorber detector) consists of a stack of six double-sided Si-strip detectors (50 x 50 mm{sup 2}, 0.5 mm thick, 128 strips/side, pitch 390 μm) acting as scatterers, while the absorber is formed by a LaBr{sub 3} scintillator crystal (50 x 50 x 30 mm{sup 3}), read out by a (8 x 8) pixelated multi-anode PMT. Simulation results for design specifications and expected values of resolution and efficiency are presented, as well as the status of the prototype presently under construction.

  19. SU-E-T-160: Characterization and Monitoring of Linear Accelerator Gantry Radiation Isocenter Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, D; Amin, N; Wang, K; Norrlinger, B; Jaffray, D; McNiven, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the motion of the radiation isocenter, over time, as a function of gantry rotation for multiple linear accelerators (linacs). Two semi-automated image-based quality control (QC) test workflows were designed to achieve this goal. Methods: The full QC-test workflow for motion characterization consisted of acquiring 16 megavoltage images at 8 gantry angles of a ball-bearing suspended off the end of the couch. Performance constancy was assessed using a shortened QC-test workflow which consisted of imaging a cube phantom placed on the couch (5 images at 4 gantry angles). Both workflows use an image processing algorithm to determine the field center and phantom position on each image and computed radiation isocenter motion as a function of gantry angle. Motion was characterized for 9 linacs of same model and performance monitored for 2 months on 3 linacs. Results: The maximum isocenter motion determined with the full-workflow for 9 linacs was within 0.38–0.79 mm. The shortened-workflow usually agreed within 0.1 mm with the full-workflow and the time required for these methods was about 4 and 15 min, respectively. For all linacs, the isocenter motion perpendicular to the gantry rotation plane followed a consistent pattern with maximum amplitude of 0.36–0.59 mm. In the gantry rotation plane, the variation among linacs was higher and the beam axis described a circle of up to 0.6 mm radius around the gantry axis of rotation (2 linacs). The radiation isocenter motion was stable as a function of time for the monitored linacs and was within ±0.1 mm of the average. Conclusion: Radiation isocenter motion parallel and perpendicular to the gantry rotation plane was characterized. In the gantry rotation plane, beam spot positioning adjustment might be used to reduce the observed radiation isocenter motion. A shortened-workflow was designed and enables performance monitoring over time

  20. Calibration of area monitors for neutrons used in clinical linear accelerators; Calibracao de monitores de area para neutrons usados em aceleradores lineares clinicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula; Pereira, Walsan Wagner; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da, E-mail: asalgado@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Batista, Delano V.S. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work demonstrates the complexity and the necessary cares for the realization of measurements of neutron fields in rooms for radiotherapy treatment containing clinical accelerators. The acquaintance of the technical characteristics of the monitors and the periodic calibration are actions and fundamental procedures to guarantee traceability and the reliability of measurements

  1. Proton irradiation experiment for x-ray charge-coupled devices of the monitor of all-sky x-ray image mission onboard the international space station. 2. Degradation of dark current and identification of electron trap level

    CERN Document Server

    Miyata, E; Kamiyama, D

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the radiation damage effects on a charge-coupled device (CCD) to be used for the Japanese X-ray mission, the monitor of all-sky X-ray image (MAXI), onboard the international space station (ISS). A temperature dependence of the dark current as a function of incremental dose is studied. We found that the protons having energy of >292 keV seriously increased the dark current of the devices. In order to improve the radiation tolerance of the devices, we have developed various device architectures to minimize the radiation damage in orbit. Among them, nitride oxide enables us to reduce the dark current significantly and therefore we adopted nitride oxide for the flight devices. We also compared the dark current of a device in operation and that out of operation during the proton irradiation. The dark current of the device in operation became twofold that out of operation, and we thus determined that devices would be turned off during the passage of the radiation belt. The temperature dependenc...

  2. Cardiac Acceleration at the Onset of Exercise : A Potential Parameter for Monitoring Progress During Physical Training in Sports and Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, Florentina J.; Monden, Paul G.; van Meeteren, Nico L. U.; Daanen, Hein A. M.

    There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HRonset) can be used as a monitoring variable. The digital databases of Scopus and PubMed were

  3. Cardiac acceleration at the onset of exercise: A potential parameter for monitoring progress during physical training in sports and rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, F.J.; Monden, P.G.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HRonset) can be used as a monitoring variable. The digital databases of Scopus and PubMed were

  4. A microprocessor-based system for continuous monitoring of radiation levels around the CERN PS and PSB accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoritsas, V.; Beck, F.; Benincasa, G. P.; Bovigny, J. P.

    1986-06-01

    This paper describes a new beam loss monitor system which has been installed in the PS and PSB machines, replacing an earlier system. The new system is controlled by a microprocessor which can operate independently of the accelerator control system, though setting up and central display are usually done remotely, using the standard control system facilities.

  5. Microprocessor-based system for continuous monitoring of radiation levels around the CERN PS and PSB accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agoritsas, V.; Beck, F.; Benincasa, G.P.; Bovigny, J.P.

    1986-06-01

    This paper describes a new beam loss monitor system which has been installed in the PS and PSB machines, replacing an earlier system. The new system is controlled by a microprocessor which can operate independently of the accelerator control system, though setting up and central display are usually done remotely, using the standard control system facilities.

  6. Monitoring migration and transformation of nanomaterials in polymeric composites during accelerated aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, G; Fernández-Rosas, E; Aubouy, L; Vázquez-Campos, S; Puntes, V; Jamier, V

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of small amounts of nanoadditives in polymeric compounds can introduce new mechanical, physical, electrical, magnetic, thermal and/or optical properties. The properties of these advanced materials have enabled new applications in several industrial sectors (electronics, automotive, textile...). In particular, for the nanomaterials (NM) described in this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO 2 NP), the following properties have been described: MWCNT act as nucleating agents in thermoplastics, and change viscosity, affecting dispersion, orientation, and therefore mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties; and SiO 2 NP act as flame retardant and display improved electrical and mechanical properties. The work described here is focused on the evaluation of the migration and transformation of NM included in polymer nanocomposites (NC) during accelerated climatic ageing. To this aim, we generated polyamide 6 (PA6) NC with different degree of compatibility between the NM and the polymeric matrix. These NC were submitted to accelerated aging conditions to simulate outdoor conditions (simulation of the use phase of the polymeric NC). The NC contain as nanofillers MWCNT and SiO 2 NP with different surface properties to influence the compatibility with the polymeric matrix. The generated NC were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) before and after the aging process, to monitor the compatibility of the NM with the matrix: dispersion within the matrix, migration during aging, and modification of the polymer properties. The dispersion of SiO 2 NP in the NC depended on their compatibility with the matrix. However, independently of their compatibility with the matrix, SiO 2 NP were aggregated at the end of the accelerated aging process. In addition

  7. Monitoring migration and transformation of nanomaterials in polymeric composites during accelerated aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, G.; Fernández-Rosas, E.; Puntes, V.; Jamier, V.; Aubouy, L.; Vázquez-Campos, S.

    2013-04-01

    The incorporation of small amounts of nanoadditives in polymeric compounds can introduce new mechanical, physical, electrical, magnetic, thermal and/or optical properties. The properties of these advanced materials have enabled new applications in several industrial sectors (electronics, automotive, textile...). In particular, for the nanomaterials (NM) described in this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2 NP), the following properties have been described: MWCNT act as nucleating agents in thermoplastics, and change viscosity, affecting dispersion, orientation, and therefore mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties; and SiO2 NP act as flame retardant and display improved electrical and mechanical properties. The work described here is focused on the evaluation of the migration and transformation of NM included in polymer nanocomposites (NC) during accelerated climatic ageing. To this aim, we generated polyamide 6 (PA6) NC with different degree of compatibility between the NM and the polymeric matrix. These NC were submitted to accelerated aging conditions to simulate outdoor conditions (simulation of the use phase of the polymeric NC). The NC contain as nanofillers MWCNT and SiO2 NP with different surface properties to influence the compatibility with the polymeric matrix. The generated NC were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) before and after the aging process, to monitor the compatibility of the NM with the matrix: dispersion within the matrix, migration during aging, and modification of the polymer properties. The dispersion of SiO2 NP in the NC depended on their compatibility with the matrix. However, independently of their compatibility with the matrix, SiO2 NP were aggregated at the end of the accelerated aging process. In addition

  8. A microcomputer real-time monitor for the control of a particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouali, M.

    1977-01-01

    The physical management of a particle accelerator requests the supervision and the control of a great number of parameters and various devices. A hierarchically structured multicomputer control system was implemented on the Synchrocyclotron of the 'Institut de Physique Nucleaire' at Orsay (France). A set of 3 microcomputers MICRAL (manufactured in France around an Intel 8080 microprocessor chip) is connected through a CAMAC link to an IBM 1130 central computer used for the general control. At the lowest level, measurements and supervisions are made by the means of special hardwired systems built in the Laboratory (the CSTIs). On the other hand, some measurements are done by using a conventional industrial data acquisition system. All these systems are managed by the 3 MICRALs, as also some independent devices (function generator, radioprotection beacons, beam profile encoders). A real-time monitor resident in the MICRAL computers is responsible for task activations, resource allocation and data exchange management, especially with the main control computer. It uses for the 6 interrupt levels of the MICRAL and it builds and manages in the memory a set of descriptive block and of data stacks [fr

  9. Monitoring of laser-accelerated particle beams for hadron therapy via Compton tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, C.; Thirolf, P.G. [LMU, Muenchen (Germany); Habs, D.; Tajima, T. [LMU, Muenchen (Germany); MPQ, Garching (Germany); Zoglauer, A. [SSL, Berkeley (United States); Kanbach, G.; Diehl, R. [MPE, Muenchen (Germany); Schreiber, J. [MPQ, Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Presently large efforts have been achieved towards the development of hadron cancer therapy based on laser-accelerated ion (p, C) beams, particularly aiming at the treatment of small tumors (few mm size). Thus precise monitoring of the ion track is mandatory. Conventional PET technology suffers from limited signal strength and precision of locating the source position. We envisage to use Compton tracking, i.e. determining energy and momentum of Compton photons and electrons, emitted along the ion track in the irradiated soft tissue. Confining the Compton cone by tracking the scattered electron will allow to significantly improve on the position resolution. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to characterize the achievable position resolution and efficiency of a Compton camera. We estimate a resolution of 2 mm (1 mm; 5 mm) FWHM at 2 MeV (5 MeV; 0.5 MeV). An efficiency of 1.4*10{sup -3} (4.6*10{sup -6}) at 0.5 MeV (2 MeV) is envisaged. Optimized for an energy range between 0.5 MeV and 5 MeV, we plan for a system of 5 layers of double-sided Si strip detectors (for Compton electron tracking) and an additional LaBr{sub 3}:Ce calorimeter, read out by a segmented photomultiplier tube.

  10. Reconstruction of lattice parameters and beam momentum distribution from turn-by-turn beam position monitor readings in circular accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Edmonds

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In high chromaticity circular accelerators, rapid decoherence of the betatron motion of a particle beam can make the measurement of lattice and bunch values, such as Courant-Snyder parameters and betatron amplitude, difficult. A method for reconstructing the momentum distribution of a beam from beam position measurements is presented. Further analysis of the same beam position monitor data allows estimates to be made of the Courant-Snyder parameters and the amplitude of coherent betatron oscillation of the beam. The methods are tested through application to data taken on the linear nonscaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator, EMMA.

  11. On-Board Monitoring of Engine Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    methods involve potentiometric and colorimetric titrations , respectively. For both tests, a titration solvent is prepared and added to the oil. The...ASTM D 2896 and ASTM D 4739 [17]. Both methods involve potentiometric titrations . ASTM D 2896 uses a stronger acid and more polar solvent than ASTM D...Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration ASTM D 4739 Standard Test Method for Base Number Determination by Potentiometric Titration Gas

  12. Development of an on-line ultrasonic system to monitor flow-accelerated corrosion of piping in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, N.Y.; Bahn, C.B.; Lee, S.G.; Kim, J.H.; Hwang, I.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, J.T.; Luk, V.

    2004-01-01

    Designs of contemporary nuclear power plants (NPPs) are concentrated on improving plant life as well as safety. As the nuclear industry prepares for continued operation beyond the design lifetime of existing NPP, aging management through advanced monitoring is called for. Therefore, we suggested two approaches to develop the on-line piping monitoring system. Piping located in some position is reported to go through flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). One is to monitor electrochemical parameters, ECP and pH, which can show occurrence of corrosion. The other is to monitor mechanical parameters, displacement and acceleration. These parameters are shown to change with thickness. Both measured parameters will be combined to quantify the amount of FAC of a target piping. In this paper, we report the progress of a multidisciplinary effort on monitoring of flow-induced vibration, which changes with reducing thickness. Vibration characteristics are measured using accelerometers, capacitive sensor and fiber optic sensors. To theoretically support the measurement, we analyzed the vibration mode change in a given thickness with the aid of finite element analysis assuming FAC phenomenon is represented only as thickness change. A high temperature flow loop has been developed to simulate the NPP secondary condition to show the applicability of new sensors. Ultrasonic transducer is introduced as validation purpose by directly measuring thickness. By this process, we identify performance and applicability of chosen sensors and also obtain base data for analyzing measured value in unknown conditions. (orig.)

  13. Using Patterns for Multivariate Monitoring and Feedback Control of Linear Accelerator Performance: Proof-of-Concept Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, Gail Adele; Van Ausdeln, Leo Anthony; Velasquez, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    The report discusses preliminary proof-of-concept research for using the Advanced Data Validation and Verification System (ADVVS), a new INEEL software package, to add validation and verification and multivariate feedback control to the operation of non-destructive analysis (NDA) equipment. The software is based on human cognition, the recognition of patterns and changes in patterns in time-related data. The first project applied ADVVS to monitor operations of a selectable energy linear electron accelerator, and showed how the software recognizes in real time any deviations from the optimal tune of the machine. The second project extended the software method to provide model-based multivariate feedback control for the same linear electron accelerator. The projects successfully demonstrated proof-of-concept for the applications and focused attention on the common application of intelligent information processing techniques

  14. New On-board Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, R.

    Two new processor devices have been developed for the use on board of spacecrafts. An 8-bit 8032-microcontroller targets typical controlling applications in instruments and sub-systems, or could be used as a main processor on small satellites, whereas the LEON 32-bit SPARC processor can be used for high performance controlling and data processing tasks. The ADV80S32 is fully compliant to the Intel 80x1 architecture and instruction set, extended by additional peripherals, 512 bytes on-chip RAM and a bootstrap PROM, which allows downloading the application software using the CCSDS PacketWire pro- tocol. The memory controller provides a de-multiplexed address/data bus, and allows to access up to 16 MB data and 8 MB program RAM. The peripherals have been de- signed for the specific needs of a spacecraft, such as serial interfaces compatible to RS232, PacketWire and TTC-B-01, counters/timers for extended duration and a CRC calculation unit accelerating the CCSDS TM/TC protocol. The 0.5 um Atmel manu- facturing technology (MG2RT) provides latch-up and total dose immunity; SEU fault immunity is implemented by using SEU hardened Flip-Flops and EDAC protection of internal and external memories. The maximum clock frequency of 20 MHz allows a processing power of 3 MIPS. Engineering samples are available. For SW develop- ment, various SW packages for the 8051 architecture are on the market. The LEON processor implements a 32-bit SPARC V8 architecture, including all the multiply and divide instructions, complemented by a floating-point unit (FPU). It includes several standard peripherals, such as timers/watchdog, interrupt controller, UARTs, parallel I/Os and a memory controller, allowing to use 8, 16 and 32 bit PROM, SRAM or memory mapped I/O. With on-chip separate instruction and data caches, almost one instruction per clock cycle can be reached in some applications. A 33-MHz 32-bit PCI master/target interface and a PCI arbiter allow operating the device in a plug-in card

  15. Study on variance-to-mean method as subcriticality monitor for accelerator driven system operated with pulse-mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Hideto; Kitamura, Yasunori; Yamane, Yoshihiro; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Unesaki, Hironobu

    2003-01-01

    Two types of the variance-to-mean methods for the subcritical system that was driven by the periodic and pulsed neutron source were developed and their experimental examination was performed with the Kyoto University Critical Assembly and a pulsed neutron generator. As a result, it was demonstrated that the prompt neutron decay constant could be measured by these methods. From this fact, it was concluded that the present variance-to-mean methods had potential for being used in the subcriticality monitor for the future accelerator driven system operated with the pulse-mode. (author)

  16. Dosimetry and monitoring of thin X-ray beam produced by linear particle accelerator, for application in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, J.C.F. de.

    1986-01-01

    The dosimetry and monitoring characteristics of thin X-ray beams, and the application of 4MeV linear particle accelerator to radiosurgery are studied. An addition collimation system, consisted of 3 lead collimators, which allows to obtain thin beams of 6,10 and 15 mm of diameter, was fabricated. The stereo taxic system, together with modifications in dispositives, provide the accuracy required in volum-targed location. The dosimetric informations were determined with silicon detector inserted into water simulator. The isodose curves for each beam, and total isodoses simulating the treatment were established using radiographic emulsions in conditions which reproduce real circunstances of pacient irradiation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Measurements of the relative backscatter contribution to the monitor chamber for modern medical linear accelerators; A multi-center study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibolt, Patrik; Cronholm, Rickard O.; Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg

    2015-01-01

    Conversion to absolute dose in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of MV radiotherapy beams needs correct modeling of backscatter (BS) to the linear accelerator (linac) monitor chamber. For some linacs the BS depends largely on jaw settings. The backscattered fraction (BSF) of radiation can be determined...... BSF measurements were compared with MC simulations performed using the BEAMnrc user code. For flattened beams on the Varian linacs, the measured BSF exhibited a clear linear correlation with square jaw settings (correlation coefficient r > 0.9 with p

  18. High-stable secondary-emission monitor for accelerated electron beam current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudnikov, I.A.; Saksaganskij, G.L.; Bazhanov, E.B.; Zabrodin, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A secondary-emission monitor for a 10 to 30 MeV electron beam (beam current is 10 -4 to 10 -2 A) is described. The monitor comprises a measuring electrode unit, titanium discharge-type pump, getter made of porous titanium, all enclosed in a metal casing. The measuring unit comprises three electrodes made of 20 μm aluminium foil. The secondary emission coefficient (5.19%+-0.06% for the electron energy of 20 MeV) is maintained stable for a long time. The monitor detects pulses of up to some nanoseconds duration. It is reliable in operation, and is recommended for a wide practical application

  19. Control system and environmental parameters monitoring of the Tandetron Accelerator clean room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia V, M.E.; Garcia H, J.M.; Flores M, J.

    2007-01-01

    A control system and monitoring of humidity and temperature implemented by means of a system based on a microcontroller, an intelligent sensor and a stage of power for the actuators handling is described. The change of the levels of reference of the control system and the monitoring of the physical controlled variables can be carried out from any connected computer to a local net or Internet. (Author)

  20. Player Monitoring in Indoor Team Sports: Concurrent Validity of Inertial Measurement Units to Quantify Average and Peak Acceleration Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Roell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements. Data of a single wearable tracking device including an IMU (Optimeye S5, Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia were compared to the results of a 3D motion analysis (MA system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK during selected standardized movement simulations in an indoor laboratory (n = 56. A low-pass filtering method for gravity correction (LF and two sensor fusion algorithms for orientation estimation [Complementary Filter (CF, Kalman-Filter (KF] were implemented and compared with MA system data. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were found between LF and MA data but not between sensor fusion algorithms and MA. Higher precision and lower relative errors were found for CF (RMSE = 0.05; CV = 2.6% and KF (RMSE = 0.15; CV = 3.8% both compared to the LF method (RMSE = 1.14; CV = 47.6% regarding the magnitude of the resulting vector and strongly emphasize the implementation of orientation estimation to accurately describe human acceleration. Comparing both sensor fusion algorithms, CF revealed slightly lower errors than KF and additionally provided valuable information about positive and negative acceleration values in all three movement planes with moderate to good validity (CV = 3.9 – 17.8%. Compared to x- and y-axis superior results were found for the z-axis. These findings demonstrate that

  1. Online monitoring method using Equipotential Switching Direct Current potential drop for piping wall loss by flow accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Ha; Lee, Tae Hyun; Kim, Ji Hak; Hwang, Il Soon; Lee, Na Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Jin Ho; Sohn, Chang Ho

    2010-01-01

    The flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) phenomenon persistently impacts plant reliability and personnel safety. We have shown that Equipotential Switching Direct Current Potential Drop (ES-DCPD) can be employed to detect piping wall loss induced by FAC. It has been demonstrated to have sufficient sensitivity to cover both long and short lengths of piping. Based on this, new FAC screening and inspection approaches have been developed. For example, resolution of ES-DCPD can be adjusted according to its monitoring purpose. The developed method shows good integrity during long test periods. It also shows good reproducibility. The Seoul National University FAC Accelerated Simulation Loop (SFASL) has been constructed for ES-DCPD demonstration purposes. During one demonstration, the piping wall was thinned by 23.7% through FAC for a 13,000 min test period. In addition to the ES-DCPD method, ultrasonic technique (UT) has been applied to SFASL for verification while water chemistry was continually monitored and controlled using electrochemical sensors. Developed electrochemical sensors showed accurate and stable water conditions in the SFASL during the test period. The ES-DCPD results were also theoretically predicted by the Sanchez-Caldera's model. The UT, however, failed to detect thinning because of its localized characteristics. Online UT that covers only local areas cannot assure the detection of wall loss.

  2. Note: Real-time monitoring via second-harmonic interferometry of a flow gas cell for laser wakefield acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandi, F.; Giammanco, F.; Conti, F.; Sylla, F.; Lambert, G.; Gizzi, L. A.

    2016-08-01

    The use of a gas cell as a target for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) offers the possibility to obtain stable and manageable laser-plasma interaction process, a mandatory condition for practical applications of this emerging technique, especially in multi-stage accelerators. In order to obtain full control of the gas particle number density in the interaction region, thus allowing for a long term stable and manageable LWFA, real-time monitoring is necessary. In fact, the ideal gas law cannot be used to estimate the particle density inside the flow cell based on the preset backing pressure and the room temperature because the gas flow depends on several factors like tubing, regulators, and valves in the gas supply system, as well as vacuum chamber volume and vacuum pump speed/throughput. Here, second-harmonic interferometry is applied to measure the particle number density inside a flow gas cell designed for LWFA. The results demonstrate that real-time monitoring is achieved and that using low backing pressure gas (<1 bar) and different cell orifice diameters (<2 mm) it is possible to finely tune the number density up to the 1019 cm-3 range well suited for LWFA.

  3. Note: Real-time monitoring via second-harmonic interferometry of a flow gas cell for laser wakefield acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandi, F; Giammanco, F; Conti, F; Sylla, F; Lambert, G; Gizzi, L A

    2016-08-01

    The use of a gas cell as a target for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) offers the possibility to obtain stable and manageable laser-plasma interaction process, a mandatory condition for practical applications of this emerging technique, especially in multi-stage accelerators. In order to obtain full control of the gas particle number density in the interaction region, thus allowing for a long term stable and manageable LWFA, real-time monitoring is necessary. In fact, the ideal gas law cannot be used to estimate the particle density inside the flow cell based on the preset backing pressure and the room temperature because the gas flow depends on several factors like tubing, regulators, and valves in the gas supply system, as well as vacuum chamber volume and vacuum pump speed/throughput. Here, second-harmonic interferometry is applied to measure the particle number density inside a flow gas cell designed for LWFA. The results demonstrate that real-time monitoring is achieved and that using low backing pressure gas (<1 bar) and different cell orifice diameters (<2 mm) it is possible to finely tune the number density up to the 10(19) cm(-3) range well suited for LWFA.

  4. Note: Real-time monitoring via second-harmonic interferometry of a flow gas cell for laser wakefield acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandi, F., E-mail: fernando.brandi@ino.it [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory (ILIL), Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO-CNR), Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Giammanco, F.; Conti, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Plasma Diagnostics and Technologies Ltd., via Matteucci n.38/D, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Sylla, F. [SourceLAB SAS, 86 Rue de Paris, 91400 Orsay (France); Lambert, G. [LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 bd des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Gizzi, L. A. [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory (ILIL), Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO-CNR), Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    The use of a gas cell as a target for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) offers the possibility to obtain stable and manageable laser-plasma interaction process, a mandatory condition for practical applications of this emerging technique, especially in multi-stage accelerators. In order to obtain full control of the gas particle number density in the interaction region, thus allowing for a long term stable and manageable LWFA, real-time monitoring is necessary. In fact, the ideal gas law cannot be used to estimate the particle density inside the flow cell based on the preset backing pressure and the room temperature because the gas flow depends on several factors like tubing, regulators, and valves in the gas supply system, as well as vacuum chamber volume and vacuum pump speed/throughput. Here, second-harmonic interferometry is applied to measure the particle number density inside a flow gas cell designed for LWFA. The results demonstrate that real-time monitoring is achieved and that using low backing pressure gas (<1 bar) and different cell orifice diameters (<2 mm) it is possible to finely tune the number density up to the 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} range well suited for LWFA.

  5. Generating ActiGraph counts from raw acceleration recorded by an alternative monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Arvidsson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Raw acceleration data collected by the ActiGraph accelerometer is aggregated using a proprietary method into arbitrary physical activity intensity units called counts, which has been extensively calibrated and validated against energy expenditure. Generating ActiGraph counts from any...... second across all rotational frequencies compared to the original ActiGraph method. Applying the aggregation method to the 24-hour free-living recordings resulted in an epoch level bias ranging from -16.2 to 0.9 counts per 10 second, a relative difference in the averaged physical activity (counts per...

  6. Stability study of the higher order mode beam position monitors at the Accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, L; Jones., R M

    2014-01-01

    erating cavities at FLASH linac, DESY, are equipped with electronics for beam position monitoring, which are based on HOM signals from special couplers. These monitors provide the beam position without additional vacuum components and at low cost. Moreover, they can be used to align the beam in the cavities to reduce the HOM effects on the beam. However, the HOMBPM (Higher Order Mode based Beam Position Monitor) shows an instability problem over time. In this paper, we will present the status of studies on this issue. Several methods are utilized to calibrate the HOMBPMs. These methods include DLR (Direct Linear Regression), and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition). We found that SVD generally is more suitable for HOMBPM calibration. We focus on the HOMBPMs at 1.3 GHz cavities. Techniques developed here are applicable to 3.9 ...

  7. Calibration and monitoring of the MEG experiment by a proton beam from a Cockcroft-Walton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Bai, X.; Baldini, A.; Baracchini, E.; Bemporad, C.; Boca, G.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavoto, G.; Cei, F.; Cerri, C.; Corbo, M.; Curalli, N.; Bari, A. de; De Gerone, M.; Doke, T.; Dussoni, S.; Egger, J.

    2011-01-01

    The MEG experiment at PSI searches for the decay μ→eγ at a level of ∼10 -13 on the branching ratio BR(μ→eγ/μ→tot), well beyond the present experimental limit (BR≤1.2x10 -11 ) and is sensitive to the predictions of SUSY-GUT theories. To reach this goal the experiment uses one of the most intense continuous surface muon beams available (∼10 8 μ/s) and relies on advanced technology (LXe calorimetry, a gradient-field superconducting spectrometer as well as flexible and powerful trigger and acquisition systems). In order to maintain the highest possible energy, time and spatial resolutions for such detector, frequent calibration and monitoring, using a Cockcroft-Walton proton accelerator, are required. The proton beam is brought to the centre of MEG by a special bellows insertion system and travels in a direction opposite to the one of the normal μ-beam. Protons interact with a lithium tetraborate (Li 2 B 4 O 7 ) nuclear target and produce one γ (17.6 MeV) from the reaction 7 3 Li(p,γ) 8 4 Be or two coincident γs (11.67 and 4.4 MeV) from the reaction 11 5 B(p,γ 1 ) 12 6 C * . The 17.6 MeV γ is used for calibrating and monitoring the LXe calorimeter (σ E γ /E γ =3.85±0.15% at 17.6 MeV) while the coincident 11.67 and 4.4 MeV γs are used to measure the relative timing of the calorimeter and the spectrometer timing counters (σ Δt =0.450±0.015ns). - Highlights: →Experiments that search for rare phenomena need to be constantly monitor and calibrated. →We show that proton induced nuclear reactions generate γ-rays useful for calibrating and monitoring the MEG experiment. →We describe the design, assembly and test of the calibration and monitoring accelerator for the MEG experiment.

  8. MEMS acceleration sensor with remote optical readout for continuous power generator monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tormen Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized accelerometers with remote optical readout are required devices for the continuous monitoring of vibrations inside power generators. In turbo and hydro generators, end-winding vibrations are present during operation causing in the long term undesirable out-of-service repairs. Continuous monitoring of these vibrations is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of devices immune to electromagnetic interferences. In this paper a MEMS based accelerometer with remote optical readout is presented. Advantages of the proposed device are the use of a differential optical signal to reject the common mode signal and noise, the reduced number of steps for the MEMS chip fabrication and for the system assembly, and the reduced package volume.

  9. Wall-Current-Monitor based Ghost and Satellite Bunch Detection in the CERN PS and the LHC Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhagen, R J; Belleman, J; Bohl, T; Damerau, H

    2012-01-01

    While most LHC detectors and instrumentation systems are optimised for a nominal bunch spacing of 25 ns, the LHC RF cavities themselves operate at the 10th harmonic of the maximum bunch frequency. Due to the beam production scheme and transfers in the injector chain, part of the nominally ‘empty’ RF buckets may contain particles, referred to as ghost or satellite bunches. These populations must be accurately quantified for high-precision experiments, luminosity calibration and control of parasitic particle encounters at the four LHC interaction points. This contribution summarises the wall-current-monitor based ghost and satellite bunch measurements in CERN’s PS and LHC accelerators. Instrumentation set-up, post-processing and achieved performance are discussed.

  10. Rapid Diagnostics of Onboard Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Thomas W.; Morris, John R.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Maimone, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Keeping track of sequences onboard a spacecraft is challenging. When reviewing Event Verification Records (EVRs) of sequence executions on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER), operators often found themselves wondering which version of a named sequence the EVR corresponded to. The lack of this information drastically impacts the operators diagnostic capabilities as well as their situational awareness with respect to the commands the spacecraft has executed, since the EVRs do not provide argument values or explanatory comments. Having this information immediately available can be instrumental in diagnosing critical events and can significantly enhance the overall safety of the spacecraft. This software provides auditing capability that can eliminate that uncertainty while diagnosing critical conditions. Furthermore, the Restful interface provides a simple way for sequencing tools to automatically retrieve binary compiled sequence SCMFs (Space Command Message Files) on demand. It also enables developers to change the underlying database, while maintaining the same interface to the existing applications. The logging capabilities are also beneficial to operators when they are trying to recall how they solved a similar problem many days ago: this software enables automatic recovery of SCMF and RML (Robot Markup Language) sequence files directly from the command EVRs, eliminating the need for people to find and validate the corresponding sequences. To address the lack of auditing capability for sequences onboard a spacecraft during earlier missions, extensive logging support was added on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sequencing server. This server is responsible for generating all MSL binary SCMFs from RML input sequences. The sequencing server logs every SCMF it generates into a MySQL database, as well as the high-level RML file and dictionary name inputs used to create the SCMF. The SCMF is then indexed by a hash value that is automatically included in all command

  11. Noise method for monitoring the sub-criticality in accelerator driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugama, Y.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Perez, R.B.; Perez-Navarro, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an absolute measurements technique for the sub-criticality determination is presented. The development of ADS, requires of methods to monitor and control the sub-criticality of this kind of systems, without interfering it's normal operation mode. This method is based on the Stochastic Neutron and Photon Transport Theory developed by Munoz-Cobo et al., and which can be implemented in presently available neutron transport codes. As a by-product of the methodology a monitoring measurement technique has been developed and verified using two coupled Monte Carlo programs. The spallation collisions and the high-energy transport are simulated with LAHET. The neutrons transports with energies less than 20 MeV and the estimation of the count statistics for neutron and/or gamma ray counters in fissile systems, is simulated with MCNP-DSP. It is possible to get the kinetics parameters and the k eff value of the sub-critical system through the analysis of the counter detectors. (author)

  12. A global standard for monitoring coastal wetland vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Edward L.; Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Phelps, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise threatens coastal salt-marshes and mangrove forests around the world, and a key determinant of coastal wetland vulnerability is whether its surface elevation can keep pace with rising sea level. Globally, a large data gap exists because wetland surface and shallow subsurface processes remain unaccounted for by traditional vulnerability assessments using tide gauges. Moreover, those processes vary substantially across wetlands, so modelling platforms require relevant local data. The low-cost, simple, high-precision rod surface-elevation table–marker horizon (RSET-MH) method fills this critical data gap, can be paired with spatial data sets and modelling and is financially and technically accessible to every country with coastal wetlands. Yet, RSET deployment has been limited to a few regions and purposes. A coordinated expansion of monitoring efforts, including development of regional networks that could support data sharing and collaboration, is crucial to adequately inform coastal climate change adaptation policy at several scales.

  13. Annexin V Imaging Detects Diabetes-Accelerated Apoptosis and Monitors the Efficacy of Benfotiamine Treatment in Ischemic Limbs of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ho Jung

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of apoptosis imaging for monitoring treatment response in ischemic limbs has not been properly explored. In this study, we investigated the ability of annexin V (AnxV imaging to assess the efficacy of antiapoptotic treatment in ischemic limbs of diabetic mice. Normal C57BL/6 mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subject to hindlimb ischemia. AnxV-conjugated fluorescent streptavidin probes were intravenously injected, and optical imaging was performed. Tissue apoptosis was quantified by histochemistry and Western blotting. The AnxV probes showed specific targeting to apoptotic cells on confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Intravenous AnxV probes displayed substantially greater accumulation in ischemic limbs of diabetic mice. Benfotiamine (BFT treatment of diabetic mice led to better perfusion recovery on laser Doppler imaging and reduced AnxV binding on optical imaging. TUNEL staining and cleaved caspase-3 Western blots confirmed accelerated apoptosis by diabetes and its suppression by BFT treatment. Furthermore, AnxV-SAv-PEcy5.5 uptake in the ischemic limbs closely correlated to cleaved caspase-3 expression. Thus, AnxV imaging may be useful for monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic agents designed to suppress ischemia-induced apoptosis.

  14. Annexin V imaging detects diabetes-accelerated apoptosis and monitors the efficacy of benfotiamine treatment in ischemic limbs of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Jin Hee; Park, Jin Won; Paik, Jin Young; Quach, Cung Hoa Thien; Lee, Eun Jeong; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2014-01-01

    The role of apoptosis imaging for monitoring treatment response in ischemic limbs has not been properly explored. In this study, we investigated the ability of annexin V (AnxV) imaging to assess the efficacy of antiapoptotic treatment in ischemic limbs of diabetic mice. Normal C57BL/6 mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subject to hindlimb ischemia. AnxV-conjugated fluorescent streptavidin probes were intravenously injected, and optical imaging was performed. Tissue apoptosis was quantified by histochemistry and Western blotting. The AnxV probes showed specific targeting to apoptotic cells on confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Intravenous AnxV probes displayed substantially greater accumulation in ischemic limbs of diabetic mice. Benfotiamine (BFT) treatment of diabetic mice led to better perfusion recovery on laser Doppler imaging and reduced AnxV binding on optical imaging. TUNEL staining and cleaved caspase-3 Western blots confirmed accelerated apoptosis by diabetes and its suppression by BFT treatment. Furthermore, AnxV-SAv-PEcy5.5 uptake in the ischemic limbs closely correlated to cleaved caspase-3 expression. Thus, AnxV imaging may be useful for monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic agents designed to suppress ischemia-induced apoptosis.

  15. Differential B-dot and D-dot monitors for current and voltage measurements on a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, Roy Willlam; Gilliland, Terrance Leo; Lee, James R.; Speas, Christopher Shane; Kim, Alexandre A.; Struve, Kenneth William; York, Mathew William; Leifeste, Gordon T.; Rochau, Gregory Alan; Sharpe, Arthur William; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Wagoner, Tim C.; Reynolds, Paul Gerard; Slopek, Jeffrey Scott; Moore, William B.S.; Dinwoodie, Thomas Albert; Woodring, R.M.; Broyles, Robin Scott; Mills, Jerry Alan; Melville, J.A.; Dudley, M.E.; Androlewicz, K.E.; Mourning, R.W.; Moore, J.K.; Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Ives, H.C.; Johnson, M.F.; Peyton, B.P.; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Savage, Mark Edward; Donovan, Guy Louis; Spielman, R.B.; Seamen, Johann F.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a system of differential-output monitors that diagnose current and voltage in the vacuum section of a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator. The system includes 62 gauges: 3 current and 6 voltage monitors that are fielded on each of the accelerator's 4 vacuum-insulator stacks, 6 current monitors on each of the accelerator's 4 outer magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs), and 2 current monitors on the accelerator's inner MITL. The inner-MITL monitors are located 6 cm from the axis of the load. Each of the stack and outer-MITL current monitors comprises two separate B-dot sensors, each of which consists of four 3-mm-diameter wire loops wound in series. The two sensors are separately located within adjacent cavities machined out of a single piece of copper. The high electrical conductivity of copper minimizes penetration of magnetic flux into the cavity walls, which minimizes changes in the sensitivity of the sensors on the 100-ns time scale of the accelerator's power pulse. A model of flux penetration has been developed and is used to correct (to first order) the B-dot signals for the penetration that does occur. The two sensors are designed to produce signals with opposite polarities; hence, each current monitor may be regarded as a single detector with differential outputs. Common-mode-noise rejection is achieved by combining these signals in a 50-(Omega) balun. The signal cables that connect the B-dot monitors to the balun are chosen to provide reasonable bandwidth and acceptable levels of Compton drive in the bremsstrahlung field of the accelerator. A single 50-ω cable transmits the output signal of each balun to a double-wall screen room, where the signals are attenuated, digitized (0.5-ns/sample), numerically compensated for cable losses, and numerically integrated. By contrast, each inner-MITL current monitor contains only a single B-dot sensor. These monitors are fielded in opposite-polarity pairs. The two signals from a pair are

  16. Effective seismic acceleration measurements for low-cost Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos; Makris, John P.

    2015-04-01

    There is increasing demand on cost effective Structural Health Monitoring systems for buildings as well as important and/or critical constructions. The front end for all these systems is the accelerometer. We present a comparative study of two low cost MEMS accelaration sensors against a very sensitive, high dynamic range strong motion accelerometer of force balance type but much more expensive. A real experiment was realized by deploying the three sesnors in a reinforced concrete building of the premises of TEI of Crete at Chania Crete, an earthquake prone region. The analysis of the collected accelararion data from many seismic events indicates that all sensors are able to efficiently reveal the seismic response of the construction in terms of PSD. Furthermore, it is shown that coherence diagrams between excitation and response of the building under study, depict structural characteristics but also the seismic energy distribution. This work is supported by the Archimedes III Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece, through the Operational Program "Educational and Lifelong Learning", in the framework of the project entitled "Interdisciplinary Multi-Scale Research of Earthquake Physics and Seismotectonics at the front of the Hellenic Arc (IMPACT-ARC)" and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds.

  17. Measurement of back-scattered radiation from micro multileaf collimator into the beam monitor chamber from a dual energy linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements designed to find the collimator backscatter into the beam monitor chamber from Micro Multileaf collimator of 6 MV photon beams of the Siemens Primus linear accelerator were made with the help of dose rate feedback control. The photons and electrons backscattered from the upper and lower secondary collimator jaws give rise to a significant increase in the ion charge measured by monitor chamber. This increase varies between the different accelerators. The output measurements were carried out in air at the isocenter. The effect of collimator backscatter was investigated by measuring the pulse width, number of beam pulses per monitor unit, monitor unit rate and dose for different mMLC openings. These measurements were made with and without dose rate feedback control, i.e., with constant electron beam current in the accelerator. Monitor unit rate (MU/min was almost constant for all field sizes. The maximum variation between the open and the closed feedback control circuits was 2.5%. There was no difference in pulse width and negligible difference in pulse frequency. Maximum value of backscattered radiation from the micro Multileaf collimator into the beam monitor chamber was found to be 0.5%.

  18. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  19. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  20. Status of higher order mode beam position monitors in 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Jones, R M; Flisgen, T; Van Rienen, U; Shinton, I R R

    2013-01-01

    Higher order mode (HOM) beam position monitors (BPM) are being developed for the 3.9 GHz third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. The transverse beam position in a cavity can be determined utilizing beam-excited HOMs based on dipole components. The existing couplers used for HOM suppression provide necessary signals. The diagnostics principle is similar to a cavity BPM, but requires no additional vacuum instruments on the linac. The challenges of HOM-BPM for 3.9 GHz cavities lie in the dense HOM spectrum arising from the coupling of the majority HOMs amongst the four cavities in the cryo-module ACC39. HOMs with particularly promising diagnostics features were evaluated using a spectrum analyzer and custom-built test electronics with various data analysis techniques, data reduction was focused on. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, multi-cavity modes in the region of 5 GHz were chosen to provide a global position over the complete module with superi...

  1. SU-E-T-354: Efficient and Enhanced QA Testing of Linear Accelerators Using a Real-Time Beam Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J; Farrokhkish, M; Norrlinger, B; Wang, Y [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Heaton, R; Jaffray, D; Islam, M [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of performing routine QA tests of linear accelerators (Linac) using the Integral Quality Monitoring (IQM) system. The system, consisting of a 1-D sensitivity gradient large area ion-chamber mounted at the collimator, allows automatic collection and analysis of beam data. Methods: The IQM was investigated to perform several QA constancy tests, similar to those recommended by AAPM TG142, of a Linac including: beam output, MLC calibration, beam symmetry, relative dose factor (RDF), dose linearity, output as a function of gantry angle and dose rate. All measurements by the IQM system accompanied a reference measurement using a conventional dosimetry system and were performed on an Elekta Infinity Linac with Agility MLC. The MLC calibration check is done using a Picket-Fence type 2×10cm{sup 2} field positioned at different off-axis locations along the chamber gradient. Beam symmetry constancy values are established by signals from an 4×4cm{sup 2} aperture located at various off-axis positions; the sensitivity of the test was determined by the changes in the signals in response to a tilt in the beam. The data for various square field sizes were used to develop a functional relationship with RDF. Results: The IQM tracked the beam output well within 1% of the reference ion-chamber readings. The Picket-Fence type field test detected a 1mm shift error of one MLC bank. The system was able to detect 2.5% or greater beam asymmetry. The IQM results for all other QA tests were found to agree with the reference values to within 0.5%. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the IQM system can effectively monitor the Linac performance parameters for the purpose of routine QA constancy tests. With minimum user interactions a comprehensive set of tests can be performed efficiently, allowing frequent monitoring of the Linac. The presenting author’s salary is funded by the manufacturer of the QA device. All the other authors have financial

  2. SU-E-T-354: Efficient and Enhanced QA Testing of Linear Accelerators Using a Real-Time Beam Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J; Farrokhkish, M; Norrlinger, B; Wang, Y; Heaton, R; Jaffray, D; Islam, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of performing routine QA tests of linear accelerators (Linac) using the Integral Quality Monitoring (IQM) system. The system, consisting of a 1-D sensitivity gradient large area ion-chamber mounted at the collimator, allows automatic collection and analysis of beam data. Methods: The IQM was investigated to perform several QA constancy tests, similar to those recommended by AAPM TG142, of a Linac including: beam output, MLC calibration, beam symmetry, relative dose factor (RDF), dose linearity, output as a function of gantry angle and dose rate. All measurements by the IQM system accompanied a reference measurement using a conventional dosimetry system and were performed on an Elekta Infinity Linac with Agility MLC. The MLC calibration check is done using a Picket-Fence type 2×10cm 2 field positioned at different off-axis locations along the chamber gradient. Beam symmetry constancy values are established by signals from an 4×4cm 2 aperture located at various off-axis positions; the sensitivity of the test was determined by the changes in the signals in response to a tilt in the beam. The data for various square field sizes were used to develop a functional relationship with RDF. Results: The IQM tracked the beam output well within 1% of the reference ion-chamber readings. The Picket-Fence type field test detected a 1mm shift error of one MLC bank. The system was able to detect 2.5% or greater beam asymmetry. The IQM results for all other QA tests were found to agree with the reference values to within 0.5%. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that the IQM system can effectively monitor the Linac performance parameters for the purpose of routine QA constancy tests. With minimum user interactions a comprehensive set of tests can be performed efficiently, allowing frequent monitoring of the Linac. The presenting author’s salary is funded by the manufacturer of the QA device. All the other authors have financial interests with

  3. Cardiac acceleration at the onset of exercise: a potential parameter for monitoring progress during physical training in sports and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinga, Florentina J; Monden, Paul G; van Meeteren, Nico L U; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-05-01

    There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HRonset) can be used as a monitoring variable. The digital databases of Scopus and PubMed were searched to retrieve studies investigating HRonset. In total 652 studies were retrieved. These articles were then classified as having emphasis on HRonset in a sports or rehabilitation setting, which resulted in 8 of 112 studies with a sports application and 6 of 68 studies with a rehabilitation application that met inclusion criteria. Two co-existing mechanisms underlie HRonset: feedforward (central command) and feedback (mechanoreflex, metaboreflex, baroreflex) control. A number of studies investigated HRonset during the first few seconds of exercise (HRonsetshort), in which central command and the mechanoreflex determine vagal withdrawal, the major mechanism by which heart rate (HR) increases. In subsequent sports and rehabilitation studies, interest focused on HRonset during dynamic exercise over a longer period of time (HRonsetlong). Central command, mechanoreflexes, baroreflexes, and possibly metaboreflexes contribute to HRonset during the first seconds and minutes of exercise, which in turn leads to further vagal withdrawal and an increase in sympathetic activity. HRonset has been described as the increase in HR compared with resting state (delta HR) or by exponential modeling, with measurement intervals ranging from 0-4 s up to 2 min. Delta HR was used to evaluate HRonsetshort over the first 4 s of exercise, as well as for analyzing HRonsetlong. In exponential modeling, the HR response to dynamic exercise is biphasic, consisting of fast (parasympathetic, 0-10 s) and slow (sympathetic, 1-4 min) components. Although available studies differed largely in measurement protocols, cross-sectional and longitudinal training studies showed that studies analyzing HRonset

  4. Evaluation of the environmental equivalent dose rate using area monitors for neutrons in clinical linear accelerators; Avaliacao da taxa de equivalente de dose ambiente utilizando monitores de area para neutrons em aceleradores lineares clinicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula; Pereira, Walsan Wagner; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da, E-mail: asalgado@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Batista, Delano V.S. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Neutron Laboratory of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute - IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, initiated studies on the process of calibration of neutron area monitors and the results of the measurements performed at radiotherapy treatment rooms, containing clinical accelerators

  5. On-board Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Steve; Stein, Cara; Graves, Sara J.

    Networks of remote sensors are becoming more common as technology improves and costs decline. In the past, a remote sensor was usually a device that collected data to be retrieved at a later time by some other mechanism. This collected data were usually processed well after the fact at a computer greatly removed from the in situ sensing location. This has begun to change as sensor technology, on-board processing, and network communication capabilities have increased and their prices have dropped. There has been an explosion in the number of sensors and sensing devices, not just around the world, but literally throughout the solar system. These sensors are not only becoming vastly more sophisticated, accurate, and detailed in the data they gather but they are also becoming cheaper, lighter, and smaller. At the same time, engineers have developed improved methods to embed computing systems, memory, storage, and communication capabilities into the platforms that host these sensors. Now, it is not unusual to see large networks of sensors working in cooperation with one another. Nor does it seem strange to see the autonomous operation of sensorbased systems, from space-based satellites to smart vacuum cleaners that keep our homes clean and robotic toys that help to entertain and educate our children. But access to sensor data and computing power is only part of the story. For all the power of these systems, there are still substantial limits to what they can accomplish. These include the well-known limits to current Artificial Intelligence capabilities and our limited ability to program the abstract concepts, goals, and improvisation needed for fully autonomous systems. But it also includes much more basic engineering problems such as lack of adequate power, communications bandwidth, and memory, as well as problems with the geolocation and real-time georeferencing required to integrate data from multiple sensors to be used together.

  6. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Thomas [German Aerospace Center - DLR, Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology, Cologne (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as 'operational' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on 'scientific' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  7. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as ''operational'' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on ''scientific'' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  8. Aerial Logistics Management for Carrier Onboard Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY by Samuel L. Chen September 2016...AND SUBTITLE AERIAL LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT FOR CARRIER ONBOARD DELIVERY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Samuel L. Chen 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...delivery (COD) is the use of aircraft to transport people and cargo from a forward logistics site (FLS) to a carrier strike group (CSG). The goal of

  9. Spectrally and Radiometrically Stable, Wideband, Onboard Calibration Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James B.; Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Quetin, Gregory R.; Porter, Michael D.; Green, Robert O.; Nolte, Scott H.; Hernandez, Marco A.; Knoll, Linley A.

    2013-01-01

    The Onboard Calibration (OBC) source incorporates a medical/scientific-grade halogen source with a precisely designed fiber coupling system, and a fiber-based intensity-monitoring feedback loop that results in radiometric and spectral stabilities to within less than 0.3 percent over a 15-hour period. The airborne imaging spectrometer systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory incorporate OBC sources to provide auxiliary in-use system calibration data. The use of the OBC source will provide a significant increase in the quantitative accuracy, reliability, and resulting utility of the spectral data collected from current and future imaging spectrometer instruments.

  10. Differential-output B-dot and D-dot monitors for current and voltage measurements on a 20-MA, 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Wagoner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a system of differential-output monitors that diagnose current and voltage in the vacuum section of a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator. The system includes 62 gauges: 3 current and 6 voltage monitors that are fielded on each of the accelerator’s 4 vacuum-insulator stacks, 6 current monitors on each of the accelerator’s 4 outer magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs, and 2 current monitors on the accelerator’s inner MITL. The inner-MITL monitors are located 6 cm from the axis of the load. Each of the stack and outer-MITL current monitors comprises two separate B-dot sensors, each of which consists of four 3-mm-diameter wire loops wound in series. The two sensors are separately located within adjacent cavities machined out of a single piece of copper. The high electrical conductivity of copper minimizes penetration of magnetic flux into the cavity walls, which minimizes changes in the sensitivity of the sensors on the 100-ns time scale of the accelerator’s power pulse. A model of flux penetration has been developed and is used to correct (to first order the B-dot signals for the penetration that does occur. The two sensors are designed to produce signals with opposite polarities; hence, each current monitor may be regarded as a single detector with differential outputs. Common-mode-noise rejection is achieved by combining these signals in a 50-Ω balun. The signal cables that connect the B-dot monitors to the balun are chosen to provide reasonable bandwidth and acceptable levels of Compton drive in the bremsstrahlung field of the accelerator. A single 50-Ω cable transmits the output signal of each balun to a double-wall screen room, where the signals are attenuated, digitized (0.5-ns/sample, numerically compensated for cable losses, and numerically integrated. By contrast, each inner-MITL current monitor contains only a single B-dot sensor. These monitors are fielded in opposite-polarity pairs. The two

  11. Implementing Temperature Supervision for the ALICE CRU Card Using the Onboard Microcontroller

    CERN Document Server

    Perez Bernabeu, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    We report on the first implementation of the thermal supervisory firmware for the onboard microcontroller on the ALICE CRU card. The Common Readout Unit (CRU) is a custom PCI Express FPGA card developed by “Centre Physique des Particules de Marseille” in collaboration of LHCb and ALICE. While the main effort has been focused on the development of the FPGA firmware that implements all the communication needs, there are several independent design tasks identified to ensure the safe operation of the CRU card under all possible conditions. One such task is to implement a robust local (on-board) temperature monitoring and safeguarding subsystem based on ATmega128 microcontroller. It will autonomously prevent the thermal damage of the card even if the remote HW monitoring and controlling functions (integrated in DCS) failed for any reason. Consequently, our main goal in this project will be implementing the temperature supervision using the onboard microcontroller.

  12. Onboard Processing on PWE OFA/WFC (Onboard Frequency Analyzer/Waveform Capture) aboard the ERG (ARASE) Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Kojima, H.; Kasaba, Y.; Yagitani, S.; Ozaki, M.; Imachi, T.; Ishisaka, K.; Kurita, S.; Ota, M.; Kumamoto, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Yoshizumi, M.; Matsuoka, A.; Teramoto, M.; Shinohara, I.

    2017-12-01

    Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) is a mission for understanding particle acceleration, loss mechanisms, and the dynamic evolution of space storms in the context of cross-energy and cross-regional coupling [Miyoshi et al., 2012]. The ERG (ARASE) satellite was launched on December 20, 2016, and successfully inserted into an orbit. The Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) is one of the science instruments on board the ERG satellite to measure electric field and magnetic field in the inner magnetosphere. PWE consists of three sub-components, EFD (Electric Field Detector), OFA/WFC (Onboard Frequency Analyzer and Waveform Capture), and HFA (High Frequency Analyzer). Especially, OFA/WFC measures electric and magnetic field spectrum and waveform from a few Hz to 20 kHz. OFA/WFC processes signals detected by a couple of dipole wire-probe antenna (WPT) and tri-axis magnetic search coils (MSC) installed onboard the satellite. The PWE-OFA subsystem calculates and produces three kind of data; OFA-SPEC (power spectrum), OFA-MATRIX (spectrum matrix), and OFA-COMPLEX (complex spectrum). They are continuously processed 24 hours per day and all data are sent to the ground. OFA-MATRIX and OFA-COMPLEX are used for polarization analyses and direction finding of the plasma waves. The PWE-WFC subsystem measures raw (64 kHz sampled) and down-sampled (1 kHz sampled) burst waveform detected by the WPT and the MSC sensors. It activates by a command, automatic triggering, and scheduling. The initial check-out process of the PWE successfully completed, and initial data has been obtained. In this presentation, we introduce onboard processing technique on PWE OFA/WFC and its initial results.

  13. Evaluation of area monitor response for neutrons in radiation field generated by a 15 MV clinic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    The clinical importance and usage of linear accelerators in cancer treatment increased significantly in the last years. Coupled with this growth came the concern about the use of accelerators with energies over to 10 MeV which produce therapeutic beam contaminated with neutrons generated when high-energy photons interact with high-atomic-number materials such as tungsten and lead present in the accelerator itself. At these facilities, measurements of the ambient dose equivalent for neutrons present difficulties owing to the existence of a mixed radiation field and possible electromagnetic interference near the accelerator. The Neutron Laboratory of the IRD - Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, aiming to evaluate the survey meters performance at these facilities, initiated studies of instrumentation response in the presence of different neutron spectra. Neutrons sources with average energies ranging from 0.55 to 4.2 MeV, four different survey meters and one ionization chamber to obtain the ratio between the dose due to neutrons and gamma radiation were used in this work. The evaluation of these measurements, performed in a 15 MV linear accelerator room is presented. This work presents results that demonstrate the complexity and care needed to make neutrons measurements in radiotherapy treatment rooms containing high energy clinical accelerators. (author)

  14. Automation of On-Board Flightpath Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The status of concepts and techniques for the design of onboard flight path management systems is reviewed. Such systems are designed to increase flight efficiency and safety by automating the optimization of flight procedures onboard aircraft. After a brief review of the origins and functions of such systems, two complementary methods are described for attacking the key design problem, namely, the synthesis of efficient trajectories. One method optimizes en route, the other optimizes terminal area flight; both methods are rooted in optimal control theory. Simulation and flight test results are reviewed to illustrate the potential of these systems for fuel and cost savings.

  15. Using Onboard Telemetry for MAVEN Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Try; Trawny, Nikolas; Lee, Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the spacecraft state has been traditional done using radiometric tracking data before and after the atmosphere drag pass. This paper describes our approach and results to include onboard telemetry measurements in addition to radiometric observables to refine the reconstructed trajectory estimate for the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN). Uncertainties in the Mars atmosphere models, combined with non-continuous tracking degrade navigation accuracy, making MAVEN a key candidate for using onboard telemetry data to help complement its orbit determination process.

  16. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  17. Dust Measurements Onboard the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, M.; Kempf, S.; Malaspina, D.; Poppe, A.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Szalay, J.

    2018-02-01

    A dust instrument onboard the Deep Space Gateway will revolutionize our understanding of the dust environment at 1 AU, help our understanding of the evolution of the solar system, and improve dust hazard models for the safety of crewed and robotic missions.

  18. A new on-board imaging treatment technique for palliative and emergency treatments in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Mareike

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the use of on-board imaging systems as the basis for treatment planning, presenting an additional application for on-board images. A clinical workflow is developed to simulate, plan, and deliver a simple radiation oncology treatment rapidly, using 3D patient scans. The work focuses on an on-line dose planning and delivery process based on on-board images entirely performed with the patient set up on the treatment couch of the linear accelerator. This potentially reduces the time between patient simulation and treatment to about 30 minutes. The basis for correct dose calculation is the accurate image gray scale to tissue density calibration. The gray scale, which is defined in CT Numbers, is dependent on the energy spectrum of the beam. Therefore, an understanding of the physics characteristics of each on-board system is required to evaluate the impact on image quality, especially regarding the underlying cause of image noise, contrast, and non-uniformity. Modern on-board imaging systems, including kV and megavoltage (MV) cone beam (CB) CT as well as MV CT, are characterized in terms of image quality and stability. A library of phantom and patient CT images is used to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy for the on-board images. The dose calculation objective is to stay within 5% local dose differences compared to standard kV CT dose planning. The objective is met in many treatment cases. However, dose calculation accuracy depends on the anatomical treatment site. While on-board CT-based treatments of the head and extremities are predictable within 5% on all systems, lung tissue and air cavities may create local dose discrepancies of more than 5%. The image quality varies between the tested units. Consequently, the CT number-to-density calibration is defined independently for each system. In case of some imaging systems, the CT numbers of the images are dependent on the protocol used for on-board imaging, which defines the imaging dose

  19. A new on-board imaging treatment technique for palliative and emergency treatments in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Mareike

    2016-03-23

    This dissertation focuses on the use of on-board imaging systems as the basis for treatment planning, presenting an additional application for on-board images. A clinical workflow is developed to simulate, plan, and deliver a simple radiation oncology treatment rapidly, using 3D patient scans. The work focuses on an on-line dose planning and delivery process based on on-board images entirely performed with the patient set up on the treatment couch of the linear accelerator. This potentially reduces the time between patient simulation and treatment to about 30 minutes. The basis for correct dose calculation is the accurate image gray scale to tissue density calibration. The gray scale, which is defined in CT Numbers, is dependent on the energy spectrum of the beam. Therefore, an understanding of the physics characteristics of each on-board system is required to evaluate the impact on image quality, especially regarding the underlying cause of image noise, contrast, and non-uniformity. Modern on-board imaging systems, including kV and megavoltage (MV) cone beam (CB) CT as well as MV CT, are characterized in terms of image quality and stability. A library of phantom and patient CT images is used to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy for the on-board images. The dose calculation objective is to stay within 5% local dose differences compared to standard kV CT dose planning. The objective is met in many treatment cases. However, dose calculation accuracy depends on the anatomical treatment site. While on-board CT-based treatments of the head and extremities are predictable within 5% on all systems, lung tissue and air cavities may create local dose discrepancies of more than 5%. The image quality varies between the tested units. Consequently, the CT number-to-density calibration is defined independently for each system. In case of some imaging systems, the CT numbers of the images are dependent on the protocol used for on-board imaging, which defines the imaging dose

  20. Alternative uses of a megavolt tandem accelerator for few-keV studies with ion-source SIMS monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, S. L. A., E-mail: smello@ufv.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 36570-900 Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Codeço, C. F. S.; Magnani, B. F.; Sant’Anna, M. M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    We increase the versatility of a tandem electrostatic accelerator by implementing simple modifications to the standard operation procedure. While keeping its ability to deliver MeV ion beams, we show that the experimental setup can (i) provide good quality ion beams in the few-keV energy range and (ii) be used to study ion-beam surface modification with simultaneous secondary ion mass spectrometry. This latter task is accomplished without using any chamber connected to the accelerator exit. We perform mass spectrometry of the few-keV anions produced in the ion source by measuring their neutral counterparts at the accelerator exit with energies up to 1.7 MeV. With an additional modification, a high-current few-keV regime is obtained, using the ion source as an irradiation chamber and the accelerator itself only as a mass spectrometer. As an example of application, we prepare a sample for the study of ion-beam assisted dewetting of a thin Au film on a Si substrate.

  1. On-board data management study for EOPAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davisson, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements, implementation techniques, and mission analysis associated with on-board data management for EOPAP were studied. SEASAT-A was used as a baseline, and the storage requirements, data rates, and information extraction requirements were investigated for each of the following proposed SEASAT sensors: a short pulse 13.9 GHz radar, a long pulse 13.9 GHz radar, a synthetic aperture radar, a multispectral passive microwave radiometer facility, and an infrared/visible very high resolution radiometer (VHRR). Rate distortion theory was applied to determine theoretical minimum data rates and compared with the rates required by practical techniques. It was concluded that practical techniques can be used which approach the theoretically optimum based upon an empirically determined source random process model. The results of the preceding investigations were used to recommend an on-board data management system for (1) data compression through information extraction, optimal noiseless coding, source coding with distortion, data buffering, and data selection under command or as a function of data activity, (2) for command handling, (3) for spacecraft operation and control, and (4) for experiment operation and monitoring.

  2. Fresh water generators onboard a floating platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Verma, R.K.; Misra, B.M.; Sadhulkan, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    A dependable supply of fresh water is essential for any ocean going vessel. The operating and maintenance personnel on offshore platforms and marine structures also require a constant and regular supply of fresh water to meet their essential daily needs. A seawater thermal desalination unit onboard delivers good quality fresh water from seawater. The desalination units developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) suitable for ocean going vessels and offshore platforms have been discussed. Design considerations of such units with reference to floating platforms and corrosive environments have been presented. The feasibility of coupling a low temperature vacuum evaporation (LTVE) desalination plant suitable for an onboard floating platform to a PHWR nuclear power plant has also been discussed. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs, 2 tabs

  3. On-boarding the Middle Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼConnor, Mary

    The trend of promoting clinical experts into management roles continues. New middle managers need a transitional plan that includes support, mentoring, and direction from senior leaders, including the chief nursing officer (CNO). This case study demonstrates how the CNO of one organization collaborated with a faculty member colleague to develop and implement a yearlong personalized on-boarding program for a group of new nurse middle managers.

  4. The AGILE on-board Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, A.; Cocco, V.; Mereghetti, S.; Pittori, C.; Tavani, M.

    2006-01-01

    On-board reduction of particle background is one of the main challenges of space instruments dedicated to gamma-ray astrophysics. We present in this paper a discussion of the method and main simulation results of the on-board background filter of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) of the AGILE mission. The GRID is capable of detecting and imaging with optimal point spread function gamma-ray photons in the range 30MeV-30GeV. The AGILE planned orbit is equatorial, with an altitude of 550km. This is an optimal orbit from the point of view of the expected particle background. For this orbit, electrons and positrons of kinetic energies between 20MeV and hundreds of MeV dominate the particle background, with significant contributions from high-energy (primary) and low-energy protons, and gamma-ray albedo-photons. We present here the main results obtained by extensive simulations of the on-board AGILE-GRID particle/photon background rejection algorithms based on a special application of Kalman filter techniques. This filter is applied (Level-2) sequentially after other data processing techniques characterizing the Level-1 processing. We show that, in conjunction with the Level-1 processing, the adopted Kalman filtering is expected to reduce the total particle/albedo-photon background rate to a value (=<10-30Hz) that is compatible with the AGILE telemetry. The AGILE on-board Kalman filter is also effective in reducing the Earth-albedo-photon background rate, and therefore contributes to substantially increase the AGILE exposure for celestial gamma-ray sources

  5. Autonomous onboard optical processor for driving aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Mondher; Servel, Alain; Guibert, Laurent

    1995-01-01

    We take advantage of recent technological advances in the field of ferroelectric liquid crystal silicon back plane optoelectronic devices. These are well suited to perform massively parallel processing tasks. That choice enables the design of low cost vision systems and allows the implementation of an on-board system. We focus on transport applications such as road sign recognition. Preliminary in-car experimental results are presented.

  6. Spacecube: A Family of Reconfigurable Hybrid On-Board Science Data Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatley, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    SpaceCube is a family of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based on-board science data processing systems developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goal of the SpaceCube program is to provide 10x to 100x improvements in on-board computing power while lowering relative power consumption and cost. SpaceCube is based on the Xilinx Virtex family of FPGAs, which include processor, FPGA logic and digital signal processing (DSP) resources. These processing elements are leveraged to produce a hybrid science data processing platform that accelerates the execution of algorithms by distributing computational functions to the most suitable elements. This approach enables the implementation of complex on-board functions that were previously limited to ground based systems, such as on-board product generation, data reduction, calibration, classification, eventfeature detection, data mining and real-time autonomous operations. The system is fully reconfigurable in flight, including data parameters, software and FPGA logic, through either ground commanding or autonomously in response to detected eventsfeatures in the instrument data stream.

  7. The Thermal Infrared Sensor onboard NASA's Mars 2020 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G.; Perez-Izquierdo, J.; Sebastian, E.; Ramos, M.; Bravo, A.; Mazo, M.; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Mars 2020 rover mission is scheduled for launch in July/August 2020 and will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) is one of the seven instruments onboard the rover [1] and has been designed to assess the environmental conditions across the rover traverse. MEDA will extend the current record of in-situ meteorological measurements at the surface [2] to other locations on Mars. The Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) [3] is one of the six sensors comprising MEDA. TIRS will use three downward-looking channels to measure (1) the surface skin temperature (with high heritage from the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station onboard the Mars Science Laboratory mission [4]), (2) the upwelling thermal infrared radiation from the surface and (3) the reflected solar radiation at the surface, and two upward-looking channels to measure the (4) downwelling thermal infrared radiation at the surface and (5) the atmospheric temperature. In combination with other MEDA's sensors, TIRS will allow the quantification of the surface energy budget [5] and the determination of key geophysical properties of the terrain such as the albedo and thermal inertia with an unprecedented spatial resolution. Here we present a general description of the TIRS, with focus on its scientific requirements and results from field campaigns showing the performance of the different channels. References:[1] Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A. et al. (2014), MEDA: An environmental and meteorological package for Mars 2020, LPSC, 45, 2837. [2] Martínez, G.M. et al. (2017), The Modern Near-Surface Martian Climate: A Review of In-situ Meteorological Data from Viking to Curiosity, Space Science Reviews, 1-44. [3] Pérez-Izquierdo, J. et al. (2017), The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) of the Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) Instrument onboard Mars 2020, IEEE. [4] Sebastián, E. et al. (2010), The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground

  8. Onboard Autonomous Corrections for Accurate IRF Pointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J. L.; Betto, M.; Denver, T.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past decade, the Noise Equivalent Angle (NEA) of onboard attitude reference instruments, has decreased from tens-of-arcseconds to the sub-arcsecond level. This improved performance is partly due to improved sensor-technology with enhanced signal to noise ratios, partly due to improved processing electronics which allows for more sophisticated and faster signal processing. However, the main reason for the increased precision, is the application of onboard autonomy, which apart from simple outlier rejection also allows for removal of "false positive" answers, and other "unexpected" noise sources, that otherwise would degrade the quality of the measurements (e.g. discrimination between signals caused by starlight and ionizing radiation). The utilization of autonomous signal processing has also provided the means for another onboard processing step, namely the autonomous recovery from lost in space, where the attitude instrument without a priori knowledge derive the absolute attitude, i.e. in IRF coordinates, within fractions of a second. Combined with precise orbital state or position data, the absolute attitude information opens for multiple ways to improve the mission performance, either by reducing operations costs, by increasing pointing accuracy, by reducing mission expendables, or by providing backup decision information in case of anomalies. The Advanced Stellar Compass's (ASC) is a miniature, high accuracy, attitude instrument which features fully autonomous operations. The autonomy encompass all direct steps from automatic health checkout at power-on, over fully automatic SEU and SEL handling and proton induced sparkle removal, to recovery from "lost in space", and optical disturbance detection and handling. But apart from these more obvious autonomy functions, the ASC also features functions to handle and remove the aforementioned residuals. These functions encompass diverse operators such as a full orbital state vector model with automatic cloud

  9. Dosimetry and monitoring of X-rays narrow beams produced by linear particle accelerator, for using in radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, J.C.F.; Vizeu, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The main characteristics of X-rays narrow beams dosimetry and monitoring are examined, aiming the introduction of this system in brain radiosurgery. The non-protocolize detectors are used, once that the detectors used in therapy by megavoltage were projected for dosimetry with an irradiation field above 40 mm diameter. (C.G.C.) [pt

  10. An MLC-based version for the ecliptic method for the determination of backscatter into the beam monitor chambers in photon beams of medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelli, Flavio Enrico

    2016-01-01

    A very simple method to measure the effect of the backscatter from secondary collimators into the beam monitor chambers in linear accelerators equipped with multi-leaf collimators (MLC) is presented here. The backscatter to the monitor chambers from the upper jaws of the secondary collimator was measured on three beam-matched linacs by means of three methods: this new methodology, the ecliptic method, and assessing the variation of the beam-on time per monitor unit with dose rate feedback disabled. This new methodology was used to assess the backscatter characteristics of asymmetric over-traveling jaws. Excellent agreement between the backscatter values measured using the new methodology introduced here and the ones obtained using the other two methods was established. The experimental values reported here differ by less than 1 % from published data. The sensitivity of this novel technique allowed differences in backscatter due to the same opening of the jaws, when placed at different positions on the beam path, to be resolved. The introduction of the ecliptic method has made the determination of the backscatter to the monitor chambers an easy procedure. The method presented here for machines equipped with MLCs makes the determination of backscatter to the beam monitor chambers even easier, and suitable to characterize linacs equipped with over-traveling asymmetric secondary collimators. This experimental procedure could be simply implemented to fully characterize the backscatter output factor constituent when detailed dosimetric modeling of the machine’s head is required. The methodology proved to be uncomplicated, accurate and suitable for clinical or experimental environments.

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation and Monitoring Results from COPV Accelerated Stress Rupture Testing, NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsberry Regor

    2010-01-01

    Develop and demonstrate NDE techniques for real-time characterization of CPVs and, where possible, identification of NDE capable of assessing stress rupture related strength degradation and/or making vessel life predictions (structural health monitoring or periodic inspection modes). Secondary: Provide the COPV user and materials community with quality carbon/epoxy (C/Ep) COPV stress rupture progression rate data. Aid in modeling, manufacturing, and application of COPVs for NASA spacecraft.

  12. On-Board Rendezvous Targeting for Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Michael W.; DSouza, Christopher N.

    2010-01-01

    The Orion On-board GNC system is among the most complex ever developed for a space mission. It is designed to operate autonomously (independent of the ground). The rendezvous system in particular was designed to operate on the far side of the moon, and in the case of loss-of-communications with the ground. The vehicle GNC system is designed to retarget the rendezvous maneuvers, given a mission plan. As such, all the maneuvers which will be performed by Orion, have been designed and are being incorporated into the flight code.

  13. Method of optimization onboard communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platoshin, G. A.; Selvesuk, N. I.; Semenov, M. E.; Novikov, V. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this article the optimization levels of onboard communication network (OCN) are proposed. We defined the basic parameters, which are necessary for the evaluation and comparison of modern OCN, we identified also a set of initial data for possible modeling of the OCN. We also proposed a mathematical technique for implementing the OCN optimization procedure. This technique is based on the principles and ideas of binary programming. It is shown that the binary programming technique allows to obtain an inherently optimal solution for the avionics tasks. An example of the proposed approach implementation to the problem of devices assignment in OCN is considered.

  14. On-board processing for telecommunications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuspl, P. P.; Dong, G.

    1991-01-01

    In this decade, communications satellite systems will probably face dramatic challenges from alternative transmission means. To balance and overcome such competition, and to prepare for new requirements, INTELSAT has developed several on-board processing techniques, including Satellite-Switched TDMA (SS-TDMA), Satellite-Switched FDMA (SS-FDMA), several Modulators/Demodulators (Modem), a Multicarrier Multiplexer and Demodulator MCDD), an International Business Service (IBS)/Intermediate Data Rate (IDR) BaseBand Processor (BBP), etc. Some proof-of-concept hardware and software were developed, and tested recently in the INTELSAT Technical Laboratories. These techniques and some test results are discussed.

  15. Test setup for accelerated test of high power IGBT modules with online monitoring of Vce and Vf voltage during converter operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup

    2014-01-01

    Several accelerated test methods exist in order to study the failures mechanisms of the high power IGBT modules like temperature cycling test or power cycles based on DC current pulses. The main drawback is that the test conditions do not represent the real performance and stress conditions...... of the device in real application. The hypothesis is that ageing of power modules closer to real environment including cooling system, full dc-link voltage and continuous PWM operation could lead to more accurate study of failure mechanism. A new type of test setup is proposed, which can create different real...... load conditions like in the field. Furthermore, collector-emitter voltage (Vce) has been used as indicator of the wear-out of the high power IGBT module. The innovative monitoring system implemented in the test setup is capable of measure the Vce and forward voltage of the antiparallel diode (Vf...

  16. Orienting and Onboarding Clinical Nurse Specialists: A Process Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mayra G; Watt, Jennifer L; Falder-Saeed, Karie; Lewis, Brennan; Patton, Lindsey

    Clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) have a unique advanced practice role. This article describes a process useful in establishing a comprehensive orientation and onboarding program for a newly hired CNS. The project team used the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists core competencies as a guide to construct a process for effectively onboarding and orienting newly hired CNSs. Standardized documents were created for the orientation process including a competency checklist, needs assessment template, and professional evaluation goals. In addition, other documents were revised to streamline the orientation process. Standardizing the onboarding and orientation process has demonstrated favorable results. As of 2016, 3 CNSs have successfully been oriented and onboarded using the new process. Unique healthcare roles require special focus when onboarding and orienting into a healthcare system. The use of the National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists core competencies guided the project in establishing a successful orientation and onboarding process for newly hired CNSs.

  17. Identifying Onboarding Heuristics for Free-to-Play Mobile Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Ebdrup; Weigert Petersen, Falko; Drachen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    a set of heuristics for the design of onboarding phases in mobile games is presented. The heuristics are identified by a lab-based mixed-methods experiment, utilizing lightweight psycho-physiological measures together with self-reported player responses, across three titles that cross the genres...... of puzzle games, base builders and arcade games, and utilize different onboarding phase design approaches. Results showcase how heuristics can be used to design engaging onboarding phases in mobile games....

  18. Life Support Systems: Environmental Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Environmental Monitoring (EM) systems task objectives are to develop and demonstrate onboard...

  19. Flight Hardware Virtualization for On-Board Science Data Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilize Hardware Virtualization technology to benefit on-board science data processing by investigating new real time embedded Hardware Virtualization solutions and...

  20. Monitoring Activity for Recognition of Illness in Experimentally Infected Weaned Piglets Using Received Signal Strength Indication ZigBee-based Wireless Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Tabasum Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we proposed and implemented a disease forecasting system using a received signal strength indication ZigBee-based wireless network with a 3-axis acceleration sensor to detect illness at an early stage by monitoring movement of experimentally infected weaned piglets. Twenty seven piglets were divided into control, Salmonella enteritidis (SE infection, and Escherichia coli (EC infection group, and their movements were monitored for five days using wireless sensor nodes on their backs. Data generated showed the 3-axis movement of piglets (X-axis: left and right direction, Y-axis: anteroposterior direction, and Z-axis: up and down direction at five different time periods. Piglets in both infected groups had lower weight gain and feed intake, as well as higher feed conversion ratios than the control group (p<0.05. Infection with SE and EC resulted in reduced body temperature of the piglets at day 2, 4, and 5 (p<0.05. The early morning X-axis movement did not differ between groups; however, the Y-axis movement was higher in the EC group (day 1 and 2, and the Z-axis movement was higher in the EC (day 1 and SE group (day 4 during different experimental periods (p<0.05. The morning X and Y-axis movement did not differ between treatment groups. However, the Z-axis movement was higher in both infected groups at day 1 and lower at day 4 compared to the control (p<0.05. The midday X-axis movement was significantly lower in both infected groups (day 4 and 5 compared to the control (p<0.05, whereas the Y-axis movement did not differ. The Z-axis movement was highest in the SE group at day 1 and 2 and lower at day 4 and 5 (p<0.05. Evening X-axis movement was highest in the control group throughout the experimental period. During day 1 and 2, the Z-axis movement was higher in both of the infected groups; whereas it was lower in the SE group during day 3 and 4 (p<0.05. During day 1 and 2, the night X-axis movement was lower and the Z

  1. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-01-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  2. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  3. Onboard autonomous mineral detectors for Mars rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, M. S.; Bornstein, B.; Castano, R.; Merrill, M.; Greenwood, J.

    2005-12-01

    Mars rovers and orbiters currently collect far more data than can be downlinked to Earth, which reduces mission science return; this problem will be exacerbated by future rovers of enhanced capabilities and lifetimes. We are developing onboard intelligence sufficient to extract geologically meaningful data from spectrometer measurements of soil and rock samples, and thus to guide the selection, measurement and return of these data from significant targets at Mars. Here we report on techniques to construct mineral detectors capable of running on current and future rover and orbital hardware. We focus on carbonate and sulfate minerals which are of particular geologic importance because they can signal the presence of water and possibly life. Sulfates have also been discovered at the Eagle and Endurance craters in Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and at other regions on Mars by the OMEGA instrument aboard Mars Express. We have developed highly accurate artificial neural network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based detectors capable of identifying calcite (CaCO3) and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) in the visible/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra of both laboratory specimens and rocks in Mars analogue field environments. To train the detectors, we used a generative model to create 1000s of linear mixtures of library end-member spectra in geologically realistic percentages. We have also augmented the model to include nonlinear mixing based on Hapke's models of bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy. Both detectors perform well on the spectra of real rocks that contain intimate mixtures of minerals, rocks in natural field environments, calcite covered by Mars analogue dust, and AVIRIS hyperspectral cubes. We will discuss the comparison of ANN and SVM classifiers for this task, technical challenges (weathering rinds, atmospheric compositions, and computational complexity), and plans for integration of these detectors into both the Coupled Layer

  4. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  5. On-board processing of video image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Forchhammer, Søren

    2008-01-01

    and evaluated. On-board there are six video cameras each capturing images of 1024times1024 pixels of 12 bpp at a frame rate of 15 fps, thus totalling 1080 Mbits/s. In comparison the average downlink data rate for these images is projected to be 50 kbit/s. This calls for efficient on-board processing to select...

  6. Defense Threat Reduction Agency > Careers > Onboarding > Special Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Work/Life Programs Onboarding Onboarding Overview Before You Report Sponsor Program Getting Here , programs, and practices to help our employees and Service members balance work and family responsibilities . We have put in place family-friendly Work/Life programs and policies designed to create a more

  7. Accelerator and radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  8. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  9. ON-BOARD COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR KITSAT-1 AND 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Kim

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available KITSAT-1 and 2 are microsatellites weighting 50kg and all the on-board data are processed by the on-board computer system. Hence, these on-board computers require to be highly reliable and be designed with tight power consumption, mass and size constraints. On-board computer(OBC systems for KITSAT-1 and 2 are also designed with a simple flexible hardware for reliability and software takes more responsibility than hardware. KITSAT-1 and 2 on-board computer system consist of OBC 186 as the primary OBC and OBC80 as its backup. OBC186 runs spacecraft operating system (SCOS which has real-time multi-tasking capability. Since their launch, OBC186 and OBC80 have been operating successfully until today. In this paper, we describe the development of OBC186 hardware and software and analyze its in-orbit operation performance.

  10. Performance characterization of Siemens primus linear accelerator under small monitor unit and small segments for the implementation of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reena, P.; Pai, Rajeshri; Gupta, Tejpal; Rajeev, S.; Dayananda, S.; Jamema, S.V.; Deepak, D.

    2006-01-01

    Implementation of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) needs careful understanding of the accelerator start-up characteristic to ensure accurate and precise delivery of radiation dose to patient. The dosimetric characteristic of a Siemens Primus linear accelerator (LA) which delivers 6 and 18 MV x-rays at the dose rate of 300 and 500 monitor unit (MU) per minutes (min) respectively was studied under the condition of small MU ranging from 1 to 100. Dose monitor linearity was studied at different dose calibration parameter (D1 C O) by measuring ionization at 10 cm depth in a solid water phantom using a 0.6 cc ionization chamber. Monitor unit stability was studied from different intensity modulated (IM) groups comprising various combinations of MU per field and number of fields. Stability of beam flatness and symmetry was investigated under normal and IMRT mode for 20x20 cm 2 field under small MU using a 2D Profiler kept isocentrically at 5 cm depth. Inter segment response was investigated form 1 to 10 MU by measuring the dose per MU from various IM groups, each consisting of four segments with inter-segment separation of 2 cm. In the range 1-4 MU, the dose linearity error was more than 5% (max -32% at 1 MU) for 6 MV x-rays at factory calibrated D1 C O value of 6000. The dose linearity error was reduced to -10.95% at 1 MU, within -3% for 2 and 3 MU and ± 1% for MU ≥4 when the D1 C O was subsequently tuned at 4500. For 18 MV x-rays, the dose linearity error at factory calibrated D1 C O value of 4400 was within ± 1% for MU ≥3 with maximum of -13.5 observed at 1 MU. For both the beam energies and MU/field ≥4, the stability of monitor unit tested for different IM groups was within ± 1% of the dose from the normal treatment field. This variation increases to -2.6% for 6 MV and -2.7% for 18 MV x-rays for 2 MU/field. No significant variation was observed in the stability of beam profile measured from normal and IMRT mode. The beam flatness was

  11. Performance characterization of siemens primus linear accelerator under small monitor unit and small segments for the implementation of step-and-shoot intensitymodulated radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT needs careful understanding of the accelerator start-up characteristic to ensure accurate and precise delivery of radiation dose to patient. The dosimetric characteristic of a Siemens Primus linear accelerator (LA which delivers 6 and 18 MV x-rays at the dose rate of 300 and 500 monitor unit (MU per minutes (min respectively was studied under the condition of small MU ranging from 1 to 100. Dose monitor linearity was studied at different dose calibration parameter (D1_C0 by measuring ionization at 10 cm depth in a solid water phantom using a 0.6 cc ionization chamber. Monitor unit stability was studied from different intensity modulated (IM groups comprising various combinations of MU per field and number of fields. Stability of beam flatness and symmetry was investigated under normal and IMRT mode for 20x20 cm2 field under small MU using a 2D Profiler kept isocentrically at 5 cm depth. Inter segment response was investigated form 1 to 10 MU by measuring the dose per MU from various IM groups, each consisting of four segments with inter-segment separation of 2 cm. In the range 1-4 MU, the dose linearity error was more than 5% (max -32% at 1 MU for 6 MV x-rays at factory calibrated D1_C0 value of 6000. The dose linearity error was reduced to -10.95% at 1 MU, within -3% for 2 and 3 MU and ±1% for MU ≥4 when the D1_C0 was subsequently tuned at 4500. For 18 MV x-rays, the dose linearity error at factory calibrated D1_C0 value of 4400 was within ±1% for MU ≥ 3 with maximum of -13.5 observed at 1 MU. For both the beam energies and MU/field ≥ 4, the stability of monitor unit tested for different IM groups was within ±1% of the dose from the normal treatment field. This variation increases to -2.6% for 6 MV and -2.7% for 18 MV x-rays for 2 MU/field. No significant variation was observed in the stability of beam profile measured from normal and IMRT mode. The beam flatness

  12. Onboard Plasmatron Hydrogen Production for Improved Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel R. Cohn; Leslie Bromberg; Kamal Hadidi

    2005-12-31

    A plasmatron fuel reformer has been developed for onboard hydrogen generation for vehicular applications. These applications include hydrogen addition to spark-ignition internal combustion engines, NOx trap and diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, and emissions reduction from spark ignition internal combustion engines First, a thermal plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. This plasmatron used an electric arc with relatively high power to reform fuels such as gasoline, diesel and biofuels at an oxygen to carbon ratio close to 1. The draw back of this device was that it has a high electric consumption and limited electrode lifetime due to the high temperature electric arc. A second generation plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. It used a low-current high-voltage electric discharge with a completely new electrode continuation. This design uses two cylindrical electrodes with a rotating discharge that produced low temperature volumetric cold plasma., The lifetime of the electrodes was no longer an issue and the device was tested on several fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and biofuels at different flow rates and different oxygen to carbon ratios. Hydrogen concentration and yields were measured for both the thermal and non-thermal plasmatron reformers for homogeneous (non-catalytic) and catalytic reforming of several fuels. The technology was licensed to an industrial auto part supplier (ArvinMeritor) and is being implemented for some of the applications listed above. The Plasmatron reformer has been successfully tested on a bus for NOx trap regeneration. The successful development of the plasmatron reformer and its implementation in commercial applications including transportation will bring several benefits to the nation. These benefits include the reduction of NOx emissions, improving engine efficiency and reducing the nation's oil consumption. The objective of this program has been to develop attractive applications of plasmatron fuel reformer

  13. Memory-Efficient Onboard Rock Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burl, Michael C.; Thompson, David R.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.; deGranville, Charles K.

    2013-01-01

    Rockster-MER is an autonomous perception capability that was uploaded to the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in December 2009. This software provides the vision front end for a larger software system known as AEGIS (Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science), which was recently named 2011 NASA Software of the Year. As the first step in AEGIS, Rockster-MER analyzes an image captured by the rover, and detects and automatically identifies the boundary contours of rocks and regions of outcrop present in the scene. This initial segmentation step reduces the data volume from millions of pixels into hundreds (or fewer) of rock contours. Subsequent stages of AEGIS then prioritize the best rocks according to scientist- defined preferences and take high-resolution, follow-up observations. Rockster-MER has performed robustly from the outset on the Mars surface under challenging conditions. Rockster-MER is a specially adapted, embedded version of the original Rockster algorithm ("Rock Segmentation Through Edge Regrouping," (NPO- 44417) Software Tech Briefs, September 2008, p. 25). Although the new version performs the same basic task as the original code, the software has been (1) significantly upgraded to overcome the severe onboard re source limitations (CPU, memory, power, time) and (2) "bulletproofed" through code reviews and extensive testing and profiling to avoid the occurrence of faults. Because of the limited computational power of the RAD6000 flight processor on Opportunity (roughly two orders of magnitude slower than a modern workstation), the algorithm was heavily tuned to improve its speed. Several functional elements of the original algorithm were removed as a result of an extensive cost/benefit analysis conducted on a large set of archived rover images. The algorithm was also required to operate below a stringent 4MB high-water memory ceiling; hence, numerous tricks and strategies were introduced to reduce the memory footprint. Local filtering

  14. Measurement of the dosimetric parameters for low monitor units in step-and-shoot IMRT delivered by Siemens Artiste linear accelerators; Medida de los parametros dosimetricos para bajo numero de unidades monitor en IMRT segmentada estatica administrada por aceleradores lineales Siemens Artiste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, C.; Lopez Fernandez, A.; Saez Beltran, M.; Martin Martin, G.; Alonso Iracheta, L.

    2012-07-01

    Absorbed dose linearity and beam stability, both for low monitor units, are important factors for ensuring planned dose delivery in step-and-shoot IMRT. For Siemens Artiste linear accelerators, under IMRT stable irradiation conditions and for a single segment of 20 cm x 20 cm field size, the linearity of the absorbed dose with the monitor units, field flatness and symmetry have been measured for the range between 1 and 10 monitor units. We have found that absorbed dose linearity with monitor units is within 2% down to 2 monitor units and it is about 9% for 1 monitor unit. Flatness and symmetry values show variations within 1% down to 2 monitor units and increase by 9% for lower values. Using our monitor unit distribution per segment in IMRT we estimate that the uncertainty in absorbed dose for a whole treatment due to these factors is less than 1% (k= 3). (Author) 13 refs.

  15. Virtual Accelerator for Accelerator Optics Improvement

    CERN Document Server

    Yan Yi Ton; Decker, Franz Josef; Ecklund, Stanley; Irwin, John; Seeman, John; Sullivan, Michael K; Turner, J L; Wienands, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Through determination of all quadrupole strengths and sextupole feed-downs by fitting quantities derivable from precision orbit measurement, one can establish a virtual accelerator that matches the real accelerator optics. These quantities (the phase advances, the Green's functions, and the coupling eigen-plane ellipses tilt angles and axis ratios) are obtained by analyzing turn-by-turn Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data with a model-independent analysis (MIA). Instead of trying to identify magnet errors, a limited number of quadrupoles are chosen for optimized strength adjustment to improve the virtual accelerator optics and then applied to the real accelerator accordingly. These processes have been successfully applied to PEP-II rings for beta beating fixes, phase and working tune adjustments, and linear coupling reduction to improve PEP-II luminosity.

  16. Autonomous Onboard Science Data Analysis for Comet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Tran, Daniel Q.; McLaren, David; Chien, Steve A.; Bergman, Larry; Castano, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Estlin, Tara; Lenda, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Coming years will bring several comet rendezvous missions. The Rosetta spacecraft arrives at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. Subsequent rendezvous might include a mission such as the proposed Comet Hopper with multiple surface landings, as well as Comet Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR) and Coma Rendezvous and Sample Return (CRSR). These encounters will begin to shed light on a population that, despite several previous flybys, remains mysterious and poorly understood. Scientists still have little direct knowledge of interactions between the nucleus and coma, their variation across different comets or their evolution over time. Activity may change on short timescales so it is challenging to characterize with scripted data acquisition. Here we investigate automatic onboard image analysis that could act faster than round-trip light time to capture unexpected outbursts and plume activity. We describe one edge-based method for detect comet nuclei and plumes, and test the approach on an existing catalog of comet images. Finally, we quantify benefits to specific measurement objectives by simulating a basic plume monitoring campaign.

  17. On-board aircrew dosimetry using a semiconductor spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Spurny, F

    2002-01-01

    Radiation fields on board aircraft contain particles with energies up to a few hundred MeV. Many instruments have been tested to characterise these fields. This paper presents the results of studies on the use of an Si diode spectrometer to characterise these fields. The spectrometer has been in use since spring 2000 on more than 130 return flights to monitor and characterise the on-board field. During a Czech Airlines flight from Prague to New York it was possible to register the effects of an intense solar flare, (ground level event, GLE 60), which occurred on 15 April 2001. It was found that the number of deposition events registered was increased by about 70% and the dose in Si by a factor of 2.0 when compared with the presence of galactic cosmic rays alone. Directly measured data are interpreted with respect to on-earth reference field calibration (photons, CERN high-energy particles); it was found that this approach leads to encouraging results and should be followed up. (7 refs).

  18. Accelerator Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champelovier, Y.; Ferrari, M.; Gardon, A.; Hadinger, G.; Martin, J.; Plantier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Since the cessation of the operation of hydrogen cluster accelerator in July 1996, four electrostatic accelerators were in operation and used by the peri-nuclear teams working in multidisciplinary collaborations. These are the 4 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, 2,5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, 400 kV ion implanter as well as the 120 kV isotope separator

  19. IBIS: the imager on-board integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Lebrun, F.; Goldwurm, A.; Laurent, P.; Mirabel, I.F.; Vigroux, L.; Di Cocco, G.; Labanti, C.; Bird, A.J.; Broenstad, K.; La Rosa, G.; Sacco, B.; Quadrini, E.M.; Ramsey, B.; Weisskopf, M.C.; Reglero, V.; Sabau, L.; Staubert, R.; Zdziarski, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The IBIS telescope is the high angular resolution gamma-ray imager on-board the INTEGRAL Observatory, successfully launched from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on October 2002. This medium size ESA project, planned for a 2 year mission with possible extension to 5, is devoted to the observation of the gamma-ray sky in the energy range from 3 keV to 10 MeV (Winkler 2001). The IBIS imaging system is based on two independent solid state detector arrays optimised for low (15-1000 keV) and high (0.175-10.0 MeV) energies surrounded by an active VETO System. This high efficiency shield is essential to minimise the background induced by high energy particles in the highly ex-centric out of van Allen belt orbit. A Tungsten Coded Aperture Mask, 16 mm thick and ∼ 1 squared meter in dimension is the imaging device. The IBIS telescope will serve the scientific community at large providing a unique combination of unprecedented high energy wide field imaging capability coupled with broad band spectroscopy and high resolution timing over the energy range from X to gamma rays. To date the IBIS telescope is working nominally in orbit since more than 9 month. (authors)

  20. LAT Onboard Science: Gamma-Ray Burst Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Frederick; Hughes, Richard; Smith, Patrick; Winer, Brian; Bonnell, Jerry; Norris, Jay; Ritz, Steven; Russell, James

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard science program is to provide quick identification and localization of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) onboard the LAT for follow-up observations by other observatories. The GRB identification and localization algorithm will provide celestial coordinates with an error region that will be distributed via the Gamma ray burst Coordinate Network (GCN). We present results that show our sensitivity to bursts as characterized using Monte Carlo simulations of the GLAST observatory. We describe and characterize the method of onboard track determination and the GRB identification and localization algorithm. Onboard track determination is considerably different than in the on-ground case, resulting in a substantially altered point spread function. The algorithm contains tunable parameters which may be adjusted after launch when real bursts characteristics at very high energies have been identified

  1. Onboard Blackbody Calibrator Component Development for IR Remote Sensing Instrumentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this study is to apply and to provide a reliable, stable durable onboard blackbody calibrator to future Earth Science missions by infusing the new...

  2. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  3. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the Station to perform these specific repairs. With the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained for on the ground or for contingency operations has become a very critical issue. NASA astronauts prepare for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) or Spacewalks through numerous training media, such as: self-study, part task training, underwater training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), hands-on hardware reviews and training at the Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRLab). In many situations, the time between the last session of a training and an EVA task might be 6 to 8 months. EVA tasks are critical for a mission and as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks and their options to refresh or learn a new skill while on flight are limited to reading training materials and watching videos. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the Station ages. In order to help the ISS crew members maintain EVA proficiency or train for contingency repairs during their mission, the Johnson Space Center's VRLab designed an immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT). The VRT incorporates a unique optical system that makes use of the already successful Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) software to assist crew members with procedure reviews and contingency EVAs while on board the Station. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before. The Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT

  4. Arctic summer school onboard an icebreaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Repina, Irina A.

    2014-05-01

    The International Arctic Research Center (IARC) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks conducted a summer school for PhD students, post-docs and early career scientists in August-September 2013, jointly with an arctic expedition as a part of NABOS project (Nansen and Amundsen Basin Observational System) onboard the Russian research vessel "Akademik Fedorov". Both the summer school and NABOS expedition were funded by the National Science Foundation. The one-month long summer school brought together graduate students and young scientists with specialists in arctic oceanography and climate to convey to a new generation of scientists the opportunities and challenges of arctic climate observations and modeling. Young scientists gained hands-on experience during the field campaign and learned about key issues in arctic climate from observational, diagnostic, and modeling perspectives. The summer school consisted of background lectures, participation in fieldwork and mini-projects. The mini-projects were performed in collaboration with summer school instructors and members of the expedition. Key topics covered in the lectures included: - arctic climate: key characteristics and processes; - physical processes in the Arctic Ocean; - sea ice and the Arctic Ocean; - trace gases, aerosols, and chemistry: importance for climate changes; - feedbacks in the arctic system (e.g., surface albedo, clouds, water vapor, circulation); - arctic climate variations: past, ongoing, and projected; - global climate models: an overview. An outreach specialist from the Miami Science Museum was writing a blog from the icebreaker with some very impressive statistics (results as of January 1, 2014): Total number of blog posts: 176 Blog posts written/contributed by scientists: 42 Blog views: 22,684 Comments: 1,215 Number of countries who viewed the blog: 89 (on 6 continents) The 33-day long NABOS expedition started on August 22, 2013 from Kirkenes, Norway. The vessel ("Akademik Fedorov") returned to

  5. Reactive Goal Decomposition Hierarchies for On-Board Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.

    2002-01-01

    to state and environment and in general can terminate the execution of a decomposition and attempt a new decomposition at any level in the hierarchy. This goal decomposition system is suitable for workstation, microprocessor and fpga implementation and thus is able to support the full range of prototyping activities, from mission design in the laboratory to development of the fpga firmware for the flight system. This approach is based on previous artificial intelligence work including (1) Brooks' subsumption architecture for robot control, (2) Firby's Reactive Action Package System (RAPS) for mediating between high level automated planning and low level execution and (3) hierarchical task networks for automated planning. Reactive goal decomposition hierarchies can be used for a wide variety of on-board autonomy applications including automating low level operation sequences (such as scheduling prerequisite operations, e.g., heaters, warm-up periods, monitoring power constraints), coordinating multiple spacecraft as in formation flying and constellations, robot manipulator operations, rendez-vous, docking, servicing, assembly, on-orbit maintenance, planetary rover operations, solar system and interstellar probes, intelligent science data gathering and disaster early warning. Goal decomposition hierarchies can support high level fault tolerance. Given models of on-board resources and goals to accomplish, the decomposition hierarchy could allocate resources to goals taking into account existing faults and in real-time reallocating resources as new faults arise. Resources to be modeled include memory (e.g., ROM, FPGA configuration memory, processor memory, payload instrument memory), processors, on-board and interspacecraft network nodes and links, sensors, actuators (e.g., attitude determination and control, guidance and navigation) and payload instruments. A goal decomposition hierarchy could be defined to map mission goals and tasks to available on-board resources. As

  6. Workshop on Accelerator Operation (WAO 2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.

    2001-01-01

    The 3rd Workshop on Accelerator Operation (WAO 2001) followed earlier workshops in 1996 and 1998. Most topics relevant for the efficient and effective operation of accelerators were covered. These included the tools and utilities necessary in the control rooms; the organization of accelerator operation (process monitoring, shift work, stress); the monitoring of beam quality; safety issues and standards; and questions particularly relevant for superconducting accelerators, in particular cryogenics. (author)

  7. Effect of water chemistry on flow accelerated corrosion rate of carbon steel measured by on-line corrosion-monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, K.; Domae, M.; Yoneda, K.; Inada, F.

    2010-01-01

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel is one of the most important subjects in coolant systems of power plants. FAC is influenced by material, flow condition, temperature, and water chemistry. Iron and chromium solubility should be the most effective factor to determine the effect of water chemistry on the FAC. It is very important to evaluate the correlation between the solubility and the FAC rate of the carbon steel. In the present study, the effects of pH and Cr concentration of material on the FAC rate of carbon steel were evaluated by using high temperature loop equipment with on-line corrosion-monitoring system. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration at pH 7 was also evaluated. The experimental FAC rates were compared with the calculation result, which was obtained from a FAC model developed previously by the authors' group. The tube specimens made of STPT 480 carbon steel were used for the FAC tests. The Cr concentration of STPT 480 was specially adjusted to 0.001 and 0.08 %. The inner diameters of the tubes were 1.6, 2.4, and 3.2 mm. The solutions were fed to the specimens with the flow rate of 1.5 l/min. The temperature of the solution at the specimen was controlled at 140 o C. Test solutions were demineralized water or NH 3 solutions of pH 8.0, 9.2, and 10.0. The increase in pH more than 9 decreased the FAC rates of both 0.001 and 0.08 % Cr specimens at 140 o C. Increase of the Cr concentration of the material decreased the FAC rate in the solution of pH 7.0, 8.0, 9.2, and 10.0. The FAC model reproduced well dependence of the experimental FAC behavior on water chemistry. It was confirmed that effect of pH and Cr concentration of material on the FAC rate were closely related to the solubility and diffusion of iron and chromium. (author)

  8. Verification of ICESat-2/ATLAS Science Receiver Algorithm Onboard Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal, C. C.; Saba, J. L.; Leigh, H. W.; Magruder, L. A.; Urban, T. J.; Mcgarry, J.; Schutz, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's ICESat-2 mission will fly the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimetry System (ATLAS) instrument on a 3-year mission scheduled to launch in 2016. ATLAS is a single-photon detection system transmitting at 532nm with a laser repetition rate of 10 kHz, and a 6 spot pattern on the Earth's surface. A set of onboard Receiver Algorithms will perform signal processing to reduce the data rate and data volume to acceptable levels. These Algorithms distinguish surface echoes from the background noise, limit the daily data volume, and allow the instrument to telemeter only a small vertical region about the signal. For this purpose, three onboard databases are used: a Surface Reference Map (SRM), a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and a Digital Relief Maps (DRMs). The DEM provides minimum and maximum heights that limit the signal search region of the onboard algorithms, including a margin for errors in the source databases, and onboard geolocation. Since the surface echoes will be correlated while noise will be randomly distributed, the signal location is found by histogramming the received event times and identifying the histogram bins with statistically significant counts. Once the signal location has been established, the onboard Digital Relief Maps (DRMs) will be used to determine the vertical width of the telemetry band about the signal. University of Texas-Center for Space Research (UT-CSR) is developing the ICESat-2 onboard databases, which are currently being tested using preliminary versions and equivalent representations of elevation ranges and relief more recently developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Global and regional elevation models have been assessed in terms of their accuracy using ICESat geodetic control, and have been used to develop equivalent representations of the onboard databases for testing against the UT-CSR databases, with special emphasis on the ice sheet regions. A series of verification checks have been implemented, including

  9. The end-to-end testbed of the optical metrology system on-board LISA Pathfinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steier, F; Cervantes, F Guzman; Marin, A F GarcIa; Heinzel, G; Danzmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Gerardi, D, E-mail: frank.steier@aei.mpg.d [EADS Astrium Satellites GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2009-05-07

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The main experiment on-board LISA Pathfinder is the so-called LISA Technology Package (LTP) which has the aim to measure the differential acceleration between two free-falling test masses with an accuracy of 3 x 10{sup -14} ms{sup -2} Hz{sup -1/2} between 1 mHz and 30 mHz. This measurement is performed interferometrically by the optical metrology system (OMS) on-board LISA Pathfinder. In this paper, we present the development of an experimental end-to-end testbed of the entire OMS. It includes the interferometer and its sub-units, the interferometer backend which is a phasemeter and the processing of the phasemeter output data. Furthermore, three-axes piezo-actuated mirrors are used instead of the free-falling test masses for the characterization of the dynamic behaviour of the system and some parts of the drag-free and attitude control system (DFACS) which controls the test masses and the satellite. The end-to-end testbed includes all parts of the LTP that can reasonably be tested on earth without free-falling test masses. At its present status it consists mainly of breadboard components. Some of those have already been replaced by engineering models of the LTP experiment. In the next steps, further engineering and flight models will also be inserted in this testbed and tested against well-characterized breadboard components. The presented testbed is an important reference for the unit tests and can also be used for validation of the on-board experiment during the mission.

  10. Electrostatic accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We ...

  11. A multiparameter wearable physiologic monitoring system for space and terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Carsten W.; Montgomery, Kevin N.; Udoh, Usen E.; Barker, Valerie N.; Thonier, Guillaume C.; Tellier, Arnaud M.; Ricks, Robert D.; Darling, Robert B.; Cagle, Yvonne D.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; hide

    2005-01-01

    A novel, unobtrusive and wearable, multiparameter ambulatory physiologic monitoring system for space and terrestrial applications, termed LifeGuard, is presented. The core element is a wearable monitor, the crew physiologic observation device (CPOD), that provides the capability to continuously record two standard electrocardiogram leads, respiration rate via impedance plethysmography, heart rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, ambient or body temperature, three axes of acceleration, and blood pressure. These parameters can be digitally recorded with high fidelity over a 9-h period with precise time stamps and user-defined event markers. Data can be continuously streamed to a base station using a built-in Bluetooth RF link or stored in 32 MB of on-board flash memory and downloaded to a personal computer using a serial port. The device is powered by two AAA batteries. The design, laboratory, and field testing of the wearable monitors are described.

  12. Electrostatic accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We sketch possible applications and the progress in the development of electrostatic accelerators.

  13. Accelerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Because the use of accelerated heavy ions would provide many opportunities for new and important studies in nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, as well as other disciplines, both the Chemistry and Physics Divisions are supporting the development of a heavy-ion accelerator. The design of greatest current interest includes a tandem accelerator with a terminal voltage of approximately 25 MV injecting into a linear accelerator with rf superconducting resonators. This combined accelerator facility would be capable of accelerating ions of masses ranging over the entire periodic table to an energy corresponding to approximately 10 MeV/nucleon. This approach, as compared to other concepts, has the advantages of lower construction costs, lower operating power, 100 percent duty factor, and high beam quality (good energy resolution, good timing resolution, small beam size, and small beam divergence). The included sections describe the concept of the proposed heavy-ion accelerator, and the development program aiming at: (1) investigation of the individual questions concerning the superconducting accelerating resonators; (2) construction and testing of prototype accelerator systems; and (3) search for economical solutions to engineering problems. (U.S.)

  14. Ultrafine particle emission characteristics of diesel engine by on-board and test bench measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Lou, Diming; Hu, Zhiyuan; Tan, Piqiang; Yao, Di; Hu, Wei; Li, Peng; Ren, Jin; Chen, Changhong

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the emission characteristics of ultrafine particles based on test bench and on-board measurements. The bench test results showed the ultrafine particle number concentration of the diesel engine to be in the range of (0.56-8.35) x 10(8) cm(-3). The on-board measurement results illustrated that the ultrafine particles were strongly correlated with changes in real-world driving cycles. The particle number concentration was down to 2.0 x 10(6) cm(-3) and 2.7 x 10(7) cm(-3) under decelerating and idling operations and as high as 5.0 x 10(8) cm(-3) under accelerating operation. It was also indicated that the particle number measured by the two methods increased with the growth of engine load at each engine speed in both cases. The particle number presented a "U" shaped distribution with changing speed at high engine load conditions, which implies that the particle number will reach its lowest level at medium engine speeds. The particle sizes of both measurements showed single mode distributions. The peak of particle size was located at about 50-80 nm in the accumulation mode particle range. Nucleation mode particles will significantly increase at low engine load operations like idling and decelerating caused by the high concentration of unburned organic compounds.

  15. RECIRCULATING ACCELERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERG, J.S.; GARREN, A.A.; JOHNSTONE, C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares various types of recirculating accelerators, outlining the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. The accelerators are characterized according to the types of arcs they use: whether there is a single arc for the entire recirculator or there are multiple arcs, and whether the arc(s) are isochronous or non-isochronous

  16. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  17. Accelerating Inspire

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2266999

    2017-01-01

    CERN has been involved in the dissemination of scientific results since its early days and has continuously updated the distribution channels. Currently, Inspire hosts catalogues of articles, authors, institutions, conferences, jobs, experiments, journals and more. Successful orientation among this amount of data requires comprehensive linking between the content. Inspire has lacked a system for linking experiments and articles together based on which accelerator they were conducted at. The purpose of this project has been to create such a system. Records for 156 accelerators were created and all 2913 experiments on Inspire were given corresponding MARC tags. Records of 18404 accelerator physics related bibliographic entries were also tagged with corresponding accelerator tags. Finally, as a part of the endeavour to broaden CERN's presence on Wikipedia, existing Wikipedia articles of accelerators were updated with short descriptions and links to Inspire. In total, 86 Wikipedia articles were updated. This repo...

  18. Analysis of thickness measurements on secondary lines in EDF PWRs to evaluate the accuracy of the flow accelerated corrosion monitoring software: BRT-CICERO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persoz, Matthieu [CAP AMPERE, 1 place Pleyel, 93282 Saint Denis (France); Bouvier, Jean-Baptiste [CNEN, 165-173 av. Pierre Brossolette, 92542 Montrouge Cedex (France); Ardillon, Emmanuel [R and D Division, EDF, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou Cedex (France); Trevin, Stephane [SEPTEN, 12 - 14 av. Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2006-09-15

    The surveillance of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) on secondary pipes is a major concern for every nuclear power plant operator. After the Surry accident in 1986, EDF launched a computer code development program to monitor this degradation phenomenon. A chemical corrosion model has been developed, based on laboratory test results obtained by EDF R and D since the late 70's. This model enables to compute the wall thickness loss of pipes submitted to FAC, with respect to the thermo-hydraulic conditions, the fluid chemistry, the material chromium content, the pipe geometry and the cycles duration. The computer code, called BRT-CICERO(TM), has first been tested on a few plants in the years 1993-1995. Most of the EDF NPPs began to use it afterwards. In 2001, after the discovery of a severe damage on a 4'' x 6'' reducer at Fessenheim unit 2, that was correctly predicted by BRT-CICERO(TM), the EDF corporate level made its use mandatory for each of its 58 Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). Several years of operation and experience feedback have enabled to carry out different improvements on the BRT-CICERO(TM) software. Since 2003, EDF NPPs are using the 2.2 version. At the beginning of year 2005, the 58 BRT-CICERO(TM) input-databases were gathered and structured in a form such that statistical treatments could be made. A very great number of data were collected from BRT-CICERO(TM) input-databases by a specific modification of a tool integrated into the software. It appears that a statistical approach could allow an effective analysis of these data. The first goal of this study was to give the degree of confidence in the application and this approach appeared effective. The second goal was to prove that a part of the conservatism is due to the FAC kinetics calculation algorithm implemented in BRT-CICERO(TM). The investigation of the relative difference between measured and calculated thicknesses shows that a part of the conservatism should be due

  19. Analysis of thickness measurements on secondary lines in EDF PWRs to evaluate the accuracy of the flow accelerated corrosion monitoring software: BRT-CICERO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoz, Matthieu; Bouvier, Jean-Baptiste; Ardillon, Emmanuel; Trevin, Stephane

    2006-09-01

    The surveillance of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) on secondary pipes is a major concern for every nuclear power plant operator. After the Surry accident in 1986, EDF launched a computer code development program to monitor this degradation phenomenon. A chemical corrosion model has been developed, based on laboratory test results obtained by EDF R and D since the late 70's. This model enables to compute the wall thickness loss of pipes submitted to FAC, with respect to the thermo-hydraulic conditions, the fluid chemistry, the material chromium content, the pipe geometry and the cycles duration. The computer code, called BRT-CICERO(TM), has first been tested on a few plants in the years 1993-1995. Most of the EDF NPPs began to use it afterwards. In 2001, after the discovery of a severe damage on a 4'' x 6'' reducer at Fessenheim unit 2, that was correctly predicted by BRT-CICERO(TM), the EDF corporate level made its use mandatory for each of its 58 Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). Several years of operation and experience feedback have enabled to carry out different improvements on the BRT-CICERO(TM) software. Since 2003, EDF NPPs are using the 2.2 version. At the beginning of year 2005, the 58 BRT-CICERO(TM) input-databases were gathered and structured in a form such that statistical treatments could be made. A very great number of data were collected from BRT-CICERO(TM) input-databases by a specific modification of a tool integrated into the software. It appears that a statistical approach could allow an effective analysis of these data. The first goal of this study was to give the degree of confidence in the application and this approach appeared effective. The second goal was to prove that a part of the conservatism is due to the FAC kinetics calculation algorithm implemented in BRT-CICERO(TM). The investigation of the relative difference between measured and calculated thicknesses shows that a part of the conservatism should be due to the FAC kinetics

  20. Evaluation of area monitor response for neutrons in radiation field generated by a 15 MV clinic accelerator; Avaliacao da resposta dos monitores de area para neutrons em campo de radiacao gerado por um acelerador clinico de 15 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula

    2011-07-01

    The clinical importance and usage of linear accelerators in cancer treatment increased significantly in the last years. Coupled with this growth came the concern about the use of accelerators with energies over to 10 MeV which produce therapeutic beam contaminated with neutrons generated when high-energy photons interact with high-atomic-number materials such as tungsten and lead present in the accelerator itself. At these facilities, measurements of the ambient dose equivalent for neutrons present difficulties owing to the existence of a mixed radiation field and possible electromagnetic interference near the accelerator. The Neutron Laboratory of the IRD - Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, aiming to evaluate the survey meters performance at these facilities, initiated studies of instrumentation response in the presence of different neutron spectra. Neutrons sources with average energies ranging from 0.55 to 4.2 MeV, four different survey meters and one ionization chamber to obtain the ratio between the dose due to neutrons and gamma radiation were used in this work. The evaluation of these measurements, performed in a 15 MV linear accelerator room is presented. This work presents results that demonstrate the complexity and care needed to make neutrons measurements in radiotherapy treatment rooms containing high energy clinical accelerators. (author)

  1. Real-time on-line space research laboratory environment monitoring with off-line trend and prediction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2007-06-01

    With the International Space Station currently operational, a significant amount of acceleration data is being down-linked, processed and analyzed daily on the ground on a continuous basis for the space station reduced gravity environment characterization, the vehicle design requirements verification and science data collection. To help understand the impact of the unique spacecraft environment on the science data, an artificial intelligence monitoring system was developed, which detects in near real time any change in the reduced gravity environment susceptible to affect the on-going experiments. Using a dynamic graphical display, the monitoring system allows science teams, at any time and any location, to see the active vibration disturbances, such as pumps, fans, compressor, crew exercise, re-boost and extra-vehicular activities that might impact the reduced gravity environment the experiments are exposed to. The monitoring system can detect both known and unknown vibratory disturbance activities. It can also perform trend analysis and prediction by analyzing past data over many increments (an increment usually lasts 6 months) collected onboard the station for selected disturbances. This feature can be used to monitor the health of onboard mechanical systems to detect and prevent potential systems failures. The monitoring system has two operating modes: online and offline. Both near real-time on-line vibratory disturbance detection and off-line detection and trend analysis are discussed in this paper.

  2. Spacelab-3 (STS-51B) Onboard Photograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Spacelab-3 mission was to conduct materials science experiments in a stable low-gravity environment. In addition, the crew performed research in life sciences, fluid mechanics, atmospheric science, and astronomy. Spacelab-3 was equipped with several new minilabs, special facilities that would be used repeatedly on future flights. Two elaborate crystal growth furnaces, a life support and housing facility for small animals, and two types of apparatus for the study of fluids were evaluated on their inaugural flight. In this photograph, astronaut Don Lind observes the mercuric iodide growth experiment through a microscope at the vapor crystal growth furnace. The goals of this investigation were to grow near-perfect single crystals of mercuric iodide and to gain improved understanding of crystal growth by a vapor process. Mercuric iodide crystals have practical use as sensitive x-ray and gamma-ray detectors, and in portable detector devices for nuclear power plant monitoring, natural resource prospecting, biomedical applications in diagnosis and therapy, and in astronomical instruments. Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, Spacelab-3 (STS-51B) was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Challenger on April 29, 1985.

  3. High-G Survivability of an Unpotted Onboard Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 949 Technical Report ARMET-TR-16081 HIGH -G SURVIVABILITY OF AN UNPOTTED ONBOARD RECORDER...Arsenal, New Jersey UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report are those...documentation. The citation in this report of the names of commercial firms or commercially available products or services does not constitute

  4. Digital tomosynthesis with an on-board kilovoltage imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, Devon J.; Yin, F.-F.; Oldham, Mark; Yoo, Sua; Willett, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To generate on-board digital tomosynthesis (DTS) and reference DTS images for three-dimensional image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) as an alternative to conventional portal imaging or on-board cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Three clinical cases (prostate, head-and-neck, and liver) were selected to illustrate the capabilities of on-board DTS for IGRT. Corresponding reference DTS images were reconstructed from digitally reconstructed radiographs computed from planning CT image sets. The effect of scan angle on DTS slice thickness was examined by computing the mutual information between coincident CBCT and DTS images, as the DTS scan angle was varied from 0 o to 165 o . A breath-hold DTS acquisition strategy was implemented to remove respiratory motion artifacts. Results: Digital tomosynthesis slices appeared similar to coincident CBCT planes and yielded substantially more anatomic information than either kilovoltage or megavoltage radiographs. Breath-hold DTS acquisition improved soft-tissue visibility by suppressing respiratory motion. Conclusions: Improved bony and soft-tissue visibility in DTS images is likely to improve target localization compared with radiographic verification techniques and might allow for daily localization of a soft-tissue target. Breath-hold DTS is a potential alternative to on-board CBCT for sites prone to respiratory motion

  5. Accelerator Technology: Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Missiaen, D

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the the Section '8.9 Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators' of the Chapter '8 Accelerator Technology' with the content: 8.9 Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators 8.9.1 Introduction 8.9.2 Reference and Co-ordinate Systems 8.9.3 Definition of the Beam Line on the Accelerator Site 8.9.4 Geodetic Network 8.9.5 Tunnel Preliminary Works 8.9.6 The Alignment References 8.9.7 Alignment of Accelerator Components 8.9.8 Permanent Monitoring and Remote Alignment of Low Beta Quadrupoles 8.9.9 Alignment of Detector Components

  6. 2014 Joint International Accelerator School: Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection

    CERN Document Server

    JAS - Joint US-CERN-Japan-Russia Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    Many particle accelerators operate with very high beam power and very high energy stored in particle beams as well as in magnet systems. In the future, the beam power in high intensity accelerators will further increase. The protection of the accelerator equipment from the consequences of uncontrolled release of the energy is essential. This was the motivation for organizing a first school on beam losses and accelerator protection (in general referred to as machine protection). During the school the methods and technologies to identify, mitigate, monitor and manage the technical risks associated with the operation of accelerators with high-power beams or subsystems with large stored energy were presented. At the completion of the school the participants should have been able to understand the physical phenomena that can damage machine subsystems or interrupt operations and to analyze an accelerator facility to produce a register of technical risks and the corresponding risk mitigation and management strategie...

  7. On-Board Mining in the Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, S.; Conover, H.; Graves, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Rushing, J.

    2004-12-01

    On-board data mining can contribute to many research and engineering applications, including natural hazard detection and prediction, intelligent sensor control, and the generation of customized data products for direct distribution to users. The ability to mine sensor data in real time can also be a critical component of autonomous operations, supporting deep space missions, unmanned aerial and ground-based vehicles (UAVs, UGVs), and a wide range of sensor meshes, webs and grids. On-board processing is expected to play a significant role in the next generation of NASA, Homeland Security, Department of Defense and civilian programs, providing for greater flexibility and versatility in measurements of physical systems. In addition, the use of UAV and UGV systems is increasing in military, emergency response and industrial applications. As research into the autonomy of these vehicles progresses, especially in fleet or web configurations, the applicability of on-board data mining is expected to increase significantly. Data mining in real time on board sensor platforms presents unique challenges. Most notably, the data to be mined is a continuous stream, rather than a fixed store such as a database. This means that the data mining algorithms must be modified to make only a single pass through the data. In addition, the on-board environment requires real time processing with limited computing resources, thus the algorithms must use fixed and relatively small amounts of processing time and memory. The University of Alabama in Huntsville is developing an innovative processing framework for the on-board data and information environment. The Environment for On-Board Processing (EVE) and the Adaptive On-board Data Processing (AODP) projects serve as proofs-of-concept of advanced information systems for remote sensing platforms. The EVE real-time processing infrastructure will upload, schedule and control the execution of processing plans on board remote sensors. These plans

  8. FMIT accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    A 35-MeV 100-mA cw linear accelerator is being designed by Los Alamos for use in the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Essential to this program is the design, construction, and evaluation of performance of the accelerator's injector, low-energy beam transport, and radio-frequency quadrupole sections before they are shipped to the facility site. The installation and testing of some of these sections have begun as well as the testing of the rf, noninterceptive beam diagnostics, computer control, dc power, and vacuum systems. An overview of the accelerator systems and the performance to date is given

  9. Electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan.

    1981-01-01

    The USSR produces an electron accelerator family of a simple design powered straight from the mains. The specifications are given of accelerators ELITA-400, ELITA-3, ELT-2, TEUS-3 and RIUS-5 with maximum electron energies of 0.3 to 5 MeV, a mean power of 10 to 70 kW operating in both the pulsed and the continuous (TEUS-3) modes. Pulsed accelerators ELITA-400 and ELITA-3 and RIUS-5 in which TESLA resonance transformers are used are characterized by their compact size. (Ha)

  10. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  11. Acceleration theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields can be separated into near and far components. Near fields are extensions of static fields. They do not radiate, and they fall off more rapidly from a source than far fields. Near fields can accelerate particles, but the ratio of acceleration to source fields at a distance R, is always less than R/λ or 1, whichever is smaller. Far fields can be represented as sums of plane parallel, transversely polarized waves that travel at the velocity of light. A single such wave in a vacuum cannot give continuous acceleration, and it is shown that no sums of such waves can give net first order acceleration. This theorem is proven in three different ways; each method showing a different aspect of the situation

  12. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  13. Onboard software of Plasma Wave Experiment aboard Arase: instrument management and signal processing of Waveform Capture/Onboard Frequency Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shoya; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Yagitani, Satoshi; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Imachi, Tomohiko; Ishisaka, Keigo; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Ota, Mamoru; Kurita, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Hikishima, Mitsuru; Matsuoka, Ayako; Shinohara, Iku

    2018-05-01

    We developed the onboard processing software for the Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) onboard the Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace, Arase satellite. The PWE instrument has three receivers: Electric Field Detector, Waveform Capture/Onboard Frequency Analyzer (WFC/OFA), and the High-Frequency Analyzer. We designed a pseudo-parallel processing scheme with a time-sharing system and achieved simultaneous signal processing for each receiver. Since electric and magnetic field signals are processed by the different CPUs, we developed a synchronized observation system by using shared packets on the mission network. The OFA continuously measures the power spectra, spectral matrices, and complex spectra. The OFA obtains not only the entire ELF/VLF plasma waves' activity but also the detailed properties (e.g., propagation direction and polarization) of the observed plasma waves. We performed simultaneous observation of electric and magnetic field data and successfully obtained clear wave properties of whistler-mode chorus waves using these data. In order to measure raw waveforms, we developed two modes for the WFC, `chorus burst mode' (65,536 samples/s) and `EMIC burst mode' (1024 samples/s), for the purpose of the measurement of the whistler-mode chorus waves (typically in a frequency range from several hundred Hz to several kHz) and the EMIC waves (typically in a frequency range from a few Hz to several hundred Hz), respectively. We successfully obtained the waveforms of electric and magnetic fields of whistler-mode chorus waves and ion cyclotron mode waves along the Arase's orbit. We also designed the software-type wave-particle interaction analyzer mode. In this mode, we measure electric and magnetic field waveforms continuously and transfer them to the mission data recorder onboard the Arase satellite. We also installed an onboard signal calibration function (onboard SoftWare CALibration; SWCAL). We performed onboard electric circuit diagnostics and

  14. Beam position monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Beam monitoring in accelerators is reviewed, with emphasis on the engineering aspects of the problem. Guidelines for monitor design are given. Advantages and disadvantages of various electrode designs and signal processing methods are reviewed

  15. The problems associated with the monitoring of complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilski, P.; Blomgren, J.; d´Errico, F.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Fernández, F.; Fuchs, A.; Golnik, N.; Lacoste, V.; Leuschner, A.; Sandri, S.; Silari, M.; Spurný, František; Wiegel, B.; Wright, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 126, 1-4 (2007), s. 491-496 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC032 Grant - others:ES(XE) Contract no FI6R-012684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiation fields * european high-energy accelerators * thermonuclear fusion facilities Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2007

  16. Review of accelerator instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, J.L.

    1980-05-01

    Some of the problems associated with the monitoring of accelerator beams, particularly storage rings' beams, are reviewed along with their most common solutions. The various electrode structures used for the measurement of beam current, beam position, and the detection of the bunches' transverse oscillations, yield pulses with sub-nanosecond widths. The electronics for the processing of these short pulses involves wide band techniques and circuits usually not readily available from industry or the integrated circuit market: passive or active, successive integrations, linear gating, sample-and-hold circuits with nanosecond acquisition time, etc. This report also presents the work performed recently for monitoring the ultrashort beams of colliding linear accelerators or single-pass colliders. To minimize the beam emittance, the beam position must be measured with a high resolution, and digitized on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Experimental results obtained with the Stanford two-mile Linac single bunches are included

  17. Control system and environmental parameters monitoring of the Tandetron Accelerator clean room; Sistema de control y monitoreo de parametros ambientales del cuarto limpio del acelerador Tandetron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia V, M.E.; Garcia H, J.M.; Flores M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Sistemas Electronicos, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mmejia@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    A control system and monitoring of humidity and temperature implemented by means of a system based on a microcontroller, an intelligent sensor and a stage of power for the actuators handling is described. The change of the levels of reference of the control system and the monitoring of the physical controlled variables can be carried out from any connected computer to a local net or Internet. (Author)

  18. Comparison of cosmic rays radiation detectors on-board commercial jet aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubančák, Ján; Ambrožová, Iva; Brabcová, Kateřina Pachnerová; Jakůbek, Jan; Kyselová, Dagmar; Ploc, Ondřej; Bemš, Július; Štěpán, Václav; Uchihori, Yukio

    2015-06-01

    Aircrew members and passengers are exposed to increased rates of cosmic radiation on-board commercial jet aircraft. The annual effective doses of crew members often exceed limits for public, thus it is recommended to monitor them. In general, the doses are estimated via various computer codes and in some countries also verified by measurements. This paper describes a comparison of three cosmic rays detectors, namely of the (a) HAWK Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter; (b) Liulin semiconductor energy deposit spectrometer and (c) TIMEPIX silicon semiconductor pixel detector, exposed to radiation fields on-board commercial Czech Airlines company jet aircraft. Measurements were performed during passenger flights from Prague to Madrid, Oslo, Tbilisi, Yekaterinburg and Almaty, and back in July and August 2011. For all flights, energy deposit spectra and absorbed doses are presented. Measured absorbed dose and dose equivalent are compared with the EPCARD code calculations. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of all detectors are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Identifying Onboarding Heuristics for Free-to-Play Mobile Games: A Mixed Methods Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Ebdrup; Weigert Petersen, Falko; Mirza-Babaei, Pejman

    2016-01-01

    The onboarding phase of Free-to-Play mobile games, covering the first few minutes of play, typically sees a substantial retention rate amongst players. It is therefore crucial to the success of these games that the onboarding phase promotes engagement to the widest degree possible. In this paper ...... of puzzle games, base builders and arcade games, and utilize different onboarding phase design approaches. Results showcase how heuristics can be used to design engaging onboarding phases in mobile games....

  20. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  1. Semantic Information Extraction of Lanes Based on Onboard Camera Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L.; Deng, T.; Ren, C.

    2018-04-01

    In the field of autonomous driving, semantic information of lanes is very important. This paper proposes a method of automatic detection of lanes and extraction of semantic information from onboard camera videos. The proposed method firstly detects the edges of lanes by the grayscale gradient direction, and improves the Probabilistic Hough transform to fit them; then, it uses the vanishing point principle to calculate the lane geometrical position, and uses lane characteristics to extract lane semantic information by the classification of decision trees. In the experiment, 216 road video images captured by a camera mounted onboard a moving vehicle were used to detect lanes and extract lane semantic information. The results show that the proposed method can accurately identify lane semantics from video images.

  2. Development of Onboard Computer Complex for Russian Segment of ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branets, V.; Brand, G.; Vlasov, R.; Graf, I.; Clubb, J.; Mikrin, E.; Samitov, R.

    1998-01-01

    Report present a description of the Onboard Computer Complex (CC) that was developed during the period of 1994-1998 for the Russian Segment of ISS. The system was developed in co-operation with NASA and ESA. ESA developed a new computation system under the RSC Energia Technical Assignment, called DMS-R. The CC also includes elements developed by Russian experts and organizations. A general architecture of the computer system and the characteristics of primary elements of this system are described. The system was integrated at RSC Energia with the participation of American and European specialists. The report contains information on software simulators, verification and de-bugging facilities witch were been developed for both stand-alone and integrated tests and verification. This CC serves as the basis for the Russian Segment Onboard Control Complex on ISS.

  3. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT and pressure driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (PDCMSOGT. Experiments were conducted under different temperatures, pressures of feed air and produced oxygen flow rates. On the basis of these experiments, the flow rate of feed air, electric power provided, oxygen recovery rate and concentration of produced oxygen are compared under each working condition. It is concluded that the EDCMSOGT is the oxygen generation means more suitable for onboard conditions.

  4. Optimization of Planck-LFI on-board data handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, M; Galeotta, S; Frailis, M; Zacchei, A; Fogliani, S; Gasparo, F [INAF-OATs, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Tomasi, M; Bersanelli, M [Universita di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via G. Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Miccolis, M [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Italy); Hildebrandt, S; Chulani, H; Gomez, F [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), C/o Via Lactea, s/n E38205 - La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Rohlfs, R; Morisset, N; Binko, P [ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics, University of Geneva, ch. d' Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; Franceschi, E [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti, 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); D' Arcangelo, O, E-mail: maris@oats.inaf.i [IFP-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    To asses stability against 1/f noise, the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on-board the Planck mission will acquire data at a rate much higher than the data rate allowed by the science telemetry bandwith of 35.5 Kbps. The data are processed by an on-board pipeline, followed on-ground by a decoding and reconstruction step, to reduce the volume of data to a level compatible with the bandwidth while minimizing the loss of information. This paper illustrates the on-board processing of the scientific data used by Planck/LFI to fit the allowed data-rate, an intrinsecally lossy process which distorts the signal in a manner which depends on a set of five free parameters (N{sub aver}, r{sub 1}, r{sub 2}, q, O) for each of the 44 LFI detectors. The paper quantifies the level of distortion introduced by the on-board processing as a function of these parameters. It describes the method of tuning the on-board processing chain to cope with the limited bandwidth while keeping to a minimum the signal distortion. Tuning is sensitive to the statistics of the signal and has to be constantly adapted during flight. The tuning procedure is based on a optimization algorithm applied to unprocessed and uncompressed raw data provided either by simulations, pre-launch tests or data taken in flight from LFI operating in a special diagnostic acquisition mode. All the needed optimization steps are performed by an automated tool, OCA2, which simulates the on-board processing, explores the space of possible combinations of parameters, and produces a set of statistical indicators, among them: the compression rate C{sub r} and the processing noise epsilon{sub Q}. For Planck/LFI it is required that C{sub r} = 2.4 while, as for other systematics, epsilon{sub Q} would have to be less than 10% of rms of the instrumental white noise. An analytical model is developed that is able to extract most of the relevant information on the processing errors and the compression rate as a function of the signal

  5. Development of on-board fuel metering and sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth, Y.; Manikanta, B. S. S.; Thangaraja, J.; Bharanidaran, R.

    2017-11-01

    Usage of biodiesel fuels and their blends with diesel fuel has a potential to reduce the tailpipe emissions and reduce the dependence on crude oil imports. Further, biodiesel fuels exhibit favourable greenhouse gas emission and energy balance characteristics. While fossil fuel technology is well established, the technological implications of biofuels particularly biodiesel is not clearly laid out. Hence, the objective is to provide an on-board metering control in selecting the different proportions of diesel and bio-diesel blends. An on-board fuel metering system is being developed using PID controller, stepper motors and a capacitance sensor. The accuracy was tested with the blends of propanol-1, diesel and are found to be within 1.3% error. The developed unit was tested in a twin cylinder diesel engine with biodiesel blended diesel fuel. There was a marginal increase (5%) in nitric oxide and 14% increase in smoke emission with 10% biodiesel blended diesel at part load conditions.

  6. Onboard radiation shielding estimates for interplanetary manned missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, A.; Jevremovic, T.; Hounshel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The main focus of space related shielding design is to protect operating systems, personnel and key structural components from outer space and onboard radiation. This paper summarizes the feasibility of a lightweight neutron radiation shield design for a nuclear powered, manned space vehicle. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 is used to determine radiation transport characteristics of the different materials and find the optimized shield configuration. A phantom torso encased in air is used to determine a dose rate for a crew member on the ship. Calculation results indicate that onboard shield against neutron radiation coming from nuclear engine can be achieved with very little addition of weight to the space vehicle. The selection of materials and neutron transport analysis as presented in this paper are useful starting data to design shield against neutrons generated when high-energy particles from outer space interact with matter on the space vehicle. (authors)

  7. On-Board Real-Time Optimization Control for Turbo-Fan Engine Life Extending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiangang; Zhang, Haibo; Miao, Lizhen; Sun, Fengyong

    2017-11-01

    A real-time optimization control method is proposed to extend turbo-fan engine service life. This real-time optimization control is based on an on-board engine mode, which is devised by a MRR-LSSVR (multi-input multi-output recursive reduced least squares support vector regression method). To solve the optimization problem, a FSQP (feasible sequential quadratic programming) algorithm is utilized. The thermal mechanical fatigue is taken into account during the optimization process. Furthermore, to describe the engine life decaying, a thermal mechanical fatigue model of engine acceleration process is established. The optimization objective function not only contains the sub-item which can get fast response of the engine, but also concludes the sub-item of the total mechanical strain range which has positive relationship to engine fatigue life. Finally, the simulations of the conventional optimization control which just consider engine acceleration performance or the proposed optimization method have been conducted. The simulations demonstrate that the time of the two control methods from idle to 99.5 % of the maximum power are equal. However, the engine life using the proposed optimization method could be surprisingly increased by 36.17 % compared with that using conventional optimization control.

  8. Accelerator microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.

    1997-01-01

    Particle accelerators have been developed more than sixty years ago to investigate nuclear and atomic phenomena. A major shift toward applications of accelerators in the study of materials structure and composition in inter-disciplinary projects has been witnessed in the last two decades. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has developed advanced research programs based on the use of particle and photon beams. Atmospheric pollution problems are investigated at the 3 MV Van de Graff accelerator using ion beam analysis techniques to detect toxic elements in aerosol particles. High temperature superconductor and semiconductor materials are characterised using the recoil of iodine and other heavy ions produced at ANTARES, the 10-MV Tandem accelerator. A heavy-ion microprobe is presently being developed at ANTARES to map elemental concentrations of specific elements with micro-size resolution. An Accelerator mass Spectrometry (AMS) system has been developed at ANSTO for the ultra-sensitive detection of Carbon-14, Iodine-129 and other long-lived radioisotopes. This AMS spectrometer is a key instrument for climate change studies and international safeguards. ANSTO is also managing the Australian Synchrotron Research program based on facilities developed at the Photon Factory (Japan) and at the Advanced Photon Source (USA). Advanced projects in biology, materials chemistry, structural condensed matter and other disciplines are being promoted by a consortium involving Australian universities and research institutions. This paper will review recent advances in the use of particle accelerators, with a particular emphasis on applications developed at ANSTO and related to problems of international concern, such as global environmental change, public health and nuclear proliferation

  9. Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard the Chang'e-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guang-You; Zhou, Bin; Ji, Yi-Cai; Zhang, Qun-Ying; Shen, Shao-Xiang; Li, Yu-Xi; Guan, Hong-Fei; Tang, Chuan-Jun; Gao, Yun-Ze; Lu, Wei; Ye, Sheng-Bo; Han, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Jin; Wang, Shu-Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) is one of the important scientific instruments onboard the Chang'e-3 spacecraft. Its scientific goals are the mapping of lunar regolith and detection of subsurface geologic structures. This paper describes the goals of the mission, as well as the basic principles, design, composition and achievements of the LPR. Finally, experiments on a glacier and the lunar surface are analyzed.

  10. Rapid Onboard Trajectory Design for Autonomous Spacecraft in Multibody Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbauer, Eric Michael

    This research develops automated, on-board trajectory planning algorithms in order to support current and new mission concepts. These include orbiter missions to Phobos or Deimos, Outer Planet Moon orbiters, and robotic and crewed missions to small bodies. The challenges stem from the limited on-board computing resources which restrict full trajectory optimization with guaranteed convergence in complex dynamical environments. The approach taken consists of leveraging pre-mission computations to create a large database of pre-computed orbits and arcs. Such a database is used to generate a discrete representation of the dynamics in the form of a directed graph, which acts to index these arcs. This allows the use of graph search algorithms on-board in order to provide good approximate solutions to the path planning problem. Coupled with robust differential correction and optimization techniques, this enables the determination of an efficient path between any boundary conditions with very little time and computing effort. Furthermore, the optimization methods developed here based on sequential convex programming are shown to have provable convergence properties, as well as generating feasible major iterates in case of a system interrupt -- a key requirement for on-board application. The outcome of this project is thus the development of an algorithmic framework which allows the deployment of this approach in a variety of specific mission contexts. Test cases related to missions of interest to NASA and JPL such as a Phobos orbiter and a Near Earth Asteroid interceptor are demonstrated, including the results of an implementation on the RAD750 flight processor. This method fills a gap in the toolbox being developed to create fully autonomous space exploration systems.

  11. Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Dongsheng; Bu Xueqin; Sun Bing; Lin Guiping; Zhao Hongtao; Cai Yan; Fang Ling

    2016-01-01

    The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT) and pressure d...

  12. MOBS - A modular on-board switching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, W.; Grassmann, W.; Piontek, M.

    The authors describe a multibeam satellite system that is designed for business services and for communications at a high bit rate. The repeater is regenerative with a modular onboard switching system. It acts not only as baseband switch but also as the central node of the network, performing network control and protocol evaluation. The hardware is based on a modular bus/memory architecture with associated processors.

  13. STS-59 crewmembers in training for onboard Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The six astronauts in training for the STS-59 mission are shown onboard Earth observations tips by Justin Wilkinson (standing, foreground) of the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project (SSEOP) group. Astronaut Sidney M. Gutierrez, mission commander, is at center on the left side of the table. Others, left to right, are Astronauts Kevin P. Chilton, pilot; Jerome (Jay) Apt and Michael R.U. (Rich) Clifford, both mission specialists; Linda M. Godwin, payload commander; and Thomas D. Jones, mission specialist.

  14. 14. conference on accelerators of charged particles. Annotations of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Annotations of reports made at the 14 Conference on accelerators of charged particles are presented. The Conference took place 25 - 27 October, 1994 in IHEP, Protvino. Modern trends of development of cyclic and linear accelerators, as well as heavy ion accelerators and colliders have been discussed. Problems of developing accelerators on superhigh energy have been considered. Considerable attention has been paid to accelerating structures, power SHF equipment, beam monitoring systems as well as magnetic and vacuum systems of accelerators. Beam dynamics in accelerators and storage has been considered and new acceleration technique have been proposed. Utilization of accelerators for medicine and other applied purposes has been discussed

  15. Weather-enabled future onboard surveillance and navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuel, L.; Baillon, B.; Barnetche, B.; Delpy, P.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing traffic and the development of business trajectories, there is a widespread need to anticipate any adverse weather conditions that could impact the performance of the flight or to use of atmospheric parameters to optimize trajectories. Current sensors onboard air transport are challenged to provide the required service, while new products for business jets and general aviation open the door to innovative assimilation of weather information in onboard surveillance and navigation. The paper aims at surveying current technology available to air transport aircraft and pointing out their shortcomings in view of the modernization proposed in SESAR and NextGen implementation plans. Foreseen innovations are then illustrated via results of ongoing research like FLYSAFE or standardization efforts, in particular meteorological datalink services and impact on Human-Machine Interface. The paper covers the operational need to avoid adverse weather like thunderstorm, icing, turbulence, windshear and volcanic ash, but also the requirement to control in 4D the trajectory through the integration of wind and temperature grids in the flight management. The former will lead to enhanced surveillance systems onboard the aircraft with new displays and new alerting schemes, ranging from targeted information supporting better re-planning to auto-escape strategies. The latter will be standard in next generation flight management systems. Finally both will rely on ATM products that will also assimilate weather information so that situational awareness is shared and decision is collaborative.

  16. Critical analysis of the positioning of monitoring system of the cyclotron accelerator; Analise critica do posicionamento de um sistema de monitoramento de acelerador Ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Julia A.; Passaro, Bruno M.; Guimaraes, Maria Ines C.C.; Buchpigue, Carlos A. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear (CMN) do InRad HCFMUSP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Videira, Heber S., E-mail: heber@cyclopet.com [CYCLOPET Radiofarmacos LTDA., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Ever since the first concerns arose about the possibility that the ionizing radiation induced detriment to human health, were created the methods of production, characterization and measurement of radiation, as well as definition of quantities that realistically express its interaction with human tissue. From this point, the monitoring program of the installation of a cyclotron must be continuously performed and contain the critical points of contamination according to the CNEN standard N.E. 3.02 - Radioprotection Service to avoid contamination and maintain radioactive exposure rates as low as reasonably achievable. The results obtained during the analysis showed that the positioning of monitors is suitable, except for the physico-chemical control laboratory monitors, which were installed next to the chapel of manipulation and below the dose calibrator. The answer obtained from the monitoring system in the position that the ionization chamber is in the door of the bunker should be taken into account, because the intensity of radiation emitted by the activation of the targets is slightly attenuated by the cyclotron. (author)

  17. Design Through Integration of On-Board Calibration Device with Imaging Spectroscopy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy (AVIRIS) project is to "identify, measure, and monitor constituents of the Earth's surface and atmosphere based on molecular absorption and particle scattering signatures." The project designs, builds, and tests various imaging spectroscopy instruments that use On-Board Calibration devices (OBC) to check the accuracy of the data collected by the spectrometers. The imaging instrument records the spectral signatures of light collected during flight. To verify the data is correct, the OBC shines light which is collected by the imaging spectrometer and compared against previous calibration data to track spectral response changes in the instrument. The spectral data has the calibration applied to it based on the readings from the OBC data in order to ensure accuracy.

  18. Integration of passive driver-assistance systems with on-board vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, V. V.; Poddubko, S. N.

    2018-02-01

    Implementation in OIAS such functions as driver’s state monitoring and high-precision calculation of the current navigation coordinates of the vehicle, modularity of the OIAS construction and the possible increase in the functionality through integration with other onboard systems has a promising development future. The development of intelligent transport systems and their components allows setting and solving fundamentally new tasks for the safety of human-to-machine transport systems, and the automatic analysis of heterogeneous information flows provides a synergistic effect. The analysis of cross-modal information exchange in human-machine transport systems, from uniform methodological points of view, will allow us, with an accuracy acceptable for solving applied problems, to form in real time an integrated assessment of the state of the basic components of the human-to-machine system and the dynamics in changing situation-centered environment, including the external environment, in their interrelations.

  19. Update on the Status of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Aloisi, A.; Bostroem, K. A.; Cox, C.; Debes, J. H.; DiFelice, A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Hodge, P.; Holland, S.; Lindsay, K.; Lockwood, S. A.; Mason, E.; Oliveira, C. M.; Penton, S. V.; Proffitt, C. R.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Taylor, J. M.; Wheeler, T.

    2013-06-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) has been on orbit for approximately 16 years as one of the 2nd generation instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Its operations were interrupted by an electronics failure in 2004, but STIS was successfully repaired in May 2009 during Service Mission 4 (SM4) allowing it to resume science observations. The Instrument team continues to monitor its performance and work towards improving the quality of its products. Here we present updated information on the status of the FUV and NUV MAMA and the CCD detectors onboard STIS and describe recent changes to the STIS calibration pipeline. We also discuss the status of efforts to apply a pixel-based correction for charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) effects to STIS CCD data. These techniques show promise for ameliorating the effects of ongoing radiation damage on the quality of STIS CCD data.

  20. High-Performance Contaminant Monitor for Spacecraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vision for Space Exploration demands increasing reliance on real-time trace gas monitors onboard spacecraft. Present grab samples and badges will be inadequate...

  1. Crucial Component Damage Detection, Monitoring and Mitigation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers an on-board structural health-monitoring (SHM) system with embedded sensors that sense mechanical impedance deviations to flag incipient...

  2. Accelerator operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  3. CNSTN Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habbassi, Afifa; Trabelsi, Adel

    2010-01-01

    This project give a big idea about the measurement of the linear accelerator in the CNSTN. During this work we control dose distribution for different product. For this characterisation we have to make an installation qualification ,operational qualification,performance qualification and of course for every step we have to control temperature and the dose ,even the distribution of the last one.

  4. Accelerators course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA; Métral, E

    2006-01-01

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges

  5. Accelerator operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Operations of the SuperHILAC, the Bevatron/Bevalac, and the 184-inch Synchrocyclotron during the period from October 1977 to September 1978 are discussed. These include ion source development, accelerator facilities, the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System, and Bevelac biomedical operations

  6. Applied Questions of Onboard Laser Radar Equipment Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Starovoitov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During development of the spacecraft laser radar systems (LRS it is a problem to make a choice of laser sources and photo-detectors both because of their using specifics in onboard equipment and because of the limited number of domestic and foreign manufacturers.Previous publications did not consider in detail the accuracy versus laser pulse repetition frequency, the impact of photo-detector sensitivity and dynamic range on the LRS characteristics, and the power signal-protected photo-detector against overload.The objective of this work is to analyze how the range, accuracy, and reliability of onboard LRS depend on different types of laser sources and photo-detectors, and on availability of electromechanical optical attenuator.The paper describes design solutions that are used to compensate for a decreased sensitivity of photo-detector and an impact of these changes on the LRS characteristics.It is shown that due to the high pulse repetition frequency a fiber laser is the preferred type of a laser source in onboard LRS, which can be used at ranges less than 500 m for two purposes: determining the orientation of the passive spacecraft with the accuracy of 0.3 and measuring the range rate during the rendezvous of spacecrafts with an accuracy of 0.003... 0.006 m/s.The work identifies the attenuation level of the optical attenuator versus measured range. In close proximity to a diffusely reflecting passive spacecraft and a corner reflector this attenuator protects photo-detector. It is found that the optical attenuator is advisable to apply when using the photo-detector based on an avalanche photodiode. There is no need in optical attenuator (if a geometric factor is available in the case of sounding corner reflector when a photo-detector based on pin-photodiode is used. Exclusion of electromechanical optical attenuator can increase the reliability function of LRS from Р (t = 0.9991 to Р (t = 0.9993.The results obtained in this work can be used

  7. Accelerator update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    When the Accelerator Conference, combined International High Energy and US Particle versions, held in Dallas in May, was initially scheduled, progress nearby for the US Superconducting Supercollider was high on the preliminary agenda. With the SSC voted down by Congress in October 1993, this was no longer the case. However the content of the meeting, in terms of both its deep implications for ambitious new projects and the breadth of its scope, showed that the worldwide particle accelerator field is far from being moribund. A traditional feature of such accelerator conferences is the multiplicity of parallel sessions. No one person can attend all sessions, so that delegates can follow completely different paths and emerge with totally different impressions. Despite this overload, and despite the SSC cancellation, the general picture is one of encouraging progress over a wide range of major new projects throughout the world. At the same time, spinoff from, and applications of, accelerators and accelerator technology are becoming increasingly important. Centrestage is now CERN's LHC proton-proton collider, where a test string of superconducting magnets is operating over long periods at the nominal LHC field of 8.36 tesla or more. The assignment of the underground areas in the existing 27- kilometre LEP tunnel is now quasidefinitive (see page 3). For CERN's existing big machine, the LEP electron-positron collider, ongoing work concentrates on boosting performance using improved optics and bunch trains. But the main objective is the LEP2 scheme using superconducting accelerating cavities to boost the beam energy (see page 6). After some initial teething problems, production and operation of these cavities appears to have been mastered, at least under test conditions. A highlight at CERN last year was the first run with lead ions (December 1994, page 15). Handling these heavy particles with systems originally designed for protons calls for ingenuity. The SPS

  8. Accelerator update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-15

    When the Accelerator Conference, combined International High Energy and US Particle versions, held in Dallas in May, was initially scheduled, progress nearby for the US Superconducting Supercollider was high on the preliminary agenda. With the SSC voted down by Congress in October 1993, this was no longer the case. However the content of the meeting, in terms of both its deep implications for ambitious new projects and the breadth of its scope, showed that the worldwide particle accelerator field is far from being moribund. A traditional feature of such accelerator conferences is the multiplicity of parallel sessions. No one person can attend all sessions, so that delegates can follow completely different paths and emerge with totally different impressions. Despite this overload, and despite the SSC cancellation, the general picture is one of encouraging progress over a wide range of major new projects throughout the world. At the same time, spinoff from, and applications of, accelerators and accelerator technology are becoming increasingly important. Centrestage is now CERN's LHC proton-proton collider, where a test string of superconducting magnets is operating over long periods at the nominal LHC field of 8.36 tesla or more. The assignment of the underground areas in the existing 27- kilometre LEP tunnel is now quasidefinitive (see page 3). For CERN's existing big machine, the LEP electron-positron collider, ongoing work concentrates on boosting performance using improved optics and bunch trains. But the main objective is the LEP2 scheme using superconducting accelerating cavities to boost the beam energy (see page 6). After some initial teething problems, production and operation of these cavities appears to have been mastered, at least under test conditions. A highlight at CERN last year was the first run with lead ions (December 1994, page 15). Handling these heavy particles with systems originally designed for protons calls for ingenuity. The SPS has managed

  9. Application accelerator system having bunch control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Krafft, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    An application accelerator system for monitoring the gain of a free electron laser is disclosed. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detection techniques are used with a bunch length monitor for ultra short, picosec to several tens of femtosec, electron bunches. The monitor employs an application accelerator, a coherent radiation production device, an optical or beam chopping device, an infrared radiation collection device, a narrow-banding filter, an infrared detection device, and a control. 1 fig

  10. Application accelerator system having bunch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dunxiong; Krafft, Geoffrey Arthur

    1999-01-01

    An application accelerator system for monitoring the gain of a free electron laser. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detection techniques are used with a bunch length monitor for ultra short, picosec to several tens of femtosec, electron bunches. The monitor employs an application accelerator, a coherent radiation production device, an optical or beam chopping device, an infrared radiation collection device, a narrow-banding filter, an infrared detection device, and a control.

  11. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    and developing the best business ideas and support the due diligence process. Even universities are noticing that the learning experience of the action learning approach is an effective way to develop capabilities and change cultures. Accelerators related to what has historically been associated...

  12. Developing Software For Monitoring And Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S. J.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1993-01-01

    Expert-system software shell produces executable code. Report discusses beginning phase of research directed toward development of artificial intelligence for real-time monitoring of, and diagnosis of faults in, complicated systems of equipment. Motivated by need for onboard monitoring and diagnosis of electronic sensing and controlling systems of advanced aircraft. Also applicable to such equipment systems as refineries, factories, and powerplants.

  13. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  14. Laser acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental idea of LaserWakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wake fields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ∼ c and ultra fastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nano materials is also emerging.

  15. Accelerating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David M D; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Johnson, Neil F

    2007-01-01

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  16. Fluid Physics Experiments onboard International Space Station: Through the Eyes of a Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Valentina

    Fluids are present everywhere in everyday life. They are also present as fuel, in support systems or as consumable in rockets and onboard of satellites and space stations. Everyone experiences every day that fluids are very sensitive to gravity: on Earth liquids flow downwards and gases mostly rise. Nowadays much of the interest of the scientific community is on studying the phenomena at microscales in so-called microfluidic systems. However, at smaller scales the experimental investigation of convective flows becomes increasingly difficult as the control parameter Ra scales with g L (3) (g; acceleration level, L: length scale). A unique alternative to the difficulty of investigating systems with small length scale on the ground is to reduce the gravity level g. In systems with interfaces, buoyancy forces are proportional to the volume of the liquid, while capillary forces act solely on the liquid surface. The importance of buoyancy diminishes either at very small scales or with reducing the acceleration level. Under the weightless conditions of space where buoyancy is virtually eliminated, other mechanisms such as capillary forces, diffusion, vibration, shear forces, electrostatic and electromagnetic forces are dominating in the fluid behaviour. This is why research in space represents a powerful tool for scientific research in this field. Understanding how fluids work really matters and so does measuring their properties accurately. Presently, a number of scientific laboratories, as usual goes with multi-user instruments, are involved in fluid research on the ISS. The programme of fluid physics experiments on-board deals with capillary flows, diffusion, dynamics in complex fluids (foams, emulsions and granular matter), heat transfer processes with phase change, physics and physico-chemistry near or beyond the critical point and it also extends to combustion physics. The top-level objectives of fluid research in space are as follows: (i) to investigate fluid

  17. Development of the accelerating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jiho; Kwon, H. J.; Kim, D. I.; Kim, H. S.; Ryu, J. Y.; Park, B. S.; Seol, K. T.; Yun, S. P.; Song, Y. G.; Cho, Y. S.

    2013-02-15

    One of the main purposes of the 'Development of the Accelerating System' is developing a 100-MeV proton linac which accelerate proton beams from 20 MeV to 100 MeV by using 7 DTL (drift tube linac) tanks. Two of them were finished in the 2-nd stage of the project. The remaining part was also successfully fabricated and installed at Gyeongju site of KAERI. The MEBT is an essential component to extract and supply 20-MeV proton beams to users, and to match proton beams to the next accelerating structure for 100-MeV acceleration. The development of the MEBT has successfully finished. The project also developed the digital LLRF (low level RF) system which control the accelerating field within 1% in magnitude and 1 degree in phase. This system has been successfully tested in the 20-MeV linac operation at Daejeon site of KAERI. The modified version of the digital LLRF system will be used in the 100-MeV linac operation. The project also developed the beam diagnostic system. They are the strip-line type beam position monitor (BPM), the beam current monitor (CT), the beam loss monitor (BLM), and the emittance measurement system. They are used to measure the characteristics of the 20-MeV proton beams. The project also developed the EPIC-based control system. It is used to monitor the status of the accelerator and components, and to remotely control accelerator components. It has been used and modified in the 20-MeV linac operation. The modified version of the LLRF, diagnostics and control systems will be used in 100-MeV linac operation.

  18. Biological quarantine on international waters: an initiative for onboard protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Yano, Hajime; Funase, Ryu; Sekine, Yasuhito; Takai, Ken

    2012-07-01

    The research vessel Chikyu is expanding new frontiers in science, technology, and international collaboration through deep-sea expedition. The Chikyu (length: 210 m, gross tonnage: 56752 tons) has advanced and comprehensive scientific research facilities. One of the scientific purposes of the vessel is to investigate into unexplored biosphere (i.e., undescribed extremophiles) on the Earth. Therefore, "the onboard laboratory" provides us systematic microbiological protocols with a physical containment situation. In parallel, the onboard equipments provide sufficient space for fifty scientists and technical support staff. The helicopter deck also supports various logistics through transporting by a large scale helicopter (See, http://www.jamstec.go.jp/chikyu/eng/). Since the establishment of Panel on Planetary Protection (PPP) in Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), we have an international consensus about the development and promulgation of planetary protection knowledge, policy, and plans to prevent the harmful effects of biological contamination on the Earth (e.g., Rummel, 2002). However, the matter to select a candidate location of initial quarantine at BSL4 level is often problematic. To answer the key issue, we suggest that international waters can be a meaningful option with several advantages to conduct initial onboard-biological quarantine investigation. Hence, the research vessel Chikyu is promising for further PPP requirements (e.g., Enceladus sample return project: Tsou et al., 2012). Rummel, J., Seeking an international consensus in planetary protection: COSPAR's planetary protection panel. Advances in Space Research, 30, 1573-1575 (2002). Tsou, P. et al. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus - A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life. Astrobiology, in press.

  19. Onboard Data Processors for Planetary Ice-Penetrating Sounding Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, I. L.; Friesenhahn, R.; Gim, Y.; Wu, X.; Jordan, R.; Wang, C.; Clark, D.; Le, M.; Hand, K. P.; Plaut, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Among the many concerns faced by outer planetary missions, science data storage and transmission hold special significance. Such missions must contend with limited onboard storage, brief data downlink windows, and low downlink bandwidths. A potential solution to these issues lies in employing onboard data processors (OBPs) to convert raw data into products that are smaller and closely capture relevant scientific phenomena. In this paper, we present the implementation of two OBP architectures for ice-penetrating sounding radars tasked with exploring Europa and Ganymede. Our first architecture utilizes an unfocused processing algorithm extended from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS, Jordan et. al. 2009). Compared to downlinking raw data, we are able to reduce data volume by approximately 100 times through OBP usage. To ensure the viability of our approach, we have implemented, simulated, and synthesized this architecture using both VHDL and Matlab models (with fixed-point and floating-point arithmetic) in conjunction with Modelsim. Creation of a VHDL model of our processor is the principle step in transitioning to actual digital hardware, whether in a FPGA (field-programmable gate array) or an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit), and successful simulation and synthesis strongly indicate feasibility. In addition, we examined the tradeoffs faced in the OBP between fixed-point accuracy, resource consumption, and data product fidelity. Our second architecture is based upon a focused fast back projection (FBP) algorithm that requires a modest amount of computing power and on-board memory while yielding high along-track resolution and improved slope detection capability. We present an overview of the algorithm and details of our implementation, also in VHDL. With the appropriate tradeoffs, the use of OBPs can significantly reduce data downlink requirements without sacrificing data product fidelity. Through the development

  20. Lunar Landing Trajectory Design for Onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Steve; Brady, Tye; Sostaric, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing the software and hardware technology needed to support a safe and precise landing for the next generation of lunar missions. ALHAT provides this capability through terrain-relative navigation measurements to enhance global-scale precision, an onboard hazard detection system to select safe landing locations, and an Autonomous Guidance, Navigation, and Control (AGNC) capability to process these measurements and safely direct the vehicle to a landing location. This paper focuses on the key trajectory design issues relevant to providing an onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) capability for the lander. Hazard detection can be accomplished by the crew visually scanning the terrain through a window, a sensor system imaging the terrain, or some combination of both. For ALHAT, this hazard detection activity is provided by a sensor system, which either augments the crew s perception or entirely replaces the crew in the case of a robotic landing. Detecting hazards influences the trajectory design by requiring the proper perspective, range to the landing site, and sufficient time to view the terrain. Following this, the trajectory design must provide additional time to process this information and make a decision about where to safely land. During the final part of the HDA process, the trajectory design must provide sufficient margin to enable a hazard avoidance maneuver. In order to demonstrate the effects of these constraints on the landing trajectory, a tradespace of trajectory designs was created for the initial ALHAT Design Analysis Cycle (ALDAC-1) and each case evaluated with these HDA constraints active. The ALHAT analysis process, described in this paper, narrows down this tradespace and subsequently better defines the trajectory design needed to support onboard HDA. Future ALDACs will enhance this trajectory design by balancing these issues and others in an overall system

  1. On-board cryogenic system for magnetic levitation of trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldus, S A.W.; Kneuer, R; Stephan, A

    1975-02-01

    An experimental car based on electrodynamic levitation with superconducting magnets was developed and manufactured with an on-board cryogenic system. This system has to cope with new conditions and cryogenic tasks. It can be characterized in principle by liquid helium heat exchanger units, compressors, transfer lines, rotable and movable couplings and junctions. All transfer lines and couplings consist of three coaxial ducts for three different streams. Processes and components are discussed, and a brief description of the first results for the whole system under simulation conditions is given.

  2. On-board image compression for the RAE lunar mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. H.; Lynch, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements, design, implementation, and flight performance of an on-board image compression system for the lunar orbiting Radio Astronomy Explorer-2 (RAE-2) spacecraft are described. The image to be compressed is a panoramic camera view of the long radio astronomy antenna booms used for gravity-gradient stabilization of the spacecraft. A compression ratio of 32 to 1 is obtained by a combination of scan line skipping and adaptive run-length coding. The compressed imagery data are convolutionally encoded for error protection. This image compression system occupies about 1000 cu cm and consumes 0.4 W.

  3. MARES: Navigation, Control and On-board Software

    OpenAIRE

    Aníbal Matos; Nuno Cruz

    2009-01-01

    MARES, or Modular Autonomous Robot for Environment Sampling, is a 1.5m long AUV, designed and built by the Ocean Systems Group. The vehicle can be programmed to follow predefined trajectories, while collecting relevant data with the onboard sensors. MARES can dive up to 100m deep, and unlike similar-sized systems, has vertical thrusters to allow for purely vertical motion in the water column. Forward velocity can be independently defined, from 0 to 2 m/s. Major application areas include pollu...

  4. On-board cryogenic system for magnetic levitation of trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asztalos, St.; Baldus, W.; Kneuer, R.; Stephan, A.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental car based on electrodynamic levitation with superconducting magnets has been developed and manufactured by AEG, BBC, Siemens and other partners, together with Linde AG as the firm responsible for the on-board cryogenic system. This system has to cope with new conditions and cryogenic tasks. It can be characterized in principle by liquid helium heat exchanger units, compressors, transfer lines, rotatable and movable couplings and junctions. All transfer lines and couplings consist of three coaxial ducts for three different streams. This paper reports on processes and components. A brief description of the first results for the whole system under simulation conditions is given. (author)

  5. Applying CASE Tools for On-Board Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, U.; Hönle, A.

    For many space projects the software development is facing great pressure with respect to quality, costs and schedule. One way to cope with these challenges is the application of CASE tools for automatic generation of code and documentation. This paper describes two CASE tools: Rhapsody (I-Logix) featuring UML and ISG (BSSE) that provides modeling of finite state machines. Both tools have been used at Kayser-Threde in different space projects for the development of on-board software. The tools are discussed with regard to the full software development cycle.

  6. On-board system for physical and microphysical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravaut, M.; Allet, C.; Dole, B.; Gribkoff, A.; Schibler, P.; Charpentier, C.

    1981-10-01

    This report presents the system of physical and microphysical measurement instrumentation on board the HUREL-DUBOIS HD 34 aircraft, built in cooperation with the Institut National d'Astronomie et de Geophysique (I.N.A.G.) and the Institut Geographique National (I.G.N.). The feasibility study of the system was carried out in the first half of 1978 and took shape in an on-site proving campaign in November 1979. As a result, the on-board system was able to participate in the BUGEY experimental campaign of March 1980, a glimpse of which is given in this report [fr

  7. Acceleration sensitivity of micromachined pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Richard; Maudie, Theresa; Miller, Todd F.; Thompson, Erik

    1999-08-01

    Pressure sensors serve a variety of automotive applications, some which may experience high levels of acceleration such as tire pressure monitoring. To design pressure sensors for high acceleration environments it is important to understand their sensitivity to acceleration especially if thick encapsulation layers are used to isolate the device from the hostile environment in which they reside. This paper describes a modeling approach to determine their sensitivity to acceleration that is very general and is applicable to different device designs and configurations. It also describes the results of device testing of a capacitive surface micromachined pressure sensor at constant acceleration levels from 500 to 2000 g's.

  8. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations

  9. Use of mobile robots for mapping radiation field around particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Agashe, V.; Pal, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    In Particle Accelerators, when the accelerated particles hit the target or inadvertently strike the wall, prompt and induced radiation is produced. It is necessary to monitor the resulting radiation field in order to reduce radiation exposure to operating personnel, as well as to locate points of leakage of the particle beam. This paper describes the development of mobile robots equipped with onboard radiation detectors for mapping such radiation fields. They include a user interface software running on a host computer to tele operate the robot, monitor radiation levels, and build and display a radiation map out of these data through interpolation. One such robot (ARMER-II), designed and developed by us in consultation with Radiation Safety Division (RSD), is a portable mobile robot for identifying locations with radiation levels higher than permissible limits. Its remote interface computes and guides the robot to move in a direction in which the increase in intensity of radiation is the steepest. Another mobile robot (ARMER-I) has a telescopic arm fitted with a light and small GM tube. This also can be controlled remotely, and is very useful in remote measurement of radiation from locations which are difficult to reach otherwise. Another version (ASHWA) has been successfully adapted by VECC, Kolkata, for gamma and neutron radiation profiling in the cyclotron vault area. We are presently working on the design and development of a four-wheel differentially driven mobile robot (RADMAPPER) with higher payload capacity for carrying radiation detectors like gamma camera and neutron dosimeters and positioning them at desired heights. With appropriate localization capability, this is going to be a very flexible mobile robot based system for radiation profiling around particle accelerators. The specification for this robot has been prepared in consultation with VECC for use in their cyclotron facilities. (author)

  10. Fatigue crack growth spectrum simplification: Facilitation of on-board damage prognosis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Matthew Adam

    2009-12-01

    Better lifetime predictions of systems subjected to fatigue loading are needed in support of the optimization of the costs of life-cycle engineering. In particular, the climate is especially encouraging for the development of safer aircraft. One issue is that aircraft experience complex fatigue loading and current methods for the prediction of fatigue damage accumulation rely on intensive computational tools that are not currently carried onboard during flight. These tools rely on complex models that are made more difficult by the complicated load spectra themselves. This presents an overhead burden as offline analysis must be performed at an offsite facility. This architecture is thus unable to provide online, timely information for on-board use. The direct objective of this research was to facilitate the real-time fatigue damage assessments of on-board systems with a particular emphasis on aging aircraft. To achieve the objective, the goal of this research was to simplify flight spectra. Variable-amplitude spectra, in which the load changes on a cycle-by-cycle basis, cannot readily be supported by an onboard system because the models required to predict fatigue crack growth during variable-amplitude loading are too complicated. They are too complicated because variable-amplitude fatigue crack growth analysis must be performed on a cycle-by-cycle basis as no closed-form solution exists. This makes these calculations too time-consuming and requires impractical, heavy onboard systems or offsite facilities. The hypothesis is to replace a variable-amplitude spectrum with an equivalent constant-amplitude spectrum. The advantage is a dramatic reduction in the complexity of the problem so that damage predictions can be made onboard by simple, fast calculations in real-time without the need to add additional weight to the aircraft. The intent is to reduce the computational burden and facilitate on-board projection of damage evolution and prediction for the accurate

  11. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  12. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process

  13. Applications of microprocessors in upgrading of accelerator controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, K.B.

    1977-03-01

    Experience at SLAC demonstrates that the criteria for selection and use of microprocessors in modifying an existing control system may differ from the criteria that apply during installation of the control system of a new accelerator. Considerations such as cost of individual projects, progressive installation without disruption of operations and training of on-board personnel can outweigh ''obvious'' goals such as standardization of hardware, uniformity of software, or even a rigid specification of link protocols with the main computer system

  14. Ring accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, G.; Faehl, R.

    1983-01-01

    We present two-dimensional simulations in (r-z) and r-theta) cylinderical geometries of imploding-liner-driven accelerators of rings of charged particles. We address issues of azimuthal and longitudinal stability of the rings. We discuss self-trapping designs in which beam injection and extraction is aided by means of external cusp fields. Our simulations are done with the 2-1/2-D particle-in-cell plasma simulation code CLINER, which combines collisionless, electromagnetic PIC capabilities with a quasi-MHD finite element package

  15. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  16. Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide over the Pacific Ocean by voluntary observing ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Mukai, H.; Machida, T.; Tohjima, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruising routes: from Japan to Oceania, from Japan to the United States, from Japan to Canada, and from Japan to Southeast Asia. Flask samples are collected during every cruise for subsequent analysis in the laboratory, and in 2005, continuous shipboard CO measurements were initiated on three of the routes. Here, we describe the system we developed for onboard measurement of CO mixing ratios with a commercially available gas filter correlation CO analyzer. The fully automated system measures CO in ambient air, and the detector sensitivity and background signals are calibrated by referencing the measurements to a CO-in-air standard gas (~1 ppmv) and to CO-free air scrubbed with a catalyst, respectively. We examined the artificial production of CO in the high-pressure working gas standards (CO balanced with purified air at ppmv levels) during storage by referencing the measurements to CO standard gases maintained as our primary scale before and after use on the ships. The onboard performance of the continuous CO measurement system was evaluated by comparing its data with data from laboratory analyses of flask samples using gas chromatography with a reduction gas detector. The reasonably good consistency between the two independent measurement methods demonstrated the good performance of both methods over the course of 3-5 yr. The continuous measurement system was more useful than the flask sampling method for regionally polluted air masses, which were often encountered on Southeast Asian cruises.

  17. Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide in the Pacific by voluntary observing ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H.; Nojiri, Y.; Mukai, H.; Machida, T.; Tohjima, Y.

    2011-11-01

    Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruise routes: from Japan to Oceania, the United States, Canada, and Southeast Asia. Flask samples are collected during every cruise for subsequent analysis in the laboratory, and in 2005, continuous shipboard CO measurements were initiated on three of the routes. Here, we describe the system we developed for onboard measurement of CO mixing ratios with a commercially available gas filter correlation CO analyzer. The fully automated system measures CO in ambient air, and the detector sensitivity and background signals are calibrated by referencing the measurements to a CO-in-air standard gas (~1 ppmv) and to CO-free air scrubbed with a catalyst, respectively. We examined the artificial production of CO in the high-pressure working gas standards during storage by referencing the measurements to CO standard gases maintained as our primary scale before and after use on the ships. The onboard performance of the continuous CO measurement system was evaluated by comparing its data with data from laboratory analyses of flask samples using gas chromatography with a reduction gas detector. The reasonably good consistency between the two independent measurement methods demonstrated the good performance of both methods over the course of 3-5 years. The continuous measurement system was more useful than the flask sampling method for regionally polluted air masses, which were often encountered on Southeast Asian cruises.

  18. Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide in the Pacific by voluntary observing ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruise routes: from Japan to Oceania, the United States, Canada, and Southeast Asia. Flask samples are collected during every cruise for subsequent analysis in the laboratory, and in 2005, continuous shipboard CO measurements were initiated on three of the routes. Here, we describe the system we developed for onboard measurement of CO mixing ratios with a commercially available gas filter correlation CO analyzer. The fully automated system measures CO in ambient air, and the detector sensitivity and background signals are calibrated by referencing the measurements to a CO-in-air standard gas (~1 ppmv and to CO-free air scrubbed with a catalyst, respectively. We examined the artificial production of CO in the high-pressure working gas standards during storage by referencing the measurements to CO standard gases maintained as our primary scale before and after use on the ships. The onboard performance of the continuous CO measurement system was evaluated by comparing its data with data from laboratory analyses of flask samples using gas chromatography with a reduction gas detector. The reasonably good consistency between the two independent measurement methods demonstrated the good performance of both methods over the course of 3–5 years. The continuous measurement system was more useful than the flask sampling method for regionally polluted air masses, which were often encountered on Southeast Asian cruises.

  19. Tuning the Solar Dynamics Observatory Onboard Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Julie Kay; Harman, Rick; Carpenter, Russell; Poland, Devin

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was launched in 2010. SDO is a sun pointing semi-autonomous spacecraft in a geosynchronous orbit that allows nearly continuous observations of the sun. SDO is equipped with coarse sun sensors, two star trackers, a digital sun sensor, and three two-axis inertial reference units (IRU). The IRUs are temperature sensitive and were designed to operate in a stable thermal environment. Due to battery degradation concerns the IRU heaters were not used on SDO and the onboard filter was tuned to accommodate the noisier IRU data. Since launch currents have increased on two IRUs, one had to eventually be powered off. Recent ground tests on a battery similar to SDO indicated the heaters would have negligible impact on battery degradation, so in 2016 a decision was made to turn the heaters on. This paper presents the analysis and results of updating the filter tuning parameters onboard SDO with the IRUs now operating in their intended thermal environment.

  20. Cosmic ray acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1982-09-01

    We present a brief summary of some of the most popular theories of cosmic ray acceleration: Fermi acceleration, its application to acceleration by shocks in a scattering medium, and impulsive acceleration by relativistic shocks

  1. Hypersonic wind-tunnel free-flying experiments with onboard instrumentation

    KAUST Repository

    Mudford, Neil R.; O'Byrne, Sean B.; Neely, Andrew J.; Buttsworth, David R.; Balage, Sudantha

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic wind-tunnel testing with "free-flight" models unconnected to a sting ensures that sting/wake flow interactions do not compromise aerodynamic coefficient measurements. The development of miniaturized electronics has allowed the demonstration of a variant of a new method for the acquisition of hypersonic model motion data using onboard accelerometers, gyroscopes, and a microcontroller. This method is demonstrated in a Mach 6 wind-tunnel flow, whose duration and pitot pressure are sufficient for the model to move a body length or more and turn through a significant angle. The results are compared with those obtained from video analysis of the model motion, the existing method favored for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients in similar hypersonic wind-tunnel facilities. The results from the two methods are in good agreement. The new method shows considerable promise for reliable measurement of aerodynamic coefficients, particularly because the data obtained are in more directly applicable forms of accelerations and rates of turn, rather than the model position and attitude obtained from the earlier visualization method. The ideal may be to have both methods operating together.

  2. On-board emission measurement of high-loaded light-duty vehicles in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Kerbachi, Rabah; Joumard, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A sample of eight private gasoline and diesel conventional light-duty vehicles (LDVs) in use with various ages, carrying a load of 460 kg, were tested on a representative trip in the traffic flow of the city of Blida to obtain emission factors representing the actual use conditions of Algerian LDVs. The gas sampling system (mini-constant volume sampling) as well as the analyzers are carried on-board the vehicle. Around 55 tests were conducted during 3 months covering more than 480 km under various real driving conditions. The mean speed downtown is about 16.1 km/hr with a rather low acceleration, an average of 0.60 m/sec2. For each test, kinematics are recorded as well as the analysis of the four emitted pollutants carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and total hydrocarbons. Emission factors were evaluated according to speed for each category of gasoline and diesel engines. The influence of some parameters such as cold/hot start, age of vehicle and its state of maintenance are discussed. Results are compared with the European database ARTEMIS for comparable vehicles. These measurements contribute to the development of unit emission of the vehicles used in Algeria, which are necessary for the calculation of emission inventory of pollutants and greenhouse gases from the road transportation sector. The unit emissions constitute a tool of decisionmaking aid regarding the conception of new regulations of vehicle control and inspection in Algeria and even in similar developing countries.

  3. Flight Hardware Virtualization for On-Board Science Data Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilize Hardware Virtualization technology to benefit on-board science data processing by investigating new real time embedded Hardware Virtualization solutions and...

  4. Possibilities of reduction of the on-board energy for an innovative subway

    OpenAIRE

    Allègre, A-L.; Barrade, P.; Delarue, P.; Bouscayrol, A.; Chattot, E.; El-Fassi, S.

    2009-01-01

    An innovative subway has been proposed using supercapacitors as energy source. In this paper, are presented different possibilities to reduce on-board stored energy in order to downsize the on-board energy storage subsystem. Special attention is paid to the influence of a feeding rail extension or a downward slope at the beginning of the interstation on the on-board stored energy. A map is built to facilitate the selection of the solution which leads to reduce the on-board energy.

  5. The Whisper Relaxation Sounder onboard Cluster: A Powerful Tool for Space Plasma Diagnosis around the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotignon, J.G.; Decreau, P.M.E.; Rauch, J.L.; LeGuirriec, E.; Canu, P.; Darrouzet, F.

    2001-01-01

    The WHISPER relaxation sounder that is onboard the four CLUSTER spacecraft has for main scientific objectives to monitor the natural waves in the 2 kHz - 80 kHz frequency range and, mostly, to determine the total plasma density from the solar wind down to the Earth's plasmasphere. To fulfil these objectives, the WHISPER uses the two long double sphere antennae of the Electric Field and Wave experiment as transmitting and receiving sensors. In its active working mode, the WHISPER works according to principles that have been worked out for topside sounding. A radio wave transmitter sends an almost monochromatic and short wave train. A few milliseconds after, a receiver listens to the surrounding plasma response. Strong and long lasting echoes are actually received whenever the transmitting frequencies coincide with characteristic plasma frequencies. Provided that these echoes, also called resonances, may be identified, the WHISPER relaxation sounder becomes a reliable and powerful tool for plasma diagnosis. When the transmitter is off, the WHISPER behaves like a passive receiver, allowing natural waves to be monitored. The paper aims mainly at the resonance identification process description and the WHISPER capabilities and performance highlighting. (author)

  6. Experimental evaluation of the exposure level onboard Czech Airlines aircraft - measurements verified the routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Turek, K.; Kovar, I.

    2008-01-01

    Air-crew members are exposed to ionizing radiation due to their work on board of air-crafts. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1990 recommends that exposure to cosmic radiation in the operation of jet aircraft should be recognised as occupational exposure. Czech air transport operators are therefore obliged to ensure: - Air-crew members to be well informed about the exposure level and health risks; - An analysis of complete exposure level of aircraft crew and its continuing monitoring in cases of exceeding the informative value 1 mSv; - A compliance of limit 1 mSv during pregnancy Since 1998, after receiving a proper accreditation, the Department of Radiation Dosimetry of Nuclear Physics Institute of Czech Academy of Sciences (DRD) is the competent dosimetric service realized requirements of Notice No.307 of the State Office for Nuclear Safety concerning air-crew exposure (paragraphs 87-90). The DRD has developed routine method of personal dosimetry of aircraft crew in 1998 which has been applied after receiving a proper accreditation in the same year. DRD therefore helps Czech airlines a.s. (CSA) with their legislative obligations mentioned above, and in return, once per four years, in terms of business contract, CSA allows scientific measurements performed by DRD onboard its air-crafts with the aim to verify the method of routine individual monitoring of aircraft crew exposure. (authors)

  7. Designing on-Board Data Handling for EDF (Electric Ducted Fan) Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, A.; Faiz, L. A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The EDF (Electric Ducted Fan) rocket to launch requires a system of monitoring, tracking and controlling to allow the rocket to glide properly. One of the important components in the rocket is OBDH (On-Board Data Handling) which serves as a medium to perform commands and data processing. However, TTC (Telemetry, Tracking, and Command) are required to communicate between GCS (Ground Control Station) and OBDH on EDF rockets. So the design control system of EDF rockets and GCS for telemetry and telecommand needs to be made. In the design of integrated OBDH controller uses a lot of electronics modules, to know the behavior of rocket used IMU sensor (Inertial Measurement Unit) in which consist of 3-axis gyroscope sensor and Accelerometer 3-axis. To do tracking using GPS, compass sensor as a determinant of the direction of the rocket as well as a reference point on the z-axis of gyroscope sensor processing and used barometer sensors to measure the height of the rocket at the time of glide. The data can be known in real-time by sending data through radio modules at 2.4 GHz frequency using XBee-Pro S2B to GCS. By using windows filter, noises can be reduced, and it used to guarantee monitoring and controlling system can work properly.

  8. On-Board Particulate Filter Failure Prevention and Failure Diagnostics Using Radio Frequency Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappok, Alex [Filter Sensing Technologies; Ragaller, Paul [Filter Sensing Technologies; Herman, Andrew [CTS Corporation; Bromberg, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The increasing use of diesel and gasoline particulate filters requires advanced on-board diagnostics (OBD) to prevent and detect filter failures and malfunctions. Early detection of upstream (engine-out) malfunctions is paramount to preventing irreversible damage to downstream aftertreatment system components. Such early detection can mitigate the failure of the particulate filter resulting in the escape of emissions exceeding permissible limits and extend the component life. However, despite best efforts at early detection and filter failure prevention, the OBD system must also be able to detect filter failures when they occur. In this study, radio frequency (RF) sensors were used to directly monitor the particulate filter state of health for both gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications. The testing included controlled engine dynamometer evaluations, which characterized soot slip from various filter failure modes, as well as on-road fleet vehicle tests. The results show a high sensitivity to detect conditions resulting in soot leakage from the particulate filter, as well as potential for direct detection of structural failures including internal cracks and melted regions within the filter media itself. Furthermore, the measurements demonstrate, for the first time, the capability to employ a direct and continuous monitor of particulate filter diagnostics to both prevent and detect potential failure conditions in the field.

  9. Safe Onboard Guidance and Control Under Probabilistic Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Lars James

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm was developed that determines the fuel-optimal spacecraft guidance trajectory that takes into account uncertainty, in order to guarantee that mission safety constraints are satisfied with the required probability. The algorithm uses convex optimization to solve for the optimal trajectory. Convex optimization is amenable to onboard solution due to its excellent convergence properties. The algorithm is novel because, unlike prior approaches, it does not require time-consuming evaluation of multivariate probability densities. Instead, it uses a new mathematical bounding approach to ensure that probability constraints are satisfied, and it is shown that the resulting optimization is convex. Empirical results show that the approach is many orders of magnitude less conservative than existing set conversion techniques, for a small penalty in computation time.

  10. Estimation of waves and ship responses using onboard measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Najmeh

    This thesis focuses on estimation of waves and ship responses using ship-board measurements. This is useful for development of operational safety and performance efficiency in connection with the broader concept of onboard decision support systems. Estimation of sea state is studied using a set...... of measured ship responses, a parametric description of directional wave spectra (a generalised JONSWAP model) and the transfer functions of the ship responses. The difference between the spectral moments of the measured ship responses and the corresponding theoretically calculated moments formulates a cost...... information. The model is tested on simulated data based on known unimodal and bimodal wave scenarios. The wave parameters in the output are then compared with the true wave parameters. In addition to the numerical experiments, two sets of full-scale measurements from container ships are analysed. Herein...

  11. A new model for understanding teamwork onboard: the shipmate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espevik, Roar; Olsen, Olav Kjellevold

    2013-01-01

    The increasing complexity onboard a ship underline the importance of crews that are able to coordinate and cooperate with each other to facilitate task objectives through a shared understanding of resources (e.g. team members' knowledge, skills and experience), the crew's goals, and the constrains under which they work. Rotation of personnel through 24/7 shift-work schedules and replacements often put crews ina position of having little or no previous history as a team. Findings from 3 studies indicated that unfamiliar teams used less efficient coordination strategies which reduced efficiency and increased levels of stress in situations where team members where experts on task, distributed or unknown to task and environment.Implications for staffing, safety and training are discussed.

  12. Reconfigurable On-Board Vision Processing for Small Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Archibald

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the challenge of supporting real-time vision processing on-board small autonomous vehicles. Local vision gives increased autonomous capability, but it requires substantial computing power that is difficult to provide given the severe constraints of small size and battery-powered operation. We describe a custom FPGA-based circuit board designed to support research in the development of algorithms for image-directed navigation and control. We show that the FPGA approach supports real-time vision algorithms by describing the implementation of an algorithm to construct a three-dimensional (3D map of the environment surrounding a small mobile robot. We show that FPGAs are well suited for systems that must be flexible and deliver high levels of performance, especially in embedded settings where space and power are significant concerns.

  13. Reconfigurable On-Board Vision Processing for Small Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fife WadeS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the challenge of supporting real-time vision processing on-board small autonomous vehicles. Local vision gives increased autonomous capability, but it requires substantial computing power that is difficult to provide given the severe constraints of small size and battery-powered operation. We describe a custom FPGA-based circuit board designed to support research in the development of algorithms for image-directed navigation and control. We show that the FPGA approach supports real-time vision algorithms by describing the implementation of an algorithm to construct a three-dimensional (3D map of the environment surrounding a small mobile robot. We show that FPGAs are well suited for systems that must be flexible and deliver high levels of performance, especially in embedded settings where space and power are significant concerns.

  14. Spatial distribution of absorbed dose onboard of International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadrnickova, I.; Spumy, F.; Tateyama, R.; Yasuda, N.; Kawashima, H.; Kurano, M.; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Akatov, Yu.; Shurshakov, V.; Kobayashi, I.; Ohguchi, H.; Koguchi, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The passive detectors (LD and PNTD) were exposed onboard of Russian Service Module Qn the International Space Station (ISS) from August 2004 to October 2005 (425 days). The detectors were located at 6 different positions inside the Service Module and also in 32 pockets on the surface of the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom located in crew cabin. Distribution of absorbed doses and dose equivalents measured with passive detectors, as well as LET spectra of fluences of registered particles, are presented as the function of detectors' location. The variation of dose characteristics for different locations can be up to factor of 2. In some cases, data measured with passive detectors are also compared with the data obtained by means of active instruments. (authors)

  15. Comparison of MODIS and VIIRS On-board Blackbody Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jack; Butler, Jim; Wu, Aisheng; Chiang, Vincent; McIntire, Jeff; Oudari, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    MODIS has 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs), covering wavelengths from 3.7 to 14.4 microns. MODIS TEBs are calibrated on-orbit by a v-grooved blackbody (BB) on a scan-by-scan basis. The BB temperatures are measured by a set of 12 thennistors. As expected, the BB temperature uncertainty and stability have direct impact on the quality of TEB calibration and, therefore, the quality of the science products derived from TEB observations. Since launch, Terra and Aqua MODIS have successfully operated for more than 12 and 10 years, respectively. Their on-board BB performance has been satisfactory in meeting the TEB calibration requirements. The first VIIRS, launched on-board the Suomi NPP spacecraft on October 28, 2011, has successfully completed its initial Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) phase. VIIRS has 7 thermal emissive bands (TEBs), covering wavelengths from 3.7 to 12.4 microns. Designed with strong MODIS heritage, VIIRS uses a similar BB for its TEB calibration. Like MODIS, VIIRS BB is nominally controlled at a pre-determined temperature (set point). Periodically, a BB Warm-Up and Cool-Down (WUCD) operation is performed, during which the BB temperatures vary from instrument ambient (temperature) to 315K. This paper examines NPP VIIRS BB on-orbit performance. It focuses on its BB temperature scan-to-scan variations at nominally controlled temperature as well as during its WUCD operation and their impact on TEB calibration uncertainty. Comparisons of VIIRS (NPP) and MODIS (Terra and Aqua) BB on-orbit performance and lessons learned for future improvements are also presented in this paper.

  16. On-board Payload Data Processing from Earth to Space Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Amoruso, L.; Cinquepalmi, L.; Bgongiari, F.; Errico, W.

    2013-09-01

    Matching the users application requirements with the more and more huge data streaming of the satellite missions is becoming very complex. But we need both of them. To face both the data management (memory availability) and their transmission (band availability) many recent R&D activities are studying the right way to move the data processing from the ground segment to the space segment by the development of the so-called On-board Payload Data Processing (OPDP). The space designer are trying to find new strategies to increase the on board computation capacity and its viability to overcome such limitations, memory and band, focusing the transmission of remote sensing information (not only data) towards their final use. Some typical applications which can benefit of the on board payload data processing include the automatic control of a satellites constellation which can modify its scheduled acquisitions directly on-board and according to the information extracted from the just acquired data, increasing, for example, the capability of monitoring a specific objective (such as oil spills, illegal traffic) with a greater versatility than a traditional ground segment workflow. The authors and their companies can count on a sound experience in design and development of open, modular and compact on-board processing systems. Actually they are involved in a program, the Space Payload Data Processing (SpacePDP) whose main objective is to develop an hardware and a software framework able to perform both the space mission standard tasks (sensors control, mass storage devices management, uplink and downlink) and the specific tasks required by each mission. SpacePDP is an Open and modular Payload Data Processing system, composed of Hardware and Software modules included a SDK. The whole system is characterised by flexible and customizable building blocks that form the system architectures and by a very easy way to be integrated in the missions by the SDK (a development

  17. A technique for on-board CT reconstruction using both kilovoltage and megavoltage beam projections for 3D treatment verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Fangfang; Guan Huaiqun; Lu Wenkai

    2005-01-01

    The technologies with kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imaging in the treatment room are now available for image-guided radiation therapy to improve patient setup and target localization accuracy. However, development of strategies to efficiently and effectively implement these technologies for patient treatment remains challenging. This study proposed an aggregated technique for on-board CT reconstruction using combination of kV and MV beam projections to improve the data acquisition efficiency and image quality. These projections were acquired in the treatment room at the patient treatment position with a new kV imaging device installed on the accelerator gantry, orthogonal to the existing MV portal imaging device. The projection images for a head phantom and a contrast phantom were acquired using both the On-Board Imager TM kV imaging device and the MV portal imager mounted orthogonally on the gantry of a Varian Clinac TM 21EX linear accelerator. MV projections were converted into kV information prior to the aggregated CT reconstruction. The multilevel scheme algebraic-reconstruction technique was used to reconstruct CT images involving either full, truncated, or a combination of both full and truncated projections. An adaptive reconstruction method was also applied, based on the limited numbers of kV projections and truncated MV projections, to enhance the anatomical information around the treatment volume and to minimize the radiation dose. The effects of the total number of projections, the combination of kV and MV projections, and the beam truncation of MV projections on the details of reconstructed kV/MV CT images were also investigated

  18. WE-AB-303-09: Rapid Projection Computations for On-Board Digital Tomosynthesis in Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, AS; Sun, X; Pitsianis, N; Yin, FF; Ren, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate fast and accurate iterative volumetric image reconstruction from limited-angle on-board projections. Methods: Intrafraction motion hinders the clinical applicability of modern radiotherapy techniques, such as lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The LIVE system may impact clinical practice by recovering volumetric information via Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS), thus entailing low time and radiation dose for image acquisition during treatment. The DTS is estimated as a deformation of prior CT via iterative registration with on-board images; this shifts the challenge to the computational domain, owing largely to repeated projection computations across iterations. We address this issue by composing efficient digital projection operators from their constituent parts. This allows us to separate the static (projection geometry) and dynamic (volume/image data) parts of projection operations by means of pre-computations, enabling fast on-board processing, while also relaxing constraints on underlying numerical models (e.g. regridding interpolation kernels). Further decoupling the projectors into simpler ones ensures the incurred memory overhead remains low, within the capacity of a single GPU. These operators depend only on the treatment plan and may be reused across iterations and patients. The dynamic processing load is kept to a minimum and maps well to the GPU computational model. Results: We have integrated efficient, pre-computable modules for volumetric ray-casting and FDK-based back-projection with the LIVE processing pipeline. Our results show a 60x acceleration of the DTS computations, compared to the previous version, using a single GPU; presently, reconstruction is attained within a couple of minutes. The present implementation allows for significant flexibility in terms of the numerical and operational projection model; we are investigating the benefit of further optimizations and accurate digital projection sub

  19. WE-AB-303-09: Rapid Projection Computations for On-Board Digital Tomosynthesis in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliopoulos, AS; Sun, X [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Pitsianis, N [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Yin, FF; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To facilitate fast and accurate iterative volumetric image reconstruction from limited-angle on-board projections. Methods: Intrafraction motion hinders the clinical applicability of modern radiotherapy techniques, such as lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The LIVE system may impact clinical practice by recovering volumetric information via Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS), thus entailing low time and radiation dose for image acquisition during treatment. The DTS is estimated as a deformation of prior CT via iterative registration with on-board images; this shifts the challenge to the computational domain, owing largely to repeated projection computations across iterations. We address this issue by composing efficient digital projection operators from their constituent parts. This allows us to separate the static (projection geometry) and dynamic (volume/image data) parts of projection operations by means of pre-computations, enabling fast on-board processing, while also relaxing constraints on underlying numerical models (e.g. regridding interpolation kernels). Further decoupling the projectors into simpler ones ensures the incurred memory overhead remains low, within the capacity of a single GPU. These operators depend only on the treatment plan and may be reused across iterations and patients. The dynamic processing load is kept to a minimum and maps well to the GPU computational model. Results: We have integrated efficient, pre-computable modules for volumetric ray-casting and FDK-based back-projection with the LIVE processing pipeline. Our results show a 60x acceleration of the DTS computations, compared to the previous version, using a single GPU; presently, reconstruction is attained within a couple of minutes. The present implementation allows for significant flexibility in terms of the numerical and operational projection model; we are investigating the benefit of further optimizations and accurate digital projection sub

  20. Radiological protection aspects on particle accelerators; Aspek perlindungan radiologi pada pemecut zarah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: 1. Particle accelerators i.e. low energy accelerators (Van De Graaf generator, drift tube accelerator), high energy accelerators, cyclotrons, 2. dangerous source from particle accelerators, 3. X-ray and activation products, 4. bremstrahlung, 5. monitoring of workers and working place for neutron.

  1. 49 CFR 395.15 - Automatic on-board recording devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information concerning on-board system sensor failures and identification of edited data. Such support systems... driving today; (iv) Total hours on duty for the 7 consecutive day period, including today; (v) Total hours...-driver operation; (7) The on-board recording device/system identifies sensor failures and edited data...

  2. An overview of CAFE credits and incorporation of the benefits of on-board carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This report discusses the application of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) : credits that are currently available to vehicle manufacturers in the U.S., and the implications of : on-board carbon capture and sequestration (on-board CCS) on fu...

  3. Classifying sows' activity types from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    An automated method of classifying sow activity using acceleration measurements would allow the individual sow's behavior to be monitored throughout the reproductive cycle; applications for detecting behaviors characteristic of estrus and farrowing or to monitor illness and welfare can be foreseen....... This article suggests a method of classifying five types of activity exhibited by group-housed sows. The method involves the measurement of acceleration in three dimensions. The five activities are: feeding, walking, rooting, lying laterally and lying sternally. Four time series of acceleration (the three...

  4. Comparison of onboard low-field magnetic resonance imaging versus onboard computed tomography for anatomy visualization in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Camille E; Parikh, Parag J; Spencer, Christopher R; Green, Olga L; Hu, Yanle; Mutic, Sasa; Olsen, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Onboard magnetic resonance imaging (OB-MRI) for daily localization and adaptive radiotherapy has been under development by several groups. However, no clinical studies have evaluated whether OB-MRI improves visualization of the target and organs at risk (OARs) compared to standard onboard computed tomography (OB-CT). This study compared visualization of patient anatomy on images acquired on the MRI-(60)Co ViewRay system to those acquired with OB-CT. Fourteen patients enrolled on a protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and undergoing image-guided radiotherapy for cancer in the thorax (n = 2), pelvis (n = 6), abdomen (n = 3) or head and neck (n = 3) were imaged with OB-MRI and OB-CT. For each of the 14 patients, the OB-MRI and OB-CT datasets were displayed side-by-side and independently reviewed by three radiation oncologists. Each physician was asked to evaluate which dataset offered better visualization of the target and OARs. A quantitative contouring study was performed on two abdominal patients to assess if OB-MRI could offer improved inter-observer segmentation agreement for adaptive planning. In total 221 OARs and 10 targets were compared for visualization on OB-MRI and OB-CT by each of the three physicians. The majority of physicians (two or more) evaluated visualization on MRI as better for 71% of structures, worse for 10% of structures, and equivalent for 14% of structures. 5% of structures were not visible on either. Physicians agreed unanimously for 74% and in majority for > 99% of structures. Targets were better visualized on MRI in 4/10 cases, and never on OB-CT. Low-field MR provides better anatomic visualization of many radiotherapy targets and most OARs as compared to OB-CT. Further studies with OB-MRI should be pursued.

  5. An air quality assessment onboard an Oberon class submarine : HMCS Okanagan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, Y.D.; Sabiston, B.H.

    2000-09-01

    The Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) re-examined the air quality on an Oberon class submarine, the HMCS Okanagan, to determine if the atmosphere complied with Air Purification Standard BR 1326. The main objective of the assessment was to help in the development of future submarine air quality management. The information obtained from the Oberon class submarine could be readily applied to the Victoria class submarines. The assessment involved a trial aboard an Oberon under patrol conditions. The functional and detection capabilities of analytical air monitoring instruments were assessed for a 24-hour period to obtain data regarding the contaminants onboard the submarine. A profile of carbon dioxide accumulation and oxygen consumption was determined. This was followed by an assessment of the effectiveness of air purification such as carbon dioxide scrubbing, oxygen generation and snorting. Carbon monoxide was also monitored and carboxyhemoglobin was measured in both smokers and non-smokers. In order to determine if the sanitary or electrical systems, or engine exhaust posed any danger, ammonia, ozone and nitrous compounds were also measured. In addition, hydrogen, arsine and stibene were monitored to determine any possible danger from charging batteries. The health risks associated with aerosolized particles from cooking, smoking and exhaust gases were also measured. Results showed that all contaminants were within allowable limits. However, the study also confirmed that air purification measures on diesel submarines are minimal and poorly placed and that there is a lack of exhaust ventilation. Poor air exchange was worsened by compartmentalization and blackout curtains. Several recommendations were proposed to improve the management of air quality in Victoria class submarines. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  6. An air quality assessment onboard an Oberon class submarine : HMCS Okanagan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severs, Y.D.; Sabiston, B.H.

    2000-09-01

    The Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) re-examined the air quality on an Oberon class submarine, the HMCS Okanagan, to determine if the atmosphere complied with Air Purification Standard BR 1326. The main objective of the assessment was to help in the development of future submarine air quality management. The information obtained from the Oberon class submarine could be readily applied to the Victoria class submarines. The assessment involved a trial aboard an Oberon under patrol conditions. The functional and detection capabilities of analytical air monitoring instruments were assessed for a 24-hour period to obtain data regarding the contaminants onboard the submarine. A profile of carbon dioxide accumulation and oxygen consumption was determined. This was followed by an assessment of the effectiveness of air purification such as carbon dioxide scrubbing, oxygen generation and snorting. Carbon monoxide was also monitored and carboxyhemoglobin was measured in both smokers and non-smokers. In order to determine if the sanitary or electrical systems, or engine exhaust posed any danger, ammonia, ozone and nitrous compounds were also measured. In addition, hydrogen, arsine and stibene were monitored to determine any possible danger from charging batteries. The health risks associated with aerosolized particles from cooking, smoking and exhaust gases were also measured. Results showed that all contaminants were within allowable limits. However, the study also confirmed that air purification measures on diesel submarines are minimal and poorly placed and that there is a lack of exhaust ventilation. Poor air exchange was worsened by compartmentalization and blackout curtains. Several recommendations were proposed to improve the management of air quality in Victoria class submarines. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Sector ring accelerator ''RESATRON''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, E.

    1980-01-01

    Project of sector ring accelerator RESATRON is described. The curiosity of this accelerator is the second cycle of acceleration of the beam after stripping it on the foil. In such an accelerator heavy ions with a different ratio Z to A can be accelerated. (S.B.)

  8. THE TECHNIQUE OF ANALYSIS OF SOFTWARE OF ON-BOARD COMPUTERS OF AIR VESSEL TO ABSENCE OF UNDECLARED CAPABILITIES BY SIGNATURE-HEURISTIC WAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Ivanovich Petrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of civil aviation aircraft onboard computers data safety. Infor- mation security undeclared capabilities stand for technical equipment or software possibilities, which are not mentioned in the documentation. Documentation and tests content requirements are imposed during the software certification. Documentation requirements include documents composition and content of control (specification, description and program code, the source code. Test requirements include: static analysis of program codes (including the compliance of the sources with their loading modules monitoring; dynamic analysis of source code (including implementation of routes monitor- ing. Currently, there are no complex measures for checking onboard computer software. There are no rules and regulations that can allow controlling foreign production aircraft software, and the actual receiving of software is difficult. Consequently, the author suggests developing the basics of aviation rules and regulations, which allow to analyze the programs of CA aircraft onboard computers. If there are no software source codes the two approaches of code analysis are used: a structural static and dy- namic analysis of the source code; signature-heuristic analysis of potentially dangerous operations. Static analysis determines the behavior of the program by reading the program code (without running the program which is represented in the assembler language - disassembly listing. Program tracing is performed by the dynamic analysis. The analysis of aircraft software ability to detect undeclared capa- bilities using the interactive disassembler was considered in this article.

  9. Multiperiodic accelerator structures for linear particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, D.T.

    1975-01-01

    High efficiency linear accelerator structures, comprised of a succession of cylindrical resonant cavities for acceleration, are described. Coupling annular cavities are located at the periphery, each being coupled to two adjacent cylindrical cavities. (auth)

  10. Improving BDS Autonomous Orbit Determination Performance Using Onboard Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAO Jing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous orbit determination is a crucial step for GNSS development to improve GNSS vulnerability, integrity, reliability and robustness. The newly launched BeiDou (BD satellites are capable of conducting satellite to satellite tracking (SST, which can be used for autonomous orbit determination. However, using SST data only, the BD satellite system (BDS will have whole constellation rotation in the absence of absolute constraints from ground or other celestial body over time, due to various force perturbations. The perturbations can be categorized into conservative forces and non-conservative forces. The conservative forces, such as the Earth non-spherical perturbations, tidal perturbation, the solar, lunar and other third-body perturbations, can be precisely modeled with latest force models. The non-conservative forces (i.e. Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP, on the other hand, are difficult to be modeled precisely, which are the main factors affecting satellite orbit determination accuracy. In recent years, accelerometers onboard satellites have been used to directly measure the non-conservative forces for gravity recovery and atmosphere study, such as GRACE, CHAMP, and GOCE missions. This study investigates the feasibility to use accelerometers onboard BD satellites to improve BD autonomous orbit determination accuracy and service span. Using simulated BD orbit and SST data, together with the error models of existing space-borne accelerometers, the orbit determination accuracy for BD constellation is evaluated using either SST data only or SST data with accelerometers. An empirical SRP model is used to extract non-conservative forces. The simulation results show that the orbit determination accuracy using SST with accelerometers is significantly better than that with SST data only. Assuming 0.33 m random noises and decimeter level signal transponder system biases in SST data, IGSO and MEO satellites decimeter level orbit accuracy can be

  11. Fiber optical sensing on-board communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, A.; Lemke, N. M. K.; Roner, M.; Obermaier, J.; Putzer, P.; Kuhenuri Chami, N.

    2017-11-01

    Striving constantly to reduce mass, AIT effort and overall cost of the classical point-to-point wired temperature sensor harness on-board telecommunication satellites, OHB System (formerly Kayser-Threde) has introduced the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system. As a future spacecraft platform element, HSB relies on electrical remote sensor units as well as fiber-optical sensors, both of which can serially be connected in a bus architecture. HSB is a modular measurement system with many applications, also thanks to the opportunities posed by the digital I²C bus. The emphasis, however, is on the introduction of fiber optics and especially fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors as disruptive innovation for the company's satellite platforms. The light weight FBG sensors are directly inscribed in mechanically robust and radiation tolerant fibers, reducing the need for optical fiber connectors and splices to a minimum. Wherever an FBG sensor shall be used, the fiber is glued together with a corresponding temperature transducer to the satellites structure or to a subsystem. The transducer is necessary to provide decoupling of mechanical stress, but simultaneously ensure a high thermal conductivity. HSB has been developed in the frame of an ESA-ARTES program with European and German co-funding and will be verified as flight demonstrator on-board the German Heinrich Hertz satellite (H2Sat). In this paper the Engineering Model development of HSB is presented and a Fiber-optical Sensor Multiplexer for a more flexible sensor bus architecture is introduced. The HSB system aims at telecommunication satellite platforms with an operational life time beyond 15 years in geostationary orbit. It claims a high compatibility in terms of performance and interfaces with existing platforms while it was designed with future applications with increased radiation exposure already in mind. In its basic configuration HSB consists of four modules which are the Power Supply Unit, the HSB

  12. Accelerators of atomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarancev, V.

    1975-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of accelerators and methods of accelerating elementary particles. The principle of collective accelerating of elementary particles is clarified and the problems are discussed of its realization. (B.S.)

  13. Strain Sensors Based on Sandwich Structures of Crumpled Graphene for Structural Health Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space based systems are subject to varied stresses which induce damage leading to failure, therefore it is necessary to develop an onboard system to monitor...

  14. Use of the Operational Air Quality Monitor (AQM) for In-Flight Water Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Currently, the Air Quality Monitor (AQM) on-board ISS provides specific information for a number of target compounds in the air. However, there is a significant...

  15. Measurement of dose equivalent distribution on-board commercial jet aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubancak, J.; Ambrozova, I.; Ploc, O.; Pachnerova Brabcova, K.; Stepan, V.; Uchihori, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The annual effective doses of aircrew members often exceed the limit of 1 mSv for the public due to the increased level of cosmic radiation at the flight altitudes, and thus, it is recommended to monitor them [International Commission on Radiation Protection. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 60. Ann. ICRP 21(1-3), (1991)]. According to the Monte Carlo simulations [Battistoni, G., Ferrari, A., Pelliccioni, M. and Villari, R. Evaluation of the doses to aircrew members taking into consideration the aircraft structures. Adv. Space Res. 36, 1645-1652 (2005) and Ferrari, A., Pelliccioni, M. and Villari, R. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 108(2), 91-105 (2004)], the ambient dose equivalent rate H*(10) depends on the location in the aircraft. The aim of this article is to experimentally evaluate H*(10) on-board selected types of aircraft. The authors found that H*(10) values are higher in the front and the back of the cabin and lesser in the middle of the cabin. Moreover, total dosimetry characteristics obtained in this way are in a reasonable agreement with other data, in particular with the above-mentioned simulations. (authors)

  16. Low-energy particle experiments-electron analyzer (LEPe) onboard the Arase spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Yoichi; Wang, Bo-Jhou; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tam, Sunny W. Y.; Chang, Tzu-Fang; Chiang, Chih-Yu; Asamura, Kazushi

    2017-12-01

    In this report, we describe the low-energy electron instrument LEPe (low-energy particle experiments-electron analyzer) onboard the Arase (ERG) spacecraft. The instrument measures a three-dimensional distribution function of electrons with energies of ˜ 19 eV-19 keV. Electrons in this energy range dominate in the inner magnetosphere, and measurement of such electrons is important in terms of understanding the magnetospheric dynamics and wave-particle interaction. The instrument employs a toroidal tophat electrostatic energy analyzer with a passive 6-mm aluminum shield. To minimize background radiation effects, the analyzer has a background channel, which monitors counts produced by background radiation. Background counts are then subtracted from measured counts. Electronic components are radiation tolerant, and 5-mm-thick shielding of the electronics housing ensures that the total dose is less than 100 kRad for the one-year nominal mission lifetime. The first in-space measurement test was done on February 12, 2017, showing that the instrument functions well. On February 27, the first all-instrument run test was done, and the LEPe instrument measured an energy dispersion event probably related to a substorm injection occurring immediately before the instrument turn-on. These initial results indicate that the instrument works fine in space, and the measurement performance is good for science purposes.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Critical review of on-board capacity estimation techniques for lithium-ion batteries in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Waag, Wladislaw; Marongiu, Andrea; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-05-01

    This work provides an overview of available methods and algorithms for on-board capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries. An accurate state estimation for battery management systems in electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles is becoming more essential due to the increasing attention paid to safety and lifetime issues. Different approaches for the estimation of State-of-Charge, State-of-Health and State-of-Function are discussed and analyzed by many authors and researchers in the past. On-board estimation of capacity in large lithium-ion battery packs is definitely one of the most crucial challenges of battery monitoring in the aforementioned vehicles. This is mostly due to high dynamic operation and conditions far from those used in laboratory environments as well as the large variation in aging behavior of each cell in the battery pack. Accurate capacity estimation allows an accurate driving range prediction and accurate calculation of a battery's maximum energy storage capability in a vehicle. At the same time it acts as an indicator for battery State-of-Health and Remaining Useful Lifetime estimation.

  18. Neon dewar for the X-ray spectrometer onboard Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, R. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara 229-8510 (Japan)]. E-mail: fujimoto@isas.jaxa.jp; Mitsuda, K. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara 229-8510 (Japan); Hirabayashi, M. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI), 5-2 Sobiraki-cho, Niihama 792-8588 (Japan); Narasaki, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI), 5-2 Sobiraki-cho, Niihama 792-8588 (Japan); Breon, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Boyle, R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Di Pirro, M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Volz, S.M. [NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546-0001 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The X-ray spectrometer (XRS) onboard Suzaku is the first X-ray microcalorimeter array in orbit. The sensor array is operated at 60mK, which is attained by an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator and superfluid liquid helium. The neon dewar is a vacuum-insulated container for the XRS. The requirements for the XRS dewar are to maintain the detector and the cryogenic system under the mechanical environment at launch ({approx}15G), and to attain a lifetime of 3 years in a near-earth orbit. It is characterized with adoptions of solid neon as the second cryogen and a mechanical cooler, design optimization of the support straps for the neon tank to reduce the heat load as much as possible, and shock absorbers to mitigate the mechanical environment at launch. Microphonics from the mechanical cooler was one of the concerns for the detector performance, but the ground test results proved that they do not interfere with the detector. After about 1 month in orbit, its thermal performance showed that the dewar potentially achieves its design goals.

  19. SuperAGILE onboard electronics and ground test instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacciani, Luigi; Morelli, Ennio; Rubini, Alda; Mastropietro, Marcello; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Costa, Enrico; Del Monte, Ettore; Donnarumma, Immacolata; Evangelista, Yuri; Feroci, Marco; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Rapisarda, Massimo; Soffitta, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe the electronics of the SuperAGILE X-ray imager on-board AGILE satellite and the instrumentation developed to test and improve the Front-End and digital electronics of the flight model of the imager. Although the working principle of the instrument is very well established, and the conceptual scheme simple, the budget and mechanical constraints of the AGILE small mission made necessary the introduction of new elements in SuperAGILE, regarding both the mechanics and the electronics. In fact the instrument is contained in a ∼44x44x16cm 3 volume, but the required performance is quite ambitious, leading us to equip a sensitive area of ∼1350cm 2 with 6144 Silicon μstrips detectors with a pitch of 121μm and a total length of ∼18.2cm. The result is a very light and power-cheap imager with a good sensitivity (∼15mCrab in 1 day in 15-45keV), high angular resolution (6arcmin) and gross spectral resolution. The test-equipment is versatile, and can be easily modified to test FEE based on self-triggered, data-driven and sparse-readout ASICs such as XA family chips

  20. Cosmic radiation dosimetry onboard aircrafts at the brazilian airspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, Claudio Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is the establishment of a dosimetric system for the aircrew in the domestic territory. A technique to perform measurements of ambient dose equivalent in aircrafts was developed. An active detector was evaluated for onboard aircraft use, testing its adequacy to this specific type of measurement as well as its susceptibility to the magnetic and electromagnetic interferences. The equipment was calibrated in standard radiation beams and in a special field of the European Laboratory CERN, that reproduces with great proximity the real spectrum in aircraft flight altitudes; it was also tested in several flights, in an Brazilian Air Force's aircraft. The results were evaluated and compared with those obtained from several computational programs for cosmic radiation estimates, with respect to its adequacy for use in the South American region. The program CARI-6 was selected to evaluate the estimated averaged effective doses for the aircrew who operate in this region. A statistical distribution of aircrew effective doses in South America and Caribe was made, and the results show that a great part of this aircrew members are subjected to annual effective doses that exceed the dose limits for the members of the public. Additionally, a preliminary passive dosemeter, based in thermoluminescent detectors, was proposed; international collaborations with United Kingdom and Italy were established for joint measurements of the ambient equivalent doses in aircrafts. (author)

  1. Design of an onboard battery charger for an electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckford, Simon

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the design of an on-board battery charger for an electric car. There are already various battery charger units on the market. However, these are not specifically designed for this application, and consequently do not provide an ideal solution. Because these products are not specific to one application, and instead opt to cover a variety of briefs, they are not ideal. They also tend to be heavier and more expensive than if the charger was built specifically for one purpose. The main design considerations were that the charger should be compact and lightweight. It was also specified that the design should be able to operate using either the single-phase or three-phase AC supply. Before the design process for the battery charger could commence, it was necessary for the author to get an appreciation of power electronics, since he had no previous experience in the subject. The author focused his attention on areas of the subject most valuable to the project, including becoming familiar with the principle behind battery chargers. Once the required knowledge was obtained, the author could begin designing the charger. The majority of the design was actually undertaken using two software packages called MATLAB and Simulink, whilst also using the knowledge acquired. Regular discussions were had with the project team in order to ensure that the correct methodology was being used and a suitable design was duly developed. Possible further work was identified which could not be carried out within the time constraints of this project.

  2. Research on lettuce growth technology onboard Chinese Tiangong II Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yunze; Guo, Shuangsheng; Zhao, Pisheng; Wang, Longji; Wang, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Bian, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Lettuce was grown in a space vegetable cultivation facility onboard the Tiangong Ⅱ Spacelab during October 18 to November 15, 2016, in order to testify the key cultivating technology in CELSS under spaceflight microgravity condition. Potable water was used for irrigation of rooting substrate and the SRF (slowly released fertilizer) offered mineral nutrition for plant growth. Water content and electric conductivity in rooting substrate were measured based on FDR(frequency domain reflectometry) principle applied first in spaceflight. Lettuce germinated with comparative growth vigor as the ground control, showing that the plants appeared to be not stressed by the spaceflight environment. Under microgravity, lettuce grew taller and showed deeper green color than the ground control. In addition, the phototropism of the on-orbit plants was more remarkable. The nearly 30-d spaceflight test verified the seed fixation technology and water& nutrition management technology, which manifests the feasibility of FDR being used for measuring moisture content and electric conductivity in rooting zone under microgravity. Furthermore, the edibility of the space-grown vegetable was proved, providing theoretical support for astronaut to consume the space vegetable in future manned spaceflight.

  3. The hard x-ray imager onboard IXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Limousin, Olivier; Kokubun, Motohide; Watanabe, Shin; Laurent, Philippe; Arnaud, Monique; Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2010-07-01

    The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) is one of the instruments onboard International X-ray Observatory (IXO), to be launched into orbit in 2020s. It covers the energy band of 10-40 keV, providing imaging-spectroscopy with a field of view of 8 x 8 arcmin2. The HXI is attached beneath the Wide Field Imager (WFI) covering 0.1-15 keV. Combined with the super-mirror coating on the mirror assembly, this configuration provides observation of X-ray source in wide energy band (0.1-40.0 keV) simultaneously, which is especially important for varying sources. The HXI sensor part consists of the semiconductor imaging spectrometer, using Si in the medium energy detector and CdTe in the high energy detector as its material, and an active shield covering its back to reduce background in orbit. The HXI technology is based on those of the Japanese-lead new generation X-ray observatory ASTRO-H, and partly from those developed for Simbol-X. Therefore, the technological development is in good progress. In the IXO mission, HXI will provide a major assets to identify the nature of the object by penetrating into thick absorbing materials and determined the inherent spectral shape in the energy band well above the structure around Fe-K lines and edges.

  4. Experiment in Onboard Synthetic Aperture Radar Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Single event upsets (SEUs) are a threat to any computing system running on hardware that has not been physically radiation hardened. In addition to mandating the use of performance-limited, hardened heritage equipment, prior techniques for dealing with the SEU problem often involved hardware-based error detection and correction (EDAC). With limited computing resources, software- based EDAC, or any more elaborate recovery methods, were often not feasible. Synthetic aperture radars (SARs), when operated in the space environment, are interesting due to their relevance to NASAs objectives, but problematic in the sense of producing prodigious amounts of raw data. Prior implementations of the SAR data processing algorithm have been too slow, too computationally intensive, and require too much application memory for onboard execution to be a realistic option when using the type of heritage processing technology described above. This standard C-language implementation of SAR data processing is distributed over many cores of a Tilera Multicore Processor, and employs novel Radiation Hardening by Software (RHBS) techniques designed to protect the component processes (one per core) and their shared application memory from the sort of SEUs expected in the space environment. The source code includes calls to Tilera APIs, and a specialized Tilera compiler is required to produce a Tilera executable. The compiled application reads input data describing the position and orientation of a radar platform, as well as its radar-burst data, over time and writes out processed data in a form that is useful for analysis of the radar observations.

  5. Expert systems for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S. J.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for building real-time onboard expert systems were investigated, and the use of expert systems technology was demonstrated in improving the performance of current real-time onboard monitoring and fault diagnosis applications. The potential applications of the proposed research include an expert system environment allowing the integration of expert systems into conventional time-critical application solutions, a grammar for describing the discrete event behavior of monitoring and fault diagnosis systems, and their applications to new real-time hardware fault diagnosis and monitoring systems for aircraft.

  6. Broadband Internet Based Service to Passengers and Crew On-board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarelli, Tony

    2003-07-01

    The Connexion by BoeingSM (CbB) global network will provide broadband information services to aircraft passengers and crews. Through this Ku-band (14 GHz (uplink) and 11/12 GHz (downlink)) satellite-based system, aircraft passengers and crew will no longer be limited to pre-packaged services, but instead will be able to access the full range of broadband services from their seats using their laptop, PDA or the on-board IFE console.The kind of services offered to passengers are based on the internet/intranet access via their own laptops and PDA (using Ethernet wired cable, or wireless 802.11b access), while those offered to the crew can range between various crew application (such as weather updates and travel information) and aircraft health monitoring.The CbB system is divided into four basic layers of infrastructure:(1) an airborne segment, i.e. the Aircraft Earth Station (AES) consisting of proprietary high gain antenna, transceivers and other on-board subsystems providing a nominal return link data rate of 1 Mbps and a forward link data rates up to 20 Mbps;(2) a space segment consisting of leased satellite transponders on existing in-orbit Geostationary satellites;(3) a ground segment consisting of one or more leased satellite land earth stations (LESs) and redundant interconnection facilities; and;(4) a network operations centre (NOC) segment.During 2003, trials with Lufthansa (DLH) and British Airways (BA) have proved very successful. This has resulted in the recent signing of an agreement with Lufthansa which calls for the Connexion by BoeingSM service to be installed on Lufthansa's fleet of approximately 80 long-haul aircraft, including Boeing 747-400 and Airbus A330 and A340 aircraft, beginning in early 2004. BA is expected to follow soon. In addition to the successful recent service demonstrations, both Japan Airlines (JAL) and Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) have announced their intent to install the revolutionary service on their long-range aircraft.

  7. On-Board Video Recording Unravels Bird Behavior and Mortality Produced by High-Speed Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eladio L. García de la Morena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large high-speed railway (HSR networks are planned for the near future to accomplish increased transport demand with low energy consumption. However, high-speed trains produce unknown avian mortality due to birds using the railway and being unable to avoid approaching trains. Safety and logistic difficulties have precluded until now mortality estimation in railways through carcass removal, but information technologies can overcome such problems. We present the results obtained with an experimental on-board system to record bird-train collisions composed by a frontal recording camera, a GPS navigation system and a data storage unit. An observer standing in the cabin behind the driver controlled the system and filled out a form with data of collisions and bird observations in front of the train. Photographs of the train front taken before and after each journey were used to improve the record of killed birds. Trains running the 321.7 km line between Madrid and Albacete (Spain at speeds up to 250–300 km/h were equipped with the system during 66 journeys along a year, totaling approximately 14,700 km of effective recording. The review of videos produced 1,090 bird observations, 29.4% of them corresponding to birds crossing the infrastructure under the catenary and thus facing collision risk. Recordings also showed that 37.7% bird crossings were of animals resting on some element of the infrastructure moments before the train arrival, and that the flight initiation distance of birds (mean ± SD was between 60 ± 33 m (passerines and 136 ± 49 m (raptors. Mortality in the railway was estimated to be 60.5 birds/km year on a line section with 53 runs per day and 26.1 birds/km year in a section with 25 runs per day. Our results are the first published estimation of bird mortality in a HSR and show the potential of information technologies to yield useful data for monitoring the impact of trains on birds via on-board recording systems. Moreover

  8. A quality assurance program for the on-board imager[reg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Sua; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Hammoud, Rabih

    2006-01-01

    To develop a quality assurance (QA) program for the On-Board Imager (OBI) system and to summarize the results of these QA tests over extended periods from multiple institutions. Both the radiographic and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) mode of operation have been evaluated. The QA programs from four institutions have been combined to generate a series of tests for evaluating the performance of the On-Board Imager. The combined QA program consists of three parts: (1) safety and functionality (2) geometry, and (3) image quality. Safety and functionality tests evaluate the functionality of safety features and the clinical operation of the entire system during the tube warm-up. Geometry QA verifies the geometric accuracy and stability of the OBI/CBCT hardware/software. Image quality QA monitors spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity of the radiographic images. Image quality QA for CBCT includes tests for Hounsfield Unit (HU) linearity, HU uniformity, spatial linearity, and scan slice geometry, in addition. All safety and functionality tests passed on a daily basis. The average accuracy of the OBI isocenter was better than 1.5 mm with a range of variation of less than 1 mm over 8 months. The average accuracy of arm positions in the mechanical geometry QA was better than 1 mm, with a range of variation of less than 1 mm over 8 months. Measurements of other geometry QA tests showed stable results within tolerance throughout the test periods. Radiographic contrast sensitivity ranged between 2.2% and 3.2% and spatial resolution ranged between 1.25 and 1.6 lp/mm. Over four months the CBCT images showed stable spatial linearity, scan slice geometry, contrast resolution (1%; 6 lp/cm). The HU linearity was within ±40 HU for all measurements. By combining test methods from multiple institutions, we have developed a comprehensive, yet practical, set of QA tests for the OBI system. Use of the tests over extended periods show that the OBI system has reliable mechanical

  9. Fast and Adaptive Lossless On-Board Hyperspectral Data Compression System for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranki, Nazeeh; Bakhshi, Alireza; Keymeulen, Didier; Klimesh, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Efficient on-board lossless hyperspectral data compression reduces the data volume necessary to meet NASA and DoD limited downlink capabilities. The techniques also improves signature extraction, object recognition and feature classification capabilities by providing exact reconstructed data on constrained downlink resources. At JPL a novel, adaptive and predictive technique for lossless compression of hyperspectral data was recently developed. This technique uses an adaptive filtering method and achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that far exceeds state-of-the-art techniques currently in use. The JPL-developed 'Fast Lossless' algorithm requires no training data or other specific information about the nature of the spectral bands for a fixed instrument dynamic range. It is of low computational complexity and thus well-suited for implementation in hardware, which makes it practical for flight implementations of pushbroom instruments. A prototype of the compressor (and decompressor) of the algorithm is available in software, but this implementation may not meet speed and real-time requirements of some space applications. Hardware acceleration provides performance improvements of 10x-100x vs. the software implementation (about 1M samples/sec on a Pentium IV machine). This paper describes a hardware implementation of the JPL-developed 'Fast Lossless' compression algorithm on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The FPGA implementation targets the current state of the art FPGAs (Xilinx Virtex IV and V families) and compresses one sample every clock cycle to provide a fast and practical real-time solution for Space applications.

  10. Early In-orbit Performance of Scanning Sky Monitor Onboard AstroSat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. C. Ramadevi

    2017-06-19

    -ray ... tor had lost one of its anode wires during Thermo-Vac tests prior to launch and .... powered ON. Figure 6. Image constructed with one source at the centre of FoV of SSM during on-ground calibration tests; surface plot.

  11. Real-Time Novel Holographic Monitoring of Airborne Trace Contaminants Onboard Space Vessels, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New challenges and mission requirements constantly emerge, establishing the need for versatile equipment and instruments to perform the new/expanded tasks....

  12. Ultrasound Instrumentation for Beam Diagnostics and Accelerating Structures Control

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, V I

    2005-01-01

    Sensitive elements and electronics for ultrasound measurements at conducting walls of beam pipes and accelerating structures are described. Noise protected instrumentation provides ultrasound spectra analysis in a wide frequency range up to 5 MHz.In circular accelerators, ultrasound fields in conducting walls of beam pipe represent the space-time characteristics of circulating beams. In accelerating structures, real high power operation modes of structure can be studied by outer ultrasound monitors. The experimental results at KSRS accelerators are discussed.

  13. Accelerators of future generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomenskij, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review of the prospects of development of various of types accelerator over next 10 to 15 years is given. The following directions are considered: superhign energy proton accelerators and storage rings, electron-positron colliding beams, heavy ion accelerators, medium energy, high-current proton accelerators superhigh power particle beams (electrons light- and heavy ions) for inertial fusion

  14. Future accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1986-05-01

    A general discussion is presented of the acceleration of particles. Upon this foundation is built a categorization scheme into which all accelerators can be placed. Special attention is devoted to accelerators which employ a wake-field mechanism and a restricting theorem is examined. It is shown how the theorem may be circumvented. Comments are made on various acceleration schemes

  15. Observation sequences and onboard data processing of Planet-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.; Ishi, N.; Ueno, M.; Hihara, H.; Abe, T.; Yamada, T.

    Planet-C or VCO Venus Climate Orbiter will carry 5 cameras IR1 IR 1micrometer camera IR2 IR 2micrometer camera UVI UV Imager LIR Long-IR camera and LAC Lightning and Airglow Camera in the UV-IR region to investigate atmospheric dynamics of Venus During 30 hr orbiting designed to quasi-synchronize to the super rotation of the Venus atmosphere 3 groups of scientific observations will be carried out i image acquisition of 4 cameras IR1 IR2 UVI LIR 20 min in 2 hrs ii LAC operation only when VCO is within Venus shadow and iii radio occultation These observation sequences will define the scientific outputs of VCO program but the sequences must be compromised with command telemetry downlink and thermal power conditions For maximizing science data downlink it must be well compressed and the compression efficiency and image quality have the significant scientific importance in the VCO program Images of 4 cameras IR1 2 and UVI 1Kx1K and LIR 240x240 will be compressed using JPEG2000 J2K standard J2K is selected because of a no block noise b efficiency c both reversible and irreversible d patent loyalty free and e already implemented as academic commercial software ICs and ASIC logic designs Data compression efficiencies of J2K are about 0 3 reversible and 0 1 sim 0 01 irreversible The DE Digital Electronics unit which controls 4 cameras and handles onboard data processing compression is under concept design stage It is concluded that the J2K data compression logics circuits using space

  16. Satellite on-board real-time SAR processor prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Alain; Doucet, Michel; Harnisch, Bernd; Suess, Martin; Marchese, Linda; Bourqui, Pascal; Desnoyers, Nicholas; Legros, Mathieu; Guillot, Ludovic; Mercier, Luc; Châteauneuf, François

    2017-11-01

    A Compact Real-Time Optronic SAR Processor has been successfully developed and tested up to a Technology Readiness Level of 4 (TRL4), the breadboard validation in a laboratory environment. SAR, or Synthetic Aperture Radar, is an active system allowing day and night imaging independent of the cloud coverage of the planet. The SAR raw data is a set of complex data for range and azimuth, which cannot be compressed. Specifically, for planetary missions and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems with limited communication data rates this is a clear disadvantage. SAR images are typically processed electronically applying dedicated Fourier transformations. This, however, can also be performed optically in real-time. Originally the first SAR images were optically processed. The optical Fourier processor architecture provides inherent parallel computing capabilities allowing real-time SAR data processing and thus the ability for compression and strongly reduced communication bandwidth requirements for the satellite. SAR signal return data are in general complex data. Both amplitude and phase must be combined optically in the SAR processor for each range and azimuth pixel. Amplitude and phase are generated by dedicated spatial light modulators and superimposed by an optical relay set-up. The spatial light modulators display the full complex raw data information over a two-dimensional format, one for the azimuth and one for the range. Since the entire signal history is displayed at once, the processor operates in parallel yielding real-time performances, i.e. without resulting bottleneck. Processing of both azimuth and range information is performed in a single pass. This paper focuses on the onboard capabilities of the compact optical SAR processor prototype that allows in-orbit processing of SAR images. Examples of processed ENVISAT ASAR images are presented. Various SAR processor parameters such as processing capabilities, image quality (point target analysis), weight and

  17. Event processing in X-IFU detector onboard Athena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, M. T.; Cobos, B.; van der Kuurs, J.; Fraga-Encinas, R.

    2015-05-01

    The X-ray Observatory ATHENA was proposed in April 2014 as the mission to implement the science theme "The Hot and Energetic Universe" selected by ESA for L2 (the second Large-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision science programme). One of the two X-ray detectors designed to be onboard ATHENA is X-IFU, a cryogenic microcalorimeter based on Transition Edge Sensor (TES) technology that will provide spatially resolved high-resolution spectroscopy. X-IFU will be developed by a consortium of European research institutions currently from France (leadership), Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium, UK, Germany and Spain. From Spain, IFCA (CSIC-UC) is involved in the Digital Readout Electronics (DRE) unit of the X-IFU detector, in particular in the Event Processor Subsytem. We at IFCA are in charge of the development and implementation in the DRE unit of the Event Processing algorithms, designed to recognize, from a noisy signal, the intensity pulses generated by the absorption of the X-ray photons, and lately extract their main parameters (coordinates, energy, arrival time, grade, etc.) Here we will present the design and performance of the algorithms developed for the event recognition (adjusted derivative), and pulse grading/qualification as well as the progress in the algorithms designed to extract the energy content of the pulses (pulse optimal filtering). IFCA will finally have the responsibility of the implementation on board in the (TBD) FPGAs or micro-processors of the DRE unit, where this Event Processing part will take place, to fit into the limited telemetry of the instrument.

  18. Fixed-wavelength H2O absorption spectroscopy system enhanced by an on-board external-cavity diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittelle, Mack S; Simms, Jean M; Sanders, Scott T; Gord, James R; Roy, Sukesh

    2016-01-01

    We describe a system designed to perform fixed-wavelength absorption spectroscopy of H 2 O vapor in practical combustion devices. The system includes seven wavelength-stabilized distributed feedback (WSDFB) lasers, each with a spectral accuracy of  ±1 MHz. An on-board external cavity diode laser (ECDL) that tunes 1320–1365 nm extends the capabilities of the system. Five system operation modes are described. In one mode, a sweep of the ECDL is used to monitor each WSDFB laser wavelength with an accuracy of  ±30 MHz. Demonstrations of fixed-wavelength thermometry at 10 kHz bandwidth in near-room-temperature gases are presented; one test reveals a temperature measurement error of ∼0.43%. (paper)

  19. Onboard screening dockside testing as a new means of managing paralytic shellfish poisoning risks in federally closed waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Conrad, Stephen; DiStefano, Paul; Vanegas, Camilo; Wallace, David; Jensen, Pete; Hickey, J. Michael; Cenci, Florence; Pitt, Jaclyn; Deardorff, Dave; Rubio, Fernando; Easy, Dorothy; Donovan, Mary Anne; Laycock, Maurice; Rouse, Debbie; Mullen, John

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is the foodborne intoxication associated with the consumption of seafood contaminated with naturally occurring neurotoxins known as paralytic shellfish toxins. To protect public health from this potentially fatal syndrome, harvesting closures are implemented when toxins exceed the regulatory action level. Traditional monitoring programs established by state shellfish authorities allow for timely closures in state waters with minimal negative impacts on industry. However, such monitoring programs are not feasible in federal offshore waters given their distance from shore and the range of their spatial coverage. Thus innovative management strategies were investigated for these offshore resources. Georges Bank, an offshore resource with an estimated market value of more than 3 billion in Atlantic surfclams and ocean quahogs, has been closed to harvesting following a temporary ban in 1989 and a subsequent indefinite closure in 1990 due to the risk of PSP. As a means of managing this risk and allowing harvest of safe shellfish from this important resource, the Onboard Screening Dockside Testing Protocol (referred to as the Protocol) was developed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), state shellfish control authorities, and industry. The Protocol, which sets forth control measures to ensure product safety and public health protection, was endorsed by the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) for pilot testing. Briefly, the pilot study Protocol required that (1) the fishing vessel receive a permit from NMFS to harvest in closed waters, (2) a miniμm of five shellfish samples per intended harvest lot be tested for PSP toxins onboard, and (3) harvesting only occur when the samples tested from the intended fishing area are negative using the Jellett Rapid Tests or Abraxis Shipboard ELISA kits. Finally, product landed under the Protocol was confirmed to be safe for consumption

  20. Advanced Hybrid On-Board Data Processor - SpaceCube 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop advanced on-board processing to meet the requirements of the Decadal Survey missions: advanced instruments (hyper-spectral, SAR, etc) require advanced...

  1. On-Board Thermal Management of Waste Heat from a High-Energy Device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klatt, Nathan D

    2008-01-01

    The use of on-board high-energy devices such as megawatt lasers and microwave emitters requires aircraft system integration of thermal devices to either get rid of waste heat or utilize it in other areas of the aircraft...

  2. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Haddock, Angie T.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control experiment on-board the International Space Station that demonstrated single action intelligent procedures for crew command and control. The target problem was to enable crew initialization of a facility class rack with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as initialization of a medical facility to respond to a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). Utilization of Draper Laboratory's Timeliner software, deployed on-board the ISS within the Command and Control (C&C) computers and the Payload computers, allowed development of the automated procedures specific to ISS without having to certify

  3. Current understanding of SEP acceleration and propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klecker, B

    2013-01-01

    The solar energetic particle (SEP) populations of electrons and ions are highly variable in space and time, in intensity, energy, and composition. Over the last ∼20 years advanced instrumentation onboard many spacecraft (e.g. ACE, Coronas, GOES, Hinode, RHESSI, SAMPEX, SDO, SOHO, STEREO, TRACE, Ulysses, Yokoh, to name a few) extended our ability to explore the characteristics of solar energetic particles by in-situ measurements in interplanetary space and by observing their source characteristics near the Sun by remote-sensing observation of electromagnetic emission over a wide frequency range. These measurements provide crucial information for understanding the sources of the particle populations and the acceleration and propagation processes involved. We are now able to measure intensity-time profiles and anisotropies, energy spectra, elemental and isotopic abundances, and the ionic charge of particles over an extended energy range of 0.01 to several 100 MeV/nuc and for a large dynamic range of particle intensities. Furthermore, multi-spacecraft in-situ observations at different solar longitudes and latitudes provide new insight into the acceleration and propagation processes of SEPs near the Sun and in interplanetary space. In this paper we present an overview of SEP observations, their implications for SEP acceleration and propagation processes, and discuss open questions.

  4. Compact neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavi, V.; Phatak, P.R.; Bahadur, C.; Bayala, A.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Sathian, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A compact size neutron flux monitor has been developed incorporating standard boards developed for smart radiation monitors. The sensitivity of the monitors is 0.4cps/nV. It has been tested up to 2075 nV flux with standard neutron sources. It shows convincing results even in high flux areas like 6m away from the accelerator in RMC (Parel) for 106/107 nV. These monitors have a focal and remote display, alarm function with potential free contacts for centralized control and additional provision of connectivity via RS485/Ethernet. This paper describes the construction, working and results of the above flux monitor

  5. Onboard Decision Making For a New Class of AUV Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, K.; McGann, C.; Py, F.; Thomas, H.; Henthorn, R.; McEwen, R.

    2007-12-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are an increasingly important tool for oceanographic research. They routinely and cost effectively sample the water column at depths far beyond what humans are capable of visiting. However, control of these platforms has relied on fixed sequences for execution of pre-planned actions limiting their effectiveness for measuring dynamic and episodic ocean phenomenon. At the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), we are developing an advanced Artificial Intelligence (AI) based control system to enable our AUV's to dynamically adapt to the environment by deliberating in-situ about mission plans while tracking onboard resource consumption, dealing with plan failures by allowing dynamic re-planning and being cognizant of vehicle health and safety in the course of executing science plans. Existing behavior-based approaches require an operator to script plans a priori while anticipating where and how the vehicle will transect the water column. While adequate for current needs to do routine pre-defined transects, it has limited flexibility in dealing with opportunistic science needs, is unable to deal with uncertainty in the oceanic environment and puts undue burden on the mission operators to manage complex interactions between behaviors. Our approach, informed by a decades worth of experience in intelligent control of NASA spacecraft, uses a constraint-based representation to manage mission goals, react to exogenous or endogenous failure conditions, respond to sensory feedback by using AI-based search techniques to sort thru a space of likely responses and picking one which is satisfies the completion of mission goals. The system encapsulates the long-standing notion of a sense-deliberate-act cycle at the heart of a control loop and reflects the goal-oriented nature of control allowing operators to specify abstract mission goals rather than detailed command sequences. To date we have tested T- REX (the Teleo

  6. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  7. Precomputing Process Noise Covariance for Onboard Sequential Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin G.; Russell, Ryan P.; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2017-01-01

    Process noise is often used in estimation filters to account for unmodeled and mismodeled accelerations in the dynamics. The process noise covariance acts to inflate the state covariance over propagation intervals, increasing the uncertainty in the state. In scenarios where the acceleration errors change significantly over time, the standard process noise covariance approach can fail to provide effective representation of the state and its uncertainty. Consider covariance analysis techniques provide a method to precompute a process noise covariance profile along a reference trajectory using known model parameter uncertainties. The process noise covariance profile allows significantly improved state estimation and uncertainty representation over the traditional formulation. As a result, estimation performance on par with the consider filter is achieved for trajectories near the reference trajectory without the additional computational cost of the consider filter. The new formulation also has the potential to significantly reduce the trial-and-error tuning currently required of navigation analysts. A linear estimation problem as described in several previous consider covariance analysis studies is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the precomputed process noise covariance, as well as a nonlinear descent scenario at the asteroid Bennu with optical navigation.

  8. Towards Real-time, On-board, Hardware-Supported Sensor and Software Health Management for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Rozier, Kristin Y.; Reinbacher, Thomas; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Mbaya, Timmy; Ippolito, Corey

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) can only be deployed if they can effectively complete their missions and respond to failures and uncertain environmental conditions while maintaining safety with respect to other aircraft as well as humans and property on the ground. In this paper, we design a real-time, on-board system health management (SHM) capability to continuously monitor sensors, software, and hardware components for detection and diagnosis of failures and violations of safety or performance rules during the flight of a UAS. Our approach to SHM is three-pronged, providing: (1) real-time monitoring of sensor and/or software signals; (2) signal analysis, preprocessing, and advanced on the- fly temporal and Bayesian probabilistic fault diagnosis; (3) an unobtrusive, lightweight, read-only, low-power realization using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) that avoids overburdening limited computing resources or costly re-certification of flight software due to instrumentation. Our implementation provides a novel approach of combining modular building blocks, integrating responsive runtime monitoring of temporal logic system safety requirements with model-based diagnosis and Bayesian network-based probabilistic analysis. We demonstrate this approach using actual data from the NASA Swift UAS, an experimental all-electric aircraft.

  9. Lightning x-rays inside thunderclouds, in-flight measurements on-board an A350

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deursen, Alexander; Kochkin, Pavlo; de Boer, Alte; Bardet, Michiel; Boissin, Jean-François

    2015-04-01

    Thunderstorms emit bursts of energetic radiation. Moreover, lightning stepped leader produces x-ray pulses. The phenomena, their interrelation and impact on Earth's atmosphere and near space are not fully understood yet. The In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System ILDAS was developed in an EU FP6 project ( http://ildas.nlr.nl/ ) to provide information on threat that lightning poses to aircraft. It is intended to localize the lightning attachment points in order to reduce maintenance time and to build statics on lightning current. The system consists of 2 E-field sensors and a varying number of H-field sensors. It has recently been enhanced by two LaBr3 scintillation detectors inside the aircraft. The scintillation detectors are sensitive to x- and gamma-rays above 30 keV. The entire system is installed on-board of an A-350 aircraft and digitizes data with 100Msamples/sec rate when triggered by lightning. A continuously monitoring channel counts the number of occurrences that the x-ray signal exceeds a set of trigger levels. In the beginning of 2014 the aircraft flew through thunderstorm cells collecting the data from the sensors. The x-rays generated by the lightning flash are measured in synchronization better than 40 ns with the lightning current information during a period of 1 second around the strike. The continuous channel stores x-ray information with very limited time and amplitude resolution during the whole flight. That channel would allow x-rays from cosmic ray background, TGFs and continuous gamma-ray glow of thundercloud outside the 1 s time window. In the EGU2014 we presented the ILDAS system and showed that the x-ray detection works as intended. Fast x-ray bursts have been detected during stepped/dart stepped leaders and during interception of lightning. Data analysis of continuous channel recordings will be presented as well.

  10. Other people's accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1987-06-15

    The first report from the Washington Accelerator Conference concentrated on news from the particle physics centres. But the bulk of the Conference covered the use of accelerators in other fields, underlining this valuable spinoff from particle physics.

  11. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  12. The electron accelerator Ridgetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashizaki, N.; Hattori, T.; Odera, M.; Fujisawa, T.

    1999-01-01

    Many electron accelerators of DC or RF type have been widely used for electron beam irradiation (curing, crosslinking of polymers, sterilization of medical disposables, preservation of food, etc.). Regardless of the acceleration energy, the accelerators to be installed in industrial facilities, have to satisfy the requires of compact size, low power consumption and stable operation. The DC accelerator is realized very compact in the energy under 300 keV, however, it is large to prevent the discharge of an acceleration column in the energy over 300 keV. The RF electron accelerator Ridgetron has been developed to accelerate the continuous beam of the 0.5-10 MeV range in compact space. It is the first example as an electron accelerator incorporated a ridged RF cavity. A prototype system of final energy of 2.5 MeV has been studied to confirm the feasibility at present

  13. High brightness electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  14. Unified accelerator libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malitsky, Nikolay; Talman, Richard

    1997-01-01

    A 'Universal Accelerator Libraries' (UAL) environment is described. Its purpose is to facilitate program modularity and inter-program and inter-process communication among heterogeneous programs. The goal ultimately is to facilitate model-based control of accelerators

  15. YEREVAN: Acceleration workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Sponsored by the Yerevan Physics Institute in Armenia, a Workshop on New Methods of Charged Particle Acceleration in October near the Nor Amberd Cosmic Ray Station attracted participants from most major accelerator centres in the USSR and further afield

  16. San Francisco Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, Brian

    1991-01-01

    'Where are today's challenges in accelerator physics?' was the theme of the open session at the San Francisco meeting, the largest ever gathering of accelerator physicists and engineers

  17. Large tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of tandem accelerators designed to operate at maximum terminal potentials in the range 14 to 30 MV. In addition, a number of older tandem accelerators are now being significantly upgraded to improve their heavy ion performance. Both of these developments have reemphasized the importance of negative heavy ion sources. The new large tandem accelerators are described, and the requirements placed on negative heavy ion source technology by these and other tandem accelerators used for the acceleration of heavy ions are discussed. First, a brief description is given of the large tandem accelerators which have been completed recently, are under construction, or are funded for construction, second, the motivation for construction of these accelerators is discussed, and last, criteria for negative ion sources for use with these accelerators are presented

  18. Vp x B acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Ryo.

    1987-05-01

    A unique particle acceleration by an electrostatic (ES) wave, a magnetosonic shock wave as well as an electromagnetic (EM) wave is reviewed. The principle of the acceleration is that when a charged particle is carried across an external magnetic field the charge feels a DC field (the Lorentz force) and is accelerated. The theory for the ES wave acceleration is experimentally verified thought it is semi-quantitative. The shock acceleration is extensively studied theoretically and in a particle simulation method and the application is extended to phenomena in interplanetary space. The EM wave acceleration is based on a trapping in a moving neutral sheet created by the wave magnetic field and the external magnetic field, and the particle can be accelerated indefinitely. A brief sketch on a slow-wave-structure for this acceleration will be given. (author)

  19. Accelerator-timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, E.; Heine, E.

    1985-01-01

    Along the NIKHEF accelerator in Amsterdam (Netherlands), at several places a signal is needed for the sychronisation of all devices with the acceleration process. In this report, basic principles and arrangements of this timing system are described

  20. Linear accelerator: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutzberg, J.

    1972-01-01

    Design is proposed for inexpensive accelerometer which would work by applying pressure to fluid during acceleration. Pressure is used to move shuttle, and shuttle movement is sensed and calibrated to give acceleration readings.

  1. TECHNICAL MAINTENANCE EFFICIENCY OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE-FREE ON-BOARD SYSTEM BETWEEN SCHEDULED MAINTENANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bronnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The avionics concept of the maintenance-free on-board equipment implies the absence of necessity to maintain onboard systems between scheduled maintenance, preserving the required operational and technical characteristics; it should be achieved by automatic diagnosis of the technical condition and the application of active means of ensuring a failsafe design, allowing to change the structure of the system to maintain its functions in case of failure. It is supposed that such equipment will reduce substantially and in the limit eliminate traditional maintenance of aircraft between scheduled maintenance, ensuring maximum readiness for use, along with improving safety. The paper proposes a methodology for evaluating the efficiency of maintenance-free between scheduled maintenance aircraft system with homogeneous redundancy. The excessive redundant elements allow the system to accumulate failures which are repaired during the routine maintenance. If the number of failures of any reserve is approaching a critical value, the recovery of the on-board system (elimination of all failures is carried out between scheduled maintenance by conducting rescue and recovery operations. It is believed that service work leads to the elimination of all failures and completely updates the on-board system. The process of system operational status changes is described with the discrete-continuous model in the flight time. The average losses in the sorties and the average cost of operation are used as integrated efficiency indicators of system operation. For example, the evaluation of the operation efficiency of formalized on-board system with homogeneous redundancy demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed methodology and the possibility of its use while analyzing the efficiency of the maintenance-free operation equipment between scheduled periods. As well as a comparative analysis of maintenance-free operation efficiency of the on-board system with excessive

  2. MEMS-based, RF-driven, compact accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, A.; Seidl, P. A.; Ji, Q.; Breinyn, I.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Vinayakumar, K. B.; Ni, D.; Lal, A.

    2017-10-01

    Shrinking existing accelerators in size can reduce their cost by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, by using radio frequency (RF) technology and accelerating ions in several stages, the applied voltages can be kept low paving the way to new ion beam applications. We make use of the concept of a Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) and have previously shown the implementation of its basic components using printed circuit boards, thereby reducing the size of earlier MEQALACs by an order of magnitude. We now demonstrate the combined integration of these components to form a basic accelerator structure, including an initial beam-matching section. In this presentation, we will discuss the results from the integrated multi-beam ion accelerator and also ion acceleration using RF voltages generated on-board. Furthermore, we will show results from Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabricated focusing wafers, which can shrink the dimension of the system to the sub-mm regime and lead to cheaper fabrication. Based on these proof-of-concept results we outline a scaling path to high beam power for applications in plasma heating in magnetized target fusion and in neutral beam injectors for future Tokamaks. This work was supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy through the ARPA-e ALPHA program under contracts DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  3. Heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, C.

    1974-01-01

    This review of the present state of work on heavy-ion accelerators pays particular attention to the requirements for nuclear research. It is divided into the following sections: single-particle versus collective acceleration, heavy-ion accelerators, beam quality, and a status report on the UNILAC facility. Among the topics considered are the recycling cyclotron, linacs with superconducting resonators, and acceleration to the GeV/nucleon range. (8 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  4. Accelerators at school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required

  5. Accelerators at school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-06-15

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required.

  6. Accelerators for Medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    This lecture will review the different applications of particle accelerators to the medical field, from cancer treatment with beams of accelerator-produced particles (photons, electrons, protons, ions and neutrons) to the generation of radioactive isotopes used in medical diagnostics, in cancer therapy and in the new domain of theragnostics. For each application will be outlined the state of the art, the potential, and the accelerator challenges to be faced to meet the increasing demand for therapeutic procedures based on accelerators.

  7. Large electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is divided into four parts: a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year

  8. Particle beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A particle beam accelerator is described which has several electrodes that are selectively short circuited together synchronously with changes in the magnitude of a DC voltage applied to the accelerator. By this method a substantially constant voltage gradient is maintained along the length of the unshortened electrodes despite variations in the energy applied to the beam by the accelerator. The invention has particular application to accelerating ion beams that are implanted into semiconductor wafers. (U.K.)

  9. Superconducting accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Hartline, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  10. Applications of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, O.

    1994-01-01

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  11. HTML 5 Displays for On-Board Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Chandika

    2016-01-01

    During my Internship at NASA in the summer of 2016, I was assigned to a project which dealt with developing a web-server that would display telemetry and other system data using HTML 5, JavaScript, and CSS. By doing this, it would be possible to view the data across a variety of screen sizes, and establish a standard that could be used to simplify communication and software development between NASA and other countries. Utilizing a web- approach allowed us to add in more functionality, as well as make the displays more aesthetically pleasing for the users. When I was assigned to this project my main task was to first establish communication with the current display server. This display server would output data from the on-board systems in XML format. Once communication was established I was then asked to create a dynamic telemetry table web page that would update its header and change as new information came in. After this was completed, certain minor functionalities were added to the table such as a hide column and filter by system option. This was more for the purpose of making the table more useful for the users, as they can now filter and view relevant data. Finally my last task was to create a graphical system display for all the systems on the space craft. This was by far the most challenging part of my internship as finding a JavaScript library that was both free and contained useful functions to assist me in my task was difficult. In the end I was able to use the JointJs library and accomplish the task. With the help of my mentor and the HIVE lab team, we were able to establish stable communication with the display server. We also succeeded in creating a fully dynamic telemetry table and in developing a graphical system display for the advanced modular power system. Working in JSC for this internship has taught me a lot about coding in JavaScript and HTML 5. I was also introduced to the concept of developing software as a team, and exposed to the different

  12. Thermal Imaging Performance of TIR Onboard the Hayabusa2 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takehiko; Nakamura, Tomoki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Demura, Hirohide; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Sakatani, Naoya; Horikawa, Yamato; Senshu, Hiroki; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Okada, Tatsuaki

    2017-07-01

    The thermal infrared imager (TIR) is a thermal infrared camera onboard the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. TIR will perform thermography of a C-type asteroid, 162173 Ryugu (1999 JU3), and estimate its surface physical properties, such as surface thermal emissivity ɛ , surface roughness, and thermal inertia Γ, through remote in-situ observations in 2018 and 2019. In prelaunch tests of TIR, detector calibrations and evaluations, along with imaging demonstrations, were performed. The present paper introduces the experimental results of a prelaunch test conducted using a large-aperture collimator in conjunction with TIR under atmospheric conditions. A blackbody source, controlled at constant temperature, was measured using TIR in order to construct a calibration curve for obtaining temperatures from observed digital data. As a known thermal emissivity target, a sandblasted black almite plate warmed from the back using a flexible heater was measured by TIR in order to evaluate the accuracy of the calibration curve. As an analog target of a C-type asteroid, carbonaceous chondrites (50 mm × 2 mm in thickness) were also warmed from the back and measured using TIR in order to clarify the imaging performance of TIR. The calibration curve, which was fitted by a specific model of the Planck function, allowed for conversion to the target temperature within an error of 1°C (3σ standard deviation) for the temperature range of 30 to 100°C. The observed temperature of the black almite plate was consistent with the temperature measured using K-type thermocouples, within the accuracy of temperature conversion using the calibration curve when the temperature variation exhibited a random error of 0.3 °C (1σ ) for each pixel at a target temperature of 50°C. TIR can resolve the fine surface structure of meteorites, including cracks and pits with the specified field of view of 0.051°C (328 × 248 pixels). There were spatial distributions with a temperature variation of 3°C at the setting

  13. Results of the marine biota monitoring during drilling activity on Campos Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petta, Claudia Brigagao de; Bastos, Fabio; Danielski, Monica; Ferreira, Mariana; Gama, Mariana; Coelho, Ana Paula Athanazio; Maia, Decio [Aecom do Brasil Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Project (PMA) aims to report environmental changes arising from drilling activity, in relation to the marine fauna. This project can also help in the monitoring of accidental spills. Since the professionals spend six hours of the day monitoring the ocean around the rigs, they can locate and identify oil stains, notify the responsible onboard, and also help in the monitoring of the oil stain. Such Project has been developed onboard a drilling unit working in Campos Basin. The results presented here were collected during the drilling activity in Bijupira and Salema fields, by Shell Brasil Petroleo Ltda, from July 13th to October 8th, 2011.

  14. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  15. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  16. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    CERN Multimedia

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  17. Far field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail

  18. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  19. Notes on Laser Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    2008-01-01

    This note intends to motivate our effort toward the advent of new methods of particle acceleration, utilizing the fast rising laser technology. By illustrating the underlying principles in an intuitive manner and thus less jargon-clad fashion, we seek a direction in which we shall be able to properly control and harness the promise of laser acceleration. First we review the idea behind the laser wakefield. We then go on to examine ion acceleration by laser. We examine the sheath acceleration in particular and look for the future direction that allows orderly acceleration of ions in high energies

  20. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Univer...

  1. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Uni...

  2. Accelerations in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, J H

    1925-01-01

    This work on accelerometry was done at McCook Field for the purpose of continuing the work done by other investigators and obtaining the accelerations which occur when a high-speed pursuit airplane is subjected to the more common maneuvers. The accelerations obtained in suddenly pulling out of a dive with well-balanced elevators are shown to be within 3 or 4 per cent of the theoretically possible accelerations. The maximum acceleration which a pilot can withstand depends upon the length of time the acceleration is continued. It is shown that he experiences no difficulty under the instantaneous accelerations as high as 7.8 G., but when under accelerations in excess of 4.5 G., continued for several seconds, he quickly loses his faculties.

  3. Accelerators for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    A particle accelerator is a device to consume energy but not to produce it. Then, the titled accelerator seems to mean an accelerator for using devices related to nuclear energy. For an accelerator combined to nuclear fissionable fuel, neutron sources are D-T type, (gamma, n) reaction using electron beam type spallation type, and so forth. At viewpoints of powers of incident beam and formed neutron, a spallation type source using high energy proton is told to be effective but others have some advantages by investigation on easy operability, easy construction, combustion with target, energy and directivity of neutron, and so forth. Here were discussed on an accelerator for research on accelerator driven energy system by dividing its researching steps, and on kind, energy, beam intensity, and so forth of an accelerator suitable for it. And, space electric charge effect at beam propagation direction controlled by beam intensity of cyclotron was also commented. (G.K.)

  4. UCLA accelerator research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report covers work supported by the above DOE grant over the period November 1, 1991 to July 31, 1992. The work is a program of experimental and theoretical studies in advanced particle accelerator research and development for high energy physics applications. The program features research at particle beam facilities in the United States and includes research on novel high power sources, novel focussing systems (e.g. plasma lens), beam monitors, novel high brightness, high current gun systems, and novel flavor factories in particular the φ Factory

  5. Tests of shielding effectiveness of Kevlar and Nextel onboard the International Space Station and the Foton-M3 capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, M; Bengin, V; Casolino, M; Roca, V; Zanini, A; Durante, M

    2010-08-01

    Radiation assessment and protection in space is the first step in planning future missions to the Moon and Mars, where mission and number of space travelers will increase and the protection of the geomagnetic shielding against the cosmic radiation will be absent. In this framework, the shielding effectiveness of two flexible materials, Kevlar and Nextel, were tested, which are largely used in the construction of spacecrafts. Accelerator-based tests clearly demonstrated that Kevlar is an excellent shield for heavy ions, close to polyethylene, whereas Nextel shows poor shielding characteristics. Measurements on flight performed onboard of the International Space Station and of the Foton-M3 capsule have been carried out with special attention to the neutron component; shielded and unshielded detectors (thermoluminescence dosemeters, bubble detectors) were exposed to a real radiation environment to test the shielding properties of the materials under study. The results indicate no significant effects of shielding, suggesting that thin shields in low-Earth Orbit have little effect on absorbed dose.

  6. Observations of whistler mode waves in the Jovian system and their consequences for the onboard processing within the RPWI instrument for JUICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolik, O.; Soucek, J.; Kolmasova, I.; Grison, B.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Bergmann, J.

    2013-09-01

    Evidence for a magnetosphere at Ganymede has been found in 1996 using measurements of plasma waves onboard the Galileo spacecraft (fig. 1). This discovery demonstrates the importance of measurements of waves in plasmas around Jovian moons [1]. Galileo also observed whistler-mode waves in the magnetosphere of Ganymede similar to important classes of waves in the Earth magnetosphere: chorus and hiss [2]. Data from the Galileo spacecraft have therefore shown the importance of measurements of waves in plasmas around Jovian moons, especially in the light of recent advances in analysis of whistler-mode waves in the Earth magnetosphere and their importance for acceleration of radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Multicomponent measurements of the fluctuating magnetic and electric fields are needed for localization and characterization of source regions of these waves. Radio & Plasma Waves Investigation (RPWI) experiment will be implemented on the JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer) spacecraft. RPWI is a highly integrated instrument package that provides a comprehensive set of plasma and fields measurements. Proposed measurement modes for the low frequency receiver subsystem of RPWI include onboard processing which will be suitable for analysis of whistler-mode waves: (1) Polarization and propagation analysis based on phase relations to identify wave modes and propagation directions (2) Poynting vector to determine source regions (3) Detailed frequency-time structure, polarization, wave vector directions to identify linear or nonlinear source mechanisms

  7. A comprehensive review of on-board State-of-Available-Power prediction techniques for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-10-01

    This study provides an overview of available techniques for on-board State-of-Available-Power (SoAP) prediction of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles. Different approaches dealing with the on-board estimation of battery State-of-Charge (SoC) or State-of-Health (SoH) have been extensively discussed in various researches in the past. However, the topic of SoAP prediction has not been explored comprehensively yet. The prediction of the maximum power that can be applied to the battery by discharging or charging it during acceleration, regenerative braking and gradient climbing is definitely one of the most challenging tasks of battery management systems. In large lithium-ion battery packs because of many factors, such as temperature distribution, cell-to-cell deviations regarding the actual battery impedance or capacity either in initial or aged state, the use of efficient and reliable methods for battery state estimation is required. The available battery power is limited by the safe operating area (SOA), where SOA is defined by battery temperature, current, voltage and SoC. Accurate SoAP prediction allows the energy management system to regulate the power flow of the vehicle more precisely and optimize battery performance and improve its lifetime accordingly. To this end, scientific and technical literature sources are studied and available approaches are reviewed.

  8. On-board landmark navigation and attitude reference parallel processor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L. E.; Mahajan, D. T.

    1978-01-01

    An approach to autonomous navigation and attitude reference for earth observing spacecraft is described along with the landmark identification technique based on a sequential similarity detection algorithm (SSDA). Laboratory experiments undertaken to determine if better than one pixel accuracy in registration can be achieved consistent with onboard processor timing and capacity constraints are included. The SSDA is implemented using a multi-microprocessor system including synchronization logic and chip library. The data is processed in parallel stages, effectively reducing the time to match the small known image within a larger image as seen by the onboard image system. Shared memory is incorporated in the system to help communicate intermediate results among microprocessors. The functions include finding mean values and summation of absolute differences over the image search area. The hardware is a low power, compact unit suitable to onboard application with the flexibility to provide for different parameters depending upon the environment.

  9. Evaluation of the use of on-board spacecraft energy storage for electric propulsion missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Palmer, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    On-board spacecraft energy storage represents an under utilized resource for some types of missions that also benefit from using relatively high specific impulse capability of electric propulsion. This resource can provide an appreciable fraction of the power required for operating the electric propulsion subsystem in some missions. The most probable mission requirement for utilization of this energy is that of geostationary satellites which have secondary batteries for operating at high power levels during eclipse. The study summarized in this report selected four examples of missions that could benefit from use of electric propulsion and on-board energy storage. Engineering analyses were performed to evaluate the mass saved and economic benefit expected when electric propulsion and on-board batteries perform some propulsion maneuvers that would conventionally be provided by chemical propulsion. For a given payload mass in geosynchronous orbit, use of electric propulsion in this manner typically provides a 10% reduction in spacecraft mass.

  10. New control method of on-board ATP system of Shinkansen trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, N.; Watanabe, T. [Railway Technical Research Inst. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    We studied a new control method of the on-board automatic train protection (ATP) system for Shinkansen trains to shorten the operation time and not to degrade ride comfort at changes in deceleration of the train, while maintaining the safety and reliability of the present ATP signal system. We propose a new on-board pattern brake control system based on the present ATP data without changing the wayside equipment. By simulating the ATP braking of the proposed control method, we succeeded in shortening the operation time by 48 seconds per one station in comparison with the present ATP brake control system. This paper reports the concept of the system and simulation results of the on-board pattern. (orig.)

  11. High spatio-temporal resolution pollutant measurements of on-board vehicle emissions using ultra-fast response gas analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irwin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Existing ultra-fast response engine exhaust emissions analyzers have been adapted for on-board vehicle use combined with GPS data. We present, for the first time, how high spatio-temporal resolution data products allow transient features associated with internal combustion engines to be examined in detail during on-road driving. Such data are both useful to examine the circumstances leading to high emissions, and reveals the accurate position of urban air quality hot spots as deposited by the candidate vehicle, useful for source attribution and dispersion modelling. The fast response time of the analyzers, which results in 100 Hz data, makes accurate time-alignment with the vehicle's engine control unit (ECU signals possible. This enables correlation with transient air fuel ratio, engine speed, load, and other engine parameters, which helps to explain the causes of the emissions spikes that portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS and conventional slow response analyzers would miss or smooth out due to mixing within their sampling systems. The data presented is from NO and NOx analyzers, but other fast analyzers (e.g. total hydrocarbons (THC, CO and CO2 can be used similarly. The high levels of NOx pollution associated with accelerating on entry ramps to motorways, driving over speed bumps, accelerating away from traffic lights, are explored in detail. The time-aligned ultra-fast analyzers offer unique insight allowing more accurate quantification and better interpretation of engine and driver activity and the associated emissions impact on local air quality.

  12. Inspection of piping wall loss with flow accelerated corrosion accelerated simulation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Ha; Kim, Ji Hak; Hwang, Il Soon; Lee, Na Young; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) has become a hot issue for aging of passive components. Ultrasonic Technique (UT) has been adopted to inspect the secondary piping of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). UT, however, uses point detection method, which results in numerous detecting points and thus takes time. We developed an Equipotential Switching Direct Current Potential Drop (ES-DCPD) method to monitor the thickness of piping that covers wide range of piping at once time. Since the ES-DCPD method covers area, not a point, it needs less monitoring time. This can be a good approach to broad carbon steel piping system such as secondary piping of NPPs. In this paper, FAC accelerated simulation test results is described. We realized accelerated FAC phenomenon by 2 times test: 23.7% thinning in 216.7 hours and 51% thinning in 795 hours. These were monitored by ES-DCPD and traditional UT. Some parameters of water chemistry are monitored and controlled to accelerate FAC process. As sensitive factors on FAC, temperature and pH was changed during the test. The wall loss monitored results reflected these changes of water chemistry successfully. Developed electrodes are also applied to simulation loop to monitor water chemistry. (author)

  13. A Comprehensive Onboarding and Orientation Plan for Neurocritical Care Advanced Practice Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Tamra M; Dority, Jeremy; Fraser, Justin F; Hatton, Kevin W

    2018-06-01

    As the role of advanced practice providers (APPs) expands to include increasingly complex patient care within the intensive care unit, the educational needs of these providers must also be expanded. An onboarding process was designed for APPs in the neurocritical care service line. Onboarding for new APPs revolved around 5 specific areas: candidate selection, proctor assignment, 3-phased orientation process, remediation, and mentorship. To ensure effective training for APPs, using the most time-conscious approach, the backbone of the process is a structured curriculum. This was developed and integrated within the standard orientation and onboarding process. The curriculum design incorporated measurable learning goals, objective assessments of phased goal achievements, and opportunities for remediation. The neurocritical care service implemented an onboarding process in 2014. Four APPs (3 nurse practitioners and 1 physician assistant) were employed by the department before the implementation of the orientation program. The length of employment ranged from 1 to 4 years. Lack of clinical knowledge and/or sufficient training was cited as reasons for departure from the position in 2 of the 4 APPs, as either self-expression or peer evaluation. Since implementation of this program, 12 APPs have completed the program, of which 10 remain within the division, creating an 83% retention rate. The onboarding process, including a 3-phased, structured orientation plan for neurocritical care, has increased APP retention since its implementation. The educational model, along with proctoring and mentorship, has improved clinical knowledge and increased nurse practitioner retention. A larger-scale study would help to support the validity of this onboarding process.

  14. Computer networks in future accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmler, D.G.

    1977-03-01

    Some findings of a study concerning a computer based control and monitoring system for the proposed ISABELLE Intersecting Storage Accelerator are presented. Requirements for development and implementation of such a system are discussed. An architecture is proposed where the system components are partitioned along functional lines. Implementation of some conceptually significant components is reviewed

  15. Linear collider accelerator physics issues regarding alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    The next generation of linear colliders will require more stringent alignment tolerances than those for the SLC with regard to the accelerating structures, quadrupoles, and beam position monitors. New techniques must be developed to achieve these tolerances. A combination of mechanical-electrical and beam-based methods will likely be needed

  16. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opelka, J.H.; Mundis, R.L.; Marmer, G.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Siskind, B.; Kikta, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  17. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration

  18. Chang?E-5T Orbit Determination Using Onboard GPS Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Xing; Geng, Tao; Li, Wenwen; Zhao, Qile; Xie, Xin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has played an important role in Space Service Volume, the region enclosing the altitudes above 3000 km up to 36,000 km. As an in-flight test for the feasibility as well as for the performance of GNSS-based satellite orbit determination (OD), the Chinese experimental lunar mission Chang?E-5T had been equipped with an onboard high-sensitivity GNSS receiver with GPS and GLONASS tracking capability. In this contribution, the 2-h onboard G...

  19. Development and application of an emitter for research of an on-board ultraviolet polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Geraimchuk, M. D.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Ivakhiv, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    In carrying out of the work a layout of on-board small-sized ultraviolet polarimeter (UVP) was created. UVP is the device, which provides an implementation of passive remote studies of stratospheric aerosol from the board of the microsatellite of the Earth by the method of polarimetry. For carrying out of tests and the research of polarimetric equipment, a special stand was created at MAO of NAS of Ukraine. In its composition is an ultraviolet emitter. Emitter is one of the main components of a special stand for the study of on-board ultraviolet polarimeters.

  20. rf coaxial couplers for high-intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, J.J.; Knapp, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Two rf coaxial couplers that are particularly suitable for intertank connection of the disk-and-washer accelerating structure for use in high-intensity linear accelerators have been developed. These devices have very high coupling to the accelerating structure and very low rf power loss at the operating frequency, and they can be designed for any relative particle velocity β > 0.4. Focusing and monitoring devices can be located inside these couplers

  1. Background simulations for the Large Area Detector onboard LOFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campana, Riccardo; Feroci, Marco; Ettore, Del Monte

    2013-01-01

    and magnetic fields around compact objects and in supranuclear density conditions. Having an effective area of similar to 10 m(2) at 8 keV, LOFT will be able to measure with high sensitivity very fast variability in the X-ray fluxes and spectra. A good knowledge of the in-orbit background environment...... is essential to assess the scientific performance of the mission and optimize the design of its main instrument, the Large Area Detector (LAD). In this paper the results of an extensive Geant-4 simulation of the instrumentwillbe discussed, showing the main contributions to the background and the design...... an anticipated modulation of the background rate as small as 10 % over the orbital timescale. The intrinsic photonic origin of the largest background component also allows for an efficient modelling, supported by an in-flight active monitoring, allowing to predict systematic residuals significantly better than...

  2. The radiation dosimeter on-board the FY-4 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, X.; Sun, Y.; Jing, T.

    2017-12-01

    The total radiation dose effect can lead to a decrease in the performance of satellite devices or materials. Accurately obtaining the total radiation dose during satellite operation could help to analyze the abnormality of payloads in orbit and optimize the design of radiation shielding. The radiation dosimeter is one of the space environmental monitoring devices on the "FY-4" satellite, which is a new generation of geostationary meteorological satellite. The dosimeter consists of 8 detectors, which are installed in different locations of the satellite, to obtain the total radiation dose with different shielding thickness and different orientations. To measure a total radiation dose up to 2000krad(Si), 100nm ion implantation RADFET was used. To improve the sensitivity of the dosimeter, the bias voltage of RADFET is set to 15V, and a 10V, 15-bit A/D is adopted to digitalize the RADFET's threshold voltage, which is increased as the total radiation dose grows. In addition, the temperature effect of RADFET is corrected from the measured temperature on orbit. The preliminary monitoring results show that the radiation dose is less than 35rad (Si) per day at 0.87 mm shielding thickness of equivalent aluminum in the geostationary orbit, and the dose in Y direction of the satellite is less than those in the X and Z directions. The radiation dose at the thickness of 3.87 mm equivalent aluminum is less than 1rad(Si)/day. It is found that the daily total dose measured by the dosimeter has a strong correlation with the flux of high energy electrons.

  3. 2014 Accelerators meeting, Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucotte, Arnaud; Lamy, Thierry; De Conto, Jean-Marie; Fontaine, Alain; Revol, Jean-Luc; Nadolski, Laurent S.; Kazamias, Sophie; Vretenar, Maurizio; Ferrando, Philippe; Laune, Bernard; Vedrine, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    The Accelerators meeting is organised every two years by the Accelerators division of the French Society of Physics (SFP). It brings together about 50 participants during a one-day meeting. The morning sessions are devoted to scientific presentations while the afternoon is dedicated to technical visits of facilities. This document brings together the available presentations (slides): 1 - Presentation of the Laboratory of subatomic physics and cosmology - LPSC-Grenoble (Lucotte, Arnaud; Lamy, Thierry); 2 - Presentation of the Accelerators division of the French Society of Physics (Fontaine, Alain; Revol, Jean-Luc); 3 - Presentation of Grenoble's master diplomas in Accelerator physics (Nadolski, Laurent S.); 4 - Presentation of Paris' master diplomas in big instruments (Kazamias, Sophie); 5 - Particle accelerators and European Union's projects (Vretenar, Maurizio); 6 - French research infrastructures (Ferrando, Philippe); 7 - Coordination of accelerators activity in France (Laune, Bernard; Vedrine, Pierre)

  4. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L; Duru, Ph; Koch, J M; Revol, J L; Van Vaerenbergh, P; Volpe, A M; Clugnet, K; Dely, A; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  5. Accelerator reliability workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D.

    2002-01-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  6. Acceleration of radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxdal, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    There is an intense interest world-wide in the use of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for experiment. In many existing or proposed facilities ions are produced or collected at source potential, ionized and re-accelerated. Within the past year three new ISOL based facilities have added dedicated post-accelerators to deliver accelerated RIBs to experiment. The paper gives an overview of RIB accelerators present and future, and explores the inherent features in the various acceleration methods with an emphasis on heavy ion linacs. The ISAC-I and ISAC-II post-accelerators are discussed as examples. Commissioning results and initial operating experience with ISAC-I will be presented

  7. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This paper describes many of the nuclear physics heavy-ion accelerator facilities in the US and the research programs being conducted. The accelerators described are: Argonne National Laboratory--ATLAS; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) (Proposed); Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--Bevalac; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--88-Inch Cyclotron; Los Alamos National Laboratory--Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF); Massachusetts Institute of Technology--Bates Linear Accelerator Center; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center--Nuclear Physics Injector; Texas AandM University--Texas AandM Cyclotron; Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL); University of Washington--Tandem/Superconducting Booster; and Yale University--Tandem Van de Graaff

  8. Robonaut 2 - IVA Experiments On-Board ISS and Development Towards EVA Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, Myron; Hulse, Aaron; Badger, Julia; Thackston, Allison; Rogers, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    prohibitively low. The upgraded R2 control and safety systems solve this problem using momentum limiting, momentum control, and kinetic energy minimization. Momentum and kinetic energy take the robot mass into account relieving low velocity restrictions on low inertia end-effectors while ensuring that the overall mass of R2 is limited from hazardous velocities. The momentum of R2's five safety nodes (each of the four end-effectors and the body) is monitored and compared to a single momentum limit. If any of the five nodes exceeds the safety limit, the motor power is removed and the robot comes to a stop. Momentum control/limiting also provides a simple, reliable method to integrate hand held tools into the safety system by providing the tool mass to the control system thus automatically reducing the allowable velocity of the end-effector with the tool. Work on the ground continues to build the skill set for an EVA Robonaut. Recent experiments (Figure 2) demonstrate how a teleoperator can use R2 to manipulate a tether hook, an important safety precaution on spacewalks. Another task displayed Robonaut's ability to pull back a protective jacket over a hose and search for damage, as well as inspect a quick-disconnect fitting for debris. Demonstrations such as these are indicative of EVA work done on ISS, specifically seen during a series of spacewalks over 2012 and 2013 where astronauts searched for an ammonia leak in one of the external cooling loops. Through experiments both on ISS and on the ground, R2 is evolving and providing the information needed to plan out the upgrades that will make an EVA Robonaut an effective tool. With the addition of legs, R2 will start climbing inside the space station and supply invaluable information on how the climbing strategies and task stabilization techniques must be refined. Ground R2 systems will continue to work with additional EVA tools and equipment in preparation for onboard IVA testing and future EVA applications.

  9. Accelerated Hypertension after Venlafaxine Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Kıvrak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venlafaxine is the first antidepressant that acts via inhibiting serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake. Hypertension is observed in doses exceeding 300 mg/day and is the most feared complication. We report a patient with accelerated hypertension after venlafaxine use observed at a dose of 150 mg/day. A 23-year-old patient with symptoms of insomnia, depression, anhedonia, fatigue admitted our clinic. Venlafaxine at a dose of 75 mg/day was initiated after he was diagnosed with major depressive disorder. After 5 months, venlafaxine dose was uptitrated to 150 mg/day due to inadequate response to drug. After using venlafaxine for ten months at the dose of 150 mg/day, he admitted our clinic with headache and epistaxis. He was hospitalized after his blood pressure was measured as 210/170 mmHg. No secondary causes for hypertension were found, and venlafaxine treatment was considered possible etiologic factor. After stopping venlafaxine treatment, his blood pressure was reverted back to normal limits. While mild elevation of blood pressure could be observed after venlafaxine treatment, this case shows that accelerated hypertension with a diastolic blood pressure rise above 120 mmHg could be observed at relatively low doses of venlafaxine. Close monitoring of blood pressure is necessary after initiation of treatment, as accelerated hypertension could cause endorgan damage with potentially catastrophic results.

  10. Annual environmental monitoring report of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleimer, G.E.

    1982-06-01

    Results for 1981 of the LBL Environmental Monitoring Program are given. Data include monitoring results for accelerator-produced radiation, airborne and waterborne radionuclides, and nonradioactive pollutants. Population doses resulting from LBL operations are given in terms of accelerator-produced and airborne radioactivities. Trends in the environmental impacts of LBL operations are discussed in terms of accelerator-produced, airborne, and waterborne radionuclides

  11. Japan Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation

  12. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, H.; Ban, S.; Nakamura, T.

    1993-01-01

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author)

  13. Plasma particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) will require an 87-kilometer accelerator ring to boost particles to 40 TeV. The SSC's size is due in part to the fact that its operating principle is the same one that has dominated accelerator design for 50 years: it guides particles by means of magnetic fields and propels them by strong electric fields. If one were to build an equally powerful but smaller accelerator, one would need to increase the strength of the guiding and propelling fields. Actually, however, conventional technology may not be able to provide significant increases in field strength. There are two reasons. First, the forces from magnetic fields are becoming greater than the structural forces that hold a magnetic material together; the magnets that produce these fields would themselves be torn apart. Second, the energy from electric fields is reaching the energies that bind electrons to atoms; it would tear electrons from nuclei in the accelerator's support structures. It is the electric field problem that plasma accelerators can overcome. Plasma particle accelerators are based on the principle that particles can be accelerated by the electric fields generated within a plasma. Because the plasma has already been ionized, plasma particle accelerators are not susceptible to electron dissociation. They can in theory sustain accelerating fields thousands of times stronger that conventional technologies. So far two methods for creating plasma waves for accelerators have been proposed and tested: the wakefield and the beat wave. Although promising electric fields have been produced, more research is necessary to determine whether plasma particle accelerators can compete with the existing accelerators. 7 figs

  14. Wake field accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1986-02-01

    In a wake field accelerator a high current driving bunch injected into a structure or plasma produces intense induced fields, which are in turn used to accelerate a trailing charge or bunch. The basic concepts of wake field acceleration are described. Wake potentials for closed cavities and periodic structures are derived, as are wake potentials on a collinear path with a charge distribution. Cylindrically symmetric structures excited by a beam in the form of a ring are considered

  15. CONFERENCE: Computers and accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-01-15

    In September of last year a Conference on 'Computers in Accelerator Design and Operation' was held in West Berlin attracting some 160 specialists including many from outside Europe. It was a Europhysics Conference, organized by the Hahn-Meitner Institute with Roman Zelazny as Conference Chairman, postponed from an earlier intended venue in Warsaw. The aim was to bring together specialists in the fields of accelerator design, computer control and accelerator operation.

  16. Japan Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-11-15

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation.

  17. CERN Accelerator School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently held its Advanced Accelerator Physics course in Greece on the island of Rhodes. Complementing the general course in Finland last year, this course was organized together with the University of Athens and NCSR. Demokritos. Accelerator specialists from Europe, CIS, Japan and USA followed two weeks of ''state-of-theart'' lectures designed to complete their education in the field

  18. Separation of the Galactic Cosmic Rays and Inner Earth Radiation Belt Contributions to the Daily Dose Onboard the International Space Station in 2005-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The DB-8 detectors of the ISS radiation monitoring system (RMS) have operated almost continuously onboard the ISS service module since August 2001 till December 2014. The RMS data obtained were used for the daily monitoring of the radiation environment aboard the station. This paper considers the technique of RMS data analysis that allows one to distinguish the contributions of galactic cosmic rays and the Earth's inner radiation belt to the daily dose based on the dosimetry data obtained as a result of the station's passage in areas of the highest geomagnetic latitudes. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the dosimetry data based on this technique for 2005-2011, as well as a comparison with similar results the authors obtained previously using the technique based on an analysis of the dosimetry data obtained during station passages in the area of the South Atlantic Anomaly.

  19. Applying the accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbalat, Oscar

    1989-12-15

    Originally developed as tools for frontier physics, particle accelerators provide valuable spinoff benefits in applied research and technology. These accelerator applications are the subject of a biennial meeting in Denton, Texas, but the increasing activity in this field resulted this year (5-9 September) in the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, organized by K. Bethge of Frankfurt's Goethe University. The meeting reflected a wide range of applications - ion beam analysis, exploitation of nuclear microbeams, accelerator mass spectrometry, applications of photonuclear reactions, ion beam processing, synchrotron radiation for semiconductor technology, specialized technology.

  20. Laser-driven accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Several devices for using laser fields have been proposed and they can be classified in three broad categories - 'far-field' accelerators (such as the principle of inverse free electron lasers), 'media' accelerators (which, for example, use the inverse Cherenkov effect or laser-controlled plasma waves), and 'near-field' accelerators (using a loaded guiding structure such as cavities or gratings). These different approaches come from the fact that a particle cannot be accelerated by the absorption of single photons (because of momentum conservation) and thus some other element has to intervene. (orig./HSI).

  1. Illinois Accelerator Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroc, Thomas K.; Cooper, Charlie A.

    The Illinois Accelerator Research Center (IARC) hosts a new accelerator development program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. IARC provides access to Fermi's state-of-the-art facilities and technologies for research, development and industrialization of particle accelerator technology. In addition to facilitating access to available existing Fermi infrastructure, the IARC Campus has a dedicated 36,000 ft2 Heavy Assembly Building (HAB) with all the infrastructure needed to develop, commission and operate new accelerators. Connected to the HAB is a 47,000 ft2 Office, Technology and Engineering (OTE) building, paid for by the state, that has office, meeting, and light technical space. The OTE building, which contains the Accelerator Physics Center, and nearby Accelerator and Technical divisions provide IARC collaborators with unique access to world class expertise in a wide array of accelerator technologies. At IARC scientists and engineers from Fermilab and academia work side by side with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in accelerator science and translate them into applications for the nation's health, wealth and security.

  2. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temkin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  3. Interacting with accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, S.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerators are research machines which produce energetic particle beam for use as projectiles to effect nuclear reactions. These machines along with their services and facilities may occupy very large areas. The man-machine interface of accelerators has evolved with technological changes in the computer industry and may be partitioned into three phases. The present paper traces the evolution of man-machine interface from the earliest accelerators to the present computerized systems incorporated in modern accelerators. It also discusses the advantages of incorporating expert system technology for assisting operators. (author). 8 ref

  4. FFAGS for muon acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J. Scott; Kahn, Stephen; Palmer, Robert; Trbojevic, Dejan; Johnstone, Carol; Keil, Eberhard; Aiba, Masamitsu; Machida, Shinji; Mori, Yoshiharu; Ogitsu, Toru; Ohmori, Chihiro; Sessler, Andrew; Koscielniak, Shane

    2003-01-01

    Due to their finite lifetime, muons must be accelerated very rapidly. It is challenging to make the magnets ramp fast enough to accelerate in a synchrotron, and accelerating in a linac is very expensive. One can use a recirculating accelerator (like CEBAF), but one needs a different arc for each turn, and this limits the number of turns one can use to accelerate, and therefore requires significant amounts of RF to achieve the desired energy gain. An alternative method for muon acceleration is using a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator. Such an accelerator has a very large energy acceptance (a factor of two or three), allowing one to use the same arc with a magnetic field that is constant over time. Thus, one can in principle make as many turns as one can tolerate due to muon decay, therefore reducing the RF cost without increasing the arc cost. This paper reviews the current status of research into the design of FFAGs for muon acceleration. Several current designs are described and compared. General design considerations are also discussed

  5. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Applying the accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, Oscar

    1989-01-01

    Originally developed as tools for frontier physics, particle accelerators provide valuable spinoff benefits in applied research and technology. These accelerator applications are the subject of a biennial meeting in Denton, Texas, but the increasing activity in this field resulted this year (5-9 September) in the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology, organized by K. Bethge of Frankfurt's Goethe University. The meeting reflected a wide range of applications - ion beam analysis, exploitation of nuclear microbeams, accelerator mass spectrometry, applications of photonuclear reactions, ion beam processing, synchrotron radiation for semiconductor technology, specialized technology

  7. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  8. Recent electronic improvements to the Oak Ridge 25URC accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, N.F.; Schulze, G.K.; Rochelle, J.W.; Milner, W.T.; Meigs, M.J.; McPherson, R.L.; Juras, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    A new chopper-buncher system has been installed in the 25URC accelerator injection line. The buncher is similar to the one used previously, but incorporates several significant improvements. The chopper is a new device to provide beam pulses for time-of-flight experiments. The accelerator charging system has been modified to increase reliability and improve chain monitoring. A display unit for beam profile monitors (BPM) is being developed. The display will allow the operator to observe four BPM traces simultaneously

  9. Onboard Determination of Vehicle Glide Capability for Shuttle Abort Flight Managment (SAFM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Timothy; Jackson, Mark; Fill, Thomas; Nemeth, Scott

    2002-01-01

    When one or more main engines fail during ascent, the flight crew of the Space Shuttle must make several critical decisions and accurately perform a series of abort procedures. One of the most important decisions for many aborts is the selection ofa landing site. Several factors influence the ability to reach a landing site, including the spacecraft point of atmospheric entry, the energy state at atmospheric entry, the vehicle glide capability from that energy state, and whether one or more suitable landing sites are within the glide capability. Energy assessment is further complicated by the fact that phugoid oscillations in total energy influence glide capability. Once the glide capability is known, the crew must select the "best" site option based upon glide capability and landing site conditions and facilities. Since most of these factors cannot currently be assessed by the crew in flight, extensive planning is required prior to each mission to script a variety of procedures based upon spacecraft velocity at the point of engine failure (or failures). The results of this preflight planning are expressed in tables and diagrams on mission-specific cockpit checklists. Crew checklist procedures involve leafing through several pages of instructions and navigating a decision tree for site selection and flight procedures - all during a time critical abort situation. With the advent of the Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU), the Shuttle will have increased on-board computational power to help alleviate crew workload during aborts and provide valuable situational awareness during nominal operations. One application baselined for the CAU computers is Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM), whose requirements have been designed and prototyped. The SAFM application includes powered and glided flight algorithms. This paper describes the glided flight algorithm which is dispatched by SAFM to determine the vehicle glide capability and make recommendations to the crew for site

  10. Process for Upgrading Cognitive Assessment Capabilities Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picano, J. J.; Seaton, K. A.; Holland, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Spaceflight poses varied and unique risks to the brain and cognitive functioning including radiation exposure, sleep disturbance, fatigue, fluid shifts (increased intracranial pressure), toxin exposure, elevated carbon dioxide, and traumatic brain injury, among others. These potential threats to cognitive functioning are capable of degrading performance and compromising mission success. Furthermore, the threats may increase in severity, and new types of threats may emerge for longer duration exploration missions. This presentation will describe the process used to identify gaps in our current approach, evaluate best practices in cognitive assessment, and transition new cognitive assessment tools to operational use. OVERVIEW: Risks to brain health and performance posed by spaceflight missions require sensitive tools to assess cognitive functioning of astronauts in flight. The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is the automated cognitive assessment tool currently deployed onboard the International Space Station (ISS). WinSCAT provides astronauts and flight surgeons with objective data to monitor neurocognitive functioning. WinSCAT assesses 5 discrete cognitive domains, is sensitive to changes in cognitive functioning, and was designed to be completed in less than 15 minutes. However, WinSCAT does not probe other areas of cognitive functioning that might be important to mission success. Researchers recently have developed batteries that may expand current capabilities, such as increased sensitivity to subtle fluctuations in cognitive functioning. Therefore, we engaged in a systematic process review in order to improve upon our current capabilities and incorporate new advances in cognitive assessment. This process included a literature review on newer measures of neurocognitive assessment, surveys of operational flight surgeons at NASA regarding needs and gaps in our capabilities, and expert panel review of candidate cognitive

  11. The UV Sensor Onboard the Mars Science Laboratory Mission: Correction and Generation of UV Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Retortillo, Á.; Martinez, G.; Renno, N. O.; Lemmon, M. T.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station UV sensor (UVS) onboard the Mars Science Laboratory mission has completed more than 1750 sols of measurements, providing an unprecedented coverage ranging from diurnal to interannual times scales [1,2]. The UVS is comprised of six photodiodes to measure the UV flux in the ranges 200-380, 320-380, 280-320, 200-280, 230-290 and 300-350 nm [3]. UV fluxes in units of W/m2 can be found in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). However, dust deposition on the UVS and a non-physical discontinuity in the calibration functions when the solar zenith angle is above 30º cause errors in these fluxes that increase with time. We have developed a technique to correct UV fluxes from the effects of dust degradation and inconsistencies in the angular response of the UVS. The photodiode output currents (available in the PDS as lower-level TELRDR products), ancillary data records (available in the PDS as ADR products) and dust opacity values derived from Mastcam observations are used for performing the corrections. The corrections have been applied to the UVA band (320-380 nm) for the first 1000 sols of the mission, providing excellent results [4]. We plan to correct the UV fluxes on each of the six UVS bands and to make these results available in the PDS. Data products generated by this study will allow comparisons of the UV radiation environment at Gale crater with that at the locations of the future missions ExoMars 2020 and Mars 2020, as well as the assessment of the potential survivability of biological contaminants brought to Mars from Earth. References: [1] Smith, M. D., et al. (2016), Aerosol optical depth as observed by the Mars Science Laboratory REMS UV photodiodes, Icarus, 280, 234-248. [2] Vicente-Retortillo, Á., et al. (2017), Determination of dust aerosol particle size at Gale Crater using REMS UVS and Mastcam measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 3502-3508. [3] Gómez-Elvira, J., et al. (2012), REMS: The environmental sensor

  12. 50 CFR 216.255 - Requirements for monitoring and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... animals sighted. (4) Conduct shipboard monitoring to reduce impacts to protected species. Trained marine..., including the time of sighting and the direction of travel, into a marine animal tracking and sighting... will report all marine animals spotted and their directions of travel to the lead scientist onboard the...

  13. Preliminary background prediction for the INTEGRAL x-ray monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.

    1996-01-01

    The JEM-X (joint European x-ray monitor) experiment will be flown onboard the ESA's INTEGRAL satellite. The instrumental background level of the two JEM-X twin detectors will depend on several parameters, among which the satellite orbit and mass distribution, and the detectors materials play...

  14. Development of an on-board H2 storage and recovery system based on lithium borohydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Alkali metal borohydrides based on sodium and lithium, NaBH4 and LiBH4, have been evaluated as a potential hydrogen storage and recovery system for on-board vehicle use. The borohydride salts could be dissolved in water, followed by a hydrolytic reac...

  15. On-board conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether as an alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, H; Heinzelmann, G; Struis, R; Stucki, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether was investigated for application on-board a methanol fuelled vehicle. Several catalysts have been tested in a fixed bed reactor. Our approach is to develop a small and efficient reactor converting liquid MeOH under pressure and at low reaction temperatures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  16. 40 CFR 85.2222 - On-board diagnostic test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on-board diagnostic systems on 1996 and newer light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks shall consist... the unset readiness code(s) in question may be issued a passing certificate without being required to... lit malfunction indicator light (MIL) must be failed, though setting the unset readiness flags in...

  17. On-Board, Real-Time Preprocessing System for Optical Remote-Sensing Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Baogui; Shi, Hao; Zhuang, Yin; Chen, He; Chen, Liang

    2018-04-25

    With the development of remote-sensing technology, optical remote-sensing imagery processing has played an important role in many application fields, such as geological exploration and natural disaster prevention. However, relative radiation correction and geometric correction are key steps in preprocessing because raw image data without preprocessing will cause poor performance during application. Traditionally, remote-sensing data are downlinked to the ground station, preprocessed, and distributed to users. This process generates long delays, which is a major bottleneck in real-time applications for remote-sensing data. Therefore, on-board, real-time image preprocessing is greatly desired. In this paper, a real-time processing architecture for on-board imagery preprocessing is proposed. First, a hierarchical optimization and mapping method is proposed to realize the preprocessing algorithm in a hardware structure, which can effectively reduce the computation burden of on-board processing. Second, a co-processing system using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and a digital signal processor (DSP; altogether, FPGA-DSP) based on optimization is designed to realize real-time preprocessing. The experimental results demonstrate the potential application of our system to an on-board processor, for which resources and power consumption are limited.

  18. Contribution of magnetic measurements onboard NetLander to Mars exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menvielle, M.; Musmann, G.; Kuhnke, F.

    2000-01-01

    between the environment of the planet and solar radiation, and a secondary source, the electric currents induced in the conductive planet. The continuous recording of the time variations of the magnetic field at the surface of Mars by means of three component magnetometers installed onboard Net...

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD AND ON-BOARD DEVICES FOR COLLISION AVOIDANCE WHEN OVERTAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podryhalo, M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A method for improving the safety of overtaking maneuver by using the on-board collision avoidance system, which has an increased assessment reliability of safety of vehicles overtaking that move in the same direction is offered. The proposed system takes into account the main factors that affect the overtaking maneuver.

  20. STOL terminal area operating systems (aircraft and onboard avionics, ATC, navigation aids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrous, C.; Erzberger, H.; Johnson, N.; Neuman, F.

    1974-01-01

    Operational procedures and systems onboard the STOL aircraft which are required to enable the aircraft to perform acceptably in restricted airspace in all types of atmospheric conditions and weather are discussed. Results of simulation and flight investigations to establish operational criteria are presented.

  1. Functional requirements for onboard management of space shuttle consumables, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, P. J.; Herwig, H. A.; Neel, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the functional requirements for onboard management of space shuttle consumables. A generalized consumable management concept was developed for application to advanced spacecraft. The subsystems and related consumables selected for inclusion in the consumables management system are: (1) propulsion, (2) power generation, and (3) environmental and life support.

  2. Evaluating the Onboarding Phase of Free-toPlay Mobile Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigert Petersen, Falko; Thomsen, Line Ebdrup; Mirza-Babaei, Pejman

    2017-01-01

    . This paper presents a study utilizing a lab-based mixed-methods approach in providing insights for evaluating the user experience of onboarding phases in mobile games. This includes an investigation into the contribution of physiological measures (Heart-Rate Variability and Galvanic Skin Conductance) as well...

  3. CALIBRATION OF MODIFIED LIULIN DETECTOR FOR COSMIC RADIATION MEASUREMENTS ON-BOARD AIRCRAFT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselová, Dagmar; Ambrožová, Iva; Krist, Pavel; Kubančák, Ján; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Ploc, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2015), s. 489-492 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Liulin detector * on-board aircraft * cosmic radiation measurement Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2015

  4. On-Board, Real-Time Preprocessing System for Optical Remote-Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Baogui; Zhuang, Yin; Chen, He; Chen, Liang

    2018-01-01

    With the development of remote-sensing technology, optical remote-sensing imagery processing has played an important role in many application fields, such as geological exploration and natural disaster prevention. However, relative radiation correction and geometric correction are key steps in preprocessing because raw image data without preprocessing will cause poor performance during application. Traditionally, remote-sensing data are downlinked to the ground station, preprocessed, and distributed to users. This process generates long delays, which is a major bottleneck in real-time applications for remote-sensing data. Therefore, on-board, real-time image preprocessing is greatly desired. In this paper, a real-time processing architecture for on-board imagery preprocessing is proposed. First, a hierarchical optimization and mapping method is proposed to realize the preprocessing algorithm in a hardware structure, which can effectively reduce the computation burden of on-board processing. Second, a co-processing system using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and a digital signal processor (DSP; altogether, FPGA-DSP) based on optimization is designed to realize real-time preprocessing. The experimental results demonstrate the potential application of our system to an on-board processor, for which resources and power consumption are limited. PMID:29693585

  5. Data systems and computer science space data systems: Onboard networking and testbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The technical objectives are to develop high-performance, space-qualifiable, onboard computing, storage, and networking technologies. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: justification; technology challenges; program description; and state-of-the-art assessment.

  6. Validation of multi-channel scanning microwave radiometer on-board Oceansat-1

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.; Harikrishnan, M.

    Sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface wind speed (WS) and columnar water vapour (WV) derived from Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) sensor on-board IRS-P4 (Oceansat-1) were validated against the in situ measurements from ship...

  7. On-Board File Management and Its Application in Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, N.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents the minimum functions required for an on-board file management system. We explore file manipulation processes and demonstrate how the file transfer along with the file management system will be utilized to support flight operations and data delivery.

  8. Human Resources Management: Onboarding Program and Trainer's Guide for Charter School Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jeannette

    2016-01-01

    The applied dissertation project focused on the development of a comprehensive onboarding program and Trainer's Guide specifically developed for charter school management employees. Charter school education has grown significantly in the last several decades with over 6,100 charter schools that are currently serving students nationwide. Formal or…

  9. Onboard Flow Sensing For Downwash Detection and Avoidance On Small Quadrotor Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    onboard computers, one for flight stabilization and a Linux computer for sensor integration and control calculations . The Linux computer runs Robot...Hirokawa, D. Kubo , S. Suzuki, J. Meguro, and T. Suzuki. Small uav for immediate hazard map generation. In AIAA Infotech@Aerospace Conf, May 2007. 8F

  10. The CFRP primary structure of the MIRI instrument onboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels Christian; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Schroll, J

    2004-01-01

    The design of the Primary Structure of the Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI) onboard the NASA/ESA James Webb Space Telescope will be presented. The main design driver is the energy flow from the 35 K "hot" satellite interface to the 7 K "cold" MIRI interface. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP...

  11. WE-G-17A-01: Improving Tracking Image Spatial Resolution for Onboard MR Image Guided Radiation Therapy Using the WHISKEE Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Y; Mutic, S; Du, D; Green, O; Zeng, Q; Nana, R; Patrick, J; Shvartsman, S; Dempsey, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using the weighted hybrid iterative spiral k-space encoded estimation (WHISKEE) technique to improve spatial resolution of tracking images for onboard MR image guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT). Methods: MR tracking images of abdomen and pelvis had been acquired from healthy volunteers using the ViewRay onboard MRIGRT system (ViewRay Inc. Oakwood Village, OH) at a spatial resolution of 2.0mm*2.0mm*5.0mm. The tracking MR images were acquired using the TrueFISP sequence. The temporal resolution had to be traded off to 2 frames per second (FPS) to achieve the 2.0mm in-plane spatial resolution. All MR images were imported into the MATLAB software. K-space data were synthesized through the Fourier Transform of the MR images. A mask was created to selected k-space points that corresponded to the under-sampled spiral k-space trajectory with an acceleration (or undersampling) factor of 3. The mask was applied to the fully sampled k-space data to synthesize the undersampled k-space data. The WHISKEE method was applied to the synthesized undersampled k-space data to reconstructed tracking MR images at 6 FPS. As a comparison, the undersampled k-space data were also reconstructed using the zero-padding technique. The reconstructed images were compared to the original image. The relatively reconstruction error was evaluated using the percentage of the norm of the differential image over the norm of the original image. Results: Compared to the zero-padding technique, the WHISKEE method was able to reconstruct MR images with better image quality. It significantly reduced the relative reconstruction error from 39.5% to 3.1% for the pelvis image and from 41.5% to 4.6% for the abdomen image at an acceleration factor of 3. Conclusion: We demonstrated that it was possible to use the WHISKEE method to expedite MR image acquisition for onboard MR-IGRT systems to achieve good spatial and temporal resolutions simultaneously. Y. Hu and O. green

  12. WE-G-17A-01: Improving Tracking Image Spatial Resolution for Onboard MR Image Guided Radiation Therapy Using the WHISKEE Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Y; Mutic, S; Du, D; Green, O [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Zeng, Q; Nana, R; Patrick, J; Shvartsman, S; Dempsey, J [ViewRay Incorporated, Oakwood Village, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using the weighted hybrid iterative spiral k-space encoded estimation (WHISKEE) technique to improve spatial resolution of tracking images for onboard MR image guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT). Methods: MR tracking images of abdomen and pelvis had been acquired from healthy volunteers using the ViewRay onboard MRIGRT system (ViewRay Inc. Oakwood Village, OH) at a spatial resolution of 2.0mm*2.0mm*5.0mm. The tracking MR images were acquired using the TrueFISP sequence. The temporal resolution had to be traded off to 2 frames per second (FPS) to achieve the 2.0mm in-plane spatial resolution. All MR images were imported into the MATLAB software. K-space data were synthesized through the Fourier Transform of the MR images. A mask was created to selected k-space points that corresponded to the under-sampled spiral k-space trajectory with an acceleration (or undersampling) factor of 3. The mask was applied to the fully sampled k-space data to synthesize the undersampled k-space data. The WHISKEE method was applied to the synthesized undersampled k-space data to reconstructed tracking MR images at 6 FPS. As a comparison, the undersampled k-space data were also reconstructed using the zero-padding technique. The reconstructed images were compared to the original image. The relatively reconstruction error was evaluated using the percentage of the norm of the differential image over the norm of the original image. Results: Compared to the zero-padding technique, the WHISKEE method was able to reconstruct MR images with better image quality. It significantly reduced the relative reconstruction error from 39.5% to 3.1% for the pelvis image and from 41.5% to 4.6% for the abdomen image at an acceleration factor of 3. Conclusion: We demonstrated that it was possible to use the WHISKEE method to expedite MR image acquisition for onboard MR-IGRT systems to achieve good spatial and temporal resolutions simultaneously. Y. Hu and O. green

  13. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...” means air carrier employees and their family members and persons traveling onboard a commercial aircraft...), air carrier employees, their family members, and persons onboard for the safety of the flight are...) Date of birth; (iii) Place of birth (city, state—if applicable, country); (iv) Gender (F = female; M...

  14. USING THE INFORMATION OF ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS IN DETERMINING THE TECHNICAL STATE OF THE LOCOMOTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ye. Bodnar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of increase of efficiency of information processing by оn-board systems of diagnostics of locomotives are considered. The examples of information processing by the on-board system of diagnostics of electric locomotives DE1 are presented. The suggestions on improvement of systematization and processing of information by on-board systems of diagnostics are given.

  15. Accelerator Modeling with MATLAB Accelerator Toolbox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model storage rings and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. The objective is to illustrate the flexibility and efficiency of the AT-MATLAB framework. The paper discusses three examples of problems that are analyzed frequently in connection with ring-based synchrotron light sources

  16. Radiation monitoring system for astronauts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, I.; MacKay, G.; Ng, A.; Tomi, L.

    1996-01-01

    Astronauts in space are constantly under the bombardment of radiation particles from trapped electrons, and trapped proton. In addition, cosmic rays, while penetrating the spacecraft shell, generate secondary radiation of neutrons. As astronauts' stay in space is getting longer, the need for a real-time radiation monitoring device has become critical. Thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD), used onboard both the MIR and the Space Transportation System (STS), cannot provide real-time dose reading. This paper describes a real-time direct read-out device, currently under development, which can measure skin, eye, and Blood Forming Organ (BFO) doses separately. (author)

  17. Santa Fe Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The 10th USA National Particle Accelerator Conference was hosted this year by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Santa Fe from 21-23 March. It was a resounding success in emphasizing the ferment of activity in the accelerator field. About 900 people registered and about 500 papers were presented in invited and contributed talks and poster sessions

  18. Relativistic Shock Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)

  19. CERN Accelerator School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-01-15

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) offers a regular course on general accelerator physics. The first basic course was given in September 1984 at Orsay, France, and last September the advanced course was jointly organized by CAS, Oxford's Nuclear Physics Laboratory and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and held at The Queen's College, Oxford.

  20. Accelerator for nuclear transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A review on nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes using particle accelerators is given. Technical feasibility, nuclear data, costs of various projects are discussed. It appears that one high energy accelerator (1500 MeV, 300 mA proton) could probably handle the amount of actinides generated by the actual French nuclear program [fr

  1. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960's to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore's Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail

  2. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from the early 1960s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400-ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore close-quote s Site 300 produced 10,000-Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high-current, short-pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N. [CERN Accelerator School (Switzerland)

    1992-11-15

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval.

  4. Charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Kazuo.

    1969-01-01

    An accelerator is disclosed having a device which permits the electrodes of an accelerator tube to be readily conditioned in an uncomplicated manner before commencing operation. In particle accelerators, it is necessary to condition the accelerator electrodes before a stable high voltage can be applied. Large current accelerators of the cockcroft-walton type require a complicated manual operation which entails applying to the electrodes a low voltage which is gradually increased to induce a vacuum discharge and then terminated. When the discharge attains an extremely low level, the voltage is again impressed and again raised to a high value in low current type accelerators, a high voltage power supply charges the electrodes once to induce discharge followed by reapplying the voltage when the vacuum discharge reaches a low level, according to which high voltage is automatically applied. This procedure, however, requires that the high voltage power supply be provided with a large internal resistance to limit the current to within several milliamps. The present invention connects a high voltage power supply and an accelerator tube through a discharge current limiting resistor wired in parallel with a switch. Initially, the switch is opened enabling the power supply to impress a voltage limited to a prescribed value by a suitably chosen resistor. Conditioning is effected by allowing the voltage between electrodes to increase and is followed by closing the switch through which high voltage is applied directly to the accelerator for operation. (K.J. Owens)

  5. Asia honours accelerator physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    "Steve Meyers of Cern and Jie Wei of Beijing's Tsinghua University are the first recipients of a new prize for particle physics. The pair were honoured for their contributions to numerous particle-accelerator projects - including Cern's Large Hadron Collider - by the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA)..." (1 paragraph)

  6. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  7. CERN Accelerator School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) offers a regular course on general accelerator physics. The first basic course was given in September 1984 at Orsay, France, and last September the advanced course was jointly organized by CAS, Oxford's Nuclear Physics Laboratory and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and held at The Queen's College, Oxford

  8. Thoughts on accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  9. KEK digital accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Iwashita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  10. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  11. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  12. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses microwave technology (similar to that used for radar) to accelerate electrons in a part of the accelerator called the "wave guide," then allows ... risk of accidental exposure is extremely low. top of page This page was ... No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

  13. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Edmund J.N.

    1992-01-01

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval

  14. Optimization of accelerator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiljev, N.D.; Mozin, I.V.; Shelekhov, V.A.; Efremov, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Expensive exploitation of charged particle accelerators is inevitably concerned with requirements of effectively obtaining of the best characteristics of accelerated beams for physical experiments. One of these characteristics is intensity. Increase of intensity is hindered by a number of effects, concerned with the influence of the volume charge field on a particle motion dynamics in accelerator's chamber. However, ultimate intensity, determined by a volume charge, is almost not achieved for the most of the operating accelerators. This fact is caused by losses of particles during injection, at the initial stage of acceleration and during extraction. These losses are caused by deviations the optimal from real characteristics of the accelerating and magnetic system. This is due to a number of circumstances, including technological tolerances on structural elements of systems, influence of measuring and auxiliary equipment and beam consumers' installations, placed in the closed proximity to magnets, and instability in operation of technological systems of accelerator. Control task consists in compensation of deviations of characteristics of magnetic and electric fields by optimal selection of control actions. As for technical means, automatization of modern accelerators allows to solve optimal control problems in real time. Therefore, the report is devoted to optimal control methods and experimental results. (J.P.N.)

  15. Accelerator breeder concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, G.A.; Fraser, J.S.; Garvey, P.M.

    1978-10-01

    The principal components and functions of an accelerator breeder are described. The role of the accelerator breeder as a possible long-term fissile production support facility for CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) thorium advanced fuel cycles and the Canadian research and development program leading to such a facility are outlined. (author)

  16. Semiconductor acceleration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyanagi, Katsumichi; Kobayashi, Mitsuo; Goto, Tomoaki

    1996-09-01

    This paper reports a practical semiconductor acceleration sensor especially suited for automotive air bag systems. The acceleration sensor includes four beams arranged in a swastika structure. Two piezoresistors are formed on each beam. These eight piezoresistors constitute a Wheatstone bridge. The swastika structure of the sensing elements, an upper glass plate and a lower glass plate exhibit the squeeze film effect which enhances air dumping, by which the constituent silicon is prevented from breakdown. The present acceleration sensor has the following features. The acceleration force component perpendicular to the sensing direction can be cancelled. The cross-axis sensitivity is less than 3 percent. And, the erroneous offset caused by the differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of the constituent materials can be canceled. The high aspect ratio configuration realized by plasma etching facilitates reducing the dimensions and improving the sensitivity of the acceleration sensor. The present acceleration sensor is 3.9 mm by 3.9 mm in area and 1.2 mm in thickness. The present acceleration sensor can measure from -50 to +50 G with sensitivity of 0.275 mV/G and with non-linearity of less than 1 percent. The acceleration sensor withstands shock of 3000 G.

  17. A study on the real-time reliability of on-board equipment of train control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Shiwei

    2018-05-01

    Real-time reliability evaluation is conducive to establishing a condition based maintenance system for the purpose of guaranteeing continuous train operation. According to the inherent characteristics of the on-board equipment, the connotation of reliability evaluation of on-board equipment is defined and the evaluation index of real-time reliability is provided in this paper. From the perspective of methodology and practical application, the real-time reliability of the on-board equipment is discussed in detail, and the method of evaluating the realtime reliability of on-board equipment at component level based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is proposed. In this method the performance degradation data is used directly to realize the accurate perception of the hidden state transition process of on-board equipment, which can achieve a better description of the real-time reliability of the equipment.

  18. Molecular ion acceleration using tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yuichi; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Tajima, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    In TIARA compound beam radiation system, cluster beams have been produced using 3 MV tandem accelerator (9SDH-2) to supply them to various radiation on injection experiments. Till now, productions of C{sub 2-8}, Si{sub 2-4} and O{sub 2} and their accelerations up to 6 MeV have been succeeded. This study aimed at production and acceleration of B{sub 2-4} and LiF. Anion clusters were produced using the conventional ion source of cesium sputter type. The proportions of atoms, molecules and clusters elicited from the ion source were varied depending on the material`s properties and the operating conditions of ion source such as sample temperature, sputter voltage and the shape of sample. The anion clusters were accelerated toward the high voltage terminal in the center of tandem accelerator, leading to cations through losing their electrons by the collision to N{sub 2} gas in a charge conversion cell at the terminal. Positively charged cluster ions could be obtained by modulating the pressure of N{sub 2} gas. Thus, B{sub 2} (64 nA), B{sub 3} (4.4 nA) and B{sub 4} (2.7 nA) have been produced and their maximum survival probabilities were higher than those of carbon or silicon clusters. In addition, the relationship between beam current and gas pressure was investigated for Bn (n = 2-4) and LiF. (M.N.)

  19. Using Small Capacity Fuel Cells Onboard Drones for Battery Cooling: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayok Mukhopadhyay

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, quadrotor-based drones have attracted a lot of attention because of their versatility, which makes them an ideal medium for a variety of applications, e.g., personal photography, surveillance, and the delivery of lightweight packages. The flight duration of a drone is limited by its battery capacity. Increasing the payload capacity of a drone requires more current to be supplied by the battery onboard a drone. Elevated currents through a Li-ion battery can increase the battery temperature, thus posing a significant risk of fire or explosion. Li-ion batteries are suited for drone applications, due to their high energy density. There have been attempts to use hydrogen fuel cells onboard drones. Fuel cell stacks and fuel tank assemblies can have a high energy to weight ratio. So, they may be able to power long duration drone flights, but such fuel cell stacks and associated systems, are usually extremely expensive. Hence, this work proposes the novel use of a less expensive, low capacity, metal hydride fuel stick-powered fuel cell stack as an auxiliary power supply onboard a drone. A primary advantage of this is that the fuel sticks can be used to cool the batteries, and a side effect is that this slightly reduces the burden on the onboard Li-ion battery and provides a small increment in flight time. This work presents the results of an experimental study which shows the primary effect (i.e., decrease in battery temperature and the secondary side effect (i.e., a small increment in flight time obtained by using a fuel cell stack. In this work, a metal hydride fuel stick powered hydrogen fuel cell is used along with a Li-ion battery onboard a drone.

  20. Plasma based accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Allen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The concept of laser-induced plasma wakefields as a technique to accelerate charged particles was introduced 35 years ago as a means to go beyond the accelerating gradients possible with metallic cavities supporting radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Significant developments in laser technology have made possible the pulse intensity needed to realize this concept, and rapid progress is now underway in the realization of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. It has also been realized that similar accelerating gradients can be produced by particle beams propagating in plasmas, and experimental programs have also been undertaken to study this possibility. Positive results have been achieved with electron-driven plasma wakefields, and a demonstration experiment with proton-driven wakefields is under construction at CERN. The concepts behind these different schemes and their pros and cons are described, as well as the experimental results achieved. An outlook for future practical uses of plasma based accelerators will also be given.