WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitor net bone

  1. Neural Net Safety Monitor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has been conducting flight-test research using an F-15 aircraft (figure 1). This aircraft has been specially modified to interface a neural net (NN) controller as part of a single-string Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) computer with the existing quad-redundant flight control system (FCC) shown in figure 2. The NN commands are passed to FCC channels 2 and 4 and are cross channel data linked (CCDL) to the other computers as shown. Numerous types of fault-detection monitors exist in the FCC when the NN mode is engaged; these monitors would cause an automatic disengagement of the NN in the event of a triggering fault. Unfortunately, these monitors still may not prevent a possible NN hard-over command from coming through to the control laws. Therefore, an additional and unique safety monitor was designed for a single-string source that allows authority at maximum actuator rates but protects the pilot and structural loads against excessive g-limits in the case of a NN hard-over command input. This additional monitor resides in the FCCs and is executed before the control laws are computed. This presentation describes a floating limiter (FL) concept1 that was developed and successfully test-flown for this program (figure 3). The FL computes the rate of change of the NN commands that are input to the FCC from the ARTS. A window is created with upper and lower boundaries, which is constantly floating and trying to stay centered as the NN command rates are changing. The limiter works by only allowing the window to move at a much slower rate than those of the NN commands. Anywhere within the window, however, full rates are allowed. If a rate persists in one direction, it will eventually hit the boundary and be rate-limited to the floating limiter rate. When this happens, a persistent counter begins and after a limit is reached, a NN disengage command is generated. The

  2. Review of FEWS NET biophysical monitoring requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, K W; Underwood, L W [Science Systems and Applications, Incorporated, 411 West Michigan Street, Poplarville, MS 39470 (United States); Brown, M E [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 614.4, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Verdin, J P [United States Geological Survey, National Integrated Drought Information System, NOAA/ESRL, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)], E-mail: kenton_ross@ssaihq.com, E-mail: molly.brown@nasa.gov, E-mail: verdin@usgs.gov, E-mail: lauren_underwood@ssaihq.com

    2009-04-15

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users; it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and, subsequently, to assess whether such data would be beneficial as FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard; that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand; and that rainfall and vegetation products are valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  3. Review of FEWS NET Biophysical Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, K. W.; Brown, Molly E.; Verdin, J.; Underwood, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users: it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and; subsequently, beneficial FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world, enabling a robust set of professional perspectives to be gathered and analyzed rapidly. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard: that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand, and that rainfall and vegetation products were valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  4. Research and Construction the Net Monitor System

    OpenAIRE

    Ruining Huang; Lei Li; Yunjiang Lou

    2012-01-01

    A Net Monitor system is presented in this paper. The system is based on STMicroelectronics board FLTK3D, which provides hardware platform for TV functions--3D film, IPTV, 3D game, cable television and so on. The whole system includes the Linux Operating System (OS), embedded web browser, Media player, clouding applications, video conference and 3D game. It utilizes the reference model of the CLFS (Cross Linux From Scratches) principle to construct the embedded Linux OS. Cloud applications are...

  5. Research and Construction the Net Monitor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruining Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A Net Monitor system is presented in this paper. The system is based on STMicroelectronics board FLTK3D, which provides hardware platform for TV functions--3D film, IPTV, 3D game, cable television and so on. The whole system includes the Linux Operating System (OS, embedded web browser, Media player, clouding applications, video conference and 3D game. It utilizes the reference model of the CLFS (Cross Linux From Scratches principle to construct the embedded Linux OS. Cloud applications are focused on remote control and access to the cloud data center. The ESX/view client provides this function for its secure access to the data center and maintainability. With the development of IPTV technology, light cross-platform web browser, media player and video conference are implemented. The Net Monitor can integrate cloud applications, web browser, media player, video conference and so on in just one platform with lower cost than other platforms on buying extra hardware and software, so it will brings convenient and benefit to people.

  6. Bone Remodeling Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucar, Charlie; Goldberg, Leslie; Hon, Bodin; Moore, Shannon; Williams, Evan

    2009-01-01

    The impact of bone loss due to different mechanical loadings in microgravity is a major concern for astronauts upon reintroduction to gravitational forces in exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. it has been shown that astronauts not only lose bone at differing rates, with levels up to 2% per month, but each astronaut will respond to bone loss treatments differently. Pre- and post-flight imaging techniques and frozen urine samples for post-flight laboratory immunoassays To develop a novel, non-invasive, highly . sensitive, portable, intuitive, and low-powered device to measure bone resorption levels in 'real time' to provide rapid and Individualized feedback to maximize the efficacy of bone loss countermeasures 1. Collect urine specimen and analyze the level of bone resorption marker, DPD (deoxypridinoline) excreted. 2. Antibodies specific to DPD conjugated with nanoshells and mixed with specimen, the change in absorbance from agglutination is measured by an optical device. 3. The concentration of DPD is displayed and recorded on a PDA

  7. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  8. RadNet Real-Time Monitoring Spectrometry Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RadNet Real-Time Monitoring Spectrometry Data Inventory contains measured data used to identify and measure specific radioactive materials in the atmosphere at...

  9. [Research on establishment of clinical safety intensive hospital monitoring net of traditional Chinese medicine injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Xin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Fei

    2012-09-01

    The establishment of clinical safety monitoring net of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injection is the one of the key issues of the monitoring work. The monitoring net is including varieties of types of net, such as clinical monitoring net, multimedia network platform, the net of experts or talents. The paper will introduce the establishing method of clinical safety monitoring net, the establishing of clinical safety monitoring net, and the establishing of network based on the internet, the knowledge network construction of experts, the net construction of talents are all included, to assure the development for clinical safety monitoring work.

  10. In vivo monitoring of bone architecture and remodeling after implant insertion: The different responses of cortical and trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zihui; Kuhn, Gisela; von Salis-Soglio, Marcella; Cooke, Stephen J; Schirmer, Michael; Müller, Ralph; Ruffoni, Davide

    2015-12-01

    The mechanical integrity of the bone-implant system is maintained by the process of bone remodeling. Specifically, the interplay between bone resorption and bone formation is of paramount importance to fully understand the net changes in bone structure occurring in the peri-implant bone, which are eventually responsible for the mechanical stability of the bone-implant system. Using time-lapsed in vivo micro-computed tomography combined with new composite material implants, we were able to characterize the spatio-temporal changes of bone architecture and bone remodeling following implantation in living mice. After insertion, implant stability was attained by a quick and substantial thickening of the cortical shell which counteracted the observed loss of trabecular bone, probably due to the disruption of the trabecular network. Within the trabecular compartment, the rate of bone formation close to the implant was transiently higher than far from the implant mainly due to an increased mineral apposition rate which indicated a higher osteoblastic activity. Conversely, in cortical bone, the higher rate of bone formation close to the implant compared to far away was mostly related to the recruitment of new osteoblasts as indicated by a prevailing mineralizing surface. The behavior of bone resorption also showed dissimilarities between trabecular and cortical bone. In the former, the rate of bone resorption was higher in the peri-implant region and remained elevated during the entire monitoring period. In the latter, bone resorption rate had a bigger value away from the implant and decreased with time. Our approach may help to tune the development of smart implants that can attain a better long-term stability by a local and targeted manipulation of the remodeling process within the cortical and the trabecular compartments and, particularly, in bone of poor health.

  11. Monitoring long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) durability to validate net serviceable life assumptions, in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakizimana, E.; Cyubahiro, B.; Rukundo, A.; Kabayiza, A.; Mutabazi, A.; Beach, R.; Patel, R.; Tongren, J.E.; Karema, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background To validate assumptions about the length of the distribution–replacement cycle for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in Rwanda, the Malaria and other Parasitic Diseases Division, Rwanda Ministry of Health, used World Health Organization methods to independently confirm the three-year

  12. RadNet Map Interface for Near-Real-Time Radiation Monitoring Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation, drinking water, and milk samples for analysis of radioactivity. The...

  13. SeaDataNet network services monitoring: Definition and Implementation of Service availability index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykiardopoulos, Angelos; Mpalopoulou, Stavroula; Vavilis, Panagiotis; Pantazi, Maria; Iona, Sissy

    2014-05-01

    SeaDataNet (SDN) is a standardized system for managing large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the automatic observation systems. The SeaDataNet network is constituted of national oceanographic data centres of 35 countries, active in data collection. SeaDataNetII project's objective is to upgrade the present SeaDataNet infrastructure into an operationally robust and state-of-the-art infrastructure; therefore Network Monitoring is a step to this direction. The term Network Monitoring describes the use of system that constantly monitors a computer network for slow or failing components and that notifies the network administrator in case of outages. Network monitoring is crucial when implementing widely distributed systems over the Internet and in real-time systems as it detects malfunctions that may occur and notifies the system administrator who can immediately respond and correct the problem. In the framework of SeaDataNet II project a monitoring system was developed in order to monitor the SeaDataNet components. The core system is based on Nagios software. Some plug-ins were developed to support SeaDataNet modules. On the top of Nagios Engine a web portal was developed in order to give access to local administrators of SeaDataNet components, to view detailed logs of their own service(s). Currently the system monitors 35 SeaDataNet Download Managers, 9 SeaDataNet Services, 25 GeoSeas Download Managers and 23 UBSS Download Managers . Taking advantage of the continuous monitoring of SeaDataNet system components a total availability index will be implemented. The term availability can be defined as the ability of a functional unit to be in a state to perform a required function under given conditions at a given instant of time or over a given time interval, assuming that the required external resources are provided. Availability measures can be considered as a are very important benefit becauseT - The availability trends that can be

  14. Risk Exposure and Net Flow in Investment Funds: Do Shareholders Monitor Asset Allocation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of asset allocation on the net flow of fixed income funds in the Brazilian market, by exploiting the exogenous variation in the risk perception of bank liabilities (CDs caused by the financial turmoil that followed Lehman Brothers’ demise in September 2008. The central hypothesis is that the exposure to assets negatively affected by the crisis impacts negatively the fund’s net flow. We find that, for mutual funds, the larger proportion of assets negatively affected by the crisis the larger the net outflow of resources, indicating that shareholders monitor asset allocation and exert disciplining power on fund managers by withdrawing their resources. In exclusive (fundos exclusivos, i.e., funds with a single shareholder, for which the shareholder is presumed to exert more influence on asset reallocation, we find no significant relationship between the exposure to assets negatively affected by the crisis and net flows.

  15. Fuzzy reasoning model using fuzzy Petri Nets for the monitoring of robotic assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented a fuzzy Petri net model to deal with the monitoring of robotic assembly. Based on the fuzzy Petri net model. All efficient composite reasoning mode was proposed to perform fuzzy reasoning automatically. It can determine whether there exists an antecedent-consequence relationship between two contact states. Furthermore, various types of sensor signals can be converted to the same form of real values between zero and one, and the contradiction among large number, high degree of truth and importance of input conditions can be resolved very well by introducing the weight factors and priorities for sensor signals. Finally, a pegin-the-hole example was given to illustrate the reasonability and feasibility of the proposed model.

  16. SkyGlowNet: Multi-Disciplinary Independent Student Research in Environmental Light at Night Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, B. L.; Craine, E. R.; Culver, R. B.; DeBenedetti, J. C.; Flurchick, K. M.

    2014-07-01

    SkyGlowNet uses Internet-enabled sky brightness meters (iSBM) to monitor sky brightness over school sites. The data are used professionally and in STEM outreach to study natural and artificial sources of sky brightness, light pollution, energy efficiency, and environmental and health impacts of artificial night lighting. The iSBM units are owned by participating institutions and managed by faculty or students via proprietary Internet links. Student data are embargoed for two semesters to allow students to analyze data and publish results, then they are moved to a common area where students from different institutions can collaborate. The iSBM units can be set to operate automatically each night. Their data include time, sky brightness, weather conditions, and other related parameters. The data stream can be viewed and processed online or downloaded for study. SkyGlowNet is a unique, multi-disciplinary, real science program aiding research for science and non-science students.

  17. Live monitoring and quasi-online event reconstruction for KM3NeT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Tamas

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a new generation neutrino telescope in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. It will instrument a volume of several cubic kilometres of sea water in its final configuration. Currently, the project is in its first phase with the aim of constructing and installing 31 detection units up to 700 m in height, each equipped with 18 digital optical modules. The optical modules are equipped with 31 3-inch photomultipliers to detect the Cherenkov light of charged secondary particles produced in high-energy neutrino interactions. This contribution describes a live detector monitoring system, which enables real-time parameter control and a reconstruction of events soon after the data acquisition. It also allows a rapid response to or provision of external alarms of multi-messenger campaigns. The data acquisition system of KM3NeT provides pre-filtered data in event form, as well as general detector status messages. The events will be processed almost in real-time - with a delay in the range of minutes - using fast reconstruction mechanisms. This allows for high-level monitoring of the detector status using derived distributions, such as time and charge distributions and event rates. The resulting data is displayed on a web page using a dedicated, flexible web service. The same service also displays low-level monitoring data such as trigger rates, PMT hit rates and the general status of the optical modules.

  18. Calculation of Decision Support Interface Values for FEWS NET Remote Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, G. J.

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to expand the spatial extent of monitoring activities, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is seeking new techniques to leverage remotely sensed data. The Decision Support Interface (DSI) represents a new product that is part of a growing suite of remote monitoring tools using existing data products to assist in assessing crop-growing conditions. The DSI indicates areas where remotely sensed data show that further investigation into conditions may be needed. It is designed to be a first-check of conditions for both core monitoring areas as well as those where standard FEWS NET monitoring information may not be available. Initially developed for Africa, the DSI integrates different products and methods into a single assessment of crop-growing conditions. Two primary data inputs drive the DSI: NOAA produced satellite rainfall estimates and eMODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The temporal monitoring unit is the dekad, defined as an approximately 10-day period encompassing either the first ten days (1st-10th), second ten days (11th-20th), or remainder of the month (21st-end). Rainfall accumulations at durations of 1, 3, 6, 9, and 18-dekads are used to capture rainfall conditions for various intervals of the crop calendar. NDVI data are a composite of greenness values over a 10-day period, smoothed in time to correct for atmospheric contamination. Spatial averages of these input data are extracted for defined agricultural regions. The agricultural areas synthesize the best available data for each country, and contain information about typical start and end of the growing season used to determine the period of monitoring for each polygon. Spatial averages of rainfall and NDVI for each polygon are assigned two percentiles, one - termed empirical - based on the ranking of the amount compared to historical amounts for the interval, and a second - termed theoretical - based on a parametric distribution derived from the

  19. Africa-Wide Monitoring of Small Surface Water Bodies Using Multisource Satellite Data: A Monitoring System for FEWS NET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, N. M.; Senay, G. B.; Rowland, J.; Budde, M. E.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Continental Africa has the largest volume of water stored in wetlands, large lakes, reservoirs and rivers, yet it suffers with problems such as water availability and access. Furthermore, African countries are amongst the most vulnerable to the impact of natural hazards such as droughts and floods. With climate change intensifying the hydrologic cycle and altering the distribution and frequency of rainfall, the problem of water availability and access is bound to increase. The U.S Geological Survey Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, has initiated a large-scale project to monitor small to medium surface water bodies in Africa. Under this project, multi-source satellite data and hydrologic modeling techniques are integrated to monitor these water bodies in Africa. First, small water bodies are mapped using satellite data such as Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Landsat, and high resolution Google Earth imagery. Stream networks and watersheds for each water body are identified using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data. Finally, a hydrologic modeling approach that uses satellite-derived precipitation estimates and evapotranspiration data calculated from global data assimilation system climate parameters is applied to model water levels. This approach has been implemented to monitor nearly 300 small water bodies located in 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Validation of modeled scaled depths with field-installed gauge data in East Africa demonstrated the ability of the model to capture both the spatial patterns and seasonal variations. Modeled scaled estimates captured up to 60% of the observed gauge variability with an average RMSE of 22%. Current and historic data (since 2001) on relative water level, precipitation, and evapotranspiration for each water body is made available in near real time. The water point monitoring network

  20. Advances of FishNet towards a fully automatic monitoring system for fish migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzert, Frederik; Mader, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Restoring the continuum of river networks, affected by anthropogenic constructions, is one of the main objectives of the Water Framework Directive. Regarding fish migration, fish passes are a widely used measure. Often the functionality of these fish passes needs to be assessed by monitoring. Over the last years, we developed a new semi-automatic monitoring system (FishCam) which allows the contact free observation of fish migration in fish passes through videos. The system consists of a detection tunnel, equipped with a camera, a motion sensor and artificial light sources, as well as a software (FishNet), which helps to analyze the video data. In its latest version, the software is capable of detecting and tracking objects in the videos as well as classifying them into "fish" and "no-fish" objects. This allows filtering out the videos containing at least one fish (approx. 5 % of all grabbed videos) and reduces the manual labor to the analysis of these videos. In this state the entire system has already been used in over 20 different fish passes across Austria for a total of over 140 months of monitoring resulting in more than 1.4 million analyzed videos. As a next step towards a fully automatic monitoring system, a key feature is the automatized classification of the detected fish into their species, which is still an unsolved task in a fully automatic monitoring environment. Recent advances in the field of machine learning, especially image classification with deep convolutional neural networks, sound promising in order to solve this problem. In this study, different approaches for the fish species classification are tested. Besides an image-only based classification approach using deep convolutional neural networks, various methods that combine the power of convolutional neural networks as image descriptors with additional features, such as the fish length and the time of appearance, are explored. To facilitate the development and testing phase of this approach

  1. Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maeirsperger; Stith T. Gower; Al A. Kirschbaum; Steve W. Runnings; Maosheng Zhaos; Steven C. Wofsy; Allison L. Dunn; Beverly E. Law; John L. Campbell; Walter C. Oechel; Hyo Jung Kwon; Tilden P. Meyers; Eric E. Small; Shirley A. Kurc; John A. Gamon

    2005-01-01

    Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling...

  2. Communication Modeling and Mobile Object Monitoring by Using Colored Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalė Dzemydienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring moving objects and analyzing their statuses are the best opportunities currently offered by mobile technology. The methods and software for wireless systems allow the exchange of many possible data formats (e.g., text, visual or audio communication and provide information about the state of the object’s geographical coordinates in real time. The necessary information is received from the sensors and mobile device’s contextual information. Information is sent to remote servers whenever applicable, and, after some calculation, more accurate data is obtained. Software to identify different situations has been designed and implemented. The software and therefore the identification of the situations of technical equipment can send data, warnings or reminders to a given situation. Colored Petri nets (CPN allowed to more precisely model complex situations of scenarios and to capture the information any time, anywhere provided in advance of a moving object. Mobile devices detect the necessary data via the external or internal physical environment through sensors. The mobile device components are interacting with internal or external physical environment and have the sensor detectors’ parameters. Such information is stored into data-warehouses in which the knowledge discovery is made by CPN models, which represent rules of analysis.

  3. Communication Modeling and Mobile Object Monitoring by Using Colored Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramunas Dzindzalieta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Monitoring moving objects and analyzing their statuses are the best opportunities currently offered by mobile technology. The methods and software for wireless systems allow the exchange of many possible data formats (e.g., text, visual or audio communication and provide information about the state of the object’s geographical coordinates in real time. The necessary information is received from the sensors and mobile device’s contextual information. Information is sent to remote servers whenever applicable, and, after some calculation, more accurate data is obtained. Software to identify different situations has been designed and implemented. The software and therefore the identification of the situations of technical equipment can send data, warnings or reminders to a given situation. Colored Petri nets (CPN allowed to more precisely model complex situations of scenarios and to capture the information any time, anywhere provided in advance of a moving object. Mobile devices detect the necessary data via the external or internal physical environment through sensors. The mobile device components are interacting with internal or external physical environment and have the sensor detectors’ parameters. Such information is stored into data-warehouses in which the knowledge discovery is made by CPN models, which represent rules of analysis.

  4. Acoustic monitoring using bamboo set net in the Southern Sea of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungbeen; Lee, Kyounghoon; La, Hyoung Sul; Yang, Yongsu; Kim, Pyungkwan

    2017-01-01

    High-temporal resolution profiles of acoustic backscatter were collected from a traditional bamboo set net along the coast of the Southern Sea, Korea, using sideward-looking multi-beam imaging sonar. These data were used to examine the impact of variations in tidal cycles and current speeds on the bamboo set net. The relatively high influx of fish during the nighttime compared to the low influx and high outflux of fish during the daytime suggests visual avoidance of the net by the fish during the daytime. The observed diel variation in the captured fish flux was significantly correlated with the current speed (day: r = 0.35, p = 0.002, night: r = 0.60, p bamboo set nets appears to be greatly influenced by day-night differences and current speed. The present study enhances understanding of fish behavior via utilization of a bamboo set net in the coastal zone.

  5. Objective monitoring of Insecticide-treated bednet use to improve malaria prevention: SmartNet development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezanoski, Paul J; Campbell, Jeffrey I; Santorino, Data; Bangsberg, David R

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is a serious health concern for three billion people worldwide, killing nearly 600,000 people a year. Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) are an effective and valuable tool for preventing malaria and hundreds of millions of ITNs have been distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, our current methods for measuring ITN use are inadequate to inform malaria prevention programs. The most common method, self-reported ITN use, is limited by 1) social desirability, 2) recall and 3) sampling bias. An acceptable objective and longitudinal method of assessing adherence to ITN use would improve our ability to better understand the determinants of ITN use and design more effective malaria prevention interventions. We describe the development and initial proof-of-concept validity testing of an ITN adherence monitoring tool called SmartNet. SmartNet uses conductive thread interwoven into an ITN and a microcontroller to detect the state of the ITN. We tested SmartNet among five volunteers using the device over their beds in Boston, USA for two weeks with the goal of evaluating device reliability, accuracy and acceptability to inform future device improvements. The device recorded data for 63.1% (35172/55711) of installed two-minute time intervals, with 97.3% (19990/20539) of the recording errors relating to battery failures. Overall, the device was 71.7% (25204/35172) accurate in determining the state of the ITN (whether it was folded up or unfurled) and performed significantly better at detecting an unfurled ITN than a folded ITN, 77.3% versus 68.4% (p<0.001). Participants noted no significant acceptability concerns and all participants felt SmartNet was easy or very easy to use. SmartNet is a novel approach to objectively measure ITN adherence over time. Our results suggest a variety of device improvements to both extend reliability and improve performance of SmartNet prior to deployment in a malaria-endemic setting.

  6. Neural-Net Based Optical NDE Method for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper answers some performance and calibration questions about a non-destructive-evaluation (NDE) procedure that uses artificial neural networks to detect structural damage or other changes from sub-sampled characteristic patterns. The method shows increasing sensitivity as the number of sub-samples increases from 108 to 6912. The sensitivity of this robust NDE method is not affected by noisy excitations of the first vibration mode. A calibration procedure is proposed and demonstrated where the output of a trained net can be correlated with the outputs of the point sensors used for vibration testing. The calibration procedure is based on controlled changes of fastener torques. A heterodyne interferometer is used as a displacement sensor for a demonstration of the challenges to be handled in using standard point sensors for calibration.

  7. Africa-wide monitoring of small surface water bodies using multisource satellite data: a monitoring system for FEWS NET: chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Senay, Gabriel B.; Rowland, James; Verdin, James P.; Alemu, Henok; Melesse, Assefa M.; Abtew, Wossenu; Setegn, Shimelis G.

    2014-01-01

    Continental Africa has the highest volume of water stored in wetlands, large lakes, reservoirs, and rivers, yet it suffers from problems such as water availability and access. With climate change intensifying the hydrologic cycle and altering the distribution and frequency of rainfall, the problem of water availability and access will increase further. Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has initiated a large-scale project to monitor small to medium surface water points in Africa. Under this project, multisource satellite data and hydrologic modeling techniques are integrated to monitor several hundreds of small to medium surface water points in Africa. This approach has been already tested to operationally monitor 41 water points in East Africa. The validation of modeled scaled depths with field-installed gauge data demonstrated the ability of the model to capture both the spatial patterns and seasonal variations. Modeled scaled estimates captured up to 60 % of the observed gauge variability with a mean root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 22 %. The data on relative water level, precipitation, and evapotranspiration (ETo) for water points in East and West Africa were modeled since 1998 and current information is being made available in near-real time. This chapter presents the approach, results from the East African study, and the first phase of expansion activities in the West Africa region. The water point monitoring network will be further expanded to cover much of sub-Saharan Africa. The goal of this study is to provide timely information on the water availability that would support already established FEWS NET activities in Africa. This chapter also presents the potential improvements in modeling approach to be implemented during future expansion in Africa.

  8. Diet-dependent net endogenous acid load of vegan diets in relation to food groups and bone health-related nutrients: results from the German Vegan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Waldmann, Annika; Koschizke, Jochen; Leitzmann, Claus; Hahn, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Dietary composition has been shown to affect acid-base homeostasis and bone health in humans. We investigated the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and the estimated diet-dependent net acid load (net endogenous acid production, NEAP) in adult vegans and evaluated the relationships between NEAP, food groups and intake of bone health-related nutrients. The German Vegan Study (GVS) is a cross-sectional study. Data from healthy men (n = 67) and women (n = 87), aged 21-75 years, who fulfilled the study criteria (vegan diet for ≥1 year prior to study start; age ≥18 years, and no pregnancy/childbirth during the last 12 months) were included in the analysis. NEAP values were calculated from diet composition using two models: one based on the protein/potassium quotient and another taking into account an anthropometry-based loss of urinary organic anions. Mean daily intakes of phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium and vitamin C were above, and vitamin D and calcium below Dietary Reference Intake (DRI). Regardless of the model used, the diet in the GVS was characterized by a nearly neutral NEAP. A strong correlation was observed between the NEAP values of the two models (r(s) = 0.873, p vegan diets do not affect acid-base homeostasis. With respect to bone health, the significance of this finding needs further investigation. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Smart Sensing System for the Prognostic Monitoring of Bone Health

    KAUST Repository

    Afsarimanesh, Nasrin

    2016-06-24

    The objective of this paper is to report a novel non-invasive, real-time, and label-free smart assay technique for the prognostic detection of bone loss by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The proposed system incorporated an antibody-antigen-based sensor functionalization to induce selectivity for the C-terminal telopeptide type one collagen (CTx-I) molecules—a bone loss biomarker. Streptavidin agarose was immobilized on the sensing area of a silicon substrate-based planar sensor, patterned with gold interdigital electrodes, to capture the antibody-antigen complex. Calibration experiments were conducted with various known CTx-I concentrations in a buffer solution to obtain a reference curve that was used to quantify the concentration of an analyte in the unknown serum samples. Multivariate chemometric analyses were done to determine the performance viability of the developed system. The analyses suggested that a frequency of 710 Hz is the most discriminating regarding the system sensitivity. A detection limit of 0.147 ng/mL was achieved for the proposed sensor and the corresponding reference curve was linear in the range of 0.147 ng/mL to 2.669 ng/mL. Two sheep blood samples were tested by the developed technique and the results were validated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results from the proposed technique match those from the ELISA.

  10. DNAqua-Net: Developing new genetic tools for bioassessment and monitoring of aquatic ecosystems in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Leese

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The protection, preservation and restoration of aquatic ecosystems and their functions are of global importance. For European states it became legally binding mainly through the EU-Water Framework Directive (WFD. In order to assess the ecological status of a given water body, aquatic biodiversity data are obtained and compared to a reference water body. The quantified mismatch obtained determines the extent of potential management actions. The current approach to biodiversity assessment is based on morpho-taxonomy. This approach has many drawbacks such as being time consuming, limited in temporal and spatial resolution, and error-prone due to the varying individual taxonomic expertise of the analysts. Novel genomic tools can overcome many of the aforementioned problems and could complement or even replace traditional bioassessment. Yet, a plethora of approaches are independently developed in different institutions, thereby hampering any concerted routine application. The goal of this Action is to nucleate a group of researchers across disciplines with the task to identify gold-standard genomic tools and novel eco-genomic indices for routine application in biodiversity assessments of European fresh- and marine water bodies. Furthermore, DNAqua-Net will provide a platform for training of the next generation of European researchers preparing them for the new technologies. Jointly with water managers, politicians, and other stakeholders, the group will develop a conceptual framework for the standard application of eco-genomic tools as part of legally binding assessments.

  11. URBAN-NET: A Network-based Infrastructure Monitoring and Analysis System for Emergency Management and Public Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Chen, Liangzhe [ORNL; Duan, Sisi [ORNL; Chinthavali, Supriya [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun (Arjun) [ORNL; Prakash, B. Aditya [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Critical Infrastructures (CIs) such as energy, water, and transportation are complex networks that are crucial for sustaining day-to-day commodity flows vital to national security, economic stability, and public safety. The nature of these CIs is such that failures caused by an extreme weather event or a man-made incident can trigger widespread cascading failures, sending ripple effects at regional or even national scales. To minimize such effects, it is critical for emergency responders to identify existing or potential vulnerabilities within CIs during such stressor events in a systematic and quantifiable manner and take appropriate mitigating actions. We present here a novel critical infrastructure monitoring and analysis system named URBAN-NET. The system includes a software stack and tools for monitoring CIs, pre-processing data, interconnecting multiple CI datasets as a heterogeneous network, identifying vulnerabilities through graph-based topological analysis, and predicting consequences based on what-if simulations along with visualization. As a proof-of-concept, we present several case studies to show the capabilities of our system. We also discuss remaining challenges and future work.

  12. Monitoring of hardening and hygroscopic induced strains in a calcium phosphate bone cement using FBG sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimis, A; Karalekas, D; Bouropoulos, N; Mouzakis, D; Zaoutsos, S

    2016-07-01

    This study initially deals with the investigation of the induced strains during hardening stage of a self-setting calcium phosphate bone cement using fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors. A complementary Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) investigation was also conducted at different time intervals of the hardening period and its findings were related to the FBG recordings. From the obtained results, it is demonstrated that the FBG response is affected by the microstructural changes taking place when the bone cement is immersed into the hardening liquid media. Subsequently, the FBG sensor was used to monitor the absorption process and hygroscopic response of the hardened and dried biocement when exposed to a liquid/humid environment. From the FBG-based calculated hygric strains as a function of moisture concentration, the coefficient of moisture expansion (CME) of the examined bone cement was obtained, exhibiting two distinct linear regions.

  13. Using drift nets to capture early life stages and monitor spawning of the yangtze river chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.W.; Kynard, B.; Yang, D.G.; Chen, X.H.; Du, H.; Shen, L.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    A sampling system for capturing sturgeon eggs using a D-shaped bottom anchored drift net was used to capture early life stages (ELS) of Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and monitor annual spawning success at Yichang on the Yangtze River, 1996-2004, before and just after the Three Gorges Dam began operation. Captured were 96 875 ELS (early life stages: eggs, yolk-sac larvae = eleuthero embryos, and larvae); most were eggs and only 2477 were yolk-sac larvae. Most ELS were captured in the main river channel and inside the bend at the Yichang spawning reach. Yolk-sac larvae were captured for a maximum of 3 days after hatching began, indicating quick dispersal downstream. The back-calculated day of egg fertilization over the eight years indicated a maximum spawning window of 23 days (20 October-10 November). Spawning in all years was restricted temporally, occurred mostly at night and during one or two spawning periods, each lasting several days. The brief temporal spawning window may reduce egg predation by opportunistic predators by flooding the river bottom with millions of eggs. During 1996-2002, the percentage of fertilized eggs in an annual 20-egg sample was between 63.5 to 94.1%; however, in 2003 the percentage fertilized was only 23.8%. This sudden decline may be related to the altered environmental conditions at Yichang caused by operation of the Three Gorges Dam. Further studies are needed to monitor spawning and changes in egg fertilization in this threatened population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Monitoring the mineralisation of bone nodules in vitro by space- and time-resolved Raman micro-spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghita, Adrian; Pascut, Flavius C; Sottile, Virginie; Notingher, Ioan

    2014-01-07

    Raman microscopy was used as a label-free method to study the mineralisation of bone nodules formed by mesenchymal stem cells cultured in osteogenic medium in vitro. Monitoring individual bone nodules over 28 days revealed temporal and spatial changes in the crystalline phase of the hydroxyapatite components of the nodules.

  15. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  16. Net Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊; 吴哲辉

    1992-01-01

    Two kinds of net operations.addition and Cartesian production of P/T nets,are introduced.They are defined on the set of underlying net of P/T systems.The conditions for preserving structural properties of Petri net after these operations are discussed.It is shown that the set of P/T nets forms and Abelian group for net addition operation and the inverse net of a P/T net in usual meaning of net theory is exactly the inverse of this P/T net as an element of the P/T net group;and that the set of P/T nets forms an Abelian ring for net addition and Caresian product operations.

  17. 基于Win CE.net6.0的DCS监控系统设计与实现%Design and Implementation of the Monitoring System of DCS Based on Windows CE.net 6.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨进; 郭宝增; 汪祥春; 姜萍

    2011-01-01

    DCS monitoring system is developed based on Windows CE.net 6.0 embedded real-time operating system. PC is used as the upper monitor machine, double let water tank system is used as the plant, and the system hardware is formed by YANHUA MIC-2000 series industrial PC together with boards. The closed-loop system operation is achieved through the combined use of designing human-machine interface by industrial configuration software "KingView" based on OPC specification, realizing information interaction between PC and the field control station through the Intemet,and PID control algorithm.%以PC机作为上位监控机,双容水箱系统作为被控对象,采用研华MIC-2000系列工控机及其板卡为系统硬件,基于WindowsCE.net 6.0嵌入式实时操作系统开发DCS监控系统.系统在OPC技术规范之上利用工业组态软件"组态王"设计人机界面,通过Internet实现上位机与现场控制站的信息交互,同时加入PID控制算法实现了系统闭环运行.

  18. Monitoring Bone Health after Spaceflight: Data Mining to Support an Epidemiological Analysis of Age-related Bone Loss in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K. S,; Amin, S.; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2009-01-01

    Through the epidemiological analysis of bone data, HRP is seeking evidence as to whether the prolonged exposure to microgravity of low earth orbit predisposes crewmembers to an earlier onset of osteoporosis. While this collaborative Epidemiological Project may be currently limited by the number of ISS persons providing relevant spaceflight medical data, a positive note is that it compares medical data of astronauts to data of an age-matched (not elderly) population that is followed longitudinally with similar technologies. The inclusion of data from non-ISS and non-NASA crewmembers is also being pursued. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide critical information for NASA to understand the impact of low physical or minimal weight-bearing activity on the aging process as well as to direct its development of countermeasures and rehabilitation programs to influence skeletal recovery. However, in order to optimize these results NASA needs to better define the requirements for long term monitoring and encourage both active and retired astronauts to contribute to a legacy of data that will define human health risks in space.

  19. Bone Health Monitoring in Astronauts: Recommended Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography [QCT] for Clinical and Operational Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Truskowski, P.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concerns that astronauts in long duration flights might have a greater risk of bone fracture as they age than the general population. A panel of experts was convened to review the information and recommend mechanisms to monitor the health of bones in astronauts. The use of Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) scans for risk surveillance to detect the clinical trigger and to inform countermeasure evaluation is reviewed. An added benefit of QCT is that it facilitates an individualized estimation of bone strength by Finite Element Modeling (FEM), that can inform approaches for bone rehabilitation. The use of FEM is reviewed as a process that arrives at a composite number to estimate bone strength, because it integrates multiple factors.

  20. Application of new optical coherence elastography to monitor the mineralization processing in bone tissue engineering constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guangying; Song, Shaozhen; Huang, Zhihong; Yang, Ying

    2015-03-01

    Generation of functional tissue in vitro through tissue engineering technique is a promising direction to repair and replace malfunctioned organ and tissue in the modern medicine for various diseases which could not been treated well by conventional therapy. Similar to the embryo development, the generation of tissue in vitro is a highly dynamic processing. Obtaining the feedback of the processing real time is highly demanded. In this study, a new methodology has been explored aiming to monitor the morphological and mechanical property alteration of bone tissue engineering constructs simultaneously. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) equipped with a LDS V201 permanent magnet shaker and a modulated acoustic radiation force (ARF) to provide a vibration signal, has been used for the real time and non-destructive monitoring. A phantom construct system has been used to optimize the measurement conditions in which agar hydrogel with concentration from 0, 0.75 to 2% with/without hydroxyappatite particles have been injected to 3D porous poly (lactic acid) scaffolds to simulate the collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) and mineralized ECM. The structural and elastography images of the constructs have clearly demonstrated the linear relation with the increased mechanical property versus the increase of agar concentration within the pores of the scaffolds. The MG63 bone cells seeded in the scaffolds and cultured for 4 weeks have been monitored by the established protocol exhibiting the increased mechanical strength in the pore wall where the ECM or mineralized ECM was assumed to be formed in comparison to empty pores. This study confirms that OCE-ARF could become a valuable tool in regenerative medicine to assess the biological events during in vitro culture and conditioning.

  1. The application of micro-CT in monitoring bone alterations in tail-suspended rats in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hui-Qin; Sun, Lian-Wen; Huang, Yun-Fei; Wang, Ying; McClean, Colin J.; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2014-06-01

    Osteopenia is a pathological process that affects human skeletal health not only on earth but also in long-time spaceflight. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a nondestructive method for assessing both bone quantity and bone quality. To investigate the characteristics of micro-CT on evaluating the microgravity-induced osteopenia (e.g. early detection time and the sensitive parameters), the bone loss process of tail-suspended rats was monitored by micro-CT in this study. 8-Week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups: tail suspension (TS) and control (CON). Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and microstructure of the femur and tibia were evaluated in vivo by micro-CT at 0, 7, 14, 22 days. Biomechanical properties of the femur and tibia were determined by three-point bending test. The ash weight of bone was also investigated. The results showed that (1) bone loss in the proximal tibia appeared earlier than in the distal femur. (2) On day 7, the percent bone volume (BV/TV) of the tibia 15.44% decreased significantly, and the trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) 30.29% increased significantly in TS group, both of which were detected earlier than other parameters. (3) Biomechanical properties (e.g. femur, -22.4% maximum load and -23.75% Young’s modulus vs. CON) and ash weight of the femur and tibia decreased significantly in the TS group in comparison to CON group. (4) vBMD of the femur and tibia were clearly related to bone ash and dry weight (r = 0.75-0.87, p bone loss induced by tail suspension, moreover, trabecular vBMD and other parameters might be used to evaluate bone strength. Therefore, micro-CT is a reliable and sensitive method for predicting unloading-induced bone loss in small animals.

  2. DNA aptamer beacon assay for C-telopeptide and handheld fluorometer to monitor bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John Gordon; Carrillo, Maria P; Phillips, Taylor; Hanson, Douglas; Bohmann, Jonathan A

    2011-09-01

    A novel DNA aptamer beacon is described for quantification of a 26-amino acid C-telopeptide (CTx) of human type I bone collagen. One aptamer sequence and its reverse complement dominated the aptamer pool (31.6% of sequenced clones). Secondary structures of these aptamers were examined for potential binding pockets. Three-dimensional computer models which analyzed docking topologies and binding energies were in agreement with empirical fluorescence experiments used to select one candidate loop for beacon assay development. All loop structures from the aptamer finalists were end-labeled with TYE 665 and Iowa Black quencher for comparison of beacon fluorescence levels as a function of CTx concentration. The optimal beacon, designated CTx 2R-2h yielded a low ng/ml limit of detection using a commercially available handheld fluorometer. The CTx aptamer beacon bound full-length 26-amino acid CTx peptide, but not a shorter 8-amino acid segment of CTx peptide which is a common target for commercial CTx ELISA kits. The prototype assay was shown to detect CTx peptide from human urine after creatinine and urea were removed by size-exclusion chromatography to prevent nonspecific denaturing of the aptamer beacon. This work demonstrates the potential of aptamer beacons to be utilized for rapid and sensitive bone health monitoring in a handheld or point-of-care format.

  3. The evaluation of Tracp5b as a marker for monitoring treatment results of bone metastasis in breast cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyun Huang; Yan Si; Jia Zhao; Qiang Ding

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the sensitivity of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b(Tracp5b) activity in monitoring bisphosphonate treatment results of bone metastasis in breast cancer(BC) patients. Methods:The serum activities of Tracp5b, CEA, CA153 were measured in 58 BC patients, including 26 without bone metastasis, 32 with bone metastasis. The serum activities of Tracp5b, CEA, CA153 were also measured in 19 patients with bone metastasis after 3 months of bisphosphonate treatment. Eighteen healthy women with age from 34 to 70 served as control. Results:Serum Tracp5b was significantly elevated in patients with bone metastasis compared with that in all any other groups(P< 0.05). The sensitivity of TracpSb was 78.13% and the specificity was 86.36%. The sensitivity of CA153 was 37.50% and the specificity was 77.27%. The sensitivity of CEA was 21.88% and the specificity was 84.09%. The serum activity of Tracp5b decreased significantly(P < 0.05) after 3 months of bisphosphonate treatment, while the levels of CA153 and CEA were unchanged. Conclusion:Serum TracpSb activity is a useful diagnostic marker for bone metastasis in BC patients and can be used to evaluate the treatment results of bisphosphonate.

  4. Bigraphical Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Mackie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation, which has been used to define efficient evaluators for functional calculi, and specifically lambda calculi with patterns. However, the flat structure of interaction nets forces pattern matching and functional behaviour to be encoded at the same level, losing some potential parallelism. In this paper, we introduce bigraphical nets, or binets for short, as a generalisation of interaction nets using ideas from bigraphs and port graphs, and we present a formal notation and operational semantics for binets. We illustrate their expressive power by examples of applications.

  5. Net Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielker, David

    2008-01-01

    The Easter conference 2008 had several activities which for the author raised the same questions on cube nets in some work with eight-year-olds some time ago. In this article, the author muses on some problems from the Easter conference regarding nets of shapes. (Contains 1 note.)

  6. Monitoring the Changes of Material Properties at Bone-Implant Interface during the Healing Process In Vivo: A Viscoelastic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Ho; Lai, Wei-Yi; Chee, Tze-Jian

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the changes of viscoelastic properties at bone-implant interface via resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and the Periotest device during the healing process in an experimental rabbit model. Twenty-four dental implants were inserted into the femoral condyles of rabbits. The animals were sacrificed immediately after implant installation or on day 14, 28, or 56 after surgery. Viscoelastic properties at bone-implant interface were evaluated by measuring the implant stability quotient (ISQ) using RFA and by measuring the Periotest values (PTVs) using the Periotest device. The bone/implant specimens were evaluated histopathologically and histomorphometrically to determine the degree of osseointegration (BIC%). The BIC% values at different time points were then compared with the corresponding ISQ values and PTVs. The mean ISQ value increased gradually and reached 81 ± 1.7 on day 56, whereas the mean PTV decreased over time, finally reaching −0.7 ± 0.5 on day 56. Significant correlations were found between ISQ and BIC% (r = 0.701, p < 0.001), PTV and BIC% (r = −0.637, p < 0.05), and ISQ and PTV (r = −0.68, p < 0.05). These results show that there is a positive correlation between implant stability parameters and peri-implant-bone healing, indicating that the RFA and Periotest are useful for measuring changes of viscoelastic properties at bone-implant interface and are reliable for indirectly predicting the degree of osseointegration. PMID:28373978

  7. Design of a multi-axis implantable MEMS sensor for intraosseous bone stress monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Fernando; Weiss, Lee; Campbell, Phil; Miller, Mark; Fedder, Gary K.

    2009-08-01

    The capability to assess the biomechanical properties of living bone is important for basic research as well as the clinical management of skeletal trauma and disease. Even though radiodensitometric imaging is commonly used to infer bone quality, bone strength does not necessarily correlate well with these non-invasive measurements. This paper reports on the design, fabrication and initial testing of an implantable ultra-miniature multi-axis sensor for directly measuring bone stresses at a micro-scale. The device, which is fabricated with CMOS-MEMS processes, is intended to be permanently implanted within open fractures, or embedded in bone grafts, or placed on implants at the interfaces between bone and prosthetics. The stress sensor comprises an array of piezoresistive pixels to detect a stress tensor at the interfacial area between the MEMS chip and bone, with a resolution to 100 Pa, in 1 s averaging. The sensor system design and manufacture is also compatible with the integration of wireless RF telemetry, for power and data retrieval, all within a 3 mm × 3 mm × 0.3 mm footprint. The piezoresistive elements are integrated within a textured surface to enhance sensor integration with bone. Finite element analysis led to a sensor design for normal and shear stress detection. A wired sensor was fabricated in the Jazz 0.35 µm BiCMOS process and then embedded in mock bone material to characterize its response to tensile and bending loads up to 250 kPa.

  8. First testing of an AUV mission planning and guidance system for water quality monitoring and fish behavior observation in net cage fish farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Karimanzira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, underwater vehicles have become low cost, reliable and affordable platforms for performing various underwater tasks. While many aquaculture systems are closed with no harmful output, open net cage fish farms and land-based fish farms can discharge significant amounts of wastewater containing nutrients, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals that impact on the surrounding environment. Although aquaculture development has often occurred outside a regulatory framework, government oversight is increasingly common at both the seafood quality control level, and at baseline initiatives addressing the basic problem of pollution generated by culture operations, e.g. the European marine and maritime directives. This requires regular, sustainable and cost-effective monitoring of the water quality. Such monitoring needs devices to detect the water quality in a large sea area at different depths in real time. This paper presents a concept for a guidance system for a carrier (an autonomous underwater vehicle of such devices for the automated detection and analysis of water quality parameters.

  9. In vivo monitoring of bone-implant bond strength by microCT and finite element modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Vincent A; Conway, Carl M; Boyd, Steven K

    2013-01-01

    Immediately after implantation, a dynamic process of bone formation and resorption takes place around an orthopaedic implant, influencing its mechanical fixation. The delay until complete fixation depends on local bone architecture and metabolism. Despite its importance, the temporal pattern of implant fixation is still unknown. The optimal duration of post-operative care is therefore difficult to establish for an individual situation, and a method to evaluate non-invasively the evolution of the mechanical stability would be a significant asset in a clinical environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of micro-finite element modelling based on in vivo micro-computed tomography to monitor longitudinally the contact between bone and implant and the implant strength in vivo. The model was first validated for screw pull-out in synthetic bone surrogate. Correlation coefficients of R(2) = 0.94 and 0.85 (p < 0.01) were measured between experimental and numerical results for stiffness and failure loads, respectively. Then, the mechanical integration of screws in the proximal tibia of 12 rats was monitored at seven time points over a period of 1 month. We observed significant increases (p < 0.05) of bone-screw contact (+28%), stiffness (+93%) and failure load (+71%) over the course of the experiment, and more than 75% of these changes occurred during the first 2 weeks. Limitations, such as image artefacts and radiation, still compromise the immediate clinical application of this method, but it has a promising potential in preclinical animal studies, as it provides very valuable data about the dynamic aspect of implant integration with considerably reduced animal resources.

  10. Review of techniques for monitoring the healing fracture of bones for implementation in an internally fixated pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lydia Chwang Yuh; Chiu, Wing Kong; Russ, Matthias; Liew, Susan

    2012-03-01

    Sacral fractures from high-impact trauma often cause instability in the pelvic ring structure. Treatment is by internal fixation which clamps the fractured edges together to promote healing. Healing could take up to 12 weeks whereby patients are bedridden to avoid hindrances to the fracture from movement or weight bearing activities. Immobility can lead to muscle degradation and longer periods of rehabilitation. The ability to determine the time at which the fracture is stable enough to allow partial weight-bearing is important to reduce hospitalisation time. This review looks into different techniques used for monitoring the fracture healing of bones which could lead to possible methods for in situ and non-invasive assessment of healing fracture in a fixated pelvis. Traditional techniques being used include radiology and CT scans but were found to be unreliable at times and very subjective in addition to being non in situ. Strain gauges have proven to be very effective for accurate assessment of fracture healing as well as stability for long bones with external fixators but may not be suitable for an internally fixated pelvis. Ultrasound provides in situ monitoring of stiffness recovery but only assesses local fracture sites close to the skin surface and has only been tested on long bones. Vibration analysis can detect non-uniform healing due to its assessment of the overall structure but may suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio due to damping. Impedance techniques have been used to assess properties of non-long bones but recent studies have only been conducted on non-biological materials and more research needs to be done before it can be applicable for monitoring healing in the fixated pelvis.

  11. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps, to...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  12. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps, to...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  13. RadNet Databases and Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet data are available for viewing in a searchable database or as PDF reports. Historical and current RadNet monitoring data are used to estimate long-term trends in environmental radiation levels.

  14. Using natural, stable calcium isotopes of human blood to detect and monitor changes in bone mineral balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, Melanie B; Gordon, Gwyneth W; Morgan, Jennifer L L; Skulan, Joseph L; Smith, Scott M; Anbar, Ariel D

    2015-08-01

    We are exploring variations in the Ca isotope composition of blood and urine as a new tool for early diagnosis and monitoring of changes in bone mineral balance for patients suffering from metabolic bone disease, cancers that originate in or metastasize to bone, and for astronauts who spend time in low gravity environments. Blood samples are often collected instead of, or in addition to, urine in clinical settings, so it is useful to know if variations in the Ca isotope composition of blood carry the same information as variations in urine. We found that the Ca isotope composition of blood shifts in the same direction and to the same magnitude (~2 parts per ten thousand--pptt) as that of urine in response to skeletal unloading during bed rest. However, the Ca isotope composition of blood is lighter than that of urine by 12 ± 2 pptt. This offset between blood and urine may result from Ca isotope fractionation occurring in the kidneys. This is the first study to confirm the suspected offset between the Ca isotope composition of blood and urine in humans, to directly quantify its magnitude, and to establish that either blood or urine can be used to detect and quantify bone loss.

  15. Predictive value of [{sup 18}F]-fluoride PET for monitoring bone remodeling in patients with orthopedic conditions treated with a Taylor spatial frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Crespo, Alejandro [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Hospital Physics, Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Christiansson, Frederik [Nykoepings Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nykoeping (Sweden); Karlsson Thur, Charlotte; Lundblad, Henrik [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm (Sweden); Sundin, Anders [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Molecular Imaging, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    The Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) is used to correct orthopedic conditions such as correction osteotomies in delayed fracture healing and pseudarthrosis. Long-term TSF-treatments are common and may lead to complications. Current conventional radiological methods are often unsatisfactory for therapy monitoring. Hence, an imaging technique capable of quantifying bone healing progression would be advantageous. A cohort of 24 patients with different orthopedic conditions, pseudarthrosis (n = 10), deformities subjected to correction osteotomy (n = 9), and fracture (n = 5) underwent dynamic [{sup 18}F]-fluoride (Na{sup 18}F) PET/CT at 8 weeks and 4 months, respectively, after application of a TSF. Parametric images, corresponding to the net transport rate of [{sup 18}F]-fluoride from plasma to bone, K{sub i} were calculated. The ratio of the maximum K{sub i} at PET scan 2 and 1 (anti K{sub i,max}) as well as the ratio of the maximum Standard Uptake Value at PET scan 2 and 1 (SUV {sub max}) were calculated for each individual. Different treatment end-points were scored, and the overall treatment outcome score was compared with the osteoblastic activity progression as scored with anti K{sub i,max} or SUV {sub max}. anti K{sub i,max} and SUV {sub max} were not correlated within each orthopedic group (p > 0.1 for all groups), nor for the pooled population (p = 0.12). The distribution of anti K{sub i,max} was found significantly different among the different orthopedic groups (p = 0.0046) - also for SUV {sub max} (p = 0.022). The positive and negative treatment predictive values for anti K{sub i,max} were 66.7 % and 77.8 %, respectively. Corresponding values for SUV {sub max} were 25 % and 33.3 % The anti K{sub i,max} obtained from dynamic [{sup 18}F]-fluoride-PET imaging is a promising predictive factor to evaluate changes in bone healing in response to TSF treatment. (orig.)

  16. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  17. Ultrasonic tissue characterization for monitoring nanostructured TiO{sub 2}-induced bone growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rus, G [Department of Structural Mechanics, University of Granada, Politecnico de Fuentenueva, 18071 Granada (Spain); Garcia-MartInez, J [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Alicante, E-03690 Alicante (Spain)

    2007-07-21

    The use of bioactive nanostructured TiO{sub 2} has recently been proposed for improving orthopaedic implant adhesion due to its improved biocompatibility with bone, since it induces: (i) osteoblast function, (ii) apatite nucleation and (iii) protein adsorption. The present work focuses on a non-ionizing radiation emitting technique for quantifying in real time the improvement in terms of mechanical properties of the surrounding bone due to the presence of the nanostructured TiO{sub 2} prepared by controlled precipitation and acid ageing. The mechanical strength is the ultimate goal of a bone implant and is directly related to the elastic moduli. Ultrasonics are high frequency mechanical waves and are therefore suited for characterizing elastic moduli. As opposed to echographic techniques, which are not correlated to elastic properties and are not able to penetrate bone, a low frequency ultrasonic transmission test is proposed, in which a P-wave is transmitted through the specimen and recorded. The problem is posed as an inverse problem, in which the unknown is a set of parameters that describe the mechanical constants of the sequence of layers. A finite element numerical model that depends on these parameters is used to predict the transformation of the waveform and compare to the measurement. The parameters that best describe the real tissue are obtained by minimizing the discrepancy between the real and numerically predicted waveforms. A sensitivity study to the uncertainties of the model is performed for establishing the feasibility of using this technique to investigate the macroscopic effect on bone growth of nanostructured TiO{sub 2} and its beneficial effect on implant adhesion.

  18. RadNet Air Data From Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Chicago, IL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  19. RadNet Air Data From Aurora, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Aurora, IL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  20. RadNet Air Data From Champaign, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Champaign, ILfrom EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  1. RadNet Air Data From Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Little Rock, AR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  2. RadNet Air Data From Fort Worth, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Fort Worth, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  3. RadNet Air Data From Navajo Lake, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Navajo Lake, NM from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  4. RadNet Air Data From San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for San Diego, CA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  5. RadNet Air Data From Idaho Falls, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Idaho Falls, ID from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  6. Management of sporadic desmoid-type fibromatosis: a European consensus approach based on patients' and professionals' expertise - a sarcoma patients EuroNet and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, B; Baumgarten, C; Bonvalot, S; Haas, R; Haller, F; Hohenberger, P; Moreau, G; van der Graaf, W T A; Gronchi, A

    2015-01-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) is a rare monoclonal, fibroblastic proliferation characterised by a variable and often unpredictable clinical course. It may affect nearly all parts of the body including extremities, trunk and abdomen. Considering the variable clinical presentations, anatomic locations and biological behaviours, an individualised treatment approach is required. No established or evidence-based approach for the treatment of this neoplasm is available as of today. Therefore, we propose a consensus treatment algorithm based on a round table meeting bringing together sarcoma experts from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (STBSG) with patient advocates from Sarcoma Patients EuroNet (SPAEN). The aim of the meeting was to develop - for the first time ever - a consensus approach based on professionals' AND patients' expertise. As a fundamental prerequisite, all patients should be discussed in a multidisciplinary setting in centres or professional networks with a specific expertise in the disease.

  7. MonitorNet: the Italian multi-centre observational study aimed at estimating the risk/benefit profile of biologic agents in real-world rheumatology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfriso, P; Salaffi, F; Montecucco, C M; Bombardieri, S; Todesco, S

    2009-01-01

    MonitorNet is a database established by the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR) in January 2007 and funded by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA), for the active long-term follow-up of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis treated with biologic agents. All hospital Rheumatology Units in Italy were invited to participate in a non-interventional, observational, epidemiological study. The study is conducted in a routine clinical setting (real-world practice) where biologics are prescribed on the basis of current recommendations. In this report we describe the design, methodology, and present preliminary data of the study. At the time of the analysis (April 2009) the database included 3510 patients: 2469 (70.3%) with established RA, 675 (19.2%) with PsA and 366 (10.4%) with AS. The cumulative follow up period was 8,787 patient-years (RA: 8,388, PsA: 157; AS: 242). There were 1,538 adverse events in 938 (26.7%) patients. Infections were recorded in 630 patients, skin-related adverse events in 142 and post-infusion reactions in 90. A total of 30 malignancies were reported. An interim analysis of efficacy was conducted on 2,148 RA patients. Seven hundred and thirty-one patients (35.8%) achieved EULAR remission (defined as DAS28<2.4). When assessed with the more restrictive CDAI and SDAI criteria, the frequency of remission was lower (17.9% and 14.7% respectively). Availability of funding for this study provided an opportunity to organize a collaborative national network of rheumatology clinics to develop a large multicentre observational study.

  8. Vouchers for scaling up insecticide-treated nets in Tanzania: Methods for monitoring and evaluation of a national health system intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Jane

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS uses the public health system and the commercial sector to deliver subsidised insecticide-treated nets (ITNs to pregnant women. The system began operation in October 2004 and by May 2006 was operating in all districts in the country. Evaluating complex public health interventions which operate at national level requires a multidisciplinary approach, novel methods, and collaboration with implementers to support the timely translation of findings into programme changes. This paper describes this novel approach to delivering ITNs and the design of the monitoring and evaluation (M&E. Methods A comprehensive and multidisciplinary M&E design was developed collaboratively between researchers and the National Malaria Control Programme. Five main domains of investigation were identified: (1 ITN coverage among target groups, (2 provision and use of reproductive and child health services, (3 "leakage" of vouchers, (4 the commercial ITN market, and (5 cost and cost-effectiveness of the scheme. Results The evaluation plan combined quantitative (household and facility surveys, voucher tracking, retail census and cost analysis and qualitative (focus groups and in-depth interviews methods. This plan was defined in collaboration with implementing partners but undertaken independently. Findings were reported regularly to the national malaria control programme and partners, and used to modify the implementation strategy over time. Conclusion The M&E of the TNVS is a potential model for generating information to guide national and international programmers about options for delivering priority interventions. It is independent, comprehensive, provides timely results, includes information on intermediate processes to allow implementation to be modified, measures leakage as well as coverage, and measures progress over time.

  9. Monitoring of alendronate treatment and prediction of effect on bone mass by biochemical markers in the early postmenopausal intervention cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Hosking, D; Thompson, D;

    1999-01-01

    To establish whether biochemical markers could be used to monitor alendronate (ALN) treatment and predict long-term response in bone mass, we used results from an ongoing, randomized trial of ALN treatment for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis (n = 1202). In women treated with ALN (5 mg......-point, validly identified women who responded, on ALN treatment, with a stabilization or an increase in bone mass. However, lack of decrease below the cut-point in NTX or OC could not be used to identify women with a bone loss during ALN treatment....

  10. Photothermal tomography for the functional and structural evaluation, and early mineral loss monitoring in bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Mandelis, Andreas; Wang, Xueding; Feng, Ting

    2014-08-01

    Salient features of a new non-ionizing bone diagnostics technique, truncated-correlation photothermal coherence tomography (TC-PCT), exhibiting optical-grade contrast and capable of resolving the trabecular network in three dimensions through the cortical region with and without a soft-tissue overlayer are presented. The absolute nature and early demineralization-detection capability of a marker called thermal wave occupation index, estimated using the proposed modality, have been established. Selective imaging of regions of a specific mineral density range has been demonstrated in a mouse femur. The method is maximum-permissible-exposure compatible. In a matrix of bone and soft-tissue a depth range of ~3.8 mm has been achieved, which can be increased through instrumental and modulation waveform optimization. Furthermore, photoacoustic microscopy, a comparable modality with TC-PCT, has been used to resolve the trabecular structure and for comparison with the photothermal tomography.

  11. Monitoring of Postoperative Bone Healing Using Smart Trauma-Fixation Device With Integrated Self-Powered Piezo-Floating-Gate Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchani, Wassim; Aono, Kenji; Lajnef, Nizar; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2016-07-01

    Achieving better surgical outcomes in cases of traumatic bone fractures requires postoperative monitoring of changes in the growth and mechanical properties of the tissue and bones during the healing process. While current in-vivo imaging techniques can provide a snapshot of the extent of bone growth, it is unable to provide a history of the healing process, which is important if any corrective surgery is required. Monitoring the time evolution of in-vivo mechanical loads using existing technology is a challenge due to the need for continuous power while maintaining patient mobility and comfort. This paper investigates the feasibility of self-powered monitoring of the bone-healing process using our previously reported piezo-floating-gate (PFG) sensors. The sensors are directly integrated with a fixation device and operate by harvesting energy from microscale strain variations in the fixation structure. We show that the sensors can record and store the statistics of the strain evolution during the healing process for offline retrieval and analysis. Additionally, we present measurement results using a biomechanical phantom comprising of a femur fracture fixation plate; bone healing is emulated by inserting different materials, with gradually increasing elastic moduli, inside a fracture gap. The PFG sensor can effectively sense, compute, and record continuously evolving statistics of mechanical loading over a typical healing period of a bone, and the statistics could be used to differentiate between different bone-healing conditions. The proposed sensor presents a reliable objective technique to assess bone-healing progress and help decide on the removal time of the fixation device.

  12. Monitoring, field experiments, and geochemical modeling of Fe(II) oxidation kinetics in a stream dominated by net-alkaline coal-mine drainage, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Watershed-scale monitoring, field aeration experiments, and geochemical equilibrium and kinetic modeling were conducted to evaluate interdependent changes in pH, dissolved CO2, O2, and Fe(II) concentrations that typically take place downstream of net-alkaline, circumneutral coal-mine drainage (CMD) outfalls and during aerobic treatment of such CMD. The kinetic modeling approach, using PHREEQC, accurately simulates observed variations in pH, Fe(II) oxidation, alkalinity consumption, and associated dissolved gas concentrations during transport downstream of the CMD outfalls (natural attenuation) and during 6-h batch aeration tests on the CMD using bubble diffusers (enhanced attenuation). The batch aeration experiments demonstrated that aeration promoted CO2 outgassing, thereby increasing pH and the rate of Fe(II) oxidation. The rate of Fe(II) oxidation was accurately estimated by the abiotic homogeneous oxidation rate law −d[Fe(II)]/dt = k1·[O2]·[H+]−2·[Fe(II)] that indicates an increase in pH by 1 unit at pH 5–8 and at constant dissolved O2 (DO) concentration results in a 100-fold increase in the rate of Fe(II) oxidation. Adjusting for sample temperature, a narrow range of values for the apparent homogeneous Fe(II) oxidation rate constant (k1′) of 0.5–1.7 times the reference value of k1 = 3 × 10−12 mol/L/min (for pH 5–8 and 20 °C), reported by Stumm and Morgan (1996), was indicated by the calibrated models for the 5-km stream reach below the CMD outfalls and the aerated CMD. The rates of CO2 outgassing and O2ingassing in the model were estimated with first-order asymptotic functions, whereby the driving force is the gradient of the dissolved gas concentration relative to equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere. Although the progressive increase in DO concentration to saturation could be accurately modeled as a kinetic function for the conditions evaluated, the simulation of DO as an instantaneous equilibrium process did not affect the

  13. Mass spectrometric monitoring of Sr-enriched bone cements--from in vitro to in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohnke, Marcus; Henss, Anja; Kokesch-Himmelreich, Julia; Schumacher, Matthias; Ray, Seemun; Alt, Volker; Gelinsky, Michael; Janek, Juergen

    2013-11-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a well-established technique in materials science, but is now increasingly applied also in the life sciences. Here, we demonstrate the potential of this analytical technique for use in the development of new bone implant materials. We tracked strontium-enriched calcium phosphate cements, which were developed for the treatment of osteoporotic bone, from in vitro to in vivo. Essentially, the spatial distribution of strontium in two different types of strontium-modified calcium phosphate cements is analysed by SIMS depth profiling. To gain information about the strontium release kinetics, the cements were immersed for 3, 7, 14 and 21 days in α-MEM and tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane solution and analysed afterwards by ToF-SIMS depth profiling. For cements stored in α-MEM solution an inhibited strontium release was observed. By using principal component analysis to evaluate TOF-SIMS surface spectra, we are able to prove the adsorption of proteins on the cement surface, which inhibit the release kinetics. Cell experiments with human osteoblast-like cells cultured on the strontium-modified cements and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of the mineralised extracellular matrix (mECM) prove clearly that strontium is incorporated into the mECM of the osteoblast-like cells. Finally, in an animal experiment, the strontium-doped cements are implanted into the femur of osteoporotic rats. After 6 weeks, only a slight release of strontium was found in the vicinity of the implant material. By using ToF-SIMS, it is proven that strontium is localised in regions of newly formed bone but also within the pre-existing tissue.

  14. Influence of different DXA acquisition modes on monitoring the changes in bone mineral density after hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, Mikko A; Borg, Håkan; Häkkinen, Arja; Parviainen, Tapani; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2012-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a technique enabling the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) around prostheses after hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA). In this study, we evaluated the consistency of different DXA acquisition modes with 33 patients who had undergone HRA. Patients were scanned with DXA immediately after surgery and at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo time points. All the patients were scanned with dual femur and orthopedic hip acquisition modes and analyzed using 10-region ROI model. With both acquisition modes, a statistically significant decrease (p<0.05, Wilcoxon's test) in BMD at 3mo was revealed in 3 ROIs, located to upper and lateral upper femur. Both acquisition modes detected similarly (p<0.01) preservation of the femoral bone stock within 12mo in all but 1 ROI. The applied acquisition protocols involved the use of different footplates for hip fixation. Because the differences between acquisition modes ranged between +1.6% and -7.1% and the reproducibility of BMD values can vary by as much as 28% due to hip rotation, it is proposed that both dual femur and orthopedic hip acquisition modes can be used to monitor the changes in BMD after HRA. However, the same hip rotation is recommended for all DXA measurements.

  15. 3D Modelling and monitoring of denervated muscle under Functional Electrical Stimulation treatment and associated bone structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gargiulo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel clinical rehabilitation method for patients who have permanent and non recoverable muscle denervation in the legs was developed in the frame of the European Project RISE. The technique is based on FES and the project results shows, in these severely disabled patients, restoration of muscle tissue and function. This study propose novel methods based on image processing technique and medical modelling to monitor growth in denervated muscle treated with FES. Geometrical and structural changes in muscle and bone are studied and modelled. Secondary effects on the bone mineral density produced by the stimulation treatment and due the elicited muscle contraction are also investigated. The restoration process in DDM is an important object of discussion since there isn’t yet a complete understanding of the mechanisms regulating growth in denervated muscle. This study approaches the problem from a macroscopic point of view, developing 3-dimensional models of the whole stimulated muscles and following changes in volume, geometry and density very accurately. The method is based on the acquisition of high resolution Spiral CT scans from patients who have long-term flaccid paraplegia and the use of special image processing tools allowing tissue discriminations and muscle segmentation. Three patients were measured at different points of time during 4 years of electrical stimulation treatment. In this study is quantitatively demonstrated the influences of FES treatment on the different quadriceps bellies. The rectus femoris muscle is positioned in the middle of the quadriceps and responds (in general better to stimulation. In a patient with abundant adipose tissue surrounding the quadriceps, rectus femoris almost doubled the volume during the FES treatment while in the other bellies the changes measured were minimal. The analysis of the density shows clearly a restoration of the muscular structure in the growing muscle. The remarkable increase of

  16. Monitoring of residual disease and guided donor leucocyte infusion after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by chimaerism analysis with short tandem repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weger, RA; Tilanus, MGJ; Scheidel, KC; van den Tweel, JG; Verdonck, LF

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we analysed the chimaeric status of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) in recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with the use of short tandem repeat (STR) microsatellite markers for monitoring the efficacy of BMT and donor leucocyte infusions (DLIs). A set of four

  17. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  18. Astronaut Bones: Stable Calcium Isotopes in Urine as a Biomarker of Bone Mineral Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.; Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S.

    2016-12-01

    Bone loss is a common health concern, in conditions ranging from osteoporosis to cancer. Bone loss due to unloading is also an important health issue for astronauts. We demonstrate stable calcium isotopes, a tool developed in geochemistry, are capable of detecting real-time quantitative changes in net bone mineral balance (BMB) using serum and urine [1]. We validated this technique by comparing with DEXA and biomarker data in subjects during bed rest, a ground-based analog of space flight effects [2-4]. We now apply this tool to assess changes in astronauts' BMB before, during and after 4-6 month space missions. There is stable isotope fractionation asymmetry between bone formation and resorption. During bone formation there is a mass-dependent preference for "lighter" calcium isotopes to be removed from serum and incorporated into bone mineral. During bone resorption, there is no measurable isotopic discrimination between serum and bone. Hence, when bone formation rates exceed that of resorption, serum and urine become isotopically "heavy" due to the sequestration of "light" calcium in bone. Conversely, when bone resorption exceeds bone formation, serum and urine become isotopically "light" due to the release of the sequestered light calcium from bone. We measured Ca isotopes in urine of thirty International Space Station astronauts. Average Ca isotope values in astronauts' urine shift isotopically lighter during microgravity, consistent with negative net BMB. Within a month of return to Earth, astronauts returned to within error of their δ44Ca value prior to departure. Urine samples from astronauts testing bone loss countermeasures showed bisphosphonates provide a viable pharmacological countermeasure. Some, but not all, individuals appear able to resist bone loss through diet and intensive resistive exercise alone. This is a promising new technique for monitoring BMB in astronauts, and hopefully someday on the way to/from Mars, this also has important clinical

  19. The Value of SPECT/CT in Monitoring Prefabricated Tissue-Engineered Bone and Orthotopic rhBMP-2 Implants for Mandibular Reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Zhou

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering shows good prospects for mandibular reconstruction. In recent studies, prefabricated tissue-engineered bone (PTEB by recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs applied in vivo has found to be an effective alternative for autologous bone grafts. However, the optimal time to transfer PTEB for mandibular reconstruction is still not elucidated. Thus, here in an animal experiment of rhesus monkey, the suitable transferring time for PTEB to reconstruct mandibular defects was evaluated by 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT, and its value in monitoring orthotopic rhBMP-2 implants for mandibular reconstruction was also evaluated. The result of SPECT/CT showed higher 99mTc-MDP uptake, indicating osteoinductivity, in rhBMP-2 incorporated demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA and coralline hydroxyapatite (CHA implants than those without BMP stimulation. 99mTc-MDP uptake of rhBMP-2 implant peaked at 8 weeks following implantation while CT showed the density of these implants increased after 13 weeks' prefabrication. Histology confirmed that mandibular defects were repaired successfully with PTEB or orthotopically rhBMP-2 incorporated CHA implants, in accordance with SPECT/CT findings. Collectively, data shows 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT is a sensitive and noninvasive tool to monitor osteoinductivity and bone regeneration of PTEB and orthotopic implants. The PTEB achieved peak osteoinductivity and bone density at 8 to 13 weeks following ectopic implantation, which would serve as a recommendable time frame for its transfer to mandibular reconstruction.

  20. RadNet Air Quality (Fixed Station) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air for analysis of radioactivity. The RadNet network, which has stations in each State,...

  1. Net analyte signal based statistical quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.T.S.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.; Broad, N.W.; Rees, D.R.; Witte, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Net analyte signal statistical quality control (NAS-SQC) is a new methodology to perform multivariate product quality monitoring based on the net analyte signal approach. The main advantage of NAS-SQC is that the systematic variation in the product due to the analyte (or property) of interest is sep

  2. RadNet Air Quality (Deployable) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet Deployable Monitoring is designed to collect radiological and meteorological information and data asset needed to establish the impact of radiation levels on...

  3. Flat-Panel Detector—Based Volume Computed Tomography: A Novel 3D Imaging Technique to Monitor Osteolytic Bone Lesions in a Mouse Tumor Metastasis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Missbach-Guentner

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal metastasis is an important cause of mortality in patients with breast cancer. Hence, animal models, in combination with various imaging techniques, are in high demand for preclinical assessment of novel therapies. We evaluated the applicability of flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT to noninvasive detection of osteolytic bone metastases that develop in severe immunodeficient mice after intracardial injection of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. A single fpVCT scan at 200-wm isotropic resolution was employed to detect osteolysis within the entire skeleton. Osteolytic lesions identified by fpVCT correlated with Faxitron X-ray analysis and were subsequently confirmed by histopathological examination. Isotropic three-dimensional image data sets obtained by fpVCT were the basis for the precise visualization of the extent of the lesion within the cortical bone and for the measurement of bone loss. Furthermore, fpVCT imaging allows continuous monitoring of growth kinetics for each metastatic site and visualization of lesions in more complex regions of the skeleton, such as the skull. Our findings suggest that fpVCT is a powerful tool that can be used to monitor the occurrence and progression of osteolytic lesions in vivo and can be further developed to monitor responses to antimetastatic therapies over the course of the disease.

  4. Design of Torque Monitoring System Based on ZigBee Wireless Sensor Net%基于ZigBee无线传感网络的扭矩监测系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥涛; 林明星; 周生良; 杨文豪

    2014-01-01

    The wireless sensor net based on ZigBee was introduced.The ZigBee technology was used in detection of the trans-mitting shaft torque.A kind of design scheme of monitoring torque system based on ZigBee technology was presented.The hardware circuit was designed with CC2430 wireless frequency chip as the main chip,including date collection module,receiving and processing module.Sensor program and serial port communication program between upper machine and lower machine were designed.Tree net-work with nodes was made according to ZigBee protocol,to implement monitoring and controlling for the transmitting shaft torque.Test indicates the feasibility of the monitoring system,the design purpose is reached and the system has a broad application prospect.%介绍了基于ZigBee技术的无线传感网络,将ZigBee技术应用到传动轴扭矩检测中,提出一种以ZigBee技术为基础的扭矩监测系统设计方案;设计了以CC2430无线射频芯片为核心的硬件电路,包括采集数据节点模块、接收处理模块;设计了传感器节点程序、上下位机串口通信程序。根据ZigBee协议,各节点间组成树状网络,实现对传动轴扭矩的监测与控制。试验表明了该监测系统的可行性,达到了设计目的,有着广泛的应用前景。

  5. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate. Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D. [BA-PIRC/ Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sherwin, J. [BA-PIRC/ Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  6. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate: Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.; Sherwin, J.

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  7. Remote power quality monitoring system based on EtherNet%基于ARM的远程电能质量监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵燕君; 任卫东

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of society and economy, the power quality problems are getting worse, so making efficient power quality monitoring is becoming increasingly important. A power quality monitoring system based on ARM through the request of power monitoring was designed in this paper. By this system, the acquisition of real-time signal was completed, and a WEB server using embedded Linux with the TCP/IP protocol stack was built. In this way, the personnel could visit the system from any WEB browser. It is a new method for the long-distance power quality monitoring.%随着社会的进步和经济的快速发展,电能质量问题不断恶化,高效的电能质量监测变得越来越重要.从电力监测的实际要求出发,设计了基于ARM的电能质量综合监测系统,系统完成实时信号的采集,并利用嵌入式Linux自带的TCP/IP协议栈内建一个WEB服务器,工作人员可以在任何一个WEB浏览器访问这个系统.这对于地域跨越大的电网的远程监测提供了一种新思路.

  8. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  9. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  10. Design and validation of a novel bioreactor principle to combine online micro-computed tomography monitoring and mechanical loading in bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenmüller, Henri; Hitz, Marco; Merkle, Hans P.; Meinel, Lorenz; Müller, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical loading plays an important role in bone remodeling in vivo and, therefore, has been suggested as a key parameter in stem cell-based engineering of bone-like tissue in vitro. However, the optimization of loading protocols during stem cell differentiation and subsequent bone-like tissue formation is challenged by multiple input factors, which are difficult to control and validate. These include the variable cellular performance of cells harvested from different patients, nonstandardized culture media components, the choice of the biomaterial forming the scaffold, and its morphology, impacting a broader validity of mechanical stimulation regimens. To standardize the cell culture of bone-like tissue constructs, we suggest the involvement of time-lapsed feedback loops. For this purpose we present a prototype bioreactor that combines online, nondestructive monitoring using micro-computed tomography and direct mechanical loading of three-dimensional tissue engineering constructs. Validation of this system showed displacement steps down to 1 μm and cyclic sinusoidal loadings of up to 10 Hz. Load detection resolution was 0.01 N, and micro-computed tomography data were of high quality. For the first time, the developed bioreactor links time-lapsed, nondestructive, and dynamic imaging with mechanical stimulation, designed for cell culture under sterile conditions. This system is believed to substantially improve today's experimental options to study and optimize osteogenic stem cell culture and differentiation at the interface with mechanical stimulation.

  11. Design and validation of a novel bioreactor principle to combine online micro-computed tomography monitoring and mechanical loading in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenmüller, Henri; Hitz, Marco; Merkle, Hans P; Meinel, Lorenz; Müller, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical loading plays an important role in bone remodeling in vivo and, therefore, has been suggested as a key parameter in stem cell-based engineering of bone-like tissue in vitro. However, the optimization of loading protocols during stem cell differentiation and subsequent bone-like tissue formation is challenged by multiple input factors, which are difficult to control and validate. These include the variable cellular performance of cells harvested from different patients, nonstandardized culture media components, the choice of the biomaterial forming the scaffold, and its morphology, impacting a broader validity of mechanical stimulation regimens. To standardize the cell culture of bone-like tissue constructs, we suggest the involvement of time-lapsed feedback loops. For this purpose we present a prototype bioreactor that combines online, nondestructive monitoring using micro-computed tomography and direct mechanical loading of three-dimensional tissue engineering constructs. Validation of this system showed displacement steps down to 1 microm and cyclic sinusoidal loadings of up to 10 Hz. Load detection resolution was 0.01 N, and micro-computed tomography data were of high quality. For the first time, the developed bioreactor links time-lapsed, nondestructive, and dynamic imaging with mechanical stimulation, designed for cell culture under sterile conditions. This system is believed to substantially improve today's experimental options to study and optimize osteogenic stem cell culture and differentiation at the interface with mechanical stimulation.

  12. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  13. Bone densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Alexandersen, P; Møllgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    The bisphosphonates have been introduced as alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The expected increasing application in at clinical practice demands cost-effective and easily handled methods to monitor the effect on bone...

  14. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  15. Monitoring of muscle and bone recovery in spinal cord injury patients treated with electrical stimulation using three-dimensional imaging and segmentation techniques: methodological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Paolo; Helgason, Thordur; Reynisson, Páll Jens; Helgason, Benedikt; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Ingvarsson, Páll; Carraro, Ugo

    2011-03-01

    Muscle tissue composition accounting for the relative content of muscle fibers and intramuscular adipose and loose fibrous tissues can be efficiently analyzed and quantified using images from spiral computed tomography (S-CT) technology and the associated distribution of Hounsfield unit (HU) values. Muscle density distribution, especially when including the whole muscle volume, provides remarkable information on the muscle condition. Different physiological and pathological scenarios can be depicted using the muscle characterization technique based on the HU values and the definition of appropriate intervals and the association of such intervals to different colors. Using this method atrophy, degeneration, and restoration in denervated muscle undergoing electrical stimulation treatments can be clearly displayed and monitored. Moreover, finite element methods are employed to calculate Young's modulus on the patella bone and to analyze correlation between muscle contraction and bone strength changes. The reliability of this tool though depends on S-CT assessment and calibration. To assess imaging quality and the use of HU values to display muscle composition, different S-CT devices are compared using a Quasar body scanner. Density distributions and volumes of various calibration elements such as lung, polyethylene, water equivalent, and trabecular and dense bone are measured with different scanning protocols and at different points of time. The results show that every scanned element undergoes HU variations, which are greater for materials at the extremes of the HU scale, such as dense bone and lung inhale. Moreover, S-CT scanning with low tube voltages (80 KV) produces inaccurate HU values especially in bones. In conclusion, 3-D modeling techniques based on S-CT scanning is a powerful follow-up tool that may provide structural information at the millimeter scale, and thus may drive choice and timing to validate rehabilitation protocols. © 2011, Copyright the

  16. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  17. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP-ne...... a certain use of the CP-net. We define the semantics of annotations by describing a translation from a CP-net and the corresponding annotation layers to another CP-net where the annotations are an integrated part of the CP-net....... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  18. RadNet Air Data From Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Salt Lake City, UT from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  19. 18F and 18FDG PET imaging of osteosarcoma to non-invasively monitor in situ changes in cellular proliferation and bone differentiation upon MYC inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Constadina; Bendapudi, Pavan K.; Tseng, Jeffrey R.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Felsher, Dean W.

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is one of the most common pediatric cancers. Accurate imaging of osteosarcoma is important for proper clinical staging of the disease and monitoring of the tumor’s response to therapy. The MYC oncogene has been commonly implicated in the pathogenesis of human osteosarcoma. Previously, we have described a conditional transgenic mouse model of MYC-induced osteosarcoma. These tumors are highly invasive and are frequently associated with pulmonary metastases. In our model, upon MYC inactivation osteosarcomas lose their neoplastic properties, undergo proliferative arrest, and differentiate into mature bone. We reasoned that we could use our model system to develop noninvasive imaging modalities to interrogate the consequences of MYC inactivation on tumor cell biology in situ. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) combining the use of both 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) and 18F-flouride (18F) to detect metabolic activity and bone mineralization/remodeling. We found that upon MYC inactivation, tumors exhibited a slight reduction in uptake of 18FDG and a significant increase in the uptake of 18F along with associated histological changes. Thus, these cells have apparently lost their neoplastic properties based upon both examination of their histology and biologic activity. However, these tumors continue to accumulate 18FDG at levels significantly elevated compared to normal bone. Therefore, PET can be used to distinguish normal bone cells from tumors that have undergone differentiation upon oncogene inactivation. In addition, we found that 18F is a highly sensitive tracer for detection of pulmonary metastasis. Collectively, we conclude that combined modality PET/CT imaging incorporating both 18FDG and 18F is a highly sensitive means to non-invasively measure osteosarcoma growth and the therapeutic response, as well as to detect tumor cells that have undergone differentiation upon oncogene inactivation. PMID:18981708

  20. (18)F and (18)FDG PET imaging of osteosarcoma to non-invasively monitor in situ changes in cellular proliferation and bone differentiation upon MYC inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Constadina; Bendapudi, Pavan K; Tseng, Jeffrey R; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Felsher, Dean W

    2008-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is one of the most common pediatric cancers. Accurate imaging of osteosarcoma is important for proper clinical staging of the disease and monitoring of the tumor's response to therapy. The MYC oncogene has been commonly implicated in the pathogenesis of human osteosarcoma. Previously, we have described a conditional transgenic mouse model of MYC-induced osteosarcoma. These tumors are highly invasive and are frequently associated with pulmonary metastases. In our model, upon MYC inactivation osteosarcomas lose their neoplastic properties, undergo proliferative arrest and differentiate into mature bone. We reasoned that we could use our model system to develop noninvasive imaging modalities to interrogate the consequences of MYC inactivation on tumor cell biology in situ. We performed positron emission tomography (PET) combining the use of both (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG) and (18)F-flouride ((18)F) to detect metabolic activity and bone mineralization/remodeling. We found that upon MYC inactivation, tumors exhibited a slight reduction in uptake of (18)FDG and a significant increase in the uptake of (18)F along with associated histological changes. Thus, these cells have apparently lost their neoplastic properties based upon both examination of their histology and biologic activity. However, these tumors continue to accumulate (18)FDG at levels significantly elevated compared to normal bone. Therefore, PET can be used to distinguish normal bone cells from tumors that have undergone differentiation upon oncogene inactivation. In addition, we found that (18)F is a highly sensitive tracer for detection of pulmonary metastasis. Collectively, we conclude that combined modality PET/CT imaging incorporating both (18)FDG and (18)F is a highly sensitive means to non-invasively measure osteosarcoma growth and the therapeutic response, as well as to detect tumor cells that have undergone differentiation upon oncogene inactivation.

  1. Successful management of EBV-PTLD in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient by virological-immunological monitoring of EBV infection, prompt diagnosis and early treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiereghin, Angela; Bertuzzi, Clara; Piccirilli, Giulia; Gabrielli, Liliana; Squarzoni, Diego; Turello, Gabriele; Ferioli, Martina; Sessa, Mariarosaria; Bonifazi, Francesca; Zanoni, Lucia; Sabattini, Elena; Lazzarotto, Tiziana

    2016-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-PTLD) is an uncommon, but frequently fatal, complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Prospective post-transplant virological and immunological monitoring allowed to successfully manage a patient who developed both polymorphic and monomorphic, "diffuse large B-cell lymphoma like", as an EBV-PTLD, 65days after allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Early detection of significant increase in EBV DNA level in patient's peripheral blood (peak of viral load equal to 119,039copies/mL whole blood, +56day after transplant) led to administration of pre-emptive anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) and close clinical monitoring. After one week, physical exam revealed laterocervical adenopathy. Histopathologic features, immunohistochemical characterization and in situ hybridization study allowed to establish a diagnosis of EBV-related PTLD. Immunological monitoring showed no EBV-specific T-cell responses during EBV replication, thus potentially explaining the occurrence of high EBV load with subsequent PTLD development. A total of four doses of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody were administered and at the end of the treatment, EBV infection was cleared and imaging technique showed complete disease remission. In conclusion, the early use of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody proved to be a safe and effective treatment strategy for EBV-PTLD. Moreover, combined virological-immunological monitoring of EBV infection may more accurately assess patients at higher risk for EBV-PTLD.

  2. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram...... the groups were recorded int erms of: (1) growth rate, (2) body weight at days 14, 28 and 130 of age or (3) final body weight. The weight and length of ribs were, however, significantly increased in the lambs given AKG for the first 14 days of neonatal life by 8.2% and 3.2%, respectively (P....01). Furthermore, AKG administration induced significantly higher bone mineral density of the cortical bone by 7.1% (P

  3. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  4. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  5. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  6. The value of radionuclide bone imaging on monitoring chemotherapeutic effects of multiple myeloma%核素骨显像在多发性骨髓瘤疗效评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongli Bai; Shuyao Zuo; Chao Ma; Xiaoting Su

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of radionuclide whole-body bone imaging on monitoring chemotherapeutic effects for multiple myeloma (MM). Methods: Sixty patients were included. Twenty nine cases received CTD (thalidomide 100-200 mg/d; cyclophosphamide 200-300 mg/m2·d, 1-4 days, every 4 weeks; and dexamethasone 20-40 rag/d, 1-4 days, every 4 weeks); Thirty cases received VAD (vincristine 0.4 mg/d, 1-4 days, every 4 weeks; adriamycin 10 rag/d, 1-4 days, ev-ery 4 weeks; dexamethasone 40 mg/d, 1-4 days, every 4 weeks). Radionuclide bone imagings were performed in all patients before chemotherapy, six months, twelve months and eighteen months after chemotherapy. The correlation of chemotherapeutic effects between CTD and VAD were analyzed. Results: One hundred and seventy nine bone lesions were visualized by bone scintigraphy before CTD treatment. Eighteen months after CTD chemotherapy, it was observed by bone scintigraphy that 39/179 (21.78%) lesions disappeared, 112/179 (62.57%)improved, and 28/179 (15.64%) had no change. One hundred and ninety one bone lesions were showed by bone imaging before VAD treatment, 36/191 (18.84%) lesions disappeared, eighteen months after chemotherapy, 103/191 (53.92%) improved, and 52/191 (27.22%) had no change. The significant difference was observed in locations of MM induced bone lesions treated with CTD (H = 8.23, P < 0.05) and VAD (H = 11.18, P < 0.05). A significant chemotherapeutic sensitivity in detecting MM induced lesions in ribs was found compared with other bone lesions. The chemotherapeutic effect of CTD was statistically significant than that of VAD (U = 2.17, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Radionuclide whole-body bone imaging has great value in monitoring chemotherapeutic effects for MM.

  7. Long-term prediction of three-dimensional bone architecture in simulations of pre-, peri- and post-menopausal microstructural bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ralph

    2005-03-01

    The mechanical behavior of trabecular bone depends on the internal bone structure. It is generally accepted now that the trabecular bone structure is a result of a load adaptive bone remodeling. The mathematical laws that relate bone remodeling to the local state of stress and strain, however, are still under investigation. The aim of this project was to investigate if changes in the trabecular architecture as observed with age-related bone loss and osteoporosis can be predicted from a computer model that simulates bone resorption after hormone depletion based on realistic models of trabecular microstructure using micro-computed tomography (muCT). A compact desktop muCT providing a nominal isotropic resolution of 14 mum was used to measure two groups of seven trabecular bone specimens from pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women respectively. A novel algorithm was developed to simulate age-related bone loss for the specimens in the first group. The algorithm, also referred to as simulated bone atrophy (SIBA), describes a truly three-dimensional approach and is based directly on cellular bone remodeling with an underlying realistic time frame. Bone resorption is controlled by osteoclastic penetration depth and bone formation is governed by the efficiency level of the osteoblasts. The simulation itself describes an iterative process with a cellular remodeling cycle of 197 days. Activation frequency is controllable and can be adjusted for the different phases of pre-, peri- and post-menopause. For our simulations, osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities were in balance until the onset of menopause, set to be at the age of 50 years. In that period, the structure remained almost constant. After the onset of menopause an imbalance in the cell activities was modeled resulting in a net bone loss. The doubling of the activation frequency in the peri-menopausal phase caused a pronounced loss. Using advanced animation tools and quantitative bone morphometry, the changes in

  8. 机器人开放式控制系统软件调度的同步Petri网方法%Timing Monitor Design of Intelligent Control Algorithm Based on Synchronized Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟军; 李建华; 杨汝清

    2009-01-01

    采用同步Petri网对机器人实时软件调度系统建模,提出了多任务模块的时间监控指标和可调度性验证方法.可有效处理智能算法运行时间存在较大不确定性的情形.通过气浮平台同步运动控制以及机器人力控制试验,验证了所提出模型和可调度校验方法的有效性.%It is necessary to verify the correction of robotic control algorithms as well as its timing charctersitics. A synchronized Petri nets model was used for modeling the preemptive scheduling policy with fixed priorities and the concept of event set was introduced for calculating the unpridicable run time of an intelligent control algorithm and for timing monitor design. The presented method is suitable for single CPU as well as multi CPU architecture and is proved effective by trajectory control of 2-DOF air levitated platform for IC packaging and robotic force control tasks.

  9. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  10. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris;

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  11. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  12. Monitoring of hematopoietic chimerism after transplantation for pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome: real-time or conventional short tandem repeat PCR in peripheral blood or bone marrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willasch, Andre M; Kreyenberg, Hermann; Shayegi, Nona; Rettinger, Eva; Meyer, Vida; Zabel, Marion; Lang, Peter; Kremens, Bernhard; Meisel, Roland; Strahm, Brigitte; Rossig, Claudia; Gruhn, Bernd; Klingebiel, Thomas; Niemeyer, Charlotte M; Bader, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has been proposed as a highly sensitive method for monitoring hematopoietic chimerism and may serve as a surrogate marker for the detection of minimal residual disease minimal residual disease in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), until specific methods of detection become available. Because a systematic comparison of the clinical utility of qPCR with the gold standard short tandem repeat (STR)-PCR has not been reported, we retrospectively measured chimerism by qPCR in 54 children transplanted for MDS in a previous study. Results obtained by STR-PCR in the initial study served as comparison. Because the detection limit of qPCR was sufficiently low to detect an autologous background, we defined the sample as mixed chimera if the proportion of recipient-derived cells exceeded .5%. The true positive rates were 100% versus 80% (qPCR versus STR-PCR, not significant), and mixed chimerism in most cases was detected earlier by qPCR than by STR-PCR (median, 31 days) when chimerism was quantified concurrently in peripheral blood and bone marrow. Both methods revealed a substantial rate of false positives (22.7% versus 13.6%, not significant), indicating the importance of serial testing of chimerism to monitor its progression. Finally, we propose criteria for monitoring chimerism in pediatric MDS with regard to the subtypes, specimens, PCR method, and timing of sampling.

  13. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and how the Net ZEB status should be calculated differs in most countries. This paper presents an overview of Net ZEBs energy calculation methodologies proposed by organisations representing eight different countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Norway, Switzerland and the USA. The different...

  14. A NET Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea eLu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils constitute a critical part of innate immunity and are well known for their ability to phagocytose and kill invading microorganisms. The microbicidal processes employed by neutrophils are highly effective at killing most ingested bacteria and fungi. However, an alternative non-phagocytic antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils has been proposed whereby microorganisms are eliminated by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. NETs are comprised of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins extruded by neutrophils during NETosis, a cell death pathway reported to be distinct from apoptosis, phagocytosis-induced cell death, and necrosis. Although multiple laboratories have reported NETs using various stimuli in vitro, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process have yet to be definitively elucidated, and many questions regarding the formation and putative role or function of NETs in innate host defense remain unanswered. It is with these questions in mind that we provide some reflection and perspective on NETs and NETosis.

  15. Designing the method for optical in vitro monitoring of the cell-mediated scaffold technology for bone regeneration based on laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, P. M.; Maslov, N. A.; Papaeva, E. O.; Tereshchenko, V. P.; Khlestkin, V. K.; Bogachev, S. S.; Proskurina, A. S.; Titov, A. T.; Filipenko, M. L.; Pavlov, V. V.; Kudrov, G. A.; Orishich, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    One of the main unsolved problems in traumatology and orthopedics is reconstruction of critical-sized segmental bone defects. We believe that implementation of noninvasive monitoring of the bioengineering stages for cell-mediated bone scaffold by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) can become a positive aspect in mastering this technique. An electrospun scaffold model (parameters: 10 wt. % polycaprolactone; 5% wt type A gelatin; mean fiber diameter 877.1 ± 169.1, and contact angle 45.3°) seeded with BHK IR cell culture (182 ± 38 cells/mm2) was used to show the principal possibility of differentiating between the scaffold seeded and unseeded with cells. First of all, the fluorescence spectra of the cell-seeded scaffold contain a peak at 305 nm for the excitation range of 230-290 nm, which can be used to differentiate between the samples. An increase in fluorescence intensity of the cell-seeded scaffold in the range of 400- 580 nm upon excitation at 230-340 nm is also noticeable. The wavelength of 250 nm is characterized by high signal intensity and is most suitable for differentiation between the samples.

  16. Bone Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging ... the limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided ...

  17. A grape-enriched diet increases bone calcium retention and cortical bone properties in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Emily E; Weaver, Connie M

    2015-02-01

    Grapes and their associated phytochemicals have been investigated for beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, cancer prevention, and other chronic diseases, but the effect of grape consumption on bone health has not been fully determined. We previously found short-term benefits of grape products on reducing bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term benefits of a grape-enriched diet on bone in ovariectomized rats. Rats were ovariectomized at 3 mo of age and were administered a single dose of (45)Ca to prelabel bones at 4 mo of age. After a 1-mo equilibration period, baseline urinary (45)Ca excretion was determined. Rats (n = 22/group) were then randomly assigned to a modified AIN93M diet containing 25% freeze-dried grape powder or to a control diet for 8 wk. Urinary (45)Ca excretion was monitored throughout the study to determine changes in bone (45)Ca retention. Calcium balance was assessed after 1 and 8 wk of consuming the experimental diets, and a calcium kinetic study was performed at 8 wk. After 8 wk, femurs were collected for micro-computed tomographic imaging, 3-point bending, and reference point indentation. Rats fed the grape-enriched diet had 44% greater net bone calcium retention than did rats fed the control diet. There were no differences in calcium balance due to diet at either week 1 or week 8, but there was a significant increase in net calcium absorption (10.6%) and retention (5.7%) from week 1 to week 8 in the grape-enriched diet group only. Grape-enriched diet-fed rats had 3% greater cortical thickness and 11% greater breaking strength. There were no differences in femur bone mineral density, trabecular microarchitecture, or reference point indentation variables due to diet. This study of ovariectomized rats indicates that the consumption of grape products may improve calcium utilization and suppress bone turnover, resulting in improvements in bone quality. © 2015 American Society for

  18. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  19. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  20. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo...

  1. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Densitometry (DEXA) Bone densitometry, also called dual-energy ... limitations of DEXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DEXA)? Bone density scanning, also called ...

  2. Non-Invasive Monitoring of Temporal and Spatial Blood Flow during Bone Graft Healing Using Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Han

    Full Text Available Vascular infiltration and associated alterations in microvascular blood flow are critical for complete bone graft healing. Therefore, real-time, longitudinal measurement of blood flow has the potential to successfully predict graft healing outcomes. Herein, we non-invasively measure longitudinal blood flow changes in bone autografts and allografts using diffuse correlation spectroscopy in a murine femoral segmental defect model. Blood flow was measured at several positions proximal and distal to the graft site before implantation and every week post-implantation for a total of 9 weeks (autograft n = 7 and allograft n = 10. Measurements of the ipsilateral leg with the graft were compared with those of the intact contralateral control leg. Both autografts and allografts exhibited an initial increase in blood flow followed by a gradual return to baseline levels. Blood flow elevation lasted up to 2 weeks in autografts, but this duration varied from 2 to 6 weeks in allografts depending on the spatial location of the measurement. Intact contralateral control leg blood flow remained at baseline levels throughout the 9 weeks in the autograft group; however, in the allograft group, blood flow followed a similar trend to the graft leg. Blood flow difference between the graft and contralateral legs (ΔrBF, a parameter defined to estimate graft-specific changes, was elevated at 1-2 weeks for the autograft group, and at 2-4 weeks for the allograft group at the proximal and the central locations. However, distal to the graft, the allograft group exhibited significantly greater ΔrBF than the autograft group at 3 weeks post-surgery (p < 0.05. These spatial and temporal differences in blood flow supports established trends of delayed healing in allografts versus autografts.

  3. Expansion Nets and Expansion Processes of Elementary Net Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹存根

    1995-01-01

    Occurrence nets are insufficient to precisely describe executions of elementary net systems with contacts.Traditionally,S-complementation is used for removal of contacts from the systems.Although the main behavior and properties of the original elementary net systems are preserved during S-complementation,their topologies may be changed greatly.This paper introduces a new kind of nets-expansion nets-for representing behavior of elementary net systems.As shown in the paper,expansion nets are natural as well as sufficient for describing the precise behavior of elementary net systems with or without contactks.

  4. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  5. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  6. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachabilit......, and not controllable by the system itself, or they are part of the system itself and therefore we need not worry about them)....

  7. Biochemical parameters of bone metabolism in bone metastases of solid tumors (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Wilhelmus; van der Veer, E; Willemse, P H

    1998-01-01

    The role of biochemical markers of bone metabolism in the diagnosis and monitoring of bone metastases in solid tumors is reviewed. Emphasis is on the recently developed markers, which may provide a more accurate quantitation of bone metabolism. In metastatic bone disease, bone formation and resorpti

  8. Serial monitoring of Mucorales DNA load in serum samples of a patient with disseminated mucormycosis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Tomonari; Nakazawa, Yozo; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Sano, Kenji; Yaguchi, Takashi; Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Saito, Shoji; Noda, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Honda, Takayuki; Koike, Kenichi

    2014-08-01

    Mucormycosis is a fatal complication in immunocompromised patients, and is additionally difficult to diagnose due to the lack of useful serum biomarkers. Using a quantitative PCR approach, we retrospectively analyzed Mucorales DNA load in sera collected serially from a 3-year-old patient with chronic granulomatous disease, who died of multi-organ failure probably due to dissemination of Rhizomucor pusillus, which was detected from necropsy specimens. Mucorales DNA load was below the detection limit on days 9, 2, and 4 after unrelated bone marrow transplantation. Rhizomucor DNA was first detected on day 14 (1.6 × 10(3) copies/mL), and subsequently fluctuated between 1.3 × 10(3) and 37.2 × 10(3) copies/mL until day 43. Rhizomucor achieved a peak value of 940.0 × 10(3) copies/mL on day 48 the day before death. The detection or fluctuation of Rhizomucor DNA appeared to be associated with corticosteroid dosages or C-reactive protein levels. This specific, noninvasive, and highly quantitative assay may be useful for the early diagnosis of mucormycosis and prediction of disease progression.

  9. Monitoring of chimerism using fluorescence in situ hybridization in a child with severe combined immune deficiency following bone marrow transplant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, S.L.; Chen, X.O.; Katz, A.J. [Children`s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A boy with severe combined immunodeficiency received a bone marrow transplant from his sister when he was approximately 3 years of age. His peripheral blood karyotype at age 3 and 4 years was 46,XX (20 cells analyzed). Because of a decline in antibody production at 19 years of age, the patient`s peripheral blood was analyzed again for suspected chimerism. His karyotype in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated culture was 46,XX in 49 cells and 46,XY in one cell. Both metaphase and interphase cells were examined for sex chromosome constitution using X and Y dual-color alpha-satellite probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH results for metaphase cells showed 1/50 XY cells, but 38% of interphase cells showed the presence of both X and Y centromere. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-stimulated cultures grew poorly and were therefore analyzed using FISH only: 81% of interphase cells were 46,XX. The discrepancy between metaphase and interphase in the PHA-stimulated cultures most likely represents a failure of this boy`s own XY T-cells to be stimulated.

  10. Introduction | NetDMR | NPDES Permits in New England | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-16

    NetDMR is a freely available Web based tool that allows National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permittees to electronically sign and submit their discharge monitoring reports (DMRs) to EPA via a secure internet connection. NetDMR is designed to improve data quality, save paper, and provide cost savings for permittees and regulators.

  11. Gout: Value of bone scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, J.P.; Cardenas, R.; Bell, L.; Gonzalez Griego, J.

    1986-12-01

    11 male patients with gout were studied by means of bone scintigraphy with /sup 99m/TcMDP. This diagnostic method rendered possible the diagnosis of clinically or roentgenologically occult bone involvement. Bone scintigraphy may be useful procedure to monitor therapy of gout.

  12. RadNet-Air Near Real Time Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet-Air is a national network of air monitoring stations that regularly collect air samples for near real time analysis of radioactivity. The data is transmitted...

  13. Monitoring method of micro-grid based on DPWS network middleware and Petri nets%基于DPWS网络中间件与Petri网的微电网监控方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立彬; 何玉珠; 胥芳; 谭大鹏

    2014-01-01

    针对目前微电网监控系统存在的协同性差、缺少动态配置支持、连续动态行为和离散事件共存的混杂性等问题,该文提出了一种基于设备网络服务框架(device profile for web service,DPWS)与解释Petri网模型的新型微电网监控方法。根据微电网监控系统功能需求,建立基于DPWS的分布式微源运行状态监控模型。利用DPWS技术的自动发现、自动组网机制对微电网监控系统进行重新配置,结合事件订阅机制实现微电网系统状态的实时监控,进而分析微电网系统在运行过程中的多重状态及其转换关系。基于DPWS技术信息加密机制,解决了微电网监控系统的信息传输安全问题。运用解释 Petri 网建立了微电网系统控制模型,提高了微网监控设备端的自动化程度,并完成了相应的数值仿真试验。试验结果表明,该模型能较全面地描述微电网系统中的并发及混杂现象,所提出的控制策略符合微电网系统实际运行要求,为微电网系统的安全、稳定地运行提供技术依据。%Current micro-grid systems have problems of poor cooperation abilities and feeble dynamic configuration supports for network structure, and don’t cope well with the issues of coexistence caused by the continuous dynamic systems (CDS) and discrete event dynamic systems (DEDS). In order to resolve the matter, a novel micro-grid monitoring network architecture based on the device profile for web service (DPWS) and interpreted Petri nets (IPN) was put forward to analyze the multiple states and the transform relations of different distributed micro sources during the running process of the micro-grid system. Referring to the function requirements and working characteristics of a micro-grid monitoring network system, an intelligent network architecture model for the mixed actions of distributed micro sources was set up. Based on the above model, according to the

  14. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...... the different kinds of analysis. It has, however, turned out that it only is necessary to turn to functions when we deal with invariant analysis, and this means that we now use the expression representation for all purposes — except for the calculation of invariants. This change is important for the practical...

  15. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  16. Bone within a bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.J.; Davies, A.M. E-mail: wendy.turner@roh.nhs.uk; Chapman, S

    2004-02-01

    The 'bone within a bone' appearance is a well-recognized radiological term with a variety of causes. It is important to recognize this appearance and also to be aware of the differential diagnosis. A number of common conditions infrequently cause this appearance. Other causes are rare and some remain primarily of historical interest, as they are no longer encountered in clinical practice. In this review we illustrate some of the conditions that can give the bone within a bone appearance and discuss the physiological and pathological aetiology of each where known.

  17. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  18. Nonmetro Net Outmigration Stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromartie, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Annual population losses from net migration for nonmetro areas declined from 0.38-0.20 percent during the period of 1988-91. However, annual inmigration and outmigration flows were consistently above 1.5 million (about 3 percent of nonmetro population). During the three-year period, nonmetro areas consistently lost young adults and those with…

  19. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  20. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  1. Mobile robot sense net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konolige, Kurt G.; Gutmann, Steffen; Guzzoni, Didier; Ficklin, Robert W.; Nicewarner, Keith E.

    1999-08-01

    Mobile robot hardware and software is developing to the point where interesting applications for groups of such robots can be contemplated. We envision a set of mobots acting to map and perform surveillance or other task within an indoor environment (the Sense Net). A typical application of the Sense Net would be to detect survivors in buildings damaged by earthquake or other disaster, where human searchers would be put a risk. As a team, the Sense Net could reconnoiter a set of buildings faster, more reliably, and more comprehensibly than an individual mobot. The team, for example, could dynamically form subteams to perform task that cannot be done by individual robots, such as measuring the range to a distant object by forming a long baseline stereo sensor form a pari of mobots. In addition, the team could automatically reconfigure itself to handle contingencies such as disabled mobots. This paper is a report of our current progress in developing the Sense Net, after the first year of a two-year project. In our approach, each mobot has sufficient autonomy to perform several tasks, such as mapping unknown areas, navigating to specific positions, and detecting, tracking, characterizing, and classifying human and vehicular activity. We detail how some of these tasks are accomplished, and how the mobot group is tasked.

  2. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  3. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  4. Monitoring the response of bone metastases to treatment with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and nuclear medicine techniques: a review and position statement by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer imaging group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecouvet, F E; Talbot, J N; Messiou, C; Bourguet, P; Liu, Y; de Souza, N M

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of the response to treatment of metastases is crucial in daily oncological practice and clinical trials. For soft tissue metastases, this is done using computed tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using validated response evaluation criteria. Bone metastases, which frequently represent the only site of metastases, are an exception in response assessment systems, because of the nature of the fixed bony defects, their complexity, which ranges from sclerotic to osteolytic and because of the lack of sensitivity, specificity and spatial resolution of the previously available bone imaging methods, mainly bone scintigraphy. Techniques such as MRI and PET are able to detect the early infiltration of the bone marrow by cancer, and to quantify this infiltration using morphologic images, quantitative parameters and functional approaches. This paper highlights the most recent developments of MRI and PET, showing how they enable early detection of bone lesions and monitoring of their response. It reviews current knowledge, puts the different techniques into perspective, in terms of indications, strengths, weaknesses and complementarity, and finally proposes recommendations for the choice of the most adequate imaging technique.

  5. Engraftment and bone mass are enhanced by PTHrP 1-34 in ectopically transplanted vertebrae (vossicle model) and can be non-invasively monitored with bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Blake Eason; Williams, Michelle M; Dembek, Katarzyna A; Hernon, Krista M; Rosol, Thomas J; Toribio, Ramiro E

    2015-12-01

    Evidence exists that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) 1-34 may be more anabolic in bone than parathyroid hormone 1-34. While optical imaging is growing in popularity, scant information exists on the relationships between traditional bone imaging and histology and bioluminescence (BLI) and fluorescence (FLI) imaging. We aimed to evaluate the effects of PTHrP 1-34 on bone mass and determine if relationships existed between radiographic and histologic findings in bone and BLI and FLI indices. Vertebrae (vossicles) from mice coexpressing luciferase and green fluorescent protein were implanted subcutaneously into allogenic nude mice. Transplant recipients were treated daily with saline or PTHrP 1-34 for 4 weeks. BLI, FLI, radiography, histology, and µCT of the vossicles were performed over time. PTHrP 1-34 increased bioluminescence the most after 2 weeks, fluorescence at all time points, and decreased the time to peak bioluminescence at 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.027), the latter of which suggesting enhanced engraftment. PTHrP 1-34 maximized vertebral body volume at 4 weeks (P bioluminescence (r = 0.595; P = 0.019); (2) total fluorescence (r = 0.474; P = 0.074); and (3) max fluorescence (r = 0.587; P = 0.021). In conclusion, PTHrP 1-34 enhances engraftment and bone mass, which can be monitored non-invasively by BLI and FLI.

  6. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waster Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Colorado • Fort Bliss, Texas These sites served as test beds for the Army’s Net Zero Initiative, specifically, Net Zero Water , and the Army provided...have sustainability, energy efficiency, water conservation, recycling, pollution prevention, and green procurement programs in place that they can...ARMY NET ZERO PROVE OUT Final Net Zero Water Best Practices November 18, 2014 Distribution A Approved for public release

  7. Early postoperative bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of microvascular bone grafts in head and neck reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poissonnet Gilles

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone scintigraphy was performed to monitor anastomotic patency and bone viability. Methods In this retrospective study, bone scans were carried out during the first three postoperative days in a series of 60 patients who underwent microvascular bone grafting for reconstruction of the mandible or maxilla. Results In our series, early bone scans detected a compromised vascular supply to the bone with high accuracy (p Conclusion When performing bone scintigraphy during the first three postoperative days, it not only helps to detect complications with high accuracy, as described in earlier studies, but it is also an additional reliable monitoring tool to decide whether or not microvascular revision surgery should be performed. Bone scans were especially useful in buried free flaps where early postoperative monitoring depended exclusively on scans. According to our experience, we recommend bone scans as soon as possible after surgery and immediately in cases suspicious of vascularized bone graft failure.

  8. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  9. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the multimoda

  10. Bone scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... legs, or spine fractures) Diagnose a bone infection (osteomyelitis) Diagnose or determine the cause of bone pain, ... 2015:chap 43. Read More Broken bone Metabolism Osteomyelitis Review Date 12/10/2015 Updated by: Jatin ...

  11. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  12. Bone Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your bones help you move, give you shape and support your body. They are living tissues that rebuild constantly ... childhood and your teens, your body adds new bone faster than it removes old bone. After about ...

  13. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... markers may be seen in conditions such as: Osteoporosis Paget disease Cancer that has spread to the bone (metastatic bone disease) Hyperparathyroidism Hyperthyroidism Osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children—lack of bone mineralization, ...

  14. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary.......Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study...

  15. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...... been trend-setting for collective bargaining in all three countries, but with very different effects on working time. Organized decentralization seems to pave the way for fewer straitjackets, whereas the opposite seems to be the case with regard to disorganized decentralization....

  16. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to their work can be found in the individual papers and in the available bibliographies of Petri nets, e.g., Stefan Dress et. al: Bibliography of Petri Nets. In: G. Rozenberg (ed.): Advances in Petri Nets 1987, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 266, Springer-Verlag 1987, 309-451. Updated versions...... of this bibliography will appear in Advances of Petri Nets with regular intervals. In the preparation of the book the editors have been assisted by an advisory board consisting of the following well-known Petri net researchers: M. Ajmone-Marsan, H.J. Genrich, C. Girault, W. Reisig, M. Silva and P.S. Thiagarajan...

  17. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  18. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Deog Yoon [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays.

  19. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... taxonomies (‘Folksonomy’) and ‘Weblogs’. Also, platforms, programming and software are today very often created in open communities – as seen in the ‘Free/Open Source’ movement. On the other side, following the technological development, the network also has become essential in the art sphere. Artists focus...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...

  20. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study of an exi......Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study...... of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  1. Net Neutrality and Quality of Service

    CERN Document Server

    Altman, Eitan; Wong, Sulan; Xu, Manjesh Kumar Hanawal 'and' Yuedong

    2011-01-01

    2010 has witnessed many public consultations around the world concerning Net neutrality. A second legislative phase that may follow, could involve various structural changes in the Internet. The status that the Internet access has in Europe as a universal service evolves as the level of quality of service (QoS) to be offered improves. If guarantees on QoS are to be imposed, as requested by several economic actors, it would require introducing new indicators of quality of services, as well as regulation legislation and monitoring of the offered levels of QoS. This tendency in Europe may change the nature of the Internet from a best effort network to, perhaps, a more expensive one, that offers guaranteed performance. This paper presents an overview of the above issues as well as an overview of recent research on net-neutrality, with an emphasis on game theoretical approaches.

  2. Interactive Model Visualization for NET-VISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Arora, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    NET-VISA is a probabilistic system developed for seismic network processing of data measured on the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). NET-VISA is composed of a Generative Model (GM) and an Inference Algorithm (IA). The GM is an explicit mathematical description of the relationships between various factors in seismic network analysis. Some of the relationships inside the GM are deterministic and some are statistical. Statistical relationships are described by probability distributions, the exact parameters of which (such as mean and standard deviation) are found by training NET-VISA using recent data. The IA uses the GM to evaluate the probability of various events and associations, searching for the seismic bulletin which has the highest overall probability and is consistent with a given set of measured arrivals. An Interactive Model Visualization tool (IMV) has been developed which makes 'peeking into' the GM simple and intuitive through a web-based interfaced. For example, it is now possible to access the probability distributions for attributes of events and arrivals such as the detection rate for each station for each of 14 phases. It also clarifies the assumptions and prior knowledge that are incorporated into NET-VISA's event determination. When NET-VISA is retrained, the IMV will be a visual tool for quality control both as a means of testing that the training has been accomplished correctly and that the IMS network has not changed unexpectedly. A preview of the IMV will be shown at this poster presentation. Homepage for the IMV IMV shows current model file and reference image.

  3. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of DXA Bone Densitometry? What is a Bone Density Scan (DXA)? Bone density scanning, also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry ( ... is today's established standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  4. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  5. ASP.NET MVC 2

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaretta, Simone

    2010-01-01

    This Wrox Blox is for .NET developers who already have experiencedeveloping web applications with ASP.NET MVC and want to learn thenew features introduced in the new release of ASP.NET MVC. ASP.NETMVC 2 has been built with the goal to increase productivity andmake ASP.NET MVC ready for enterprise development. This Wrox Bloxguides the reader through the new features by explaining how to usedata scaffolding and automatic validation, how to write customvalidators, how to create multi-area projects, and how and when touse async controllers. It also covers the new automatic HTMLEncoding feature int

  6. Improving Bone-Health Monitoring in Astronauts: Recommended Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography [QCT] for Clinical and Operational Decisions by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Truszkowski, P.

    2010-01-01

    DXA measurement of areal bone mineral density [aBMD,g/cm2] is required by NASA for assessing skeletal integrity in astronauts. Due to the abundance of population-based data that correlate hip and spine BMDs to fragility fractures, BMD is widely applied as a predictor of fractures in the general aging population. In contrast, QCT is primarily a research technology that measures three-dimensional , volumetric BMD (vBMD,mg/cm3) of bone and is therefore capable of differentiating between cortical and trabecular components. Additionally, when combined with Finite Element Modeling [FEM], a computational tool, QCT data can be used to estimate the whole bone strength of the hip [FE strength] for a specific load vector. A recent report demonstrated that aBMD failed to correlate with incurred changes in FE strength (for fall and stance loading) by astronauts over typical 180-day ISS (International Space Station) missions. While there are no current guidelines for using QCT data in clinical practice, QCT increases the understanding of how bone structure and mineral content are affected by spaceflight and recovery on Earth. In order to understand/promote/consider the use of QCT, NASA convened a panel of clinicians specializing in osteoporosis. After reviewing the available, albeit limited, medical and research information from long-duration astronauts (e.g., data from DXA, QCT, FEM, biochemistry analyses, medical records and in-flight exercise performance) the panelists were charged with recommending how current and future research data and analyses could inform clinical and operational decisions. The Panel recommended that clinical bone tests on astronauts should include QCT (hip and lumbar spine) for occupational risk surveillance and for the estimation of whole hip bone strength as derived by FEM. FE strength will provide an improved index that NASA could use to select astronauts of optimal bone health for extended duration missions, for repeat missions or for specific

  7. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  8. Bone marrow aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  9. DMAH ozone measurement net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the study of tropospheric ozone lies in the fact that it is a secondary pollutant. It is not emitted by a source, instead its concentration in the air depends on other compounds (especially the nitrogen oxides emitted by motor vehicles and the volatile organic compounds emitted by the industry and the vegetation and meteorological factors (especially solar radiation and temperature. The European legislation compells to make measurements of the tropospheric ozone due to its effects on people (fatigue, irritation of the mucous membranes, aggravation of asthma ... and on environment (decrease of the production of cereals, synergy with plagues .... The measuring net in Catalonia belongs to the Department of Environment and Housing (DMAH. It has a pyramidal structure and it allows a surveillance to notify in case of exceeding a certain threshold. From the registered data of last years it is shown that the number of incidences is related to meteorology. They are more frequent during afternoon and the behaviour of this pollutant is different according to the proximity of the point of measurement to the sources of its precursors.

  10. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The Net4Care platform provides the ability to quickly create quality tele-health applications interfacing with HL7 and IHE/XDS. Net4Care features a modular server- and client-side based on OSGi and aims at providing support for a telemedicine software ecosystem. A typical deployment scenario is a...

  11. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  12. The NordiNet® International Outcome Study and NovoNet® ANSWER Program®: rationale, design, and methodology of two international pharmacoepidemiological registry-based studies monitoring long-term clinical and safety outcomes of growth hormone therapy (Norditropin®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höybye C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Charlotte Höybye,1 Lars Sävendahl,2 Henrik Thybo Christesen,3 Peter Lee,4 Birgitte Tønnes Pedersen,5 Michael Schlumpf,6 John Germak,7 Judith Ross8 1Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute and Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, 2Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institute and Division of Pediatrics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Hans Christian Andersen Children’s Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 4Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA; 5Global Development, Novo Nordisk A/S, Søborg, Denmark; 6Global Medical Affairs Biopharm, Novo Nordisk Health Care AG, Zurich, Switzerland; 7Clinical Development and Medical Affairs, Novo Nordisk Inc, Princeton, NJ, USA; 8Department of Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Objective: Randomized controlled trials have shown that growth hormone (GH therapy has effects on growth, metabolism, and body composition. GH therapy is prescribed for children with growth failure and adults with GH deficiency. Carefully conducted observational study of GH treatment affords the opportunity to assess long-term treatment outcomes and the clinical factors and variables affecting those outcomes, in patients receiving GH therapy in routine clinical practice. Design: The NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS and the American Norditropin® Studies: Web Enabled Research (ANSWER Program® are two complementary, non-interventional, observational studies that adhere to current guidelines for pharmacoepidemiological data. Patients: The studies include pediatric and adult patients receiving Norditropin®, as prescribed by their physicians. Measurements: The studies gather long-term data on the safety and effectiveness of real-life treatment with the recombinant human GH, Norditropin®. We describe the origins, aims, objectives, and design methodology of

  13. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  14. NetMOD Version 2.0 Mathematical Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Young, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chael, Eric P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    NetMOD ( Net work M onitoring for O ptimal D etection) is a Java-based software package for conducting simulation of seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasonic networks. Network simulations have long been used to study network resilience to station outages and to determine where additional stations are needed to reduce monitoring thresholds. NetMOD makes use of geophysical models to determine the source characteristics, signal attenuation along the path between the source and station, and the performance and noise properties of the station. These geophysical models are combined to simulate the relative amplitudes of signal and noise that are observed at each of the stations. From these signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the probabilities of signal detection at each station and event detection across the network of stations can be computed given a detection threshold. The purpose of this document is to clearly and comprehensively present the mathematical framework used by NetMOD, the software package developed by Sandia National Laboratories to assess the monitoring capability of ground-based sensor networks. Many of the NetMOD equations used for simulations are inherited from the NetSim network capability assessment package developed in the late 1980s by SAIC (Sereno et al., 1990).

  15. Modelling Inteligent Systems with Level Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina BOCĂNEALĂ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Level Petri Nets are formalism for modeling hierarchical multi-agent system. They are a Petri nets extension, allowing tokens to be nets themselves. This paper is inspired by two classes of level Petri nets: object Petri nets and nested Petri nets. We present some concepts from the artificial intelligence field and we use them to illustrate the modeling power of Petri nets with multi levels.

  16. Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on the haemopoietic bone marrow monitored by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Stenver, D; Jensen, M;

    1990-01-01

    Volume selective magnetic resonance (MR) proton spectroscopy was used to investigate changes in the haemopoietic bone marrow in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). Significant changes could be detected in the spectra 14 days...

  17. Application of bone scintigraphy in therapy response monitoring and prognosis prediction in patients with bone metastasis from lung cancer and prostate cancer%骨扫描在肺癌和前列腺癌骨转移疗效监测及预后判断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘懿范; 刘建军; 黄钢; 马玉波

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨全身骨扫描在肺癌和前列腺癌骨转移疗效监测及预后判断中的应用价值.方法 将40例肺癌患者和31例前列腺癌患者在系统治疗前1个月内及治疗≥3个月后分别行全身骨扫描,观察治疗前后骨转移灶的变化与肿瘤临床综合疗效的相关性.采用Kaplan-Meier法计算生存率,Log-rank检验及Cox回归模型分析影响肺癌或前列腺癌骨转移预后的危险因素.结果 肿瘤临床综合治疗有效者( 59.68%,37/62)的骨转移疗效明显好于无效者(40.32%,25/62)(P<0.05).肺癌骨转移患者的1年生存率为54.5%,2年生存率为22.6%;前列腺癌骨转移患者的1年生存率为87.3%,2年生存率为72.3%.单因素及Cox多因素分析均显示:肺癌和前列腺癌骨转移患者的生存率与肿瘤类型及骨转移时长相关(P<0.05).肺癌与前列腺癌分组行Cox多因素分析结果显示:肺癌骨转移的预后危险因素为病理类型、治疗前骨扫描病变范围及骨转移时长;而前列腺癌骨转移的预后与骨转移时长有关.结论 全身骨扫描为肺癌和前列腺癌骨转移的疗效监测及预后判断提供了更丰富、更准确的信息.%Objective To investigate the application of bone scintigraphy in therapy response monitoring and prognosis prediction in patients with bone metastasis from lung cancer and prostate cancer. Methods Whole-body bone scintigraphy was performed in 40 patients with lung cancer and 31 patients with prostate cancer one month before systematic therapy and no less than 3 months after treatment. The changes of bone metastasis lesions were observed before and after treatment, and the correlation of bone metastasis with therapy response was explored. Survival rates were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method, and prognostic factors for survival were analysed by Log-rank test and Cox regression model. Results The therapeutic effect of bone metastasis in clinical therapy responders in primary

  18. NetMOD Version 2.0 Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    NetMOD ( Net work M onitoring for O ptimal D etection) is a Java-based software package for conducting simulation of seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasonic networks. Network simulations have long been used to study network resilience to station outages and to determine where additional stations are needed to reduce monitoring thresholds. NetMOD makes use of geophysical models to determine the source characteristics, signal attenuation along the path between the source and station, and the performance and noise properties of the station. These geophysical models are combined to simulate the relative amplitudes of signal and noise that are observed at each of the stations. From these signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the probability of detection can be computed given a detection threshold. This document describes the parameters that are used to configure the NetMOD tool and the input and output parameters that make up the simulation definitions.

  19. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-03-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  20. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  1. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  2. Petri Nets and Semantics of System Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: Languages based on nets. The problem of time in nets. Nets and related models. Nets and formal semantics. Parallel program...

  3. Long-term insecticidal activity and physical integrity of Olyset nets in Tafea Province, Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Shurajit N; Amon, James; Iata, Harry; Cooper, Robert D; Russell, Tanya L

    2014-01-01

    The long-term efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) depends on both the physical condition of the net and the residual activity of the insecticide. This study focused on monitoring these parameters in Olyset nets (Sumitomo Chemical Co., Osaka, Japan) (n = 101) that had been used for 1-3 yr in Tafea Province, Vanuatu. Net usage and frequency of washing was ascertained by questionnaire; the nets were assessed with regards to cleanliness and damage owing to holes. Insecticide efficacy was determined with cone bioassays using Anophelesfarauti Laveran. Net usage was high and 86.1% (87 of 101) of villages stated that they used the net every night. Washing of nets was low (11.9%, 12 of 101), and most nets (79.2%, 80 of 101) were considered dirty. Most nets were damaged (73.4% had holes), and 22.8% (23 of 101) had large holes (>200 cm2). The 24-h mortality of An. farauti exposed to nets aged 1-2 yr was 79.4%, while the mortality for nets 3 yr of age was significantly lower at 73.7%. There was no difference in the insecticidal activity of clean compared with dirty nets (mean 24-h mortality: Clean = 76.7%, Dirty = 77.1%). Although the majority of nets had holes, the physical condition of 8.9-22.8% of nets was altered so severely to potentially affect efficacy. Although the 3-yr-old nets would still be providing significant levels of insecticidal and personal protection, consideration should be given to replacing nets >3 yr old.

  4. Value of bone scan semi-quantitative analysis in monitoring osteoporosis therapy efficacy%骨显像半定量分析在骨质疏松疗效监测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼菁菁; 刘江; 董科

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore application value of 99Tcm-MDP bone scanning semi-quantitative analysis in monitor-ing the osteoporosis therapy efficacy in early-stage. Methods From January 2011 to October 2013, in Central Hospital of Jinhua City of Zhejiang Province, 18 women with osteoporotic were chosen, and they were 50-72 years old. Before and 3 months after the Alendronate treatment, they were respectively checked with 99Tcm-MDP bone scanning and bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. The regions of interest (ROI) technology was used for obtaining the radioactive counts ratios (ROI ratios) of L1-L4 and femoral neck. BMD and ROI ratios of L1-L4 and femoral neck before and 3 months after the treatmnet were compared. Results The BMD of L1-L4 and femoral neck after 3-month treatment with Alendronate were higher than those before the treatment, and BMD of L3-L4 were compared with those before the treat-ment, the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Bone scanning showed that ROI ratios of L1-L4 and femoral neck after the treatment were lower than those before the treatment, the differences were statistically significant (P< 0.05). Conclusion 99Tcm-MDP bone scanning semi-quantitative analysis can accurately reflect the early changes of bone metabolism after therapy, which has a potential application value in monitoring the therapy efficacy.%目的:探讨99Tcm-MDP骨显像半定量分析在骨质疏松疗效早期监测中的应用价值。方法选取2011年1月~2013年10月浙江省金华市中心医院收治的18例骨质疏松妇女,年龄50~72岁。阿仑膦酸钠治疗前及治疗后3个月分别进行99Tcm-MDP全身骨显像和骨密度值测量,利用感兴区(ROI)技术获取骨显像的L1~L4和股骨颈ROI比值并与治疗前进行对比,进行骨代谢骨质半定量分析。结果骨质疏松患者阿仑膦酸钠治疗后3个月骨密度显示,L1~L4及股骨颈骨密度值均高于治疗前,且L3和L4骨密度值与治疗前比较

  5. Botnet Detection using NetFlow and Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Amini

    Full Text Available Among the various forms of malware, botnets are becoming the major threats on the Internet that use for many attacks, such as spam, distributed denial-of-service (DDoS, identity theft and phishing. NetFlow protocol is a standard for monitoring Internet t ...

  6. The monitoring of gene functions on a cell-defined siRNA microarray in human bone marrow stromal and U2OS cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hi Chul Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we developed a cell defined siRNA microarray (CDSM for human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs designed to control the culture of cells inside the spot area without reducing the efficiency of siRNA silencing, “Development of a cell-defined siRNA microarray for analysis of gene functionin human bone marrow stromal cells” (Kim et al., 2016 [1]. First, we confirmed that p65 protein inhibition efficiency was maintained when hBMSCs were culture for 7 days on the siRNA spot, and siRNA spot activity remained in spite of long term storage (10 days and 2 months. Additionally, we confirmed p65 protein inhibition in U2OS cells after 48 h reverse transfection.

  7. RadNet: Open network protocol for radiation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, B.; Olson, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Beckes-Talcott, J.; Kadner, S.; Wenderlich, T.; Hoy, M.; Doyle, W. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koskelo, M. [Canberra Industries, Meriden, CT (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Safeguards instrumentation is increasingly being incorporated into remote monitoring applications. In the past, vendors of radiation monitoring instruments typically provided the tools for uploading the monitoring data to a host. However, the proprietary nature of communication protocols lends itself to increased computer support needs and increased installation expenses. As a result, a working group of suppliers and customers of radiation monitoring instruments defined an open network protocol for transferring packets on a local area network from radiation monitoring equipment to network hosts. The protocol was termed RadNet. While it is now primarily used for health physics instruments, RadNet`s flexibility and strength make it ideal for remote monitoring of nuclear materials. The incorporation of standard, open protocols ensures that future work will not render present work obsolete; because RadNet utilizes standard Internet protocols, and is itself a non-proprietary standard. The use of industry standards also simplifies the development and implementation of ancillary services, e.g. E-main generation or even pager systems.

  8. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  9. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  10. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  11. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  12. {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy in monitoring the response of bone disease to vitamin D{sub 3} therapy in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, A.; Sen, S.; Hacimahmutoglu, S.; Pekindil, G. [Trakya Univ., Edirne (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

    2002-02-01

    Renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is a common and serious complication for uremic patients and patients are treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. The bone scanning agent {sup 99m}Tc-phosphate has also been used to evaluate in ROD but it is not clear that bone scintigraphy has a role in the follow-up of treatment. In this study {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy was performed in eleven patients [age 40.7{+-}17.3 (mean {+-}SD) yr] with ROD before and after vitamin D{sub 3} therapy. Images were obtained after hemodialysis performed following tracer injection to maintain normal blood levels of the radiopharmaceutical and to reduce soft tissue activity. Lumbar vertebra-to-soft tissue uptake ratios (LUR) were quantified with the planar {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA images. Alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone levels after tretment had significantly decreased compared with pre-therapy. In all patients there was visually decreased uptake in bone structures after treatment. After treatment the mean LUR ratio was significantly lower than those of before treatment (3.59{+-}2.63 vs. 1.65{+-}0.62; p=0.01). LUR values were correlated with pre-therapy alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone. These findings indicate that {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy is sensitive in evaluating the response of ROD to vitamin D{sub 3} therapy. (author)

  13. Double-plating of ovine critical sized defects of the tibia: a low morbidity model enabling continuous in vivo monitoring of bone healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearce Alexandra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies using sheep critical sized defect models to test tissue engineered products report high morbidity and complications rates. This study evaluates a large bone defect model in the sheep tibia, stabilized with two, a novel Carbon fibre Poly-ether-ether-ketone (CF-PEEK and a locking compression plate (LCP which could sustain duration for up to 6 month with an acceptable low complication rate. Methods A large bone defect of 3 cm was performed in the mid diaphysis of the right tibia in 33 sheep. The defect was stabilised with the CF - PEEK plate and an LCP. All sheep were supported with slings for 8 weeks after surgery. The study was carried out for 3 months in 6 and for 6 months in 27 animals. Results The surgical procedure could easily be performed in all sheep and continuous in vivo radiographic evaluation of the defect was possible. This long bone critical sized defect model shows with 6.1% a low rate of complications compared with numbers mentioned in the literature. Conclusions This experimental animal model could serve as a standard model in comparative research. A well defined standard model would reduce the number of experimental animals needed in future studies and would therefore add to ethical considerations.

  14. Proof nets for display logic

    CERN Document Server

    Moot, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.

  15. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding;

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... performance improvement, such as measures derived from the receiver operating characteristic curve, the net benefit function, and the Brier score, cannot be large due to poorly fitting risk functions....

  16. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well.......This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  17. Process of Petri Nets Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To describe the dynamic semantics for the network computing, the concept on process is presented based on the semantic model with variable, resource and relation. Accordingly, the formal definition of process and the mapping rules from the specification of Petri nets extension to process are discussed in detail respectively. Based on the collective concepts of process, the specification of dynamic semantics also is constructed as a net system. Finally, to illustrate process intuitively, an example is specified completely.

  18. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jens Jakob

    2011-01-01

    restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net Pi recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of Pi) and apparently digested tP (feed – fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake...... plasma Pi concentration decreased, net Pi recycling was not decreased when tP intake was decreased, and recycling of Pi was maintained at the expense of deposition of Pi in bones. Data are not consistent with salivary Pi secretion being the primary regulator of Pi homeostasis at low tP intakes....... On the contrary, maintaining salivary Pi recycling at low tP intakes indicates that rumen function was prioritized at the expense of bone P reserves....

  19. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most...

  20. Clinical significance of ALP and CT in monitoring bone metastases of lung cancer%血清 ALP、CT监测肺癌骨转移的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩亮

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对肺癌患者血清碱性磷酸酶( ALP)、降钙素( CT)水平的测定,分析肺癌骨转移患者血清ALP、CT水平的变化,并评价其监测肺癌骨转移的临床意义。方法:对80例经病理或穿刺活检证实为肺癌的患者行99m锝-亚甲基二磷酸盐(99mTc-MDP)全身骨显像,根据骨转移诊断标准将肺癌患者分为未骨转移组(48例)和骨转移组(32例),并对80例肺癌患者及30例肺部良性疾病患者进行血清ALP、CT水平测定,比较各组患者间血清ALP、CT水平的变化,并通过受试者工作特征曲线( Receiver operator characteristic curve,ROC曲线)及联合检测来评价其监测肺癌骨转移的临床意义。结果:肺癌组患者血清ALP、CT水平明显高于肺部良性病变组(P<0.01);肺癌骨转移组患者血清ALP、CT水平明显高于未骨转移组(P<0.01);患者血清ALP、CT的曲线下面积(Area under the ROC curves,AUC)分别为0.715、0.760,患者血清ALP的敏感性为69.400%,特异性为79.600%,血清CT的敏感性为61.900%,特异性为84.600%;通过联合检测可将敏感度提高至85.000%,特异度提高至93.333%。结论:血清ALP、CT可作为肺癌骨转移的初筛及监测方法。%Objective:To analyze change of serum alkaline phosphatase ( ALP) and calcitonin ( CT) levels in patients with bone metastases of lung cancer and evaluate clinical significance of ALP and CT in monitoring bone metastases by measuring the levels of serum ALP and CT. Methods:80 lung cancer patients confirmed by pathology or needle biopsy were underwent 99mTc-MDP whole body bone images, and divided into non-bone metastasis group (48 persons) and bone metastasis group (32 persons) according to the criteria for the diagnosis of bone metastases. The levels of ALP and CT of 80 patients with lung cancer and 30 patients with benign lung diseases were detected and compared. The clinical significance of ALP and CT in monitoring bone metastases was evaluated by receiver

  1. Bone cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, J Y; Villemin, S; Darmana, R; Cahuzac, J P; Autefage, A; Morucci, J P

    1991-02-01

    Bone cutting has always been a problem for surgeons because bone is a hard living material, and many osteotomes are still very crude tools. Technical improvement of these surgical tools has first been their motorization. Studies of the bone cutting process have indicated better features for conventional tools. Several non-conventional osteotomes, particularly ultrasonic osteotomes are described. Some studies on the possible use of lasers for bone cutting are also reported. Use of a pressurised water jet is also briefly examined. Despite their advantages, non-conventional tools still require improvement if they are to be used by surgeons.

  2. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...... by other papers. Thus, e.g., none of the original papers introducing the first versions of high-level Petri nets have been included. The introductions to the individual sections mention a number of researchers who have contributed to the development of high-level Petri nets. Detailed references...

  3. Constant-effort mist netting on the Lee Metcalf National Wildlife refuge, Montana 1993-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1993, a constant-effort mist netting station (CEMN) was established on the Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge as part of a network of monitoring stations for...

  4. MATT: Multi Agents Testing Tool Based Nets within Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kerraoui

    2016-12-01

    As part of this effort, we propose a model based testing approach for multi agent systems based on such a model called Reference net, where a tool, which aims to providing a uniform and automated approach is developed. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed approach are shown through a short case study.

  5. Weight loss, weight regain and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Amos

    2012-08-01

    The ideal body image for women these days is being slim but, in the real world, obesity becomes a major health problem even in the developing countries. Overweight, but also underweight, may have associated adverse outcomes in many bodily systems, including the bone. Only a few studies have investigated the consequences of intentional weight loss, then weight regain, on bone metabolism and bone density. It seems that the negative impact of bone loss is not reversed when weight partially rebounds following the end of active intervention programs. Thus the benefits and risks of any weight loss program should be addressed individually, and monitoring of bone parameters is recommended.

  6. Sublogarithmic uniform Boolean proof nets

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Clément

    2012-01-01

    Using a proofs-as-programs correspondence, Terui was able to compare two models of parallel computation: Boolean circuits and proof nets for multiplicative linear logic. Mogbil et. al. gave a logspace translation allowing us to compare their computational power as uniform complexity classes. This paper presents a novel translation in AC0 and focuses on a simpler restricted notion of uniform Boolean proof nets. We can then encode constant-depth circuits and compare complexity classes below logspace, which were out of reach with the previous translations.

  7. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  8. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  9. Automated segmentation of knee and ankle regions of rats from CT images to quantify bone mineral density for monitoring treatments of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Francisco; Sevilla, Raquel; Zhu, Joe; Vanko, Amy; Lee, Jung Hoon; Dogdas, Belma; Zhang, Weisheng

    2014-03-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) obtained from a CT image is an imaging biomarker used pre-clinically for characterizing the Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) phenotype. We use this biomarker in animal studies for evaluating disease progression and for testing various compounds. In the current setting, BMD measurements are obtained manually by selecting the regions of interest from three-dimensional (3-D) CT images of rat legs, which results in a laborious and low-throughput process. Combining image processing techniques, such as intensity thresholding and skeletonization, with mathematical techniques in curve fitting and curvature calculations, we developed an algorithm for quick, consistent, and automatic detection of joints in large CT data sets. The implemented algorithm has reduced analysis time for a study with 200 CT images from 10 days to 3 days and has improved the robust detection of the obtained regions of interest compared with manual segmentation. This algorithm has been used successfully in over 40 studies.

  10. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  11. The Net Generation Cheating Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Valerie; Sandoe, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Integral to higher education, academic integrity stands as a cornerstone of academic life. However, compelling evidence of widespread academic dishonesty among Net-Generation students threatens to undermine both the environment of trust that nourishes integrity and the safeguards that help ensure it. Working from their experience with widespread…

  12. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het nu

  13. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het

  14. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het nu

  15. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrat...

  16. Communicating with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    narcissistic ―me‖ generation to a perceived lack of respect for authority. The Net Generation displays high self-esteem and confidence but appear much more...by our adversaries, especially by terrorist organizations that continually look for vulnerabilities to exploit. Location- based social networking

  17. Bone x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or broken bone Bone tumors Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection) ... Multiple myeloma Osgood-Schlatter disease Osteogenesis imperfecta Osteomalacia Osteomyelitis Paget disease of the bone Rickets X-ray ...

  18. 26 CFR 1.172-4 - Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating... Corporations (continued) § 1.172-4 Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers. (a) General provisions—(1) Years to which loss may be carried—(i) In general. In order to compute the net operating...

  19. Measured Zero Net Energy Performance: Results, Lessons, and Surprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Carrie; LaRue, Anna; Pigman, Margaret; Roberts, Jon; Kaneda, David; Connelly, Dylan; Elliott, John; Pless, Shanti; Pande, Abhijeet; Dean, Edward; Anbarlilar, Can

    2016-08-26

    As more and more zero net energy (ZNE) buildings are built and monitored, we can learn from both careful case studies of individual projects as well as a broader perspective of trends over time. In a forum sponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), eight expert speakers discussed: results and lessons from monitoring occupied ZNE buildings; best practices for setting performance targets and getting actionable performance information, and; things that have surprised them about monitored ZNE buildings. This paper distills the content of the forum by laying out the most common hurdles that are encountered in setting up monitoring projects, frequent performance issues that the monitoring uncovers, and lessons learned that can be applied to future projects.

  20. Effect of chronic metabolic acidosis on bone density and bone architecture in vivo in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Jürg A; Hulter, Henry N; Imboden, Peter; Krapf, Reto

    2014-03-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) might result in a decrease in vivo in bone mass based on its reported in vitro inhibition of bone mineralization, bone formation, or stimulation of bone resorption, but such data, in the absence of other disorders, have not been reported. CMA also results in negative nitrogen balance, which might decrease skeletal muscle mass. This study analyzed the net in vivo effects of CMA's cellular and physicochemical processes on bone turnover, trabecular and cortical bone density, and bone microarchitecture using both peripheral quantitative computed tomography and μCT. CMA induced by NH4Cl administration (15 mEq/kg body wt/day) in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) rats resulted in stable CMA (mean Δ[HCO3(-)]p = 10 mmol/l). CMA decreased plasma osteocalcin and increased TRAP5b in intact and OVX animals. CMA decreased total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) after 6 and 10 wk (week 10: intact normal +2.1 ± 0.9% vs. intact acidosis -3.6 ± 1.2%, P metabolic acidosis induces a large decrease in cortical bone mass (a prime determinant of bone fragility) in intact and OVX rats and impairs bone microarchitecture characterized by a decrease in trabecular number.

  1. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  2. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    reclaim system does not enable Fort Carson to achieve its net zero water goal, which is to reclaim water through the WWTP equal to or greater than the...Class A Recycled Water Plant WWTP rapid infiltration basin #1 (of 4) 426,000 gal water supply storage reservoir Primary Lagoon for WWTP 6 7...cost of water = Longer time to payback  Double charged for incoming and outgoing  Army owned WWTP – true cost of water = water/sewer rates It

  3. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Integrated Net Zero Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Program Office (Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Installations and Environment) 5850 21st Street, Building 211, Second Floor Fort...of energy, water, and waste to capture and commercialize the resource value and/or enhance the ecological productivity of land, water, and air. A...water, and waste to capture and commercialize the resource value and/or enhance the ecological productivity of land, water, and air. A Net Zero

  4. Process expression of bounded Petri nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴哲辉

    1996-01-01

    The concept of process expression of bounded Petri nets is presented.Moreover,an algorithm to find the process expression for a bounded Petri net is given.A process expression of a bounded Petri net is a regular expression whose every alphabet symbol represents a basic subprocess of the net.The regular set expressed by the regular expression is the set of all surjective processes of a bounded Petri net.A surjective process of a bounded Petri net is a process of this net in which every s-cut corresponds to a reachable marking of the net.Therefore,all surjective processes of a bounded Petri net can be obtained as long as its process expression and the basic subprocess represented by the alphabet symbols of the process expression are given.

  5. Bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Charlotte Ørsted; Hansen, Rikke Rie; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal conditions are common causes of chronic pain and there is an unmet medical need for improved treatment options. Bone pain is currently managed with disease modifying agents and/or analgesics depending on the condition. Disease modifying agents affect the underlying pathophysiology...... of the disease and reduce as a secondary effect bone pain. Antiresorptive and anabolic agents, such as bisphosphonates and intermittent parathyroid hormone (1-34), respectively, have proven effective as pain relieving agents. Cathepsin K inhibitors and anti-sclerostin antibodies hold, due to their disease...... modifying effects, promise of a pain relieving effect. NSAIDs and opioids are widely employed in the treatment of bone pain. However, recent preclinical findings demonstrating a unique neuronal innervation of bone tissue and sprouting of sensory nerve fibers open for new treatment possibilities....

  6. Bone graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around the area. The bone graft can be held in place with pins, plates, or screws. Why ... Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francosco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  7. Capturing birds with mist nets: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, B.E.; Grue, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Herein we have tried to provide a comprehensive review of mist-netting techniques suitable for both novice and experienced netters. General mist-netting procedures and modifications developed by netters for particular bird species and habitats are included. Factors which influence capture success, including site selection, net specifications and placement, weather, and time of day, are discussed. Guidelines are presented for the care of netted birds and the use of mist-net data in the study of bird communities. The advantages of the use of mist nets over other methods of capturing birds are also discussed.

  8. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    , etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  9. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple......ClinicalDocument object. This software component is adopted by several Danish companies as PHMR engine for telemedical applications, and is used in the process of writing the Danish PHMR standard....

  10. Behavior Relativity of Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊; 王怀清; 廖少毅

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology for modelling and analyzing of behav-ior relations of concurrent systems. The set of all firing sequences of a Petri net is an importanttool for describing the dynamic behavior of concurrent systems. In this paper, the behaviorrelativity of two concurrent subsystems in their synchronous composition is presented. Such be-havior relativities, including Controlled Relativity, United Relativity, Interactive Relativity andExclusive Relativity, are defined respectively. The properties of the relativities are discussed indetail. The analysis method for these properties is based on minimum T-invariants, when twosubsystems are live bounded Petri nets. A well-known example has also been analyaed usingthe new methodology to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methodology.

  11. Prosocial behavior on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproull, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers and charitable organizations contribute significantly to community welfare through their prosocial behavior: that is, discretionary behavior such as assisting, comforting, sharing, and cooperating intended to help worthy beneficiaries. This essay focuses on prosocial behavior on the Internet. It describes how offline charitable organizations are using the Net to become more efficient and effective. It also considers entirely new models of Net-based volunteer behavior directed at creating socially beneficial information goods and services. After exploring the scope and diversity of online prosocial behavior, the essay focuses on ways to encourage this kind of behavior through appropriate task and social structures, motivational signals, and trust indicators. It concludes by asking how local offline communities ultimately could be diminished or strengthened as prosocial behavior increases online.

  12. Net sustainable buildings: Approaching future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojić, Milorad

    2012-11-01

    For a net sustainable building (NSB), the paper develops its definition, and gives its characteristics. The NSB should provide the maximum thermal comfort were its energy consumption is totally covered by energy of renewable origin during its life cycle. The covered energy consumption should be operational and embodied. The used renewable energy may be that of sun and of anergy. The building may be furthermore evaluated regarding its status with regard to the mismatch, primary energy, emergy, exergy, fossil energy, carbon and dissemination.

  13. 1990 Joint Military Net Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the Office of Net Assessment 6 Deputy Director for Theater Assessments and Planning, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Program Analysis ...countermeasures electronic countermeasures European Economic Community electronic warfare -F- FOFA FY follow-on-forces attack fiscal year -G... analysis of current and projected capabilities of US forces, assisted by allies where appropriate, to deter war and, if deterrence fails, to terminate the

  14. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information › Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your ... compared to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine ...

  15. Advanced Near Net Shape Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) project is to radically improve near net shape manufacturing methods from the current Technology/ Manufacturing Readiness Levels (TRL/MRL 3-4) to the point where they are viable candidates (TRL/ MRL-6) for shortening the time and cost for insertion of new aluminum alloys and revolutionary manufacturing methods into the development/improvement of space structures. Conventional cyrotank manufacturing processes require fabrication of multiple pieces welded together to form a complete tank. A variety of near net shape manufacturing processes has demonstrated excellent potential for enabling single-piece construction of components such as domes, barrels, and ring frames. Utilization of such processes can dramatically reduce the extent of welding and joining needed to construct cryogenic tanks and other aerospace structures. The specific focus of this project is to successfully mature the integrally stiffened cylinder (ISC) process in which a single-piece cylinder with integral stiffeners is formed in one spin/flow forming process. Structural launch vehicle components, like cryogenic fuel tanks (e.g., space shuttle external tank), are currently fabricated via multipiece assembly of parts produced through subtractive manufacturing techniques. Stiffened structural panels are heavily machined from thick plate, which results in excessive scrap rates. Multipiece construction requires welds to assemble the structure, which increases the risk for defects and catastrophic failures.

  16. Assessment of bone loss with repeated bone mineral measurements: Application to measurements on the individual patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahner, H.W.

    1987-02-01

    Longitudinal measurements on lumbar spine and mid-radius were made by bone absorptiometry techniques in 139 normal women. Bone mineral was measured every 6 months over an median interval of 2.1 years. The results revealed that bone loss at different skeletal sites is non-uniform with equal bone loss patterns in all patients and relatively small variations in bone loss rate between normal women. For achieving these results there is strong demand on high precision and properly spaced measuring intervals for long-term rate of loss measurements. For exclusion of progressive degenerative disease a radiographic evaluation of the spine in the beginning and at the end of the study is mandatory as compression fractures or trauma reveal bone mineral changes independent from the agerelated bone loss. These repeated bone mineral measurements are useful for monitoring and follow-up studies during different therapeutic regimens.

  17. Measuring Cloud Service Health Using NetFlow/IPFIX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drago, Idilio; Hofstede, Rick; Sadre, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    to be immediately informed about any problems in their services. This paper aims at a first step toward a network-based approach to monitor cloud services. We focus on severe problems that affect most services, such as outages or extreme server overload, and propose a method to monitor these problems that relies...... solely on the traffic exchanged between users and cloud providers. Our proposal is entirely based on NetFlow/IPFIX data and, therefore, explicitly targets high-speed networks. By combining a methodology to reassemble and classify flow records with stochastic estimations, our proposal has the distinct...... of the targeted services have been only marginally affected by the attacks....

  18. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  19. Introduktion til udvikling af bayesianske net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Bogen introducerer på let og uformelt de centrale grundbegreber i bayesianske net og introducerer til en udviklingsmetode for software, som inkluderer bayesianske net. Metoden kaldes BNAD og inkluderer aktiviteterne preprojekt, kvalitativ modellering, kvantitativ modellering samt...

  20. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  1. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transplant - bone marrow; Stem cell transplant; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Reduced intensity nonmyeloablative transplant; Mini transplant; Allogenic bone marrow transplant; Autologous bone marrow transplant; Umbilical ...

  2. Serum markers of bone metabolism show bone loss in hibernating bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse osteopenia was studied in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) using serum markers of bone metabolism. Blood samples were collected from male and female, wild black bears during winter denning and active summer periods. Radioimmunoassays were done to determine serum concentrations of cortisol, the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of Type I procollagen, which are markers of hone resorption and formation, respectively. The bone resorption marker was significantly higher during winter hibernation than it was in the active summer months, but the bone formation marker was unchanged, suggesting an imbalance in bone remodeling and a net bone loss during disuse. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated with the bone resorption marker, but not with the bone formation marker. The bone formation marker was four- to fivefold higher in an adolescent and a 17-year-old bear early in the remobilization period compared with the later summer months. These findings raise the possibility that hibernating black bears may minimize bone loss during disuse by maintaining osteoblastic function and have a more efficient compensatory mechanism for recovering immobilization-induced bone loss than that of humans or other animals.

  3. NetMOD Version 2.0 User?s Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    NetMOD ( Net work M onitoring for O ptimal D etection) is a Java-based software package for conducting simulation of seismic, hydracoustic, and infrasonic networks. Specifically, NetMOD simulates the detection capabilities of monitoring networks. Network simulations have long been used to study network resilience to station outages and to determine where additional stations are needed to reduce monitoring thresholds. NetMOD makes use of geophysical models to determine the source characteristics, signal attenuation along the path between the source and station, and the performance and noise properties of the station. These geophysical models are combined to simulate the relative amplitudes of signal and noise that are observed at each of the stations. From these signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the probability of detection can be computed given a detection threshold. This manual describes how to configure and operate NetMOD to perform detection simulations. In addition, NetMOD is distributed with simulation datasets for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasonic networks for the purpose of demonstrating NetMOD's capabilities and providing user training. The tutorial sections of this manual use this dataset when describing how to perform the steps involved when running a simulation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank the reviewers of this document for their contributions.

  4. A functional and transcriptomic analysis of NET1 bioactivity in gastric cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, Gayle

    2011-02-01

    Abstract Background NET1, a RhoA guanine exchange factor, is up-regulated in gastric cancer (GC) tissue and drives the invasive phenotype of this disease. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of NET1 in GC by monitoring the proliferation, motility and invasion of GC cells in which NET1 has been stably knocked down. Additionally, we aimed to determine NET1-dependent transcriptomic events that occur in GC. Methods An in vitro model of stable knockdown of NET1 was achieved in AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells via lentiviral mediated transduction of short-hairpin (sh) RNA targeting NET1. Knockdown was assessed using quantitative PCR. Cell proliferation was assessed using an MTS assay and cell migration was assessed using a wound healing scratch assay. Cell invasion was assessed using a transwell matrigel invasion assay. Gene expression profiles were examined using affymetrix oligonucleotide U133A expression arrays. A student\\'s t test was used to determine changes of statistical significance. Results GC cells were transduced with NET1 shRNA resulting in a 97% reduction in NET1 mRNA (p < 0.0001). NET1 knockdown significantly reduced the invasion and migration of GC cells by 94% (p < 0.05) and 24% (p < 0.001) respectively, while cell proliferation was not significantly altered following NET1 knockdown. Microarray analysis was performed on non-target and knockdown cell lines, treated with and without 10 μM lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) allowing us to identify NET1-dependent, LPA-dependent and NET1-mediated LPA-induced gene transcription. Differential gene expression was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Shortlisted NET1-dependent genes included STAT1, TSPAN1, TGFBi and CCL5 all of which were downregulatd upon NET1 downregulation. Shortlisted LPA-dependent genes included EGFR and PPARD where EGFR was upregulated and PPARD was downregulated upon LPA stimulation. Shortlisted NET1 and LPA dependent genes included IGFR1 and PIP5K3. These LPA induced genes were

  5. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  6. Net analyte signal calculation for multivariate calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferre, J.; Faber, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    A unifying framework for calibration and prediction in multivariate calibration is shown based on the concept of the net analyte signal (NAS). From this perspective, the calibration step can be regarded as the calculation of a net sensitivity vector, whose length is the amount of net signal when the

  7. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if...

  8. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  9. No such thing as the Net Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. H.M.M. van Vliet

    2009-01-01

    The propagandization of a Net Generation adds nothing to our understanding of the digital behaviour of young people. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly obvious that the whole concept of a Net Generation rests on incorrect assumptions. Hence, arguments based on a Net Generation are not only irreleva

  10. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an...

  11. Nets, tiles, and metal-organic frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O’Keeffe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of the basic nets that are important in the description and design of metal-organic framework (MOF structures. These are generally of minimal transitivity, a concept which is explained. Derived nets are defined and the advantages of using derived nets to describe the topology of MOF frameworks with multiple branch points are emphasized.

  12. USE OF MIRROR PATTERN CUTTING OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF LAKE BEACH SEINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Justification and calculation of a new methodological approach to the construction of a standard beach seine (502 / 302 х 3.75 with the use of the properties of mirror netting ensuring the saving of the netting material, reduction of weight, price and drag resistance. Methodology. The carp age group selectivity of the constructed seine was assessed within fish fauna monitoring based on the catch analysis of monitoring gill nets with mesh sizes of 30-130 mm according to generally accepted methods [9, 10]. Calculation of netting materials and ropes was carried out according to generally accepted methods [12-14]. Seine resistance was calculated according to N. T. Senin formula for different netting materials and the angles of the movement of different seine parts in water [2]. The gear reliability and data processing were carried out according to standard methods [11, 14, 15]. Findings. A variant of the construction of the maximum lightweight beach lake seines made of mirror pattern netting taking into account the properties of the mirror pattern netting material, reduction of weight, price and drag resistance has been proposed. The provided recalculation of the properties of a serial seine made of rhombic mesh for the mirror netting seine taking into account netting properties allowed: 1 reducing the seine drag resistance value by 1,4 times; 2 reducing the weight of netting materials by 16.3% compared to the prototype; 3 increasing the seine selectivity when fishing older age groups of carp in non-drainable ponds. Originality. We presented the method of the calculation and construction of lake beach seines made of mirror netting, analyzed the technological stages of the construction of mirror netting, determined main qualitative and technological parameters, which had effect on the conditions of the construction and reliability of such fishing gears. A new method of the use of an insert of the combined netting material cutting ensuring

  13. [Bone transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Julián, M; Valentí, A

    2006-01-01

    We describe the methodology of the Bone and Soft Tissue Bank, from extraction and storage until use. Since the year 1986, with the creation of the Bone Bank in the University Clinic of Navarra, more than 3,000 grafts have been used for very different types of surgery. Bone grafts can be classified into cortical and spongy; the former are principally used in surgery to save tumour patients, in large post-traumatic reconstructions and in replacement surgery where there are massive bone defects and a structural support is required. The spongy grafts are the most used due to their numerous indications; they are especially useful in filling cavities that require a significant quantity of graft when the autograft is insufficient, or as a complement. They are also of special help in treating fractures when there is bone loss and in the treatment of delays in consolidation and pseudoarthrosis in little vascularized and atrophic zones. They are also used in prosthetic surgery against the presence of cavity type defects. Allografts of soft tissues are specially recognised in multiple ligament injuries that require reconstructions. Nowadays, the most utilised are those employed in surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament although they can be used for filling any ligament or tendon defect. The principal difficulties of the cortical allografts are in the consolidation of the ends with the bone itself and in tumour surgery, given that these are patients immunodepressed by the treatment, the incidence of infection is increased with respect to spongy grafts and soft tissues, which is irrelevant. In short, the increasingly widespread use of allografts is an essential therapeutic weapon in orthopaedic surgery and traumatology. It must be used by expert hands.

  14. Bone mineral content and bone metabolism in young adults with severe periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wowern von, N.; Westergaard, J.; Kollerup, G.

    2001-01-01

    Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis......Bone loss, bone markers, bone metabolism, bone mineral content, osteoporosis, severe periodontitis...

  15. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  16. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...

  17. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puggaard, L; Kristensen, N B; Sehested, J

    2011-03-01

    Five ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows, fitted with permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric vein, hepatic vein, portal vein, and an artery were used to study intestinal absorption and net recycling of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) to the gastrointestinal tract. Treatments were low P (LP; 2.4 g of P/kg of DM) and high P (HP; 3.4 g of P/kg of DM). The dietary total P (tP) concentrations were obtained by replacing 0.50% calcium carbonate in the LP diet with 0.50% monocalcium phosphate in the HP diet. Diets were fed for 14 d and cows were sampled on d 14 in each period. Cows were fed restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net P(i) recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of P(i)) and apparently digested tP (feed - fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake, apparently digested tP, and fecal tP excretion decreased with LP. An effect of decreased tP intake on net portal plasma flux of P(i) could not be detected. However, despite numerically minute net fluxes across the liver, the net splanchnic flux of P(i) was less in LP compared with that in HP. Though arterial plasma P(i) concentration decreased, net P(i) recycling was not decreased when tP intake was decreased, and recycling of P(i) was maintained at the expense of deposition of P(i) in bones. Data are not consistent with salivary P(i) secretion being the primary regulator of P(i) homeostasis at low tP intakes. On the contrary, maintaining salivary P(i) recycling at low tP intakes indicates that rumen function was prioritized at the expense of bone P reserves.

  18. Bone lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... needle is gently pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  19. Facts about Broken Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Kids > Broken Bones Print A A ... sticking through the skin . What Happens When a Bone Breaks? It hurts to break a bone! It's ...

  20. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  1. Broken Bones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Broken Bones KidsHealth > For Parents > Broken Bones Print A A ... bone fragments in place. When Will a Broken Bone Heal? Fractures heal at different rates, depending upon ...

  2. Bone biopsy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bone biopsy is performed by making a small incision into the skin. A biopsy needle retrieves a sample of bone and it ... examination. The most common reasons for bone lesion biopsy are to distinguish between benign and malignant bone ...

  3. Mapping PUNITY to UniNet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuoFu(周国富); YUAN ChongYi(袁崇义)

    2003-01-01

    To solve the problems of the interleaving assumption and the single resource inPUNITY (Petri net and UNITY) and Petri net respectively, this paper proposes a set of mappingrules from PUNITY to UniNet. Based on these rules, problems of one field can be transformed toproblems of the other field and powerful tools of Petri net and UNITY can be used. The papergives a sketch of the mapping rules and applies the rules to an example. Meanwhile, the mappingrules can help computer to translate PUNITY to UniNet easily.

  4. Petri nets semantics ofπ-calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua YU; Yuanli CAI; Haiping XU

    2008-01-01

    As π-calculus based on the interleaving semantics cannot depict the true concurrency and has few supporting tools,it is translated into Petri nets.π-calculus is divided into basic elements,sequence,concurrency,choice and recursive modules.These modules are translated into Petri nets to construct a complicated system.Petri nets semantics for π-calculus visualize system structure as well as system behaviors.The structural analysis techniques allow direct qualitative analysis of the system properties on the structure of the nets.Finally,Petri nets semantics for π-calculus are illustrated by applying them to mobile telephone systems.

  5. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    as a mechanism for modules in Petri nets that is independent from a particular version of Petri nets and that can mimic many composition mechanisms by a simple import and export concept. Due to its generality, the semantics of modular PNML was only informally defined. Moreover, modular PNML did not define which...... concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed...

  6. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...... and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  7. Verifying Time Petri Nets by Linear Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宣东

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes an approach to solving some verification problems of time Petri nets using linear programming. The approach is based on the observation that for loop-closed time Petri nets, it is only necessary to investigate a finite prefix of an untimed run of the underlying Petri net. Using the technique the paper gives solutions to reachability and bounded delay timing analysis problems. For both problems algorithms are given, that are decision procedures for loop-closed time Petri nets, and semi-decision procedures for general time Petri nets.

  8. Osteoclasts prefer aged bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, K; Leeming, Diana Julie; Byrjalsen, I

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether the age of the bones endogenously exerts control over the bone resorption ability of the osteoclasts, and found that osteoclasts preferentially develop and resorb bone on aged bone. These findings indicate that the bone matrix itself plays a role in targeted remodeling...... of aged bones....

  9. Petri net based modeling and analysis for weldingflexible manufacturing cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Due to the development of advanced manufacturing technology and the introduction of Smart-Manufacturing notion in the field of modern industrial production, welding flexible manufacturing using robot technology has become the inevitable developing direction on welding automation. Based on a new intelligent arc-welding flexible manufacturing cell (WFMC), its system structure and control policies are studied in this paper. Aiming at the different information flows among every subsystem and central monitoring computer in this WFMC, Petri net theory is introduced into the process of welding manufacturing. A discrete control model of WFMC has been constructed, in which the system’s status is regarded as place and the control process is regarded as transition. Moreover, grounded on automation Petri net principle, the judging and utilizing of information obtained from welding sensors are imported into Petri net structure, which extends the traditional Petri net concepts. The control model and policies researched in this paper have established foundation for further intelligent real-time control on welding flexible manufacturing cell and system.

  10. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Ernst K F Fröhlich

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Numerous studies have documented a high prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. More new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with broken keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hen...

  11. Physical condition and maintenance of mosquito bed nets in Kwale County, coastal Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutuku Francis M

    2013-02-01

    important predictor of physical integrity. On average, the nets were washed twice within six months prior to the survey. Washing frequency was significantly influenced by the bed net colour and bed net age. Lack of knowledge on reasons for net retreatment and the retreatment procedure was evident, while net repair was minimal and did not seem to improve the physical condition of the nets. The “catch-up” bed net distribution strategies are sufficient for ensuring adequate ownership and utilization of ‘effective nets’ in the targeted groups, but bi-annual mass distribution is necessary to provide similar ownership and utilization for the other groups not targeted by “catch-up” strategies. Conclusions Monitoring and maintenance strategies that will deliver locally appropriate education messages on net washing and repair will enhance the effectiveness of malaria control programmes, and further research to assess ineffective nets need is needed.

  12. Investigation of FEWS NET Requirements for Earth Observation of Precipitation and Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, K. W.; Brown, M. E.; Underwood, L. W.; Verdin, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    A questionnaire was disseminated to expert end-users and experts in Earth science information for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). FEWS NET provides monitoring and early warning support to the U.S. Agency for International Development and to other decision makers responsible for responding to food insecurity and preventing famine. To achieve this, FEWS NET utilizes a variety of data types, including satellite remote sensing data to identify climatic hazards that threaten subsistence agricultural and pastoralist livelihoods. Local and regional representatives in developing countries who have direct interaction with the data provide interpretations that inform program decision makers. This review was conducted to elicit Earth observation requirements for FEWS NET. In particular, FEWS NET uses satellite observations to monitor rainfall and vegetation conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. This review focused upon operational requirements of FEWS NET end-users to determine the necessary qualities of useful remote sensing data and, subsequently, the desired properties of certain biophysical predictions. The review was implemented in 2007, as an on-line questionnaire, completed by over 40 experts from around the world, and was designed to refine FEWS NET input requirements. This allowed a robust set of professional perspectives to be gathered and analyzed rapidly, both informing current funded work and providing a model for rapid requirements definition for Earth science applications. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products. The requirements investigated covered a range of temporal and spatial properties of inputs, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. Requirements necessary to enhance FEWS NET were determined; overall, it was

  13. The QuarkNet Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, A.

    2003-12-01

    QuarkNet is a long-term high school education project, supported by NSF and DOE and carried out by a collaboration of university and laboratory research groups. These research groups are part of major international particle physics experiments, including those at CERN in Switzerland, Fermilab in Illinois, and SLAC in California. Goals and Objectives: A major goal is to engage students and teachers in authentic scientific research; they gain a first-hand understanding of research and its application in the inquiry method of learning. Teachers enhance their content knowledge, increase their abilities to solve science-related problems, engage students in scientific inquiry, and develop responsibility for their own professional development. Students learn fundamental physics and are motivated by current research questions as they analyze real data. A second goal is to engage particle physicists with current issues in science education, including their understanding of the National Science Education Standards and local science education needs and what constitutes age-appropriate content. Project Design: Working with physicists nationwide, we have established a project framework with three program areas-teacher research experience, teacher development programs, and online resources and inquiry-based activities. Eight-week research appointments allow teachers to experience scientific research first-hand. In teacher institutes the next summer these teachers and scientists lead a group of teachers through a short research scenario lasting two to three weeks and assist them in creating similar scenarios for their students. When fully implemented QuarkNet will support centers associated with 60 particle physics research groups at universities and laboratories in the U. S. The QuarkNet website provides: - Experimental data for use in inquiry-based activities. - Opportunities for communication and collaboration among physicists, teachers and students. - A place for students to

  14. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Siikonen, Timo; Palin, Matti

    2017-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Strawman Scientific Payload The strawman payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: - MetBaro Pressure device - MetHumi Humidity device - MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: - PanCam Panoramic - MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer - DS Dust sensor Composition and Structure Devices: Tri-axial magnetometer MOURA Tri-axial System Accelerometer The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis

  15. Computation and control with neural nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corneliusen, A.; Terdal, P.; Knight, T.; Spencer, J.

    1989-10-04

    As energies have increased exponentially with time so have the size and complexity of accelerators and control systems. NN may offer the kinds of improvements in computation and control that are needed to maintain acceptable functionality. For control their associative characteristics could provide signal conversion or data translation. Because they can do any computation such as least squares, they can close feedback loops autonomously to provide intelligent control at the point of action rather than at a central location that requires transfers, conversions, hand-shaking and other costly repetitions like input protection. Both computation and control can be integrated on a single chip, printed circuit or an optical equivalent that is also inherently faster through full parallel operation. For such reasons one expects lower costs and better results. Such systems could be optimized by integrating sensor and signal processing functions. Distributed nets of such hardware could communicate and provide global monitoring and multiprocessing in various ways e.g. via token, slotted or parallel rings (or Steiner trees) for compatibility with existing systems. Problems and advantages of this approach such as an optimal, real-time Turing machine are discussed. Simple examples are simulated and hardware implemented using discrete elements that demonstrate some basic characteristics of learning and parallelism. Future microprocessors' are predicted and requested on this basis. 19 refs., 18 figs.

  16. 多发性骨髓瘤骨病临床特点及监测骨代谢标志物的临床意义%Clinical characteristics of bone disease in multiple myeloma and clinical significance of monitoring bone metabolic markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚彬; 陆敏秋; 吴梦青; 石磊; 付丽娜; 高珊; 房立娟; 项秋晴; 鲍立

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical characteristics of bone disease in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and the clinical significance of monitoring bone metabolic markers.Methods The data of 178 MM cases newly diagnosed in Beijing Ji Shui Tan Hospital from January 2009 to June 2014 were reviewed to analysis the types and classification of bone disease and to observe the clinical characteristics of patients with different grades of bone disease.The levels of bone metabolic markers total procollagen type Ⅰ N-terminal peptide (tPINP) and β C-terminal telopeptide of type Ⅰ collagen (β-CTX) were monitored regularly in the two years following treatment in 66 cases.Results (1) Among the 178 newly diagnosed MM cases,167 cases complained of pain in bones on first visit,35 cases combined with hypercalcemia,83 cases combined with osteoporosis,154 cases combined with osteolytic bone destruction,and 73 cases combined with pathologic fracture.The most common osteolytic location was the spine.The most common fracture sites was the spine.(2) According to bone disease grading,the 178 cases were divided into group A (bone grade0-2,n=51) and group B(bone grade 3-4,n=127).There were no significant differences between group A and group B in gender,median age,therapeutic effect/ineffec,median overall survival,median progress-free survival,mean serum lactic dehydrogenase,mean albumin,urine light chains and serum creatinine (all P > 0.05).Compared with group A,group B had lower hemoglobin level [(99.78 ± 29.93) vs (108.84 ± 29.30) g/L],and higher blood calcium level [(2.47 ± 0.40) vs (2.30 ± 0.29) mmol/L],serum β2-microglobuin level[(6.04 ±4.84)vs (4.12 ±3.97)mg/L],and bone marrow plasma cells percentage(33.30% ± 24.87% vs 23.51% ± 22.67%) (all P < 0.05).(3) Before treatment,the levels of β-CTX and tPINP in patients of group B (n =47) were higher than those in group A (n =19) (median 0.78 vs 0.42 μg/L,60.95 vs 43.47 μg/L,both P <0.05).The ratio of

  17. Multiple verification in computational modeling of bone pathologies

    CERN Document Server

    Liò, Pietro; Paoletti, Nicola; 10.4204/EPTCS.67.8

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a model checking approach to diagnose the emerging of bone pathologies. The implementation of a new model of bone remodeling in PRISM has led to an interesting characterization of osteoporosis as a defective bone remodeling dynamics with respect to other bone pathologies. Our approach allows to derive three types of model checking-based diagnostic estimators. The first diagnostic measure focuses on the level of bone mineral density, which is currently used in medical practice. In addition, we have introduced a novel diagnostic estimator which uses the full patient clinical record, here simulated using the modeling framework. This estimator detects rapid (months) negative changes in bone mineral density. Independently of the actual bone mineral density, when the decrease occurs rapidly it is important to alarm the patient and monitor him/her more closely to detect insurgence of other bone co-morbidities. A third estimator takes into account the variance of the bone density, which could address the...

  18. Bone turnover markers in patients with type 1 Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Giuffrida

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bone complications occur frequently in Gaucher disease (GD and reduce the quality of life of these patients. Skeletal involvement is an important indication for treatment to ameliorate symptoms and reduce the risk of irreversible and debilitating disease. Bone biomarkers have been used to assess disease status and the response to therapy in a number of bone disorders. Here, we examine the literature for evidence of abnormalities in bone turnover markers in patients with type 1 GD to assess whether they might be useful for the assessment of bone involvement in GD. We have found that bone biomarkers in GD show highly variable results which do not currently support their routine use for clinical assessment of bone status, as an indication for therapy initiation, or for monitoring the response to therapy. A greater understanding of bone markers and their relation to the bone manifestations of GD is required.

  19. Bound states in string nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  20. Bound states in string nets

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, M D; Vidal, J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  1. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  2. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy E. Rustico, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic bone disease (MBD of prematurity remains a significant problem for preterm, chronically ill neonates. The definition and recommendations for screening and treatment of MBD vary in the literature. A recent American Academy of Pediatrics Consensus Statement may help close the gap in institutional variation, but evidence based practice guidelines remain obscure due to lack of normative data and clinical trials for preterm infants. This review highlights mineral homeostasis physiology, current recommendations in screening and monitoring, prevention and treatment strategies, and an added perspective of a bone health team serving a high volume referral neonatal intensive care center.

  3. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  4. Petri Nets for Biologically Motivated Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kleijn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Petri nets are a general and well-established model of concurrent and distributed computation and behaviour, including that taking place in biological systems. In this survey paper, we are concerned with intrinsic relationships between Petri nets and two formal models inspired by aspects of the functioning of the living cell: membrane systems and reaction systems. In particular, we are interested in the benefits that can result from establishing strong semantical links between Petri nets and membrane systems and reaction systems. We first discuss Petri nets with localities reflecting the compartmentalisation modelled in membrane systems. Then special attention is given to set-nets, a new Petri net model for reaction systems and their qualitative approach to the investigation of the processes carried out by biochemical reactions taking place in the living cell.

  5. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  6. Zooplankton species identities and other data from net tows from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV and other platforms from NE Atlantic (limit-40 W) as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1977-04-20 to 1986-12-10 (NCEI Accession 9400006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton species identities and other data were collected from net tows from NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV and other platforms in the NE Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 20...

  7. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  8. Modeling of economic systems with Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Valeryevich Skorodumov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling is one of the most important tools to study complex systems. Components of both continuous and discrete nature are present in the behavior of contemporary economic systems. The article uses formalism of nested hybrid Petri nets as a tool to study complex economic systems. The author describes basic approaches of simulation modelling, concepts of classical Petri nets, modified means of nested hybrid Petri nets, benefits of their use for systems modeling. The article presents the concept of a universal system of simulation modeling. On the basis of considered approaches the article proposes to develop a universal system of simulation modeling on the basis of the modified machine Petri nets

  9. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  10. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  11. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  12. Discrete, Continuous, and Hybrid Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Petri Nets were introduced and still successfully used to analyze and model discrete event systems especially in engineering and computer sciences such as in automatic control. Recently this discrete Petri Nets formalism was successfully extended to continuous and hybrid systems. This monograph presents a well written and clearly organized introduction in the standard methods of Petri Nets with the aim to reach an accurate understanding of continuous and hybrid Petri Nets, while preserving the consistency of basic concepts throughout the book. The book is a monograph as well as a didactic tool

  13. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  14. A neglected requirement for optimizing treatment of age-related osteoporosis: Replenishing the skeleton's base reservoir with net base-producing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Anthony; Frassetto, Lynda A

    2016-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a disorder of bone in which the mass of the bone is reduced and the bone's architecture at the microscopic level is disordered. Together those abnormalities predispose affected individuals to experience fractures despite only minimal trauma (i.e., fragility fractures). Age related osteoporosis is a common type of osteoporosis that occurs with aging in both men and women usually beginning after the age of peak bone mass. Research has found that the disorder can be partially reversed by reducing the net amount of acid that is produced when consuming typical Western diets. However, the amelioration that results has not been so dramatic or so consistent that physicians have adopted the procedure as part of the standard treatment for age-related osteoporosis. We propose that reducing the net acid load from the diet is not sufficient to reverse age related osteoporosis because it fails to supply base needed to restore the large amount of base in bone that had been lost by reacting with the net acid load of the diet that had been consumed for years or decades. Reducing the net acid load from the diet might be expected to have little ameliorative effect or merely slow the progression of the disorder. We hypothesize that both to restore osteoporotic bone to, or nearly to, its pre-disease state, as well as to eliminate the risk of fragility fractures, requires consuming diets that produce net amounts of base to restore the base lost from years to decades of consuming diets that produce net amounts of acid. We hypothesize also that the excess base and attendant subclinical metabolic alkalosis will both stimulate the cellular process of bone formation and suppress the cellular process of bone resorption, and thereby implement the restorative process.

  15. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Apestigue, Victor; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Uspensky, Mikhail; Haukka, Harri

    2016-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. Strawman Scientific Payload The strawman payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: • MetBaro Pressure device • MetHumi Humidity device • MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: • PanCam Panoramic • MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer • DS Dust sensor Composition and Structure Devices: • Tri-axial magnetometer MOURA • Tri-axial System Accelerometer The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special

  16. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  17. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  18. MONITORING OF OSTEOPOROSIS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narula Ramesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is far the most common metabolic bone disease and is often called the "silent" disease, because bone loss occurs without symptoms. People often don't know they have the disease until bone breaks, following trivial injury. The consequences of osteoporosis are financial, physical, and psychosocial, which significantly affect the individual as well as the family and community. Osteoporosis bone fractures are responsible for considerable pain, decreased quality of life, lost workdays, and disability. Notably, one in five patients is no longer living one year after sustaining an osteoporotic hip fracture. It is projected that the number of hip fractures worldwide will exceed six million by 2050. These facts make osteoporosis a critical health issue and entire world focus has shifted on to osteoporotic fractures.Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA has become standard method for determining bone marrow density. By measuring BMD, it is possible to predict fracture risk in the same manner that measuring blood pressure can help predict the risk of stroke. Approximately 10 -15% of patients with osteoporosis fail to respond to treatment. As in most chronic diseases, compliance is usually poor in patients on long term treatment of osteoporosis. Thus, the aim of monitoring should be to increase adherence to treatment as well as to ascertain response to treatment. Because fracture events are uncommon, they cannot be used to monitor drug effectiveness. Repeat BMD measurement especially at the spine, is recommended once every two years to confirm treatment response.

  19. 骨生化指标在骨肿瘤中的临床应用进展%Clinical application progress of bone biochemical markers in bone tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周定; 张琪琪; 胡勇

    2014-01-01

    Bone tumors refer to benign and malignant tumors which originate from mesenchymal stem cells and occur in bone tissues and their accessory structures. The pathogenesis and etiology of bone tumors still remain unclear, and the diagnosis methods of bone tumors are stagnating now. X-ray, computed tomography ( CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) are important in diagnosing and evaluating bone tumors, but they cannot detect the lesions until the bone destruction reaches a certain degree. Isotope bone scan can detect the microscopic lesions of bone, whereas it is too expensive and the speciifcity is poor, with high false positive rates. At present, the golden standard for the diagnosis of bone tumors is the histopathological examination of bone. However, it is dififcult to achieve early diagnosis, and it is likely to miss the best treatment period. Every disease is inevitably accompanied by molecular biological changes in the body. Biochemical markers can promptly detect the property changes of bone tumor cells, including unlimited proliferation, apoptosis, active neoangiogenesis, inifltrative growth, metastatic growth and so on. Therefore, it is of great signiifcance for the diagnosis of bone tumors to detect appropriate biochemical markers in the patients. The normal bone metabolism is maintained by the dynamic balance of bone resorption and bone formation. When bone tumors occur, the balance will be disturbed. The bone biochemical markers which relfect bone resorption and bone formation are sensitive indicators of early abnormal bone metabolism. Recently, a large number of studies have explored the significance of bone biochemical markers in patients with bone tumors. The functions of bone biochemical markers in patients with bone tumors mainly include making an early detection of microscopic tumor lesions to start early treatment ( diagnostic effects ), evaluating the effects ( therapeutic monitoring ), evaluating the prognosis and predicting the risk of

  20. Petri nets and other models of concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Sassone, Vladimiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency.......This paper retraces, collects, and summarises contributions of the authors - in collaboration with others - on the theme of Petri nets and their categorical relationships to other models of concurrency....

  1. Incremental Net Effects in Multiple Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovetsky, Stan; Conklin, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A regular problem in regression analysis is estimating the comparative importance of the predictors in the model. This work considers the 'net effects', or shares of the predictors in the coefficient of the multiple determination, which is a widely used characteristic of the quality of a regression model. Estimation of the net effects can be a…

  2. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  3. Net Tuition Trends in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Andrew; Coleman, James; Zhong, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the latest trends in net tuition for American higher education. Affordability has become a topic of concern for many, but there is a lack of information on the relevant concepts of tuition, primarily published vs. net. This report seeks to shed light on this topic. While few doubt that published tuition rates (sticker price)…

  4. Reachability via Compositionality in Petri nets

    OpenAIRE

    Sobocinski, Paweł; Stephens, Owen

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel technique for checking reachability in Petri nets that relies on a recently introduced compositional algebra of nets. We prove that the technique is correct, and discuss our implementation. We report promising experimental results on some well-known examples.

  5. Link-Net : improving railcar fleet management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, G.; Partington, M. [Procor Limited, Oakville, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Information about Link-Net, a new rail car information facility available on Netscape, was presented. Link-Net was developed by Ontario`s Procor Limited. It can be used to find a comprehensive list of data on rail fleet management, down to details about the status of single cars. 6 figs.

  6. Net Shape Manufacturing of Aeroengine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Direct laser fabrication (DLF) and Net shape HIPping are two net shape manufacturing technologies which are being studied in the IRC. The direct... laser fabrication technique can produce 3-D components from their CAD files from metal powder and using a laser, the movement of which follows the paths

  7. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Investment Income Tax; Final and Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 231 / Monday, December... Parts 1 and 602 RIN 1545-BK44 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect...

  8. Using the MVC architecture on . NET platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ježek, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with usage of MVC (Model View Controller) technology in web development on ASP.NET platform from Microsoft. Mainly it deals with latest version of framework ASP.NET MVC 3. First part describes MVC architecture and the second describes usage of MVC in certain parts of web application an comparing with PHP.

  9. Policy for the Net and the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braman, Sandra

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the literature on Internet information policy: an awareness of new policy issues, attempts to apply existing legal regulations to new processes, and the need for new policies for the Net. Explores policy issues that affect the structure of government, the economy, society, designers of the Net, and international issues. Contains 658…

  10. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our app

  11. Net Charge Fluctuation and String Fragmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABen-Hao; CAIXu; TAIAn; ZHOUDai-Mei

    2004-01-01

    We present the simulation results of the net charge fluctuation in Au+Au collisions at √Snn=130 GeV from a dynamic model, JPCIAE, and its revisions. The simulations are done for the quark-gluon matter, the directly produced pions, the pion matter, and the hadron matter. The simulated net charge fluctuation of the quark-gluon matter is close to the thermal model prediction for the quark-gluon gas. However, the discrepancy exists comparing the simulated net charge fluctuation for directly produced pions and the pion matter with the thermal model prediction for pion gas and the resonance pion gas, respectively. The net charge fluctuation of hadron matter from default JPCIAE simulations is nearly 3.5 times larger than quark-gluon matter. A discussion is given for the net charge fluctuation as an evidence of QGP phase transition.

  12. Discrete, continuous, and hybrid petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, René

    2004-01-01

    Petri nets do not designate a single modeling formalism. In fact, newcomers to the field confess sometimes to be a little puzzled by the diversity of formalisms that are recognized under this "umbrella". Disregarding some extensions to the theoretical modeling capabilities, and looking at the level of abstraction of the formalisms, Condition/Event, Elementary, Place/Transition, Predicate/Transition, Colored, Object Oriented... net systems are frequently encountered in the literature. On the other side, provided with appropriate interpretative extensions, Controled Net Systems, Marking Diagrams (the Petri net generalization of State Diagrams), or the many-many variants in which time can be explicitly incorporated -Time(d), Deterministic, (Generalized) Stochastic, Fuzzy...- are defined. This represents another way to define practical formalisms that can be obtained by the "cro- product" of the two mentioned dimensions. Thus Petri nets constitute a modeling paradigm, understandable in a broad sense as "the total...

  13. “The NET outcome”: are neutrophil extracellular traps of any relevance to the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders in childhood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Giaglis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation represents a form of cell death distinct from apoptosis or necrosis, by which invading pathogens are simultaneously entangled and potentially eliminated. Increased NET formation is observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated and small vessel vasculitis (SVV, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS and psoriasis. NETs contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity by exposing cryptic autoepitopes, which may facilitate the generation of autoantibodies, induce the production of interferons and activate the complement cascade. In SLE, augmented disease activity and renal disease are associated with increased NET formation, so that NETs could serve as a marker for the monitoring of disease activity. NETs can additionally cause endothelial cell damage and death and stimulate inflammation in atheromatous plaques, adding to the accelerated atherosclerosis witnessed in autoimmune disease. Since NETs induce production of interferons, assessing the extent of NET formation might facilitate the prediction of IFN-alpha levels and identification of SLE patients with presumably better responses to anti-IFN-alpha therapies or other novel therapeutic concepts, such as N-acetyl-cysteine and inhibitors of DNase 1, and peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4, which also target NETs. In summary, the study of NETs provides a novel approach to the understanding of autoimmune disease pathogenesis and opens new vistas in the development of sensitive disease markers and therapies.

  14. Commercial Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum) culture in British Columbia, Canada: The effects of predator netting on intertidal sediment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Daphne; McKinley, R. Scott

    2007-03-01

    Quantifying risks posed by aquaculture to adjacent coastal ecosystems is necessary to ensure long term stability of coastal systems and the sustainability of industries that exist therein. Research has demonstrated that the use of predator netting in shellfish aquaculture increases sedimentation rates and productivity; here we examine the influence of netting on the west coast of Canada. Changes in percent silt (sediment particles gravel (sediment particles >2 mm), organic and inorganic carbon levels and temperature, and differences in clam populations were monitored on paired netted and non-netted Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum) plots on four farmed beaches at Baynes Sound, British Columbia in 2003 and 2004. There were no significant differences in the levels of silt ( p = 0.129, n = 8), gravel ( p = 0.723, n = 8), or inorganic carbon ( p = 0.070, n = 8) between netted and non-netted plots. However, the level of organic carbon was significantly higher on netted plots ( p = 0.014, n = 8) and a slight temperature buffering effect of the netting during low-tide events over the period of study. There were significantly more T. philippinarum on netted plots compared to non-netted plots ( p = 0.001, n = 8) and the length frequency distribution of the populations also differed ( p Sound British Columbia, has limited effect on the sediment.

  15. “The NET Outcome”: Are Neutrophil Extracellular Traps of Any Relevance to the Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Disorders in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaglis, Stavros; Hahn, Sinuhe; Hasler, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation represents a form of cell death distinct from apoptosis or necrosis, by which invading pathogens are simultaneously entangled and potentially eliminated. Increased NET formation is observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated small vessel vasculitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), and psoriasis. NETs contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity by exposing cryptic autoepitopes, which may facilitate the generation of autoantibodies, induce the production of interferons, and activate the complement cascade. In SLE, augmented disease activity and renal disease are associated with increased NET formation, so that NETs could serve as a marker for the monitoring of disease activity. NETs can additionally cause endothelial cell damage and death and stimulate inflammation in atheromatous plaques, adding to the accelerated atherosclerosis witnessed in autoimmune disease. Since NETs induce production of interferons, assessing the extent of NET formation might facilitate the prediction of IFN-alpha levels and identification of SLE patients with presumably better responses to anti-IFN-alpha therapies or other novel therapeutic concepts, such as N-acetyl-cysteine and inhibitors of DNase 1 and peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), which also target NETs. In summary, the study of NETs provides a novel approach to the understanding of autoimmune disease pathogenesis in childhood and opens new vistas in the development of sensitive disease markers and targeted therapies. PMID:27679792

  16. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (85 ... late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  17. Anorexia nervosa and bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe low weight that is associated with low bone mass, impaired bone structure, and reduced bone strength, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk...

  18. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...

  19. Pro visual C++/CLI and the net 35 platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Pro Visual C++/CLI and the .NET 3.5 Platform is about writing .NET applications using C++/CLI. While readers are learning the ins and outs of .NET application development, they will also be learning the syntax of C++, both old and new to .NET. Readers will also gain a good understanding of the .NET architecture. This is truly a .NET book applying C++ as its development language not another C++ syntax book that happens to cover .NET.

  20. Connective Tissue Breakdown and Bone Morphology Change Following Increased Intensity Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    sources are numerous and include mature collagen of cartilage, tendon, ligament, muscle fascia , intra and extracellular procollagen, and soluble collagen...effects of 5 months of loading exercise on distal forearm bone density. Results indicated localized increases in bone density with no change in bone... muscle (9,12). In this study, blood was sampled at only two times, and in addition, we did not measure collagen synthesis. Therefore, the net balance

  1. Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 ± 0.32 °C, and late May: 17.17 ± 0.08 °C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A ‘0 d’ control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 °C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 °C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 °C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 °C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

  2. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  3. A Review of the Enviro-Net Project

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorello, Gilberto Z; Nascimento, Mario A

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystems monitoring is essential to properly understand their development and the effects of events, both climatological and anthropological in nature. The amount of data used in these assessments is increasing at very high rates. This is due to increasing availability of sensing systems and the development of new techniques to analyze sensor data. The Enviro-Net Project encompasses several of such sensor system deployments across five countries in the Americas. These deployments use a few different ground-based sensor systems, installed at different heights monitoring the conditions in tropical dry forests over long periods of time. This paper presents our experience in deploying and maintaining these systems, retrieving and pre-processing the data, and describes the Web portal developed to help with data management, visualization and analysis.

  4. Visual Studio 2010 and NET 4 Six-in-One

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Istvan; Granicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage of all key .NET 4 and Visual Studio 2010 languages and technologies. .NET 4 is Microsoft's latest version of their core programming platform, and Visual Studio 2010 is the toolset that helps write .NET 4 applications. This comprehensive resource offers one-stop shopping for all you need to know to get productive with .NET 4. Experienced author and .NET guru Mitchel Sellers reviews all the important new features of .NET 4, including .NET charting and ASP.NET charting, ASP.NET dynamic data and jQuery, and the addition of F# as a supported package language. The expansive coverag

  5. The Mode of Net-Virus Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShanXiuming; LiYing; JiaoJian; LiuYang; RenYong; QiuBen; CaoYiqun

    2004-01-01

    The computer network is not only of benefit to people, but also helpful for the spreading of viruses. The net-viruses spread more widely and rapidly than the traditional viruses, and network has become the major path of the virus spreading. The author analyzes the mode of the net-virus spreading, including E-mail spreading, positive scanning spreading and through-server spreading. Then some defense strategies in the anti-virus field are introduced, and some countermeasures of the net computer users are discussed.

  6. Net worth and housing equity in retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai, Todd; Nicholas S. Souleles

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the trends in the life-cycle profiles of net worth and housing equity between 1983 and 2004. The net worth of older households significantly increased during the housing boom of recent years. However, net worth grew by more than housing equity, in part because other assets also appreciated at the same time. Moreover, the younger elderly offset rising house prices by increasing their housing debt, and used some of the proceeds to invest in other assets. We also consider ho...

  7. Net-a-Porter我是传奇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏

    2011-01-01

    创立11年,市值3.5亿英镑。平均每月全球有数百万人登录,平均每天送出1000件商品,平均每笔订单达850美元。在金融危机影响最深重的2O08年,Net-a-Porter销售飙升234%。这些数字足以记录出奢侈品购物网站先驱Net-a-Porter的成就。Net-a-Porter,是一个传奇。

  8. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  9. News from KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Ulrich F., E-mail: katz@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (Germany); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  10. Bohrification of local nets of observables

    CERN Document Server

    Nuiten, Joost

    2011-01-01

    Recent results by Spitters et. al. suggest that quantum phase space can usefully be regarded as a ringed topos via a process called Bohrification. They show that quantum kinematics can then be interpreted as classical kinematics, internal to this ringed topos. We extend these ideas from quantum mechanics to algebraic quantum field theory: from a net of observables we construct a presheaf of quantum phase spaces. We can then naturally express the causal locality of the net as a descent condition on the corresponding presheaf of ringed toposes: we show that the net of observables is local, precisely when the presheaf of ringed toposes satisfies descent by a local geometric morphism.

  11. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically, the....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  12. Bone marrow edema syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korompilias, Anastasios V.; Lykissas, Marios G.; Beris, Alexandros E. [University of Ioannina, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Ioannina (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [University of Crete School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Heraklion (Greece)

    2009-05-15

    Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) refers to transient clinical conditions with unknown pathogenic mechanism, such as transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH), regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO), and reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). BMES is primarily characterized by bone marrow edema (BME) pattern. The disease mainly affects the hip, the knee, and the ankle of middle-aged males. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology of BMES remains obscure. The hallmark that separates BMES from other conditions presented with BME pattern is its self-limited nature. Laboratory tests usually do not contribute to the diagnosis. Histological examination of the lesion is unnecessary. Plain radiographs may reveal regional osseous demineralization. Magnetic resonance imaging is mainly used for the early diagnosis and monitoring the progression of the disease. Early differentiation from other aggressive conditions with long-term sequelae is essential in order to avoid unnecessary treatment. Clinical entities, such as TOH, RMO, and RSD are spontaneously resolving, and surgical treatment is not needed. On the other hand, early differential diagnosis and surgical treatment in case of osteonecrosis is of crucial importance. (orig.)

  13. Combined intervention of dietary soybean proteins and swim training: effects on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figard, Hélène; Mougin, Fabienne; Gaume, Vincent; Berthelot, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Soybean proteins, a rich source of isoflavones, taken immediately after an ovariectomy prevent bone loss in rats. Exercise-induced stimuli are essential for bone growth. Few studies exist about the combined effects of swim training and soybean protein supplementation on bone metabolism. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate, in 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old) the effects of an 8-week swim-training regimen (1 h/day, 5 days/week) and dietary soybean proteins (200 g/kg diet) on bone metabolism. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) ovariectomized fed with a semisynthetic control diet; (2) ovariectomized fed with a soybean protein-enriched semisynthetic diet; (3) ovariectomized trained to exercise and fed with control diet; (4) ovariectomized trained to exercise and fed with a soybean protein diet. Following the treatment period, body weight gain was identical in the four groups. Soybean protein supplementation increased bone calcium content, and reduced plasma osteocalcin values, without significant modification of calcium balance and net calcium absorption. Swim training enhanced plasma and bone calcium content and calcium balance and net calcium absorption. It did not modify either plasma osteocalcin values or urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion. Both exercise and soybean protein intake increased plasma on bone calcium without modifying net calcium absorption or bone markers. In conclusion, we demonstrated, in ovariectomized rats, that swimming exercise and dietary supplementation with soy proteins do not have synergistic effects on calcium metabolism and bone markers.

  14. Place-Based Learning: Interactive Learning and Net-Zero Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holser, Alec; Becker, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Food and conservation science curriculum, net-zero design and student-based building performance monitoring have come together in the unique and innovative new Music and Science Building for Oregon's Hood River Middle School. The school's Permaculture-based curriculum both informed the building design and was also transformed through the…

  15. Place-Based Learning: Interactive Learning and Net-Zero Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holser, Alec; Becker, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Food and conservation science curriculum, net-zero design and student-based building performance monitoring have come together in the unique and innovative new Music and Science Building for Oregon's Hood River Middle School. The school's Permaculture-based curriculum both informed the building design and was also transformed through the…

  16. Ethernet Flow Monitoring with IPFIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, R.J.; Drago, Idilio; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    The increasing amount of network traffic and the huge bandwidth needed to carry it requires managers to use scalable solutions to monitor their networks. Nowadays, flow-based techniques, such as Cisco’s NetFlow, provide aggregated network data and an overview of network activity at the IP layer.

  17. Ethernet Flow Monitoring with IPFIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Rick; Drago, Idilio; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2011-01-01

    The increasing amount of network traffic and the huge bandwidth needed to carry it requires managers to use scalable solutions to monitor their networks. Nowadays, flow-based techniques, such as Cisco’s NetFlow, provide aggregated network data and an overview of network activity at the IP layer. How

  18. Osteocalcin: an emerging biomarker for bone turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Rathore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteocalcin (OC is produced by osteoblasts during bone formation. OC is excreted into urine by glomerular filtration and can be found as fragments in urine. The presence of three vitamin K-dependent and #947;-carboxyglutamic acid residues is critical for osteocalcin's structure, which appears to regulate the maturation of bone mineral. Recent bone biology research have highlighted the importance of bone not only as a structural scaffold to support the human body, but also as a regulator of a metabolic processes that are independent of mineral metabolism. Circulating osteocalcin is present either as carboxylated or as undercarboxylated forms. Increased serum level of osteocalcin is linked with increased bone mineral density. The importance of the bone and ndash;kidney relation in physiologic regulation of mineral ion has also been extensively studied and documented. Several workers have uncovered the role of insulin as an additional factor involved in the skeletal remodelling process. Evidences are available which shows that osteoblastic insulin signalling is important for glucose metabolism. The measurement of OC in urine samples could be used as an index of bone turnover in monitoring bone metabolism. In this review, we have tried to explain different roles of OC, however further studies are required to elucidate the metabolic and hormonal role of OC in human body. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 3670-3674

  19. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  20. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  1. Up and Running with Omeka.net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Posner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This tutorial introduces the reader to Omeka.net, a free platform for building collection-based websites, ideal for museums and archives, but also scholars looking to build a digital exhibit.

  2. DEUS and the DEUS TraiNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mogens

    1989-01-01

    Described are the formation of DEUS (Danish Enterprise University System) consortium and DEUS TraiNet as examples of European collaboration program. The organization, technology, computer conferencing, service, and multimedia training of the programs are summarized. (YP)

  3. Role of bone biopsy in renal osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Badr Wisam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal osteodystrophy (ROD, the abnormal bone histology that occurs in the context of kidney disease, is a disease spectrum and not a uniform progressive bone disease. It is an important component of the broad disturbances of bone and mineral metabolism associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD. There are multiple pathogenetic factors which contribute to the histological abnormalities seen on bone biopsy. The patients with ROD are rarely symp-tomatic in the early stages of CKD. It is also noteworthy that the clinical manifestations are usually preceded by biochemical changes that are insidious and subtle. This makes it difficult for the clinician to suspect the presence of bone and mineral metabolism abnormalities without direct testing. The serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels are usually normal until late in the course of CKD. The main screening test for abnormal bone and mineral metabolism is the measurement of parathyroid hormone which is also somewhat delayed. The clinical signs and symptoms are also challenging to interpret because of their slow and non-specific nature which may include vague, ill-defined, bone aches and pains, and muscle weakness. The gold standard for diagnosis of ROD is bone biopsy with mineralized bone histology after double tetracycline labeling, iron staining and aluminum staining. The currently used histomorphometric descriptions of bone histology are not well integrated clinically and a new nomenclature that is clinically more relevant and useful has been proposed. Additional studies are required to define the spectrum of ROD in the current therapeutic era, and to find clinically useful non-invasive biomarkers to improve the treatment and monitoring of the abnormal bone in the setting of CKD.

  4. NetMOD version 1.0 user%3CU%2B2019%3Es manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion J

    2014-01-01

    NetMOD (Network Monitoring for Optimal Detection) is a Java-based software package for conducting simulation of seismic networks. Specifically, NetMOD simulates the detection capabilities of seismic monitoring networks. Network simulations have long been used to study network resilience to station outages and to determine where additional stations are needed to reduce monitoring thresholds. NetMOD makes use of geophysical models to determine the source characteristics, signal attenuation along the path between the source and station, and the performance and noise properties of the station. These geophysical models are combined to simulate the relative amplitudes of signal and noise that are observed at each of the stations. From these signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the probability of detection can be computed given a detection threshold. This manual describes how to configure and operate NetMOD to perform seismic detection simulations. In addition, NetMOD is distributed with a simulation dataset for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS) seismic network for the purpose of demonstrating NetMOD's capabilities and providing user training. The tutorial sections of this manual use this dataset when describing how to perform the steps involved when running a simulation.

  5. Bone grafting: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Joshi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of

  6. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  7. Bone Marrow Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can ... the platelets that help with blood clotting. With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem ...

  8. Orchestration of bone remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moester, Martiene Johanna Catharina

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, a balance exists between bone formation and resorption. Disruption of this balance can lead to higher or lower bone mass, and disease such as osteoporosis. Treatment for osteoporosis generally inhibits bone resorption, but does not rebuild bone to a healthy strength. More kno

  9. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  10. Mastering AngularJD for .NET developers

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mohammad Wadood

    2015-01-01

    This book is envisioned for traditional developers and programmers who want to develop client-side applications using the AngularJS framework and ASP.NET Web API 2 with Visual Studio. .NET developers who have already built web applications or web services and who have a fundamental knowledge of HTML, JavaScript, and CSS and want to explore single-page applications will also find this guide useful. Basic knowledge of AngularJS would be helpful.

  11. MetNet - Martian Network Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.

    2009-04-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The actual practical mission development work started in January 2009 with participation from various countries and space agencies. The scientific rationale and goals as well as key mission solutions will be discussed. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. This development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development.

  12. CDMA and TDMA based neural nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, J C

    2001-06-01

    CDMA and TDMA telecommunication techniques were established long time ago, but they have acquired a renewed presence due to the rapidly increasing mobile phones demand. In this paper, we are going to see they are suitable for neural nets, if we leave the concept "connection" between processing units and we adopt the concept "messages" exchanged between them. This may open the door to neural nets with a higher number of processing units and flexible configuration.

  13. Netting bias in tropical bird studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates-Estrada, R.; Dowell, B.A.; Fallon, J.E.; Robbins, C.S.; Wilson, Marcia H.; Sader, Steven A.

    1995-01-01

    Mist netting is the method most commonly used for gathering quantitative information on birds in the American tropics. Point count surveys or other methods often are used in conjunction with netting to reduce some of the many biases associated with netting, specially the failure of stationary nets within 2 m of the ground to sample birds of the tall canopy. We compare totals by both methods. Even close to the ground there are biases related to time of day and mesh size that have not been addressed in tropical studies. Some researchers operate nets all day, others only in the morning or in the morning and evening. Since 1986 we have netted birds and conducted point count surveys at more than 130 sites representing a broad spectrum of habitats in Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala. Using data only from those days when we could operate nets continuously from about dawn to dusk, we compare capture rates throughout the day to show the bias per part-day operations for certain families and species of birds and for the ratio of neotropical migrants to resident birds. More than half of 5000+ birds captured were caught after noon. Trochilidae and parulinae were captured primarily in the morning, Dendrocolaptidae in the middle of the day. Tyrannidae were more active than most birds in early afternoon, and Turdinae had morning and evening peaks. At each site we use a combination of 30-mm and 36-mm nets. The 30-mm mesh consistently captured more seedeaters, gnatcatchers, and small warblers, whereas the 36-mm mesh was more effective for birds of thrush size and larger.

  14. .NET 4.5 parallel extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This book contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create task-based parallel programs using C#, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to create scalable programs.This book is intended to help experienced C# developers write applications that leverage the power of modern multicore processors. It provides the necessary knowledge for an experienced C# developer to work with .NET parallelism APIs. Previous experience of writing multithreaded applications is not necessary.

  15. An adaptation model for trabecular bone at different mechanical levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Linwei

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone has the ability to adapt to mechanical usage or other biophysical stimuli in terms of its mass and architecture, indicating that a certain mechanism exists for monitoring mechanical usage and controlling the bone's adaptation behaviors. There are four zones describing different bone adaptation behaviors: the disuse, adaptation, overload, and pathologic overload zones. In different zones, the changes of bone mass, as calculated by the difference between the amount of bone formed and what is resorbed, should be different. Methods An adaptation model for the trabecular bone at different mechanical levels was presented in this study based on a number of experimental observations and numerical algorithms in the literature. In the proposed model, the amount of bone formation and the probability of bone remodeling activation were proposed in accordance with the mechanical levels. Seven numerical simulation cases under different mechanical conditions were analyzed as examples by incorporating the adaptation model presented in this paper with the finite element method. Results The proposed bone adaptation model describes the well-known bone adaptation behaviors in different zones. The bone mass and architecture of the bone tissue within the adaptation zone almost remained unchanged. Although the probability of osteoclastic activation is enhanced in the overload zone, the potential of osteoblasts to form bones compensate for the osteoclastic resorption, eventually strengthening the bones. In the disuse zone, the disuse-mode remodeling removes bone tissue in disuse zone. Conclusions The study seeks to provide better understanding of the relationships between bone morphology and the mechanical, as well as biological environments. Furthermore, this paper provides a computational model and methodology for the numerical simulation of changes of bone structural morphology that are caused by changes of mechanical and biological

  16. Visual Studio 2013 and .NET 4.5 expert cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sur, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Visual Studio 2013 or .NET developer who would like to sharpen your existing skill set and adapt to new .NET technologies, this is the book for you. A basic understanding of .NET and C# is required.

  17. Bone Health and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupsa, Beatrice C; Insogna, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.

  18. Proteases, neutrophils, and periodontitis: the NET effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauseef, William M

    2014-10-01

    Neutrophils exert potent antimicrobial activities in their role as first-line cellular defenders against infection. The synergistic and collective actions of oxidants and granule proteins, including serine proteases, support the microbial killing in phagosomes, where most neutrophil-mediated antimicrobial action occurs. In addition to phagocytosis, specific stimuli prompt neutrophils to extrude a matrix of DNA, histones, and granule proteins to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can trap microbes. Mice lacking the serine proteases necessary for NET production are more susceptible to infection, an observation suggesting that functional NETs are required for host protection. In this issue of the JCI, Sørensen and colleagues characterize neutrophils from a patient with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. The patient has an inactivating mutation in the gene encoding dipeptidyl peptidase I, resulting in neutrophils lacking elastase, a serine protease required for NET production. Despite the inability to form NETS, neutrophils from this patient killed pathogens in vitro, and the patient did not exhibit evidence of an increased propensity toward bacterial infections. Together, these results suggest that proteases in human neutrophils are dispensable for protection against bacterial infection and that the ability to generate NETs in vitro does not compromise host defense.

  19. BONE IN OSTEOPETROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteopetrosis, a generalized developmental bone disease due to genetic disturbances, characterized by failure of bone re sorption and continuous bone formation making the bone hard, dense and brittle. Bones of intramembranous ossification and enchondrial ossification are affected genetically and symmetrically. During the process of disease the excess bone formation obliterates the cranial foramina and presses the optic, auditory and facial nerves resulting in defective vision, impaired hearing and facial paralysis. The bone formation in osteopetrosis affects bone marrow function leading to severe anemia and deficient of blood cells. The bone devoid of blood supply due to compression of blood vessels by excess formation of bone are prone to osteomyelitic changes with suppuration and pathological fracture if exposed to infection. Though the condition is chronic progressive, it produces changes leading to fatal condition, it should be studied thoroughly by everyone and hence this article presents a classical case of osteopetrosis with detailed description and discussion for the benefit of readers

  20. Bone Cells Dynamics during Peri-Implantitis: a Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Fernandes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present manuscript aims a detailed characterization of the bone cells dynamics during physiological bone remodelling and, subsequently, to address the cellular and molecular mechanisms that play a fundamental role in the immune-inflammatory-induced uncoupled bone remodelling observed in peri-implantitis. Results: An intimate relationship between the immune system and bone is acknowledged to be determinant for bone tissue remodelling and integrity. Due to the close interaction of immune and bone cells, the two systems share a number of surface receptors, cytokines, signalling pathways and transcription factors that are involved in mutual regulatory mechanisms. This physiological equilibrium is disturbed in pathological conditions, as verified in peri-implantitis establishment and development. Activation of the innate and adaptive immune response, challenged by the local bacterial infection, induces the synthesis of high levels of a variety of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that disturb the normal functioning of the bone cells, by uncoupling bone resorption and formation, ending up with a net alveolar bone loss and subsequent implant failure. Most data points to an immune-inflammatory induced osteoclast differentiation and function, as the major underlying mechanism to the uncoupled bone resorption to bone formation. Further, the disturbed functioning of osteoblasts, reflected by the possible expression of a fibro-osteoblastic phenotype, may also play a role. Conclusions: Alveolar bone loss is a hallmark of peri-implantitis. A great deal of data is still needed on the cellular and humoral crosstalk in the context of an integrated view of the osteoimmunologic interplay occurring in the peri-implantitis environment subjacent to the bone loss outcome.

  1. Bone formation is not impaired by hibernation (disuse) in black bears Ursus americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse by bed rest, limb immobilization or space flight causes rapid bone loss by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. This net bone loss increases the risk of fracture upon remobilization. Bone loss also occurs in hibernating ground squirrels, golden hamsters, and little brown bats by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. There is some histological evidence to suggest that black bears Ursus americanus do not lose bone mass during hibernation (i.e. disuse). There is also evidence suggesting that muscle mass and strength are preserved in black bears during hibernation. The question of whether bears can prevent bone loss during hibernation has not been conclusively answered. The goal of the current study was to further assess bone metabolism in hibernating black bears. Using the same serum markers of bone remodeling used to evaluate human patients with osteoporosis, we assayed serum from five black bears, collected every 10 days over a 196-day period, for bone resorption and formation markers. Here we show that bone resorption remains elevated over the entire hibernation period compared to the pre-hibernation period, but osteoblastic bone formation is not impaired by hibernation and is rapidly accelerated during remobilization following hibernation.

  2. Composite vascularized skin/bone transplantation models for bone marrow-based tolerance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Selahattin; Ulusal, Betul G; Ulusal, Ali E; Izycki, Dariusz; Siemionow, Maria

    2006-03-01

    There is an ongoing need to understand the mechanisms of bone marrow-based allograft tolerance. This is important in clarifying the diverse variables influencing the ultimate outcome of the solid organ and composite tissue transplants. To establish bone marrow transplantation as a routine clinical application, further experimental studies should be conducted to overcome the obstacles related to the bone marrow transplantation. These obstacles include graft versus host disease, immunocompetence, and toxicity of the conditioning regimens. For these purposes, novel experimental models are needed. In an attempt to provide a reliable research tool for bone marrow-based tolerance induction studies, we introduced different experimental models of modified vascularized skin/bone marrow (VSBM) transplantation technique for tolerance induction, monitoring, and maintenance studies. In this skin/bone transplantation model, the technical feasibility of concurrent or consecutive transplantation of the combination of bilateral vascularized skin, vascularized bone marrow, or vascularized skin/bone marrow transplants was investigated. Isograft transplantations were performed between genetically identical Lewis (LEW, RT1) rats. Five different experimental designs in 5 groups of 5 animals each were studied. Group I: Bilateral vascularized skin (VS) transplantation; group II: bilateral vascularized skin/bone transplantation; group III: vascularized skin transplantation on one side and vascularized skin/bone transplantation on the contralateral side; group IV: vascularized bone transplantation on one side and vascularized skin/bone transplantation on the contralateral side; group V: vascularized bone transplantation on one side and vascularized skin transplantation on the contralateral side. Successful transplantations were performed in all groups. The survival of the isograft transplants was evaluated clinically and histologically. All skin flaps remained pink and pliable and grew new

  3. ASP.NET web API build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kanjilal, Joydip

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step, practical tutorial with a simple approach to help you build RESTful web applications and services on the .NET framework quickly and efficiently.This book is for ASP.NET web developers who want to explore REST-based services with C# 5. This book contains many real-world code examples with explanations whenever necessary. Some experience with C# and ASP.NET 4 is expected.

  4. Multiple myeloma: Changes in serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase can be used in daily practice to detect imminent osteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Abildgaard, Niels; Andersen, Thomas L;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Monitoring of bone disease in multiple myeloma is becoming increasingly important since bone protecting treatment with bisphosphonate is becoming restricted after the awareness of osteonecrosis of the jaw. Despite the potential of biochemical markers of bone remodeling...

  5. Deformation of skull bone as intracranial pressure changing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... Key words: Deformation, skull bone, intracranial pressure, finite-element model, rat. ... air spontaneously, and the femoral arterial blood pressure was ..... pressure monitoring by flaccid-cuff catheter in an animal model. J.

  6. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy.

  7. Aromatase inhibitors and bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Edith A; Weilbaecher, Katherine

    2006-08-01

    The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole (Femara), and exemestane (Aromasin) are significantly more effective than the selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen in preventing recurrence in estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors are likely to replace SERMs as first-line adjuvant therapy for many patients. However, AIs are associated with significantly more osteoporotic fractures and greater bone mineral loss. As antiresorptive agents, oral and intravenous bisphosphonates such as alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), ibandronate (Boniva), pamidronate (Aredia), and zoledronic acid (Zometa) have efficacy in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis, cancer treatment-related bone loss, or skeletal complications of metastatic disease. Clinical practice guidelines recommend baseline and annual follow-up bone density monitoring for all patients initiating AI therapy. Bisphosphonate therapy should be prescribed for patients with osteoporosis (T score vitamin D intake, weight-bearing exercise, and smoking cessation should be addressed. Adverse events associated with bisphosphonates include gastrointestinal toxicity, renal toxicity, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. These safety concerns should be balanced with the potential of bisphosphonates to minimize or prevent the debilitating effects of AI-associated bone loss in patients with early, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

  8. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  9. The production of Physalis spp. seedlings grown under different-colored shade nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fernandes da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of seedlings of Physalis L. species under different-colored shade nets. Four shade nets individually stained white, blue, red and black, all with 50% shading, were used in this study, and an additional  treatment (control was used in which seedlings were grown in full sun. The study examined four species of Physalis, namely, P. peruviana, P. pubescens, P. minima and P. ixocarpa. The experiment followed a randomized block design with three blocks and 25 seeds per plot. The species were sown in styrofoam trays. Germination was monitored daily to calculate the Emergency Velocity Index (EVI and stabilize the overall percentage of emergence. Height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area index and dry mass of seedlings were assessed at 50 days after sowing. The study found that these species react differently to changes in the light spectrum. Seedlings of P. peruviana should be grown under a white or red shade net; of P. pubescens under a white or black shade net; of P. minima under a white, red or black shade net; and of P. ixocarpa under a white shade net. For all species, 50% shade should be used.

  10. Regulation of Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Maryam; Peymani, Amir; Sahmani, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells.In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), wingless-type (Wnt) genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX). PMID:28367467

  11. Regulation of Bone Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Maryam; Peymani, Amir; Sahmani, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    Bone is formed through the processes of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. In endochondral ossification primary mesenchymal cells differentiate to chondrocytes and then are progressively substituted by bone, while in intramembranous ossification mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate directly into osteoblasts to form bone. The steps of osteogenic proliferation, differentiation, and bone homeostasis are controlled by various markers and signaling pathways. Bone needs to be remodeled to maintain integrity with osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, which are bone-degrading cells.In this review we considered the major factors and signaling pathways in bone formation; these include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), wingless-type (Wnt) genes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteoblast-specific transcription factor (osterix or OSX).

  12. Near-Net Forging Technology Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, I. Keith

    1996-01-01

    Significant advantages in specific mechanical properties, when compared to conventional aluminum (Al) alloys, make aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys attractive candidate materials for use in cryogenic propellant tanks and dry bay structures. However, the cost of Al-Li alloys is typically five times that of 2219 aluminum. If conventional fabrication processes are employed to fabricate launch vehicle structure, the material costs will restrict their utilization. In order to fully exploit the potential cost and performance benefits of Al-Li alloys, it is necessary that near-net manufacturing methods be developed to off-set or reduce raw material costs. Near-net forging is an advanced manufacturing method that uses elevated temperature metal movement (forging) to fabricate a single piece, near-net shape, structure. This process is termed 'near-net' because only a minimal amount of post-forge machining is required. The near-net forging process was developed to reduce the material scrap rate (buy-to-fly ratio) and fabrication costs associated with conventional manufacturing methods. The goal for the near-net forging process, when mature, is to achieve an overall cost reduction of approximately 50 percent compared with conventional manufacturing options for producing structures fabricated from Al-Li alloys. This NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) sponsored program has been a part of a unique government / industry partnership, coordinated to develop and demonstrate near-net forging technology. The objective of this program was to demonstrate scale-up of the near-net forging process. This objective was successfully achieved by fabricating four integrally stiffened, 170- inch diameter by 20-inch tall, Al-Li alloy 2195, Y-ring adapters. Initially, two 2195 Al-Li ingots were converted and back extruded to produce four cylindrical blockers. Conventional ring rolling of the blockers was performed to produce ring preforms, which were then contour ring rolled to produce

  13. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eRohrbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  14. Impregnated netting slows infestation by Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z; Quíspe-Machaca, Victor R; Ylla-Velasquez, Jose L; Waller, Lance A; Richards, Jean M; Rath, Bruno; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; del Carpio, Juan G Cornejo; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Wirtz, Robert A; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2008-10-01

    We used sentinel animal enclosures to measure the rate of infestation by the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, in an urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and to evaluate the effect of deltamethrin-impregnated netting on that rate. Impregnated netting decreased the rate of infestation of sentinel enclosures (rate ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.38; P < 0.001), controlling for the density of surrounding vector populations and the distance of these to the sentinel enclosures. Most migrant insects were early-stage nymphs, which are less likely to carry the parasitic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Spread of the vector in the city therefore likely precedes spread of the parasite. Netting was particularly effective against adult insects and late-stage nymphs; taking into account population structure, netting decreased the reproductive value of migrant populations from 443.6 to 40.5. Impregnated netting can slow the spread of T. infestans and is a potentially valuable tool in the control of Chagas disease.

  15. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  16. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  17. The net charge at interfaces between insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, N. C.; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio

    2011-03-01

    The issue of the net charge at insulating oxide interfaces is briefly reviewed with the ambition of dispelling myths of such charges being affected by covalency and related charge density effects. For electrostatic analysis purposes, the net charge at such interfaces is defined by the counting of discrete electrons and core ion charges, and by the definition of the reference polarization of the separate, unperturbed bulk materials. The arguments are illustrated for the case of a thin film of LaAlO3 over SrTiO3 in the absence of free carriers, for which the net charge is exactly 0.5e per interface formula unit, if the polarization response in both materials is referred to zero bulk values. Further consequences of the argument are extracted for structural and chemical alterations of such interfaces, in which internal rearrangements are distinguished from extrinsic alterations (changes of stoichiometry, redox processes), only the latter affecting the interfacial net charge. The arguments are reviewed alongside the proposal of Stengel and Vanderbilt (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 241103) of using formal polarization values instead of net interfacial charges, based on the interface theorem of Vanderbilt and King-Smith (1993 Phys. Rev. B 48 4442-55). Implications for non-centrosymmetric materials are discussed, as well as for interfaces for which the charge mismatch is an integer number of polarization quanta.

  18. Analysis of Reconfigurable Processors Using Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Heidari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose Petri net models for processing elements. The processing elements include: a general-purpose processor (GPP, a reconfigurable element (RE, and a hybrid element (combining a GPP with an RE. The models consist of many transitions and places. The model and associated analysis methods provide a promising tool for modeling and performance evaluation of reconfigurable processors. The model is demonstrated by considering a simple example. This paper describes the development of a reconfigurable processor; the developed system is based on the Petri net concept. Petri nets are becoming suitable as a formal model for hardware system design. Designers can use Petri net as a modeling language to perform high level analysis of complex processors designs processing chips. The simulation does with PIPEv4.1 simulator. The simulation results show that Petri net state spaces are bounded and safe and have not deadlock and the average of number tokens in first token is 0.9901 seconds. In these models, there are only 5% errors; also the analysis time in these models is 0.016 seconds.

  19. Using Routine Data for Quality Assessment in NeuroNet Telestroke Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theiss, Stephan; Günzel, Franziska; Storm, Anna

    2013-01-01

    : Routine clinical data from the HELIOS hospital information system were compared before and after implementation of the NeuroNet concept, including neurologic acute stroke teleconsultations, standard operating procedures, and peer review quality management in 3 hospital cohorts: 5 comprehensive stroke......: Routine clinical data on in-hospital mortality, the rate of thrombolytic therapy, and comprehensive stroke care coding reflect different aspects of acute stroke care improvement related to the implementation of the telemedical NeuroNet concept and unified quality management (standard operating procedure...... teaching concept, peer review process). Similar evaluation processes could contribute to quality monitoring in other telestroke networks....

  20. Confocal laser scanning microscopy in study of bone calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Tetsunari, E-mail: tetsu-n@cc.osaka-dent.ac.jp [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Kokubu, Mayu; Kato, Hirohito [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Imai, Koichi [Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan); Tanaka, Akio [Department of Oral Pathology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-magnification images with depth selection, and thin sections were observed using CLSM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The direction and velocity of calcification of the bone was observed by administration of 2 fluorescent dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In dog femora grafted with coral blocks, newly-formed bone was observed in the coral block space with a rough surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twelve weeks after dental implant was grafted in dog femora, the space between screws was filled with newly-formed bones. - Abstract: Bone regeneration in mandible and maxillae after extraction of teeth or tumor resection and the use of rough surface implants in bone induction must be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of calcification. The calcified tissues are subjected to chemical decalcification or physical grinding to observe their microscopic features with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy where the microscopic tissue morphology is significantly altered. We investigated the usefulness of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for this purpose. After staggering the time of administration of calcein and alizarin red to experimental rats and dogs, rat alveolar bone and dog femur grafted with coral as scaffold or dental implants were observed with CLSM. In rat alveolar bone, the calcification of newly-formed bone and net-like canaliculi was observed at the mesial bone from the roots progressed at the rate of 15 {mu}m/day. In dog femur grafted with coral, newly-formed bones along the space of coral were observed in an orderly manner. In dog femur with dental implants, after 8 weeks, newly-formed bone proceeded along the rough surface of the implants. CLSM produced high-magnification images of newly-formed bone and thin sections were not needed.

  1. BioFrameNet: A FrameNet Extension to the Domain of Molecular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbey, Andrew Eric

    2009-01-01

    In this study I introduce BioFrameNet, an extension of the Berkeley FrameNet lexical database to the domain of molecular biology. I examine the syntactic and semantic combinatorial possibilities exhibited in the lexical items used in this domain in order to get a better understanding of the grammatical properties of the language used in scientific…

  2. Fine mapping of the barley chromosome 6H net form net blotch susceptibility locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net form net blotch (NFNB) caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt) is a destructive foliar disease of barley with the potential to cause significant yield loss in major production regions throughout the world. Characterization of diverse genetic resistances to thi...

  3. Professional ASP.NET MVC 2

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Jon; Haack, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Top-selling MVC book from a top team at Microsoft—now fully updated!. ASP.NET MVC 2.0 is now available and shipping with Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4. A new update to Microsoft's Model-View-Controller technologies, MVC 2.0 enables developers to build dynamic, data-driven Web sites. This in-depth book shows you step-by-step how to use MVC 2.0. You'll learn both the theory behind MVC 2.0, as well as walk through practical tutorials, where you'll create a real-world application. Topics include transitioning from ASP.NET development, as well as an overview of related tools and technologies, inclu

  4. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  5. Predicting the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets on malaria transmission: the devil is in the detail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Robert J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs, including long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs, play a primary role in global campaigns to roll back malaria in tropical Africa. Effectiveness of treated nets depends on direct impacts on individual mosquitoes including killing and excite-repellency, which vary considerably among vector species due to variations in host-seeking behaviours. While monitoring and evaluation programmes of ITNs have focuses on morbidity and all-cause mortality in humans, local entomological context receives little attention. Without knowing the dynamics of local vector species and their responses to treated nets, it is difficult to predict clinical outcomes when ITN applications are scaled up across African continent. Sound model frameworks incorporating intricate interactions between mosquitoes and treated nets are needed to develop the predictive capacity for scale-up applications of ITNs. Methods An established agent-based model was extended to incorporate the direct outcomes, e.g. killing and avoidance, of individual mosquitoes exposing to ITNs in a hypothetical village setting with 50 houses and 90 aquatic habitats. Individual mosquitoes were tracked throughout the life cycle across the landscape. Four levels of coverage, i.e. 40, 60, 80 and 100%, were applied at the household level with treated houses having only one bed net. By using Latin hypercube sampling scheme, parameters governing killing, diverting and personal protection of net users were evaluated for their relative roles in containing mosquito populations, entomological inoculation rates (EIRs and malaria incidence. Results There were substantial gaps in coverage between households and individual persons, and 100% household coverage resulted in circa 50% coverage of the population. The results show that applications of ITNs could give rise to varying impacts on population-level metrics depending on values of parameters governing interactions of

  6. 12 CFR 263.105 - Statement of net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of net worth. 263.105 Section 263.105... Statement of net worth. (a) General rule. A statement of net worth shall be filed with the application for an award of fees. The statement shall reflect the net worth of the applicant and all affiliates...

  7. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a weapon...

  8. Pro ASP.NET 4 CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Alan

    2010-01-01

    To be a successful ASP.NET 4 developer, you need to know how to apply the vast array of new functionality available in the latest release of the .NET 4 Framework and Visual Studio 2010. This book will immerse you in a variety of advanced topics, including architecting different application data tiers, memory caching paradigms, data mining, and search engine optimization. Working through step-by-step exercises using P/LINQ, DLR, MEF, MVC, IronPython, Axum, and Ajax, you will learn a variety of approaches to building each of the key application tiers common to all web solutions. Using a proven t

  9. An ECNO semantics for Petri nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2012-01-01

    The Event Coordination Notation (ECNO) allows modelling the behaviour of software on top of structural software models - and to generate program code from these models fully automatically. ECNO distinguishes between the local behaviour of elements (objects) and the global behaviour, which denes t...... work. In this paper, we will show that the ECNO, in turn, can be used for modelling the behaviour of Petri nets in a simple and concise way. What is more, we will show that the ECNO semantics of Place/Transition Systems can easily be extended to so-called signal-event nets....

  10. State Space Methods for Timed Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Kurt; Mailund, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We present two recently developed state space methods for timed Petri nets. The two methods reconciles state space methods and time concepts based on the introduction of a global clock and associating time stamps to tokens. The first method is based on an equivalence relation on states which makes...... it possible to condense the usually infinite state space of a timed Petri net into a finite condensed state space without loosing analysis power. The second method supports on-the-fly verification of certain safety properties of timed systems. We discuss the application of the two methods in a number...

  11. Net Carbon Balance for the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    The general purpose of this research was to use recent satellite-based estimates of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia to calculate the net flux of carbon associated with deforestation and subsequent regrowth of secondary forests. We have made such a calculation, in the process comparing two estimates of deforestation and two estimates of biomass for the region. Both estimates were based on the RADAMBRASIL survey. They differed in the equations used to convert wood-volumes to total biomass. The net flux of carbon from changes in land use seems to vary from year to year, perhaps by as much as a factor of 4.

  12. Acyclic Solos and Differential Interaction Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrhard, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We present a restriction of the solos calculus which is stable under reduction and expressive enough to contain an encoding of the pi-calculus. As a consequence, it is shown that equalizing names that are already equal is not required by the encoding of the pi-calculus. In particular, the induced solo diagrams bear an acyclicity property that induces a faithful encoding into differential interaction nets. This gives a (new) proof that differential interaction nets are expressive enough to contain an encoding of the pi-calculus. All this is worked out in the case of finitary (replication free) systems without sum, match nor mismatch.

  13. Fibonacci topological order from quantum nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendley, Paul; Isakov, Sergei V; Troyer, Matthias

    2013-06-28

    We analyze a model of quantum nets and show it has a non-Abelian topological order of doubled-Fibonacci type. The ground state has the same topological behavior as that of the corresponding string-net model, but our Hamiltonian can be defined on any lattice, has less complicated interactions, and its excitations are dynamical, not fixed. This Hamiltonian includes terms acting on the spins around a face, around a vertex, and special "Jones-Wenzl" terms that serve to couple long loops together. We provide strong evidence for a gap by exact diagonalization, completing the list of ingredients necessary for topological order.

  14. Introducing NET 40 With Visual Studio 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Mackey, A

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft is introducing a large number of changes to the way that the .NET Framework operates. Familiar technologies are being altered, best practices replaced, and developer methodologies adjusted. Many developers find it hard to keep up with the pace of change across .NET's ever-widening array of technologies. You may know what's happening in C#, but how about the Azure cloud? How is that going to affect your work? What are the limitations of the new pLINQ syntax? What you need is a roadmap. A guide to help you see the innovations that matter and to give you a head start on the opportunitie

  15. EBSCO收购OCLC NetLibrary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志刚(编译); 庞弘燊(校对)

    2010-01-01

    3月17日,OCLC和EBSCO签订协议,EBSCO将收购OCLC NetLibrary的资产,并获得选择收购现通过OCLC FirstSearch提供的数据库的权利。这次收购的资源包括NetLibrary在科罗拉多州博尔德的电子书和电子音频书平台,以及该平台的业务管理权利和基础设施。

  16. Evaluation of bioefficacy of毩-cypermethrin in long lasting impregnated net (Interceptor®) using analytical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vatandoost Hassan; Mamivandpoor Hossein; Shayeghi Mansoreh; Abai Mohammad Reza; Yaghoobi-Ershadi Mohammad Reza; Raeisi Ahmad; Abtahi Mohammad; Rafie Fatemeh; Nikpour Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate relationship betweenα-cypermethrin residues in Interceptor® nets by using HPTLC methods and mortality percentage in standardWHO's method "cone test" after repeated washings.Methods: Interceptor® containing 毩-cypermethrin was provided byBASF Company. The washing procedure and bioassay tests were carried out according to theWHO-recommended methods. Malaria vector, An. stephensi was exposed to impregnated bed net for three minutes and then mortality measured after24 hour recovery period. Chemical analysis was carried out in chemical laboratory by using high performance thin layer chromatography method.Results:Result of cone bioassay method showed that washing reduced the efficacy of Interceptor® bed net from100% in unwashed nets to15% at20 washes. After 20 washes, nets contain (61.2±2.8)mg/m2resulting15%mortality in cone test. Killing activity was reduced when nets were washed.Conclusions:Results will provide an essential clue for monitoring and evaluation of bioefficacy of any long lasting impregnated bed net for quality control. Findings of this study will be useful forWHO, local investigators and people who wish to use pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets for malaria vector control.

  17. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of bone grafting in corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoreibah, Eatemad A; Ibrahim, Samir A; Attia, Mai S; Diab, May M Nabil

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of bone grafting in corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics in adults, using a further modified conventional corticotomy technique. Twenty adult orthodontic patients with moderate crowding of the lower anterior teeth were equally divided into two groups and treated with either a modified corticotomy-faciIitated orthodontic tooth movement alone (Group I) or modified corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic tooth movement combined with bone grafting (Group II). Total treatment time was calculated in weeks from the time of activation of the orthodontic appliance immediately following the corticotomy procedure to the time of debracketing. Clinical periodontal parameters and standardized periapical radiographs were recorded at baseline, post-orthodontic treatment (debracketing time) and six months post-operatively. The primary radiographic variables were root length and bone density. Treatment duration for patients in both groups ranged from 14-20 weeks. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in clinical parameters at each time interval. The net percentage of change that occurred to bone density from baseline to six months post-orthodontic treatment was statistically significantly different between the two groups. Group I demonstrated a net decrease in bone density of -17.59%, while Group II demonstrated a net increase in bone density of 25.85%. Group I demonstrated an average net decrease in root length of -0.056 mm +/- 0.025, while Group II demonstrated an average net decrease in root length of -0.050 mm +/- 0.026, which was not statistically significantly different. The results of the current study suggest that corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic tooth movement significantly reduces the total time of treatment. In addition, the incidence of apical root resorption and periodontal problems associated with orthodontic tooth movement were reduced. The incorporation of bone graft material significantly increased the

  18. The role of pressurized fluid in subchondral bone cyst growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, L G E; Lagemaat, M W; van Donkelaar, C C; van Rietbergen, B; Reilingh, M L; Blankevoort, L; van Dijk, C N; Ito, K

    2011-10-01

    Pressurized fluid has been proposed to play an important role in subchondral bone cyst development. However, the exact mechanism remains speculative. We used an established computational mechanoregulated bone adaptation model to investigate two hypotheses: 1) pressurized fluid causes cyst growth through altered bone tissue loading conditions, 2) pressurized fluid causes cyst growth through osteocyte death. In a 2D finite element model of bone microarchitecture, a marrow cavity was filled with fluid to resemble a cyst. Subsequently, the fluid was pressurized, or osteocyte death was simulated, or both. Rather than increasing the load, which was the prevailing hypothesis, pressurized fluid decreased the load on the surrounding bone, thereby leading to net bone resorption and growth of the cavity. In this scenario an irregularly shaped cavity developed which became rounded and obtained a rim of sclerotic bone after removal of the pressurized fluid. This indicates that cyst development may occur in a step-wise manner. In the simulations of osteocyte death, cavity growth also occurred, and the cavity immediately obtained a rounded shape and a sclerotic rim. Combining both mechanisms increased the growth rate of the cavity. In conclusion, both stress-shielding by pressurized fluid, and osteocyte death may cause cyst growth. In vivo observations of pressurized cyst fluid, dead osteocytes, and different appearances of cysts similar to our simulation results support the idea that both mechanisms can simultaneously play a role in the development and growth of subchondral bone cysts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tea flavonoids for bone health: from animals to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2016-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a deterioration of bone mass and bone quality that predisposes an individual to a higher risk of fragility fractures. Emerging evidence has shown that the risk for low bone mass and osteoporosis-related fractures can be reduced by nutritional approaches aiming to improve bone microstructure, bone mineral density, and strength. Tea and its flavonoids, especially those of black tea and green tea, have been suggested to protect against bone loss and to reduce risk of fracture, due to tea's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results of animal studies, moderate intake of tea has shown to benefit bone health as shown by mitigation of bone loss and microstructural deterioration as well as improvement of bone strength and quality. Epidemiological studies have reported positive, insignificant, and negative impacts on bone mineral density at multiple skeletal sites and risk of fracture in humans with habitual tea consumption. There are limited human clinical trials that objectively and quantitatively assessed tea consumption and bone efficacy using validated outcome measures in a population at high risk for osteoporosis, along with safety monitoring approach. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of laboratory animal research, epidemiological observational studies, and clinical trials assessing the skeletal effects of tea and its active flavonoids, along with discussion of relevant future directions in translational research.

  20. Changes of Bone Turnover Markers in Long Bone Nonunions Treated with a Regenerative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Granchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this clinical trial, we investigated if biochemical bone turnover markers (BTM changed according to the progression of bone healing induced by autologous expanded MSC combined with a biphasic calcium phosphate in patients with delayed union or nonunion of long bone fractures. Bone formation markers, bone resorption markers, and osteoclast regulatory proteins were measured by enzymatic immunoassay before surgery and after 6, 12, and 24 weeks. A satisfactory bone healing was obtained in 23 out of 24 patients. Nine subjects reached a good consolidation already at 12 weeks, and they were considered as the “early consolidation” group. We found that bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP, C-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP, and beta crosslaps collagen (CTX changed after the regenerative treatment, BAP and CTX correlated to the imaging results collected at 12 and 24 weeks, and BAP variation along the healing course differed in patients who had an “early consolidation.” A remarkable decrease in BAP and PICP was observed at all time points in a single patient who experienced a treatment failure, but the predictive value of BTM changes cannot be determined. Our findings suggest that BTM are promising tools for monitoring cell therapy efficacy in bone nonunions, but studies with larger patient numbers are required to confirm these preliminary results.

  1. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 29. Maes C, Kronenberg HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, ...

  2. Osteochondroma (Bone Tumor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be the most common benign bone tumor, accounting for 35% to 40% of all benign bone ... imaging scans. Doctors may also request computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to ...

  3. What Is Bone Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arms, and jaw are most often affected. Giant cell tumor of bone: This type of primary bone ... Our Volunteers More ACS Sites Bookstore Shop Cancer Atlas Press Room Cancer Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center ...

  4. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  5. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  6. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  7. The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Franek, Edward; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets can be healthy when they are well balanced and if a variety of foods is consumed. However, elimination of animal products from the diet (vegan diets) decreases the intake of some essential nutrients and may influence the bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vegan diet on bone density (BMD) density and serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers. We examined a family on vegan diet which consisted of parents and two children. Dietary constituents were analysed using a nutritional program. Total and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate in serum obtained from fasting patients were determined by colorimetric methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method and bone turnover markers by specific enzyme immunoassays. In studied vegans, the dietary intake of phosphate was adequate while calcium and vitamin D were below the recommended range. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate and bone turnover markers in the serum of all subjects were within the physiological range, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was low. Age-matched Z-score total BMD was between -0.6 and 0.3 in adults, however in children it was lower (-0.9 and -1.0). Z-score BMD lumbar spine (L2-L4) was between -0.9 to -1.9 in parents and -1.5 to -1.7 in children. Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a decrease in bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially children, in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  8. Basis of bone metabolism around dental implants during osseointegration and peri-implant bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, Angel; Monje, Alberto; Wang, Hom-Lay; Miron, Richard J

    2017-07-01

    Despite the growing number of publications in the field of implant dentistry, there are limited studies to date investigating the biology and metabolism of bone healing around dental implants and their implications in peri-implant marginal bone loss. The aim of this review article is to provide a thorough understanding of the biological events taking place during osseointegration and the subsequent early and late phases of bone remodeling around dental implants. An update on the coupling mechanism occurring during bone resorption-bone remodeling is provided, focused on the relevance of the osteocytes, bone lining cells and immune cells during bone maintenance. An electronic and manual literature search was conducted by three independent reviewers in several databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register databases for articles up to September 2016 with no language restriction. Local bone metabolism is subject to signals from systemic calcium-phosphate homeostasis and bone remodeling. Three areas of interest were reviewed due to recent reported compromises in bone healing including the putative effects of (1) cholesterol, (2) hyperlipidemia, and (3) low vitamin D intake. Moreover, the prominent influence of osteocytes and immune cells is discussed as being key regulators during dental implant osseointegration and maintenance. These cells are of crucial importance in the presence of biofilm accumulation and their associated byproducts that leads to hard and soft tissue breakdown; the so called peri-implantitis. Factors that could negatively impact osteoclastogenesis or osteal macrophage activation should be monitored in future research including implant placement/torque protocols, bone characteristics, as well as meticulous maintenance programs to favor osseointegration and future long-term stability and success of dental implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res

  9. Aneka: A Software Platform for .NET-based Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Vecchiola, Christian; Buyya, Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    Aneka is a platform for deploying Clouds developing applications on top of it. It provides a runtime environment and a set of APIs that allow developers to build .NET applications that leverage their computation on either public or private clouds. One of the key features of Aneka is the ability of supporting multiple programming models that are ways of expressing the execution logic of applications by using specific abstractions. This is accomplished by creating a customizable and extensible service oriented runtime environment represented by a collection of software containers connected together. By leveraging on these architecture advanced services including resource reservation, persistence, storage management, security, and performance monitoring have been implemented. On top of this infrastructure different programming models can be plugged to provide support for different scenarios as demonstrated by the engineering, life science, and industry applications.

  10. Intelligent Controls for Net-Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haorong; Cho, Yong; Peng, Dongming

    2011-10-30

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate enabling technologies that can empower homeowners to convert their homes into net-zero energy buildings in a cost-effective manner. The project objectives and expected outcomes are as follows: • To develop rapid and scalable building information collection and modeling technologies that can obtain and process “as-built” building information in an automated or semiautomated manner. • To identify low-cost measurements and develop low-cost virtual sensors that can monitor building operations in a plug-n-play and low-cost manner. • To integrate and demonstrate low-cost building information modeling (BIM) technologies. • To develop decision support tools which can empower building owners to perform energy auditing and retrofit analysis. • To develop and demonstrate low-cost automated diagnostics and optimal control technologies which can improve building energy efficiency in a continual manner.

  11. Gracile bone dysplasias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Kazimierz [Department of Medical Imaging, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead 2145, NSW (Australia); Masel, John [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Sillence, David O. [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney (Australia); Arbuckle, Susan [Department of Anatomical Pathology, The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW (Australia); Juttnerova, Vera [Oddeleni Lekarske Genetiky, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2002-09-01

    Gracile bone dysplasias constitute a group of disorders characterised by extremely slender bones with or without fractures. We report four newborns, two of whom showed multiple fractures. Two babies had osteocraniostenosis and one had features of oligohydramnios sequence. The diagnosis in the fourth newborn, which showed thin long bones and clavicles and extremely thin, poorly ossified ribs, is uncertain. Exact diagnosis of a gracile bone dysplasia is important for genetic counselling and medico-legal reasons. (orig.)

  12. Androgens and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Boonen, Steven; Lindberg, Marie K; Bouillon, Roger; Ohlsson, Claes

    2004-06-01

    Loss of estrogens or androgens increases the rate of bone remodeling by removing restraining effects on osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and also causes a focal imbalance between resorption and formation by prolonging the lifespan of osteoclasts and shortening the lifespan of osteoblasts. Conversely, androgens, as well as estrogens, maintain cancellous bone mass and integrity, regardless of age or sex. Although androgens, via the androgen receptor (AR), and estrogens, via the estrogen receptors (ERs), can exert these effects, their relative contribution remains uncertain. Recent studies suggest that androgen action on cancellous bone depends on (local) aromatization of androgens into estrogens. However, at least in rodents, androgen action on cancellous bone can be directly mediated via AR activation, even in the absence of ERs. Androgens also increase cortical bone size via stimulation of both longitudinal and radial growth. First, androgens, like estrogens, have a biphasic effect on endochondral bone formation: at the start of puberty, sex steroids stimulate endochondral bone formation, whereas they induce epiphyseal closure at the end of puberty. Androgen action on the growth plate is, however, clearly mediated via aromatization in estrogens and interaction with ERalpha. Androgens increase radial growth, whereas estrogens decrease periosteal bone formation. This effect of androgens may be important because bone strength in males seems to be determined by relatively higher periosteal bone formation and, therefore, greater bone dimensions, relative to muscle mass at older age. Experiments in mice again suggest that both the AR and ERalpha pathways are involved in androgen action on radial bone growth. ERbeta may mediate growth-limiting effects of estrogens in the female but does not seem to be involved in the regulation of bone size in males. In conclusion, androgens may protect men against osteoporosis via maintenance of cancellous bone mass and

  13. [Ultrasonography and Doppler effect, an original method for the early and dynamic evaluation of bone callus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elanga, M; Bouche, B; Putz, P; Dumont, N

    1997-12-01

    The authors describe an original and simple method for monitoring bone healing, based upon ultrasonography and the Doppler effect. They present four cases of diaphyseal fractures followed by this method and correlated with clinical findings. This noninvasive and inexpensive method of investigation is full of prospect for the monitoring of bone healing after fracture.

  14. Study on Multi-agent Systems with Colored Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰顺国; 李军

    2008-01-01

    The approach to model multi-agent systems with hierarchical colored Peal nets is introduced.In a multi-agent system,every agent is modeled with colored Petri net system,and the colored Petri net system of the multi-agent system is a hierarchical colored Petri net system,such that the agents planning deadlock detection and avoidance,can be analyzed with the Petri net system.

  15. Photodynamic therapy of diseased bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisland, Stuart K.; Yee, Albert; Siewerdsen, Jeffery; Wilson, Brian C.; Burch, Shane

    2005-08-01

    Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) defines the oxygen-dependent reaction that occurs upon light-mediated activation of a photosensitizing compound, culminating in the generation of cytotoxic, reactive oxygen species, predominantly, singlet oxygen. We are investigating PDT treatment of diseased bone. Methods: Using a rat model of human breast cancer (MT-1)-derived bone metastasis we confirmed the efficacy of benzoporphyrin-derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-PDT for treating metastatic lesions within vertebrae or long bones. Results: Light administration (150 J) 15 mins after BPDMA (2.5 mg/Kg, i.v.) into the lumbar (L3) vertebra of rats resulted in complete ablation of the tumour and surrounding bone marrow 48 hrs post-PDT without paralysis. Porcine vertebrae provided a model comparable to that of human for light propagation (at 150 J/cm) and PDT response (BPD-MA; 6 mg/m2, i.v.) in non-tumour vertebrae. Precise fibre placement was afforded by 3-D cone beam computed tomography. Average penetration depth of light was 0.16 +/- 0.04 cm, however, the necrotic/non-necrotic interface extended 0.6 cm out from the treatment fiber with an average incident fluence rate of 4.3 mW/cm2. Non-necrotic tissue damage was evident 2 cm out from the treatment fiber. Current studies involving BPD-MA-PDT treatment of primary osteosarcomas in the forelimbs of dogs are very promising. Magnetic resonance imaging 24 hr post treatment reveal well circumscribed margins of treatment that encompass the entire 3-4 cm lesion. Finally, we are also interested in using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT to treat osteomyelitis. Response to therapy was monitored as changes in bioluminescence signal of staphylococcus aureus (SA)-derived biofilms grown onto 0.5 cm lengths of wire and subjected to ALA-PDT either in vitro or in vivo upon implant into the intramedullary space of rat tibia. Transcutaneous delivery of PDT (75 J/cm2) effectively eradicated SAbiofilms within bone. Conclusions: Results support

  16. Enzymatic maceration of bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær;

    2015-01-01

    the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared...

  17. An Efficient Siphon-Based Deadlock Prevention Policy for a Class of Generalized Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YiFan Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new deadlock prevention policy for an important class of resource allocation systems (RASs that appear in the modeling of flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs. The model of this class in terms of generalized Petri nets is, namely, S4PR. On the basis of recent structural analysis results related to the elementary siphons in generalized Petri nets on one hand and an efficient deadlock avoidance policy proposed for the class of conjunctive/disjunctive (C/D RASs on the other hand, we show how one can generate monitors to be added to a net system such that all its strict minimal siphons are max′-controlled and no insufficiently marked siphon is generated. Thereby, a new, simple, and more permissive liveness-enforcing supervisor synthesis method for S4PR is established.

  18. Pharmacologic inhibition of the TGF-beta type I receptor kinase has anabolic and anti-catabolic effects on bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid S Mohammad

    Full Text Available During development, growth factors and hormones cooperate to establish the unique sizes, shapes and material properties of individual bones. Among these, TGF-beta has been shown to developmentally regulate bone mass and bone matrix properties. However, the mechanisms that control postnatal skeletal integrity in a dynamic biological and mechanical environment are distinct from those that regulate bone development. In addition, despite advances in understanding the roles of TGF-beta signaling in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the net effects of altered postnatal TGF-beta signaling on bone remain unclear. To examine the role of TGF-beta in the maintenance of the postnatal skeleton, we evaluated the effects of pharmacological inhibition of the TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaRI kinase on bone mass, architecture and material properties. Inhibition of TbetaRI function increased bone mass and multiple aspects of bone quality, including trabecular bone architecture and macro-mechanical behavior of vertebral bone. TbetaRI inhibitors achieved these effects by increasing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, while reducing osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Furthermore, they induced the expression of Runx2 and EphB4, which promote osteoblast differentiation, and ephrinB2, which antagonizes osteoclast differentiation. Through these anabolic and anti-catabolic effects, TbetaRI inhibitors coordinate changes in multiple bone parameters, including bone mass, architecture, matrix mineral concentration and material properties, that collectively increase bone fracture resistance. Therefore, TbetaRI inhibitors may be effective in treating conditions of skeletal fragility.

  19. Learning feed-forward multi-nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, RS; Spaanenburg, L; Kurkova,; Steele, NC; Neruda, R; Karny, M

    2001-01-01

    Multi-nets promise an improved performance over monolithic neural networks by virtue of their distributed implementation. This potential lacks popularity as, without precautions, the learning rate has to drop considerably to eliminate the occurrence of unlearning. This paper introduces extensions of

  20. BioNet Digital Communications Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Kevin; Kuzminsky, Sebastian; Williams, Shea

    2010-01-01

    BioNet v2 is a peer-to-peer middleware that enables digital communication devices to talk to each other. It provides a software development framework, standardized application, network-transparent device integration services, a flexible messaging model, and network communications for distributed applications. BioNet is an implementation of the Constellation Program Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Interoperability specification, given in CxP 70022-01. The system architecture provides the necessary infrastructure for the integration of heterogeneous wired and wireless sensing and control devices into a unified data system with a standardized application interface, providing plug-and-play operation for hardware and software systems. BioNet v2 features a naming schema for mobility and coarse-grained localization information, data normalization within a network-transparent device driver framework, enabling of network communications to non-IP devices, and fine-grained application control of data subscription band width usage. BioNet directly integrates Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) as a communications technology, enabling networked communications with assets that are only intermittently connected including orbiting relay satellites and planetary rover vehicles.

  1. Generalized Orbifold Construction for Conformal Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Bischoff, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Let $\\mathcal{B}$ be a conformal net. We give the notion of a proper action of a finite hypergroup acting by vacuum preserving unital completely positive (so-called stochastic) maps, which generalizes the proper actions of finite groups. Taking fixed points under such an action gives a finite index subnet $\\mathcal{B}^K$ of $\\mathcal{B}$, which generalizes the $G$-orbifold. Conversely, we show that if $\\mathcal{A}\\subset \\mathcal{B}$ is a finite inclusion of conformal nets, then $\\mathcal{A}$ is a generalized orbifold $\\mathcal{A}=\\mathcal{B}^K$ of the conformal net $\\mathcal{B}$ by a unique finite hypergroup $K$. There is a Galois correspondence between intermediate nets $\\mathcal{B}^K\\subset \\mathcal{A} \\subset \\mathcal{B}$ and subhypergroups $L\\subset K$ given by $\\mathcal{A}=\\mathcal{B}^L$. In this case, the fixed point of $\\mathcal{B}^K\\subset \\mathcal{A}$ is the generalized orbifold by the hypergroup of double cosets $L\\backslash K/ L$. If $\\mathcal{A}\\subset \\mathcal{B}$ is an finite index inclusion of...

  2. Towards Self-Managed Executable Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Zhang, Weishan; Ingstrup, Mads

    2008-01-01

    with the capability of distributed communication among nets. Organized in a three-layer goal management, change management, and component control architecture this allows for self-management in distributed systems. We validate the approach through the Flamenco/CPN middleware that allows for self-management of service...

  3. Programming C# Building NET Applications with C#

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Programming C#, the top-selling book on Microsoft's high-performance C# programming language, is now in its fourth edition. Aimed at experienced programmers and web developers, this comprehensive guide focuses on the features and programming patterns that are unique to C#, and fundamental to the programming of web services and web applications on Microsoft's .NET platform.

  4. CCS - and its relationship to net theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to Milner's Calculus for Communicating Systems - a paradigm for concurrent computation. We put special emphasis on the basic concepts and tools from the underlying "algebraic approach", and their relationship to the approach to concurrency within net...

  5. Aboveground and belowground net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianne K. Burke; Hal O. Liechty; Mark H. Eisenbies

    2000-01-01

    The relationship among net primary productivity (NPP), hydroperiod, and fertility in forested wetlands is poorly understood (Burke and others 1999), particularly with respect to belowground NPP (Megonigal and others 1997). Although some researchers have studied aboveground and belowground primary production in depressional, forested wetland systems, e.g., Day and...

  6. AdaNET prototype library administration manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The functions of the AdaNET Prototype Library of Reusable Software Parts is described. Adopted from the Navy Research Laboratory's Reusability Guidebook (V.5.0), this is a working document, customized for use the the AdaNET Project. Within this document, the term part is used to denote the smallest unit controlled by a library and retrievable from it. A part may have several constituents, which may not be individually tracked. Presented are the types of parts which may be stored in the library and the relationships among those parts; a concept of trust indicators which provide measures of confidence that a user of a previously developed part may reasonably apply to a part for a new application; search and retrieval, configuration management, and communications among those who interact with the AdaNET Prototype Library; and the AdaNET Prototype, described from the perspective of its three major users: the part reuser and retriever, the part submitter, and the librarian and/or administrator.

  7. NetBench. Automated Network Performance Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Cadeddu, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the operation of high performance routers, CERN has developed the NetBench software to run benchmarking tests by injecting various traffic patterns and observing the network devices behaviour in real-time. The tool features a modular design with a Python based console used to inject traffic and collect the results in a database, and a web user

  8. Teaching Petri Nets Using P3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasevic, Dragan; Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Petri net software tool P3 that is developed for training purposes of the Architecture and organization of computers (AOC) course. The P3 has the following features: graphical modeling interface, interactive simulation by single and parallel (with previous conflict resolution) transition firing, two well-known Petri net…

  9. Net escapement of Antartic krill in trawls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krafft, B.A.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent;

    This document describes the aims and methodology of a three year project (commenced in 2012) entitled Net Escapement of Antarctic krill in Trawls (NEAT). The study will include a morphology based mathematical modeling (FISHSELECT) of different sex and maturity groups of Antarctic krill (Euphausia...

  10. Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-23

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay Musings on Sketches, Artists, and Mosquito Nets about the art of James Whistler and the transmission of vector borne diseases.  Created: 9/23/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/20/2014.

  11. Deep Belief Nets for Topic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Arngren, Morten; Winther, Ole

    2015-01-01

    . Efficient retrieval can be carried out in the latent representation. We work both on public benchmarks and digital media content provided by Issuu, an on-line publishing platform. This article also comes with a newly developed deep belief nets toolbox for topic modeling tailored towards performance...

  12. Regular Event Structures and Finite Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Thiagarajan, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    We present the notion of regular event structures and conjecture that they correspond exactly to finite 1-safe Petri nets. We show that the conjecture holds for the conflict-free case. Even in this restricted setting, the proof is non-trivial and involves a natural subclass of regular event...

  13. CCS - and its relationship to net theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to Milner's Calculus for Communicating Systems - a paradigm for concurrent computation. We put special emphasis on the basic concepts and tools from the underlying "algebraic approach", and their relationship to the approach to concurrency within net...

  14. Petri-Net Simulations of Communications Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    incorporate graphics output are more eas ly understood erd have considerable educational value. ,. The results of this research indicate that the...operate and manage the systems will be better educated and more professionally competent? 48 -9 FJ IV. AN INTRODUCTION TO PETRI-NETS A. INTRODUCTION...34 VRSIN 1.. aklETPCAE .... YP n) 56 oinf( VRIO 2.. PCKTPEREENATON.. 1282\

  15. An analysis of various elastic net algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van den Berg (Jan); J.H. Geselschap

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe Elastic Net Algorithm (ENA) for solving the Traveling Salesman Problem is analyzed applying statistical mechanics. Using some general properties of the free energy function of stochastic Hopfield Neural Networks, we argue why Simic's derivation of the ENA from a Hopfield network

  16. Dreamcatcher, Gatekeeper, Spider Web, Safety Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedie, Sanford; Madden, Marjorie

    1998-01-01

    Replicates, using diverse quotations grouped under four metaphors (dreamcatcher, gatekeeper, spider web, safety net) representing the dissonance of the reading/writing processes as they might be experienced by basic skills readers. Questions the relationship of basic skills to its students; implements D. Bartholomae's recommendations to reform of…

  17. On separable nets in constructive topological spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, A A

    2010-01-01

    A class of nets in constructive (in A.A.Markov's sense) topological space for which the convergence is equivalent to convergence of all subsequences, is described. B.A.Kushner's theorem about coincidence of strong and weak constructive variants of Riemann's integrability, is obtained as corollary.

  18. Analysis of Squid Net Fisheries Business Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herna Octivia Damayanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Squid net is one of alternatives to replace trawl net in Pati regency. The purposes of the research are 1 to determine the influence factors, 2 to analyze the return to scale, 3 to analyze cost and return.The research location in Juwana Subdistrict particularly Bakaran Kulon, Dukutalit, Bajomulyo and Bendar Villages. The research conducted on October 2015 to June 2016. The number of final samples was 36, while the formulation of management strategies used 15 samples by snowball sampling. Data analysis techniques used 1 Cobb Douglas production function, 2 revenue-cost ratio analysis. The results of the research are 1 significant inputs for production factor are long trip, Solar fuel, the number of crew and lights. 2 the return to scale of squid net bussiness in Juwana subdistrict Pati regency is -0.231 means decreasing to scale. 3 the R/C ratio of scenario II more profitable for squid net crews than  scenario I.

  19. Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, M R; Vogel, K P; Mitchell, R B; Perrin, R K

    2008-01-15

    Perennial herbaceous plants such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) are being evaluated as cellulosic bioenergy crops. Two major concerns have been the net energy efficiency and economic feasibility of switchgrass and similar crops. All previous energy analyses have been based on data from research plots (biomass energy crop in field trials of 3-9 ha (1 ha = 10,000 m2) on marginal cropland on 10 farms across a wide precipitation and temperature gradient in the midcontinental U.S. to determine net energy and economic costs based on known farm inputs and harvested yields. In this report, we summarize the agricultural energy input costs, biomass yield, estimated ethanol output, greenhouse gas emissions, and net energy results. Annual biomass yields of established fields averaged 5.2-11.1 Mg x ha(-1) with a resulting average estimated net energy yield (NEY) of 60 GJ x ha(-1) x y(-1). Switchgrass produced 540% more renewable than nonrenewable energy consumed. Switchgrass monocultures managed for high yield produced 93% more biomass yield and an equivalent estimated NEY than previous estimates from human-made prairies that received low agricultural inputs. Estimated average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cellulosic ethanol derived from switchgrass were 94% lower than estimated GHG from gasoline. This is a baseline study that represents the genetic material and agronomic technology available for switchgrass production in 2000 and 2001, when the fields were planted. Improved genetics and agronomics may further enhance energy sustainability and biofuel yield of switchgrass.

  20. Networking offshore with HiSeasNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, S.; Berger, J.; Orcutt, J.; Vernon, F.

    2008-12-01

    After more than 6 years of operations, the HiSeasNet satellite communications network continues to provide continuous internet connectivity for oceanographic research ships and platforms throughout the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. With additional bandwidth and ships brought online in 2008, HiSeasNet now supports 15 ships at sea as well as a seismic observatory on South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. Employing a variety of networking technologies, HiSeasNet has allowed scientists to conduct videoconference outreach programs, maintain limited long-term real-time data collection, connect campus phones to shipboard phones through the ship's PBX using Voice over IP (VoIP) protocols, and direct multi-ship research from shore and other ships. Standard Internet protocols available include FTP, HTTPS, and SSH. As there are few UNOLS ships that are not HiSeasNet capable, network operations now focus on providing bandwidth flexibility (including short-term increases), operator training, and increased science and operations community resources. With still plenty of unused ship-to-shore bandwidth, online information, and trained technicians, there are many opportunities for science programs to send near-real-time data to shore for both single- cruise and more permanent deployments of equipment. Current real-time data feeds are collected on some ships and transported through NSF Real-time Observatory and Data management Network (ROADNet) Points-of-Presence units.

  1. Bragg Experimental SensorNet Testbed (BEST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, Bryan

    2010-01-25

    The principal causative objectives of BEST were to consolidate the 9-1-1 and emergency response services into an Integrated Incident Management Center (I2MC) and to establish an 'Interoperability framework' based on SensorNet protocols to allow additional components to be added to the I2MC over time.

  2. Handheld Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-Aptamer Sensor for Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts lose significant bone mass during lengthy space flights. NASA wishes to monitor this bone loss in order to develop nutritional and exercise countermeasures. Operational Technologies Corporation (OpTech) has developed a handheld device that quantifies bone loss in a spacecraft environment. The innovation works by adding fluorescent dyes and quenchers to aptamers to enable pushbutton, one-step bind-and-detect FRET assays that can be freeze-dried, rehydrated with body fluids, and used to quantify bone loss.

  3. ShakeNet: a portable wireless sensor network for instrumenting large civil structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Monica D.; Hao, Shuai; Mishra, Nilesh; Govindan, Ramesh; Nigbor, Robert

    2015-08-03

    We report our findings from a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program-funded project to develop and test a wireless, portable, strong-motion network of up to 40 triaxial accelerometers for structural health monitoring. The overall goal of the project was to record ambient vibrations for several days from USGS-instrumented structures. Structural health monitoring has important applications in fields like civil engineering and the study of earthquakes. The emergence of wireless sensor networks provides a promising means to such applications. However, while most wireless sensor networks are still in the experimentation stage, very few take into consideration the realistic earthquake engineering application requirements. To collect comprehensive data for structural health monitoring for civil engineers, high-resolution vibration sensors and sufficient sampling rates should be adopted, which makes it challenging for current wireless sensor network technology in the following ways: processing capabilities, storage limit, and communication bandwidth. The wireless sensor network has to meet expectations set by wired sensor devices prevalent in the structural health monitoring community. For this project, we built and tested an application-realistic, commercially based, portable, wireless sensor network called ShakeNet for instrumentation of large civil structures, especially for buildings, bridges, or dams after earthquakes. Two to three people can deploy ShakeNet sensors within hours after an earthquake to measure the structural response of the building or bridge during aftershocks. ShakeNet involved the development of a new sensing platform (ShakeBox) running a software suite for networking, data collection, and monitoring. Deployments reported here on a tall building and a large dam were real-world tests of ShakeNet operation, and helped to refine both hardware and software. 

  4. Oxytocin and bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Zallone, Alberta

    2014-01-01

    One of the most meaningful results recently achieved in bone research has been to reveal that the pituitary hormones have profound effect on bone, so that the pituitary-bone axis has become one of the major topics in skeletal physiology. Here, we discuss the relevant evidence about the posterior pituitary hormone oxytocin (OT), previously thought to exclusively regulate parturition and breastfeeding, which has recently been established to directly regulate bone mass. Both osteoblasts and osteoclasts express OT receptors (OTR), whose stimulation enhances bone mass. Consistent with this, mice deficient in OT or OTR display profoundly impaired bone formation. In contrast, bone resorption remains unaffected in OT deficiency because, even while OT stimulates the genesis of osteoclasts, it inhibits their resorptive function. Furthermore, in addition to its origin from the pituitary, OT is also produced by bone marrow osteoblasts acting as paracrine-autocrine regulator of bone formation modulated by estrogens. In turn, the power of estrogen to increase bone mass is OTR-dependent. Therefore, OTR−/− mice injected with 17β-estradiol do not show any effects on bone formation parameters, while the same treatment increases bone mass in wild-type mice. These findings together provide evidence for an anabolic action of OT in regulating bone mass and suggest that bone marrow OT may enhance the bone-forming action of estrogen through an autocrine circuit. This established new physiological role for OT in the maintenance of skeletal integrity further suggests the potential use of this hormone for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25209411

  5. Bone marrow invasion in multiple myeloma and metastatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, J C; Luna, A

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine is the imaging study of choice for the management of bone marrow disease. MRI sequences enable us to integrate structural and functional information for detecting, staging, and monitoring the response the treatment of multiple myeloma and bone metastases in the spine. Whole-body MRI has been incorporated into different guidelines as the technique of choice for managing multiple myeloma and metastatic bone disease. Normal physiological changes in the yellow and red bone marrow represent a challenge in analyses to differentiate clinically significant findings from those that are not clinically significant. This article describes the findings for normal bone marrow, variants, and invasive processes in multiple myeloma and bone metastases.

  6. BMP signaling negatively regulates bone mass through sclerostin by inhibiting the canonical Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Ye, Ling; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Kronenberg, Henry M; Feng, Jian Q; Mishina, Yuji

    2008-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are known to induce ectopic bone. However, it is largely unknown how BMP signaling in osteoblasts directly regulates endogenous bone. This study investigated the mechanism by which BMP signaling through the type IA receptor (BMPR1A) regulates endogenous bone mass using an inducible Cre-loxP system. When BMPR1A in osteoblasts was conditionally disrupted during embryonic bone development, bone mass surprisingly was increased with upregulation of canonical Wnt signaling. Although levels of bone formation markers were modestly reduced, levels of resorption markers representing osteoclastogenesis were severely reduced, resulting in a net increase in bone mass. The reduction of osteoclastogenesis was primarily caused by Bmpr1a-deficiency in osteoblasts, at least through the RANKL-OPG pathway. Sclerostin (Sost) expression was downregulated by about 90% and SOST protein was undetectable in osteoblasts and osteocytes, whereas the Wnt signaling was upregulated. Treatment of Bmpr1a-deficient calvariae with sclerostin repressed the Wnt signaling and restored normal bone morphology. By gain of Smad-dependent BMPR1A signaling in mice, Sost expression was upregulated and osteoclastogenesis was increased. Finally, the Bmpr1a-deficient bone phenotype was rescued by enhancing BMPR1A signaling, with restoration of osteoclastogenesis. These findings demonstrate that BMPR1A signaling in osteoblasts restrain endogenous bone mass directly by upregulating osteoclastogenesis through the RANKL-OPG pathway, or indirectly by downregulating canonical Wnt signaling through sclerostin, a Wnt inhibitor and a bone mass mediator.

  7. Bone regeneration with cultured human bone grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, T.; Nakajima, H. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology; Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Ohgushi, H.; Ueda, Y.; Takakura, Y. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery; Uemura, T.; Tateishi, T. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research (NAIR), Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center; Enomoto, Y.; Ichijima, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara City (Japan). Dept. of Pathology

    2001-07-01

    From 73 year old female patient, 3 ml of bone marrow was collected from the ilium. The marrow was cultured to concentrate and expand the marrow mesenchymal cells on a culture dish. The cultured cells were then subculturedeither on another culture dish or in porous areas of hydroxyapatite ceramics in the presence of dexamethasone and beta-glycerophosphate (osteo genic medium). The subculturedtissues on the dishes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and subculturedtissues in the ceramics were implanted intraperitoneally into athymic nude mice. Vigorous growth of spindle-shaped cells and a marked formation of bone matrix beneath the cell layers was observed on the subculture dishes by SEM. The intraperitoneally implanted ceramics with cultured tissues revealed thick layer of lamellar bone together with active osteoblasts lining in many pore areas of the ceramics after 8 weeks. The in vitro bone formations on the culture dishes and in vivo bone formation in porous ceramics were detected. These results indicate that we can assemble an in vitro bone/ceramic construct, and due to the porous framework of the ceramic, the construct has osteogenic potential similar to that of autologous cancellous bone. A significant benefit of this method is that the construct can be made with only a small amount of aspirated marrow cells from aged patients with little host morbidity. (orig.)

  8. Cytology of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. S— and T—Invariants in Cyber Net Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁崇义

    1995-01-01

    Cyber nets are also known as self-modifying nets.Though proposed and defined some 20 years ago.They have never been under thorough study ever since.The reason for this is simple:the nonlinear nature of such nets keeps them away from applications of well developed methods known to the whole Petri Net Society in the world.This paper attempts to make a start of studying cyber nets in depth by proposing a way to defing and to verify S-invariants and T-invariants in such nets.These invariants reflect important dynamic properties of cyber nets.Invariants in cyber nets play a role similar to loop invariants proposed and studied by E.W.Dijkstra and D.Gries when cyber nets are used for program specification.

  10. A new variant of Petri net controlled grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Nurhidaya Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2015-10-01

    A Petri net controlled grammar is a Petri net with respect to a context-free grammar where the successful derivations of the grammar can be simulated using the occurrence sequences of the net. In this paper, we introduce a new variant of Petri net controlled grammars, called a place-labeled Petri net controlled grammar, which is a context-free grammar equipped with a Petri net and a function which maps places of the net to productions of the grammar. The language consists of all terminal strings that can be obtained by parallelly applying multisets of the rules which are the images of the sets of the input places of transitions in a successful occurrence sequence of the Petri net. We study the effect of the different labeling strategies to the computational power and establish lower and upper bounds for the generative capacity of place-labeled Petri net controlled grammars.

  11. BONES WITH BIOCERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about ceramics in application as bone implant. Bioceramics for instance Hydroxyapatite, usually is abbreviated with HA or HAp, is a mineral that is very good physical properties as bone replacement in human body. To produce Hydroxyapatite, coating process is used which have good potential as they can exploit the biocompatible and bone bonding properties of the ceramic. There are many advantages and disadvantages of bioceramics as bone implant. Advantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are rapidly integrated into the human body, and is most interesting property that will bond to bone forming indistinguishable unions. On contrary, disadvantages of hydroxyapatite as bone implant are poor mechanical properties (in particular fatigue properties mean that hydroxyapatite cannot be used in bulk form for load bearing applications such as orthopaedics and poor adhesion between the calcium phosphate coating and the material implant will occur.

  12. Bone scintiscanning updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentle, B C; Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Scott, J R; Jackson, F I

    1976-03-01

    Use of modern materials and methods has given bone scintiscanning a larger role in clinical medicine, The safety and ready availability of newer agents have led to its greater use in investigating both benign and malignant disease of bone and joint. Present evidence suggests that abnormal accumulation of 99mTc-polyphosphate and its analogues results from ionic deposition at crystal surfaces in immature bone, this process being facilitated by an increase in bone vascularity. There is, also, a component of matrix localization. These factors are in keeping with the concept that abnormal scintiscan sites represent areas of increased osteoblastic activity, although this may be an oversimplification. Increasing evidence shows that the bone scintiscan is more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting focal disease of bone, and its ability to reflect the immediate status of bone further complements radiographic findings. The main limitation of this method relates to nonspecificity of the results obtained.

  13. Bone disease in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V.; Hansen, Stinus; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are generally accepted to be associated with increased bone fracture risk. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetic bone disease are poorly understood, and whether the associated increased skeletal fragility is a comorbidity or a complication of diabetes...... remains under debate. Although there is some indication of a direct deleterious effect of microangiopathy on bone, the evidence is open to question, and whether diabetic osteopathy can be classified as a chronic, microvascular complication of diabetes remains uncertain. Here, we review the current...... knowledge of potential contributory factors to diabetic bone disease, particularly the association between diabetic microangiopathy and bone mineral density, bone structure, and bone turnover. Additionally, we discuss and propose a pathophysiological model of the effects of diabetic microvascular disease...

  14. Increased light-use efficiency sustains net primary productivity of shaded coffee plants in agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Fabien; Roupsard, Olivier; le Maire, Guerric; Guillemot, Joannès; Casanoves, Fernando; Lacointe, André; Vaast, Philippe; Allinne, Clémentine; Audebert, Louise; Cambou, Aurélie; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Defrenet, Elsa; Duursma, Remko A; Jarri, Laura; Jourdan, Christophe; Khac, Emmanuelle; Leandro, Patricia; Medlyn, Belinda E; Saint-André, Laurent; Thaler, Philippe; Van Den Meersche, Karel; Barquero Aguilar, Alejandra; Lehner, Peter; Dreyer, Erwin

    2017-08-01

    In agroforestry systems, shade trees strongly affect the physiology of the undergrown crop. However, a major paradigm is that the reduction in absorbed photosynthetically active radiation is, to a certain extent, compensated by an increase in light-use efficiency, thereby reducing the difference in net primary productivity between shaded and non-shaded plants. Due to the large spatial heterogeneity in agroforestry systems and the lack of appropriate tools, the combined effects of such variables have seldom been analysed, even though they may help understand physiological processes underlying yield dynamics. In this study, we monitored net primary productivity, during two years, on scales ranging from individual coffee plants to the entire plot. Absorbed radiation was mapped with a 3D model (MAESPA). Light-use efficiency and net assimilation rate were derived for each coffee plant individually. We found that although irradiance was reduced by 60% below crowns of shade trees, coffee light-use efficiency increased by 50%, leaving net primary productivity fairly stable across all shade levels. Variability of aboveground net primary productivity of coffee plants was caused primarily by the age of the plants and by intraspecific competition among them (drivers usually overlooked in the agroforestry literature) rather than by the presence of shade trees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. One-step electro-spinning/netting technique for controllably preparing polyurethane nano-fiber/net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Juanping; Wang, Xianfeng; Ding, Bin; Lin, Jinyou; Yu, Jianyong; Sun, Gang

    2011-11-01

    Electro-spinning/netting (ESN) as a cutting-edge technique evokes much interest because of its ability in the one-step preparation of versatile nano-fiber/net (NFN) membranes. Here, a controllable fabrication of polyurethane (PU) NFN membranes with attractive structures, consisting of common electrospun nanofibers and two-dimensional (2D) soap bubble-like structured nano-nets via an ESN process is reported. The unique nanoscaled NFN architecture can be finely controlled by regulating the solution properties and several ESN process parameters. The versatile PU nano-nets comprising interlinked nanowires with ultrathin diameters (5-40 nm) mean that the NFN structured membranes possess several excellent characteristics, such as an extremely large specific surface area, high porosity and large stacking density, which would be particularly useful for applications in ultrafiltration, special protective clothing, ultrasensitive sensors, catalyst support and so on.

  16. VEGF inhibition as possible therapy in spondyloarthritis patients: Targeting bone remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacout, Alexis; Carlier, Robert Yves; El Hajjam, Mostafa; Marcy, Pierre Yves

    2017-04-01

    Spondyloarthritis refers to a group of chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases that predominantly affects the axial skeleton, causing pain and stiffness. Human bone is highly dynamic organ that interacts with a wide array cells and tissues. Process of bone remodelling relies on a delicate balance between bone formation and bone resorption, orchestrated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Disruption of this homeostatic balance of bone removal and replacement can manifest as inappropriate new bone formation found in spondylarthritis. We hypothesize that VEGF may promote bone remodelling, stimulate angiogenesis, and both osteoclastic and osteoblastic activity. Anti VEGF may be tested as a dedicated therapy to prevent bone remodelling in spondyloarthritis patients, namely in cases of aggressive disease. Bone remodelling could be monitored by using [18F]Fluoride PET scan.

  17. Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Nlin; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Cheewamongkolnimit, Nareerat; Keratikul, Nutcha; Poon-Iam, Sawinee; Routh, Andrew; Bumpenpol, Pitikarn; Angkawanish, Taweepoke

    2015-11-01

    Bone turnover markers could offer a potential alternative means for the early diagnosis of metabolic bone disease in young growing elephants although the baseline of bone turnover markers in elephant is not well established. The aim of this study was to determine any relationship between the age of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and markers of bone formation. Serum samples from 24 female Asian elephants were collected to evaluate levels of two bone formation markers, namely, osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP). Both intact and N-terminal midfragment OC and BAP were negatively correlated with age. The findings demonstrate that younger elephants have a higher rate of bone turnover than older elephants. Use of these and additional bone markers could lead to the establishment of validated protocols for the monitoring of bone disease in elephants.

  18. Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Proton, Net-Kaon, and Net-Charge Multiplicity Distributions at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    One of the main goals of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program is to study the QCD phase structure, which includes the search for the QCD critical point, over a wide range of chemical potential. Theoretical calculations predict that fluctuations of conserved quantities, such as baryon number (B), charge (Q), and strangeness (S), are sensitive to the correlation length of the dynamical system. Experimentally, higher moments of multiplicity distributions have been utilized to search for the QCD critical point in heavy-ion collisions. In this paper, we report recent efficiency-corrected cumulants and cumulants ratios of the net- proton, net-kaon, and net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV collected in the years 2010, 2011, and 2014 with STAR at RHIC. The centrality and energy dependence of the cumulants up to the fourth order, as well as their ratios, are presented. Furthermore, the comparisons with baseline calculations (Poisson) and non-c...

  19. Imaging of bone metastasis: An update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerard; J; O’Sullivan; Fiona; L; Carty; Carmel; G; Cronin

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of skeletal metastasis is critical for accurate staging and optimal treatment. This paper briefly reviews our current understanding of the biological mechanisms through which tumours metastasise to bone and describes the available imaging methods to diagnose bone metastasis and monitor response to treatment. Among the various imaging modalities currently available for imaging skeletal metastasis, hybrid techniques whichfuse morphological and functional data are the most sensitive and specific, and positron emission tomography(PET)/computed tomography and PET/magnetic resonance imaging will almost certainly continue to evolve and become increasingly important in this regard.

  20. Diabetes, Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover, Diabetes Control, and Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Starup-Linde, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to have late complications including micro vascular and macro vascular disease. This review focuses on another possible area of complication regarding diabetes; bone. Diabetes may affect bone via bone structure, bone density, and biochemical markers of bone turnover. The aim of the present review is to examine in vivo from humans on biochemical markers of bone turnover in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Furthermore, the effect of glycemic control on bone marker...

  1. 2006 Net Centric Operations Conference - Facilitating Net Centric Operations and Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-16

    Moderator: Lt Col Kenneth Lang, USAF, Chief, Net Centric Transformational Operations, C4 Transformation Division (US JFCOM/J69) Panelists...of Interest (US JFCOM/J61) - Mr. Troy Turner, Section Head, C4 Interoperability (ACT) - COL Kelly Mayes, USA, Director, Campaign Planning...Deliverables NCAT NIF SCOPE Net Centric Assessment Tools (includes SCOPE & PFCs evaluation) Conceptual Architecture Framework Standards PFCs: Building Codes

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein-2-encapsulated grafted-poly-lactic acid-polycaprolactone nanoparticles promote bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jun; Ding, Lifeng; Li, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of a novel tissue-engineered bone in repairing bone defects, using poly-lactic-acid-polycaprolactone (PLA-PCL) scaffolding seeded with PEG-bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-transfected rBMSCs (rabbit bone marrow stromal cells). The rBMSCs were transfected with PEG/BMP-2 or liposome/BMP-2, and then implanted into a PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bone. The protein level of BMP-2 was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. ELISA was used to measure the amount of BMP-2 secreted in the culture media. The mRNA level of BMP-2 and osteocalcin was assayed quantitatively by real-time PCR. The middle portion of the bilateral radius in New Zealand rabbits was excised and implanted with tissue-engineered bone, and the modified areas were monitored by X-ray, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry staining of BMP-2. PEG-BMP-2 nanoparticles (NPs) and BMP-2-loaded PEG-PLA-PCL tissue-engineered bones were successfully constructed. The novel PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/DNA complex was a superior option for transfecting BMP-2 in rBMSCs compared to normal liposomes Moreover, the mRNA level of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase activity was also elevated upon transfection of BMP-2-encapsulated NPs. In vivo implants with BMP-2-carried tissue-engineered bone exhibited dramatic augmentation of BMP-2 and effective bone formation in the rabbit ectopic model. The PEG-PLA-PCL NPs/BMP-2 complex had an advantageous effect on bone repair, which provided an important theoretic basis for potential clinical treatments.

  3. Vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiencies are common in patients with midgut carcinoid (SI-NET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, A; Wängberg, B; Ellegård, L

    2016-09-01

    Patients with small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (SI-NET) often have diarrhoea from hormonal overproduction, surgery and medical treatment, leading to malabsorption of bile salts, fats, vitamin B12 and fat-souble vitamins. This could lead to malnutrition. We assessed nutritional status in 50 consecutive out patients with disseminated SI-NET, 25 patients in each cohort. The first cohort was descriptive and the second cohort supplemented with vitamin D, B12 and calcium. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as vitamin D deficient. In patients without prior substitution, 32% had subnormal vitamin B12 levels. Seventy-six percent had low bone density. In the second cohort with vitamin and mineral supplementation, none had severe vitamin D deficiency, but 28% had moderate deficiency. No patient had subnormal vitamin B12 levels. Sixty percent had low bone density. The serum levels of vitamin D and B12 were higher and parathyroid hormone (PTH) lower in the second cohort compared with the first cohort (P⩽0,022). Vitamin D and PTH were negatively correlated, r=-30, P=⩽0.036. Low serum levels of vitamin D and vitamin B12, and low bone density are common in patients with disseminated SI-NET. Supplementation of vitamin D, B12 and calcium resulted in higher serum levels of vitamins, lower PTH levels and diminished severe vitamin D deficiency and is thus recommended as standard care.

  4. Join Bayes Nets: A new type of Bayes net for relational data

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Oliver; Moser, Flavia; Ester, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many databases store data in relational format, with different types of entities and information about links between the entities. The field of statistical-relational learning has developed a number of new statistical models for such data. Instead of introducing a new model class, we propose using a standard model class--Bayes nets--in a new way: Join Bayes nets contain nodes that correspond to the descriptive attributes of the database tables, plus Boolean relationship nodes that indicate the presence of a link. Join Bayes nets are class-level models whose random variables describe attributes of generic individuals (e.g., $\\age(\\P)$ rather than $\\age(\\jack)$ where $\\P$ stands for a randomly selected person). As Join Bayes nets are just a special type of Bayes net, their semantics is standard (edges denote direct associations, d-separation implies probabilistic independence etc.), and Bayes net inference algorithms can be used "as is" to answer probabilistic queries involving relations. We present a dynamic p...

  5. Application of laser engineered net shaping (LENS) to manufacture porous and functionally graded structures for load bearing implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Krishna, B V; Xue, Weichang; Bose, Susmita

    2009-12-01

    Fabrication of net shape load bearing implants with complex anatomical shapes to meet desired mechanical and biological performance is still a challenge. In this article, an overview of our research activities is discussed focusing on application of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) toward load bearing implants to increase in vivo life time. We have demonstrated that LENS can fabricate net shape, complex metallic implants with designed porosities up to 70 vol.% to reduce stress-shielding. The effective modulus of Ti, NiTi, and other alloys was tailored to suit the modulus of human cortical bone by introducing 12-42 vol.% porosity. In addition, laser processed porous NiTi alloy samples show a 2-4% recoverable strain, a potentially significant result for load bearing implants. To minimize the wear induced osteolysis, unitized structures with functionally graded Co-Cr-Mo coating on porous Ti6Al4V were also made using LENS, which showed high hardness with excellent bone cell-materials interactions. Finally, LENS is also being used to fabricate porous, net shape implants with a functional gradation in porosity characteristics.

  6. Longitudinal assessment of in vivo bone dynamics in a mouse tail model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambers, Floor M; Kuhn, Gisela; Schulte, Friederike A; Koch, Kathleen; Müller, Ralph

    2012-02-01

    Recently, it has been shown that transient bone biology can be observed in vivo using time-lapse micro-computed tomography (μCT) in the mouse tail bone. Nevertheless, in order for the mouse tail bone to be a model for human disease, the hallmarks of any disease must be mimicked. The aim of this study was to investigate whether postmenopausal osteoporosis could be modeled in caudal vertebrae of C57Bl/6 mice, considering static and dynamic bone morphometry as well as mechanical properties, and to describe temporal changes in bone remodeling rates. Twenty C57Bl/6 mice were ovariectomized (OVX, n = 11) or sham-operated (SHM, n = 9) and monitored with in vivo μCT on the day of surgery and every 2 weeks after, up to 12 weeks. There was a significant decrease in bone volume fraction for OVX (-35%) compared to SHM (+16%) in trabecular bone (P bone loss was observed, with the bone resorption rate exceeding the bone formation rate (P bone stiffness for OVX (-16%) compared to SHM (+11%, P tail vertebra mimics postmenopausal bone loss with respect to these parameters and therefore might be a suitable model for postmenopausal osteoporosis. When evaluating temporal changes in remodeling rates, we found that OVX caused an immediate increase in bone resorption rate (P bone formation rate (P bone biology is a promising method for future research.

  7. Gains in awareness, ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets in Nigeria, Senegal, Uganda and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin M Celeste

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2000, the Roll Back Malaria (RBM "Abuja Summit" set a target of having at least 60% of pregnant women and children under five use insecticide-treated nets (ITNs. Thereafter, programmes were implemented to create demand, reduce taxes and tariffs, spur the commercial market, and reach vulnerable populations with subsidized ITNs. Using national ITN monitoring data from the USAID-sponsored AED/NetMark project, this article examines the extent to which these activities were successful in increasing awareness, ownership, and use of nets and ITNs. Methods A series of surveys with standardized sampling and measurement methods was used to compare four countries at two points in time. Surveys were conducted in 2000 and again in 2004 (Nigeria, Senegal, Zambia or 2006 (Uganda. They contained questions permitting classification of each net as untreated, ever-treated or currently-treated (an ITN. Household members as well as nets owned were enumerated so that households, household members, and nets could be used as units of analysis. Several measures of net/ITN ownership, plus RBM ITN use indicators, were calculated. The results show the impact of ITN activities before the launch of massive free net distribution programmes. Results In 2000, treated nets were just being introduced to the public, but four to six years later the awareness of ITNs was nearly universal in all countries but Nigeria, where awareness increased from 7% to 60%. By any measure, there were large increases in ownership of nets, especially treated nets, in all countries. All countries but Nigeria made commensurate gains in the proportion of under-fives sleeping under a net/ITN, and in all countries the proportion of pregnant women sleeping under a net/ITN increased greatly. Conclusion A mix of demand creation, a strengthened commercial sector, reduced taxes and tariffs, and programmes making ITNs available at reduced prices resulted in impressive gains in

  8. Self-organizing nets for optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Michele; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2004-05-01

    Given some optimization problem and a series of typically expensive trials of solution candidates sampled from a search space, how can we efficiently select the next candidate? We address this fundamental problem by embedding simple optimization strategies in learning algorithms inspired by Kohonen's self-organizing maps and neural gas networks. Our adaptive nets or grids are used to identify and exploit search space regions that maximize the probability of generating points closer to the optima. Net nodes are attracted by candidates that lead to improved evaluations, thus, quickly biasing the active data selection process toward promising regions, without loss of ability to escape from local optima. On standard benchmark functions, our techniques perform more reliably than the widely used covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy. The proposed algorithm is also applied to the problem of drag reduction in a flow past an actively controlled circular cylinder, leading to unprecedented drag reduction.

  9. Automatic pipeline operation using Petri Nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Guilherme O. [PETROBRAS TRANSPORTE S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A pipeline operation requires several actions, attention and time from the control room operator in each of its operating phases. This article proposition is to use automation as something more than a remote control, drastically reducing the number of repetitive and routine actions needed from the operator to start and stop the system, granting more time for system supervision, decision making during critical conditions and avoiding errors caused due to the need of several actions being executed in a short period of time. To achieve these objectives the pipeline operation will be modeled as a Petri Net consisting of states, event and actions. A methodology for converting this Petri Net into a Ladder controller code will also be proposed. (author)

  10. Modeling and analysis using hybrid Petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    Ghomri, Latéfa

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the use of hybrid Petri nets (PNs) for modeling and control of hybrid dynamic systems (HDS). Modeling, analysis and control of HDS attract ever more of researchers' attention and several works have been devoted to these topics. We consider in this paper the extensions of the PN formalism (initially conceived for modeling and analysis of discrete event systems) in the direction of hybrid modeling. We present, first, the continuous PN models. These models are obtained from discrete PNs by the fluidification of the markings. They constitute the first steps in the extension of PNs toward hybrid modeling. Then, we present two hybrid PN models, which differ in the class of HDS they can deal with. The first one is used for deterministic HDS modeling, whereas the second one can deal with HDS with nondeterministic behavior. Keywords: Hybrid dynamic systems; D-elementary hybrid Petri nets; Hybrid automata; Controller synthesis

  11. Multi-net optimization of VLSI interconnect

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, Konstantin; Wimer, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    This book covers layout design and layout migration methodologies for optimizing multi-net wire structures in advanced VLSI interconnects. Scaling-dependent models for interconnect power, interconnect delay and crosstalk noise are covered in depth, and several design optimization problems are addressed, such as minimization of interconnect power under delay constraints, or design for minimal delay in wire bundles within a given routing area. A handy reference or a guide for design methodologies and layout automation techniques, this book provides a foundation for physical design challenges of interconnect in advanced integrated circuits.  • Describes the evolution of interconnect scaling and provides new techniques for layout migration and optimization, focusing on multi-net optimization; • Presents research results that provide a level of design optimization which does not exist in commercially-available design automation software tools; • Includes mathematical properties and conditions for optimal...

  12. Thermal transmission of camouflage nets revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jersblad, Johan; Jacobs, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    In this article we derive, from first principles, the correct formula for thermal transmission of a camouflage net, based on the setup described in the US standard for lightweight camouflage nets. Furthermore, we compare the results and implications with the use of an incorrect formula that have been seen in several recent tenders. It is shown that the incorrect formulation not only gives rise to large errors, but the result also depends on the surrounding room temperature, which in the correct derivation cancels out. The theoretical results are compared with laboratory measurements. The theoretical results agree with the laboratory results for the correct derivation. To summarize we discuss the consequences for soldiers on the battlefield if incorrect standards and test methods are used in procurement processes.

  13. Rainbow net analysis of VAXcluster system availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Allen M., Jr.; Schoenfelder, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    A system modeling technique, Rainbow Nets, is used to evaluate the availability and mean-time-to-interrupt of the VAXcluster. These results are compared to the exact analytic results showing that reasonable accuracy is achieved through simulation. The complexity of the Rainbow Net does not increase as the number of processors increases, but remains constant, unlike a Markov model which expands exponentially. The constancy is achieved by using tokens with identity attributes (items) that can have additional attributes associated with them (features) which can exist in multiple states. The time to perform the simulation increases, but this is a polynomial increase rather than exponential. There is no restriction on distributions used for transition firing times, allowing real situations to be modeled more accurately by choosing the distribution which best fits the system performance and eliminating the need for simplifying assumptions.

  14. Modeling workflow using XML and Petri net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东; 温泉; 张申生

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays an increasing number of workflow products and research prototypes begin to adopt XML for representing workflow models owing to its easy use and well understanding for people and machines. However, most of workflow products and research prototypes provide the few supports for the verification of XML-based workflow model, such as free-deadlock properties, which is essential to successful application of workflow technology. In this paper, we tackle this problem by mapping the XML-based workflow model into Petri-net, a kind of well-known formalism for modeling,analyzing and verifying system. As a result, the XML-based workflow model can be automatically verified with the help of general Petri-net tools, such as DANAMICS. The presented approach not only enables end users to represent workflow model with XML-based modeling language, but also the correctness of model can be ensured, thus satisfying the needs of business processes.

  15. Fuzzy net present value for engineering analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazeri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cash flow analysis is one of the most popular methods for investigating the outcome of an economical project. The costs and benefits of a construction project are often involved with uncertainty and it is not possible to find a precise value for a particular project. In this paper, we present a simple method to calculate the net present value of a cash flow when both costs and benefits are given as triangular numbers. The proposed model of this paper uses Delphi method to figure out the fair values of all costs and revenues and then using fizzy programming techniques, it calculates the fuzzy net present value. The implementation of the proposed model is demonstrated using a simple example.

  16. Automatic pipeline operation using Petri Nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Guilherme O. [PETROBRAS TRANSPORTE S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A pipeline operation requires several actions, attention and time from the control room operator in each of its operating phases. This article proposition is to use automation as something more than a remote control, drastically reducing the number of repetitive and routine actions needed from the operator to start and stop the system, granting more time for system supervision, decision making during critical conditions and avoiding errors caused due to the need of several actions being executed in a short period of time. To achieve these objectives the pipeline operation will be modeled as a Petri Net consisting of states, event and actions. A methodology for converting this Petri Net into a Ladder controller code will also be proposed. (author)

  17. AstroNet-II International Final Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Masdemont, Josep

    2016-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the "AstroNet-II International Final Conference". This conference was one of the last milestones of the Marie-Curie Research Training Network on Astrodynamics "AstroNet-II", that has been funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The aim of the conference, and thus this book, is to communicate work on astrodynamics problems to an international and specialised audience. The results are presented by both members of the network and invited specialists. The topics include: trajectory design and control, attitude control, structural flexibility of spacecraft and formation flying. The book addresses a readership across the traditional boundaries between mathematics, engineering and industry by offering an interdisciplinary and multisectorial overview of the field.

  18. EVo: Net Shape RTM Production Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Torstrick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available EVo research platform is operated by the Center for Lightweight-Production-Technology of the German Aerospace Center in Stade. Its objective is technology demonstration of a fully automated RTM (Resin Transfer Molding production line for composite parts in large quantities. Process steps include cutting and ply handling, draping, stacking, hot-forming, preform-trimming to net shape, resin injection, curing and demolding.

  19. Capitalizing Central Banks: A Net Worth Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Ize

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a simple, quantitative, net worth-based, approach to assessing the need for central bank capital. It derives a concept of "core capital" (a function of the central bank's operating expenditures and the carrying cost of its international reserves) as the minimum capital needed by a central bank to ensure the credibility of its inflation target. The approach is illustrated with the published accounts of three loss-making central banks and selected accounting entries for a br...

  20. Using MySQL in .NET

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical part deals with describing C Sharp .NET language, especially of libraries for working with SQL language in MySql environment. There is a space devoted to SQL language, which is described as well in this work. Practical part is composed from code which use connector from Oracle, which provides access to MySql and components of C# language, which provides visualisation of data and its editing.

  1. Terra Populus and DataNet Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, T.; Ruggles, S.; Fitch, C. A.; Clark, P. D.; Sobek, M.; Van Riper, D.

    2012-12-01

    Terra Populus, part of NSF's new DataNet initiative, is developing organizational and technical infrastructure to integrate, preserve, and disseminate data describing changes in the human population and environment over time. Terra Populus will incorporate large microdata and aggregate census datasets from the United States and around the world, as well as land use, land cover, climate and other environmental datasets. These data are widely dispersed, exist in a variety of data structures, have incompatible or inadequate metadata, and have incompatible geographic identifiers. Terra Populus is developing methods of integrating data from different domains and translating across data structures based on spatio-temporal linkages among data contents. The new infrastructure will enable researchers to identify and merge data from heterogeneous sources to study the relationships between human behavior and the natural world. Terra Populus will partner with data archives, data producers, and data users to create a sustainable international organization that will guarantee preservation and access over multiple decades. Terra Populus is also collaborating with the other projects in the DataNet initiative - DataONE, the DataNet Federation Consortium (DFC) and Sustainable Environment-Actionable Data (SEAD). Taken together, the four projects address aspects of the entire data lifecycle, including planning, collection, documentation, discovery, integration, curation, preservation, and collaboration; and encompass a wide range of disciplines including earth sciences, ecology, social sciences, hydrology, oceanography, and engineering. The four projects are pursuing activities to share data, tools, and expertise between pairs of projects as well as collaborating across the DataNet program on issues of cyberinfrastructure and community engagement. Topics to be addressed through program-wide collaboration include technical, organizational, and financial sustainability; semantic

  2. Status of KM3NeT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccobene G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  3. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  4. Document analysis with neural net circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Hans Peter

    1994-01-01

    Document analysis is one of the main applications of machine vision today and offers great opportunities for neural net circuits. Despite more and more data processing with computers, the number of paper documents is still increasing rapidly. A fast translation of data from paper into electronic format is needed almost everywhere, and when done manually, this is a time consuming process. Markets range from small scanners for personal use to high-volume document analysis systems, such as address readers for the postal service or check processing systems for banks. A major concern with present systems is the accuracy of the automatic interpretation. Today's algorithms fail miserably when noise is present, when print quality is poor, or when the layout is complex. A common approach to circumvent these problems is to restrict the variations of the documents handled by a system. In our laboratory, we had the best luck with circuits implementing basic functions, such as convolutions, that can be used in many different algorithms. To illustrate the flexibility of this approach, three applications of the NET32K circuit are described in this short viewgraph presentation: locating address blocks, cleaning document images by removing noise, and locating areas of interest in personal checks to improve image compression. Several of the ideas realized in this circuit that were inspired by neural nets, such as analog computation with a low resolution, resulted in a chip that is well suited for real-world document analysis applications and that compares favorably with alternative, 'conventional' circuits.

  5. Detecting Linkedin Spammers and its Spam Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V´ictor M. Prieto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Spam is one of the main problems of the WWW. Many studies exist about characterising and detecting several types of Spam (mainly Web Spam, Email Spam, Forum/Blob Spam and Social Networking Spam. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, there are no studies about the detection of Spam in Linkedin. In this article, we propose a method for detecting Spammers and Spam nets in the Linkedin social network. As there are no public or private Linkedin datasets in the state of the art, we have manually built a dataset of real Linkedin users, classifying them as Spammers or legitimate users. The proposed method for detecting Linkedin Spammers consists of a set of new heuristics and their combinations using a kNN classifier. Moreover, we proposed a method for detecting Spam nets (fake companies in Linkedin, based on the idea that the profiles of these companies share content similarities. We have found that the proposed methods were very effective. We achieved an F-Measure of 0.971 and an AUC close to 1 in the detection of Spammer profiles, and in the detection of Spam nets, we have obtained an F-Measure of 1

  6. Km3Net Italy - Seafloor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. INFN and KM3NeT collaboration, thanks to a dedicated funding of 21.000.000 € (PON 2007-2013), are committed to build and deploy the Phase 1 of the telescope, composed of a network of detection units: 8 towers, equipped with single photomultiplier optical modules, and 24 strings, equipped with multi-photomultipliers optical modules. All the towers and strings are connected to the main electro optical cable by means of a network of junction boxes and electro optical interlink cables. Each junction box is an active node able to provide all the necessary power to the detection units and to guarantee the data transmission between the detector and the on-shore control station. The KM3NeT Italia project foresees the realization and the installation of the first part of the deep sea network, composed of three junction boxes, one for the towers and two for the strings. In July 2015, two junction boxes have been deployed and connected to the new cable termination frame installed during the same sea campaign. The third and last one will be installed in November 2015. The status of the deep sea network is presented together with technical details of the project.

  7. Readmissions at a public safety net hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Shimizu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine factors related to avoidability of 30-day readmissions at our public, safety net hospital in the United States (US. METHODS: We prospectively reviewed medical records of adult internal medicine patients with scheduled and unscheduled 30-day readmissions. We also interviewed patients if they were available. An independent panel used pre-specified, objective criteria to adjudicate potential avoidability. RESULTS: Of 153 readmissions evaluated, 68% were unscheduled. Among these, 67% were unavoidable, primarily due to disease progression and development of new diagnoses. Scheduled readmissions accounted for 32% of readmissions and most (69% were clinically appropriate and unavoidable. The scheduled but avoidable readmissions (31% were attributed largely to limited resources in our healthcare system. CONCLUSIONS: Most readmissions at our public, safety net hospital were unavoidable, even among our unscheduled readmissions. Surprisingly, one-third of our overall readmissions were scheduled, the majority reflecting appropriate management strategies designed to reduce unnecessary hospital days. The scheduled but avoidable readmissions were due to constrained access to non-emergent, expensive procedures that are typically not reimbursed given our system's payor mix, a problem which likely plague other safety net systems. These findings suggest that readmissions do not necessarily reflect inadequate medical care, may reflect resource constraints that are unlikely to be addressable in systems caring for a large burden of uninsured patients, and merit individualized review.

  8. Template learning in morphological neural nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jennifer L.; Sun, K.

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents an application of morphology neural networks to a template learning problem. Morphology neural networks are a nonlinear version of the familiar artificial neural networks. Typically, an artificial neural net is used to solve pattern classification problems One useful characterization of many neural network algorithms is the ability to 'learn' to respond correctly to new data based only on a selection of known data responses. For example, in the multilayer perceptron model, the 'learning' is a procedure whereby parameters are fed back from output to input neurons and the weights changed to give a better response. The morphological neural net in this paper solves a different type of image processing problem. Specifically, given an input image and an output image which corresponds to a dilated version of the input, one would like to determine what template produced the output. The problem corresponds to teaching the network to solve for the weights in a morphological net, as the weights are the template's values. A reasonable method has been investigated for the boolean case; in this paper results are presented for gray scale images. Image algebra has been shown to provide a succinct expression of neural networks algorithms and also to allow a generalization of neural networks, and thus the authors describe the algorithm in image algebra. The remainder of the paper gives a brief discussion of image algebra, the relationship of image algebra and neural networks, a recap of the dilation morphology neural network boolean for boolean images, and the generalization to grayscale data.

  9. NetCDF-U - Uncertainty conventions for netCDF datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Nativi, Stefano; Domenico, Ben

    2013-04-01

    To facilitate the automated processing of uncertain data (e.g. uncertainty propagation in modeling applications), we have proposed a set of conventions for expressing uncertainty information within the netCDF data model and format: the NetCDF Uncertainty Conventions (NetCDF-U). From a theoretical perspective, it can be said that no dataset is a perfect representation of the reality it purports to represent. Inevitably, errors arise from the observation process, including the sensor system and subsequent processing, differences in scales of phenomena and the spatial support of the observation mechanism, lack of knowledge about the detailed conversion between the measured quantity and the target variable. This means that, in principle, all data should be treated as uncertain. The most natural representation of an uncertain quantity is in terms of random variables, with a probabilistic approach. However, it must be acknowledged that almost all existing data resources are not treated in this way. Most datasets come simply as a series of values, often without any uncertainty information. If uncertainty information is present, then it is typically within the metadata, as a data quality element. This is typically a global (dataset wide) representation of uncertainty, often derived through some form of validation process. Typically, it is a statistical measure of spread, for example the standard deviation of the residuals. The introduction of a mechanism by which such descriptions of uncertainty can be integrated into existing geospatial applications is considered a practical step towards a more accurate modeling of our uncertain understanding of any natural process. Given the generality and flexibility of the netCDF data model, conventions on naming, syntax, and semantics have been adopted by several communities of practice, as a means of improving data interoperability. Some of the existing conventions include provisions on uncertain elements and concepts, but, to our

  10. An investigation of model forensic bone in soil environments studied using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Johanna M; Stuart, Barbara H; Thomas, Paul S; Raja, Sophil; O'Brien, Christopher

    2012-09-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has been used to examine changes to bone chemistry as a result of soil burial. Pig carcasses were buried as part of a controlled field study, and pig bone was used in soil environments established in the laboratory. The variables of species type, bone pretreatment, soil type and pH, moisture content, temperature, and burial time were investigated. The crystallinity index (CI) and the organic and carbonate contents of the bones were monitored. The data revealed decreasing trends in the organic and carbonate contents and an increase in the CI of the bone with burial time. An acidic soil environment and soil type are the factors that have the most influence on bone chemistry as a result of burial. The study demonstrates the potential of infrared spectroscopy as a straightforward method of monitoring the changes associated with aging of bones in a variety of soil environments.

  11. Programmed administration of parathyroid hormone increases bone formation and reduces bone loss in hindlimb-unloaded ovariectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. T.; Evans, G. L.; Cavolina, J. M.; Halloran, B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1998-01-01

    Gonadal insufficiency and reduced mechanical usage are two important risk factors for osteoporosis. The beneficial effects of PTH therapy to reverse the estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in the laboratory rat are well known, but the influence of mechanical usage in this response has not been established. In this study, the effects of programed administration of PTH on cancellous bone volume and turnover at the proximal tibial metaphysis were determined in hindlimb-unloaded, ovariectomized (OVX), 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. PTH was administered to weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats with osmotic pumps programed to deliver 20 microg human PTH (approximately 80 microg/kg x day) during a daily 1-h infusion for 7 days. Compared with sham-operated rats, OVX increased longitudinal and radial bone growth, increased indexes of cancellous bone turnover, and resulted in net resorption of cancellous bone. Hindlimb unloading of OVX rats decreased longitudinal and radial bone growth, decreased osteoblast number, increased osteoclast number, and resulted in a further decrease in cancellous bone volume compared with those in weight-bearing OVX rats. Programed administration of PTH had no effect on either radial or longitudinal bone growth in weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats. PTH treatment had dramatic effects on selected cancellous bone measurements; PTH maintained cancellous bone volume in OVX weight-bearing rats and greatly reduced cancellous bone loss in OVX hindlimb-unloaded rats. In the latter animals, PTH treatment prevented the hindlimb unloading-induced reduction in trabecular thickness, but the hormone was ineffective in preventing either the increase in osteoclast number or the loss of trabecular plates. Importantly, PTH treatment increased the retention of a baseline flurochrome label, osteoblast number, and bone formation in the proximal tibial metaphysis regardless of the level of mechanical usage. These findings demonstrate that

  12. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  13. Nets, Boats and Fishing in the Roman World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2002-01-01

    Ithas been claimed that in Roman times, net fishing was a shore-based technology, but a study of literary sources and pictorial evidence, mainly mosaics, show that net fishing from boats was widespread throughout the first four centuries AD....

  14. Methods for behavior descriptions of structure-complex Petri nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingtian ZENG; Zhehui WU

    2004-01-01

    Petri net language is a powerful tool for describing dynamic behaviors of physical systems. However, it is not easy to obtain the language expression for a given Petri net especially a structure-complex net. In this paper, we first analyze the behaviors of S-nets, which are structure-simple. With the decomposition method based on a given index function on the place set, a given structure-complex Petri net can be decomposed into a set of structure-simple S-nets. With the language relationships between the original system and the decomposed subnets, an algorithm to obtain the language expression of a given structure-complex net system is presented, which benefits the analysis of physical systems based on the Petri net language.

  15. Observations of NC stop nets for bottlenose dolphin takes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To observe the NC stop net fishery to document the entanglement of bottlenose dolphins and movement of dolphins around the nets.

  16. Net Shape Rapid Manufacturing Using Nano Encapsulated Powders Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II program is developing NET Shape components from Encapsulated Powders. Significant advances in Phase I for various materials and in net shape processing...

  17. Bone building with bortezomib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodman, G. David

    2008-01-01

    In this issue of the JCI, Mukherjee et al. report that bortezomib, a clinically available proteasome inhibitor active against myeloma, induces the differentiation of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) — rather than mature osteoprogenitor cells — into osteoblasts, resulting in new bone formation (see the related article beginning on page 491). These results were observed when MSCs were implanted subcutaneously in mice or were used to treat a mouse model of postmenopausal bone loss. Others have reported that immunomodulatory drugs (e.g., thalidomide and lenalidomide), which are active against myeloma, also block the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. These results reflect the utility of targeting endogenous MSCs for the purpose of tissue repair and suggest that combining different classes of agents that are antineoplastic and also inhibit bone destruction and increase bone formation should be very beneficial for myeloma patients suffering from severe bone disease. PMID:18219395

  18. Adrenal gland and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S

    2010-11-01

    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  19. Bone scanning in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyek, A M

    1979-09-01

    Modern radionuclide bone scanning has introduced a new concept in physiologic and anatomic diagnostic imaging to general medicine. As otolaryngologists must diagnose and treat disease in relation to the bony and/or cartilaginous supporting structures of the neurocranium and upper airway, this modality should be included in the otolaryngologist's diagnostic armamentarium. It is the purpose of this manuscript to study the specific applications of bone scanning to our specialty at this time, based on clinical experience over the past three years. This thesis describes the development of bone scanning in general (history of nuclear medicine and nuclear physics; history of bone scanning in particular). General concepts in nuclear medicine are then presented; these include a discussion of nuclear semantics, principles of radioactive emmissions, the properties 99mTc as a radionuclide, and the tracer principle. On the basis of these general concepts, specific concepts in bone scanning are then brought forth. The physiology of bone and the action of the bone scan agents is presented. Further discussion considers the availability and production of the bone scan agent, patient factors, the gamma camera, the triphasic bone scan and the ultimate diagnostic principle of the bone scan. Clinical applications of bone scanning in otolaryngology are then presented in three sections. Proven areas of application include the evaluation of malignant tumors of the head and neck, the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, the diagnosis of facial fractures, the evaluation of osteomyelitis, nuclear medicine imaging of the larynx, and the assessment of systemic disease. Areas of adjunctive or supplementary value are also noted, such as diagnostic imaging of meningioma. Finally, areas of marginal value in the application of bone scanning are described.

  20. Net profit increased slightly in most clothing listed companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Entering July, listed companies’ performance report in the first half of 2012 will be disclosed. Up to July 16th, 54 textile and clothing listed companies published performance report. Among them, 5 companies’ net profit increased, 23 companies’ net profit slightly increased , 6 companies’ net profit slightly reduced, 4 companies’ net profit reduced compared with the expectation, 6 companies had losses for the first time, 9 companies sustained losses and 1 company made up the deficits and got surpluses.