WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitor measurement values

  1. Adding Shareholder Value through Project Performance Measurement, Monitoring & Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu; J.R. Turner (Rodney)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe present the various views and methods of measuring and controlling project performance, and factors affecting a project. The review indicates that there is a shift in the type and understanding of factors of project success or failure. However, the presence of various measurement meth

  2. TESTING THE ACCURACY OF MEASURED VALUES IN CONTINUOUS LONG-TERM GEODETIC MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vaněček

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available widespread used method. In this paper, an analysis of the accuracy and its changes over time of the measured values in continuous geodetic monitoring is presented. For the analysis, a set of data measured in the period of time between January 2006 to July 2010 was used. The main method of the analysis is a linear-harmonic function approximation.

  3. Value activity monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    de Alencar Silva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only promises (but not assurances) of value creation. Hence there is a need to extend current value modeling ontologies with a monitoring ontology. This ontology will enable business practitioners ...

  4. Value activity monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alencar Silva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only promi

  5. Price versus value of marine monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nygård

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring data facilitate the basic understanding of changes taking place in nature and provide information for making management decisions, but environmental monitoring is often considered expensive. Here, we apply the concept of value of information to evaluate the value of marine monitoring in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive context. We estimated the costs of the Finnish marine monitoring program and used the costs and economic benefits estimates of the Finnish marine strategy to assess the value of environmental monitoring. The numbers were applied to scenarios with different levels of information available prior to management decision-making. Monitoring costs were related to the value of perfect information prior to the management decision, assuming that managers will choose the management option that maximizes the benefits. The underlying assumptions of the conceptual model are that more accurate information about the status facilitates the selection of an optimal set of measures to achieve the environmental objectives and the related welfare gains from the improved environmental status. Our results emphasize the fact that monitoring is an essential part of effective marine management. Importantly, our study show that the value of marine monitoring data is an order of magnitude greater than the resources currently spent on monitoring and that an improved knowledge base can facilitate the planning of more cost-effective measures.

  6. [The value of urine cystein proteinase and serum CA125 measurement in monitoring the treatment of malignant ovarian tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, G; Peng, Z; He, B

    1996-09-01

    Urine cystein proteinase (UCP) and serum CA125 were measured in 40 patients with malignant ovarian tumor (malignant group), 40 patients with benign ovarian tumor (benign group), and 40 normal control (normal group). 28 patients in the malignant group underwent UCP and CA125 measurement pre-operation, post-operation, and during three courses of chemotherapy. The enzyme activity of UCP in the malignant group was significantly higher than that in the benign and normal groups (P 2 cm in diameter were apparantly higher than those with no residual lesions (P < 0.05). UCP and CA125 values were measured in six patients before relaparotomy. The sensitivity, specificity, accuaracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for UCP assay are 980%, 100%, 83%, 100% and 50% and those for CA125 assay are 40%, 100%, 80%, 100%, and 25%, respectively.

  7. Recognition measured values

    OpenAIRE

    LEITKEP, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    This work deals recognition measured values. The main task is to find suitable method for preprocessing images and create interface to software performing recognition. Created application will be used primarily to analyze the photos on site acquisition. Application is developed in Java and properly documented on javadoc level.

  8. Measuring social value orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan O. Murphy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Narrow self-interest is often used as a simplifying assumption when studying people making decisions in social contexts. Nonetheless, people exhibit a wide range of different motivations when choosing unilaterally among interdependent outcomes. Measuring the magnitude of the concern people have for others, sometimes called Social Value Orientation (SVO, has been an interest of many social scientists for decades and several different measurement methods have been developed so far. Here we introduce a new measure of SVO that has several advantages over existent methods. A detailed description of the new measurement method is presented, along with norming data that provide evidence of its solid psychometric properties. We conclude with a brief discussion of the research streams that would benefit from a more sensitive and higher resolution measure of SVO, and extend an invitation to others to use this new measure which is freely available.

  9. Measurement and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Giniotis, Vytautas

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the main methods and techniques for measuringand monitoring the accuracy of geometrical parameters of precisionComputer Numerically Controlled (CNC) and automated machines,including modern coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). Highlightsinclude: Standard methods and means of testing, together with methodsnewly developed and tested by the authors; Various parameters, such as straightness, perpendicularity, flatness,pitch, yaw, and roll, as well as the principal processes for measurementof these parameters; Lists and tables of geometrical accuracy parameters, together withdiag

  10. Measuring and Ranking Value Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis of the strength of value drivers is crucial to understand their influence in the process of free cash flow generation. The paper addresses the issue of value driver measurement and ranking. The research reveals that, value drivers have similar pattern across industries.

  11. Measuring and Ranking Value Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis of the strength of value drivers is crucial to understand their influence in the process of free cash flow generation. The paper addresses the issue of value driver measurement and ranking. The research reveals that, value drivers have similar pattern across industries. Furtherm

  12. Assessing the value of structural health monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, S.; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2013-01-01

    or proven by past experiences but in general there appears to be no rational or systematic approach for assessing the value of SHM systems a-priory to their implementation. The present paper addresses the assessment of the value of SHM with basis in structural risk assessments and the Bayesian pre......-posterior decision analysis. The quantification of the value of SHM builds upon the quantification of the value of information (VoI) or rather the benefit of monitoring. The suggested approach involves a probabilistic representation of the loads and environmental conditions acting on structures as well...... of the uncertainty associated with the performance of SHM on the value of SHM. Moreover, in order to illustrate the potential of the application of approach for monitoring of structural systems an optimal strategy for SHM is determined for a system comprised of three welded details. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group...

  13. Assessing the value of structural health monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, S.; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2013-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems are designed for assisting owners and operators with information and forecasts concerning the fitness for purpose of structures and building systems. The benefit associated with the implementation of SHM may in some cases be intuitively anticipated......-posterior decision analysis. The quantification of the value of SHM builds upon the quantification of the value of information (VoI) or rather the benefit of monitoring. The suggested approach involves a probabilistic representation of the loads and environmental conditions acting on structures as well...

  14. Microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alex L.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Moorman, Matthew W.

    2010-05-04

    A microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device comprises a microfabricated gas chromatography column in combination with a catalytic microcalorimeter. The microcalorimeter can comprise a reference thermal conductivity sensor to provide diagnostics and surety. Using microfabrication techniques, the device can be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost. The microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device enables continuous calorimetric determination of the heating value of natural gas with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This device has applications in remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. For gas pipelines, the device can improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and provide accurate financial accounting. For industrial end users, the device can provide continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use.

  15. Measuring the value of intangibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S.; Hirth, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    existing intangibles. We show that our new measure serves as an additional factor to explain firm value, measured either as market capitalization or acquisition prices in M&A transactions. Moreover, it captures the increasing importance of intangibles over time. Finally, we present a specific application...

  16. Space weather monitoring with neutron monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigies, Christian [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Space Weather affects many areas of the modern society, advance knowledge about space weather events is important to protect personnel and infrastructure. Cosmic Rays (CR) measurements by ground-based Neutron Monitors are influenced by Coronal Mass Ejections (CME), the intensity of the ever present Cosmic Rays is reduced in a Forbush decrease (Fd). In the case of very energetic CMEs, the measured intensity can be significantly increased in a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE). By detecting the anisotropy of the CR environment, a CME can be detected hours before it arrives at Earth. During a GLE the high-energy particles from the Sun can be detected before the more abundant lower energy particles arrive at Earth, thus allowing to take protective measures. Since the beginning of the Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB) project, which has been started in 2008 with funding from the European Commission, real-time data from Neutron Monitors around the world has been made available through one web-portal. We have more than doubled the number of stations providing data since the start of the project to now over 30 stations. The effectiveness of the ALERT applications which are based on NMDB data has been shown by the recent GLE71. We present different applications through which the measurements and different data products are accessible.

  17. Added value of stress related gene inductions in HepG2 cells as effect measurement in monitoring of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobels, Ingrid; Vanparys, Caroline; Van den Heuvel, Rosette; Vercauteren, Jordy; Blust, Ronny

    2012-08-01

    In this study we studied the effects of particulate matter samples (PM) through gene expression analysis in a routine air quality monitoring campaign by the Flemish Environment Agency (VMM, Belgium). We selected a human hepatoma (HepG2) multiple endpoint reporter assay for targeted stress related endpoint screening. Organic extracts of air samples (total suspended particles, TSP) were collected during one year in an industrial, urban and background location in Flanders, Belgium. Simultaneously, meteorological conditions (temperature, wind speed and precipitation) and particulate matter size ≤ 10 μM (PM10), organic (OC), elemental (EC) and total (TC) carbon were monitored and air samples were collected for chemical analysis (11 PAHs). Correlations between the induction of the different stress genes and the chemical pollutants were analysed. Exposure of HepG2 cells to daily air equivalents (20 m3) of organic TSP extracts revealed the dominant induction of the xenobiotic response element (Xre) and phase I (Cyp1A1) and phase II (GstYa) biotransformation enzymes. Additional effects were the induction of c-Fos, a proto-oncogen and Gadd45, a marker for cell cycle disturbance and responsive to genotoxic compounds. Inductions of other relevant pathways, such as sequestration of heavy metals, retinoids response, protein misfolding and increased cAMP levels were measured occasionally. A significant correlation was found between the genes Cyp1A1 (a typical marker for presence of PAHs and dioxin like compounds), c-Fos, Gadd45, (responsive to DNA damaging compounds) and the amount of PM10 and elemental carbon (EC) whereas no correlation was found between these genes and total PAHs content. This may suggest that the observed induction of Cyp1A1 and DNA damage related genes was provoked (partially) by other particle bound compounds (e.g. pesticides, PCBs, brominated flame retardants, dioxins, …), than PAHs. The contribution of particle bound compounds, other than PAHs might

  18. On the value of structural health monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Thöns, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Health monitoring has, over the last 2-3 decades, become a topic of significant interest within the structural engineering research community, but also in the broader areas of civil and mechanical engineering. Whereas the merits of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) are generally appreciated in q...... of SHM an example is provided. The example addresses the life-cycle benefit maximization for offshore jacket structures subject to fatigue crack growth utilizing monitoring of near field fatigue stresses as a means of optimizing risk based inspection and maintenance strategies....

  19. Value of monitoring in road network management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouch, M.; Courage, W.; Napoles-Morales, O.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for road network management to assist road authorities in maintenance budget estimations and long-term maintenance strategies definition. Information about road conditions is obtained from monitoring. Available data are used to estimate and update prediction of degradation evo

  20. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by obtain

  1. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by obtain

  2. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  3. Value disciplines: measuring customer preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Dannhauser

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Competitiveness Report: 1999, South Africa ranks poorly in terms of delivering customer services (Garelli, 1999. In order to assist South African organisations to identify their customers' value preferences, three scales collectively called the Customer Preference Questionnaire (CPQ were developed. Opsomming Luidens die World Competitiveness Report: 1999 vaar Suid-Afrika swak ten opsigte van klientediens-lewering (Garelli, 1999. Om Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies te help met die identifisering van hulle kliente se waardevoorkeure, is drie skale wat gesamentlik die Klientevoorkeurvraelys (CPQ genoem word, ontwikkel.

  4. On the value of structural health monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Thöns, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    in qualitative terms there has, as of yet, not been reported much fundamental research on the quantification of the benefit of SHM. The present paper addresses the quantification of SHM with basis in the Bayesian pre-posterior decision analysis. The starting points are historical and recent developments...... in the fields of SHM and the quantification of value of information as well as the identification of typical situations in structural engineering in which SHM has the potential to provide value beyond its costs. Subsequently, the theoretical framework which allows for the quantification of the value...... of information collected through SHM systems is developed and elaborated. It is shown how the value of information can be quantified to support the assessment and optimization of decisions on whether and how to implement SHM. To illustrate the use of the developed theoretical framework for evaluating the benefit...

  5. 2012 Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Site Design Values

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A design value is a statistic that describes the air quality status of a given location relative to the level of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)....

  6. VALUATION TECHNIQUES USED IN FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

    2013-01-01

    Valuation of assets and liabilities involves significant judgements and estimates, especially when fair value measurement is required. Currently, IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement offers a single and more comprehensive source of guidance that is applied to almost all fair value estimates. When measuring fair value of fixed assets, intangible assets, specified financial assets or liabilities, different valuation techniques may be used: the market approach, the cost approach and the income appr...

  7. Towards a biological monitoring guidance value for acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, C; Jones, K; Warren, N; Cocker, J; Bell, S; Bull, P; Cain, M

    2015-08-19

    Acrylamide is classified as a potential human carcinogen and neurotoxicant. Biological monitoring is a useful tool for monitoring worker exposure. However, other sources of exposure to acrylamide (including cigarette smoke and diet) also need to be considered. This study has performed repeat measurements of the urinary mercapturic acids of acrylamide (AAMA) and its metabolite glycidamide (GAMA) and determined globin adducts in 20 production-plant workers at a UK acrylamide production facility. The relationship between biomarker levels and environmental monitoring data (air levels and hand washes) was investigated. Good correlations were found between all of the biomarkers (r(2)=0.86-0.91) and moderate correlations were found between the biomarkers and air levels (r(2) = 0.56-0.65). Our data show that urinary AAMA is a reliable biomarker of acrylamide exposure. Occupational hygiene data showed that acrylamide exposure at the company was well within the current UK Workplace Exposure Limit. The 90th percentile of urinary AAMA in non-smoking production-plant workers (537 μmol/mol creatinine (n = 59 samples)) is proposed as a possible biological monitoring guidance value. This 90th percentile increased to 798 μmol/mol if smokers were included (n = 72 samples). These values would be expected following an airborne exposure of less than 0.07 mg/m(3), well below the current UK workplace exposure limit of 0.3mg/m(3). Comparison of biomarker levels in non-occupationally exposed individuals suggests regional variations (between UK and Germany), possibly due to differences in diet. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT UNDER IFRS 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COZMA IGHIAN DIANA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The IFRS 13, „Fair Value Measurement”, was first published in May 2011 and it applies to annual reporting periods that begin on or after January 1st 2013; this standard comes as a result of shared efforts on the part of the IASB and the FASB to develop a convergent framework regarding fair value measurement. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the main provisions of the IFRS 13 regarding fair value measurement, with a special emphasis on key concepts found throughout the standard, which refer to the principal market, the most advantageous market, the highest and best use, valuation techniques, and value hierarchy.

  9. Positive-Operator Valued Measure (POVM Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Gazeau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a general formalism for giving a measure space paired with a separable Hilbert space a quantum version based on a normalized positive operator-valued measure. The latter are built from families of density operators labeled by points of the measure space. We especially focus on various probabilistic aspects of these constructions. Simple ormore elaborate examples illustrate the procedure: circle, two-sphere, plane and half-plane. Links with Positive-Operator Valued Measure (POVM quantum measurement and quantum statistical inference are sketched.

  10. Local measurement for structural health monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Z.Qi; Guo Xun; Qi Xiaozhai; W. Dong; P.Chang

    2005-01-01

    Localized nature of damage in structures requires local measurements for structural health monitoring. The local measurement means to measure the local, usually higher modes of the vibration in a structure. Three fundamental issues about the local measurement for structural health monitoring including (1) the necessity of making local measurement, (2) the difficulty of making local measurement and (3) how to make local measurement are addressed in this paper. The results from both the analysis and the tests show that the local measurement can successfully monitor the structural health status as long as the local modes are excited. Unfortunately, the results also illustrate that it is difficult to excite local modes in a structure.Therefore, in order to carry structural health monitoring into effect, we must (1) ensure that the local modes are excited, and (2) deploy enough sensors in a structure so that the local modes can be monitored.

  11. VALUATION TECHNIQUES USED IN FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of assets and liabilities involves significant judgements and estimates, especially when fair value measurement is required. Currently, IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement offers a single and more comprehensive source of guidance that is applied to almost all fair value estimates. When measuring fair value of fixed assets, intangible assets, specified financial assets or liabilities, different valuation techniques may be used: the market approach, the cost approach and the income approach. This article reviews these techniques and points out that different valuation practices may provide different results depending on the item being fair valued and on the inputs used. Also it emphasizes that, in particular circumstances, there is the possibility that a certain technique may be more appropriate than other.

  12. Extreme Value distribution for singular measures

    CERN Document Server

    Faranda, Davide; Turchetti, Giorgio; Vaienti, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we perform an analytical and numerical study of Extreme Value distributions in discrete dynamical systems that have a singular measure. Using the block maxima approach described in Faranda et al. [2011] we show that, numerically, the Extreme Value distribution for these maps can be associated to the Generalised Extreme Value family where the parameters scale with the information dimension. The numerical analysis are performed on a few low dimensional maps. For the middle third Cantor set and the Sierpinskij triangle obtained using Iterated Function Systems, experimental parameters show a very good agreement with the theoretical values. For strange attractors like Lozi and H\\`enon maps a slower convergence to the Generalised Extreme Value distribution is observed. Even in presence of large statistics the observed convergence is slower if compared with the maps which have an absolute continuous invariant measure. Nevertheless and within the uncertainty computed range, the results are in good agree...

  13. Simulating positive-operator-valued measures with projective measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Guerini, Leonardo; Wittek, Peter; Acín, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Standard projective measurements represent a subset of all possible measurements in quantum physics, defined by positive-operator-valued measures. We study what quantum measurements are projective simulable, that is, can be simulated by using projective measurements and classical randomness. We first prove that every measurement on a given quantum system can be realised by classical processing of projective measurements on the system plus an ancilla of the same dimension. Then, given a genera...

  14. Categorical characterizations of operator-valued measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Roumen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most general type of measurement in quantum physics is modeled by a positive operator-valued measure (POVM. Mathematically, a POVM is a generalization of a measure, whose values are not real numbers, but positive operators on a Hilbert space. POVMs can equivalently be viewed as maps between effect algebras or as maps between algebras for the Giry monad. We will show that this equivalence is an instance of a duality between two categories. In the special case of continuous POVMs, we obtain two equivalent representations in terms of morphisms between von Neumann algebras.

  15. Precision frequency measurements with interferometric weak values

    CERN Document Server

    Starling, David J; Jordan, Andrew N; Howell, John C; 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.063822

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an experiment which utilizes a Sagnac interferometer to measure a change in optical frequency of 129 kHz per root Hz with only 2 mW of continuous wave, single mode input power. We describe the measurement of a weak value and show how even higher frequency sensitivities may be obtained over a bandwidth of several nanometers. This technique has many possible applications, such as precision relative frequency measurements and laser locking without the use of atomic lines.

  16. Creating a culture for value measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Michelle; Knuth, Melissa; McDonald, Jody

    2014-08-01

    OSF HealthCare's executive dashboard provides: A detailed view of top-level measures to frame OSF's mission and vision for all stakeholders. An easily understood, holistic snapshot of performance An assessment of relationships among system goals, initiatives, and results. Explicit understanding of the organization's priority performance measures and the extent to which they need to improve. A vehicle for transitioning to a value-based business model.

  17. An intensity-monitoring technique for measuring ellipsometric transients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droog, J.M.M.; Bootsma, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Intensity-monitoring techniques make possible the measurement of rapid changes in the ellipsometric parameters. Methods used hitherto have been suitable for measuring slight changes only and require prior knowledge of the Δ and Ψ values for the initial surface. It is shown that larger changes can al

  18. Precision frequency measurements with interferometric weak values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, David J.; Dixon, P. Ben; Jordan, Andrew N.; Howell, John C.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrate an experiment which utilizes a Sagnac interferometer to measure a change in optical frequency of 129 ± 7 kHz/Hz with only 2 mW of continuous-wave, single-mode input power. We describe the measurement of a weak value and show how even higher-frequency sensitivities may be obtained over a bandwidth of several nanometers. This technique has many possible applications, such as precision relative frequency measurements and laser locking without the use of atomic lines.

  19. Measuring radiology's value in time saved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christoph I; Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-10-01

    Because radiology has historically not measured its added value to patient care and thus not communicated it in easily understood terms to all stakeholders, the specialty must correct this to prepare for the eventual transition from the current fee-for-service payment schedule to new value-based reimbursement systems. Given the increasing risk for marginalization, radiologists need to engage clinicians and managers to map the processes and associated costs of episodes of patient care to identify areas for providing and improving integrated diagnostic information and to measure the value thereof. In such time-driven, activity-based costing practices, radiologists should highlight how proper investments in the information generated by imaging and how radiologists' associated consultative and coordination of services can save greater resources downstream, especially in the nonrenewable resource of physician time, an increasingly scarce health care resource. Using physician time in the most efficient way will be a key element for decreasing health care costs at the aggregate level. Therefore, expressing radiology's contribution in terms of downstream physician time saved is a metric that can be easily understood by all stakeholders. In a conceptual framework centered on value, the specialty of radiology must focus more on its most important product, actionable information, rather than on imaging technologies themselves. Information, unlike imaging technologies, does not depreciate with time but rather increases in value the more it is used.

  20. Redox potential - field measurements - meassured vs. expected values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavělová, Monika; Kovář, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Oxidation and reduction (redox) potential is an important and theoretically very well defined parameter and can be calculated accurately. Its value is determinative for management of many electrochemical processes, chemical redox technologies as well as biotechnologies. To measure the redox value that would correspond with the accuracy level of theoretical calculations in field or operational conditions is however nearly impossible. Redox is in practice measured using combined argentochloride electrode with subsequent value conversion to standard hydrogen electrode (EH). Argentochloride electrode does not allow for precise calibration. Prior to the measurement the accuracy of measurement of particular electrode can only be verified in comparative/control solution with value corresponding with oxic conditions (25°C: +220 mV argentochloride electrode, i.e.. +427 mV after conversion to EH). A commercial product of stabile comparative solution for anoxic conditions is not available and therefore not used in every day practice - accuracy of negative redox is not verified. In this presentation results of two tests will be presented: a) monitoring during dynamic groundwater sampling from eight monitoring wells at a site contaminated by chlorinated ethenes (i.e. post-oxic to anoxic conditions) and b) laboratory test of groundwater contaminated by arsenic from two sites during reaction with highly oxidized compounds of iron (ferrates) - i.e. strongly oxic conditions. In both tests a simultaneous measurement by four argentochloride electrodes was implemented - all four electrodes were prior to the test maintained expertly. The redox values of testing electrodes in a comparative solution varied by max. 6 mV. The redox values measured by four electrodes in both anoxic and oxic variant varied by tens to a hundred mV, while with growing time of test the variance of measured redox values increased in both oxic and anoxic variant. Therefore the interpretation of measured redox

  1. Project Monitoring and Control Measures In CMMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Khraiwesh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Project monitoring and control process is an important process in developing any computer informationsystem. Monitoring and Control provides an understanding of the project’s progress so that when theproject deviates significantly from the plan appropriate corrective actions can be taken. This research willidentify general measures for the specific goals and its specific practices of Project Monitoring andControl Process Area in Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI. CMMI is developed in USA bySoftware Engineering Institute (SEI in Carnegie Mellon University. CMMI is a framework for assessmentand improvement of computer information systems. The procedure we used to determine the measures is toapply the Goal Questions Metrics (GQM approach to the two specific goals and its ten specific practicesof Project Monitoring and Control Process Area in CMMI.

  2. Debate Regarding Measuring Accounting Value: Historical Cost against Fair Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Munteanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from historical cost to fair value represents an option with major implications in accounting, because it is a complex process that requires tuning to today’s trends of national and global economy. We can state that with all the advantages of using historical cost it has its limitations and it is” getting old”. That doesn’t mean that will be abandoned but substituted when it is needed with another value. At present, the lack of historical value is inconceivable; many practitioners consider it to be the best method to evaluate assets.

  3. VALUE AT RISK - CORPORATE RISK MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Cecilia-Nicoleta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of 'risk' is used in a number of sciences. The Faculty of Law studies the risk depending on its legality. The Accident Theory applies this term to describe the damage and the disasters. One can find studies on the risks in the works of psychology, philosophy, medicine and within each of these areas the study of the risk is based on the given science subject and, of course, on their methods and approaches. Such a variety of risk study is explained by the diversity of this phenomenon. Under the market economy conditions, the risk is an essential component of any economic agent management policy, of the approach developed by this one, a strategy that depends almost entirely on individual ability and capacity to anticipate his evolution and to exploit his opportunities, assuming a so-called 'risk of business failure.' There are several ways to measure the risks in projects, one of the most used methods to measure this being the Value at Risk(VaR. Value at Risk (VaR was made famous by JP Morgan in the mid 1990s, by introducing the RiskMetrics approach, and hence, by far, has been sanctioned by several Governing Bodies throughout the world bank. In short, it measures the value of risk capital stocks in a given period at a certain probability of loss. This measurement can be modified for risk applications through, for example, the potential loss values affirmation in a certain amount of time during the economic life of the project- clearly, a project with a lower VaR is better. It should be noted that it is not always possible or advisable for a company to limit itself to the remote analysis of each risk because the risks and their effects are interdependent and constitute a system .In addition, there are risks which, in combination with other risks, tend to produce effects which they would not have caused by themselves and risks that tend to offset and even cancel each other out.

  4. Measurement of / values using proton beam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G A V Ramanamurthy; K Ramachandra Rao; Y Rama Krishna; P Venkateswarlu; K Bhaskara Rao; P V Ramana Rao; S Venkata Ratnam; V Seshagiri Rao; G J Nagaraju; S Bhuloka Reddy

    2001-05-01

    The / intensity ratios are measured in some 3 shell elements by using a 2 MeV proton beam along with a high resolution Si(Li) detector. The present / intensity ratios are in good agreement with Scofield modified theoretical values, thus supporting the basic assumptions in that theory. From the present / intensity ratios, it is evident that due to chemical effects, the experimental / intensity ratios will be increased while they will be decreased due to the presence of simultaneous -shell vacancies which are produced due to proton excitation.

  5. Resonant cavity monitors for charged beam measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Gary A.

    2003-04-01

    The G_zero experiment at Jefferson Lab, will measure the strange quark content of the proton as it contributes to the proton's charge and magnetic properties. Parity violating elastic electron scattering is being used to measure the physics asymmetry to better than 1 part in 10^7. Helicity correlated properties of the electron beam used in this experiment must be measured to better than 1 in 10^7 over the course of the experiment. G_zero employs two types of beam monitors for this purpose. Standard, 4-wire, ``strip-line'' monitors measure beam positions with a resolution of 20microns. Another type of monitor, Beam Resonant Cavities are being tested. Two sets of three cavities are used to measure beam position in X and Y, as well as beam current. Presented will be the performance and evaluation of these cavities including their theoretical versus actual operation, their noise characteristics, and signal resolution. These cavities can be paired with either linear or logarithmic amplifier electronics. Overall performance of these cavity systems including amplifiers will be compared with standard 'strip-line' monitors.

  6. Comparison of the values of measured hydratation of sporting youths with normative values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kutáč

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKROUND: When measuring body composition, we monitor the fractionalization of body weight and the share of the individual elements in its aggregate value. The total body water (TBW is a very important element in addition to the share of body fat (BF, muscle mass and bone minerals. Water is the largest element of the body weight and its sufficient amount (organism hydration is a condition for maintaining the physiological functions of the person and thus has an immediate effect on the health of the individual. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to check the standard values of the percentage share of the representation of the total body water in the total body weight in different age groups of sporting youths using the tetrapolar bio-impedance Tanita 418 MA scale. METHODS: The research group included a total of 532 individuals (332 men and 200 women at the age from 12 to 17 years. They were individuals with regular physical activity and without any health problems. The measurement was carried out using the tetrapolar bio-impedance TANITA 418 MA scale. The confidence interval at the reliability level of .99 was used to define the range of the standard values of the percentage share of the total body water representation. The normalization index Ni was used to compare the mean values of the total body water representation with the reference file. RESULTS: The mean values of the TBW representation in boys ranged from 61.75 to 64.34% and in girls from 55.51 to 58.69%, always in relation to the age. The value of the upper bound of (95% the confidence interval of the Tanita 418 MA device software did not exceed the lower bound of the standard (65% in any of the monitored files. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed significant gender differences in the total body water representation that, however, the standard of the used device does not respect. The standard values are set high which was also confirmed by the comparison of our results with other studies

  7. ON THE AUDIT OF FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jatinder P Singh; Prince Doliya

    2015-01-01

      In this article, the hypotheses on whether the auditor's functional domain, approach, methodology and responsibilities are undergoing a metamorphosis with the adoption of Fair Value Accounting (FVA...

  8. Are low-value care measures up to the task? : A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.F.; Struijs, Jeroen N.; Heijink, Richard; Hendrikx, R.J.P.; Baan, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing low-value care is a core component of healthcare reforms in many Western countries. A comprehensive and sound set of low-value care measures is needed in order to monitor low-value care use in general and in provider-payer contracts. Our objective was to review the scientific lit

  9. Measuring the Dollar Value of Volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironmonger, Duncan

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of sample surveys to estimate the amount of time spent volunteering. States that it is necessary to estimate the number of hours involved and to establish an appropriate value per hour. (SK)

  10. Cultural Value, Measurement and Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dave

    2015-01-01

    No matter what the national context, the question of how to understand the impact of government programmes, particularly in terms of value for money, has emerged as a complex problem to be solved by social scientific management. This article engages with these trends in two ways. It focuses on the UK to understand how these tools and technologies…

  11. Cultural Value, Measurement and Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dave

    2015-01-01

    No matter what the national context, the question of how to understand the impact of government programmes, particularly in terms of value for money, has emerged as a complex problem to be solved by social scientific management. This article engages with these trends in two ways. It focuses on the UK to understand how these tools and technologies…

  12. Test Scaling and Value-Added Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Conventional value-added assessment requires that achievement be reported on an interval scale. While many metrics do not have this property, application of item response theory (IRT) is said to produce interval scales. However, it is difficult to confirm that the requisite conditions are met. Even when they are, the properties of the data that…

  13. Holdings as a Measure of Journal Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Danny P.; Boyce, Bert R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study that compared holdings figures from the OCLC database to productivity measures from the "Journal Citation Reports" section of "Science Citation Index" and publisher circulation figures to determine whether there is a systematic relationship between easily gathered holdings and circulation figures and less…

  14. Measuring the value of healthcare business assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C J

    2000-04-01

    Healthcare organizations obtain valuations of business assets for many reasons, including to support decisions regarding potential mergers, sale of business components, or financing; for tax assessments; and for defense against law-suits. If compliance with regulations may be an issue, such as when a not-for-profit organization is involved in a transaction, healthcare organizations should seek an independent appraisal to ensure that applicable legal standards are met. Whether or not regulatory issues are involved, however, an accurate and useful valuation of business assets depends on many factors. Financial managers must understand the purpose and function of the valuation, choice of appropriate valuation techniques, proper assessment of intangible value, use of realistic growth rates, appropriate emphasis on key focus areas of the valuation (e.g., risk and future income streams), and an accounting of physician compensation.

  15. Aerial monitoring and measurement of forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Luis; Gomez-Rodriguez, Francisco; Arrue, Begona C.; Ollero, Anibal

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a system for forest fire monitoring using aerial images. The system uses the images taken from a helicopter, the GPS position of the helicopter, and information from a Geographic Information System (GIS) to locate the fire and to estimate in real-time their properties. Currently, the images are taken by a non-stabilized camera. Then, image processing for image stabilization and movement estimation is applied to cancel the vibration and to estimate the change in the camera orientation. Another image processing stage is the computation of the fire front and flame height features in the images. This process is based on color processing and thresholding, followed by contour computation. Finally, the fire front is automatically geo-located by projecting the features over the terrain model obtained from the GIS. Furthermore, an estimation of the flame height is obtained. The aerial image processing, automatic georeferencing and measurement has been integrated in a forest fire fire monitoring system in which several moving or fixed visual and infrared cameras can be used. The system provides in real-time the evolution of the fire-front and the flame height, and obtains a 3D perception model of the fire. The paper shows some results obtained with the application with images taken in real forest-fire experiments, in the framework of the INFLAME project funded by the European Commission.

  16. Simplified correction of g-value measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    A double glazed unit (Ipasol Natura 66/34) has been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET. The corrections of the experimental data are very important for the investigated sample as it shows significant spectral selectivity. In (Duer, 1998) and in (Platzer, 1998) the corrections have...... been carried out using a detailed physical model based on ISO9050 and prEN410 but using polarized data for non-normal incidence. This model is only valid for plane, clear glazings and therefor not suited for corrections of measurements performed on complex glazings. To investigate a more general...... correction procedure the results from the measurements on the Interpane DGU have been corrected using the principle outlined in (Rosenfeld, 1996). This correction procedure is more general as corrections can be carried out without a correct physical model of the investigated glazing. On the other hand...

  17. Measuring the value of customer retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monts, K.; Bonevac, B.; Lauer, J.; Tessema, D.

    1997-05-01

    Competition will require changes in how market research is conducted and how customers are pursued. The question remains: How does one approach customer retention in a way that provides meaningful guidelines? The conventional wisdom is that {open_quotes}the business of business is selling.{close_quotes} There is some truth to this, but the key question today is: What bearing does this have on how to run a business in a competitive environment? A recent article in the Harvard Business Review noted that, {open_quotes}Increasingly, companies are less focused on selling products and more interested in keeping customers.{close_quotes} Indeed, some observers have posited a natural societal evolutionary trend toward a shift of emphasis toward customer retention vis-a-vis customer acquisition, as a consequence of the primary marketing communication technology shifting from {open_quotes}broadcast{close_quotes} (where messages are sent out to inchoate masses) to {open_quotes}interactive{close_quotes} (where relationships are cultivated with precisely defined market niches or individual customers). The business of growing a business, then, can be framed as a matter of getting customers and keeping them so as to grow the value of the customer base to its fullest potential. In these terms, setting a marketing budget becomes the task of balancing what is spent on customer acquisition with what is spent on retention.

  18. Riesz spaces valued submeasures and application to group-valued finitely additive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Martellotti

    1987-11-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of a general Domination Theorem given for a subadditive measure with values in a Riesz space, we prove the arcwise connectedness of the range of a L.C.V.T.S.-valued and of a group-valued finitely additive measure.

  19. Cultural Values Predicting Acculturation Orientations: Operationalizing a Quantitative Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes that acculturation orientations are related to two sets of cultural values: utilitarianism (Ut) and traditionalism (Tr). While utilitarian values enhance assimilation, traditional values support language and identity maintenance. It is proposed that the propensity to either end of this value opposition can be measured by an…

  20. Cultural Values Predicting Acculturation Orientations: Operationalizing a Quantitative Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes that acculturation orientations are related to two sets of cultural values: utilitarianism (Ut) and traditionalism (Tr). While utilitarian values enhance assimilation, traditional values support language and identity maintenance. It is proposed that the propensity to either end of this value opposition can be measured by an…

  1. International Target Values for Measurement Uncertainties in Nuclear Material Accountancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Hong-bin; GAO; Qiang

    2012-01-01

    <正>The IAEA has published a revised version International Target Values (ITVs) 2010 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials in 2010. The report proposes the international target values of measurement uncertainties of the routine measurement methods for the nuclear material accountancy.

  2. Historical Costs versus Fair Value Measurement in Financial Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Dana

    2009-01-01

    There are two important points in which in which we need assets and liabilities measured in financial accounting: on initial recognition and at a balance sheet day. Many International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) used the fair value measurement concept. But most of these standards use the fair value measurement method only at a balance sheet day. On initial recognition assets and liabilities are measured usually at costs. The IASB presented the discussion paper “Measurement Bases for ...

  3. Fibre-Optic Strain Measurement For Structural Integrity Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, A.J.A.; Zuylen, P. van; Lamberts, C.W.; Krijger, A.J.T. de

    1984-01-01

    A method is demonstrated for monitoring the structural integrity of large structures, using an optical fibre. The strain distribution along the structure is monitored by measuring the attentuation of light along the length of the fibre.

  4. Measurement of small dispersion values in optical components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Liu, Fenghai; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud

    1999-01-01

    It is reported that small dispersion values in optical components can be measured using the RF modulation method originally restricted to large dispersions. Using a constant dispersion offset, arbitrarily small dispersion values can be measured with a resolution as good as 1.2 ps/nm.......It is reported that small dispersion values in optical components can be measured using the RF modulation method originally restricted to large dispersions. Using a constant dispersion offset, arbitrarily small dispersion values can be measured with a resolution as good as 1.2 ps/nm....

  5. Diversifying natural resources value measurements: The Trinity River study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J.G.; Douglas, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team set out to establish the economic and social values of the Trinity River in northern California. This information was intended to support the Secretary of the Interior's decision on allocation of Trinity River flows. This team set out to measure the values of Trinity River flows, fishery resources, and recreation amenities in several different ways. A survey was mailed to users of the Trinity River. This single instrument included economic measures (willingness-to-pay and costs incurred in visiting) and social-psychological measures (importance, satisfaction, and water allocation preferences). A closely related survey measured several of these same values among west coast regional households. The results of these surveys were compiled, and the measured economic and social values were compared. We found that integrating economic and social value information provides a greater depth of understanding of the resource's value. In addition, this integration provides a more in-depth understanding through the quantitative and qualitative results that emerge.

  6. Test method for measuring insulation values of cryogenic pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, J.F.M.; Blokland, H.; Klaver, B.W.; Beld, C. van de

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a large-area heat flux and temperature sensor (HFT) is used for the evaluation of the insulation value of cryogenic pipes. The HFT is flexible and clamp-on. The test method is relatively simple and can be used in-situ. The HFT makes it possible to monitor insulation performance over el

  7. Test method for measuring insulation values of cryogenic pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, J.F.M.; Blokland, H.; Klaver, B.W.; Beld, C. van de

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a large-area heat flux and temperature sensor (HFT) is used for the evaluation of the insulation value of cryogenic pipes. The HFT is flexible and clamp-on. The test method is relatively simple and can be used in-situ. The HFT makes it possible to monitor insulation performance over

  8. A Improved Method of Measurement Helicity Value of Neutrino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Zipiao

    2000-01-01

    The Goldhaber's experimental result is analyzed in this paper. The improved method of measureing helicity value of the neutrino put forward here can greatly enhance the accuracy of measurement result and evidently reduce the experimental error.

  9. Fair Value in the light of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Svitselska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been researched as well as its critical analysis has been conducted. Comparison of the previous and the new definition of the concept «fair value» has been done on the basis of what the shortcomings of the previous definition have been highlighted, the characteristic features and advantages of new definition from IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been outlined. It has been proved that new interpretation of the concept of «fair value» is narrower and more accurate than the previous, it clarifies the subject matter, subjects of transactions, as well as the date of its execution. The scheme of estimation at fair value as well as model of fair value determination according to IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» has been presented. Methods of measurement at fair value and the fair value hierarchy have been researched. Some disadvantages of provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» on the basis of its analysis have been highlighted, uncertainty is essential among them in which fair value should be applied.

  10. Retrieval monitoring is influenced by information value: the interplay between importance and confidence on false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Ian M; Bui, Dung C; Friedman, Michael C; Castel, Alan D

    2015-10-01

    The perceived value of information can influence one's motivation to successfully remember that information. This study investigated how information value can affect memory search and evaluation processes (i.e., retrieval monitoring). In Experiment 1, participants studied unrelated words associated with low, medium, or high values. Subsequent memory tests required participants to selectively monitor retrieval for different values. False memory effects were smaller when searching memory for high-value than low-value words, suggesting that people more effectively monitored more important information. In Experiment 2, participants studied semantically-related words, and the need for retrieval monitoring was reduced at test by using inclusion instructions (i.e., endorsement of any word related to the studied words) compared with standard instructions. Inclusion instructions led to increases in false recognition for low-value, but not for high-value words, suggesting that under standard-instruction conditions retrieval monitoring was less likely to occur for important information. Experiment 3 showed that words retrieved with lower confidence were associated with more effective retrieval monitoring, suggesting that the quality of the retrieved memory influenced the degree and effectiveness of monitoring processes. Ironically, unless encouraged to do so, people were less likely to carefully monitor important information, even though people want to remember important memories most accurately.

  11. Developing a Measure of Value in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Lee, K H; Matthew Austin, J; Pronovost, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    There is broad support to pay for value, rather than volume, for health care in the United States. Despite the support, practical approaches for measuring value remain elusive. Value is commonly defined as quality divided by costs, where quality reflects patient outcomes and costs are the total costs for providing care, whether these be costs related to an episode, a diagnosis, or per capita. Academicians have proposed a conceptual approach to measure value, in which we measure outcomes important to patients and costs using time-driven activity-based costing. This approach is conceptually sound, but has significant practical challenges. In our commentary, we describe how health care can use existing quality measures and cost accounting data to measure value. Although not perfect, we believe this approach is practical, valid, and scalable and can establish the foundation for future work in this area.

  12. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  13. Convergence theorems for lattice group-valued measures

    CERN Document Server

    Boccuto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Convergence Theorems for Lattice Group-valued Measures explains limit and boundedness theorems for measures taking values in abstract structures. The eBook begins with a historical survey about these topics since the beginning of the last century, moving on to basic notions and preliminaries on filters/ideals, lattice groups, measures and tools which are featured in the rest of this text. Readers will also find a survey on recent classical results about limit, boundedness and extension theorems for lattice group-valued measures followed by information about recent developments on these kinds o

  14. THE ISSUES IN THE MEASUREMENT OF POSTMATERIAL VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Tasić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of postmaterial values includes measuring of the views on the preservation ofpeace, freedom of speech, environmental protection, tolerance and everything else that is contrary tothe concept of measuring the material values, that is physical and economic variables. Measurementof postmaterial values is based on the application of 4 or 12 items scale that refers to the materialismor postmaterialism in certain country. There are several issues and limitations in the application ofpostmaterial values measurement scale which can cause significant error, in other words bias inmeasurement. One of the most interesting issues is the impact of question order change on themeasurement results of postmaterial values. Using the results of empirical research it is shown thatthis effect is significant and, also it is particularly examined the intensity of this effect consideringgender and level of education based on the sample of respondents from urban Serbia.

  15. Measuring and monitoring immigrant integration in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rob Bijl & Arjen Verweij

    2012-01-01

    In this book we investigate the prevailing views on integration in 17 European countries, how those views are translated into national policy, and what efforts countries are making to monitor the integration processes of migrants and track them over time. The book describes the degree to which migra

  16. U-value measurements on ISO round Robin window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1997-01-01

    9 laboratories in 6 european and 2 north american countries have participated in a round robin U-value test of a standard facade window. The objective of the round robin test was to verify that the ISO/CEN proposals for U-value measurement standard is robust.......9 laboratories in 6 european and 2 north american countries have participated in a round robin U-value test of a standard facade window. The objective of the round robin test was to verify that the ISO/CEN proposals for U-value measurement standard is robust....

  17. U-value measurements on ISO round Robin window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1997-01-01

    9 laboratories in 6 european and 2 north american countries have participated in a round robin U-value test of a standard facade window. The objective of the round robin test was to verify that the ISO/CEN proposals for U-value measurement standard is robust.......9 laboratories in 6 european and 2 north american countries have participated in a round robin U-value test of a standard facade window. The objective of the round robin test was to verify that the ISO/CEN proposals for U-value measurement standard is robust....

  18. U-value measurements on a roof window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of the U-value measurements performed on a roof window. The work is as a part of the development of an ISO/CEN standard measuring procedure for roof windows.The measurements have been performed using the procedures given in ISO 12567 draft version 1998...

  19. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.

    2003-02-10

    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  20. Intelligent instruments for process measurement techniques (monitoring of sensors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, B.; Hess, H. D.; Kalinski, J. R.; Leisenberg, W.; Marsch, D.

    1984-06-01

    Possibilities to extract redundant information of temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, semiconductor temperature sensors), and to find out which of the suggested redundancies are most suited for self controlled monitoring were investigated. Practical experience with equipment for process measurement techniques shows that sensor failures are five times more frequent than electronic malfunction. For resistance thermometers the measured values of the redundant information source (ac resistance) are too small (relative inductivity change 7 million). The information sources strain gage and propagation of ultrasonic waves are excluded because of physical properties in the sensor materials. Changes in the crystalline structure of thermocouples have the effect that there is no well defined relationship between thermoelectric voltage and the redundant information sources, resistance and coupled current impulses. A correlation of thermovoltage with these redundant values would yield a measurement uncertainty corresponding to more than + or - 50 K. Experiments with negative temperature coefficient sensors show that a failure is proceeded by a change in capacitance of the order of 0.1 pF.

  1. The Influence of Brittle Daniels System Characteristics on the Value of Load Monitoring Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Schneider, Ronald

    This paper addresses the influence of deteriorating brittle Daniels system characteristics on the value of structural health monitoring (SHM). The value of SHM is quantified as the difference between the life cycle benefits with and without SHM. A value of SHM analysis is performed within...

  2. Measuring Incompatible Observables by Exploiting Sequential Weak Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, F; Avella, A; Levi, M P; Gramegna, M; Brida, G; Degiovanni, I P; Cohen, E; Lussana, R; Villa, F; Tosi, A; Zappa, F; Genovese, M

    2016-10-21

    One of the most intriguing aspects of quantum mechanics is the impossibility of measuring at the same time observables corresponding to noncommuting operators, because of quantum uncertainty. This impossibility can be partially relaxed when considering joint or sequential weak value evaluation. Indeed, weak value measurements have been a real breakthrough in the quantum measurement framework that is of the utmost interest from both a fundamental and an applicative point of view. In this Letter, we show how we realized for the first time a sequential weak value evaluation of two incompatible observables using a genuine single-photon experiment. These (sometimes anomalous) sequential weak values revealed the single-operator weak values, as well as the local correlation between them.

  3. Antibody Phage Library Screening Efficiency Measured by KD Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-tang; SHAN Ya-ming; TANG Li-li; GAO Li-zeng; WANG Li-ping; LI Wei; LI Yu-xin

    2005-01-01

    An antibody phage library was screened with two target molecules, IFNα-2a and FGFR-GST, and the KD value of each round of panning was measured. It was found that the apparent KD values decreased along with each additional panning round, which indicates the increase of the binding affinity between the phage and the target molecules.This result shows that the KD value is a reliable intrinsic parameter and a new method for screening efficiency detection is thus provided.

  4. Effect of b value on monitoring therapeutic response by diffusion-weighted imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Xia Jiang; Wei-Jun Peng; Wen-Tao Li; Feng Tang; Shi-Yuan Liu; Xu-Dong Qu; Jian-Hua Wang; Hong-Feng Lu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the diffusion gradient b-factor that optimizes both apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement and contrast-to-noise (CNR) for assessing tumor response to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in a rabbit model. METHODS: Twelve New Zealand white rabbits bearing VX2 tumors in the liver were treated withT ACE. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with various b values was performed using the same protocol before and 3 d after treatment with TACE. ADC values and CNR of each tumor pre- and post-treatment with different b factors were analyzed. Correlation between ADC values and extent of necrosis in histological specimens was analyzed by a Pearson's correlation test.RESULTS: The quality of diffusion-weighted images diminished as the b value increased. A substantial decrease in the mean lesion-to-liver CNR was observed on both pre- and post-treatment DW images, the largest difference in CNR pre- and post-treatment was manifested at a b value of 1000 s/mm2 (P = 0.036 ). The effect of therapy on diffusion early after treatment was shown by a significant increase in ADCs (P= 0.007), especially with large b factors (≥ 600 s/mm2). The mean percentage of necrotic cells present within the tumor was 76.3%-97.5%. A significant positive correlation was found between ADC values and the extent of necrosis with all b values except for b200, a higher relative coefficient between ADC values and percentage of necrosis was found on DWI with bl000 and b2000 (P=0.002 and 0.006, respectively).CONCLUSION: An increasing b value of up to 600 s/mm2 would increase ADC contrast pre-and post-treatment, but decrease image quality. Taking into account both CNR and ADC measurement, diffusion-weighted imaging obtained with a b value of 1000 s/mm2 is recommended for monitoring early hepatic tumor response to TACE.

  5. Gender-based model comparisons of maternal values, monitoring, communication, and early adolescent risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Lesley; Yu, Shuli; Liu, Hongjie; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Bain, Rosa Mae; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-10-01

    To examine the relationships among maternal values, monitoring knowledge, parent-adolescent communication, and adolescent risk involvement based on adolescent gender. Parental reports of their personal values, monitoring knowledge, and communication with their children were compared with adolescent reports of risk involvement using information gathered from 647 Bahamian mother-adolescent (9-13 years) dyads. Parental values of conservation (e.g., conformity) were positively associated with greater parent-adolescent communication and communication was significantly associated with greater monitoring knowledge for both genders. Among mother-son dyads only, group-based parental values of self-transcendence (e.g., universalism) were significantly associated with greater perceived parental monitoring knowledge; individualized self-enhancement values (e.g., hedonism) were negatively associated with open and supportive parent-adolescent communication. Parental values influence other parenting processes such as monitoring and communication. Parental monitoring, in turn, inversely influences adolescent risk involvement. These influences appear to differ based on the adolescent's gender, as many of the relationships were stronger among mother-son dyads. These findings highlight a need to better understand the nature of the relationship between maternal values, parent-adolescent interactions, and adolescents' risk decisions.

  6. Uncertain added value of Global Trigger Tool for monitoring of patient safety in cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczak, Henriette; Neckelmann, Kirsten; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring patient safety is a challenging task. The lack of a golden standard has contributed to the recommendation and introduction of several methods. In 2000 the Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established to monitor the clinical management of lung cancer. In 2008 the Global Trigger Tool...... (GTT) was recommended in Denmark as a tool for the monitoring of patient safety. Ideally, the recommendation of a new tool should be preceded by a critical assessment of its added value....

  7. Fair Value in the light of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement»

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Svitselska

    2015-01-01

    The main provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been researched as well as its critical analysis has been conducted. Comparison of the previous and the new definition of the concept «fair value» has been done on the basis of what the shortcomings of the previous definition have been highlighted, the characteristic features and advantages of new definition from IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been outlined. It has been proved that new interpretation of the concept of «fair v...

  8. Measurement Theory Based on the Truth Values Violates Local Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Koji

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the violation factor of the Bell-Mermin inequality. Until now, we use an assumption that the results of measurement are ±1. In this case, the maximum violation factor is 2( n-1)/2. The quantum predictions by n-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state violate the Bell-Mermin inequality by an amount that grows exponentially with n. Recently, a new measurement theory based on the truth values is proposed (Nagata and Nakamura, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55:3616, 2016). The values of measurement outcome are either +1 or 0. Here we use the new measurement theory. We consider multipartite GHZ state. It turns out that the Bell-Mermin inequality is violated by the amount of 2( n-1)/2. The measurement theory based on the truth values provides the maximum violation of the Bell-Mermin inequality.

  9. Measuring outcomes and efficiency in medicare value-based purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Christopher P; Higgins, Aparna R; Ritter, Grant A

    2009-01-01

    The Medicare program may soon adopt value-based purchasing (VBP), in which hospitals could receive incentives that are conditional on meeting specified performance objectives. The authors advocate for a market-oriented framework and direct measures of system-level value that are focused on better outcomes and lower total cost of care. They present a multidimensional framework for measuring outcomes of care and a method to adjust incentive payments based on efficiency. Incremental reforms based on VBP could provoke transformational changes in total patient care by linking payments to value related to the whole patient experience, recognizing shared accountability among providers.

  10. Relating costs to the user value of farmland biodiversity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targetti, S; Herzog, F; Geijzendorffer, I R; Pointereau, P; Viaggi, D

    2016-01-01

    The impact of agricultural management on global biodiversity highlights the need for farm-scale monitoring programmes capable of determining the performance of agriculture practices. Yet the identification of appropriate indicators is a challenging process and one that involves considering a number of different aspects and requirements. Besides the attention given to scientific effectiveness, relevant but less studied issues related to biodiversity measurements include the economic feasibility of monitoring programmes and the relevance of indicators for different end-users. In this paper, we combine an analytic assessment of costs and a stakeholder-based evaluation of the usefulness of a set of biodiversity-related parameters (habitat mapping, vegetation, bees, earthworms, spiders, and a farmer questionnaire) tested for scientific consistency in 12 European case studies and on more than 14,000 ha of farmland. The results point to the possibility of meeting the expectations of different end-users (administrators, farmers and consumers) with a common indicator set. Combining costs and usefulness also suggests the possibility of designing more efficient monitoring approaches involving private agencies and networks of volunteers and farmers for the field data collection at different stages of a monitoring programme. Although complex, such an approach would make it possible to enhance the effectiveness of available funds for farmland biodiversity monitoring.

  11. Successful water quality monitoring: The right combination of intent, measurement, interpretation, and a cooperating ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soballe, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is invaluable to ensure compliance with regulations, detect trends or patterns, and advance ecological understanding. However, monitoring typically measures only a few characteristics in a small fraction of a large and complex system, and thus the information contained in monitoring data depends upon which features of the ecosystem are actually captured by the measurements. Difficulties arise when these data contain something other than intended, but this can be minimized if the purpose of the sampling is clear, and the sampling design, measurements, and data interpretations are all compatible with this purpose. The monitoring program and data interpretation must also be properly matched to the structure and functioning of the system. Obtaining this match is sometimes an iterative process that demands a close link between research and monitoring. This paper focuses on water quality monitoring that is intended to track trends in aquatic resources and advance ecological understanding. It includes examples from three monitoring programs and a simulation exercise that illustrate problems that arise when the information content of monitoring data differs from expectation. The examples show (1) how inconsistencies among, or lack of information about, the basic elements of a monitoring program (intent, design, measurement, interpretation, and the monitored system) can produce a systematic difference (bias) between monitoring measurements and sampling intent or interpretation, and (2) that bias is not just a statistical consideration, but an insidious problem that can undermine the scientific integrity of a monitoring program. Some general suggestions are provided and hopefully these examples will help those engaged in water quality monitoring to enhance and protect the value of their monitoring investment.

  12. A Single Bremsstrahlung Monitor to Measure Luminosity at LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The luminosity, the beam divergence and the longitudinal polarization can be measured at an interaction point of LEP by dectecting the energy, the angular distribution and the circular polarization of the single bremsstrahlung photons (SB) emitted at very forward angle. The luminosity can be measured by this met than by the conventional method of detecting small angle Bhabha scattering. The bunch to bunch relative luminosity can be monitored at a few per mil level in few minutes. Absolute values of the luminosity and of the polarization can be measured with a precision of the order of 1\\%. \\\\ \\\\ The apparatus to detect SB photons consists of a low Z absorber and of an EM calorimeter made of lead and scintillating fibres. Both the total energy and the space distribution of the SB photons are measured. This apparatus has been designed and built at the Department of Physics and INFN Section of the University of Rome ``La Sapienza''. Later on, together with suitable monocrystal converters, it may be used also for...

  13. Bunch length measurements using synchrotron ligth monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA; Tiefenback, Michael G. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA

    2015-09-01

    The bunch length is measured at CEBAF using an invasive technique. The technique depends on applying an energy chirp for the electron bunch and imaging it through a dispersive region. The measurements are taken through Arc1 and Arc2 at CEBAF. The fundamental equations, procedure and the latest results are given.

  14. Proposing methodology pattern for measuring public value of IT projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinko Kancijan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the acceptability and the value of IT projects in the public sector, especially when the projects feature the qualitative value along with the monetary one, is a complex problem. There are certain methodologies in the world though that help various organizations in decision-making process when projects are being chosen. The paper surveys the three IT projects public value assessing methodologies: the American Value Measuring Methodology, the French MAREVA, and the German WiBe. A comparison of the approaches to solving the problem of assessing public value of IT projects was thus made. The Analytic Hierarchy Process – a method of a multicriteria analysis of alternatives-was briefly presented. By the use of the Hierarchy Criteria Model in the way that respects all the basic characteristics that a methodology of the kind should feature in accordance with Gartner, a proposition of an IT project public value measurement methodology pattern was presented. The selection of projects with little value contribution if compared to the existing situation, the assessment of the acceptability of risk through the hierarchy structure of the value of a project and the aggregation of the value of separate PVIT dimensions is a contribution related to the methodology patterns that were surveyed.

  15. Metric Divergence Measures and Information Value in Credit Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a series of divergence measures have emerged from information theory and statistics and numerous inequalities have been established among them. However, none of them are a metric in topology. In this paper, we propose a class of metric divergence measures, namely, , and study their mathematical properties. We then study an important divergence measure widely used in credit scoring, called information value. In particular, we explore the mathematical reasoning of weight of evidence and suggest a better alternative to weight of evidence. Finally, we propose using as alternatives to information value to overcome its disadvantages.

  16. Noncontacting measurement technologies for space propulsion condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, M. R.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Collins, J. J.; Schwartzbart, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes four noncontacting measurement technologies that can be used in a turbopump condition monitoring system. The isotope wear analyzer, fiberoptic deflectometer, brushless torque-meter, and fiberoptic pyrometer can be used to monitor component wear, bearing degradation, instantaneous shaft torque, and turbine blade cracking, respectively. A complete turbopump condition monitoring system including these four technologies could predict remaining component life, thus reducing engine operating costs and increasing reliability.

  17. Measurement Theory in Deutsch's Algorithm Based on the Truth Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new measurement theory, in qubits handling, based on the truth values, i.e., the truth T (1) for true and the falsity F (0) for false. The results of measurement are either 0 or 1. To implement Deutsch's algorithm, we need both observability and controllability of a quantum state. The new measurement theory can satisfy these two. Especially, we systematically describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using raw data in a thoughtful experiment.

  18. [Implicit value judgments in the measurement of health inequalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; King, Nicholas B; Meersman, Stephen C; E Reichman, Marsha; Breen, Nancy; Lynch, John

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative estimates of the magnitude, direction, and rate of change of health inequalities play a crucial role in creating and assessing policies aimed at eliminating the disproportionate burden of disease in disadvantaged populations. It is generally assumed that the measurement of health inequalities is a value-neutral process, providing objective data that are then interpreted using normative judgments about whether a particular distribution of health is just, fair, or socially acceptable. We discuss five examples in which normative judgments play a role in the measurement process itself, through either the selection of one measurement strategy to the exclusion of others or the selection of the type, significance, or weight assigned to the variables being measured. Overall, we find that many commonly used measures of inequality are value laden and that the normative judgments implicit in these measures have important consequences for interpreting and responding to health inequalities. Because values implicit in the generation of health inequality measures may lead to radically different interpretations of the same underlying data,we urge researchers to explicitly consider and transparently discuss the normative judgments underlying their measures. We also urge policymakers and other consumers of health inequalities data to pay close attention to the measures on which they base their assessments of current and future health policies.

  19. Implicit value judgments in the measurement of health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; King, Nicholas B; Meersman, Stephen C; Reichman, Marsha E; Breen, Nancy; Lynch, John

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative estimates of the magnitude, direction, and rate of change of health inequalities play a crucial role in creating and assessing policies aimed at eliminating the disproportionate burden of disease in disadvantaged populations. It is generally assumed that the measurement of health inequalities is a value-neutral process, providing objective data that are then interpreted using normative judgments about whether a particular distribution of health is just, fair, or socially acceptable. We discuss five examples in which normative judgments play a role in the measurement process itself, through either the selection of one measurement strategy to the exclusion of others or the selection of the type, significance, or weight assigned to the variables being measured. Overall, we find that many commonly used measures of inequality are value laden and that the normative judgments implicit in these measures have important consequences for interpreting and responding to health inequalities. Because values implicit in the generation of health inequality measures may lead to radically different interpretations of the same underlying data, we urge researchers to explicitly consider and transparently discuss the normative judgments underlying their measures. We also urge policymakers and other consumers of health inequalities data to pay close attention to the measures on which they base their assessments of current and future health policies.

  20. English Value-Added Measures: Examining the Limitations of School Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Value-added "Progress" measures are to be introduced for all English schools in 2016 as "headline" measures of school performance. This move comes despite research highlighting high levels of instability in value-added measures and concerns about the omission of contextual variables in the planned measure. This article studies…

  1. Monitoring Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: Measuring Coagulant Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attermann, Jorn

    and the time for the next visit based on laboratory analyses of the INR. This conventional treatment regimen is relatively inconvenient for the patient, since it requires frequent outpatient visits and venipunctures. Moreover, errors may occur due to insufficient communication between patient and physician...... of anticoagulant therapy. The specific hypotheses were: • The precision of patient’s own measurements of INR performed at home on a portable coagulometer is sufficient to allow for self management of OAT (substudy 1). • For selected pairs of thromboplastins, the relation between logarithmic prothrombin times...... substudy it was shown that for selected patients the precision of the patients’ own measurements of INR is sufficient to allow for reliable routine patient self testing of INR. In the same substudy we found large discrepancies between the INR measurements on portable coagulometers and in the Department...

  2. A model for measuring value for money in professional sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad ROŞCA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Few to almost none sports teams measure the entertainment value they provide to fans in exchange of the money the latter ones spend on admission fees. Scientific literature oversees the issue as well. The aim of this paper is to present a model that can be used for calculating value for money in the context of spectating sports. The research question asks how can value for money be conceptualized and measured for sports marketing purposes? Using financial and sporting variables, the method calculates how much money, on average, a fan had to spend for receiving quality entertainment – defined as won matches – from his favorite team, during the last season of the Romanian first division football championship. The results only partially confirm the research hypothesis, showing that not just price and sporting performances may influence the value delivered to fans, but other factors as well.

  3. Monitoring microvascular free flaps with tissue oxygen measurement and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Aleksi R; Kinnunen, Ilpo A J; Grénman, Reidar A; Minn, Heikki R I; Aitasalo, Kalle M J

    2008-07-01

    Tissue oxygen measurement and positron emission tomography (PET) were evaluated as methods for predicting ischemia in microvascular free flaps of the head and neck. Ten patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer underwent resection of the tumour followed by microvascular reconstruction with a free flap. Tissue oxygenation of the flap (P(ti)O(2)) was continuously monitored for three postoperative (POP) days and the blood flow of the flap was assessed using oxygen-15 labelled water and PET. In three free flaps a perfusion problem was suspected due to a remarkable drop in P(ti)O(2)-values, due to two anastomosis problems and due to POP turgor. No flap losses occurred. During the blood flow measurements with PET [mean 8.5 mL 100 g(-1) min(-1 )(SD 2.5)], the mean P(ti)O(2) of the flaps [46.8 mmHg (SD 17.0)] appeared to correlate with each other in each patient (pmonitoring system of free flaps. The perfusion-study with PET correlates with P(ti)O(2)-measurement.

  4. Definition of air quality measurements for monitoring space shuttle launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    A description of a recommended air quality monitoring network to characterize the impact on ambient air quality in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) (area) of space shuttle launch operations is given. Analysis of ground cloud processes and prevalent meteorological conditions indicates that transient HCl depositions can be a cause for concern. The system designed to monitor HCl employs an extensive network of inexpensive detectors combined with a central analysis device. An acid rain network is also recommended. A quantitative measure of projected minimal long-term impact involves the limited monitoring of NOx and particulates. All recommended monitoring is confined ti KSC property.

  5. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT IN AGRICULTURE AND THE POTENTIAL TO MISLEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADU ALINA BEATTRICE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Applying fair value measurement to tangible and intangible assets in agriculture cannot be risk free. Twofoldreasons can be brought into attention for the above statement: fair value estimation and the specific of agriculturefield. The purpose of this discussion paper is to underline potential creative accounting demarches that can appear inthis context. The paper concludes based on the discussions approached in the literature. Further avenues of researchare discussed.

  6. Measuring the value of internal audit in the banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara-Iulia Zinca (Voiculescu

    2016-09-01

    The results of the study suggest that most organizations use methods that contain mainly quantitative and less qualitative elements. There are differences between banks and other types of organizations in terms of the methods and practices used, but also on the importance showed to measurement of internal audit value. In addition, the findings confirm that there is room for improving the methods and practices used, so that the audit function gains value and credibility.

  7. Clinical value of acoustic voice measures: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Katrin; Voigt, Daniel; Döllinger, Michael; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Lohscheller, Jörg

    2010-08-01

    Within this study a retrospective analysis of clinical voice perturbation measures, Dysphonia Severity Index and subjective perceived hoarseness was performed to determine their value under clinical aspects. The study included the data of 580 healthy and 1,700 pathologic voices, which were investigated under the following aspects. The relevant parameters were identified and their interrelation determined. Group differences between healthy and pathologic voices were figured out and investigated if voice quality measures allowed an automatic diagnosis of voice disorders. The analysis revealed significant changes between the clinical groups, which indicate the diagnostic relevance of voice quality measures. However, an individual diagnosis of the underlying voice disorder failed due to a vast spread of the parameter values within the respective groups. Classification accuracies of 75-90% were achieved. The high misclassification rate of up to 25% implied that in voice disorder diagnosis, the individual interpretation of the parameter values has to be done carefully.

  8. International Accounting Convergence in the Field of Fair Value Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cozma Ighian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The investors’ desire for high-quality, internationally comparable financial information that is useful for decision-making in increasingly global capital markets imposed an international convergence, the ultimate goal of which is a single set of international accounting standards that companies worldwide would use for both domestic and cross-border financial reporting. The guidance, set out in IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement and the update to Topic 820 (formerly referred to as SFAS 157, completes a major project of the boards’ joint work to improve IFRSs and US GAAP and to bring about their convergence. This article describes the controversial history of fair value measurement and the main novelties in the field of fair value measurement, arising from the international convergence process.

  9. Contextual Values Approach to the Generalized Measurement of Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Dressel, J

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed motivation for and definition of the contextual values of an observable, which were introduced in Dressel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 040402 (2010). The theory extends the well-established theory of generalized state measurements by bridging the gap between partial state collapse and the observables that represent physically relevant information about the system. To emphasize the general utility of the concept, we first construct the full theory of contextual values within an operational formulation of classical probability theory, paying special attention to observable construction, detector coupling, generalized measurement, and measurement disturbance. We then extend the results to quantum probability theory built as a superstructure on the classical theory, pointing out both the classical correspondences to and the full quantum generalizations of both Lueder's rule and the Aharonov-Bergmann-Lebowitz rule in the process. In both cases the contextual values of a system observable for...

  10. Structural Integrity Monitoring by Vibration Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Ai-Min; De Boe, Pascal; Golinval, Jean-Claude

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on several approaches of structural dam-age diagnosis based on vibration meas-urements. Stochastic subspace identifica-tion method is used to identify modal pa-rameters and to generate a Kalman predic-tion model, which are taken as damage-sensitive features for structural damage detection. A statistical process control technique based on principal component analysis (PCA) is also presented. An im-provement and enhancement of PCA is proposed. It is assum...

  11. Cosine Similarity Measure of Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define a new cosine similarity between two interval valued neutrosophic sets based on Bhattacharya’s distance [19]. The notions of interval valued neutrosophic sets (IVNS, for short will be used as vector representations in 3D-vector space. Based on the comparative analysis of the existing similarity measures for IVNS, we find that our proposed similarity measure is better and more robust. An illustrative example of the pattern recognition shows that the proposed method is simple and effective.

  12. The measurement procedure in the SEMONT monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuric, Nikola; Kljajic, Dragan; Kasas-Lazetic, Karolina; Bajovic, Vera

    2014-03-01

    The measurement procedure of the open area in situ electric field strength is presented, acquiring the real field data for testing of the Serbian electromagnetic field monitoring network (SEMONT) and its Internet portal. The SEMONT monitoring system introduces an advanced approach of wireless sensor network utilization for the continuous supervision of overall and cumulative level of electromagnetic field over the observed area. The aim of the SEMONT system is to become a useful tool for the national and municipal agencies for the environmental protection, regarding the electromagnetic pollution monitoring and the exposure assessment of the general population. Considering the public concern on the potentially harmful effects of the long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation, as well as the public transparency principle that is incorporated into the Serbian law on non-ionizing radiation protection, the SEMONT monitoring system is designed for the long-term continuous monitoring, presenting real-time measurement results, and corresponding exposure assessment over the public Internet network.

  13. Deciding with Thresholds: Importance Measures and Value of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Emanuele; Cillo, Alessandra

    2017-01-17

    Risk-informed decision making is often accompanied by the specification of an acceptable level of risk. Such target level is compared against the value of a risk metric, usually computed through a probabilistic safety assessment model, to decide about the acceptability of a given design, the launch of a space mission, etc. Importance measures complement the decision process with information about the risk/safety significance of events. However, importance measures do not tell us whether the occurrence of an event can change the overarching decision. By linking value of information and importance measures for probabilistic risk assessment models, this work obtains a value-of-information-based importance measure that brings together the risk metric, risk importance measures, and the risk threshold in one expression. The new importance measure does not impose additional computational burden because it can be calculated from our knowledge of the risk achievement and risk reduction worth, and complements the insights delivered by these importance measures. Several properties are discussed, including the joint decision worth of basic event groups. The application to the large loss of coolant accident sequence of the Advanced Test Reactor helps us in illustrating the risk analysis insights. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Measurement of LINAC 90 degrees head leakage radiation TVL values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Mutic, Sasa; Low, Daniel

    2006-09-01

    One of the key components in modern LINAC room shielding design is the amount of 90 degrees head leakage radiation levels. With the general clinical acceptance of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique, accurate knowledge of this quantity has become even more important. Measurement of 90 degrees head leakage radiation of medical linear accelerators can be technically challenging due to the low dose rate causing poor signal-to-noise ratios in most detectors. 90 degrees leakage tenth-value layer (TVL) values in concrete have not been reported for the Elekta linear accelerators. This report describes our measurements of 90 degrees leakage TVL values for 6, 10, and 18 MV x-ray beams for an Elekta Precise Treatment System. A large-volume (1000 cm3) unpressurized ionization chamber and a high sensitivity electrometer, together with a separate chamber bias power supply, were used in these measurements in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. A lead enclosure, of minimum thickness 10 cm, was constructed inside the treatment room to house the ion chamber to reduce the influence of room-scattered radiation. A square aperture of 10 X 10 cm2 area was left in the shield and aimed towards the accelerator head. Measurements were performed with the chamber placed at approximately 2 m from the accelerator isocenter. Concrete slabs with individual dimensions of approximately 40 X 40 cm2 cross-sectional area and 5 cm thickness were placed between the accelerator head and the ion chamber for these measurements. The measurements were performed with total concrete thickness of up to 80 cm, so that values up to the third TVL were measured. These measurements showed thatthe first concrete TVL values are 22, 23, and 28 cm (8.6, 9.1, and 10.5 in.) for 6, 10, and 18 MV beams, while the average of the first 3 TVL's were 25, 26, and 29 cm (9.9, 10.2, and 11.5 in.). Measured values agreed to within 10% of previously reported values for Varian linear accelerators for

  15. Measurement of half-value layer in mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, H; Saruwatari, R; Doi, N; Yamane, E

    2003-01-01

    The half-value layer (HVL) of an X-ray beam for film-screen mammography is considered an important parameter for image quality and patient dose. Thus, HVL must be measured in accordance with The Manual of Accuracy for Mammography printed by the Japanese Society of Radiological Technology. The manual prescribes exactly the geometry of measurement, chamber position of measurement in the field, selection of chamber, and so on. However, the measurement of HVL is difficult in the actual clinical setting. This study examined the results of failure to perform the measurement of HVL in accordance with the manual for measuring HVL in the clinical setting. The investigation indicated that serious problems do not arise when measuring HVL for routine quality control even if the chamber in the field is not always set according to the manual and if a chamber for radiotherapy or diagnosis is used that is not recommended for soft X-ray by the manual. (author)

  16. Three measures of longevity: time trends and record values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, V

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the trend over time in the measures of “typical” longevity experienced by members of a population: life expectancy at birth, and the median and modal ages at death. The article also analyzes trends in record values observed for all three measures. The record life expectancy...... time from a dominance of child mortality reductions to a dominance of adult mortality reductions, which became evident by studying trends in the record modal age at death....

  17. The Valued Living Questionnaire: Defining and Measuring Valued Action within a Behavioral Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly G.; Sandoz, Emily K.; Kitchens, Jennifer; Roberts, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    A number of cognitive-behavior therapies now strongly emphasize particular behavioral processes as mediators of clinical change specific to that therapy. This shift in emphasis calls for the development of measures sensitive to changes in the therapies' processes. Among these is acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), which posits valued living…

  18. [Measurement of blood pressure variability and the clinical value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kékes, Ede; Kiss, István

    2014-10-19

    Authors have collected and analyzed literature data on blood pressure variability. They present the methods of blood pressure variability measurement, clinical value and relationships with target organ damages and risk of presence of cardiovascular events. They collect data about the prognostic value of blood pressure variability and the effects of different antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure variability. They underline that in addition to reduction of blood pressure to target value, it is essential to influence blood pressure fluctuation and decrease blood pressure variability, because blood pressure fluctuation presents a major threat for the hypertensive subjects. Data from national studies are also presented. They welcome that measurement of blood pressure variability has been included in international guidelines.

  19. Measuring the strategic value of information technology investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, K.W. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Value is often perceived differently by the proponents of new information technologies and those who allocate resources and define priorities. Such differences often become a roadblock to meeting true business needs. Project justifications regularly rely on calculated cost savings, which rarely measure the full benefit of new technologies. In fact, if cost savings provide a complete picture, then the organization is probably just automating routine clerical operations and has abandoned efforts that would provide significant strategic value. Strategic value is not limited to financial calculations, but includes quality, time and risk criteria. This paper describes approaches for measuring strategic value that can provide organizations with proven techniques to improve performance, reengineer processes, benchmark performance against other suppliers, identify outsourcing opportunities, or defend themselves from pressures to outsource. Many organizations respond to tightening budgets by cutting overhead. These measurement approaches can demonstrate how overhead is critical to organizational effectiveness and how cost savings can be found, instead, by measurably improving performance throughout the organization. Finally, the paper describes efforts underway within the Department of Energy and at the Hanford Site to implement the approaches described in this paper.

  20. Positive-operator-valued measure optimization of classical correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamieh, S; Kobes, R; Zaraket, H

    2004-01-01

    We study the problem of optimization over positive-operator-valued measures to extract classical correlation in a bipartite quantum system. The proposed method is applied to binary states only. Moreover, to illustrate this method, an explicit example is studied in detail.

  1. Against Journal Articles for Measuring Value in University Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbali, C.

    2010-01-01

    The following lines of arguments against the metrics of journal articles is developed: (1) Textual output should no longer be main valued output; (2) Digitalization enables other ways of advancing knowledge; (3) Measures by journal article favours the disciplines of Natural Science and Engineering (NSE) and moulds other disciplines of Social…

  2. Electrostatic discharges and their effect on the validity of registered values in intracranial pressure monitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Morten; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Juhler, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    , the authors have tried to determine if the ICP monitors from major manufacturers were affected by electrostatic discharges (ESDs), if the changes were permanent or transient in nature, and if the changes were modified by the addition of different electrical appliances normally used in the neurointensive care...... unit environment. Methods The authors established a test setup in the neurointensive care unit using a large container filled with isotonic saline, creating a phantom patient. Intracranial pressure monitors were sequentially lowered into the container and subjected to a predefined test battery of ESDs....... Results Five pressure monitors from 4 manufacturers were evaluated. Three monitors containing electrical circuitry at the tip of the transducer were all affected by ESDs. Clinically significant permanent changes in the reported ICP values for 1 pressure monitor were observed, as well as temporary...

  3. Conjectures Regarding the Adoption of Fair Value Measurements in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dal-Ri Murcia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of relevance versus reliability has always been a debate in accounting. Far from being a consensus among the community, the adoption of fair value measurements is intended to present a more realistic view of an entity¿s financial position. However, it could also cause a loss of credibility due to the subjectivity inherent in the valuation process. Wishing to make a contribution to the existing literature on this issue, this paper presents a discussion about the adoption of fair value measurements in Brazil. First, we present a brief examination of asset and liability valuation using the accounting theory as a framework. Following, we conduct a review of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB standards regarding fair value measurements. Empirical studies addressing fair value are also reviewed. Finally, a discussion about its implementation is presented, aiming to take into account the specificities of the Brazilian Market. This paper intends to contribute to the construction of academic knowledge in accounting by debating an issue which is a real problem for organizations, and yet incipient in the national literature.

  4. Demonstrating the viability and value of community-based monitoring schemes in catchment science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Parkin, Geoff; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological catchments are complex systems which need to be monitored over time in order to characterise their behaviour on a local level, model, implement mitigation measures and meet policy targets. Despite hydrometric monitoring techniques being well developed, data is often inadequate within rural areas. Local knowledge and experiences are also vital sources of information in this sector but they are not routinely harvested. Long-term evidence is required to provide stakeholders with confidence and innovation is required to fully engage with and inform the public. Citizen science and volunteered geographical information (VGI) projects are encouraging volunteers to participate in crowdsourcing activities and generate new knowledge, but they have not been fully investigated within catchment science. A citizen science approach has therefore been implemented within the 42km2 Haltwhistle Burn catchment (northern England) using effective engagement techniques. This catchment responds rapidly, experiences flash flood events, and like many, it does not benefit from any traditional monitoring equipment. Participation levels confirm that members of the public do want to monitor their local water environment, with flooding being a key driver. Regular 'River Watch' volunteers and passers-by are sharing their knowledge and monitoring rainfall, river levels, water quality parameters, sediment issues, flood events and performance of flood risk management features. This has enabled a variety of low-cost data collection and submission tools to be tested over a two year period. Training has encouraged good quality data to be collected and volunteers are ready to capture meaningful information during unexpected flood events. Although volunteers are capable of collecting quantitative information, photographs and videos are submitted more readily. Twitter has also been used to share real-time observations successfully. A traditional monitoring network has been running in parallel

  5. Monitoring Coaxial-Probe Contact Force for Dielectric Properties Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A means is described for measuring and monitoring the contact force applied to a material sample with an open-ended coaxial-line probe for purposes of measuring the dielectric properties of semisolid material samples such as fruit, vegetable and animal tissues. The equipment consists of a stainless...

  6. Urbmobi. A mobile measurement device for urban environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, E.J.; Mark, P.J. van der; Nieuwkoop, E.

    2014-01-01

    Within the Urbmobi research project, a novel mobile measurement device is developed for urban areas. It provides temporally and spatially distributed environmental data and fulfills the need for monitoring at various places without the costs for a large number of fixed measurement stations. Urbmobi

  7. Absolute beam emittance measurements at RHIC using ionization profile monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Connolly, R [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Summers, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-08-15

    In the past, comparisons between emittance measurements obtained using ionization profile monitors, Vernier scans (using as input the measured rates from the zero degree counters, or ZDCs), the polarimeters and the Schottky detectors evidenced significant variations of up to 100%. In this report we present studies of the RHIC ionization profile monitors (IPMs). After identifying and correcting for two systematic instrumental errors in the beam size measurements, we present experimental results showing that the remaining dominant error in beam emittance measurements at RHIC using the IPMs was imprecise knowledge of the local beta functions. After removal of the systematic errors and implementation of measured beta functions, precise emittance measurements result. Also, consistency between the emittances measured by the IPMs and those derived from the ZDCs was demonstrated.

  8. Designing the Monitoring of Water-Related Sustainable Development Goals Based on Value of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M. A.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Fischer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent an unprecedented international commitment to collective action and targeted interventions at global, regional, and national scales. Existing monitoring and data infrastructures are inadequate for producing the variety of environmental and socioeconomic information needed to ensure efficient and effective outcomes across the range of interlinked SDGs and targets. The scientific community needs to take a lead in developing new tools and approaches that, at reasonable cost, provide monitoring data of sufficient quality and spatial and temporal coverage to support informed decision making by diverse stakeholders. The expanded SDGs related to water offer the opportunity to explore potential new monitoring approaches and data system architectures in a key sector, building on existing water monitoring capabilities and incorporating new technologies and methods. Since additional investments in monitoring will undoubtedly be limited, it is important to assess carefully the value of information produced by different options and their associated risks and tradeoffs. We review here the existing set of water monitoring systems, known gaps and limitations, stakeholder inputs on data needs, and the potential value of information in light of alternative water sector interventions. Of particular interest are opportunities to share investments in monitoring across sectors and stakeholders (e.g., public and private entities) and to identify where incremental improvements in water monitoring could have significant benefits for other SDGs (e.g., related to health, energy, agriculture, and climate change). Value of information is also driven by the numbers of people affected by decisions or able to take advantage of improved data, which implies the need not only to collect and archive data, but also to invest in making data accessible and usable to diverse and geographically dispersed users.

  9. The Value of Improved Measurements in a Pig Slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Niels Christian

    investments are expected to improve the quality of the measurements further. This paper concerns the use of Operations Research to solve a practical problem, which is of major importance for the industry, namely to improve the estimation of the economic effects of improved measurements. The benefit...... markets. Therefore it is more important than ever to optimize all aspects of Danish pig production, slaughtering processes and delivery. This paper concerns the aspects of optimization at the slaughterhouses regarding estimation of the value of improved measurements. The slaughterhouse industry differs...... consisting of pigs with almost the same characteristics and thereby reducing the variation within the individual sorting groups substantially. The accuracy of the measurements is the most important limiting factor for how much the variation within each sorting group can actually be reduced. Substantial...

  10. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber-Security Measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    In earlier work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  11. Defining and Computing a Value Based Cyber-Security Measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    In past work, we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities\\; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  12. The value of climate measures; Verdien av klimatiltak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, H.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report discusses international studies of the cost and usefulness of climate measures. Studies of the value of carrying out climate measures can be classified in two broad categories. One category analyses the cost of achieving defined goals about emission of climate gases, usually limited to CO{sub 2} emission. These are sometimes referred to as studies of cost-effectiveness. The other category tries to find measures giving net profit, and this type of studies are the most demanding. Micro-oriented analyses lay stress on the description of physical changes such as properties of specific technologies and physical damage by climate changes. Then the changes are valued according to market prices. Macro-economic analyses, on the other hand, stress the description of supply and demand relationships. Here, the changes in the markets upon climate measures are studied, but this method is not suitable for analyses of specific technologies. Economic analyses of climate changes are relatively new, but the methods are traditional. Some of the main issues discussed in the report are: (1) the connection between climate policies and other environmental policies, (2) the impact on world trade of an international climate agreement, (3) evaluation of the national costs of climate measures, and (4) the impact of technological changes on global emissions of climate gases. 62 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Accounting for choice of measurement scale in extreme value modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Wadsworth, J. L.; Tawn, J. A.; Jonathan, P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect that the choice of measurement scale has upon inference and extrapolation in extreme value analysis. Separate analyses of variables from a single process on scales which are linked by a nonlinear transformation may lead to discrepant conclusions concerning the tail behavior of the process. We propose the use of a Box--Cox power transformation incorporated as part of the inference procedure to account parametrically for the uncertainty surrounding the scale of extrapo...

  14. International Accounting Convergence in the Field of Fair Value Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Cozma Ighian

    2015-01-01

    The investors’ desire for high-quality, internationally comparable financial information that is useful for decision-making in increasingly global capital markets imposed an international convergence, the ultimate goal of which is a single set of international accounting standards that companies worldwide would use for both domestic and cross-border financial reporting. The guidance, set out in IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement and the update to Topic 820 (formerly referred to as SFAS 157), comp...

  15. Measuring Nursing Value from the Electronic Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    We report the findings of a big data nursing value expert group made up of 14 members of the nursing informatics, leadership, academic and research communities within the United States tasked with 1. Defining nursing value, 2. Developing a common data model and metrics for nursing care value, and 3. Developing nursing business intelligence tools using the nursing value data set. This work is a component of the Big Data and Nursing Knowledge Development conference series sponsored by the University Of Minnesota School Of Nursing. The panel met by conference calls for fourteen 1.5 hour sessions for a total of 21 total hours of interaction from August 2014 through May 2015. Primary deliverables from the bit data expert group were: development and publication of definitions and metrics for nursing value; construction of a common data model to extract key data from electronic health records; and measures of nursing costs and finance to provide a basis for developing nursing business intelligence and analysis systems.

  16. Robust Regression for Slope Estimation in Curriculum-Based Measurement Progress Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sterett H.; Lyons, Alina F.; Johnston, Lauren E.; Millhoff, Courtney L.

    2015-01-01

    Although ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression has been identified as a preferred method to calculate rates of improvement for individual students during curriculum-based measurement (CBM) progress monitoring, OLS slope estimates are sensitive to the presence of extreme values. Robust estimators have been developed that are less biased by…

  17. Experimental and mumerical validation of the technique for concrete cure monitoring using piezoelectric admittance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wan Cheol; Park, Gyu Hae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    This paper presents a new technique for monitoring the concrete curing process using embedded piezoelectric transducers via admittance measurements. When a piezoelectric transducer is embedded in a structure, the electrical impedance (admittance) of the transducer is coupled with the mechanical impedance of the host structure, which allows monitoring of the structural condition. In this study, the admittance signatures are used for monitoring the concrete curing process. This new method is based on an admittance-based sensor diagnostic process, in which the capacitance values of the piezoelectric transducers are dependent on the strength of the host structure. We numerically and experimentally investigated the variations in capacitive value during the curing process. The results demonstrate that there is a clear relationship between the concrete curing status and the slope, this indicates that the proposed method could be efficiently used for monitoring the curing status of a concrete structure.

  18. A monitor unit "odometer" for measuring linac workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M D; Larkin, J J; Léger, P; Podgorsak, E B

    2001-12-01

    The annual linac workload is often required by regulatory agencies to assess compliance with license conditions. Summation of the monitor units produced by the machine is generally used for this purpose. Various methods of estimating this value have inherent inaccuracies. We have built an integrating Monitor Unit "odometer" that is able to automatically accumulate all MUs delivered by the linac and segregate the total by mode (photon or electron) and energy. The device has been used to record clinical linac MU workloads for 10 months, and was installed in a new dual-energy linac during the acceptance and commissioning process.

  19. Value of monitoring in asset management: A social costbenefit analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouch, M.; Courage, W.; Nápoles, O.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework to investigate new monitoring techniques for infrastructures and assess their potential value for the network management. This framework is based on a social cost benefit analysis tool that aims to (i) assist decision makers in selecting and developing cost-effective new monit

  20. Value of information: A roadmap to quantifying the benefit of structural health monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straub, D.; Chatzi, E.; Bismut, E.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of value of information (VoI) enables quantification of the benefits provided by structural health monitoring (SHM) systems – in principle. Its implementation is challenging, as it requires an explicit modelling of the structural system’s life cycle, in particular of the decisions...

  1. Preprocessing and parameterizing bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements by singular value decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejadgholi, Isar; Caytak, Herschel; Bolic, Miodrag; Batkin, Izmail; Shirmohammadi, Shervin

    2015-05-01

    In several applications of bioimpedance spectroscopy, the measured spectrum is parameterized by being fitted into the Cole equation. However, the extracted Cole parameters seem to be inconsistent from one measurement session to another, which leads to a high standard deviation of extracted parameters. This inconsistency is modeled with a source of random variations added to the voltage measurement carried out in the time domain. These random variations may originate from biological variations that are irrelevant to the evidence that we are investigating. Yet, they affect the voltage measured by using a bioimpedance device based on which magnitude and phase of impedance are calculated.By means of simulated data, we showed that Cole parameters are highly affected by this type of variation. We further showed that singular value decomposition (SVD) is an effective tool for parameterizing bioimpedance measurements, which results in more consistent parameters than Cole parameters. We propose to apply SVD as a preprocessing method to reconstruct denoised bioimpedance measurements. In order to evaluate the method, we calculated the relative difference between parameters extracted from noisy and clean simulated bioimpedance spectra. Both mean and standard deviation of this relative difference are shown to effectively decrease when Cole parameters are extracted from preprocessed data in comparison to being extracted from raw measurements.We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in distinguishing three arm positions, for a set of experiments including eight subjects. It is shown that Cole parameters of different positions are not distinguishable when extracted from raw measurements. However, one arm position can be distinguished based on SVD scores. Moreover, all three positions are shown to be distinguished by two parameters, R0/R∞ and Fc, when Cole parameters are extracted from preprocessed measurements. These results suggest that SVD could be considered as an

  2. Quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring Information for Fatigue Deteriorating Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Schneider, Ronald; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the quantification of the value of structural health monitoring (SHM) before its implementation for structural systems on the basis of its Value of Information (VoI). The value of SHM is calculated utilizing the Bayesian pre-posterior decision analysis modelling the structural...... life cycle performance, the integrity management and the structural risks. The relevance and precision of SHM information for the reduction of the structural system risks and the expected cost of the structural integrity management throughout the life cycle constitutes the value of SHM....... The influence of and the value of SHM in regard to the structural system risks and the integrity management is explicated and explained. The results are pointing to the importance of the consideration of the structural system risks for the quantification of the value of SHM....

  3. Luminosity measurement and beam condition monitoring at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The BRIL system of CMS consists of instrumentation to measure the luminosity online and offline, and to monitor the LHC beam conditions inside CMS. An accurate luminosity measurement is essential to the CMS physics program, and measurement of the beam background is necessary to ensure safe operation of CMS. In expectation of higher luminosity and denser proton bunch spacing during LHC Run II, many of the BRIL subsystems are being upgraded and others are being added to complement the existing measurements. The beam condition monitor (BCM) consists of several sets of diamond sensors used to measure online luminosity and beam background with a single-bunch-crossing resolution. The BCM also detects when beam conditions become unfavorable for CMS running and may trigger a beam abort to protect the detector. The beam halo monitor (BHM) uses quartz bars to measure the background of the incoming beams at larger radii. The pixel luminosity telescope (PLT) consists of telescopes of silicon sensors designed to provide a CMS online and offline luminosity measurement. In addition, the forward hadronic calorimeter (HF) will deliver an independent luminosity measurement, making the whole system robust and allowing for cross-checks of the systematics. Data from each of the subsystems will be collected and combined in the BRIL DAQ framework, which will publish it to CMS and LHC. The current status of installation and commissioning results for the BRIL subsystems are given.

  4. Health Monitoring of TPS Structures by Measuring Their Electrical Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preci, Arianit; Herdrich, Georg; Steinbeck, Andreas; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika

    Health Monitoring in aerospace applications becomes an emerging technology leading to the development of systems capable of continuously monitoring structures for damage with minimal human intervention. A promising sensing method to be applied on hot structures and thermal protection systems is the electrical resistance measurement technique, which is barely investigated up to now. This method benefits from the advantageous characteristics of self-monitoring materials, such as carbon fiber-reinforced materials. By measuring the variation of the electrical resistance of these materials information on possibly present mechanical damage can be derived. In order to set up a database on electric properties of relevant materials under relevant conditions and to perform a proof-of-concept for this health monitoring method a facility has been laid out, which allows for the measurement of the electrical resistance of thermal protection system relevant materials at temperatures up to 2000°C. First preliminary measurements of the surface resistance of a graphite sample have been performed and are presented. It has been proven necessary to make some modifications to the setup. Therefore, the remaining measurements with graphite and C/C-SiC samples are subject of further investigation which will be performed in the future.

  5. Ultra-low Q values for neutrino mass measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kopp, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    We investigate weak nuclear decays with extremely small kinetic energy release (Q value) and thus extremely good sensitivity to the absolute neutrino mass scale. In particular, we consider decays into excited daughter states, and we show that partial ionization of the parent atom can help to tune Q values to << 1 keV. We discuss several candidate isotopes undergoing beta+, beta-, bound state beta, or electron capture decay, and come to the conclusion that a neutrino mass measurement using low-Q decays might only be feasible if no ionization is required, and if future improvements in isotope production technology, nuclear mass spectroscopy, and atomic structure calculations are possible. Experiments using ions, however, are extremely challenging due to the large number of ions that must be stored. New precision data on nuclear excitation levels could help to identify further isotopes with low-Q decay modes and possibly less challenging requirements.

  6. Calculation of Decision Support Interface Values for FEWS NET Remote Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, G. J.

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to expand the spatial extent of monitoring activities, the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is seeking new techniques to leverage remotely sensed data. The Decision Support Interface (DSI) represents a new product that is part of a growing suite of remote monitoring tools using existing data products to assist in assessing crop-growing conditions. The DSI indicates areas where remotely sensed data show that further investigation into conditions may be needed. It is designed to be a first-check of conditions for both core monitoring areas as well as those where standard FEWS NET monitoring information may not be available. Initially developed for Africa, the DSI integrates different products and methods into a single assessment of crop-growing conditions. Two primary data inputs drive the DSI: NOAA produced satellite rainfall estimates and eMODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The temporal monitoring unit is the dekad, defined as an approximately 10-day period encompassing either the first ten days (1st-10th), second ten days (11th-20th), or remainder of the month (21st-end). Rainfall accumulations at durations of 1, 3, 6, 9, and 18-dekads are used to capture rainfall conditions for various intervals of the crop calendar. NDVI data are a composite of greenness values over a 10-day period, smoothed in time to correct for atmospheric contamination. Spatial averages of these input data are extracted for defined agricultural regions. The agricultural areas synthesize the best available data for each country, and contain information about typical start and end of the growing season used to determine the period of monitoring for each polygon. Spatial averages of rainfall and NDVI for each polygon are assigned two percentiles, one - termed empirical - based on the ranking of the amount compared to historical amounts for the interval, and a second - termed theoretical - based on a parametric distribution derived from the

  7. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  8. Monitoring dental erosion by colour measurement : An in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J. B.; Zijp, J. R.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a method to monitor dental erosion by evaluation of the colour change of teeth as a function of enamel loss, and to evaluate the reproducibility of the method used. Methods: Light reflectance spectra of 12 extracted human incisors were measured using

  9. Ozone Measurements Monitoring Using Data-Based Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-02-01

    The complexity of ozone (O3) formation mechanisms in the troposphere make the fast and accurate modeling of ozone very challenging. In the absence of a process model, principal component analysis (PCA) has been extensively used as a data-based monitoring technique for highly correlated process variables; however conventional PCA-based detection indices often fail to detect small or moderate anomalies. In this work, we propose an innovative method for detecting small anomalies in highly correlated multivariate data. The developed method combine the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring scheme with PCA modelling in order to enhance anomaly detection performance. Such a choice is mainly motivated by the greater ability of the MEWMA monitoring scheme to detect small changes in the process mean. The proposed PCA-based MEWMA monitoring scheme is successfully applied to ozone measurements data collected from Upper Normandy region, France, via the network of air quality monitoring stations. The detection results of the proposed method are compared to that declared by Air Normand air monitoring association.

  10. Monitoring Actuarial Present Values of Term Life Insurance By a Statistical Process Control Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidz Omar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Tracking performance of life insurance or similar insurance policy using standard statistical process control chart is complex because of many factors. In this work, we present the difficulty in doing so. However, with some modifications of the SPC charting framework, the difficulty can be manageable to the actuaries. So, we propose monitoring a simpler but natural actuarial quantity that is typically found in recursion formulas of reserves, profit testing, as well as present values. We shared some simulation results for the monitoring process. Additionally, some advantages of doing so is discussed.

  11. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endogenous acetone production is a by‐product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in...

  12. Monitoring Surface Climate With its Emissivity Derived From Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Satellite thermal infrared (IR) spectral emissivity data have been shown to be significant for atmospheric research and monitoring the Earth fs environment. Long-term and large-scale observations needed for global monitoring and research can be supplied by satellite-based remote sensing. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity data retrieved from the last 5 years of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements observed from the MetOp-A satellite. Monthly mean surface properties (i.e., skin temperature T(sub s) and emissivity spectra epsilon(sub v) with a spatial resolution of 0.5x0.5-degrees latitude-longitude are produced to monitor seasonal and inter-annual variations. We demonstrate that surface epsilon(sub v) and T(sub s) retrieved with IASI measurements can be used to assist in monitoring surface weather and surface climate change. Surface epsilon(sub v) together with T(sub s) from current and future operational satellites can be utilized as a means of long-term and large-scale monitoring of Earth 's surface weather environment and associated changes.

  13. Defining and Computing a Valued Based Cyber Security Measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aissa, Anis Ben [University of Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Mili, Ali [New Jersey Insitute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    In earlier works (Ben-Aissa et al. 2010; Abercrombie et al. 2008; Sheldon et al. 2009), we presented a value based measure of cybersecurity that quantifies the security of a system in concrete terms, specifically, in terms of how much each system stakeholder stands to lose (in dollars per hour of operation) as a result of security threats and system vulnerabilities; our metric varies according to the stakes that each stakeholder has in meeting each security requirement. In this paper, we discuss the specification and design of a system that collects, updates, and maintains all the information that pertains to estimating our cybersecurity measure, and offers stakeholders quantitative means to make security-related decisions.

  14. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  15. Absolute Measurement Fiber-optic Sensors in Large Structural Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The security of civil engineering is an important task due to the economic, social and environmental significance. Compared with conventional sensors, the optical fiber sensors have their unique characteristics.Being durable, stable and insensitive to external perturbations,they are particular interesting for the long-term monitoring of civil structures.Focus is on absolute measurement optical fiber sensors, which are emerging from the monitoring large structural, including SOFO system, F-P optical fiber sensors, and fiber Bragg grating sensors. The principle, characteristic and application of these three kinds of optical fiber sensors are described together with their future prospects.

  16. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R. [Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  17. A Review for Model Plant Mismatch Measures in Process Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪; 谢磊; 宋执环

    2012-01-01

    Model is usually necessary for the design of a control loop. Due to simplification and unknown dynamics, model plant mismatch is inevitable in the control loop. In process monitoring, detection of mismatch and evaluation of its influences are demanded. In this paper several mismatch measures are presented based on different model descriptions. They are categorized into different groups from different perspectives and their potential in detection and diagnosis is evaluated. Two case studies on mixing process and distillation process demonstrate the efficacy of the framework of mismatch monitoring.

  18. Development of measuring apparatus for monitoring the preparation of fines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechmann, C.; Fauth, G.; Luedke, H.; Schieder, T.

    1984-01-01

    Monitoring or controlling a preparation process requires a sufficiently precise knowledge of the raw material characteristics and also high-speed automatic analysis by measuring apparatus of the quantities and properties of bulk materials and pulpflows. Such apparatus includes devices to measure ash content of pulps, concentration of solids, grain size or grain size distribution and pulp flow. For monitoring flotation, radiometric analysis of the ash content of pulps using the transmission method was tested in a semi-industrial plant. The radioactive sources used were Americium 241 and Caesium 137. The residual standard deviation compared with manual sampling was about 1 g/l for the solids concentration and around 0.4% for ash content. As regards the measurement of grain size and grain size distribution, optical methods have proved to be unsuitable for operational use in coal preparation plants. The ultrasonic absorption method requires further basic research. For short time-interval measurement of pulp flows using devices requiring no conversion, the devices based on the ultrasonic Doppler effect did not yield satisfactory results during operational testing in spite of the accuracy achieved on the test rig. For monitoring washery water thickeners, measuring by means of photometric devices has proved to be suitable for operational use.

  19. A new method of monitoring calorific value in distribution grids; Ein Neues Verfahren zur Brennwertverfolgung in Verteilnetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Joachim; Schley, Peter [E.ON Ruhrgas AG, Essen (DE). Kompetenzcenter Gastechnik und Energiesysteme (Netztechnik); Hielscher, Andreas [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik

    2011-07-01

    The article presents a new method of monitoring calorific value in regional distribution grids. Standard load profiles are combined with a new correction algorithm in order to calculate the decrease volume in the connecting points of the grid. This way, a calorific value can be calculated for each grid node that is based on combustion values from calibrate measurements in the connection points, and customers can be billed efficiently in supply districts with several natural gas and/or biogas feed-in stations. Cost-intensive conditioning of biogas can be prevented, so that biogas plants will achieve higher economic efficiency. Further, the results of a field test for validation of the process are presented. In a H-gas regional grid of E.ON Avacon, calorific value was measured in different points for a period of nine months, using a mobile process gas chromatograph. Two different types of gas are supplied to the grid, i.e. H-grade natural gas and biogas. The deviations between measured and calculated calorific values was in the range of 0.05 percent as referred to the monthly average. The article also presents a new manner of representation of the results.

  20. MonitoRing - Magnetic induction measurement at your fingertip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, D.; Foussier, J.; Löschcke, D.; Leonhardt, S.; Walter, M.

    2013-04-01

    The device presented in this paper is a sensor for monitoring pulse by measuring the bioimpedance of the thumb in an unobtrusive way. The sensor is based on magnetic induction measurement, a non-contact technique for measuring impedance changes of objects [1]. The sensor head of the presented system has the form of a ring and is worn on the finger. The developed technique renders the possibility of easy and unnoticed pulse recording during every day activities without the need for, e.g. electrodes, a pulse belt around the chest, or a pulse photoplethysmographic finger or ear clip.

  1. Anoxic Activated Sludge Monitoring with Combined Nitrate and Titrimetric Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B.; Gernaey, Krist; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental procedure for anoxic activated sludge monitoring with combined nitrate and titrimetric measurements is proposed and evaluated successfully with two known carbon sources, (-)acetate and dextrose. For nitrate measurements an ion-selective nitrate electrode is applied to allow...... was with the carbon source in excess, since excess nitrate provoked nitrite build-up thereby complicating the data interpretation. A conceptual model could quantitatively describe the experimental observations and thus link the experimentally measured proton production with the consumption of electron acceptor...... and carbon source during denitrification....

  2. An introduction to branching measure-valued processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dynkin, Eugene B

    1994-01-01

    For about half a century, two classes of stochastic processes-Gaussian processes and processes with independent increments-have played an important role in the development of stochastic analysis and its applications. During the last decade, a third class-branching measure-valued (BMV) processes-has also been the subject of much research. A common feature of all three classes is that their finite-dimensional distributions are infinitely divisible, allowing the use of the powerful analytic tool of Laplace (or Fourier) transforms. All three classes, in an infinite-dimensional setting, provide means for study of physical systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom. This is the first monograph devoted to the theory of BMV processes. Dynkin first constructs a large class of BMV processes, called superprocesses, by passing to the limit from branching particle systems. Then he proves that, under certain restrictions, a general BMV process is a superprocess. A special chapter is devoted to the connections between ...

  3. Remote state preparation using positive operator-valued measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Siendong, E-mail: sdhuang@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-04

    We consider the process of remote state preparation using a pure state |ψ〉 with the maximal Schmidt number n. For any given state σ, pure or mixed, a construction of a positive operator-valued measure {M_j}{sub j=0}{sup n} is provided. The classical outcome j=0 indicates the failure of a remote preparation of σ. All other classical outcomes j>0 correspond to unitary transformations of the receiver system such that σ can be prepared. The total probability of successful remote preparation depends on the state σ. Our protocol is a variation of conclusive teleportation and the classical bits required for this protocol are given by log{sub 2}(n+1), which is nearly half that of conclusive teleportation.

  4. [Reproducibility of arterial pressure measured in the ELSA-Brasil with 24-hour pressure monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Larissa Rangel; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim; Cunha, Roberto de Sá; Mill, José Geraldo

    2013-06-01

    To determine the reproducibility of casual arterial pressure measurement and to confirm pressure diagnosis by monitoring of participants in the ELSA-Brasil (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health). Casual blood pressure was measured with an oscilometric device. A sub-sample of participants (N = 255) from Espírito Santo state (Southeastern Brazil) was reevaluated using the same methodology following one to ten weeks and, in addition, underwent arterial blood pressure monitoring. Diagnosis of hypertension used cut off points of 140/90 mmHg for casual pressure and 130/80 mmHg for arterial blood pressure monitoring. White coat hypertension was defined as the presence of hypertension in casual blood pressure and normal arterial blood pressure monitoring, and converse findings characterized masked hypertension. Data are from 230 participants that on the two occasions were free from antihypertensive medication (N1 = 153) or under the same antihypertensive regimen (N2 = 77). Normotension was confirmed by arterial blood pressure monitoring in 120 out of 134 participants of the N1 group. In N2, blood pressure control was confirmed by arterial blood pressure monitoring in 43 of 54 participants with controlled hypertension per casual blood pressure. Overall diagnostic concordance between casual blood pressure and arterial blood pressure monitoring was 78% (kappa = 0.44). In the N1 group, six subjects (4%) presented white coat hypertension, and 23 subjects (25%) presented with masked hypertension. Diagnostic concordance between casual blood pressure and arterial blood pressure monitoring was moderate. The rigorous standardization of casual blood pressure measurement adopted in the ELSA-Brasil study was able to reduce white coat hypertension. The high frequency of masked hypertension may suggest that pressure values obtained by arterial blood pressure monitoring indicate an elevated degree of stress at work.

  5. Monitoring and identification of sepsis development through a composite measure of heart rate variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bravi

    Full Text Available Tracking the physiological conditions of a patient developing infection is of utmost importance to provide optimal care at an early stage. This work presents a procedure to integrate multiple measures of heart rate variability into a unique measure for the tracking of sepsis development. An early warning system is used to illustrate its potential clinical value. The study involved 17 adults (age median 51 (interquartile range 46-62 who experienced a period of neutropenia following chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplant; 14 developed sepsis, and 3 did not. A comprehensive panel (N = 92 of variability measures was calculated for 5 min-windows throughout the period of monitoring (12 ± 4 days. Variability measures underwent filtering and two steps of data reduction with the objective of enhancing the information related to the greatest degree of change. The proposed composite measure was capable of tracking the development of sepsis in 12 out of 14 patients. Simulating a real-time monitoring setting, the sum of the energy over the very low frequency range of the composite measure was used to classify the probability of developing sepsis. The composite revealed information about the onset of sepsis about 60 hours (median value before of sepsis diagnosis. In a real monitoring setting this quicker detection time would be associated to increased efficacy in the treatment of sepsis, therefore highlighting the potential clinical utility of a composite measure of variability.

  6. Does the measured value of the Planck constant depend on the energy of measurements?

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Enrico; Jentschel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of the Avogadro constant opened the way to a comparison of the watt-balance measurements of the Planck constant with the values calculated from the quotients of the Planck constant and the mass of a particle or an atom. Since the energy scales of these measurements span nine energy decades, these data provide insight into the consistency of our understanding of physics.

  7. MONITORING SHORT-TERM COSMIC-RAY SPECTRAL VARIATIONS USING NEUTRON MONITOR TIME-DELAY MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Mangeard, P.-S.; Kamyan, N.; Muangha, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Nutaro, T.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Sumran, S.; Chaiwattana, C.; Gasiprong, N.; Channok, C.; Wuttiya, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190 (Thailand); Asavapibhop, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Munakata, K., E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th [Physics Department, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2016-01-20

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based detectors of cosmic-ray showers that are widely used for high-precision monitoring of changes in the Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux due to solar storms and solar wind variations. In the present work, we show that a single neutron monitor station can also monitor short-term changes in the GCR spectrum, avoiding the systematic uncertainties in comparing data from different stations, by means of NM time-delay histograms. Using data for 2007–2014 from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor, a station at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with the world’s highest vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, we have developed an analysis of time-delay histograms that removes the chance coincidences that can dominate conventional measures of multiplicity. We infer the “leader fraction” L of neutron counts that do not follow a previous neutron count in the same counter from the same atmospheric secondary, which is inversely related to the actual multiplicity and increases for increasing GCR spectral index. After correction for atmospheric pressure and water vapor, we find that L indicates substantial short-term GCR spectral hardening during some but not all Forbush decreases in GCR flux due to solar storms. Such spectral data from Doi Inthanon provide information about cosmic-ray energies beyond the Earth’s maximum geomagnetic cutoff, extending the reach of the worldwide NM network and opening a new avenue in the study of short-term GCR decreases.

  8. Monitoring Short-term Cosmic-ray Spectral Variations Using Neutron Monitor Time-delay Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Mangeard, P.-S.; Kamyan, N.; Muangha, P.; Nutaro, T.; Sumran, S.; Chaiwattana, C.; Gasiprong, N.; Channok, C.; Wuttiya, C.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P.; Asavapibhop, B.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Munakata, K.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based detectors of cosmic-ray showers that are widely used for high-precision monitoring of changes in the Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux due to solar storms and solar wind variations. In the present work, we show that a single neutron monitor station can also monitor short-term changes in the GCR spectrum, avoiding the systematic uncertainties in comparing data from different stations, by means of NM time-delay histograms. Using data for 2007-2014 from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor, a station at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with the world’s highest vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, we have developed an analysis of time-delay histograms that removes the chance coincidences that can dominate conventional measures of multiplicity. We infer the “leader fraction” L of neutron counts that do not follow a previous neutron count in the same counter from the same atmospheric secondary, which is inversely related to the actual multiplicity and increases for increasing GCR spectral index. After correction for atmospheric pressure and water vapor, we find that L indicates substantial short-term GCR spectral hardening during some but not all Forbush decreases in GCR flux due to solar storms. Such spectral data from Doi Inthanon provide information about cosmic-ray energies beyond the Earth’s maximum geomagnetic cutoff, extending the reach of the worldwide NM network and opening a new avenue in the study of short-term GCR decreases.

  9. Power Plant Emission Monitoring in Munich Using Differential Column Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Nguyen, Hai; Toja-Silva, Francisco; Heinle, Ludwig; Hase, Frank; Butz, André

    2017-04-01

    Differential column measurements using compact Fourier transform spectrometers (EM27/SUN) have shown to be an effective method to determine the greenhouse gas emissions. Citywide measurement campaigns were carried out in Boston, Indianapolis, San Francisco, etc., focusing on city (e.g. emissions from natural gas infrastructure) and local sources. We are particularly working on validating this novel method for attributing and quantifying local emission sources. Optimal strategies are developed for measuring in different seasons with various sun elevations. We have deployed two spectrometers to monitor the CO2 and CH4 emission rates (kg s-1) of a natural gas fired combined heat-and-power plant in Munich, Germany (Heizkraftwerk Süd). We placed our spectrometers in the vicinity (differential column measurements for determining power plant emissions and explore their sensitivities to meteorological and model parameters. In addition, we present measurement strategies and experimental design criteria for different meteorological conditions and time of the year, including winter when the sun elevation is low and the column inclination becomes very important. Differential column measurements using compact spectrometers are shown to be a reliable method to monitor power plant emissions.

  10. Value of somatosensory evoked potentials in diagnosis, surgical monitoring and prognosis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yu; HU Yong; RUAN Di-ke; CHEN Bo

    2008-01-01

    Background The value of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in the diagnosis and prognosis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, as well as the usefulness of monitoring intraoperative potentials in terms of safety and predictive factors were investigated.Methods Each of the 76 myelopathic patients underwent surgical intervention. According to the wave configurations of the SEPs, the cases were categorised into four groups: Type Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The clinical myelopathy disability was classified and the severity of neurological deficits was scored. Clinical function after surgery was evaluated. Preoperative potentials and intraoperative monitoring were categorized. The correlations between evoked potentials detection, monitoring, myelopathy disability and surgical outcome in the different groups were discussed. Results According to the configurations of the SEPs, there were 27 patients (36%) of Type Ⅰ, 30 patients (39%) of Type Ⅱ, 8 patients (11%) of Type Ⅲ, and 11 patients (14%) of Type Ⅳ. The categorised evoked potentials were shown to be significantly associated with the clinical representation of myelopathy (P 〈0.01) and the recovery rate from identifiable SEPs waves (groups A, B and C) was significantly higher than unidentifiable waves (group D, P〈0.01). A deterioration of SEPs was detected in 23 cases (30%), whereas there was no change in 40 cases (53%) and improvements in 13 cases (17%). A significant difference in recovery rates could be observed in various monitoring groups within the short-term follow-up period, while there were no obvious differences in the long-term follow-up groups. Conclusions SEP technique is a valuable and practical tool for the diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of myelopathy. Classified evoked potentials are well correlated with cervical spondyiotic myelopathy disability, and unidentifiable SEPs waves in patients are indicative of a relatively poor outcome. In addition, intraoperative monitoring of SEPs plays an

  11. Assessing physical activity using wearable monitors: measures of physical activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butte, Nancy F; Ekelund, Ulf; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2012-01-01

    .... Six main categories of wearable monitors are currently available to investigators: pedometers, load transducers/foot-contact monitors, accelerometers, HR monitors, combined accelerometer and HR monitors, and multiple sensor systems...

  12. Measurement of a small vertical emittance with a laser wire beam profile monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sakai

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe in this paper a measurement of vertical emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF damping ring at KEK with a laser wire beam profile monitor. This monitor is based on the Compton scattering process of electrons with a laser light target which is produced by injecting a cw laser beam into a Fabry-Perot optical cavity. We installed the monitor at a straight section of the damping ring and measured the vertical emittance with three different ring conditions. In all cases, the ATF ring was operated at 1.28 GeV in a single bunch mode. When the ring was tuned for ultralow emittance, the vertical emittance of ε_{y}=(1.18±0.08×10^{-11}   mrad was achieved. This shows that the ATF damping ring has realized its target value also vertically.

  13. Measuring and monitoring IT using a balanced scorecard approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gash, Deborah J; Hatton, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Ensuring that the information technology department is aligned with the overall health system strategy and is performing at a consistently high level is a priority at Saint Luke's Health System in Kansas City, Mo. The information technology department of Saint Luke's Health System has been using the balanced scorecard approach described in this article to measure and monitor its performance for four years. This article will review the structure of the IT department's scorecard; the categories and measures used; how benchmarks are determined; how linkage to the organizational scorecard is made; how results are reported; how changes are made to the scorecard; and tips for using a scorecard in other IT departments.

  14. On the Value of Structural Health Monitoring Information for the Operation of Wind Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, Michael H.; Val, Dimitri V.

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, an approach for the quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Information building upon a framework for infrastructure system utility and decision analysis is developed and applied to the operation of wind parks. The quantification of the value of SHM...... facilitates a benefit and risk informed assessment and optimization of SHM strategies and encompasses models for the infrastructure functionality, the structural constituent and system risks and its management as well as the performance of SHM strategies. A wind park system model incorporating the structural...... for the propagation of SHM information and uncertainties from components to the different system levels and vice versa. The decision to extend the service life and the operation of a wind park is investigated without SHM information and by quantifying the value of several SHM strategies....

  15. Crack Growth Monitoring in Harsh Environments by Electric Potential Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, Wilson Randolph; Reuter, Walter Graham; Weinberg, David Michael

    1999-09-01

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique applicable is many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  16. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph C

    2015-12-01

    Endogenous acetone production is a by-product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters. BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non-dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement. When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non-invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. © 2015 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  17. Technologies for Real-Time Monitoring and Surveillance of High-Valued Assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Richardson, Dave [ORNL; Stinson, Brad J [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been working on technologies that can provide real-time monitoring and surveillance of high-valued assets. It is hoped through effective system design that some of these technologies can be utilized as the technical equivalent for the "two person rule" (required for many domestic safeguards operations). The major efforts associated with this work to date involve the integration and adaptation of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency-based technologies into basic system elements that can be effectively layered into integrated unobtrusive monitoring systems that are specifically designed to detect unauthorized asset movements. Each system element is designed to provide real-time monitoring and surveillance of both protected assets and the people who have access to them. The goal is to accomplish up-to-the-minute status of monitored assets using site-specific, rules-based algorithms. The overall system concepts focus on early detection (of theft or diversion) at the asset, followed by appropriate alarms or notifications that can be used to initiate appropriate response(s).

  18. Monitoring in Building Road Tunnel Across Coal Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In some cases coal measures,goaf,big caves,and huge faults,as well as high initial stress cannot be avoided in road tunnel excavation.These geological features may make it more difficul practical tunnel construction. So it is necessary to take strong precautious measures against gas outburst,water bursting and roof fall in a tunnel across coal measures with risk of gas outburst.The techniques,such as advance drilling exploration,multiple-cycle shallow depth hole controlled blasting,reinforced supporting,which include concrete grouting and twice supporting,and monitoring measures are often applied in the construction of tunnels and satisfied results are achieved. Results in this paper can help others to get experiences in road tunnel construction with similar geological features.

  19. The Study and Measurement of Values and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlinger, Fred N.

    The author defines values, attitudes, and beliefs according to their relation to referents. A referent is a construct standing for a set or category of social objects, ideas, or behaviors that is the focus of an attitude. Attitudes and values are belief systems. Beliefs are enduring cognitions about referents; beliefs reflect the value and…

  20. Environmental Monitoring using Measurements from Cellular Network Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Gao, O. H.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurements of atmospheric parameters at ground level are fundamentally essential for hazard warning, meteorological forecasting and for various applications in agriculture, hydrology, transportation and more. The accuracy of existing instruments, however, is often limited as a result of technical and practical constraints. Existing technologies such as satellite systems cover large areas but may experience lack of precision at near surface level. On the other hand, ground based in-situ sensors often suffer from low spatial representativity. In addition, these conventional monitoring instruments are costly to implement and maintain. At frequencies of tens of GHz, various atmospheric hydrometeors affect microwave beams, causing perturbations to radio signals. Consequently, commercial wireless links that constitute the infrastructure for data transport between cellular base stations can be considered as a built in environmental monitoring facility (Messer et al., Science, 2006). These microwave links are widely deployed worldwide at surface level altitudes and can provide measurements of various atmospheric phenomena. The implementation costs are minimal since the infrastructure is already situated in the field. This technique has been shown to be applicable for 2D rainfall monitoring (e.g. Overeem et al., PNAS, 2013; Liberman et al., AMT, 2014) and potentially for water vapor observations (David et al., ACP, 2009; Chwala et al., Atmos. Res., 2013). Moreover, it has been recently shown that the technology has strong potential for detection of fog and estimation of its intensity (David et al., JGR-Atmos., 2013; David et al., BAMS, 2014). The research conducted to this point forms the basis for the initiation of a research project in this newly emerging field at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Cornell University. The presentation will provide insights into key capabilities of the novel approach. The potential to monitor various

  1. Centimeter Cosmo-Skymed Range Measurements for Monitoring Ground Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratarcangeli, F.; Nascetti, A.; Capaldo, P.; Mazzoni, A.; Crespi, M.

    2016-06-01

    The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery are widely used in order to monitor displacements impacting the Earth surface and infrastructures. The main remote sensing technique to extract sub-centimeter information from SAR imagery is the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR), based on the phase information only. However, it is well known that DInSAR technique may suffer for lack of coherence among the considered stack of images. New Earth observation SAR satellite sensors, as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, and the coming PAZ, can acquire imagery with high amplitude resolutions too, up to few decimeters. Thanks to this feature, and to the on board dual frequency GPS receivers, allowing orbits determination with an accuracy at few centimetres level, the it was proven by different groups that TerraSAR-X imagery offer the capability to achieve, in a global reference frame, 3D positioning accuracies in the decimeter range and even better just exploiting the slant-range measurements coming from the amplitude information, provided proper corrections of all the involved geophysical phenomena are carefully applied. The core of this work is to test this methodology on COSMO-SkyMed data acquired over the Corvara area (Bolzano - Northern Italy), where, currently, a landslide with relevant yearly displacements, up to decimeters, is monitored, using GPS survey and DInSAR technique. The leading idea is to measure the distance between the satellite and a well identifiable natural or artificial Persistent Scatterer (PS), taking in account the signal propagation delays through the troposphere and ionosphere and filtering out the known geophysical effects that induce periodic and secular ground displacements. The preliminary results here presented and discussed indicate that COSMO-SkyMed Himage imagery appear able to guarantee a displacements monitoring with an accuracy of few centimetres using only the amplitude data, provided few (at least one) stable PS's are available around the

  2. Valuing contingent consideration: challenges and solutions: experts discuss pros, cons of different approaches to fair value measurement of earnouts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zyla, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    ... in any item of a contingent nature, the fair value measurement can often be complex, resulting in diversity in practice. The JofA gathered an expert panel to address the fair value measurement of contingent consideration (see sidebar, "Valuation Discussion Panelists"). This article contains excerpts from that conversation. Mark L. Zyla...

  3. Beam based measurement of beam position monitor electrode gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Rubin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Low emittance tuning at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR test accelerator depends on precision measurement of vertical dispersion and transverse coupling. The CESR beam position monitors (BPMs consist of four button electrodes, instrumented with electronics that allow acquisition of turn-by-turn data. The response to the beam will vary among the four electrodes due to differences in electronic gain and/or misalignment. This variation in the response of the BPM electrodes will couple real horizontal offset to apparent vertical position, and introduce spurious measurements of coupling and vertical dispersion. To alleviate this systematic effect, a beam based technique to measure the relative response of the four electrodes has been developed. With typical CESR parameters, simulations show that turn-by-turn BPM data can be used to determine electrode gains to within ∼0.1%.

  4. Measuring Virtual Simulations Value in Training Exercises - USMC Use Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-04

    The assessment results provide support for the thesis that both the primary and secondary training audiences are able to realize training value through...assessments for T&R standards. Post Event Training Impacts In addition to the data collected during LSE-14, the realized training value of...The realized value of the LVC integrated training capability has resulted in it being a required training event prior to Integrated Training Exercise

  5. [Measurement and analysis of anatomical parameter values in tree shrews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Li, Jin-Tao; He, Bao-Li; Zhen, Hong; Wang, Li-Mei; Jiao, Jian-Lin

    2013-04-01

    Anatomical parameter values in tree shrews are major biological characteristic indicators in laboratory animals. Body size, bones and mammilla, organ weights, coefficient intestinal canal and other anatomical data were measured and analyzed in laboratory domesticated tree shrews (7 to 9 months of age). Measurement of 31 anatomical parameters showed that body height, width of the right ear, ileum and colon had significant differences between males and females (P<0.05). Highly significant differences were also found in body slanting length, chest depth, torso length, left and right forelimb length, right hind limb length, left and right ear length, left ear width, keel bone length, left and right tibia length, duodenum and jejunum (P<0.01). With body length as the dependent variable, and tail length, torso length, right and left forelimb length, and left and right hind limb length as independent variables for stepwise regression analysis, the regression equation for body length = 13.90 + tail length × 0.16. The results of 37 organs weights between female and male tree shrews showed very significant differences (P<0.01) for weight of heart, lungs, spleen, left and right kidney, bladder, left and right hippocampus, left submandibular gland, and left and right thyroid gland, as well as significant (P<0.05) differences in the small intestine, right submandibular gland, and left adrenal gland. The coefficient of heart, lung, stomach, bladder, small and large intestine, brain, right hippocampus, and left adrenal gland showed highly significant differences (P<0.01), while differences in the right kidney, left hippocampus, left submandibular gland, right adrenal gland, and left and right thyroid gland were significant (P<0.05). With animal weight as the dependent variable and indicators of heart, lung, liver, spleen, left and right kidney and brain as independent variables for stepwise regression analysis, the regression equation showed that weight = 62.73 + left kidney

  6. A framework for quantifying and optimizing the value of seismic monitoring of infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenzetter, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    This paper outlines a framework for quantifying and optimizing the value of information from structural health monitoring (SHM) technology deployed on large infrastructure, which may sustain damage in a series of earthquakes (the main and the aftershocks). The evolution of the damage state of the infrastructure without or with SHM is presented as a time-dependent, stochastic, discrete-state, observable and controllable nonlinear dynamical system. The pre-posterior Bayesian analysis and the decision tree are used for quantifying and optimizing the value of SHM information. An optimality problem is then formulated how to decide on the adoption of SHM and how to manage optimally the usage and operations of the possibly damaged infrastructure and its repair schedule using the information from SHM. The objective function to minimize is the expected total cost or risk.

  7. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modelling and solar energy techniques development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an air column between about 200 m a.s.l. (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The contribution outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, applying manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations indicates that accuracies range from 1.5 to 23 %. If a directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) is corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 5.2 %. Thus, for large signals (global: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) BSRN target accuracies are met or closely met for 70 % of valid measurements at the ARAD stations after this correction. For small signals (50 W m-2), the targets are not achieved as a result of uncertainties associated with the DAQ or the instrument sensitivities. Additional accuracy gains can be achieved in future by additional measurements and corrections. However, for the measurement of direct solar radiation improved instrument accuracy is needed. ARAD could serve as a powerful example for establishing state-of-the-art radiation monitoring at the national level with a multiple-purpose approach. Instrumentation, guidelines and tools (such as the data quality control) developed within ARAD are best practices which could be adopted in other

  8. Upgraded Fast Beam Conditions Monitor for CMS online luminosity measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The CMS beam and radiation monitoring subsystem BCM1F during LHC Run I consisted of 8 individual diamond sensors situated around the beam pipe within the tracker detector volume, for the purpose of fast monitoring of beam background and collision products. Effort is ongoing to develop the use of BCM1F as an online bunch-by-bunch luminosity monitor. BCM1F will be running whenever there is beam in LHC, and its data acquisition is independent from the data acquisition of the CMS detector, hence it delivers luminosity even when CMS is not taking data. To prepare for the expected increase in the LHC luminosity and the change from 50 ns to 25 ns bunch separation, several changes to the system are required, including a higher number of sensors and upgraded electronics. In particular, a new real-time digitizer with large memory was developed and is being integrated into a multi-subsystem framework for luminosity measurement. Current results from Run II preparation will be shown, including results from the January 201...

  9. Upgraded Fast Beam Conditions Monitor for CMS online luminosity measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn; Hempel, Maria; Henschel, Hans; Karacheban, Olena; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Novgorodova, Olga; Penno, Marek; Walsh, Roberval; Dabrowski, Anne; Guthoff, Moritz; Loos, R; Ryjov, Vladimir; Burtowy, Piotr; Lokhovitskiy, Arkady; Odell, Nathaniel; Przyborowski, Dominik; Stickland, David P; Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The CMS beam condition monitoring subsystem BCM1F during LHC Run I consisted of 8 individual diamond sensors situated around the beam pipe within the tracker detector volume, for the purpose of fast monitoring of beam background and collision products. Effort is ongoing to develop the use of BCM1F as an online bunch-by-bunch luminosity monitor. BCM1F will be running whenever there is beam in LHC, and its data acquisition is independent from the data acquisition of the CMS detector, hence it delivers luminosity even when CMS is not taking data. To prepare for the expected increase in the LHC luminosity and the change from 50 ns to 25 ns bunch separation, several changes to the system are required, including a higher number of sensors and upgraded electronics. In particular, a new real-time digitizer with large memory was developed and is being integrated into a multi-subsystem framework for luminosity measurement. Current results from Run II preparation will be discussed, including results from the January 201...

  10. Prognostic value of 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter) monitoring in Boxer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõtsküla, P F; Linney, C; Palermo, V; Connolly, D J; French, A; Dukes McEwan, J; Fuentes, V Luis

    2013-01-01

    Boxer dogs are reported to be predisposed to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), but the natural history has not been well characterized and inconsistent diagnostic criteria have been applied to identify affected dogs. Echocardiographic examination findings are unremarkable in many affected Boxer dogs, and in these dogs, 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter) monitoring often is used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, despite limited information available relating Holter findings to outcome. Boxers with complex ventricular arrhythmias at initial presentation will have shorter survival times. The objective was to investigate the prognostic value of Holter monitoring in Boxer dogs. One hundred and twenty-two Boxer dogs seen at 3 university referral hospitals. Retrospective study. Survival times were obtained for Boxer dogs evaluated by echocardiography and a 24-hour Holter ECG. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the median survival time and Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to identify variables independently associated with cardiac mortality. Outcome data were obtained for 122/163 dogs meeting the inclusion criteria. Of the 70 dogs that had died, 45 were considered to have suffered cardiac-related deaths. Median survival was significantly longer in dogs with a left ventricular systolic diameter (LVIDs) ≤ 35 mm compared with those with LVIDs > 35 mm (P 4.5 years, and male sex were independent predictors of cardiac mortality. Holter monitoring in Boxer dogs provides valuable prognostic information. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Reference values for anxiety questionnaires: the Leiden Routine Outcome Monitoring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-van Maaren, Yvonne W M; Giltay, Erik J; van Hemert, Albert M; Zitman, Frans G; de Waal, Margot W M; Carlier, Ingrid V E

    2013-09-25

    The monitoring of patients with an anxiety disorder can benefit from Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM). As anxiety disorders differ in phenomenology, several anxiety questionnaires are included in ROM: Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA), PADUA Inventory Revised (PI-R), Panic Appraisal Inventory (PAI), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Worry Domains Questionnaire (WDQ), Social Interaction, Anxiety Scale (SIAS), Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). We aimed to generate reference values for both 'healthy' and 'clinically anxious' populations for these anxiety questionnaires. We included 1295 subjects from the general population (ROM reference-group) and 5066 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with a specific anxiety disorder (ROM patient-group). The MINI was used as diagnostic device in both the ROM reference group and the ROM patient group. To define limits for one-sided reference intervals (95th percentile; P95) the outermost 5% of observations were used. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to yield alternative cut-off values for the anxiety questionnaires. For the ROM reference-group the mean age was 40.3 years (SD=12.6), and for the ROM patient-group it was 36.5 years (SD=11.9). Females constituted 62.8% of the reference-group and 64.4% of the patient-group. P95 ROM reference group cut-off values for reference versus clinically anxious populations were 11 for the BSA, 43 for the PI-R, 37 for the PAI Anticipated Panic, 47 for the PAI Perceived Consequences, 65 for the PAI Perceived Self-efficacy, 66 for the PSWQ, 74 for the WDQ, 32 for the SIAS, 19 for the SPS, and 36 for IES-R. ROC analyses yielded slightly lower reference values. The discriminative power of all eight anxiety questionnaires was very high. Substantial non-response and limited generalizability. For eight anxiety questionnaires a comprehensive set of reference values was provided. Reference values were generally higher in women than in men

  12. Reportable Creation: value, performance and risk measurement in financial reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G. de Jager

    2006-01-01

    textabstractReporting on value or reporting value-relevant information unavoidably implies that estimates of future cash flows should be made. Consequently, uncertainty becomes an important factor in (external) financial reporting. For a long time, uncertainty was dealt with by substituting relevant

  13. Measuring Strategic Value-Drivers for Managing Intellectual Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, S.; Oh, K. B.

    2004-01-01

    In an evolving business environment characterised by globalisation and a challenging competitive paradigm, it is imperative for strategic management processes to focus on the financial perspectives of value and risk in intellectual capital to create sustainability in long-term value. This paper presents the key issues pertaining to the strategic…

  14. Measuring the added value of IT in construction firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Albertus; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Kolkman, S.; Greenwood, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The added value of information technology (IT) varies widely along firms. The objective of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors that enlarge or reduce the added value of information systems and IT-applications in construction firms. By applying the process-oriented approach of Tallon et a

  15. Measuring the added value of IT in construction firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, A.T.; Voordijk, H.; Kolkman, S.; Greenwood, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The added value of information technology (IT) varies widely along firms. The objective of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors that enlarge or reduce the added value of information systems and IT-applications in construction firms. By applying the process-oriented approach of Tallon et a

  16. Reportable Creation: value, performance and risk measurement in financial reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G. de Jager

    2006-01-01

    textabstractReporting on value or reporting value-relevant information unavoidably implies that estimates of future cash flows should be made. Consequently, uncertainty becomes an important factor in (external) financial reporting. For a long time, uncertainty was dealt with by substituting relevant

  17. Profile grid monitor and first measurement results at the MedAustron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Repovz, M; Kerschbaum, A; Osmic, F; Schwarz, S; Burtin, G

    2013-01-01

    MedAustron is a synchrotron based ion beam therapy center located in Wiener Neustadt/Austria. The MedAustron accelerator design is based on CERN’s Proton-Ion Medical Machine Study (PIMMS) [1] and is currently in the accelerator installation and beam commissioning phase. One of the basic measurements for commissioning of an accelerator is also beam profile measurement. The beam at the end of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line and in the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line (after the fast deflector) is pulsed. Due to pulsed beam the Wire Scanner Monitor (WSX) cannot be used. To measure a beam profile at these locations a new monitor has been developed – Profile Grid Monitor (PGX). The PGX is also known as harp grid monitor and it contains 64 wires positioned vertically and 64 wires horizontally for measuring the beam profile in both transverse planes. The PGX acquires the current of all 128 wires simultaneously, converts it to voltage, digitizes the values and processes the co...

  18. Soil Moisture Monitoring using Surface Electrical Resistivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamita, Giuseppe; Perrone, Angela; Brocca, Luca; Straface, Salvatore

    2017-04-01

    The relevant role played by the soil moisture (SM) for global and local natural processes results in an explicit interest for its spatial and temporal estimation in the vadose zone coming from different scientific areas - i.e. eco-hydrology, hydrogeology, atmospheric research, soil and plant sciences, etc... A deeper understanding of natural processes requires the collection of data on a higher number of points at increasingly higher spatial scales in order to validate hydrological numerical simulations. In order to take the best advantage of the Electrical Resistivity (ER) data with their non-invasive and cost-effective properties, sequential Gaussian geostatistical simulations (sGs) can be applied to monitor the SM distribution into the soil by means of a few SM measurements and a densely regular ER grid of monitoring. With this aim, co-located SM measurements using mobile TDR probes (MiniTrase), and ER measurements, obtained by using a four-electrode device coupled with a geo-resistivimeter (Syscal Junior), were collected during two surveys carried out on a 200 × 60 m2 area. Two time surveys were carried out during which Data were collected at a depth of around 20 cm for more than 800 points adopting a regular grid sampling scheme with steps (5 m) varying according to logistic and soil compaction constrains. The results of this study are robust due to the high number of measurements available for either variables which strengthen the confidence in the covariance function estimated. Moreover, the findings obtained using sGs show that it is possible to estimate soil moisture variations in the pedological zone by means of time-lapse electrical resistivity and a few SM measurements.

  19. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring after 1 year on valsartan or amlodipine-based treatment: a VALUE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Lederballe; Mancia, Giuseppe; Pickering, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring substudy of the Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) trial was carried out in a subset of patients from USA, Italy and Denmark. ABP was measured after 1 year in the trial, with the aim of evaluating comparability...... of ABP levels on valsartan (VAL) and amlodipine (AML)-based regimens. METHODS: ABP was measured every 20 min during a 25-h period after morning administration of medicine; 659 patients were available for intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS: Office blood pressure (BP) differences were smaller than...... of combined cardiovascular endpoints--superior to the relationship to office BP. CONCLUSIONS: In these elderly high-risk patients, diastolic ABP levels tended to be less predictive than systolic, and daytime less predictive than night-time for all cardiovascular endpoints. The findings underline...

  20. Evaluation of tissue oxygen measurements for flap monitoring in an animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Christian; Elberg, Jens; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue oxygen tension (p(ti)O(2)) measurements are common in neurosurgery but uncommon in plastic surgery. We examined this technique as a monitoring method with probe placement in the subcutaneous tissue and addressed the importance of probe placement. Myocutaneous flaps were raised in an animal......) was 18 minutes. We found no significant relation between initial levels of p(ti)O(2) and T(1/2). Location of the probe and absolute p(ti)O(2) value is of little relevance for flap monitoring. It is the relative change in p(ti)O(2) that is important. The p(ti)O(2) technique is well suited for monitoring...

  1. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald E.; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modeling and the development of solar energy techniques. Measurements cover the downward solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an altitude range between about 200 m a.s.l (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, utilizing manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations, using the methodology specified by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement indicates that relative accuracies range from 1.5 to 2.9 % for large signals (global, direct: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) and from 1.7 to 23 % (or 0.9 to 11.5 W m-2) for small signals (50 W m-2) (expanded uncertainties corresponding to the 95 % confidence level). If the directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) are corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 2.8 % for large signals and to 1.7 to 5.2 % (or 0.9-2.6 W m-2) for small signals. Thus, for large signals of global and diffuse radiation, BSRN target accuracies are met or nearly met (missed by less than 0.2 percentage points, pps) for 70 % of the ARAD measurements after this correction. For small signals of direct radiation, BSRN targets are achieved at two sites and nearly met (also missed by less than 0.2 pps) at the other sites. For small signals of global and diffuse radiation, targets are achieved

  2. Intensity-value corrections for integrating sphere measurements of solid samples measured behind glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy J; Bernacki, Bruce E; Redding, Rebecca L; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S; Myers, Tanya L; Stephan, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and calibrated directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra of solids are important for both in situ and remote sensing. Many solids are in the form of powders or granules and to measure their diffuse reflectance spectra in the laboratory, it is often necessary to place the samples behind a transparent medium such as glass for the ultraviolet (UV), visible, or near-infrared spectral regions. Using both experimental methods and a simple optical model, we demonstrate that glass (fused quartz in our case) leads to artifacts in the reflectance values. We report our observations that the measured reflectance values, for both hemispherical and diffuse reflectance, are distorted by the additional reflections arising at the air-quartz and sample-quartz interfaces. The values are dependent on the sample reflectance and are offset in intensity in the hemispherical case, leading to measured values up to ~6% too high for a 2% reflectance surface, ~3.8% too high for 10% reflecting surfaces, approximately correct for 40-60% diffuse-reflecting surfaces, and ~1.5% too low for 99% reflecting Spectralon® surfaces. For the case of diffuse-only reflectance, the measured values are uniformly too low due to the polished glass, with differences of nearly 6% for a 99% reflecting matte surface. The deviations arise from the added reflections from the quartz surfaces, as verified by both theory and experiment, and depend on sphere design. Empirical correction factors were implemented into post-processing software to redress the artifact for hemispherical and diffuse reflectance data across the 300-2300 nm range.

  3. What is the value of ultrasound soft tissue measurements in the prediction of abnormal fetal growth?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    Abnormal fetal growth increases the complications of pregnancy not only for the baby but also for the mother. Growth abnormalities also have lifelong consequences. These babies are at increased risk of insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension later in life. It is important to identify these babies antenatally to optimise their clinical care. Although used extensively antenatally to monitor fetal growth, ultrasound has its limitations. Despite the use of more than 50 different formulae to estimate fetal weight, their performance has been poor at the extremes of fetal weight. Over the past 20 years there has been emerging interest in studying fetal soft tissue measurements to improve detection of growth abnormalities. This review paper outlines the value of soft tissue measurements in identifying fetal growth abnormalities, in estimating fetal weight and in managing diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

  4. SPATIAL SCALES AND MEASUREMENT OF HOUSING VALUES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    2011-12-02

    Dec 2, 2011 ... infrastructural facilities means there is locational variation within the sub-areas ... values through the use of neighbourhood, location and physical attributes of ..... quality decisions in the location of amenities/ facilities, ratings of ...

  5. Reliable Remote-Monitoring Electrochemical Potentiostat for Glucose Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yang; WANG Hong; LV Zhengliang; YANG Shiyuan; CAI Haoyuan; JIANG Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical methods have been widely used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, which require accurate concentration measurements, chemical reaction detections and analyses. The elec-trochemical potentiostat, the core element in electrochemical instruments, have been discussed as a hot topic addressing the difficulty of applying high-preclsion constant voltage and picoampere current meas-urements. Meanwhile, reliable potenUostats are in demand for complicated industrial environments with noises as well as requirements of remotemonitors. This paper describes a potentiostat for industrial glucose measurement that is not only accurate but also fault tolerant to guarantee high reliability in industrial envi-ronments. The instrument uses standard industrial communication protocols, profibus, and a 4-20 mA cur-rent loop, for remote control and monitoring. Experimental results show that this design has 0.01% accuracy with 1 mV resolution for voltage applications and 0.01% accuracy with 1 pA resolution for current measure-ments. The design is also shown to be highly reliable in noisy environments.

  6. Observations, measurements and best practices for monitoring hydraulic redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. W.; Liang, X.

    2011-12-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) is a biogeophysical phenomenon where plant roots move water through the soil column from areas of high soil moisture content to areas of low soil moisture content. The impacts of this process on the hydrologic cycle at the regional scale are beginning to be studied through the use of numerical modeling. The extent of plant species which exhibit HR, the magnitude of water redistributed and the conditions under which it occurs are still unknown. Therefore models must rely on some general assumptions to account for this process. More information is needed to understand how to correctly account for HR in land surface models. The ideal method is through direct measurement and observation. HR has been studied through a variety of mediums, e.g. deuterium footprints, soil moisture patterns and sap flow measurements. All three methods capture the moisture fluctuations within the soil layers via measurements of deuterium concentration, volumetric soil moisture content and root sap flow direction. The problem with deuterium labeling is that it does not allow for the persistent long term measurements over natural wetting and drying periods without additional irrigation. Sap flow measurements, despite having the ability to measure specific plant individuals' water dynamics, requires difficult access to the plant's root system which can be complex and difficult to sample. Soil moisture measurements can be made on a variety of sensor types and the installation is much less intensive. This study examines soil moisture measurements as a means for monitoring HR. Field observations in different regions of the United States utilizing different soil moisture sensor types (capacitance and reflectometer) are shown to exhibit similar diurnal soil moisture patterns common to the HR phenomenon. These observations are then compared and contrasted to model simulation results.

  7. CENTIMETER COSMO-SKYMED RANGE MEASUREMENTS FOR MONITORING GROUND DISPLACEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fratarcangeli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery are widely used in order to monitor displacements impacting the Earth surface and infrastructures. The main remote sensing technique to extract sub-centimeter information from SAR imagery is the Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR, based on the phase information only. However, it is well known that DInSAR technique may suffer for lack of coherence among the considered stack of images. New Earth observation SAR satellite sensors, as COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, and the coming PAZ, can acquire imagery with high amplitude resolutions too, up to few decimeters. Thanks to this feature, and to the on board dual frequency GPS receivers, allowing orbits determination with an accuracy at few centimetres level, the it was proven by different groups that TerraSAR-X imagery offer the capability to achieve, in a global reference frame, 3D positioning accuracies in the decimeter range and even better just exploiting the slant-range measurements coming from the amplitude information, provided proper corrections of all the involved geophysical phenomena are carefully applied. The core of this work is to test this methodology on COSMO-SkyMed data acquired over the Corvara area (Bolzano – Northern Italy, where, currently, a landslide with relevant yearly displacements, up to decimeters, is monitored, using GPS survey and DInSAR technique. The leading idea is to measure the distance between the satellite and a well identifiable natural or artificial Persistent Scatterer (PS, taking in account the signal propagation delays through the troposphere and ionosphere and filtering out the known geophysical effects that induce periodic and secular ground displacements. The preliminary results here presented and discussed indicate that COSMO-SkyMed Himage imagery appear able to guarantee a displacements monitoring with an accuracy of few centimetres using only the amplitude data, provided few (at least one stable PS’s are

  8. Characterization, monitoring and imaging of biochar by geoelectrical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegel, Franz-Hubert; Esser, Odilia; Jablonowski, Nicolai D.; Zimmermann, Egon; Mukherjee, Santanu; Linden, Andreas; Huisman, Johan A.; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    Biochar is a pyrolysis product or a by-product of fuel production from biological materials, mostly from energy plants, plant remains, or manure. Its addition to soil is discussed as a means of carbon sequestration and enhanced soil fertility, among several other beneficial effects. However, detrimental effects of biochar in soil are also discussed. The content of harmful substances, the influence of the material on microorganisms, and the modification of various soil properties may be critical. Although biochar has been intensively investigated in recent years, there is still a lack of knowledge due to the variability of soil and biochar properties, and the wide variety of experimental conditions used in these investigations. The properties of biochar strongly vary depending on the feed material and the production process. Therefore, it is of great interest to have methods which allow the characterization and long-term in-situ monitoring of biochar properties at different scales ranging from small laboratory columns to field sites. In this study, measurements on the complex electrical conductivity have been performed by spectral induced polarization (SIP). The method has been found to be a valuable tool for distinguishing different types of biochar and for monitoring the release of ions from biochar. SIP uses sinusoidal alternative current in the frequency range between 1 mHz and 45 kHz and provides information on the ohmic conductivity and on the electrical polarization of soil materials with added biochars. Whereas the release of ions leads to an increase of the ohmic conductivity, information on the chemical structure of biochars can be obtained from the polarization. Five types of biochar have been investigated in this study. The magnitude and the frequency dependence of the polarization can be used to distinguish the different types of biochar. Biochars with a larger degree of carbonization showed higher electronic conductivity and yielded higher polarization

  9. Reconceptualizing 'effectiveness' in environmental projects: can we measure values-related achievements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Marie K; Velasco, Ismael; Burford, Gemma; Podger, Dimity; Janoušková, Svatava; Piggot, Georgia; Hoover, Elona

    2014-06-15

    There have been recent calls for a shift to an evidence-based paradigm in environmental management, grounded in systematic monitoring and evaluation, but achieving this will be complex and difficult. Evaluating the educational components of environmental initiatives presents particular challenges, because these programs often have multiple concurrent goals and may value 'human outcomes', such as value change, which are intangible and difficult to quantify. This paper describes a fresh approach based on co-creating an entirely new values-based assessment framework with expert practitioners worldwide. We first discuss the development of a generic framework of 'Proto-Indicators' (reference criteria constituting prototypes for measurable indicators), and then demonstrate its application within a reforestation project in Mexico where indicators and assessment tools were localized to enhance context-relevance. Rigorously derived using unitary validity, with an emphasis on relevance, practicability and logical consistency from user perspectives, this framework represents a step-wise advance in the evaluation of non-formal EE/ESD programs. This article also highlights three important principles with broader implications for evaluation, valuation and assessment processes within environmental management: namely peer-elicitation, localizability, and an explicit focus on ethical values. We discuss these principles in relation to the development of sustainability indicators at local and global levels, especially in relation to post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals.

  10. Ultrasmall polarization rotation measurements via weak value amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio de, E-mail: bertulio@fisica.ufpb.br; Azevedo, Sérgio; Rosas, Alexandre

    2014-06-13

    Highlights: • We present a class of weak measurements where the measurer is an angular variable of the system. • Photon-energy qubits are required, which seems to be the first application of this kind of light. • Both weak optical activity and reflection-induced polarization rotation can be amplified. • This protocol can amplify the optical activity signal in nanostructures and biological tissues. - Abstract: We propose a framework to analyze weak measurements based on an angular version of the von Neumann measurement scheme, where the coupling between the system and the meter causes rotation of the measuring variable. We also discuss an experimental application of this theory in which measurements of weak optical activity and reflection-induced polarization rotation could be amplified in nearly two orders of magnitude. It can shed a new light on a great variety of physical chemistry, molecular biology and nanotechnology studies.

  11. Noble Gas Measurement and Analysis Technique for Monitoring Reprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, William S [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An environmental monitoring technique using analysis of stable noble gas isotopic ratios on-stack at a reprocessing facility was developed. This technique integrates existing technologies to strengthen safeguards at reprocessing facilities. The isotopic ratios are measured using a mass spectrometry system and are compared to a database of calculated isotopic ratios using a Bayesian data analysis method to determine specific fuel parameters (e.g., burnup, fuel type, fuel age, etc.). These inferred parameters can be used by investigators to verify operator declarations. A user-friendly software application (named NOVA) was developed for the application of this technique. NOVA included a Visual Basic user interface coupling a Bayesian data analysis procedure to a reactor physics database (calculated using the Monteburns 3.01 code system). The integrated system (mass spectrometry, reactor modeling, and data analysis) was validated using on-stack measurements during the reprocessing of target fuel from a U.S. production reactor and gas samples from the processing of EBR-II fast breeder reactor driver fuel. These measurements led to an inferred burnup that matched the declared burnup with sufficient accuracy and consistency for most safeguards applications. The NOVA code was also tested using numerous light water reactor measurements from the literature. NOVA was capable of accurately determining spent fuel type, burnup, and fuel age for these experimental results. Work should continue to demonstrate the robustness of this system for production, power, and research reactor fuels.

  12. Accuracy in Blood Pressure Monitoring: The Effect of Noninvasive Blood Pressure Cuff Inflation on Intra-arterial Blood Pressure Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, Veena; Tiwari, Akhilesh Kumar; Nagappa, Mahesh; Venkatraghavan, Lashmi

    2017-01-01

    Both invasive and noninvasive blood pressure (invasive arterial blood pressure [IABP] and noninvasive BP [NIBP]) monitors are used perioperatively; however, they often produce different values. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear, and it is possible that the act of cuff inflation itself might affect the IABP values, especially with the recurrent cycling of NIBP cuff. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ipsilateral NIBP cuff inflation on the contralateral IABP values. Prospective, observational study. One hundred consecutive patients were studied. The NIBP device was set to cycle every 5 min for a total of 6 times. During each cuff inflation cycle, changes in IABP values from the arterial line in the contralateral arm were recorded. A total of 582 measurements were included for data analysis. Chi-square, paired t-test, analysis of variance. Mean (± standard deviation) changes in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP, and mean BP with cuff inflation were 6.7 ± 5.9, 2.6 ± 4.0, and 4.0 ± 3.9 mmHg, respectively. We observed an increase of 0-10 mmHg in SBP in majority (73.4%) of cuff inflations. The changes in IABP did not differ between the patients with or without hypertension or with the baseline SBP. This study showed that there is a transient reactive rise in IABP values with NIBP cuff inflation. This is important information in the perioperative and intensive care settings, where both these measurement techniques are routinely used. The exact mechanism for this effect is not known but may be attributed to the pain and discomfort from cuff inflation.

  13. Measuring and monitoring KIPT Neutron Source Facility Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhong, Zhaopeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on developing and constructing a neutron source facility at Kharkov, Ukraine. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven subcritical system. The accelerator has a 100 kW electron beam using 100 MeV electrons. The subcritical assembly has keff less than 0.98. To ensure the safe operation of this neutron source facility, the reactivity of the subcritical core has to be accurately determined and continuously monitored. A technique which combines the area-ratio method and the flux-to-current ratio method is purposed to determine the reactivity of the KIPT subcritical assembly at various conditions. In particular, the area-ratio method can determine the absolute reactivity of the subcritical assembly in units of dollars by performing pulsed-neutron experiments. It provides reference reactivities for the flux-to-current ratio method to track and monitor the reactivity deviations from the reference state while the facility is at other operation modes. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to simulate both methods using the numerical model of the KIPT subcritical assembly. It is found that the reactivities obtained from both the area-ratio method and the flux-to-current ratio method are spatially dependent on the neutron detector locations and types. Numerical simulations also suggest optimal neutron detector locations to minimize the spatial effects in the flux-to-current ratio method. The spatial correction factors are calculated using Monte Carlo methods for both measuring methods at the selected neutron detector locations. Monte Carlo simulations are also performed to verify the accuracy of the flux-to-current ratio method in monitoring the reactivity swing during a fuel burnup cycle.

  14. Measuring the Economic Value of Pre-MBA Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaple, Ronald N.; Johnston, Mark W.; Whittingham, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    Pre-MBA work experience is required for admission to many graduate schools of business. In the present study, MBA graduates with a wide range of pre-MBA work experience were surveyed to assess the economic value of such work experience. No evidence was found of a systematic financial advantage to students from working for several years before…

  15. Survey Guidelines and its Reading Criteria for Monitoring and Transmitting Cultural Heritage Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, A.

    2015-08-01

    The paper describes reading criteria for an analysis and interpretation of material systems in relation to a built space, survey guidelines and its reading criteria for Cultural Heritage (CH) values'monitoring and transmission. In addition, integrated systems of digital technologies and 2D/3D digitization of CH are introduced for an effective and accurate reading of Venice and Milan's monuments. Specifically, the guidelines for an architectural survey allow to organize and document historic monuments information, and to identify the significant cultural/physical elements of our past in order for them to be preserved and protected for future generations. In addition, in this paper the studied projects introduce a combination of virtual technologies and historical reality with experimenting innovative solutions for CH. From the methodological point of view, this study has made use of the identification of levels of study (LS) differentiated, each of which is capable of identifying categories.

  16. Quantifying the value of redundant measurements at GRUAN sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Madonna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential for measurement redundancy to reduce uncertainty in atmospheric variables has not been investigated comprehensively for climate observations. We evaluated the usefulness of entropy and mutual correlation concepts, as defined in information theory, for quantifying random uncertainty and redundancy in time series of atmospheric water vapor provided by five highly instrumented GRUAN (GCOS [Global Climate Observing System] Reference Upper-Air Network Stations in 2010–2012. Results show that the random uncertainties for radiosonde, frost-point hygrometer, Global Positioning System, microwave and infrared radiometers, and Raman lidar measurements differed by less than 8%. Comparisons of time series of the Integrated Water Vapor (IWV content from ground-based remote sensing instruments with in situ soundings showed that microwave radiometers have the highest redundancy and therefore the highest potential to reduce random uncertainty of IWV time series estimated by radiosondes. Moreover, the random uncertainty of a time series from one instrument should be reduced of ~ 60% by constraining the measurements with those from another instrument. The best reduction of random uncertainty resulted from conditioning of Raman lidar measurements with microwave radiometer measurements. Specific instruments are recommended for atmospheric water vapor measurements at GRUAN sites. This approach can be applied to the study of redundant measurements for other climate variables.

  17. ATP measurements for monitoring microbial drinking water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin

    methods are vital for an improved surveillance and distribution of clean and safe drinking water. One of these rapid methods is the ATP assay. This thesis encompasses various methodological aspects of the ATP assay describing the principal and theory of the ATP assay measurement. ATP is the main energy...... carrying molecule in living cells, thus ATP can be used as a parameter for microbial activity. ATP is extracted from cells through cell lysis and subsequently assayed with the luciferase enzyme and its substrate luciferin, resulting in bioluminescence, i.e. light emission which can be quantified....... The overall aim of this PhD study was to investigate various methodological features of the ATP assay for a potential implementation on a sensor platform as a real-time parameter for continuous on-line monitoring of microbial drinking water quality. Commercial reagents are commonly used to determine ATP...

  18. Organohalogen diffuse contamination in Firenze and Prato groundwater bodies. investigative monitoring and definition of background values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Menichetti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany in the determination of background values start from 2009 with various substances such as metals, non-metals and inorganic, dioxins and various matrices such as soil, groundwater, inland surface waters and coastal marine sediments. The methodologies supplied in literature have been interpreted and integrated to meet the requirements of current legislation and needs for remediation, diffuse pollution and excavated earth in specific areas. The method for diffuse pollution described here focuses on the use of statistical and geostatistical tools and what we present in this paper are some early results of interest obtained from two case studies in the Florence and in the Prato area. The study has been carried out on concentrations of tetrachlorethylene in the two groundwater bodies by identifying a number of frequency classes in the distribution. Each class has been hypothesized as corresponding to a distinct process. The occurrence both in space and time of the classes has been analysed and discussed critically concluding for a background value that has been found similar between the two zones. The investigation conducted on two monitoring stations representing hot-spots, with values in excess on background value has enabled to map spatial distribution of concentrations and to separate plumes from diffuse pollution area. The two areas show some peculiarities: Florence area shows advanced dehalogenation and a clear spatial continuity, whereas in Prato area it is limited with poor spatial continuity suggesting a spreading with vertical motions from still active primary or secondary sources. Observing how the methodological structure would require, to be fully predictive, a greater number of samples, however, the present work want to constitute a first contribution for management of areas subject to diffuse pollution.

  19. Computing the Expected Value and Variance of Geometric Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staals, Frank; Tsirogiannis, Constantinos

    2017-01-01

    points in P. This problem is a crucial part of modern ecological analyses; each point in P represents a species in d-dimensional trait space, and the goal is to compute the statistics of a geometric measure on this trait space, when subsets of species are selected under random processes. We present...... efficient exact algorithms for computing the mean and variance of several geometric measures when point sets are selected under one of the described random distributions. More specifically, we provide algorithms for the following measures: the bounding box volume, the convex hull volume, the mean pairwise...

  20. A social work study on measuring adherence to religious values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Allahyari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, including gender, marital status, level of education and age on adherence to religious values among young people in city of Shahin Dezh and Takab, located in province of West Azerbaijan, Iran in 2014. The study has accomplished between two groups of Turk and Kurd with the population of 85,000 and 89,000, respectively. The study uses a sample of 20 and 30 people from Turkish and Kurdish tribes, respectively, and uses t-student test as well as regression analysis to examine different hypotheses of the survey. The results show that there was a meaningful difference among various variables of gender, marital status, education level and age in adherence to religious values among the youth who live in this city.

  1. Seeking value in Medicare: performance measurement for clinical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lisa

    2013-10-30

    The Medicare program, despite its reputation of being a bill payer with little regard to the worth of the services it buys, has begun to put in place a range of programs aimed at assessing quality and value, with more to come. Attention to resource use and cost is nascent. The issues are complex, and it is no surprise that there is a level of contention between providers and regulators, even though both profess commitment to improved quality. This paper summarizes the quality and value programs that apply to physicians and other clinical professionals, as well as programs designed to encourage the adoption of technology to support quality improvement. Participation in all is voluntary. However, a decision not to participate increasingly carries a financial penalty, as Congress (and, by extension, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS) tries to encourage behavior it cannot force.

  2. Value-at-risk: A coherent measure of risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Haugland, Jone

    2011-01-01

    Value-at-risk is an instrument which is widely used by financial institutions for calculating risk. It has been known since the late nineties that this tool lacks an important logical property: subadditivity. This can cause major errors, leading to systematic underestimation of risk when multiple portfolios are combined. It is known to be caused by coarseness in the return distribution and is thus most problematic when using historical simulation. This thesis investigates the severity of suba...

  3. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The "HAWK" tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H*(10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H*(10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  4. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The “HAWK” tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H * (10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H * (10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  5. Science Column: Measuring Inconsistency Methods for Evidentiary Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cohen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many inconsistency analysis methods may be used to detect altered records or statements. But for admission as evidence, the reliability of the method has to be determined and measured. For example, in China, for evidence to be admitted, it has to have 95% certainty of being correct, and that certainty must be shown to the court, while in the US, evidence is admitted if it is more probative than prejudicial (a >50% standard. In either case, it is necessary to provide a measurement of some sort in order to pass muster under challenges from the other side. And in most cases, no such measurement has been undertaken.The question of how to undertake a scientific measurement to make such a determination, or at least to claim such a metric, is not well defined for digital forensics, but perhaps we can bring some light to the subject this issue.(see PDF for full column

  6. A Mixed Generalized Multifractal Formalism For Vector Valued Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Mabrouk, Anouar Ben

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a mixed generalized multifractal formalism which extends the mixed multifractal formalism introduced by L. Olsen based on generalizations of the Hausdorff and packing measures. The validity of such a formalism is proved in some special cases.

  7. Interference of heart and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring in the measurement of bioelectrical impedance analysis in preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane C. Comym

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To verify if the connection of electrodes for heart and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring interfere with the measurement of electrical bioimpedance in preterm newborns. Methods: This was a prospective, blinded, controlled, cross-sectional, crossover study that assessed and compared paired measures of resistance (R and reactance (Xc by BIA, obtained with and without monitoring wires attached to the preterm newborn. The measurements were performed in immediate sequence, after randomization to the presence or absence of electrodes. The sample size calculated was 114 measurements or tests with monitoring wires and 114 without monitoring wires, considering for a difference between the averages of 0.1 ohms, with an alpha error of 10% and beta error of 20%, with significance <0.05. Results: No differences were observed between the R (677.37 ± 196.07 vs. 677.46 ± 194.86 and Xc (31.15 ± 9.36 vs. 31.01 ± 9.56 values obtained with and without monitoring wires, respectively, with good correlation between them (R: 0.997 and Xc: 0.968. Conclusion: The presence of heart and/or transcutaneous oxygen monitoring wires connected to the preterm newborn did not affect the values of R or Xc measured by BIA, allowing them to be carried out in this population without risks.

  8. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement: values, problems and applicability in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietsch, M; Einspanier, A

    2015-07-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, C. j.) is an established primate model in biomedical research and for human-related diseases. Monitoring of cardiovascular parameters including blood pressure (BP) is important for the health surveillance of these experimental animals and the quantification of diseases or pharmaceutical substances influencing BP. Measurement guidelines for C. j. do not exist yet; therefore, the present study was carried out to establish a practicable protocol based on recommendations of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM). Furthermore, BP data of 49 marmosets (13.8-202.4 months of age) were obtained via high-definition oscillometry to further knowledge of physiological parameters and gender-related differences in this primate. The thighs proved to be the most suitable measurement localization, since systolic values were less variable (left 4.03 ± 2.90%, right 5.96 ± 2.77%) compared with the tail (12.7 ± 6.96%). BP values were similar in the morning and in the afternoon (P > 0.05). Data were highly reproducible within and between several sessions on three consecutive days (P > 0.05) as well as over the course of 20 months (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the measurement time for females was significantly shorter than for males (5:14 ± 1:59 min versus 6:50 ± 1:58 min, P = 0.007). Measurement recommendations for the common marmoset were successfully established. Standardized values enabled a reliable comparison of BP parameters, e.g. for cardiovascular, toxicological or metabolic research.

  9. Integer Valued Autoregressive Models for Tipping Bucket Rainfall Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyregod, Peter; Carstensen, Niels Jacob; Madsen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    A new method for modelling the dynamics of rain sampled by a tipping bucket rain gauge is proposed. The considered models belong to the class of integer valued autoregressive processes. The models take the autocorelation and discrete nature of the data into account. A first order, a second order...... and a threshold model are presented together with methods to estimate the parameters of each model. The models are demonstrated to provide a good description of dt from actual rain events requiring only two to four parameters....

  10. [Value of electronic measuring instruments for optimizing functional TMJ diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, B; Keese, E; Kubein-Meesenburg, D

    1989-09-01

    In order to get additional information about the significance of electronic axiographic recordings in TMJ-diagnosis, 34 patients, who showed 47 clicking TMJs, were examined by use of an electronic axiographic instrument (SAS-system). The frequency of the detected findings emphasize the value of electronic axiographic devices for differential diagnosis. In detail the following conclusions could be drawn: examination of different types of movement is recommended because clicking must not exist in all types, recording in more than one plane is necessary in order to detect the (prevailing) plane of dislocation, a magnification of tracings provides addition information concerning different types of clicking.

  11. The Shapley value for a fuzzy poverty measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia ASNAOUI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the relationship between poverty, inequality and growth. In classical political economic model, we introduce a residual term to maintain the identity of the model. It does not permit us to find the exact contribution of each factor. To derive the results of the decomposition, the Shapley value augmented by the fuzzy approach is used. In order to take its full advantage, it is of interest to calculate the marginal contribution of each factor in the variation of poverty. An application based on individual wellbeing data from Tunisian households is presented to illustrate use of the proposed concepts.

  12. Measuring the Value of Earth Observation Information with the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Kuwayama, Y.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B.; Pesko, S.; Vail, P.

    2014-12-01

    Determining how much to invest in earth observation technology depends in part on the value of information (VOI) that can be derived from the observations. We design a framework and then evaluate the value-in-use of the NASA Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for regional water use and reliability in the presence of drought. As a technology that allows measurement of water storage, the GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS) provides information that is qualitatively different from that generated by other water data sources. It provides a global, reproducible grid of changes in surface and subsurface water resources on a frequent and regular basis. Major damages from recent events such as the 2012 Midwest drought and the ongoing drought in California motivate the need to understand the VOI from remotely sensed data such as that derived from GRACE DAS. Our conceptual framework models a dynamic risk management problem in agriculture. We base the framework on information from stakeholders and subject experts. The economic case for GRACE DAS involves providing better water availability information. In the model, individuals have a "willingness to pay" (wtp) for GRACE DAS - essentially, wtp is an expression of savings in reduced agricultural input costs and for costs that are influenced by regional policy decisions. Our hypothesis is that improvements in decision making can be achieved with GRACE DAS measurements of water storage relative to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells and soil moisture monitors that would be relied on in the absence of GRACE DAS. The VOI is estimated as a comparison of outcomes. The California wine grape industry has features that allow it to be a good case study and a basis for extrapolation to other economic sectors. We model water use in this sector as a sequential decision highlighting the attributes of GRACE DAS input as information for within-season production decisions as well as for longer-term water reliability.

  13. Value of a Scale Used to Measure Metacognitive Reading Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, K. Victoria Mayer; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Study of metacognition in reading examined the psychometric properties of the Index of Reading Awareness. To determine reliability and validity data, researchers administered it to elementary students along with the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised. They concluded that it should be used cautiously to measure metacognition in reading. (SM)

  14. Short-term biological variation of clinical chemical values in dumeril's monitors (Varanus dumerili)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads Jens; Howell, Jennifer R.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma biochemical values are routinely used in the medical management of ill reptiles, and for monitoring the health of clinically normal animals. Laboratory tests, including clinical biochemical values, are subject to biological and analytical variation, the magnitude of which determines the ut...

  15. Monitoring of Landslide Areas with the Use of Contemporary Methods of Measuring and Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Izabela; Kogut, Janusz; Kokoszka, Wanda; Zientek, Dawid

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, there is an increase of landslide risk observed, which is associated with intensive anthropogenic activities and extreme weather conditions. Appropriate monitoring and proper development of measurements resulting as maps of areas at risk of landslides enables us to estimate the risk in the social and economic aspect. Landslide monitoring in the framework of SOPO project is performed by several methods of measurements: monitoring of surface (GNSS measurement and laser scanning), monitoring in-deepth (inclinometer measurements) and monitoring of the hydrological changes and precipitation (measuring changes in water-table and rainfall).

  16. Monitoring of Landslide Areas with the Use of Contemporary Methods of Measuring and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczak Izabela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is an increase of landslide risk observed, which is associated with intensive anthropogenic activities and extreme weather conditions. Appropriate monitoring and proper development of measurements resulting as maps of areas at risk of landslides enables us to estimate the risk in the social and economic aspect. Landslide monitoring in the framework of SOPO project is performed by several methods of measurements: monitoring of surface (GNSS measurement and laser scanning, monitoring in-deepth (inclinometer measurements and monitoring of the hydrological changes and precipitation (measuring changes in water-table and rainfall.

  17. First measurements results of the LHC longitudinal density monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Jeff , A; Bravin, E; Boccardi, A; Bozyigit, S; Lefevre, T; Rabiller, A; Roncarolo, F; Welsch, C P; Fisher, A S

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the longitudinal distribution of particles is important for various aspects of accelerator operation, for example to check the injection quality and to characterize the development of ghost bunches before and during the physics periods. A new detector, the LHC Longitudinal Density Monitor (LDM) is a single-photon counting system measuring synchrotron light by means of an avalanche photodiode detector. The unprecedented energies reached in the LHC allow synchrotron light diagnostics to be used with both protons and heavy ions. The LDM is able to longitudinally profile the whole ring with a resolution close to the target of 50 ps. On-line correction for the effects of the detector deadtime, pile-up and afterpulsing allow a dynamic range of 105 to be achieved. The LDM operated during the 2010 lead ion run and during 2011 with protons. Measurements from both runs are presented in this contribution along with an analysis of the LDM performance and an outlook for future upgrades.

  18. Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures for Structural Health Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubacz, Jacob A [ORNL; Chmielewski, Hana T [ORNL; Pape, Alexander E [ORNL; Depersio, Andrew J [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Boone, Shane [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    A novel method for structural health monitoring (SHM), known as the Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures (PSDM) approach, is proposed and developed. The patented PSDM approach has already been developed and demonstrated for a variety of equipment and biomedical applications. Here, we investigate SHM of bridges via analysis of time serial accelerometer measurements. This work has four aspects. The first is algorithm scalability, which was found to scale linearly from one processing core to four cores. Second, the same data are analyzed to determine how the use of the PSDM approach affects sensor placement. We found that a relatively low-density placement sufficiently captures the dynamics of the structure. Third, the same data are analyzed by unique combinations of accelerometer axes (vertical, longitudinal, and lateral with respect to the bridge) to determine how the choice of axes affects the analysis. The vertical axis is found to provide satisfactory SHM data. Fourth, statistical methods were investigated to validate the PSDM approach for this application, yielding statistically significant results.

  19. A relative value method for measuring and evaluating cardiac reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiaobo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a very close relationship between the amplitude of the first heart sound (S1 and the cardiac contractility have been proven by previous studies, the absolute value of S1 can not be applied for evaluating cardiac contractility. However, we were able to devise some indicators with relative values for evaluating cardiac function. Methods Tests were carried out on a varied group of volunteers. Four indicators were devised: (1 the increase of the amplitude of the first heart sound after accomplishing different exercise workloads, with respect to the amplitude of the first heart sound (S1recorded at rest was defined as cardiac contractility change trend (CCCT. When the subjects completed the entire designed exercise workload (7000 J, the resulting CCCT was defined as CCCT(1; when only 1/4 of the designed exercise workload was completed, the result was defined as CCCT(1/4. (2 The ratio of S1 amplitude to S2 amplitude (S1/S2. (3 The ratio of S1 amplitude at tricuspid valve auscultation area to that at mitral auscultation area T1/M1 (4 the ratio of diastolic to systolic duration (D/S. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. Results CCCT(1/4 was 6.36 ± 3.01 (n = 67, CCCT(1 was 10.36 ± 4.2 (n = 33, S1/S2 was1.89 ± 0.94 (n = 140, T1/M1 was 1.44 ± 0.99 (n = 144, and D/S was 1.68 ± 0.27 (n = 172. Conclusions Using indicators CCCT(1/4 and CCCT(1 may be beneficial for evaluating cardiac contractility and cardiac reserve mobilization level, S1/S2 for considering the factor for hypotension, T1/M1 for evaluating the right heart load, and D/S for evaluating diastolic cardiac blood perfusion time.

  20. Measuring the attractiveness of Dutch landscapes: Identifying national hotspots of highly valued places using Google Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.; Buijs, A.E.; Langers, F.; Farjon, F.; Hinsberg, van A.; Sijtsma, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) or an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), determining the value that the general public attaches to a landscape is often problematic. To aid the inclusion of this social value in such analyses, a Google Maps-based tool, called the HotSpotMonitor (HSM), was develop

  1. Measuring the attractiveness of Dutch landscapes: Identifying national hotspots of highly valued places using Google Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.; Buijs, A.E.; Langers, F.; Farjon, F.; Hinsberg, van A.; Sijtsma, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) or an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), determining the value that the general public attaches to a landscape is often problematic. To aid the inclusion of this social value in such analyses, a Google Maps-based tool, called the HotSpotMonitor (HSM), was develop

  2. Limit Theorems for some Branching Measure-Valued Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Cloez, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    We consider a particles system, where, the particles move independently according to a Markov process and branching event occurs at an inhomogeneous time. The offspring locations and their number may depend on the position of the mother. Our setting capture, for instance, the processes indexed by Galton-Watson tree. We first determine the asymptotic behaviour of the empirical measure. The proof is based on an expression of the empirical measure using an auxiliary process. This latter is not distributed as a one cell lineage, there is a biased phenomenon. Our model is a microscopic description of a random (discrete) population of individuals. We then obtain a large population approximation as weak solution of a growth- fragmentation equation. We illustrate our result with two examples. The first one is a size-structured population model which describes the mitosis and the second one can model a parasite infection.

  3. The value of Holter monitoring in the assessment of Pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Ranya A; Lotfy, Wael N

    2007-10-22

    Holter monitoring (HM) has been established as one of the most effective noninvasive clinical tools in the diagnosis, assessment and risk stratification of cardiac patients. However, studies in the pediatric age group are limited. The present work aims at determining the value of HM in the diagnosis and management of children. Retrospective study conducted at a tertiary referral arrhythmolology service. Holter records of 1319 pediatric patients (54.1% males and 45.9% females) were reviewed. Their average age was 6.7+/- 4.1 years (5 days-16 years). Indications for which Holter monitoring was done were analysed as well as all the abnormalities diagnosed and factors that may increase Holter yield. Statistical Package of social science (SPSS) version 9,0 was used for analysis of data. The most common indications were palpitations (19.8%), syncope (17.8%), cardiomyopathy (12.6%), chest pain (10%), evaluation of antiarrhythmic therapy (6.8%), postoperative assessment (2.6%) and complete AV Block (2.4%). A sum of 141 Holter recordings were found abnormal with a total diagnostic yield of 10.7%. The highest contribution to diagnosis was in postoperative assessment (32.4%) and in cardiomyopathy (19.9%) where the most common abnormalities were frequent supraventricular / ventricular premature beats, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia and AV block. Diagnostic yield was low in patients with palpitations (5.7%) and syncope (0.4%). An abnormal ECG was significantly associated with a higher diagnostic yield (p=0.0001). None of the children with chest pain had abnormal Holter recordings. HM has an extremely valuable role in the assessment of high risk patients (postoperative and cardiomyopathy). However in children with palpitations, syncope and chest pain HM has a low yield. In this group of patients an abnormal ECG is more likely to be associated with abnormal Holter recordings.

  4. Measuring A Customer Intimacy Culture In A Value Discipline Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Potgieter

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate a questionnaire for the assessment of a customer intimacy culture in the value discipline context. The main survey was completed by using a convenience sample of permanent employees (N = 200 at line, middle and top management levels of an organisation in the entertainment industry. This sample was taken from staff on structured developmental paths, while attending scheduled training events. The 169 completed questionnaires that were returned were used for the final data analyses. Owing to the small sample size, an adapted procedure for first- and second-level factor analyses was used, followed by an iterative item analysis. The preliminary findings suggest that the questionnaire can be applied for assessing customer intimacy cultures. OpsommingDie doel van hierdie studie was om ’n vraelys te evalueer vir die beoordeling van ’n kliëntintimiteitskultuur in die waardedissipline konteks. Die hoofopname is voltooi deur ’n gerieflikheidsteekproef (N = 200 van permanente personeel in lyn, middel- en topbestuursvlakke van ’n organisasie in die vermaaklikheidsbedryf te gebruik. Dié steekproef is geneem vanuit personeel in gestruktureerde ontwikkelingspaaie wat geskeduleerde opleidingsgeleenthede bygewoon het. Die 169 voltooide vraelyste wat terugontvang is, is vir die finale dataontleding gebruik. Weens die klein steekproefgrootte, is ’n aangepaste prosedure vir eerste- en tweedevlakfaktorontleding gebruik, gevolg deur ’n iteratiewe itemontleding. Die voorlopige bevindinge dui daarop dat die vraelys toegepas kan word vir die beoordeling van ’n kliëntintimiteitskultuur.

  5. Development of Demo of Solution Measurement and Monitoring System in Reprocessing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Qing-lei; CHANG; Li; LI; Jing-huai; LU; Jie; TIAN; Yuan

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous unattended measurement and monitoring systems at reprocessing plants,and the most important one is the solution measurement and monitoring system,which can monitor the stable operation of the process and account the nuclear material of the entire

  6. The comparison of measured deformation indicators of mining area with theoretical values calculated using Knothe's formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwat, Justyna; Mielimaka, Ryszard

    2016-06-01

    The article demonstrates the comparison of prognosed values of deformation indicators with their values obtained from geodetic measurements. The value of correlation coefficient R between its theoretical and practical values was calculated for each indicator. Following the measured values as basic ones, the evaluation of efficiency of prognosis via the use of Knothe`s theory (a mathematical model, in which lowering of point is calculated as a double integral from Gauss error function with adequate parameters).

  7. Stochastic equations, flows and measure-valued processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Donald A

    2010-01-01

    We first prove some general results on pathwise uniqueness, comparison property and existence of non-negative strong solutions of stochastic equations driven by white noises and Poisson random measures. The results are then used to prove the strong existence of two classes of stochastic flows associated with coalescents with multiple collisions, that is, generalized Fleming-Viot flows and flows of continuous-state branching processes with immigration. One of them unifies the different treatments of three kinds of flows in Bertoin and Le Gall (2005). Two scaling limit theorems for the generalized Fleming-Viot flows are proved, which lead to sub-critical branching immigration superprocesses. {From} those theorems we derive easily a generalization of the limit theorem for finite point motions of the flows in Bertoin and Le Gall (2006).

  8. Acceptance testing of the Lasentec focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) monitor for slurry transfer applications at Hanford and Oak Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daymo, Eric A.; Hylton, Tom D.; May, Thomas H.

    1999-01-01

    The Lasentec M600F FBRM particle size and population monitor (Lasentec, Redmond, WA) was selected for deployment on radioactive slurry transfer systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hanford after extensive testing with `physical simulants.' These tests indicated that the monitor is able to measure the change in particle size distribution of concentrated (up to 35 vol.%) slurries at flow rates greater than 2 m/sec. As well, the monitor provided relatively stable mean particle size values when air bubbles were introduced to the slurry pipe test loop and when the color of the slurry was altered. Slurry samples taken during each test were analyzed with a laboratory particle size monitor. For kaolin slurry samples (length-cubed weighted mean of around 55 micrometers ), the Lasentec M600F FBRM in-line monitor measured length-cubed weighted mean particle sizes within 25% of those measured by a laboratory Lasentec M500LF monitor. This difference is thought primarily to be the result of sample handling issues. Regardless, this accuracy is acceptable for radioactive slurry transfer applications. Once deployed, the in-line Lasentec monitor is expected to yield significant cost savings at Hanford and Oak Ridge through the possible reduction in risk of pipeline blockage. In addition, fewer samples of radioactive slurries will need to be measured in the laboratory, further reducing costs and increasing safety.

  9. Compact Monitor for Airborne Carbon Dioxide Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eltron Research & Development proposes the development of a lightweight, battery-powered instrument for accurately and rapidly monitoring the local concentration...

  10. Fiber optic sensors for an in-situ monitoring of moisture and pH value in reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Walter; Makedonski, Pavel; Wichern, Juergen; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Wiese, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Concrete structures such as social buildings and bridges are important economic goods. Thus, maintenance and preservation of these structures are of major interest. Buildings of reinforced concrete are exposed to a variety of damaging influences. In particular, moisture has an important influence on the lifetime of concrete structures. This is caused by the involvement of free water in corrosion of the steel, and the fact that water acts as transport medium for damaging ions such as chloride, sulfate, carbonate and ammonium. Thus, we designed and developed an integrated fiberoptical sensor system, which allows in-situ non- destructive long-term monitoring of concrete structures. As moisture indicator we use a pyridinium-N-phenolat betainital dye, which shows a strong solvatochromic behavior in the ultraviolet-visible spectral range (UV-VIS). The dye is embedded in a polymer matrix, whose moderate polarity is enhanced by free water diffusing into the sensor. This leads to a continuous hypsochromic shift of the absorption spectrum according to the water concetration. Another appropriate dye is 4-amino-N-methylphthalimid, which shows a similar behavior in its fluorescent spectra, and presently we are developing its derivatives and suitable polymer matrices. The determination of the pH-value of concrete is of major importance for the assessment of acidic attacks which may lead to serious damage in reinforced concrete, as the embedded steel structures exhibit long-term stability (i.e. resistance to corrosion) only at pH-values of 9 or higher. Therefore we have developed a fiberoptical sensor system for the measurement of pH-values in concrete consisting of pH- indicator dyes immobilized in a highly immobilized in a highly hydrophilic polymer matrix. Any change in pH-value of the wet concrete material is indicated by a color change of the dye/polymer system. The sensor system displays long term stability even in aggressive media of pH12 - 13.

  11. Characterization of beam position monitors for measurement of second moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, S.J.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Power, J.F.; Shurter, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    A dual-axis beam position monitor (BPM) consists of four electrodes placed at 90{degree} intervals around the probe aperture. The response signals of these lobes can be expressed as a sum of moments. The first order moment gives the centroid of the beam. The second order moment contains information about the rms size of the beam. It has been shown previously that the second order moment can be used to determine beam emittance. To make this measurement, the authors must characterize the BPM appropriately. The approach to this problem is to use a pulsed wire test fixture. By using the principle of superposition, they can build up a diffuse beam by taking the signals from different wire positions and summing them. This is done two ways: first by physically moving a wire about the aperture and building individual distributions, and, second, by taking a two dimensional grid of wire positions versus signal and using a computer to interpolate between the grid points to get arbitrary wire positions and, therefore, distributions. The authors present the current results of this effort.

  12. Online monitoring of Mezcal fermentation based on redox potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante-Minakata, P; Ibarra-Junquera, V; Rosu, H C; De León-Rodríguez, A; González-García, R

    2009-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the continuous monitoring of the biomass and ethanol concentrations as well as the growth rate in the Mezcal fermentation process. The algorithm performs its task having available only the online measurements of the redox potential. The procedure combines an artificial neural network (ANN) that relates the redox potential to the ethanol and biomass concentrations with a nonlinear observer-based algorithm that uses the ANN biomass estimations to infer the growth rate of this fermentation process. The results show that the redox potential is a valuable indicator of the metabolic activity of the microorganisms during Mezcal fermentation. In addition, the estimated growth rate can be considered as a direct evidence of the presence of mixed culture growth in the process. Usually, mixtures of microorganisms could be intuitively clear in this kind of processes; however, the total biomass data do not provide definite evidence by themselves. In this paper, the detailed design of the software sensor as well as its experimental application is presented at the laboratory level.

  13. Monitoring Akkuyu Nuclear Reactor Using Anti-Neutrino Flux Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Ozturk, Sertac; Ozcan, V Erkcan; Unel, Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    We present a simulation based study for monitoring Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant's activity using anti-neutrino flux originating from the reactor core. A water Cherenkov detector has been designed and optimization studies have been performed using Geant4 simulation toolkit. A first study for the design of a monitoring detector facility for Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant has been discussed in this paper.

  14. A comparison of NH{sub 3} point monitoring and diode laser based path integrated measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.; Richtsmeier, S.C.; Lee, J.; Bien, F. [Spectral Sciences, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Fetzer, G.J.; Groff, K.W. [Monitor Labs., Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Measurements made using two different types of ammonia monitors during a two-month field study in the summer of 1994 are discussed. The first was a diode-laser based open path monitor designed for automated operation in an industrial environment. The second is a monitoring analyzer based on thermal decomposition of ammonia to NO and subsequent analysis by O{sub 3}-NO chemiluminescence. The two monitors provided consistent measurements of ammonia concentration during weeks of continuous unattended operation.

  15. How to measure customer value and its relationship with shareholder value in a business-to-business market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bermejo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Intangible assets are difficult to measure, but nowadays the value of the shares of firms in the stock exchange market contains a high percentage of intangible capital and customers are one of the main intangible assets which should be evaluated. This paper presents and discusses some tools to measure the value of customers. But first, it is mandatory to define and clarify the relationships among the concepts of Customer Equity (CE, Life Time Value (LTV and Customer Relationship Management (CRM. LTV is the best financial outcome to measure customer value, so the paper reviews the literature on some mathematical models to calculate LTV. We propose an equation for LTV in order to apply it in a business-to-business market, and an analysis of the influence factors involved in it is made, focusing especially in the link between LTV and shareholder value. Finally, we propose as future lines of research, the relational equity approach as the perfect complement to the customer equity analysis and a way to estimate LTV for actual cases of publicly traded firms using published information.

  16. Investigating the value of passive microwave observations for monitoring volcanic eruption source parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montopoli, Mario; Cimini, Domenico; Marzano, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions inject both gas and solid particles into the Atmosphere. Solid particles are made by mineral fragments of different sizes (from few microns to meters), generally referred as tephra. Tephra from volcanic eruptions has enormous impacts on social and economical activities through the effects on the environment, climate, public health, and air traffic. The size, density and shape of a particle determine its fall velocity and thus residence time in the Atmosphere. Larger particles tend to fall quickly in the proximity of the volcano, while smaller particles may remain suspended for several days and thus may be transported by winds for thousands of km. Thus, the impact of such hazards involves local as well as large scales effects. Local effects involve mostly the large sized particles, while large scale effects are caused by the transport of the finest ejected tephra (ash) through the atmosphere. Forecasts of ash paths in the atmosphere are routinely run after eruptions using dispersion models. These models make use of meteorological and volcanic source parameters. The former are usually available as output of numerical weather prediction models or large scale reanalysis. Source parameters characterize the volcanic eruption near the vent; these are mainly the ash mass concentration along the vertical column and the top altitude of the volcanic plume, which is strictly related to the flux of the mass ejected at the emission source. These parameters should be known accurately and continuously; otherwise, strong hypothesis are usually needed, leading to large uncertainty in the dispersion forecasts. However, direct observations during an eruption are typically dangerous and impractical. Thus, satellite remote sensing is often exploited to monitor volcanic emissions, using visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) channels available on both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites. VIS and IR satellite imagery are very useful to monitor

  17. Examining the Perceived Value of Integration of Earned Value Management with Risk Management-Based Performance Measurement Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Akhtar H.

    2014-01-01

    Many projects fail despite the use of evidence-based project management practices such as Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), Earned Value Management (EVM) and Risk Management (RM). Although previous researchers have found that integrated project management techniques could be more valuable than the same techniques used by themselves, these…

  18. Network monitoring of speciated vs. total non-methane hydrocarbon measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Po; Liao, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Chung; Su, Yuan-Chang; Tong, Yu-Huei; Chang, Julius S.; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2014-06-01

    The total non-methane hydrocarbon (TNMHC) level in the atmosphere is defined as the level of total hydrocarbons minus the level of methane. TNMHC observations are made in selected air quality stations (AQS) of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) across Taiwan. The AQS network is also complemented by a network of photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) to provide hourly observations of 56 speciated non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). In this study, the relationship between the AQS and PAMS TNMHC values was cross-examined for the period of 2007-2011 at four sites that conducted both types of measurements. Although the two observations differ in their methods of collection, the variations in the two datasets showed high synchronicity. However, because some of the NMHCs were missed in the summation of 56 species, the PAMS TNMHC values were consistently lower than those of the AQS TNMHC by an average of 30%.

  19. Health monitoring of aeronautical structures based on vibrations measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovio, Igor; Lecce, Leonardo

    2006-03-01

    Purpose of the paper is to present an innovative application inside the Non Destructive Testing field based on vibrations measurements, developed by the authors during the last three years, and already tested for analysing damage of many structural elements. The proposed new method is based on the acquisition and comparison of Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) of the monitored structure before and after an occurred damage. Structural damage modify the dynamical behaviour of the structure such as mass, stiffened and damping, and consequently the FRFs of the damaged structure in comparison with the FRFs of the sound structure, making possible to identify, to localize and quantify a structural damage. The activities, presented in the paper, mostly focused on a new FRFs processing technique based on the determining of a representative "Damage Index" for identifying and analysing damage both on real scale aeronautical structural components, like large-scale fuselage reinforced panels, and on aeronautical composite panels. Besides it has been carried out a dedicated neural network algorithm aiming at obtaining a "recognition-based learning"; this kind of learning methodology permits to train the neural network in order to let it recognises only "positive" examples discarding as a consequence the "negative" ones. Within the structural NDT a "positive" example means "healthy" state of the analysed structural component and, obviously, a "negative" one means a "damaged" or perturbed state. From an architectural point of view piezoceramic patches have been tested as actuators and sensors. Besides it has been used a laser-scanning vibrometer system to validate the behaviour of the piezoceramic patches.

  20. Measured Test-Driven Development: Using Measures to Monitor and Control the Unit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dubinsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze Test Driven Development (TDD from cognitive and social perspectives. Based on our analysis, we suggest a technique for controlling and monitoring the TDD process by examining measures that relate to the size and complexity of both code and tests. We call this approach Measured TDD. The motivation for TDD arose from practitioners' tendency to rush into code production, skipping the required testing needed to manufacture quality products. The motivation for Measured TDD is based on difficulties encountered by practitioners in applying TDD. Specifically, with the need to frequently refactor the unit, after every few test and code steps have been performed. We found that the suggested technique enables developers to gain better control over the development process.

  1. The clinical value of enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique monitoring the plasma concentrations of cyclosporine A a%The clinical value of enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique monitoring the plasma concentrations of cyclosporine A aft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Luo; wu-Jun Xue; Pu-Xun Tian; Xiao-Ming Ding; Hang Yan; He-Li Xiang; Yang Li

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility and the clinical value of the enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) monitoring of blood concentrations of cyclosporine A (CsA) in patients treated with CsA were investigated after kidney transplantation. The validation method was

  2. The value of surrogate markers to monitor cholesterol absorption, synthesis and bioconversion to bile acids under lipid lowering therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellaard, Frans; von Bergmann, Klaus; Sudhop, Thomas; Lütjohann, Dieter

    2017-05-01

    Regulation of cholesterol (Chol) homeostasis is controlled by three main fluxes, i.e. intestinal absorption, de novo synthesis (ChS) and catabolism, predominantly as bile acid synthesis (BAS). High serum total Chol and LDL-Chol concentrations in particular are considered risk factors and markers for the development of atherosclerosis. Pharmaceutical treatments to lower serum Chol have focused on reducing absorption or ChS and increasing BAS. Monitoring of these three parameters is complex involving isotope techniques, cholesterol balance experiments and advanced mass spectrometry based analysis methods. Surrogate markers were explored that require only one single fasting blood sample collection. These markers were validated in specific, mostly physiological conditions and during statin treatment to inhibit ChS. They were also applied under cholesterol absorption restriction, but were not validated in this condition. We retrospectively evaluated the use of serum campesterol (Camp), sitosterol (Sit) and cholestanol (Cholol) as markers for cholesterol absorption, lathosterol (Lath) as marker for ChS and 7α-hydroxycholesterol (7α-OH-Ch) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH-Ch) as markers for BAS under conditions of Chol absorption restriction. Additionally, their values were corrected for Chol concentration (R_sterol or oxysterols). Thirty-seven healthy male omnivore subjects were studied under treatments with placebo (PLAC), ezetimibe (EZE) to inhibit cholesterol absorption, simvastatin (SIMVA) to reduce cholesterol synthesis and a combination of both (EZE+SIMVA). Results were compared to those obtained in 18 pure vegetarian subjects (vegans) whose dietary Chol intake is extremely low. Relative or fractional Chol absorption (FrChA) was measured with the continuous feeding stable isotope procedure, ChS and BAS with the cholesterol balance method. The daily Chol intake (DICh) was inventoried and the daily Chol absorption (DACh) calculated. Monitoring cholesterol

  3. A step-by-step plan to manage and measure adding value by FM/CREM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Voordt, Theo; Jensen, Per Anker; Hoendervanger, Jan Gerard

    2016-01-01

    and models including the triplet input-throughput-output, a distinction between output, outcome and added value, the Plan-Do-Act-Check cycle, change management and performance measurement. Design/methodology/approach Literature review and a cross-chapter analysis of a forthcoming book, where authors from...... in the state-of-the-art sections of the 12 value parameters. Furthermore an overview is presented of ways to measure the 12 value parameters and related Key Performance Indicators. Originality/value Much has been written about adding value by FM and CREM. This paper presents a new Value Adding Management model......Purpose To present a new Value Adding Management model in order to support decision makers in identifying appropriate interventions to add value to the organisation, to manage its implementation, and to measure the output and outcomes. Theory The paper builds on value adding management theories...

  4. Linkages between Value based Performance Measurements and risk return trade off: theory and evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Celik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we attempt to investigate the linkages between value-based performance measurements and risk-return trade off in a way to explain cross sectional asset returns. On the side of value based performance measurements, three groups of variables are used as a sorting factor: traditional measures which consist of accounting based and market based; recently popularized measures such as Economic Value Added and Market Value Added and theoretically sound measures such as foreign investor allocation and firm systematic risk indicators. The goals of the study are (i to show how value based measurements techniques relate to risk return trade off and (ii how these measures affect the cross sectional asset returns in manufacturing industry. Empirical results indicate that foreign investor allocation as a sorting factor produces much more meaningful risk return positive linear relation for cross sectional asset returns than traditional and recently popularized measures.

  5. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Sea Temperature Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site specific monitoring of sea temperature is conducted using submersible temperature dataloggers at selected sites and depths around the islands of Saipan and Rota.

  6. Measuring the risk of an Iranian banking system using Value at Risk (VaR Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring risk of financial institutes and banks plays an important role on managing them. Recent financial turmoil in United States banking system has motivated banking industry to monitor risk factors more closely. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the risk of some private banks in Iran called Bank Mellat using Value at Risk (VaR method. The proposed study collects the necessary information for the fiscal year of 2010 and analyses them using regression analysis. The study divides the financial data into two groups where the financial data of the first half of year is considered in the first group and the remaining information for the second half of year 2010 is considered in the second group. The implementation of VaR method indicates that financial risks increase during the time horizon. The study also uses linear regression method where independent variable is time, dependent variable is the financial risk, and the results confirm what we have found in the previous part of the survey.

  7. Sustainable Value Added:Measuring Corporate Sustainable Performance Beyond Eco-Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Figge, Frank; Hahn, Tobias

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to measure corporate sustainable performance called Sustainable Value Added. Value is created whenever benefits exceed costs. Current approaches to measure corporate sustainable performance take into account external costs caused by environmental and social damage or focus on the ratio between value creation and resource consumption. As this paper will show it is more promising to develop sustainable measures based on opportunity costs...

  8. Recognition and measurement of potential share value of conversion for convertible bonds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To recognize and measure the potential share value of conversion for convertible bonds more accurately, different approaches such as the straight method, the separating method, the expected value approach and the improved approach are comparatively analyzed by taking China Merchants Bank's convertible bonds as an example. There is also a focus on the improved approach that views that convertible bond issue proceeds can be separated into accrual debt value, accrual equity value and accrual option value accor...

  9. Clinical value and influencing factors of intraoperative monitoring of jugular venous oxygen saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie SONG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2 monitoring has been widely used in clinic, which can monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF and oxygen metabolism. Reverse puncture and catheterization through jugular vein for monitoring SjvO2 is easy to operate and can collect blood samples repeatedly. It is an effective method for real-time dynamic evaluation of cerebral oxygen supply-demand and neurological function. This article reviews the clinical significance and influencing factors of SjvO2 monitoring during operation. It notes in particular that SjvO2 can not be used as the only way to monitor CBF and oxygen metabolism, and a comprehensive evaluation should be done combining with the change of other parameters. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.10.014

  10. Complex Fuzzy Set-Valued Complex Fuzzy Measures and Their Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengquan; Li, Shenggang

    2014-01-01

    Let F*(K) be the set of all fuzzy complex numbers. In this paper some classical and measure-theoretical notions are extended to the case of complex fuzzy sets. They are fuzzy complex number-valued distance on F*(K), fuzzy complex number-valued measure on F*(K), and some related notions, such as null-additivity, pseudo-null-additivity, null-subtraction, pseudo-null-subtraction, autocontionuous from above, autocontionuous from below, and autocontinuity of the defined fuzzy complex number-valued measures. Properties of fuzzy complex number-valued measures are studied in detail. PMID:25093202

  11. Complex fuzzy set-valued complex fuzzy measures and their properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengquan; Li, Shenggang

    2014-01-01

    Let F*(K) be the set of all fuzzy complex numbers. In this paper some classical and measure-theoretical notions are extended to the case of complex fuzzy sets. They are fuzzy complex number-valued distance on F*(K), fuzzy complex number-valued measure on F*(K), and some related notions, such as null-additivity, pseudo-null-additivity, null-subtraction, pseudo-null-subtraction, autocontionuous from above, autocontionuous from below, and autocontinuity of the defined fuzzy complex number-valued measures. Properties of fuzzy complex number-valued measures are studied in detail.

  12. Permanent electrical resistivity measurements for monitoring water circulation in clayey landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gance, J.; Malet, J.-P.; Supper, R.; Sailhac, P.; Ottowitz, D.; Jochum, B.

    2016-03-01

    Landslides developed on clay-rich slopes are controlled by the soil water regime and the groundwater circulation. Spatially-distributed and high frequency observations of these hydrological processes are important for improving our understanding and prediction of landslide triggering. This work presents observed changes in electrical resistivity monitored at the Super-Sauze clayey landslide with the GEOMON 4D resistivity instrument installed permanently on-site for a period of one year. A methodological framework for processing the raw measurement is proposed. It includes the filtering of the resistivity dataset, the correction of the effects of non-hydrological factors (sensitivity of the device, sensitivity to soil temperature and fluid conductivity, presence of fissures in the topsoil) on the filtered resistivity values. The interpretation is based on a statistical analysis to define possible relationships between the rainfall characteristics, the soil hydrological observations and the soil electrical resistivity response. During the monitoring period, no significant relationships between the electrical response and the measured hydrological parameters are evidenced. We discuss the limitations of the method due to the effect of heat exchange between the groundwater, the vadose zone water and the rainwater that hides the variations of resistivity due to variations of the soil water content. We demonstrate that despite the absence of hydrogeophysical information for the vadose zone, the sensitivity of electrical resistivity monitoring to temperature variations allows imaging water fluxes in the saturated zone and highlighting the existence of matrix and preferential flows that does not occur at the same time and for the same duration. We conclude on the necessity to combine electrical resistivity measurements with distributed soil temperature measurements.

  13. Improved cost monitoring and control through the Earned Value Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Howard; Fitzgerald, Richard; Barlow, Dewey

    2014-01-01

    As economic pressure and competition for budget among federal agencies has increased, there has been an increasing need for more granular data and robust management information systems. This is especially true for the execution of major civilian space programs. This need has resulted in new program management requirements being implemented in an attempt to limit cost and schedule growth. In particular, NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 7120.5D requires the implementation of an Earned Value Management System (EVMS) compliant with the requirements of American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Electronic Industries Alliance Standard 748-B. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) program management team at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) made a decision to implement an EVMS on RBSP during Phase B—a year earlier than specified in the contractual Phase C reporting requirement as defined in the NPR. This decision was made so that the project would have the benefit of 12 months of training and hands-on implementation during Phase B. Although there were a number of technical and process hurdles encountered during Phase B and into Phase C, the system was working well when the Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) was held in August 2009. The IBR was a success because it met the review requirements. It was also clear to all IBR participants that the EVMS was providing value to the project management team. Although the IBR pointed out some areas of concern regarding process and ANSI compliance, the system had markedly improved the project's ability to monitor cost and schedule. This, in turn, allowed the project team to foresee problems in advance, formulate corrective actions, and implement course corrections without causing significant adverse impact to the project. Opponents of EVMS systems often communicate the unfavorable opinion that EVMS systems create unnecessary cost and administration. Although it is undeniable that EVMS

  14. Beam profile measurement of ES-200 using secondary electron emission monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ebrahimi Basabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, different designs have been introduced for measurement beam profile accelerators. Secondary electron emission monitors (SEM are one of these devices which have been used for this purpose. In this work, a SEM has been constructed to measure beam profile of ES-200 accelerator, a proton electrostatic accelerator which is installed at SBU. Profile grid for both planes designed with 16 wires which are insulated relative to each other. The particles with maximum energy of 200 keV and maximum current of 400 μA are stopped in copper wires. Each of the wires has an individual current-to-voltage amplifier. With a multiplexer, the analogue values are transported to an ADC. The ADCs are read out by a microcontroller and finally profile of beam shows by a user interface program

  15. The value of soil respiration measurements for interpreting and modeling terrestrial carbon cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Claire L.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Desai, Ankur R.; Lavoie, Martin; Risk, Dave; Tang, Jianwu; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-11-16

    A recent acceleration of model-data synthesis activities has leveraged many terrestrial carbon (C) datasets, but utilization of soil respiration (RS) data has not kept pace with other types such as eddy covariance (EC) fluxes and soil C stocks. Here we argue that RS data, including non-continuous measurements from survey sampling campaigns, have unrealized value and should be utilized more extensively and creatively in data synthesis and modeling activities. We identify three major challenges in interpreting RS data, and discuss opportunities to address them. The first challenge is that when RS is compared to ecosystem respiration (RECO) measured from EC towers, it is not uncommon to find substantial mismatch, indicating one or both flux methodologies are unreliable. We argue the most likely cause of mismatch is unreliable EC data, and there is an unrecognized opportunity to utilize RS for EC quality control. The second challenge is that RS integrates belowground heterotrophic (RH) and autotrophic (RA) activity, whereas modelers generally prefer partitioned fluxes, and few models include an explicit RS output. Opportunities exist to use the total RS flux for data assimilation and model benchmarking methods rather than less-certain partitioned fluxes. Pushing for more experiments that not only partition RS but also monitor the age of RA and RH, as well as for the development of belowground RA components in models, would allow for more direct comparison between measured and modeled values. The third challenge is that soil respiration is generally measured at a very different resolution than that needed for comparison to EC or ecosystem- to global-scale models. Measuring soil fluxes with finer spatial resolution and more extensive coverage, and downscaling EC fluxes to match the scale of RS, will improve chamber and tower comparisons. Opportunities also exist to estimate RH at regional scales by implementing decomposition functional types, akin to plant functional

  16. Measuring daily Value-at-Risk of SSEC index: A new approach based on multifractal analysis and extreme value theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu; Chen, Wang; Lin, Yu

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies in the econophysics literature reveal that price variability has fractal and multifractal characteristics not only in developed financial markets, but also in emerging markets. Taking high-frequency intraday quotes of the Shanghai Stock Exchange Component (SSEC) Index as example, this paper proposes a new method to measure daily Value-at-Risk (VaR) by combining the newly introduced multifractal volatility (MFV) model and the extreme value theory (EVT) method. Two VaR backtesting techniques are then employed to compare the performance of the model with that of a group of linear and nonlinear generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) models. The empirical results show the multifractal nature of price volatility in Chinese stock market. VaR measures based on the multifractal volatility model and EVT method outperform many GARCH-type models at high-risk levels.

  17. Measuring the value of nonwage employee benefits: building a model of the relation between benefit satisfaction and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathington, Bart L; Jones, Allan P

    2006-11-01

    Researchers have commonly assumed benefits that employees view as more valuable have a greater influence on their attitudes and behaviors. Researchers have used 2 common methods to measure benefit value: attaching a monetary value to benefits and using self-reports of benefit importance. The present authors propose that the 2 approaches are conceptually distinct and have different implications. They use a social exchange perspective to justify this distinction and integrate both approaches and benefit satisfaction into a more comprehensive model of benefit perception. Results suggest that both measures have practical applications depending on the nature of the exchange relationship between the organization and employees. However, this relationship depends on the specific benefit and on employee satisfaction with that benefit. Some benefits lend themselves to a monetary estimate, whereas others lend themselves more to a nonmonetary valuation.

  18. Diagnosing, Measuring and Monitoring Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    to determine the presence of specific groups of bacteria in the bulk medium ( planktonic cells) or associated with corrosion products (sessile cells...ESEM to study marine biofilms on stainless steel surfaces. They observed a gelatinous layer in which bacteria and microalgae were embedded...monitoring planktonic bacteria was not effective at predicting microbial fouling or MIC. Additionally, general corrosion rates were low throughout

  19. A New Measure of Traditional Values Across Cultures: China and Russia Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Taormina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new measure of adherence to traditional values was created with the objective of facilitating research within and across cultures and nations. The measure was tested in China (N = 321 and Russia (N = 314 and factor analysis of the data revealed two subscales named Personal Traditional Values (10 items and Public Traditional Values (6 items. Empirical psychometric testing of the overall 16-item measure and the two subscales strongly supported the validity and reliability of all three measures. Means comparisons conducted to assess how well the measures could be used for cross-cultural comparisons revealed the Russians somewhat more than the Chinese living by traditional values overall, both nations about equal on living according to traditional values in their personal lives, and the Russians significantly more inclined to abide by traditional values in public. Also tested were several social and psychological variables as theoretical predictors of living by traditional values, and Life Satisfaction was tested as a possible correlate of living according to traditional values. Regression analyses on the combined data confirmed that Family Emotional Support, Conscientiousness, Collectivism, and Age were all significant positive predictors of living by traditional values. Additional regressions also found some unique predictors for each nation. These findings and the results of the parametric tests support the use of the new scales for measuring traditional values both within and across cultures.

  20. Evaluation of Isotopic Measurements and Burn-up Value of Sample GU3 of ARIANE Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tore, C.; Rodriguez Rivada, A.

    2014-07-01

    Estimation of the burn-up value of irradiated fuel and its isotopic composition are important for criticality analysis, spent fuel management and source term estimation. The practical way to estimate the irradiated fuel composition and burn.up value is calculation with validated code and nuclear data. Such validation of the neutronic codes and nuclear data requires the benchmarking with measured values. (Author)

  1. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khader

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012. The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water

  2. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A. I.; Rosenberg, D. E.; McKee, M.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs

  3. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khader

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate pollution poses a health risk for infants whose freshwater drinking source is groundwater. This risk creates a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include: (i ignore the health risk of nitrate contaminated water, (ii switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, pollution transport processes, and climate (Khader and McKee, 2012. The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine where methemoglobinemia is the main health problem associated with the principal pollutant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not-use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs include healthcare for methemoglobinemia, purchase of bottled water, and installation and maintenance of the groundwater monitoring system. At current

  4. Using Activity Monitors to Measure Sit-to-Stand Transitions in Overweight/Obese Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tarrah; Borner, Kelsey; Finch, Jonathan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Carlson, Jordan A

    2017-08-01

    Reducing sedentary behavior has emerged as an important health intervention strategy. Although hip-worn, and more recently wrist-worn, accelerometers are commonly used for measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior, they may not provide accurate measures of postural changes. The current study examined the validity of commonly used hip- and wrist-worn accelerometer cut points and the thigh-worn activPAL activity monitor for measuring sit-to-stand transitions as compared with direct observation in youth with overweight and obesity. Nine children wore three activity monitors while being directly observed. The monitors included a hip- and wrist-worn ActiGraph and thigh-worn activPAL. The hip-worn ActiGraph was processed with the normal- and low-frequency filters and the inclinometer function. Cut points of ≤25 counts per 15-s epoch for the hip and ≤105 counts per 15-s epoch for the wrist were applied to the vertical axis to identify sit-to-stand transitions. Epoch-level absolute agreement, Bland-Altman plots, mixed-effects linear regression, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were investigated. The hip and wrist accelerometer cut points and the hip inclinometer function overestimated the number of hourly sit-to-stand transitions by approximately triple as compared with direct observation. ICC values between the ActiGraph methods and the direct observation were all Sit-to-stand transitions assessed from activPAL were within 17% of direct observation; ICC was 0.26. Despite the common use of the 100-count hip-worn accelerometer cut point for assessing sedentary time, these processing decisions should be used with caution for assessing sit-to-stand transitions. Future research should investigate other processing methods for ActiGraph data, and studies investigating postural changes should consider including devices such as activPAL.

  5. Value of Free-Run Electromyographic Monitoring of Extraocular Cranial Nerves during Expanded Endonasal Surgery (EES) of the Skull Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Mohanraj, Santhosh Kumar; Habeych, Miguel; Wichman, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Gardner, Paul; Snyderman, Carl; Crammond, Donald J; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of free-run electromyography (f-EMG) monitoring of extraocular cranial nerves (EOCN) III, IV, and VI during expanded endonasal surgery (EES) of the skull base in reducing iatrogenic cranial nerve (CN) deficits. Design We retrospectively identified 200 patients out of 990 who had at least one EOCN monitored during EES. We further separated patients into groups according to the specific CN monitored. In each CN group, we classified patients who had significant (SG) f-EMG activity as Group I and those who did not as Group II. Results A total of 696 EOCNs were monitored. The number of muscles supplied by EOCNs that had SG f-EMG activity was 88, including CN III = 46, CN IV = 21, and CN VI = 21. There were two deficits involving CN VI in patients who had SG f-EMG activity during surgery. There were 14 deficits observed, including CN III = 3, CN IV = 2, and CN VI = 9 in patients who did not have SG f-EMG activity during surgery. Conclusions f-EMG monitoring of EOCN during EES can be useful in identifying the location of the nerve. It seems to have limited value in predicting postoperative neurological deficits. Future studies to evaluate the EMG of EOCN during EES need to be done with both f-EMG and triggered EMG.

  6. An Integrated Assessment of Companies Based on Value based Measures in Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Seyed Javadin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world economy, firms focused on the maximization of shareholder value need to ensure that all activities yield positive net present values. Value based financial performance measures have been developed in an attempt to guide management actions towards achieving this objective. In this study, a hybrid approach is proposed for value based financial performance evaluation of automotive parts manufacturer companies of Tehran stock exchange (TSE. For this purpose, in this study based on eight value based measures an integrated fuzzy multi criteria decision making approach is presented for value based financial performance evaluation of companies. In current approach Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP is applied to determine the weights of the criteria. Then the companies are ranked by Fuzzy Complex Proportional Assessment (Fuzzy COPRAS, simultaneously. The results represented the importance of each value based measures in financial evaluation of fourteen Iranian companies and ranking companies by applying the proposed approach.

  7. 24-hour esophageal pH-monitoring in children suspected of gastroesophageal reflux disease: Analysis of intraesophageal pH monitoring values recorded in distal and proximal channel at diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess values of 24-h esophageal pH-monitoring parameters with dual-channel probe (distal and proximal channel) in children suspected of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).METHODS: 264 children suspected of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) were enrolled in a study (mean age χ = 20.78 ± 17.23 mo). The outcomes of this study,immunoallerrgological tests and positive result of oral food challenge test with a potentially noxious nutrient,enabled to qualify children into particular study groups.RESULTS: 32 (12.1%) infants (group 1) had physiological GER diagnosed. Pathological acid GER was confirmed in 138 (52.3%) children. Primary GER was diagnosed in 76 (28.8%) children (group 2) and GER secondary to allergy to cow milk protein and/or other food (CMA/FA) in 62 (23.5%) children (group 3). 32(12.1%) of them had CMA/FA (group 4-reference group),and in remaining 62 (23.5%) children neither GER nor CMA/FA was confirmed (group 5). Mean values of pH monitoring parameters measured in distal and proximal channel were analyzed in individual groups. This analysis showed statistically significant differentiation of mean values in the case of: number of episodes of acid GER,episodes of acid GER lasting > 5 min, duration of the longest episode of acid GER in both channels, acid GER index total and supine in proximal channel. Statistically significant differences of mean values among examined groups, especially between group 2 and 3 in the case of total acid GER index (only distal channel) were confirmed.CONCLUSION: 24-h esophageal pH monitoring confirmed pathological acid GER in 52.3% of children with typical and atypical symptoms of GERD. The similar pH-monitoring values obtained in group 2 and 3 confirm the necessity of implementation of differential diagnosis for primary vs secondary cause of GER.

  8. Phase modulation parallel optical delay detector for microwave angle-of-arrival measurement with accuracy monitored

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Z; Lu, R; Boom, H P A van den; Tangdiongga, E; Koonen, A M J

    2014-01-01

    A novel phase modulation parallel optical delay detector is proposed for microwave angle-of-arrival (AOA) measurement with accuracy monitored by using only one dual-electrode Mach-Zenhder modulator. A theoretical model is built up to analyze the proposed system including measurement accuracy monitoring. The spatial delay measurement is translated into the phase shift between two replicas of a microwave signal. Thanks to the accuracy monitoring, the phase shifts from 5{\\deg} to 165{\\deg} are measured with less than 3.1{\\deg} measurement error.

  9. The value of VEP in the diagnosis and post-operative monitoring of meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidajat, Rudy R; McLay, Jan L; Goode, David H; Hidayat, J Ray

    2006-11-01

    Meningiomas are the most frequently reported primary intracranial neoplasms. At first they usually cause unilateral visual loss but eventually result in a bilateral loss of vision. Depending upon the size and location of the tumour, the ocular signs and symptoms of meningiomas may include visual field abnormalities, optic atrophy, papilledema, diplopia and proptosis. This case report highlights the value of visual evoked potentials (VEP) in a patient with unexplained bilateral optic atrophy and a progressive loss of vision over 2 years. As a result of a delayed response in the VEP recorded from the right eye, a compressive lesion of the optic nerve was suspected. That prompted the referring ophthalmologist to request a MRI scan which led to the diagnosis of meningioma. Following the subtotal removal of the suprasellar meningioma, the remaining vision in the right eye improved and the latency of the VEP returned to the normal range. However, the VEP from the blind eye (left) did not show any measurable response either pre- or postoperatively. Experience with this patient suggests that early recognition of optic nerve compression is vital to an optimal outcome and the VEP technique, which is much more cost-effective than MRI, is clinically useful for detecting such compressive lesions.

  10. Several Similarity Measures of Interval Valued Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Their Application in Pattern Recognition Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interval valued neutrosophic soft set introduced by Irfan Deli in 2014[8] is a generalization of neutrosophic set introduced by F. Smarandache in 1995[19], which can be used in real scientific and engineering applications. In this paper the Hamming and Euclidean distances between two interval valued neutrosophic soft sets (IVNS sets are defined and similarity measures based on distances between two interval valued neutrosophic soft sets are proposed. Similarity measure based on set theoretic approach is also proposed. Some basic properties of similarity measures between two interval valued neutrosophic soft sets is also studied. A decision making method is established for interval valued neutrosophic soft set setting using similarity measures between IVNS sets. Finally an example is given to demonstrate the possible application of similarity measures in pattern recognition problems.

  11. CT -guided sclerotherapy for simple renal cysts: Value of ethanol concentration monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jin Hong; Du, Yong; Li, Yang; Yang, Han Feng; Xu, Xiao Xue; Zheng, Hou Jun [The Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong (China)

    2014-02-15

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the differences between sclerotherapy with and without ethanol concentration monitoring for the treatment of simple renal cysts. Sixty-seven patients with 70 simple renal cysts were randomly assigned to two groups in a 12-month prospective controlled trial. One group (group A) was treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided sclerotherapy without ethanol concentration monitoring (33 patients with 35 cysts), whereas the other group (group B) had ethanol concentration monitoring (34 patients with 35 cysts) during the procedure. Treatment outcomes between the two groups were compared 12 months later with follow-up ultrasound examination. After the 12-month follow-up period, the overall success rate was 74.3% in group A and 94.3% in group B (p = 0.022). The mean cyst size before and after treatment was 8.6 ± 2.0 cm and 2.3 ± 2.9 cm, respectively, in group A, and 8.4 ± 1.7 cm and 0.8 ± 1.9 cm, respectively, in group B. The final size of the cysts in group B was significantly smaller than that in group A (p = 0.015). The likelihood of treatment with ethanol concentration monitoring being successful was approximately 16 times higher than without ethanol concentration monitoring (p = 0.026; odds ratio = 15.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.38-179.49). There were no major complications in either group. Monitoring of Hounsfield units (HU) of ethanol by CT is an effective method in the treatment of simple renal cysts with ethanol sclerotherapy. The ethanol sclerotherapy procedure can be terminated at the point of clear fluid aspiration because the HU (-190) of CT scan corresponds to it.

  12. Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Kristina [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Slater, Lee [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Williams, Kenneth H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2015-02-24

    This documents contains the final report for the project "Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods" (DE-SC0007049) Executive Summary: Our research aimed to develop borehole measurement techniques capable of monitoring subsurface processes, such as changes in pore geometry and iron/sulfur geochemistry, associated with remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides. Previous work has demonstrated that geophysical method spectral induced polarization (SIP) can be used to assess subsurface contaminant remediation; however, SIP signals can be generated from multiple sources limiting their interpretation value. Integrating multiple geophysical methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic susceptibility (MS), with SIP, could reduce the ambiguity of interpretation that might result from a single method. Our research efforts entails combining measurements from these methods, each sensitive to different mineral forms and/or mineral-fluid interfaces, providing better constraints on changes in subsurface biogeochemical processes and pore geometries significantly improving our understanding of processes impacting contaminant remediation. The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site was used as a test location for our measurements. The Rifle IFRC site is located at a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado. Leachate from spent mill tailings has resulted in residual uranium contamination of both groundwater and sediments within the local aquifer. Studies at the site include an ongoing acetate amendment strategy, native microbial populations are stimulated by introduction of carbon intended to alter redox conditions and immobilize uranium. To test the geophysical methods in the field, NMR and MS logging measurements were collected before, during, and after acetate amendment. Next, laboratory NMR, MS, and SIP measurements

  13. Opportunities and challenges for the application of SP measurements to monitor subsurface flow (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M.; Vinogradov, J.; MacAllister, D.; Butler, A. P.; Leinov, E.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    freshwater aquifers is a global problem, threatening the water supply of millions of people in coastal settlements. Abstraction rates could be much more efficiently managed if encroaching saline water could be detected before it arrived at the borehole. However, current monitoring is based largely on borehole conductivity measurements, which requires a dense network of monitoring boreholes to map the saline front. Recent laboratory and field experiments suggest that the concentration gradient associated with the front generates an SP signal which can be detected at an abstraction well prior to the arrival of the front, potentially allowing monitoring using a comparatively cheap array of non-polarising borehole electrodes. Current challenges in interpreting SP measurements for subsurface flow are also discussed, particularly the use of models to predict the values of C and Q. The importance of accounting for the pore-level distribution of flow and excess charge in such models is emphasised, and a way forward is suggested in which pore-scale network models, used previously to predict relative permeability and capillary pressure, are extended to include charge transport at the pore-level.

  14. Feasibility of using a biowatch to monitor GSR as a measure of radiologists' stress and fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; MacKinnon, Lea; Reiner, Bruce I.

    2015-03-01

    We have been investigating the impact of fatigue on diagnostic performance of radiologists interpreting medical images. In previous studies we found evidence that eye strain could be objectively measured and that it correlates highly with degradations in diagnostic accuracy as radiologists work long hours. Eye strain however can be difficult to measure in a non-invasive and continuous manner over the work day so we have been investigating other ways to measure physiological stress and fatigue. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of using a commercially available biowatch to measure galvanic skin response (GSR), a well known indicator of stress. 10 radiology residents wore the biowatch for about 8 hours during their normal work day and data were automatically collected at 10 Hz. They completed the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI) at the start and finish of the day. GSR values (microsiemens) ranged from 0.14 to 38.27 with an average of 0.50 (0.28 median). Overall GSR tended to be fairly constant as the day progressed, but there were definite spikes indicating higher levels of stress. SOFI scores indicated greater levels of fatigue and stress at the end of the work day. Although further work is needed, GSR measurements obtained via an easy to wear watch may provide a means to monitor stress/fatigue and alert radiologists when to take a break from interpreting images to avoid making errors.

  15. Assessing Green Infrastructure Performance Using Remote Hydologic Monitoring Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two locations in Cincinnati were instrumented with level sensing technologies to measure stormwater flow in porous pavement and bioretention areas. Results indicate good performance of porous pavement and a cost effective application of technology to measure those flows. Result...

  16. What is the value of social values? The uselessness of assessing health-related quality of life through preference measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacristán José A

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of preference-based measures in the evaluation of health outcomes has extended considerably over the last decade. Their alleged advantage over other types of general instruments in the evaluation of health related quality of life (HRQOL, supposedly lies in the fact that preference measures incorporate values or utilities that reflects the value of social preferences through health states. The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of social preference weights or utilities makes any real difference when calculating scores for the Euroqol (EQ5-D questionnaire, a HRQOL preference-based measure. Methods Responses to the EQ5-D of a sample of 10,972 patients from 10 countries enrolled in an observational study of the treatment of schizophrenia in Europe were used for this purpose. Two different methods of scoring the EQ-5D where compared: 'weighting the items' of the questionnaire through the UK official weight coefficients, and 'non-weighting the items'. Pearson's, Spearman's, and two-way mixed parametric intraclass correlation coefficients were used to estimate the association of the scores obtained in both ways. Results The association between weighted and unweighted Euroqol scores was extremely high (Pearson's r = 0.91, as was the association between their ranks (Spearman's ρ = 0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient obtained (0.89 also suggested that the concordance between the score distributions was prominent. Conclusions A non-weighted approach to score the EQ5-D is enough to explain a high proportion of variance in scores obtained through the use of utilities. The differential contribution of weights based on population preference values is therefore minimal and, in our opinion, negligible.

  17. Arrhythmia detection after atrial fibrillation ablation: value of incremental monitoring time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, A.A.W.; Wijffels, M.C.; Wever, E.F.; Kelder, J.C.; Boersma, L.V.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), patients need to be followed to analyze the effect of the treatment. We evaluated the influence of the duration of Holter monitoring on the detection of arrhythmia recurrences after a single PVI at 12 months. METHODS: Consecutive patients with paroxy

  18. Arrhythmia detection after atrial fibrillation ablation: value of incremental monitoring time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, A.A.W.; Wijffels, M.C.; Wever, E.F.; Kelder, J.C.; Boersma, L.V.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), patients need to be followed to analyze the effect of the treatment. We evaluated the influence of the duration of Holter monitoring on the detection of arrhythmia recurrences after a single PVI at 12 months. METHODS: Consecutive patients with

  19. Arrhythmia detection after atrial fibrillation ablation: value of incremental monitoring time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, A.A.W.; Wijffels, M.C.; Wever, E.F.; Kelder, J.C.; Boersma, L.V.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), patients need to be followed to analyze the effect of the treatment. We evaluated the influence of the duration of Holter monitoring on the detection of arrhythmia recurrences after a single PVI at 12 months. METHODS: Consecutive patients with paroxy

  20. Development and Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Values in Scientific Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Tammy; Antes, Alison L; Baldwin, Kari A; DuBois, James M

    2017-06-08

    In this paper we describe the development and initial psychometric evaluation of a new measure, the values in scientific work (VSW). This scale assesses the level of importance that investigators attach to different VSW. It taps a broad range of intrinsic, extrinsic, and social values that motivate the work of scientists, including values specific to scientific work (e.g., truth and integrity) and more classic work values (e.g., security and prestige) in the context of science. Notably, the values represented in this scale are relevant to scientists regardless of their career stage and research focus. We administered the VSW and a measure of global values to 203 NIH-funded investigators. Exploratory factor analyses suggest the delineation of eight VSW, including autonomy, research ethics, social impact, income, collaboration, innovation and growth, conserving relationships, and job security. These VSW showed predictable and distinct associations with global values. Implications of these findings for work on research integrity and scientific misconduct are discussed.

  1. Model-independent analysis of the Fermilab Tevatron turn-by-turn beam position monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrenko, A.V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Valishev, A.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA) technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM) as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.

  2. Model-independent analysis of the Fermilab Tevatron turn-by-turn beam position monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrenko, A.V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Valishev, A.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Coherent transverse beam oscillations in the Tevatron were analyzed with the model-independent analysis (MIA) technique. This allowed one to obtain the model-independent values of coupled betatron amplitudes, phase advances, and dispersion function around the ring from a single dipole kick measurement. In order to solve the MIA mode mixing problem which limits the accuracy of determination of the optical functions, we have developed a new technique of rotational MIA mode untangling. The basic idea is to treat each beam position monitor (BPM) as two BPMs separated in a ring by exactly one turn. This leads to a simple criterion of MIA mode separation: the betatron phase advance between any BPM and its counterpart shifted by one turn should be equal to the betatron tune and therefore should not depend on the BPM position in the ring. Furthermore, we describe a MIA-based technique to locate vibrating magnets in a storage ring.

  3. Drought monitoring with soil moisture active passive (SMAP) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok; Vu, Tue; Veettil, Anoop Valiya; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-09-01

    Recent launch of space-borne systems to estimate surface soil moisture may expand the capability to map soil moisture deficit and drought with global coverage. In this study, we use Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture geophysical retrieval products from passive L-band radiometer to evaluate its applicability to forming agricultural drought indices. Agricultural drought is quantified using the Soil Water Deficit Index (SWDI) based on SMAP and soil properties (field capacity and available water content) information. The soil properties are computed using pedo-transfer function with soil characteristics derived from Harmonized World Soil Database. The SMAP soil moisture product needs to be rescaled to be compatible with the soil parameters derived from the in situ stations. In most locations, the rescaled SMAP information captured the dynamics of in situ soil moisture well and shows the expected lag between accumulations of precipitation and delayed increased in surface soil moisture. However, the SMAP soil moisture itself does not reveal the drought information. Therefore, the SMAP based SWDI (SMAP_SWDI) was computed to improve agriculture drought monitoring by using the latest soil moisture retrieval satellite technology. The formulation of SWDI does not depend on longer data and it will overcome the limited (short) length of SMAP data for agricultural drought studies. The SMAP_SWDI is further compared with in situ Atmospheric Water Deficit (AWD) Index. The comparison shows close agreement between SMAP_SWDI and AWD in drought monitoring over Contiguous United States (CONUS), especially in terms of drought characteristics. The SMAP_SWDI was used to construct drought maps for CONUS and compared with well-known drought indices, such as, AWD, Palmer Z-Index, sc-PDSI and SPEI. Overall the SMAP_SWDI is an effective agricultural drought indicator and it provides continuity and introduces new spatial mapping capability for drought monitoring. As an

  4. Measurement Methodology for Monitoring Fouling Resistance in Condenser of Chiller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dan; GAN Li-si; CAO Yong

    2009-01-01

    This paper established an on-line monitoring model for fouling resistance of cooling water based on heat transfer theory,which was mainly applied to the fouling resistance test for condenser of chiller in operation,and the test requirements were presented.It proves that the load ratio of chiller has big influence on the test re-sult,and the best load ratio for test is the range of 80%~100%.A case has been executed to validate the mod-el's feasibility.

  5. How to monitor and adjust in real time the total water consumption and water use efficiency: Earned value method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhong; Dong, Zengchuan; Wu, Huixiu; Yang, Lin

    2017-03-01

    The evaluation indexes of total water consumption and water use efficiency have the characteristics of post feedback. In this paper we introduce the basic concept and specific theory of Earned value method (EVM) from project management, and reconstruct parameters in the method to adapt to water resources monitoring. The case of Dandong was studied, by analyzing the industry and irrigation water utilization. Although the total water consumption of two aspects reaches standards, the industrial added value and water use efficiency of irrigation are not up to standard. The results show that PV can be used as a baseline for real-time monitoring and adjustment, and the advantage of the EVM is that it can be an organic unity of water consumption and efficiency, so we can analyze comprehensively water utilization process.

  6. Indicator values for lichens on Quercus as a tool to monitor ammonia pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, K.; Olsen, H. B.; Søchting, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    The epiphytic lichen vegetation on solitary Quercus trees was investigated on 13 locations in Denmark in order to test the usability of indicator values to quantify ammonia deposition from the ambient air. Indicator values calculated for each location corresponded well with the expected ecological...

  7. Indicator values for lichens on Quercus as a tool to monitor ammonia pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, K.; Olsen, H. B.; Søchting, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    The epiphytic lichen vegetation on solitary Quercus trees was investigated on 13 locations in Denmark in order to test the usability of indicator values to quantify ammonia deposition from the ambient air. Indicator values calculated for each location corresponded well with the expected ecological...... as a tool for quantitative estimation of ammonia deposition in relation to sensitive Danish ecosystems.  ...

  8. The experience in monitoring pennalties and alternative measures: the case of the NUMOPA/CEAPA/NUAPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra regina de abreu Pires

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present text aimed to show an experience with the monitoring of the execution of the penalties and alternative measures developed in the Londrina – Paraná region, through the projects Londrina’s Center for Alternative Sentencing Monitoring, Center for Alternative Sentencing Monitoring of Arapongas; Central Monitoring and Sentencing Alternative Measures and Center for Monitoring and Sentencing Alternative Measures of Cambé. The text if initiates with some notes on sentencing alternative measures in view of allowing the visualization of the thematic context of the experience. After that, it contemplates the experience directly, telling first the trajectory covered for, continuous act, to summarily approach some elements of the work methodology. It finishes with a mention to some of the gotten positive results with the developed work.

  9. Monitoring changes in acid value, total polar material, and antioxidant capacity of oils used for frying chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, JuHee; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Young-Jun; Lee, JaeHwan

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation products and tocol homologues were monitored in oils during chicken frying to determine the discarding point of highly used frying oils. Oils were heated without chicken for 170h while chicken frying was performed 130 cycles at 180°C. As heating time and frying cycles increased, all oxidation parameters including acid value, total polar materials (TPM), conjugated dienoic acid (CDA), and p-anisidine values (p-AV) increased significantly (poils during heating or frying processes compared to other tocol homologues. TPM values over 24% were obtained after about 109h for heated oil and 100 cycles for oils used to fry chicken. A decrease of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in isooctane and methanol was highly correlated with the formation of TPM in oils during the frying process. Both DPPH loss and TPM values could be applied to determine the discarding points of highly used frying oils.

  10. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for conventional glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    Three different glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET. (A device for calorimetric measurement of total solar energy transmittance - g-value).The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements. This is done by comparison...

  11. Alternative Approaches for Measuring Values: Direct and Indirect Assessments in Performance Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Michael D.; Connelly, Mary Shane; Helton, Whitney B.; Van Doorn, Judy R.; Osburn, Holly K.

    2002-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=195) completed direct and indirect measures of values before working on entrepreneurial, consulting, and marketing tasks. Regression analysis showed both types of measures were effective predictors. Indirect measures yielded better prediction and better discrimination of cross-task performance differences. (Contains 55…

  12. PAMTRAK: A system to monitor high value objects and personnel in restricted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anspach, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walters, B.G. [Argonne National Lab.-West, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anspach, J.P. [AlliedSignal Kansas City Operations, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crain, B. Jr. [Science Applications International Corp., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Site

    1996-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) uses sensitive or classified parts and material that must be protected and accounted for. The authors believe there is a need for an automated system that can help protect and monitor these parts and material. In response to this need Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a real-time personnel and material tracking system called PAMTRAK that has been installed at selected DOE facilities. PAMTRAK safeguards sensitive parts and material by tracking tags worn by personnel and by monitoring sensors attached to the parts or material. This paper describes the goals when designing PAMTRAK, the PAMTRAK system components, the current installations, and the benefits a site can expect when using PAMTRAK.

  13. AFQI monitoring offers new paradigm in providing value-added service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, A. [Insight Technologies Inc., Bohemia, NY (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Flame Quality Indicator (AFQI) monitoring system provides the oil heat industry with new competitive power in the marketplace. It offers opportunities to reduce service and delivery costs significantly, to improve customer satisfaction by improved reliability, cleanliness, safety and efficiency; and to attract and retain accounts in competitive situations. It is an outgrowth of the technology developed at the US department of Energy`s Brookhaven National Laboratory. The AFQI System utilizes an on-board microprocessor and modem to communicate with a central station computer in the oil dealer`s facility. At scheduled times, each installed unit automatically reports the operational status and performance history of its associated heating equipment and updates customer information in the central station computer`s database. The operation of the AFQI monitoring system is described.

  14. Value of visual evoked potential monitoring during trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, A G; Babu, K S; Chandy, M J

    1996-06-01

    The visual outcome of 22 patients undergoing trans-sphenoidal excision of pituitary macroadenomas with intraoperative flash visual evoked potential (VEP) monitoring (Group A), was compared with a non-randomized group of 14 patients who had undergone similar operations without VEP monitoring (Group B). Tumour size, preoperative visual acuity, peripheral fields, and latencies and amplitudes of P1 and P2 were analysed to ascertain the best predictor of postoperative visual function. It was found that patients in Group A had a significantly greater improvement in field defects than those in Group B. There was no difference in postoperative improvement in visual acuity between the two groups. None of the variables analysed were good predictors of visual outcome.

  15. Towards better service in restaurants by monitoring trends: Display of nutritional values on the menus

    OpenAIRE

    Ivkov Milan

    2015-01-01

    Business obligations, the manner and pace of life today, and a large number of options when it comes to eating out, require that at least one meal is consumed outside the residence or using the services of catering and retail facilities. With this in mind, restaurants are forced to fight in the market and to differentiate the specific offer to attract a particular segment of the market. Differentiation is possible through monitoring the trends and timely adjustments to more demanding consumer...

  16. Incorporation monitoring with triage measurements in Switzerland; Inkorporationsueberwachung mit Triagemessungen in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmiger, Raphael [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit BAG, Liebefeld (Switzerland). Abteilung Strahlenschutz

    2017-08-01

    The actual valid concept of incorporation monitoring in Switzerland was implemented in 1999 with the regulation on personal dosimetry based on the recommendations of an expert group for dosimetry of the Helvetian commission for radiation protection (KSR). IN the sense of an uncomplicated and practical solution for the respective companies it is a two-step monitoring using two different measuring methods: a simplified triage measurement performed by the company and the incorporation measurement by an authorized dosimetry station.

  17. Patients’ perceived value of pharmacy quality measures: a mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mort, Jane R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe patients’ perceived value and use of quality measures in evaluating and choosing community pharmacies. Design Focus group methodology was combined with a survey tool. During the focus groups, participants assessed the value of the Pharmacy Quality Alliance's quality measures in evaluating and choosing a pharmacy. Also, participants completed questionnaires rating their perceived value of quality measures in evaluating a pharmacy (1 being low value and 5 being high) or choosing a pharmacy (yes/no). Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the focus groups and surveys, respectively. Setting Semistructured focus groups were conducted in a private meeting space of an urban and a rural area of a Mid-western State in the USA. Participants Thirty-four adults who filled prescription medications in community pharmacies for a chronic illness were recruited in community pharmacies, senior centres and public libraries. Results While comments indicated that all measures were important, medication safety measures (eg, drug-drug interactions) were valued more highly than others. Rating of quality measure utility in evaluating a pharmacy ranged from a mean of 4.88 (‘drug-drug interactions’) to a mean of 4.0 (‘absence of controller therapy for patients with asthma’). Patients were hesitant to use quality information in choosing a pharmacy (depending on the participant's location) but might consider if moving to a new area or having had a negative pharmacy experience. Use of select quality measures to choose a pharmacy ranged from 97.1% of participants using ‘drug-drug interactions’ (medication safety measure) to 55.9% using ‘absence of controller therapy for patients with asthma’. Conclusions The study participants valued quality measures in evaluating and selecting a community pharmacy, with medication safety measures valued highest. The participants reported that the quality measures would not typically cause a

  18. Improved Power Quality Monitoring through Phasor Measurement Unit Data Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Marinelli, Mattia; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    the correct actions for operating the system. In future power systems more measuring sensors including phasor measurement units will be available distributed all over the power system. They can and should be utilized to increase the observability of the power system. In this paper the impact of photovoltaic....... The voltage unbalance factor (VUF) could be a ‘new’ observable for a particular power system condition. Information about the actual injected wind power for a certain grid area could be derived without knowing/measuring the real wind power injection....

  19. Value research on thromboelastogram(TEG) in the monitoring of platelet activity variation tendency of PCI surgery patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Bin Zou; He Huang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the value research on thromboelastogram (TEG) in the monitoring of platelet activity variation tendency of PCI surgery patients.Method:180 cases of patients with coronary heart disease who have proceeded PCI surgery were selected and divided into AMI group, UAP group and AP group. To compare the coagulation indicator, TEG and pathological changes of these three groups; all patients were adopted conventional therapy, after operation, divided them into anti-platelet low reaction group (platelet high reaction group) and normal group according to platelet aggregation rate monitored by TEG, and compared the clotting all items, clinical indicator, PCI postoperative platelet aggregation inhibition rate and clinical ischemia cases occurrence rate within 6 months follow up visit of both groups.Results: TEG parametric R value and K value in AMI group and UAP group were obviously lower than that in AP group, MA value and angle value were obviously higher than AP group, significant difference; TEG image in AMI group and UAP group mainly featured hypercoagulability, while TEG image had no hypercoagulability in AP group; Chi-square test showed that hypercoagulability image percentage differences between these three groups had statistical significance; ADP and AA induced platelet inhibition rate determined by TEG in high reaction group was obviously lower than that in normal group; 6 cases in platelet high reaction group: CK-MB rose and exceeded normal value upper limit (10.90%), 9 cases: cTnI rose and exceeded normal value upper limit (19.6%), compared with normal group (3 cases, 2.4%; 5 cases, 4%), the value in platelet high reaction group was higher, and the difference was significant; platelet high reaction group: totally 10 cases of ischemia, occurrence rate was 10.5%, while platelet normal reaction group: totally 3 cases (2.4%), chi-square test showed that the difference between these two groups had statistical significance

  20. Partial-measurement backaction and nonclassical weak values in a superconducting circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, J P; Ristè, D; Tornberg, L; Cramer, J; de Groot, P C; Picot, T; Johansson, G; DiCarlo, L

    2013-08-30

    We realize indirect partial measurement of a transmon qubit in circuit quantum electrodynamics by interaction with an ancilla qubit and projective ancilla measurement with a dedicated readout resonator. Accurate control of the interaction and ancilla measurement basis allows tailoring the measurement strength and operator. The tradeoff between measurement strength and qubit backaction is characterized through the distortion of a qubit Rabi oscillation imposed by ancilla measurement in different bases. Combining partial and projective qubit measurements, we provide the solid-state demonstration of the correspondence between a nonclassical weak value and the violation of a Leggett-Garg inequality.

  1. Advances in quality control for dioxins monitoring and evaluation of measurement uncertainty from quality control data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppe, Gauthier; De Pauw, Edwin

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes an application of multivariate and multilevel quality control charts with the aim of improving the internal quality control (IQC) procedures for the monitoring of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs analysis in food. Dioxin analysts have to use the toxic equivalent concept (TEQ) to assess the toxicity potential of a mixture of dioxin-like compounds. The TEQ approach requires quantifying individually 29 dioxin-like compounds. Monitoring the congeners separately on univariate QC charts is misleading owing to the increase of false alarm rate. We propose to subdivide the TEQ value into 3 sub-groups and to control simultaneously the 3 variables in a T(2) chart. When a T(2) exceeds the upper control limit, it acts as a warning to trigger additional investigations on individual congeners. We discuss the minimum number of runs required to reliably estimate the QC chart parameters and we suggest using data from multilevel QC charts to properly characterize the standard deviations and the correlation coefficients. Moreover, the univariate QC chart can be sensitised to detect systematic errors by using exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) technique. The EWMA chart provides an additional guidance on setting appropriate criteria to control the method bias and to support trend analysis. Finally, we present an estimate of measurement uncertainty by computing the accuracy profile in a retrospective way with the QC data generated and we discuss assessment of compliance with regulatory maximum levels.

  2. Why do we buy luxury experiences?: Measuring value perceptions of luxury hospitality services

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Anna S.; Yang, Wan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The luxury segment of the hospitality industry has experienced substantial growth in the past decade. Unfortunately, the notion of perceived luxury values has received scant attention, and there is a lack of a valid framework to capture consumers' value perceptions in the context of luxury hospitality services. Using luxury restaurant as an example of luxury hospitality services, this paper aims to establish the structure of luxury hospitality values and their measures and to inve...

  3. Predictive value of noninvasive measures of atherosclerosis for incident myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Bots (Michiel); A. Hofman (Albert); A.I. Sol (Antonio Iglesias); D.A. van der Kuip (Deirdre); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Several noninvasive methods are available to investigate the severity of extracoronary atherosclerotic disease. No population-based study has yet examined whether differences exist between these measures with regard to their predictive value for myocardial i

  4. THE USE OF A VALUE AT RISK MEASURE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF BANK INTEREST MARGINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Gemzik-Salwach

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the use of a Value at Risk measure to analyze the effectiveness of a bank. Among various existing possibilities of using this measure, the use of a new method has been proposed, namely, correcting various indicators of bank interest margins by using the Value at Risk measure. The newly established measures were then subjected to empirical tests, whose main objective was to test the capacity of the information resulting from the recourse to the proposed indicators. Using the data from financial statements of banks listed on the Stock Exchange in Warsaw in the years 1998-2012, two types of risk-adjusted bank interest margins were calculated, which provided a way to set the minimum levels that can be expected with the probability assumed in the calculation. The way in which these values are formed over time was then analyzed and they were finally compared with the typical values.

  5. Network Monitoring and Diagnosis Based on Available Bandwidth Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    encouragements helped me pass those tough early days in the US. I would also like to thank my officemates Julio Lopez and Rajesh Balan, both system experts. With...tradeoffs of structured overlays in a dynamic non-transitive network. In MIT 6.829 Fall 2003 class project, December 2003. [52] Ramesh Govindan and Vern ...using packet quartets. In ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Workshop 2002, 2002. [92] Vern Paxson. Measurements and Analysis of End-to-End Internet

  6. Value of multiple production measurements and water front tracking in closed-loop reservoir management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, E.G.D.; Leeuwenburgh, O.; Hof, P.M.J. Van den; Jansen, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends previous work on value of information (VOI) assessment in closed-loop reservoir management (CLRM) to estimate the added value of performing multiple measurements along the producing life of the reservoir. The new procedure is based on the workflow from our previous paper which

  7. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  8. Single Valued Neutrosophic Similarity Measures for Multiple Attribute Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ye

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Similarity measures play an important role in data mining, pattern recognition, decision making, machine learning, image process etc. Then, single valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs can describe and handle the indeterminate and inconsistent information, which fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets cannot describe and deal with. Therefore, the paper proposes new similarity meas-ures between SVNSs based on the minimum and maxi-mum operators. Then a multiple attribute decision-making method based on the weighted similarity measure of SVNSs is established in which attribute values for alternatives are represented by the form of single valued neutrosophic values (SVNVs and the attribute weights and the weights of the three independent elements (i.e., truthmembership degree, indeterminacy-membership degree, and falsity-membership degree in a SVNV are considered in the decision-making method. In the decision making, we utilize the single-valued neutrosophic weighted similarity measure between the ideal alternative and an alternative to rank the alternatives corresponding to the measure values and to select the most desirable one(s. Finally, two practical examples are provided to demonstrate the applications and effectiveness of the single valued neutrosophic multiple attribute decision-making method.

  9. Multi scale risk measurement in electricity market:a wavelet based value at risk approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guu; Sy-Ming; Lai; Kin; Keung

    2008-01-01

    Value at risk (VaR) is adopted to measure the risk level in the electricity market. To estimate VaR at higher accuracy and reliability, the wavelet variance decomposed approach for value at risk estimates (WVDVaR) is proposed. Empirical studies conduct in five Australian electricity markets, which evaluate the performances of both the proposed approach and the traditional ARMA-GARCH approach using the Kupiec backtesting procedure. Experimental results suggest that the proposed approach measures electricity ...

  10. Using public health surveillance data to monitor the effectiveness of brucellosis control measures in animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUJTIM MERSINAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current brucellosis control program in small ruminants consists in two major components the first is an intervention strategy through modification of host resistance by vaccinating the entire small ruminant’s population using live attenuated Rev-1 strain of B. melitensis. The second is a post vaccination monitoring and surveillance system (MOSS to monitor the efficacy of the mass vaccination. The MOSS is based on sampling vaccinated animals between 20 to 40 days post-vaccination and testing through Rose Bengal Plate Test in order to detect antibody presence and evaluate the vaccination sero-conversion and coverage. Rose Bengal test is recommended for screening of samples to determine flock prevalence and like other serological tests it cannot discriminate between natural infection and vaccination antibodies. The methodology used in the post vaccination MOSS during the mass vaccination campaigns of 2012 and 2013 demonstrated much strength upon which future MOSS should be built. However, the current system has also shown gaps in terms of missed opportunities to analyse information generated from other sources. Trends of disease in accidental hosts like humans have not been integrated within post vaccination MOSS. Given that the infection level cannot be estimated in small ruminants, data generated by public health surveillance system can be able to give an independent overview of the impact of the vaccination campaign. This paper will address in depth this issue by showcasing the value of integrated surveillance data in monitoring the success of brucellosis control measures in small ruminants as a one health approach in practise.

  11. In-situ stress measurements and stress change monitoring to monitor overburden caving behaviour and hydraulic fracture pre-conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Puller Jesse W.; Mills Ken W.; Jeffrey Rob G.; Walker Rick J.

    2016-01-01

    A coal mine in New South Wales is longwall mining 300 m wide panels at a depth of 160–180 m directly below a 16–20 m thick conglomerate strata. As part of a strategy to use hydraulic fracturing to manage potential windblast and periodic caving hazards associated with these conglomerate strata, the in-situ stresses in the conglomerate were measured using ANZI strain cells and the overcoring method of stress relief. Changes in stress associated with abutment loading and placement of hydraulic fractures were also measured using ANZI strain cells installed from the surface and from underground. Overcore stress mea-surements have indicated that the vertical stress is the lowest principal stress so that hydraulic fractures placed ahead of mining form horizontally and so provide effective pre-conditioning to promote caving of the conglomerate strata. Monitoring of stress changes in the overburden strata during longwall retreat was undertaken at two different locations at the mine. The monitoring indicated stress changes were evi-dent 150 m ahead of the longwall face and abutment loading reached a maximum increase of about 7.5 MPa. The stresses ahead of mining change gradually with distance to the approaching longwall and in a direction consistent with the horizontal in-situ stresses. There was no evidence in the stress change monitoring results to indicate significant cyclical forward abutment loading ahead of the face. The for-ward abutment load determined from the stress change monitoring is consistent with the weight of over-burden strata overhanging the goaf indicated by subsidence monitoring.

  12. Investigating General Chemistry Students' Metacognitive Monitoring of Their Exam Performance by Measuring Postdiction Accuracies over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Morgan J.; Dysleski, Lisa; Rickey, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive monitoring of one's own understanding plays a key role in learning. An aspect of metacognitive monitoring can be measured by comparing a student's prediction or postdiction of performance (a judgment made before or after completing the relevant task) with the student's actual performance. In this study, we investigated students'…

  13. The influence of probe fiber distance on laser Doppler perfusion monitoring measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales, F; Graaff, R; Smit, AJ; Gush, R; Rakhorst, G

    2003-01-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring (LDPM) is a noninvasive technique for monitoring skin microcirculation. The aim of this article was to investigate the influence of fiber separation on clinical LDPM measurements. A dual-channel LDPM system was used in combination with a probe that consists of two

  14. Investigating General Chemistry Students' Metacognitive Monitoring of Their Exam Performance by Measuring Postdiction Accuracies over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Morgan J.; Dysleski, Lisa; Rickey, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive monitoring of one's own understanding plays a key role in learning. An aspect of metacognitive monitoring can be measured by comparing a student's prediction or postdiction of performance (a judgment made before or after completing the relevant task) with the student's actual performance. In this study, we investigated students'…

  15. Measured and Monte Carlo simulated electron backscatter to the monitor chamber for the Varian TrueBeam Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Samantha A. M.; Gagne, Isabelle M.; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Zavgorodni, Sergei

    2016-12-01

    To accurately simulate therapeutic electron beams using Monte Carlo methods, backscatter from jaws into the monitor chamber must be accounted for via the backscatter factor, S b. Measured and simulated values of S b for the TrueBeam are investigated. Two approaches for measuring S b are presented. Both require service mode operation with the dose and pulse forming networking servos turned off in order to assess changes in dose rate with field size. The first approach samples an instantaneous dose rate, while the second approach times the delivery of a fixed number of monitor units to assess dose rate. Dose rates were measured for 6, 12 and 20 MeV electrons for jaw- or MLC-shaped apertures between 1× 1 and 40× 40 cm2. The measurement techniques resulted in values of S b that agreed within 0.21% for square and asymmetric fields collimated by the jaws. Measured values of S b were used to calculate the forward dose component in a virtual monitor chamber using BEAMnrc. Based on this forward component, simulated values of S b were calculated and compared to measurement and Varian’s VirtuaLinac simulations. BEAMnrc results for jaw-shaped fields agreed with measurements and with VirtuaLinac simulations within 0.2%. For MLC-shaped fields, the respective measurement techniques differed by as much as 0.41% and BEAMnrc results differed with measurement by as much as 0.4%, however, all measured and simulated values agreed within experimental uncertainty. Measurement sensitivity was not sufficient to capture the small backscatter effect due to the MLC, and Monte Carlo predicted backscatter from the MLC to be no more than 0.3%. Backscatter from the jaws changed the electron dose rate by up to 2.6%. This reinforces the importance of including a backscatter factor in simulations of electron fields shaped with secondary collimating jaws, but presents the option of ignoring it when jaws are retracted and collimation is done with the MLC.

  16. Fructosamine measurement for diabetes mellitus diagnosis and monitoring: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Fokom-Domgue, Joël; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Balti, Eric V; Sobngwi, Eugène; Kengne, André Pascal

    2015-05-15

    Fructosamine is a marker of glucose control reflecting the average glycaemic level over the preceding 2-3 weeks. Fructosamine has not gained as much popularity as glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for diabetes mellitus (DM) control monitoring, and the related underlying reasons remain unclear. We aim to search for and summarise available evidence on the accuracy of fructosamine measurements to diagnose and monitor DM. This systematic review will include randomised control trials, controlled before-and-after studies, time series designs, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional surveys reporting the diagnosis and/or monitoring of DM (type 1 DM, type 2 DM and gestational DM) with fructosamine compared with other measures of glycaemia (fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, random glucose, HbA1c), without any language restriction. We will perform electronic searches in PubMed, Scopus and other databases, supplemented with manual searches. Articles published from 1 January 1980 to 30 June 2015 will be eligible for inclusion in this review. Two authors will independently screen, select studies, extract data and assess the risk of bias with discrepancies resolved by consensus. We will assess clinical heterogeneity by examining the types of interventions and outcomes in each study, and pool studies judged to be clinically homogeneous. We will also assess statistical heterogeneity using the χ(2) test of homogeneity and quantify it using the I(2) statistic. Absolute accuracy measures (sensitivity, specificity) will be pooled in a bivariate random-effects model, allowing for intersetting variability. Negative and positive predictive values will be computed for fructosamine, compared with another measure of glycaemia from the pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity, using Bayes' theorem. This systematic review will use data from published studies and does not require ethics approval. Findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and

  17. [The Difference of CT Value Related to Monitor Position in the Head CT-angiography Bolus Tracking Method for Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizui, Masato; Mizoguchi, Yuji; Tashiro, Takao

    2016-01-01

    The head computed tomography-angiography (head CT-A) examination is excellent for the detection and diagnosis of cerebral artery aneurysm. If we use bolus tracking method when implementing this examination, we must choose a monitoring point. We investigated the influence which the monitoring point (MCA or carotid-A) exerts on the CT value. As for the result, MCA monitoring point method was more excellent than the carotid artery monitoring point method. The CT value was higher about 50 HU in the MCA monitoring point than in the carotid artery monitoring point (average;carotid artery: 349.6±57.8 HU, MCA: 413.2±67.9 HU). So, we conclude that in the bolus tracking method of monitoring point of head CTA, MCA monitoring point should be used.

  18. Mucosal blood flow measurements using laser Doppler perfusion monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dag Arne Lihaug Hoff; Hans Gregersen; Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk

    2009-01-01

    Perfusion of individual tissues is a basic physiological process that is necessary to sustain oxygenation and nutrition at a cellular level. Ischemia, or the insufficiency of perfusion, is a common mechanism for tissue death or degeneration, and at a lower threshold, a mechanism for the generation of sensory signalling including pain. It is of considerable interest to study perfusion of peripheral abdominal tissues in a variety of circumstances. Microvascular disease of the abdominal organs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders, including peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease and chest pain. The basic principle of laser Doppler perfusion monitoring (LDPM) is to analyze changes in the spectrum of light reflected from tissues as a response to a beam of monochromatic laser light emitted. It reflects the total local microcirculatory blood perfusion, including perfusion in capillaries, arterioles, venules and shunts. During the last 20-25 years, numerous studies have been performed in different parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract using LDPM. In recent years we have developed a multi-modal catheter device which includes a laser Doppler probe, with the intent primarily to investigate patients suffering from functional chest pain of presumed oesophageal origin. Preliminary studies show the feasibility of incorporating LDPM into such catheters for performing physiological studies in the GI tract. LDPM has emerged as a research and clinical tool in preference to other methods; but, it is important to be aware of its limitations and account for them when reporting results.

  19. Concordance of adherence measurement using self-reported adherence questionnaires and medication monitoring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lizheng; Liu, Jinan; Koleva, Yordanka; Fonseca, Vivian; Kalsekar, Anupama; Pawaskar, Manjiri

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this review was to identify and examine the literature on the association between medication adherence self-reported questionnaires (SRQs) and medication monitoring devices. The primary literature search was performed for 1980-2009 using PubMed, PubMed In Process and Non-Indexed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process, PsycINFO (EBSCO), CINAHL (EBSCO), Ovid HealthStar, EMBASE (Elsevier) and Cochrane Databases and using the following search terms: 'patient compliance', 'medication adherence', 'treatment compliance', 'drug monitoring', 'drug therapy', 'electronic', 'digital', 'computer', 'monitor', 'monitoring', 'drug', 'drugs', 'pharmaceutical preparations', 'compliance' and 'medications'. We identified studies that included SRQs and electronic monitoring devices to measure adherence and focused on the SRQs that were found to be moderately to highly correlated with the monitoring devices. Of the 1679 citations found via the primary search, 41 full-text articles were reviewed for correlation between monitoring devices and SRQs. A majority (68%) of articles reported high (27%), moderate (29%) or significant (12%) correlation between monitoring devices (37 using Medication Event Monitoring System [MEMS®] and four using other devices) and SRQs (11 identified and numerous other unnamed SRQs). The most commonly used SRQs were the Adult/Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group (AACTG/PACTG; 24.4%, 10/41) followed by the 4-item Morisky (9.8%, 4/41), Brief Medication Questionnaire (9.8%, 4/41) and visual analogue scale (VAS; 7.3%, 3/41). Although study designs differed across the articles, SRQs appeared to report a higher rate of medication adherence (+14.9%) than monitoring devices. In conclusion, several medication adherence SRQs were validated using electronic monitoring devices. A majority of them showed high or moderate correlation with medication adherence measured using monitoring devices, and could be considered for measuring patient

  20. Opinion Paper: 'Likelihood-ratio' and 'odds' applied to monitoring of patients as a supplement to 'reference change value' (RCV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Sandberg, Sverre; Iglesias, Natàlia

    2007-01-01

    of this concept. It is a dichotomised interpretation of continuous data using a fixed probability without any counter hypothesis. Therefore, a tool for better understanding and interpretation of measured differences in monitoring is needed. Theory: The concept of sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios...... is acute intermittent porphyria, where increasing excretion of porphobilinogen is characteristic for an attack. The within-subject biological variation is estimated to 25%, which for two measurements gives a variation of 35% for measured differences. Three pre-test probabilities are assumed and illustrate...

  1. A NEW DEVICE AND METHOD FOR MEASURING VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN MONITORING WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; Warren Hyde, W; Brian02 Looney, B; Kirk Cantrell, K; Tyler Gilmore, T

    2006-11-06

    Accurate, timely measurement of chlorinated solvents and other volatile contaminants in groundwater is crucial to support responsible environmental management. Traditionally, two distinctly different paradigms have been explored to meet this need--fixed laboratory analysis and ''real-time'' sensors. While these alternatives remain important, field based and field screening tools represent a potentially useful intermediate approach that balances some of the advantages and disadvantages of the traditional ''endmember'' paradigms. The value of accurate, in-field measurements during characterization was recognized in recent sampling/decision methods, such as the TRIAD approach (ITRC, 2003). Strategies that support gathering accurate data on the timescales representative of the rate of change of the system (e.g., months to years, not seconds to minutes) is key for long-term monitoring for chlorinated solvent plumes in which attenuation based remedies are being considered. A team of researchers developed a down-well sampling device that, when used in combination with field gas analysis tools, provides data in the field. The test results indicate this tool, as configured, will provide accurate measurements (as compared with laboratory methods) at concentrations in the hundreds of ppb or higher range, but require confirmatory traditional sampling with laboratory analysis at concentrations approaching 20 ppb and less. The logistics and costs of the sampling device were somewhat complex. The results of the study, while equivocal, generally suggest that future development of this type of in-field technique may be warranted.

  2. Simplified product value measurement framework for small and medium sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Parkash

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergences of global markets have increased competition worldwide. For Small Medium Sized Enterprises with limited resources to sustain in what is already a very competitive market there is a need for strong and continuously increasing Product Value to reduce business risks and revenue losses and to increase market share and customer satisfaction. To fulfill this need, Product Value Measurement is necessary to characterize the current status and further improvement. It is not easy to obtain the measures about the Product Value because its many features have qualitative characteristics. We need simplified but result oriented systematic framework to measure it while considering the measurement purpose and how to measure and why do it. Methods: How to design this is the main aim of this research paper. In this paper, GQM (Goal-Question-Metric method as a measurement framework is introduced to measure the Product Value for Small Medium Sized Enterprises along with case study to represent that this framework was effective. Results and conclusions: The proposed Model was effective for focusing on the essence of measurement and for avoiding extra excessive data not necessary for doing the effective measurement.

  3. Measurement invariance of the Portrait Values Questionnaire across 25 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    The Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) is tested for cross-cultural validity. Measurement characteristics are compared across representative consumer samples from 25 European countries (total N = 37,592) using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. The results suggest....... Hence, most direct comparisons of PVQ raw scores and sample statistics between European countries are valid without correction. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the ten values measured by the PVQ are invariant across European countries in terms of their relative position on the quasi......-circumplex hypothesised by the theory of basic human values....

  4. Predictive value of derived calcium figures based on the measurement of ionised calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, M D; Dryburgh, F J; Fyffe, J A; Jenkins, A S

    1981-03-01

    The algorithms used in this hospital to assess calcium status are calculated ionised serum calcium and the serum calcium concentration adjusted for albumin. In order to establish their clinical usefulness, they were compared with the ionised calcium concentration measured on the Nova 2 instrument in patients with various calcium and protein abnormalities. Good correlation was found between the measured and calculated values. The predictive values for the calculated results and for total serum calcium concentrations are presented. In this series, the derived values were useful in predicting the serum ionised calcium concentration of the patients studied.

  5. Qubit State Monitoring by Measurement of Three Complementary Observables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruskov, Rusko; Korotkov, Alexander N.; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    We consider the evolution of a qubit (spin 1/2) under the simultaneous continuous measurement of three noncommuting qubit operators σ̂x, σ̂y, and σ̂z. For identical ideal detectors, the qubit state evolves by approaching a pure state with a random direction in the Bloch vector space...

  6. Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Monitor Kindergarteners' Mathematics Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine technical and instructional features of a kindergarten curriculum-based measurement (CBM) tool designed to track students' mathematics progress in terms of computational concepts, procedures, and counting strategies. Students in 10 kindergarten classrooms in three elementary schools completed alternate…

  7. 33 CFR 104.285 - Security measures for monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Assigning additional personnel as security lookouts; (5) Coordinating with boat patrols, when provided; and...) Preparing for underwater inspection of the hull; and (7) Initiating measures, including the slow revolution of the vessel's propellers, if practicable, to deter underwater access to the hull of the vessel. ...

  8. Value of free-run electromyographic monitoring of lower cranial nerves in endoscopic endonasal approach to skull base surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Mohanraj, Santhosh Kumar; Habeych, Miguel; Wichman, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Gardner, Paul; Snyderman, Carl; Crammond, Donald J; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2012-08-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to evaluate the value of free-run electromyography (f-EMG) monitoring of cranial nerves (CNs) VII, IX, X, XI, and XII in skull base surgeries performed using endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) to reduce iatrogenic CN deficits. Design We retrospectively identified 73 patients out of 990 patients who had EEA in our institution who had at least one CN monitored. In each CN group, we classified patients who had significant (SG) f-EMG activity as group I and those who did not as group II. Results We monitored a total of 342 CNs. A total of 62 nerves had SG f-EMG activity including CN VII = 18, CN IX = 16, CN X = 13, CN XI = 5, and CN XII = 10. No nerve deficit was found in the nerves that had significant activity during procedure. A total of five nerve deficits including (CN IX = 1, CN X = 2, CN XII = 2) were observed in the group that did not display SG f-EMG activity during surgery. Conclusions f-EMG seems highly sensitive to surgical manipulations and in locating CNs. It seems to have limited value in predicting postoperative neurological deficits. Future studies to evaluate the EMG of lower CNs during EEA procedures need to be done with both f-EMG and triggered EMG.

  9. Monitoring the Hydrolysis of Olive Oil Catalyzed by Lipase via Acid Value Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hydrolysis of olive oil catalyzed by Candida lipolytica lipase was investigated. The relative concentration of the components in the product was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Furthermore, a novel rapid method to detect the hydrolytic process of olive oil was developed based on the relationship between the acid value and the relative concentration of the different components.

  10. Ultrasonic thickness structural health monitoring photoelastic visualization and measurement accuracy for internal pipe corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Thomas J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lozev, Mark G.

    2015-03-01

    Oil refinery production of fuels is becoming more challenging as a result of the changing world supply of crude oil towards properties of higher density, higher sulfur concentration, and higher acidity. One such production challenge is an increased risk of naphthenic acid corrosion that can result in various surface degradation profiles of uniform corrosion, non-uniform corrosion, and localized pitting in piping systems at temperatures between 150°C and 400°C. The irregular internal surface topology and high external surface temperature leads to a challenging in-service monitoring application for accurate pipe wall thickness measurements. Improved measurement technology is needed to continuously profile the local minimum thickness points of a non-uniformly corroding surface. The measurement accuracy and precision must be sufficient to provide a better understanding of the integrity risk associated with refining crude oils of higher acid concentration. This paper discusses potential technologies for measuring localized internal corrosion in high temperature steel piping and describes the approach under investigation to apply flexible ultrasonic thin-film piezoelectric transducer arrays fabricated by the sol-gel manufacturing process. Next, the elastic wave beam profile of a sol-gel transducer is characterized via photoelastic visualization. Finally, the variables that impact measurement accuracy and precision are discussed and a maximum likelihood statistical method is presented and demonstrated to quantify the measurement accuracy and precision of various time-of-flight thickness calculation methods in an ideal environment. The statistical method results in confidence values analogous to the a90 and a90/95 terminology used in Probability-of-Detection (POD) assessments.

  11. Hepatic stiffness measurement by using MR elastography: prognostic values after hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Ho [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Suh, Kyung-Suk [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hoon [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Bun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate prognostic value of hepatic stiffness (HS) measurement using MR elastography (MRE) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by hepatic resection (HR). We enrolled 144 patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A HCCs initially treated by HR who underwent preoperative liver MRE between January 2010 and June 2013. HS values were measured using MRE. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine significant predictive factors for posthepatecomy liver failure (PHLF). Overall survival (OS) was analyzed by evaluating prognostic factors using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression model. After HR, 43 patients (29.9 %) experienced PHLF. HS values were significant predictive factors for PHLF. In ROC analysis, the area under the curve of HS was 0.740 (P = 0.001) for PHLF. Thirty-one patients had HS values ≥ 4.02 kPa; the estimated 1, 3, 5-year survival were 90.0 %, 74.7 % and 65.4 %, respectively, versus 98.1 %, 96.5 % and 96.5 % in 113 patients with HS values < 4.02 kPa (P = 0.015). An HS value ≥ 4.02 kPa was the only significant affecting factor for OS. HS values measured by MRE could predict PHLF development post-HR. Furthermore, an HS value ≥4.02 kPa was a significant predicting factor for poor OS post-HR. (orig.)

  12. Measuring the Value of New Drugs: Validity and Reliability of 4 Value Assessment Frameworks in the Oncology Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tanya G K; Cohen, Joshua T; Elkin, Elena B; Huynh, Julie; Mukherjea, Arnab; Neville, Thanh H; Mei, Matthew; Copher, Ronda; Knoth, Russell; Popescu, Ioana; Lee, Jackie; Zambrano, Jenelle M; Broder, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    Several organizations have developed frameworks to systematically assess the value of new drugs. To evaluate the convergent validity and interrater reliability of 4 value frameworks to understand the extent to which these tools can facilitate value-based treatment decisions in oncology. Eight panelists used the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) frameworks to conduct value assessments of 15 drugs for advanced lung and breast cancers and castration-refractory prostate cancer. Panelists received instructions and published clinical data required to complete the assessments, assigning each drug a numeric or letter score. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance for Ranks (Kendall's W) was used to measure convergent validity by cancer type among the 4 frameworks. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to measure interrater reliability for each framework across cancers. Panelists were surveyed on their experiences. Kendall's W across all 4 frameworks for breast, lung, and prostate cancer drugs was 0.560 (P= 0.010), 0.562 (P = 0.010), and 0.920 (P fair to excellent, increasing with clinical benefit subdomain concordance and simplicity of drug trial data. Interrater reliability, highest for ASCO and ESMO, improved with clarity of instructions and specificity of score definitions. Continued use, analyses, and refinements of these frameworks will bring us closer to the ultimate goal of using value-based treatment decisions to improve patient care and outcomes. This work was funded by Eisai Inc. Copher and Knoth are employees of Eisai Inc. Bentley, Lee, Zambrano, and Broder are employees of Partnership for Health Analytic Research, a health services research company paid by Eisai Inc. to conduct this research. For this study, Cohen, Huynh, and Neville report fees from Partnership for Health Analytic Research

  13. Value of therapeutic drug monitoring of MMF therapy in pediatric transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, G

    2006-09-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is desirable whenever the desired drug effect cannot be predicted from a given dose, or when it is necessary to find a balance between the efficacy and toxicity of the drug. Children and adolescents particularly benefit from TDM, because dosing requirements are often not studied in the same detail as in adults. Also, drug-drug interactions are frequent. The gold standard for assessment of drug exposure is the area-under-the-curve (AUC) for a full pharmacokinetic profile. TDM for mycophenolic acid (MPA) is less well established. Monitoring of trough levels does not suffice because of enterohepatic recirculation of MPA after formation of its main metabolite, a glucoronide termed MPA-G. However, abbreviated sampling schemes specific to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) correlate well with the AUC for MPA. Cyclosporine interacts with MPA by inhibiting the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). Higher MPA concentrations result in a decreased two h concentration of cyclosporine, while higher cyclosporine exposure results in a lower MPA exposure. There are no drug interactions between tacrolimus and MPA, and lower doses of MMF are required in combination with tacrolimus. Steroids may induce the clearance of MPA, which could account in part for the increasing MPA exposure following transplantation. TDM has allowed for dosing recommendations of MMF in children, which could lead to improved efficacy and minimization of toxicities. It is important that these provisional target levels are validated in prospective studies. The above points clearly indicate that there is a role for TDM of MPA in pediatric transplant recipients.

  14. Heat Loss Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a U-value Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    the best basis for upgrading the energy performance, it is important to measure the heat losses at different locations on a building facade, in order to optimize the energy performance. The author has invented a U-value meter, enabling measurements of heat transfer coefficients. The meter has been used...

  15. Weak Precompactness in the Space of Vector-Valued Measures of Bounded Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ghenciu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a Banach space X and a measure space (Ω,Σ, let M(Ω,X be the space of all X-valued countably additive measures on (Ω,Σ of bounded variation, with the total variation norm. In this paper we give a characterization of weakly precompact subsets of M(Ω,X.

  16. Measurement of g-value for windows with different solar shading devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Gudum, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    The resulting g-value (total solar energy transmittance) of windows with different combinations of glazing type and solar shading type is investigated by means of measurements. The measurements are carried out by exposing the indoor test facility (METSET) to sun from the indoor solar simulator (64...

  17. Validity of a Wearable Accelerometer Device to Measure Average Acceleration Values During High-Speed Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeremy P; Hopkinson, Trent L; Wundersitz, Daniel W T; Serpell, Benjamin G; Mara, Jocelyn K; Ball, Nick B

    2016-11-01

    Alexander, JP, Hopkinson, TL, Wundersitz, DWT, Serpell, BG, Mara, JK, and Ball, NB. Validity of a wearable accelerometer device to measure average acceleration values during high-speed running. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3007-3013, 2016-The aim of this study was to determine the validity of an accelerometer to measure average acceleration values during high-speed running. Thirteen subjects performed three sprint efforts over a 40-m distance (n = 39). Acceleration was measured using a 100-Hz triaxial accelerometer integrated within a wearable tracking device (SPI-HPU; GPSports). To provide a concurrent measure of acceleration, timing gates were positioned at 10-m intervals (0-40 m). Accelerometer data collected during 0-10 m and 10-20 m provided a measure of average acceleration values. Accelerometer data was recorded as the raw output and filtered by applying a 3-point moving average and a 10-point moving average. The accelerometer could not measure average acceleration values during high-speed running. The accelerometer significantly overestimated average acceleration values during both 0-10 m and 10-20 m, regardless of the data filtering technique (p < 0.001). Body mass significantly affected all accelerometer variables (p < 0.10, partial η = 0.091-0.219). Body mass and the absence of a gravity compensation formula affect the accuracy and practicality of accelerometers. Until GPSports-integrated accelerometers incorporate a gravity compensation formula, the usefulness of any accelerometer-derived algorithms is questionable.

  18. Bridging particle and wave sensitivity in a configurable detector of positive operator-valued measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Graciana; Lundeen, Jeff S; Branderhorst, Matthijs P A; Coldenstrodt-Ronge, Hendrik B; Smith, Brian J; Walmsley, Ian A

    2009-02-27

    We report an optical detector with tunable positive operator-valued measures. The device is based on a combination of weak-field homodyne techniques and photon-number-resolving detection. The resulting positive operator-valued measures can be continuously tuned from Fock-state projectors to a variety of phase-dependent quantum-state measurements by adjusting different system parameters such as local oscillator coupling, amplitude, and phase, allowing thus not only detection but also preparation of exotic quantum states. Experimental tomographic reconstructions of classical benchmark states are presented as a demonstration of the detector capabilities.

  19. The value of spirometry and exercise challenge test to diagnose and monitor children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaart, Lara S; Roukema, Jolt; Merkus, Peter Jfm

    2015-03-01

    Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways with characteristic symptoms including recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing. It may result in abnormalities of ventilator function, which can be assessed by different pulmonary function tests. In this case report, we present a 15-year-old boy with asthma and illustrate the value and limitations of spirometry and exercise challenge test in daily practice.

  20. The value of spirometry and exercise challenge test to diagnose and monitor children with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Wijngaart, L.S. van den; Roukema, J.; Merkus, P J F M

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways with characteristic symptoms including recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing. It may result in abnormalities of ventilator function, which can be assessed by different pulmonary function tests. In this case report, we present a 15-year-old boy with asthma and illustrate the value and limitations of spirometry and exercise challenge test in daily practice.

  1. Utilizing Non-Contact Stress Measurement System (NSMS) as a Health Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Terry; Hayes, Bryan; Bynum, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Continuously monitor all 156 blades throughout the entire operating envelope without adversely affecting tunnel conditions or compromise compressor shell integrity, Calculate dynamic response and identify the frequency/mode to determine individual blade deflection amplitudes, natural frequencies, phase, and damping (Q), Log static deflection to build a database of deflection values at certain compressor conditions to use as basis for real-time online Blade Stack monitor, Monitor for stall, surge, flutter, and blade damage, Operate with limited user input, low maintenance cost, safe illumination of probes, easy probe replacement, and require little or no access to compressor.

  2. Value-based performance measures for Hanford Tank Waste Remedition System (TWRS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeney, R.L.; von Winterfeldt, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and preparation for disposal of high-level waste currently stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Richland. The TWRS program has adopted a logical approach to decision making that is based on systems engineering and decision analysis (Westinghouse Hanford Company, 1995). This approach involves the explicit consideration of stakeholder values and an evaluation of the TWRS alternatives in terms of these values. Such evaluations need to be consistent across decisions. Thus, an effort was undertaken to develop a consistent, quantifiable set of measures that can be used by TVVRS to assess alternatives against the stakeholder values. The measures developed also met two additional requirements: 1) the number of measure should be relatively small; and 2) performance with respect to the measures should be relatively easy to estimate.

  3. Microwave Radiometry for Oil Pollution Monitoring, Measurements, and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1986-01-01

    Work is presently carried out in Europe to change the Status of the microwave radiometer, namely, to develop it from a research instrument to an operational instrument-especially for measuring oil pollution on the sea surface. The Technical University of Denmark (TUD), with its long experience...... in airborne microwave radiometry, is heavily involved in this process. The TUD multichannel imaging radiometer system has been flown in several large-scale oil-pollution experiments, the collected data have been analyzed, and they have revealed that care must be exercised to obtain accurate oil volume...

  4. The VALS: A new tool to measure people's general valued attributes of landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Dave; Ford, Rebecca M; Anderson, Nerida M; Farrar, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Research on values for natural areas has largely focussed on theoretical concerns such as distinguishing different kinds of values held by people. However practice, policymaking, planning and management is typically focused on more tangible valued attributes of the landscape such as biodiversity and recreation infrastructure that can be manipulated by management actions. There is a need for valid psychometric measures of such values that are suited to informing land management policies. A Valued Attributes of Landscape Scale (VALS) was developed, derived from a document analysis of values expressed in public land policy documents. The validity of the VALS was tested in an online survey comparing values across one of three randomly presented landscape contexts in Victoria, Australia: all publicly managed natural land, coastal areas, and large urban parks. A purposive snowball sample was used to recruit participants with a range of views and professional experience with land management, including members of the urban public. Factor analysis of responses (n = 646) separated concepts relating to natural attributes, social functions, the experience of being in natural areas, cultural attributes and productive uses. Relative importance of valued attribute factors was similar across all landscape contexts, although there were small but significant differences in the way people valued social functions (higher in urban parks) and productive uses (lower in urban parks). We conclude that the concept of valued attributes is useful for linking theoretical understandings of people's environmental values to the way values are considered by land managers, and that these attributes can be measured using the VALS instrument to produce data that should be useful for the policy and planning of natural resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Value-Personality Link Measured With Novel Instruments Developed With an Emic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Tevrüz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study is to investigate whether instruments developed with an emic approach in Turkey produce the same trait-value links obtained with studies using near universal instruments, and if emic traits and value concepts are composed under agency and communal conceptions. So, the first aim of this study is to inspect the conceptual similarities in the links between traits and values. The second aim is to examine the moderating effect of disposable income on the strength of the trait-value relationship. Undergraduate and graduate students (N = 595 from six universities in Istanbul responded to the Personality Profile Scale (PPS and the Life Goal Values (LGV questionnaire. Second order factor analysis indicated that indigenous value and trait items were representative of communal and agency conceptions. Furthermore, most of the value-trait links revealed with regression analysis, and the sinusoid relationships revealed with Pearson correlation coefficients were consistent with the findings measured with near universal instruments. Additionally found relationships between traits and especially conservation values can be interpreted as the instrumentality of agentic traits for personal as well for social focused values. Disposable income had a moderating effect on five trait-value relationships and three out of five were weaker in the low-income group.

  6. Realization of Arbitrary Positive-Operator-Value Measurement of Single Atomic Qubit via Cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yang; WU Wei; WU Chun-Wang; DAI Hong-Yi; LI Cheng-Zu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement.We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit.By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step.As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given.

  7. Evaluation of algorithms for calculating bioimpedance phase angle values from measured whole-body impedance modulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Bernt J; Tronstad, Christian; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Grimnes, Sverre

    2011-07-01

    This paper addresses the problem of calculating the bioimpedance phase angle from measurements of impedance modulus. A complete impedance measurement was performed on altogether 20 healthy persons using a Solatron 1260/1294 system. The obtained impedance modulus (absolute impedance value) values were used to calculate the Cole parameters and from them the phase angles. In addition, the phase angles were also calculated using a Kramers-Kronig approach. A correlation analysis for all subjects at each frequency (5, 50, 100 and 200 kHz) for both methods gave R(2) values ranging from 0.7 to 0.96 for the Cole approach and from 0.83 to 0.96 for the Kramers-Kronig approach; thus, both methods gave good results compared with the complete measurement results. From further statistical significance testing of the absolute value of the difference between measured and calculated phase angles, it was found that the Cole equation method gave significantly better agreement for the 50 and 100 kHz frequencies. In addition, the Cole equation method gives the four Cole parameters (R(0), R(∞), τ(z) and α) using measurements at frequencies up to 200 kHz while the Kramers-Kronig method used frequencies up to 500 kHz to reduce the effect of truncation on the calculated results. Both methods gave results that can be used for further bioimpedance calculations, thus improving the application potential of bioimpedance measurement results obtained using relatively inexpensive and portable measurement equipment.

  8. A comprehensive network of measuring stations to monitor climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hari, P. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Andreae, M. (Biogeochemistry Dept., Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)); Kabat, P. (Wageningen Univ. and Research Centre (Netherlands)); Kulmala, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    The atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and temperature have been rather stable at the time scale of millennia, although rather large variations have occurred during longer periods. The extensive use of fossil fuels and destruction of forests have recently increased the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Temperature and circulation of water on the globe are reacting to the increase in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration. Mankind urgently needs knowledge on the present climate change and on its effects on living nature. We propose that a network of comprehensive measuring stations should be constructed, utilizing modern technology to provide documentation of the climate change and data for research related to it. To be able to cover spatial and temporal variations, a hierarchy of stations is needed. (orig.)

  9. Storm-Time Ionospheric Disturbances Monitored by GPS Beacon Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Total Electron Content (TEC) during three great storms, from April to August 2000, was collected by means of a GPS receiver located in Jingzhou (30. 4° N, 112. 2° E). The time-latitude-dependent features of ionospheric storms are identified using TEC difference images based on the deviations of TEC during storm relative to quiet time. The responses of ionospheric TEC to magnetic storms were analyzed. The results show that: 1) In middle and low latitude, ionospheric storms effects are more apparent in local day time than at night; 2) Ionospheric storm effects are more dominant near the hump of the equatorial anomaly region than in other regions of TEC measurements; 3) The positive effects during the main phase of iono spheric storm may be caused by electric fields in low latitude; 4) During the recovery period of ionospheric storm, the negative phase of storm may be due to the perturbation of the neutral gas composition.

  10. Towards better service in restaurants by monitoring trends: Display of nutritional values on the menus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivkov Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Business obligations, the manner and pace of life today, and a large number of options when it comes to eating out, require that at least one meal is consumed outside the residence or using the services of catering and retail facilities. With this in mind, restaurants are forced to fight in the market and to differentiate the specific offer to attract a particular segment of the market. Differentiation is possible through monitoring the trends and timely adjustments to more demanding consumer needs. In this way, restaurateurs also contribute to greater customer satisfaction through quality service, which also has a positive effect on the restaurant and sales performance. Based on the results of the survey of 82 respondents, it was concluded that nutritional information shown within menus is of no importance, and also that such information does not affect the selection of dishes. Although nutritional information can be helpful in selecting more favourable and healthy food, neither men nor women care about it.

  11. The value of long-term monitoring in the development of ground-water-flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Hart, David J.; Krohelski, James T.

    2004-01-01

    As environmental issues have come to the forefront of public concern, so has the awareness of the importance of ground water in the overall water cycle and as a source of the Nation’s drinking water. Heightened interest has spawned a host of scientific enterprises (Taylor and Alley, 2001). Some activities are directed toward collection of water-level data and related information to monitor the physical and chemical state of the resource. Other activities are directed at interpretive studies undertaken, for example, to optimize the location of new water-supply wells or to protect rivers and lakes fed by ground water. An important type of interpretive study is the computer ground-water-flow model that inte- grates field data in a mathematical framework. Long-term, systematic collection of hydro- logic data is crucial to the construction and testing of ground-water models so that they can reproduce the evolution of flow systems and forecast future conditions. 

  12. Hemisection spinal cord injury in rat: The value of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potential monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Beth A.; Ball, Bret G.; Chen, Bingkun; Knight, Andrew M.; Hakim, Jeffrey S.; Ortiz, Ana M.; Windebank, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Techniques used to produce partial spinal cord injuries in animal models have the potential for creating variability in lesions. The amount of tissue affected may influence the functional outcomes assessed in the animals. The recording of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) may be a valuable tool for assessing the extent of lesion applied in animal models of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Intraoperative tibial SSEP recordings were assessed during surgically induced lateral thoracic hemisection SCI in Sprague-Dawley rats. The transmission of SSEPs, or lack thereof, was determined and compared against the integrity of the dosal funiculi on each side of the spinal cord upon histological sectioning. An association was found between the presence of an SSEP signal and presence of intact dorsal funiculus tissue. The relative risk is 4.50 (95% confidence interval: 1.83 to 11.08) for having an intact dorsal funiculus when the ipsilateral SSEP was present compared to when it was absent. Additionally, the amount of spared spinal cord tissue correlates with final functional assessments at nine weeks post injury: BBB (linear regression, R2 = 0.618, p <0.001) and treadmill test (linear regression, R2 = 0.369, p = 0.016). Therefore, we propose intraoperative SSEP monitoring as a valuable tool to assess extent of lesion and reduce variability between animals in experimental studies of SCI. PMID:22960163

  13. Repeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroux Aurélia A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulsed wave (PW Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability, the variability, and to establish the reference values of PW measurements in healthy adult Saanen goats. Using a standardised PW Doppler echocardiographic protocol, 10 healthy adult unsedated female Saanen goats were investigated three times at one day intervals by the same observer. Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured from a right parasternal view, and mitral and aortic flows were also measured from a left parasternal view. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intra-observer inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Saanen goats were established. Results As documented in other species, all caprine PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side, and reference values are reported for healthy adult Saanen goats. Conclusions PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in goats. The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research.

  14. Monitoring and Fault Detection in Photovoltaic Systems Based On Inverter Measured String I-V Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas;

    2015-01-01

    Most photovoltaic (PV) string inverters have the hardware capability to measure at least part of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve of the PV strings connected at the input. However, this intrinsic capability of the inverters is not used, since I-V curve measurement and monitoring......-of-system components through increased series resistance losses, or shunting of the PV modules. To achieve this, we propose and experimentally demonstrate three complementary PV system monitoring methods that make use of the I-V curve measurement capability of a commercial string inverter. The first method is suitable...... for monitoring single or independent PV strings, and is based on evaluating the ratio of certain operation points on the string I-V curve. The second method is applicable to PV systems with identical strings, and is based on monitoring and inter-comparison of string I-V curve parameters. For PV systems with non...

  15. A compact x-ray beam intensity monitor using gas amplified sample current measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Shinjiro; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Gohshi, Yohichi

    2000-01-01

    Development of a compact beam intensity monitor using gas amplified sample current measurement is described. The monitor can be a powerful tool for x-ray spectroscopy and microscopy when the beam is defined by a small pinhole or slits and when the workspace around the sample is limited. The thickness of the monitor is as small as approximately 3 mm, and the dimension is 10 mm square. The photon flux is monitored by measuring x-ray excited current from an Al foil under atmospheric conditions. Emitted electrons from the Al foil can ionize surrounding air molecules, and the gas amplified current can be measured with the use of a biased grid that prevents created ion pairs from recombination.

  16. Using NMR, SIP, and MS measurements for monitoring subsurface biogeochemical reactions at the Rifle IFRC site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, C. L.; Keating, K.; Williams, K. H.; Robbins, M.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Grunewald, E.; Walsh, D. O.

    2013-12-01

    The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site is located on a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado (USA). Although removal of tailings and contaminated surface materials was completed in 1996, residual uranium contamination of groundwater and subsurface sediments remains. Since 2002, research at the site has primarily focused on quantifying uranium mobility associated with stimulated and natural biogeochemical processes. Uranium mobility at the Rifle IFRC site is typically quantified through direct sampling of groundwater; however, direct sampling does not provide information about the solid phase material outside of the borehole and continuous measurements are not always possible due to multiple constraints. Geophysical methods have been suggested as a minimally invasive alternative approach for long term monitoring of biogeochemical reactions associated with uranium remediation. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), spectral induced polarization (SIP), and magnetic susceptibility (MS) are considered as potential geophysical methods for monitoring the biogeochemical reactions occurring at the Rifle IFRC site. Additionally, a pilot field study using an NMR borehole-logging tool was carried out at the Rifle IFRC site. These methods are sensitive to changes in the chemical and physical subsurface properties that occur as a result of bioremediation efforts; specifically, changes in the redox state and chemical form of iron, production of iron sulfide minerals, production of the magnetic mineral magnetite, and associated changes in the pore geometry. Laboratory experiments consisted of monitoring changes in the NMR, SIP and MS response of an acetate-amended columns packed with sediments from the Rifle IFRC site over the course of two months. The MS values remained relatively stable throughout the course of the experiment suggesting negligible production of magnetic phases (e.g. magnetite, pyrrhotite) as a result of enhanced

  17. Value orientations and environmental beliefs in five countries - Validity of an instrument to measure egoistic, altruistic and biospheric value orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Various scholars argue that egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric value orientations are important for understanding environmental beliefs and behavior. However, little empirical evidence has been provided for the distinction between altruistic and biospheric values. This study examines whether this

  18. Value orientations and environmental beliefs in five countries - Validity of an instrument to measure egoistic, altruistic and biospheric value orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Various scholars argue that egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric value orientations are important for understanding environmental beliefs and behavior. However, little empirical evidence has been provided for the distinction between altruistic and biospheric values. This study examines whether this

  19. Value orientations to explain beliefs related to environmental significant behavior : How to measure egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric value orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In environmental literature it is argued that three different value orientations may be relevant for understanding environmental beliefs and intentions: egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric. Until now, the distinction between altruistic and biospheric value orientations has hardly been supported emp

  20. Cell-associated HIV DNA measured early during infection has prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA measured concomitantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S; Benfield, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided...

  1. Ultra-small phase estimation via weak measurement with postselection: A comparison of joint weak measurement and weak value amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Chen; Yu, Yang; Li, Qin-Zheng; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-01-01

    We derive a general theory for the joint weak measurement with arbitrary postselection and employ it in the time-delay measurement. Especially, we study two special cases, i.e., the balanced and unbalanced postselection regimes, and present an experiment to verify the theoretical results. The experimental results show that under similar conditions, the signal-to-noise ratio of using joint weak measurement scheme remains higher than 12 dB when the measured time-delay is smaller the ultimate precision limit of the weak-value amplification scheme. Moreover, the joint weak measurement scheme is robust to the misalignment errors and the wavelength-dependency of optical components, which indicates its advantage of improving the measurement precision with convenient laboratory equipments.

  2. Structural Health Monitoring in Changing Operational Conditions Using Tranmissibility Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Devriendt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uses frequency domain transmissibility functions for detecting and locating damage in operational conditions. In recent articles numerical and experimental examples were presented and the possibility to use the transmissibility concept for damage detection seemed quite promising. In the work discussed so far, it was assumed that the operational conditions were constant, the structure was excited by a single input in a fixed location. Transmissibility functions, defined as a simple ratio between two measured responses, do depend on the amplitudes or locations of the operational forces. The current techniques fail in the case of changing operational conditions. A suitable operational damage detection method should however be able to detect damage in a very early stage even in the case of changing operational conditions. It will be demonstrated in this paper that, by using only a small frequency band around the resonance frequencies of the structure, the existing methods can still be used in a more robust way. The idea is based on the specific property that the transmissibility functions become independent of the loading condition in the system poles. A numerical and experimental validation will be given.

  3. Comparison of measurement- and proxy-based Vs30 values in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Alan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study was prompted by the recent availability of a significant amount of openly accessible measured VS30 values and the desire to investigate the trend of using proxy-based models to predict VS30 in the absence of measurements. Comparisons between measured and model-based values were performed. The measured data included 503 VS30 values collected from various projects for 482 seismographic station sites in California. Six proxy-based models—employing geologic mapping, topographic slope, and terrain classification—were also considered. Included was a new terrain class model based on the Yong et al. (2012) approach but recalibrated with updated measured VS30 values. Using the measured VS30 data as the metric for performance, the predictive capabilities of the six models were determined to be statistically indistinguishable. This study also found three models that tend to underpredict VS30 at lower velocities (NEHRP Site Classes D–E) and overpredict at higher velocities (Site Classes B–C).

  4. Repeatability and Comparison of Keratometry Values Measured with Potec PRK-6000 Autorefractometer, IOLMaster, and Pentacam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Türk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To research the repeatability and intercompatibility of keratometry values measured with Potec PRK-6000 autorefractometer, IOL Master, and Pentacam. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, consecutive measurements were performed in two different sessions with the mentioned three devices on 110 eyes of 55 subjects who had no additional ocular pathology except for refraction error. The consistency of flat and steep keratometry, average keratometry, and corneal astigmatism values obtained in both sessions was compared by using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. The measurement differences between the devices were statistically compared as well. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was 23.05±3.01 (18-30 years. ICC values of average keratometry measurements obtained in the sessions were 0.996 for Potec PRK-6000 autorefractometer, 0.997 for IOL Master, and 0.999 for Pentacam. There was high compatibility between the three devices in terms of average keratometry values in Bland-Altman analysis. However, there were statistically significant differences between the devices in terms of parameters other than corneal astigmatism. Conclusion: The repeatability of the three devices was found considerably high in keratometry measurements. However, it is not appropriate for these devices to be substituted for each other in keratometry measurements. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 179-83

  5. Measuring Corporate Sustainability and Environmental, Social, and Corporate Governance Value Added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kocmanová

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to propose a model for measuring sustainable value which would complexly assess environmental, social, and corporate governance contribution to value creation. In the paper the concept of the Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is presented. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is based on the Sustainable Value Added model and combines weighted environmental, social, and corporate governance indicators with their benchmarks determined by Data Envelopment Analysis. Benchmark values of indicators were set for each company separately and determine the optimal combination of environmental, social, and corporate governance inputs to economic outcomes. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added methodology is applied on real-life corporate data and presented through a case study. The value added of most of the selected companies was negative, even though economic indicators of all of them are positive. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is intended to help owners, investors, and other stakeholders in their decision-making and sustainability assessment. The use of environmental, social, and corporate governance factors helps identify the company’s strengths and weaknesses, and provides a more sophisticated insight into it than the one-dimensional methods based on economic performance alone.

  6. Analysis and Treatment of Abnormal Displacement Monitoring Values in a Vacuum Laser Deformation Monitoring System%真空激光变形监测系统位移规律异常分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰; 徐翔

    2016-01-01

    介绍了深溪沟水电站坝顶真空激光变形监测系统位移规律的异常现象,就此进行系统的异常原因分析及测试,并对分析成果进行复核验证。通过对归一系数的改正,有效解决了坝顶真空激光垂直方向和水平方向位移变形规律均呈现“锯齿状”的异常规律,坝段间(或坝块间)相邻测点变形差异和坝顶不均匀上抬现象得到明显改善,可供后续工程参考和借鉴。%In the displacement monitoring values obtained from the vacuum laser deformation monitoring system in Shenxigou Hydropower Station , abnormal zigzag changes are observed .Reasons of this problem are analyzed .Treatment measures are then proposed and tested .With a correction of the normalization coefficient , the abnormal zigzag phenome-na in the vertical and horizontal displacement monitoring values of the dam crest are effectively removed .Also, the de-formation differences between monitoring points of adjacent dam sections ( or dam blocks ) and uneven uplift in the dam crest are also improved .It could be a useful reference for similar projects .

  7. Estimation of ambient PM2.5 concentrations in Maryland and verification by measured values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth; Sherwell, John

    2002-10-01

    In 1997, Maryland had no available ambient Federal Reference Method data on particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM23), but did have annual ambient data for PM smaller than 10 microm (PM10) at 24 sites. The PM10 data were analyzed in conjunction with local annual and seasonal zip-code-level emission inventories and with speciated PM2.5 data from four nearby monitors in the IMPROVE network (located in the national parks, wildlife refuges, and wilderness areas) in an effort to estimate annual average and seasonal high PM2.5 concentrations at the 24 PM10 monitor sites operating from 1992 to 1996. All seasonal high concentrations were estimated to be below the 24-hr PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) at the sites operating in Maryland between 1992 and 1996. The estimates also indicated that 12 monitor sites might exceed the 3-year annual average PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 microg/m3, but Maryland's air quality shows signs that it has been improving since 1992. The estimates also were compared with actual measurements after the PM2.5 monitor network was installed. The estimates were adequate for describing the chemical composition of the PM2.5, forecasting compliance status with the 24-hr and annual standards, and determining the spatial variations in PM2.5 across central Maryland.

  8. Dollar$ & $en$e. Part IV: Measuring the value of people, structural, and customer capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, I

    2001-01-01

    In Part I of this series, I introduced the concept of memes (1). Memes are ideas or concepts, the information world equivalent of genes. The goal of this series of articles is to infect you with my memes, so that you will assimilate, translate, and express them. We discovered that no matter what our area of expertise or "-ology," we all are in the information business. Our goal is to be in the wisdom business. We saw that when we convert raw data into wisdom we are moving along a value chain. Each step in the chain adds a different amount of value to the final product: timely, relevant, accurate, and precise knowledge which can then be applied to create the ultimate product in the value chain: wisdom. In Part II of this series, I infected you with a set of memes for measuring the cost of adding value (2). In Part III of this series, I infected you with a new set of memes for measuring the added value of knowledge, i.e., intellectual capital (3). In Part IV of this series, I will infect you with memes for measuring the value of people, structural, and customer capital.

  9. Error in the measurement of the Telector monitor, model 6112B (analogic); Error de medicion del monitor Telector, modelo 6112B (analogico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz E, P.; Sanchez R, G.H.; Torres B, M.A.; Martinez, R.F. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: pce@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    This monitor is a portable equipment used with radiological protection ends in many areas where use of radioactive material is made, since account with a telescopic bar with two Geiger Mueller tubes (GM) to measure gamma radiation. The maker in his specifications indicates that the equipment is able to measure from 0.1 R/hr up to 1000 R/hr and their response doesn't depend on the energy in the interval of 300 keV to 3 MeV. However, personal of the Electronic Systems department carrying out tests in the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration (LSCD) of the ININ, it found that this monitor really presents an energy dependence for the energies of {sup 60}Co, in the scale of 2 R/hr. With base in an analysis of the equipment and the two GM detectors that it uses, was found that the origin of the problem is the point of saturation of the detector that uses for this scale, which coincides with the maximum measurement value that is of 2 R/hr. This flaw it can be solved using the detector that operates with the high scales, for which is required to make a modification to the electronic circuit in the part of the switch that selects the detector type. (Author)

  10. Incidence and localizing value of vertigo and dizziness in patients with epilepsy: Video-EEG monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-10-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are common neurological complaints that have long been associated with epilepsy. However, studies of patients with epileptic vertigo or dizziness with concurrent EEG monitoring are scarce. We performed the present study to investigate the incidence and localizing value of vertigo and dizziness in patients with epilepsy who had confirmation of EEG changes via video-EEG monitoring. Data of aura and clinical seizure episodes of 831 consecutive patients who underwent video-EEG monitoring were analyzed retrospectively. Out of 831 patients, 40 patients (4.8%) experienced vertigo or dizziness as aura (mean age, 32.8±11.8years), all of whom had partial seizures. Eight had mesial temporal, 20 had lateral temporal, four had frontal, one had parietal, and seven had occipital lobe onset seizures. An intracranial EEG with cortical stimulation study was performed in seven patients, and the area of stimulation-induced vertigo or dizziness coincided with the ictal onset area in only one patient. Our study showed that vertigo or dizziness is a common aura in patients with epilepsy, and that the temporal lobe is the most frequent ictal onset area in these patients. However, it can be suggested that the symptomatogenic area in patients with epileptic vertigo and dizziness may not coincide with the ictal onset area.

  11. Relevance of free cash flow as a measure of generating value for owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešlić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new economy or knowledge economy the main goal of any company should be directed towards the achievement of the business in the interest of the owners, or generating the value for owners. In dynamic business environment, an effective performance measurement system is key determinant of successful implementation of corporate strategy, growth and survival of the company. Modern performance measures should provide an accurate assessment of the intrinsic value of the company, as well as the value for the owners (shareholders. The essence is maximizing the immanent or guaranteed value of the company. The immanent value is the value of a company based on internal evaluation (assessment discounted cash flows or expected cash flow in the future by the management team. Corporate managers in Serbia are facing the challenge of increasingly efficient capital markets and the competition in the future, which requires the implementation of a value oriented corporate governance, therefore this paper presents FCF (Free Cash Flow methodology of valuation. Free cash flow (FCF is the amount of cash available for owners of the company after the necessary investments in fixed assets and working capital to maintain the current scope of activities and support to planning.

  12. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  13. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  14. Supplementary measurements for air monitoring under NOVANA - Benzene and PAH; Supplerende maalinger til luftovervaagning under NOVANA - benzen og PAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Klenoe Noejgaard, J.; Bossi, R.

    2011-10-15

    The report presents results from a project carried out for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The aim of the project was to carry out several measuring campaigns in order to be able to better assess the monitoring needs for PAH and benzene in relation to EU's air quality directives. The results show that the mean concentrations of benzene are almost at the same level in Denmark's four largest cities, and that the concentrations are both below the threshold value (5mug/m3) as well as below the lower assessment threshold (2mug/m3). The report presents a method for objectively estimation the benzene concentration based on measurements of CO. The method can be applied to fulfil the monitoring need for benzene in those zones where no measurements of benzene are made. Measurements of PAH, especially benzo(a)pyrene, have been made during 12 months in the period 2010-2011 in an area with many wood burning furnaces are used (the town Jyllinge). The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in Jyllinge is almost three times higher than in the street H.C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in Jylllinge are 0,6 ng/m3, which corresponds to the upper assessment threshold (0,6 ng/m3) and is 40% below the measuring value (1 ng/m3). On this basis, there is a need for re-evaluating the monitoring of PAH in the sub-programme for air under NOVANA. Measurements of PM{sub 10} showed that the levels in the towns Jyllinge, Lille Valby/Risoe and at the H.C. Oersted Institute in Copenhagen are all at about 20-22 mug/m3. (LN)

  15. Extreme Value Statistical Characterization of Time Domain Pulse-to-Pulse Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)712364; Arpaia, Pasquale; Martino, Michele

    2015-01-01

    An analytical method, based on Extreme Value Theory (EV T), for predicting the worst case repeatability of time domain pulse-to-pulse measurements, modeled as independent and identically distributed random variables, is proposed. The method allows the use of the noise level of a measurement system for predicting the upcoming peak values over a given number of independent observations. The proposed analytical model is compared against simulated distributions generated in Matlab, highlighting satisfying match for any sample size.The simulations are based on a case study on the characterization of a pulsed power supply for the klystron modulators of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN.

  16. Bounded sets in the range of an X∗∗-valued measure with bounded variation

    OpenAIRE

    B. Marchena; Piñeiro, C.

    2000-01-01

    Let X be a Banach space and A⊂X an absolutely convex, closed, and bounded set. We give some sufficient and necessary conditions in order that A lies in the range of a measure valued in the bidual space X∗∗ and having bounded variation. Among other results, we prove that X∗ is a G. T.-space if and only if A lies inside the range of some X∗∗-valued measure with bounded variation whenever XA is isomorphic to a Hilbert space.

  17. Maximal aerobic capacity in ageing subjects: actual measurements versus predicted values

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Pistea; Evelyne Lonsdorfer; Stéphane Doutreleau; Monique Oswald; Irina Enache; Anne Charloux

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of selection of reference values on the categorisation of measured maximal oxygen consumption (V′O2 peak) as “normal” or “abnormal” in an ageing population. We compared measured V′O2 peak with predicted values and the lower limit of normal (LLN) calculated with five equations. 99 (58 males and 41 females) disease-free subjects aged ≥70 years completed an incremental maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Mean V′O2 peak was 1.88 L·min−1 in men and 1.26 L·min−1 in w...

  18. Probabilistically Controlled Teleportation of an Arbitrary Two-Qubit State via Positive Operator-Valued Measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai-Feng; HAN Lian-Fang

    2013-01-01

    We propose a tripartite scheme for probabilistically teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state with a fourqubit duster-class state and a Bell-class state as the quantum channels.In the scheme,the sender and the controller make Bell-state measurements (BSMs) on their respective qubit pairs.With their measurement results,the receiver can reconstruct the original state probabilistically by introducing two auxiliary particles and making appropriate unitary operations and positive operator-valued measure (POVM) instead of usual projective measurement.Moreover,the total success probability and classical communication cost of the present protocol are also worked out.

  19. Comparison of local stress values obtained by two measuring methods on blast furnace shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bigoš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes measuring of time behaviour specified for local stress increments on the blast furnace shell that were performed using strain gauge sensors. These results are compared with values obtained by means of the second specific measuring method. There is also presented in this paper a commentary and discussion concerning the measured time behaviour obtained from the both measuring methods. This article presents results from another of experimental analysis series concerning the blast furnace shell in one concrete metallurgical plant.

  20. The clinical value of T-wave alternans derived from Holter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewek, Joanna; Ptaszynski, Pawel; Klingenheben, Thomas; Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2017-04-01

    Microvolt-level T-wave alternans (TWA) assessed by spectral method during an exercise stress test has been widely studied for risk stratification. Several studies have documented the association of a positive TWA with total mortality and arrhythmic events. Nevertheless, the need to achieve an elevated and stabilized heart rate resulting in a considerable proportion of indeterminate test results constitutes one of the main limitations of this method. It is well recognized that arrhythmic events may be triggered not only by physical but also by mental stress and are not necessarily associated with exercise. Detection of TWA in ambulatory electrocardiogram recordings during daily activities might be a valuable option in risk stratification. This review describes the modified moving average (MMA) technique for detection of TWA and summarizes the results of clinical studies on the prognostic value of MMA-TWA. So far, MMA-TWA has been studied in over 5000 patients including those evaluated during exercise as well as during daily activities with ambulatory ECG recordings. The results of these studies indicate that increased MMA-TWA is associated with higher risk of cardiac mortality and arrhythmic events. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Quick mapping by mobile sensors for landscape values monitoring and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Teresa Spanò

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomatics researches, applied to architecture and landscape, are becoming increasingly focused on development of innovation in survey techniques and digital data management. Quick techniques are sought, with a high level of automation and versatility, to support knowledge management and protection of cultural heritage, be it referred to artistic and architectural heritage or, overall, to whole varied landscape assets, in so such highest density in the country as to consider Heritage itself. The investigation and conservation initiatives in the field of landscape heritage must constantly deal with many conditions of risk exposure, and that is not always possible to make up with preventive protection, whether if it is a constant risk like that intrinsic to the status of the property, or sudden and unforeseen risks, or if it is only partially predictable, determined by an environmental emergency. In these test-sites, which have a typical vulnerability resulting from their intrinsic conditions of exposure to risk, is interesting to experiment and combine technological research with the public interest for the protection and preservation of the value of the asset. This paper is intended for the testing of systems for the expeditious acquisition of spatial data in a outstanding test site, an area of the Cinque Terre, devastated by the flood of autumn 2011.

  2. Weak Value Amplification Can Outperform Conventional Measurement in the Presence of Detector Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jérémie; Boyd, Robert W.; Lundeen, Jeff S.

    2017-02-01

    Weak value amplification (WVA) is a technique by which one can magnify the apparent strength of a measurement signal. Some have claimed that WVA can outperform more conventional measurement schemes in parameter estimation. Nonetheless, a significant body of theoretical work has challenged this perspective, suggesting WVA to be fundamentally suboptimal. Optimal measurements may not be practical, however. Two practical considerations that have been conjectured to afford a benefit to WVA over conventional measurement are certain types of noise and detector saturation. Here, we report a theoretical study of the role of saturation and pixel noise in WVA-based measurement, in which we carry out a Bayesian analysis of the Fisher information available using a saturable, pixelated, digitized, and/or noisy detector. We draw two conclusions: first, that saturation alone does not confer an advantage to the WVA approach over conventional measurement, and second, that WVA can outperform conventional measurement when saturation is combined with intrinsic pixel noise and/or digitization.

  3. Monitoring substance use in prisons: Assessing the potential value of wastewater analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyken, Emma; Thai, Phong; Lai, Foon Yin; Ort, Christoph; Prichard, Jeremy; Bruno, Raimondo; Hall, Wayne; Kirkbride, K Paul; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-09-01

    Prison substance use is a major concern for prison authorities and the wider community. Australia has responded to this problem by implementing the National Corrections Drug Strategy. Across Australia, the true extent of prison substance use cannot be determined. As a result, the effectiveness of the interventions employed as part of this strategy cannot be properly assessed. This has important implications for the allocation of corrective services resources and future policy development. This article explores the benefits and limitations, as well as the ethical and practical issues in using wastewater analysis (WWA) to measure levels of substance use in prisons. It reports results from the first application of WWA to an Australian prison, which supports the use of WWA in this context. Given the increasing concern for prescription misuse in prisons, we also highlight the novel use of WWA to measure the extent of prescription misuse by prisoners. The article concludes that as a result of its objectivity, sensitivity and cost-effectiveness, the use of WWA in prisons warrants further consideration in Australia.

  4. Salivary cortisol monitoring: determination of reference values in healthy children and application in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Arita, Masahiko; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Shigeta, Makoto; Wada, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Hiraba, Kazumi; Fukuda, Norimasa

    2012-01-01

    Venipuncture testing of adrenocortical function in asthmatic infants and young children receiving inhaled corticosteroids can raise cortisol levels and mask physiological responses. This study aimed to establish reference ranges for salivary cortisol levels and evaluate the safety and effects of jet-nebulized budesonide inhalation suspension (BIS) on salivary cortisol levels and patient outcomes in infants and young children with mild or persistent asthma. Reference salivary cortisol levels were determined in healthy children aged 6 months to 4 years old. A 12-week multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label study was performed involving 53 age-matched asthmatic children who received either 0.5 mg/day of BIS or 40-60 mg/day of cromolyn sodium inhalation suspension (CIS) via compressor nebulizer. The effective measuring range of salivary cortisol concentration in asthmatic children was 0.12-3.00 micrograms/dL. The upper and lower limits of the reference range were 0.827 and 0.076 micrograms/dL, respectively. No significant difference was seen from baseline through week 12 in the CIS and BIS groups. BIS was safe in these patients, with no inhibitory effects on adrenocortical function. Salivary cortisol measurement offers a useful and accurate tool for testing adrenocortical function in infants and young children. Longer-term studies that incorporate testing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are warranted to confirm our findings.

  5. How Can Value-Added Measures Be Used for Teacher Improvement? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    The question for this brief is whether education leaders can use value-added measures as tools for improving schooling and, if so, how to do this. Districts, states, and schools can, at least in theory, generate gains in educational outcomes for students using value-added measures in three ways: creating information on effective programs, making…

  6. A new measurement method of electrode gains for orthogonal symmetric type beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, J Y; Yang, Y L; Sun, B G; Zhou, Z R; Luo, Q; Lu, P; Xu, H L

    2014-01-01

    The new beam position monitor (BPM) system of the injector at the upgrade project of Hefei Light Source (HLS II) has 19 stripline beam position monitors. Most consist of four orthogonal symmetric stripline electrodes. The differences in electronic gain and mismachining tolerance can cause the change of the beam response of the BPM electrodes. This variation will couple the two measured horizontal positions in order to bring the measuring error. To alleviate this effect, a new technique to measure the relative response of the four electrodes has been developed. It is irrelevant to the beam charge and the related coefficient can be theoretical calculated. The effect of electrodes coupling on this technique is analyzed. The calibration data is used to fit the gain for all 19 injector beam position monitors. The results show the standard deviation of the distribution of measured gains is about 5%.

  7. Uncertainty of measurement or of mean value for the reliable classification of contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Katy A; Ramsey, Michael H

    2010-12-15

    Classification of contaminated land is important for risk assessment and so it is vital to understand and quantify all of the uncertainties that are involved in the assessment of contaminated land. This paper uses a case study to compare two methods for assessing the uncertainty in site investigations (uncertainty of individual measurements, including that from sampling, and uncertainty of the mean value of all measurements within an area) and how the different methods affect the decisions made about a site. Using the 'uncertainty of the mean value' there is shown to be no significant possibility of 'significant harm' under UK guidance at one particular test site, but if you consider the 'uncertainty of the measurements' a significant proportion (50%) of the site is shown to be possibly contaminated. This raises doubts as to whether the current method using 'uncertainty of the mean' is sufficiently robust, and suggests that 'uncertainty of measurement' information may be preferable, or at least beneficial when used in conjunction.

  8. Coaxial-probe contact-force monitoring for dielectric properties measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A means is described for measuring and monitoring the contact force applied to a material sample with an open-ended coaxial-line probe for purposes of measuring the dielectric properties of semisolid material samples such as fruit, vegetable and animal tissues. The equipment consists of a stainless...

  9. Optical measurement system applied to continuous displacement monitoring of long-span suspension bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages Martins, L.; Rebordão, J. M.; Ribeiro, A. S.

    2013-04-01

    This paper provides a general description of main issues related to the design of an optical measurement system applied to continuous displacement monitoring of long-span suspension bridges. The proposed system's architecture is presented and its main components - camera and active targets - are described in terms of geometrical and radiometric characteristics required for long distance measurement of the tridimensional displacement of the stiffness girder in the middle section of the bridge's central span. The intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameterization processes, which support the adopted measurement approach, are explained in a specific section. Since the designed measurement system is intended to perform continuous displacement monitoring in long distance observation framework, particular attention is given to environmental effects, namely, refraction, turbulence and sensor saturation phenomena, which can influence the displacement measurement accuracy. Finally, a measurement uncertainty method is discussed in order to provide a suitable solution for the determination of the accuracy related to the proposed measurement approach.

  10. Realization of Bipartite Positive-Operator-Value Measurements of Two-Photon Polarization States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qing

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a scheme of a special quantum optical Fredkin gate assisted by optical manip-ulations and postselection from the coincidence measurements, and then modify it with cross-Kerr nonlinearities to be suitable for the realization of all possible positive operator-valued measurements of bipartite polarization states.This scheme is feasible in the lab with the current experimental technology.

  11. Water Level Loggers as a Low-Cost Tool for Monitoring of Stormwater Control Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Toran

    2016-01-01

    Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are a key component of watershed health in urbanized areas. SCMs are used to increase infiltration and reduce discharge to streams or storm sewer systems during rain events. Monitoring is important for the evaluation of design and causes of failure in SCMs. However, the expense of monitoring means it is not always included in stormwater control planning. This study shows how low-cost water level loggers can be used to answer certain questions about SCM perfo...

  12. Using the first drop of blood for monitoring blood glucose values in critically ill patients: An observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Sunita; Kaur, Sukhpal; Das, Karobi; Saini, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Context: Using the first drop or second drop of blood while measuring blood glucose (BG) values. Objective: The study was planned to compare the BG values from the first and second drops of blood. Research Settings: The study was conducted at the Main Intensive Care Unit, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. Research Design: This study was a comparative study. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients aged 2–93 years were enrolled in this study. BG values from the first and second drops of blood were taken and compared. Statistical Analysis Used: Agreement between two drops was assessed using Bland–Altman analysis. A bias of <10 mg/dl was considered clinically acceptable. Linear regression of the mean difference (bias) with the BG readings was performed. Results: One thousand four hundred and seven pairs of BG readings were taken from the enrolled patients. BG values had a bias of 3.9 ± 14.9 mg/dl. Nearly 96.7% of BG readings were within the limits of agreement. The absolute difference between first and second drops of blood was calculated; nearly 75.4% of the readings had fallen between 0 and 10 mg/dl, i.e. clinically acceptable range. Conclusion: There is no compete concordance of values of blood glucose between the first and the second drops of blood; any of the drops can be used for measuring BG values as the difference is not statistically significant. However, if hands are visibly clean and to decrease the blood loss in the critically ill patients where the BG values are measured frequently, using the first drop of blood is advised. PMID:27994381

  13. A smart health monitoring chair for nonintrusive measurement of biological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Chung, Gih Sung; Kim, Ko Keun; Park, Kwang Suk

    2012-01-01

    We developed nonintrusive methods for simultaneous electrocardiogram, photoplethysmogram, and ballistocardiogram measurements that do not require direct contact between instruments and bare skin. These methods were applied to the design of a diagnostic chair for unconstrained heart rate and blood pressure monitoring purposes. Our methods were operationalized through capacitively coupled electrodes installed in the chair back that include high-input impedance amplifiers, and conductive textiles installed in the seat for capacitive driven-right-leg circuit configuration that is capable of recording electrocardiogram information through clothing. Photoplethysmograms were measured through clothing using seat mounted sensors with specially designed amplifier circuits that vary in light intensity according to clothing type. Ballistocardiograms were recorded using a film type transducer material, polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF), which was installed beneath the seat cover. By simultaneously measuring signals, beat-to-beat heart rates could be monitored even when electrocardiograms were not recorded due to movement artifacts. Beat-to-beat blood pressure was also monitored using unconstrained measurements of pulse arrival time and other physiological parameters, and our experimental results indicated that the estimated blood pressure tended to coincide with actual blood pressure measurements. This study demonstrates the feasibility of our method and device for biological signal monitoring through clothing for unconstrained long-term daily health monitoring that does not require user awareness and is not limited by physical activity.

  14. Measuring JHH values with a selective constant-time 2D NMR protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liangjie; Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Proton-proton scalar couplings play important roles in molecule structure elucidation. However, measurements of JHH values in complex coupled spin systems remain challenging. In this study, we develop a selective constant-time (SECT) 2D NMR protocol with which scalar coupling networks involving chosen protons can be revealed, and corresponding JHH values can be measured through doublets along the F1 dimension. All JHH values within a network of n fully coupled protons can be separately determined with (n - 1) SECT experiments. Additionally, the proposed pulse sequence possesses satisfactory sensitivity and handy implementation. Therefore, it will interest scientists who intend to address structural analyzes of molecules with overcrowded spectra, and may greatly facilitate the applications of scalar-coupling constants in molecule structure studies.

  15. Accurate Estimation of Low Fundamental Frequencies from Real-Valued Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the difficult problem of estimating low fundamental frequencies from real-valued measurements is addressed. The methods commonly employed do not take the phenomena encountered in this scenario into account and thus fail to deliver accurate estimates. The reason for this is that the......In this paper, the difficult problem of estimating low fundamental frequencies from real-valued measurements is addressed. The methods commonly employed do not take the phenomena encountered in this scenario into account and thus fail to deliver accurate estimates. The reason...... for this is that they employ asymptotic approximations that are violated when the harmonics are not well-separated in frequency, something that happens when the observed signal is real-valued and the fundamental frequency is low. To mitigate this, we analyze the problem and present some exact fundamental frequency estimators...

  16. The added value of C-reactive protein measurement in diagnosing pneumonia in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minnaard, Margaretha C; de Groot, Joris A H; Hopstaken, Rogier M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is increasingly being included in the diagnostic work-up for community-acquired pneumonia in primary care. Its added diagnostic value beyond signs and symptoms, however, remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis of individual patient data to quantify...... the added value of CRP measurement. METHODS: We included studies of the diagnostic accuracy of CRP in adult outpatients with suspected lower respiratory tract infection. We contacted authors of eligible studies for inclusion of data and for additional data as needed. The value of adding CRP measurement......, it still left a substantial group of patients classified at intermediate risk, in which clinical decision-making remains challenging....

  17. Start a New Fire: Measuring the Value of Academic Libraries in Undergraduate Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchaca, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, fundamental changes in information distribution, in the general economy, and in the behaviors of faculty, students, and library staff have problematized the question of an academic library's value and how it can be measured. This article reviews those changes and, drawing on research linked to the Collegiate Learning…

  18. Determination of the Fricke G value for HDR {sup 192}Ir sources using ionometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, L.; Coelho, M.; Almeida, C.E. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Gavazza, S. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy using {sup 192}Ir is widely accepted as an important treatment option, and it thus requires an accurate dosimetry standard. However, a dosimetry standard for the direct measurement of absolute dose to water is currently not available. The dose to water conversion is calculated via the dose rate constant {Lambda} and several correction factors accounting for the scatter, attenuation, and anisotropy of the dose distribution, among other effects. Two potentially useful procedures have been reported, including one by Sarfehnia et al. [3,4], which used a water-based calorimeter with an uncertainty of 1.9% for k=1, and a second by Austerlitz et al. and de Almeida et al., which used Fricke dosimetry with estimated uncertainties of 3.9% for k=1 and 1.4% for k=1, respectively. Chemical dosimetry using a standard FeSO{sub 4} solution has shown potential to be a reliable standard of absorbed dose for the HDR {sup 192}Ir source. A major uncertainty is associated with the G values reported by Fregene, which had a numerical value of 1.1 %. However, that reference provided very little detail of the experimental procedures for the {sup 192}Ir source. The G value may be obtained by using a calorimeter or ionometric measurements. In the absence of calorimetric data, this paper makes an attempt to measure the G value for the HDR {sup 192}Ir sources using ionometric measurements and recommendations from dosimetry protocols. (author)

  19. Computing interval-valued reliability measures: application of optimal control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozin, Igor; Krymsky, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to deriving interval-valued reliability measures given partial statistical information on the occurrence of failures. We apply methods of optimal control theory, in particular, Pontryagin’s principle of maximum to solve the non-linear optimisation problem and derive...

  20. Measuring the weak value of momentum in a double slit atom interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, J.; Edmunds, P. D.; Barker, P. F.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the development of an experiment to measure the weak value of the transverse momentum operator (local momentum [1]) of cold atoms passing through a matter- wave interferometer. The results will be used to reconstruct the atom's average trajectories. We describe our progress towards this goal using laser cooled argon atoms.

  1. Dynamic sonographic measurements at the carpal tunnel inlet: Reliability and reference values in healthy wrists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Filius (Anika); J.-W.H. Korstanje (Jan-Wiebe); R.W. Selles (Ruud); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); H.P. Slijper

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Reliability and reference values are not well-established for most dynamic sonographic measurements of the median nerve (MN) and flexor tendons that may be used for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods: Wrists of 20 healthy participants were imaged using ultraso

  2. Sentinels Guarding the Grail: Value-Added Measurement and the Quest for Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Rachael; Lester, Jessica Nina

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of the federal Race To The Top grant competition, Value-Added Measurement (VAM) has captured the attention of the American public through high-profile media representations of the tool and the controversy that surrounds it. In this paper, we build upon investigations of constructions of VAM in the media and present a discourse…

  3. Ipsative measurement and the analysis of organizational values: an alternative approach for data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijnatten, F.M.; van der Ark, L.A.; Holloway, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the analysis and test of ipsative data will be discussed, and some alternative methods will be suggested. Following a review of the literature about ipsative measurement, the Competing Values Framework will be presented as a major application in the field of organizational culture and

  4. Measuring Striving for Understanding and Learning Value of Geometry: A Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuz, Behiye; Aydinyer, Yurdagül

    2017-01-01

    The current study aimed to construct a questionnaire that measures students' personality traits related to "striving for understanding" and "learning value of geometry" and then examine its psychometric properties. Through the use of multiple methods on two independent samples of 402 and 521 middle school students, two studies…

  5. Test Scaling and Value-Added Measurement. Working Paper 2008-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, Dale

    2008-01-01

    As currently practiced, value-added assessment relies on a strong assumption about the scales used to measure student achievement, namely that these are interval scales, with equal-sized gains at all points on the scale representing the same increment of learning. Many of the metrics in which test results are expressed do not have this property…

  6. Measuring the Value of Succession Planning and Management: A Qualitative Study of Multinational Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a model for planning and operating an effective succession planning and management (SP&M) program and measuring its value. The nature of the research is exploratory, following a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews. Representatives of multinational companies interviewed for this study revealed that succession…

  7. Refining the Measure and Dimensions of Social Values of Older People (SVOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eunkyung; Kolomer, Stacey R.

    2007-01-01

    Older persons are living longer and healthier and, thus, are capable of being more productive and less dependent. Despite this trend, young people persistently hold the age-old negative stereotypes about older persons. The goals of this study were to develop a valid, reliable measure of social values of older people and to assess its utility as…

  8. Measuring the Value of Succession Planning and Management: A Qualitative Study of Multinational Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a model for planning and operating an effective succession planning and management (SP&M) program and measuring its value. The nature of the research is exploratory, following a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews. Representatives of multinational companies interviewed for this study revealed that succession…

  9. POISSON REPRESENTATIONS OF BRANCHING MARKOV AND MEASURE-VALUED BRANCHING PROCESSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurtz, Thomas G.; Rodrigues, Eliane R.

    2011-01-01

    Representations of branching Markov processes and their measure-valued limits in terms of countable systems of particles are constructed for models with spatially varying birth and death rates. Each particle has a location and a "level," but unlike earlier constructions, the levels change with time.

  10. Cell-associated HIV DNA measured early during infection has prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA measured concomitantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S; Benfield, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    into 3 groups, according to whether their cell-associated HIV DNA load was or = 2,500 DNA copies/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Clinical progression rates differed significantly between the groups (p HIV DNA load had prognostic value independent......Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided...... of serum HIV RNA (p HIV DNA, HIV RNA and CD4 cell counts were all included in a Cox model, only serum HIV RNA had independent prognostic value. Patients heterozygous for the CCR5 delta 32 allele had significantly lower HIV DNA loads than those homozygous for the normal allele (p

  11. Monitoring training status with HR measures: do all roads lead to Rome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBuchheit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring an athlete's physiological status in response to various types and volumes of (aerobic-oriented training can provide useful information for optimizing training programs. Measures of resting, exercise and recovery heart rate (HR are receiving increasing interest for monitoring fatigue, fitness and endurance performance responses, which has direct implications for adjusting training load 1 daily during specific training blocks and 2 throughout the competitive season. These measures are still not widely implemented to monitor athletes’ responses to training load, probably because of apparent contradictory findings in the literature. In this review I contend that most of the contradictory findings are related to methodological inconsistencies and/or misinterpretation of the data rather than to limitations of heart rate measures to accurately inform on training status. I also provide evidence that measures derived from 5-min (almost daily recordings of resting (indices capturing beat-to-beat changes in HR, reflecting parasympathetic activity and submaximal exercise (30- to 60-s average HR are likely the most useful monitoring tools. For appropriate interpretation at the individual level, changes in a given measure should be interpreted by taking into account the error of measurement and the smallest important change of the measure, as well as the training context (training phase, load and intensity distribution. The decision to use a given measure should be based upon the level of information that is required by the athlete, the marker’s sensitivity to changes in training status and the practical constrains required for the measurements. However, measures of HR cannot inform on all aspects of wellness, fatigue and performance, so their use in combination with daily training logs, psychometric questionnaires and non-invasive, cost-effective performance tests such as a countermovement jump may offer a complete solution to monitor

  12. Measurable values, numbers and fundamental physical constants: Is the Boltzmann constant Kb a fundamental physical constant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bormashenko Edward

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of fundamental physical constants is discussed. The nature of fundamental physical constants is cleared up, based on the analysis of the Boltzmann constant. A new definition of measurable values, 'mathematical' and 'physical' numbers and fundamental physical constants is proposed. Mathematical numbers are defined as values insensitive to the choice of both units and frames of reference, whereas 'physical numbers' are dimensionless values, insensitive to transformations of units and sensitive to the transformations of the frames of reference. Fundamental constants are classified as values sensitive to transformations of the units and insensitive to transformations of the frames of reference. It is supposed that a fundamental physical constant necessarily allows diminishing the number of independent etalons in a system of units.

  13. Influence of extraction solvent on antioxidant capacity value of oleaster measured by ORAC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Gorkem; Sogut, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) is a widely used hydrogen atom transfer-based method which measures the antioxidant capacity of natural products. ORAC values of oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), which was extracted with ethanol/acetone (7:3, v/v), ethanol/water (1:1, v/v) and methanol/water (1:1, v/v) in order to evaluate the effects of solvent type on antioxidant capacity, were examined. In general, results revealed that ethanol/water extracts exhibited better antioxidant capacity values. Furthermore, results obtained by using ORAC-eosin y (ORAC-EY), one of the widely used derivative of fluorescein (FL), as a fluorescent probe were compared with those obtained by using ORAC-FL. According to the results, ORAC-EY values were found to be compatible with ORAC-FL values.

  14. An evaluation of a new instrument to measure organisational safety culture values and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cabrera, D; Hernández-Fernaud, E; Isla-Díaz, R

    2007-11-01

    The main aim of this research is to evaluate a safety culture measuring instrument centred upon relevant organisational values and practices related to the safety management system. Seven dimensions that reflect underlying safety meanings are proposed. A second objective is to explore the four cultural orientations in the field of safety arising from the competing values framework. The study sample consisted of 299 participants from five companies in different sectors. The results show six dimensions of organisational values and practices and different company profiles in the organisations studied. The four cultural orientations proposed by the competing values framework are not confirmed. Nevertheless, a coexistence of diverse cultural orientations or paradoxes in the companies is observed.

  15. Continuous glucose monitors: use of waveform versus glycemic values in the improvements of glucose control, quality of life, and fear of hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tomas C; Yucha, Carolyn B

    2014-05-01

    How patients are benefitting from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) remains poorly understood. The focus on numerical glucose values persists, even though access to the glucose waveform and rate of change may contribute more to improved control. This pilot study compared outcomes of patients using CGMs with or without access to the numerical values on their CGM. Ten persons with type 1 diabetes, naïve to CGM use, enrolled in a 12-week study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either unmodified CGM receivers, or to CGM receivers that had their numerical values obscured but otherwise functioned normally. HbA1c, quality of life (QLI-D), and fear of hypoglycemia (HFS) were assessed, at baseline and at week 12. Baseline HbA1c for the entire group was 7.46 ± 1.27%. At week 12 the experimental group HbA1c reduction was 1.5 ± 0.9% (p control group's reduction was 0.06 ± 0.61% (p > .05). Repeated measures testing revealed no significant difference in HbA1c reduction between groups. Both groups had reductions in HFS; these reductions were statistically significant within groups (p quality of life. The display of a numerical glucose value did not improve control when compared to numerically blinded units. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  16. Can semiquantitative measurements of SUVmax and cut-off values differentiate colorectal malignant from benign lesions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tram; Hess, Søren; Petersen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and cut-off values for differentiation of malignant and benign lesions in colorectal cancer (CC) as multiple studies have questioned their validity. We also investigated more extended indices using common semi-quantification an......OBJECTIVE: We investigated maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and cut-off values for differentiation of malignant and benign lesions in colorectal cancer (CC) as multiple studies have questioned their validity. We also investigated more extended indices using common semi...... lesions, SUVmax was >5 and SUVmean≥2.7. Malignant SUVmax values (mean±SD: 16.5±6.2) were overall significantly higher than benign levels (9.8±3.6). There was a substantial overlap with values in polyps/adenomas (14.4±7.7). Both SUVpeak and SUVmean showed similar characteristics. Malignant MAV and TLG...... showed more distinct levels. Though different segmentation methods introduced variations, largest in MAV (-58.6%-141.5%), and PVC generally increased measures significantly by a factor of 1.2-2.7, neither changed relative levels much. SUVmax values were inadequate for aetiological differentiation of ICF...

  17. Astrometric Monitoring of the HR 8799 Planets: Orbit Constraints from Self-Consistent Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Konopacky, Q M; Macintosh, B A; Galicher, R; Barman, T S; Metchev, S A; Zuckerman, B

    2016-01-01

    We present new astrometric measurements from our ongoing monitoring campaign of the HR 8799 directly imaged planetary system. These new data points were obtained with NIRC2 on the W.M. Keck II 10 meter telescope between 2009 and 2014. In addition, we present updated astrometry from previously published observations in 2007 and 2008. All data were reduced using the SOSIE algorithm, which accounts for systematic biases present in previously published observations. This allows us to construct a self-consistent data set derived entirely from NIRC2 data alone. From this dataset, we detect acceleration for two of the planets (HR 8799b and e) at $>$3$\\sigma$. We also assess possible orbital parameters for each of the four planets independently. We find no statistically significant difference in the allowed inclinations of the planets. Fitting the astrometry while forcing coplanarity also returns $\\chi^2$ consistent to within 1$\\sigma$ of the best fit values, suggesting that if inclination offsets of $\\lesssim$20$^{o...

  18. Astrometric Monitoring of the HR 8799 Planets: Orbit Constraints from Self-consistent Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacky, Q. M.; Marois, C.; Macintosh, B. A.; Galicher, R.; Barman, T. S.; Metchev, S. A.; Zuckerman, B.

    2016-08-01

    We present new astrometric measurements from our ongoing monitoring campaign of the HR 8799 directly imaged planetary system. These new data points were obtained with NIRC2 on the W.M. Keck II 10 m telescope between 2009 and 2014. In addition, we present updated astrometry from previously published observations in 2007 and 2008. All data were reduced using the SOSIE algorithm, which accounts for systematic biases present in previously published observations. This allows us to construct a self-consistent data set derived entirely from NIRC2 data alone. From this data set, we detect acceleration for two of the planets (HR 8799b and e) at >3σ. We also assess possible orbital parameters for each of the four planets independently. We find no statistically significant difference in the allowed inclinations of the planets. Fitting the astrometry while forcing coplanarity also returns χ 2 consistent to within 1σ of the best fit values, suggesting that if inclination offsets of ≲20° are present, they are not detectable with current data. Our orbital fits also favor low eccentricities, consistent with predictions from dynamical modeling. We also find period distributions consistent to within 1σ with a 1:2:4:8 resonance between all planets. This analysis demonstrates the importance of minimizing astrometric systematics when fitting for solutions to highly undersampled orbits.

  19. Network analysis of surgical innovation: Measuring value and the virality of diffusion in robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garas, George; Cingolani, Isabella; Panzarasa, Pietro; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2017-01-01

    Existing surgical innovation frameworks suffer from a unifying limitation, their qualitative nature. A rigorous approach to measuring surgical innovation is needed that extends beyond detecting simply publication, citation, and patent counts and instead uncovers an implementation-based value from the structure of the entire adoption cascades produced over time by diffusion processes. Based on the principles of evidence-based medicine and existing surgical regulatory frameworks, the surgical innovation funnel is described. This illustrates the different stages through which innovation in surgery typically progresses. The aim is to propose a novel and quantitative network-based framework that will permit modeling and visualizing innovation diffusion cascades in surgery and measuring virality and value of innovations. Network analysis of constructed citation networks of all articles concerned with robotic surgery (n = 13,240, Scopus®) was performed (1974-2014). The virality of each cascade was measured as was innovation value (measured by the innovation index) derived from the evidence-based stage occupied by the corresponding seed article in the surgical innovation funnel. The network-based surgical innovation metrics were also validated against real world big data (National Inpatient Sample-NIS®). Rankings of surgical innovation across specialties by cascade size and structural virality (structural depth and width) were found to correlate closely with the ranking by innovation value (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.758 (p = 0.01), 0.782 (p = 0.008), 0.624 (p = 0.05), respectively) which in turn matches the ranking based on real world big data from the NIS® (Spearman's coefficient = 0.673;p = 0.033). Network analysis offers unique new opportunities for understanding, modeling and measuring surgical innovation, and ultimately for assessing and comparing generative value between different specialties. The novel surgical innovation metrics developed may

  20. Computer vision and color measurement techniques for inline monitoring of cheese curd syneresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, C D; O'Callaghan, D J; Fagan, C C; O'Donnell, C P; Castillo, M; Payne, F A

    2007-07-01

    Optical characteristics of stirred curd were simultaneously monitored during syneresis in a 10-L cheese vat using computer vision and colorimetric measurements. Curd syneresis kinetic conditions were varied using 2 levels of milk pH (6.0 and 6.5) and 2 agitation speeds (12.1 and 27.2 rpm). Measured optical parameters were compared with gravimetric measurements of syneresis, taken simultaneously. The results showed that computer vision and colorimeter measurements have potential for monitoring syneresis. The 2 different phases, curd and whey, were distinguished by means of color differences. As syneresis progressed, the backscattered light became increasingly yellow in hue for circa 20 min for the higher stirring speed and circa 30 min for the lower stirring speed. Syneresis-related gravimetric measurements of importance to cheese making (e.g., curd moisture content, total solids in whey, and yield of whey) correlated significantly with computer vision and colorimetric measurements.

  1. Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value as problem severity indicators in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from 3 distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol (RDEA). The sample included 207 heavy-drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises 2 factors: 1 factor that reflects participants' levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants' maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation toward alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women.

  2. Moving from Measuring, Reporting, Verification (MRV of Forest Carbon to Community Mapping, Measuring, Monitoring (MMM: Perspectives from Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K McCall

    Full Text Available There have been many calls for community participation in MRV (measuring, reporting, verification for REDD+. This paper examines whether community involvement in MRV is a requirement, why it appears desirable to REDD+ agencies and external actors, and under what conditions communities might be interested in participating. It asks What's in it for communities? What might communities gain from such an involvement? What could they lose? It embraces a broader approach which we call community MMM which involves mapping, measuring and monitoring of forest and other natural resources for issues which are of interest to the community itself. We focus on cases in México because the country has an unusually high proportion of forests under community communal ownership. In particular, we refer to a recent REDD+ initiative-CONAFOR-LAIF, in which local communities select and approve local people to participate in community-based monitoring activities. From these local initiatives we identify the specific and the general drivers for communities to be involved in mapping, measuring and monitoring of their own territories and their natural resources. We present evidence that communities are more interested in this wider approach than in a narrow focus on carbon monitoring. Finally we review what the challenges to reconciling MMM with MRV requirements are likely to be.

  3. Moving from Measuring, Reporting, Verification (MRV) of Forest Carbon to Community Mapping, Measuring, Monitoring (MMM): Perspectives from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael K; Chutz, Noah; Skutsch, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    There have been many calls for community participation in MRV (measuring, reporting, verification) for REDD+. This paper examines whether community involvement in MRV is a requirement, why it appears desirable to REDD+ agencies and external actors, and under what conditions communities might be interested in participating. It asks What's in it for communities? What might communities gain from such an involvement? What could they lose? It embraces a broader approach which we call community MMM which involves mapping, measuring and monitoring of forest and other natural resources for issues which are of interest to the community itself. We focus on cases in México because the country has an unusually high proportion of forests under community communal ownership. In particular, we refer to a recent REDD+ initiative-CONAFOR-LAIF, in which local communities select and approve local people to participate in community-based monitoring activities. From these local initiatives we identify the specific and the general drivers for communities to be involved in mapping, measuring and monitoring of their own territories and their natural resources. We present evidence that communities are more interested in this wider approach than in a narrow focus on carbon monitoring. Finally we review what the challenges to reconciling MMM with MRV requirements are likely to be.

  4. A quantum inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements with applications to weak value measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, George

    2017-05-01

    Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.

  5. Measurement of individual intracellular pH and membrane potential values in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavik, Jan; Lanz, Edvard; Cimprich, Petr

    1999-07-01

    It was assumed that each cell is a homogeneous suspension may have a slightly different pH and membrane potential. A wide range of pH-sensitive fluorescent dyes BCECF, SNARF, FITC, carboxyfluorescein, fluorescein and pyranine have been carefully tested for the accuracy and reliability of their pH-response inside living cells. The intracellular milieu was simulated by a series of mineral buffers with addition of proteins. The pH values have been determined from the excitation ratios 490/435 nm for BCECF, FITC, carboxyfluorescein and fluorescein, and 450/400 nm for pyranine, emission ratios 518/529 nm for BCECF and 635/590 nm for SNARF. The spectrally determined values were then compared with the pH values of buffers measured by a glass electrode. Using the data from the calibration procedure, we evaluated individual intracellular pH values of a large number of cells within one cell population. The confocal ratio fluorescence microscopy revealed pH maps from which both cytoplasmic and vacuolar pH values could be determine, flow cytometry gave enormous amount of average intracellular pH values of individual cells of a whole cell population. Each cell population exhibited significant differences in both cytoplasmic pH values among individual cells. The pH distribution of a typical cell population appeared to fit a Gaussian curve. In yeast it was a Gaussian curve with half- width values around 0.4 pH unit. The men pH values depended on the growth phase, H-ATPase activity and external pH values. The preliminary result with the new membrane potential dye tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester indicated that similarly to pH values, there is a heterogeneity in membrane potential values among cell sin one cell population. The data presented above suggest that each ell behaves as an individual with an individual set up of its metabolism. This 'fine tuning' of the metabolism result in slightly higher or lower pH or membrane potential values that can be detected by fluorescence

  6. CONCEPTUAL PAPER : Utilization of GPS Satellites for Precise Irradiation Measurement and Monitoring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Vijayan

    2008-03-01

    Precise measurement of irradiance over the earth under various circumstances like solar flares, coronal mass ejections, over an 11-year solar cycle, etc. leads to better understanding of Sun–earth relationship. To continuously monitor the irradiance over earth-space regions several satellites at several positions are required. For that continuous and multiple satellite monitoring we can use GPS (Global Positioning System) satellites (like GLONASS, GALILEO, future satellites) installed with irradiance measuring and monitoring instruments. GPS satellite system consists of 24 constellations of satellites. Therefore usage of all the satellites leads to 24 measurements of irradiance at the top of the atmosphere (or 12 measurements of those satellites which are pointing towards the Sun) at an instant. Therefore in one day, numerous irradiance observations can be obtained for the whole globe, which will be very helpful for several applications like Albedo calculation, Earth Radiation Budget calculation, monitoring of near earth-space atmosphere, etc. Moreover, measuring irradiance both in ground (using ground instruments) and in space at the same instant of time over a same place, leads to numerous advantages. That is, for a single position we obtain irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, irradiance at ground and the difference in irradiance from over top of the atmosphere to the ground. Measurement of irradiance over the atmosphere and in ground at a precise location gives more fine details about the solar irradiance influence over the earth, path loss and interaction of irradiance with the atmosphere.

  7. Models for measuring and predicting shareholder value: A study of third party software service providers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Viswanadham; Poornima Luthra

    2005-04-01

    In this study, we use the strategic profit model (SPM) and the economic value-added (EVA to measure shareholder value). SPM measures the return on net worth (RONW) which is defined as the return on assets (ROA) multiplied by the financial leverage. EVA is defined as the firm’s net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT) minus the capital charge. Both, RONW and EVA provide an indication of how much shareholder value a firm creates for its shareholders, year on year. With the increasing focus on creation of shareholder value and core competencies, many companies are outsourcing their information technology (IT) related activities to third party software companies. Indian software companies have become leaders in providing these services. Companies from several other countries are also competing for the top slot. We use the SPM and EVA models to analyse the four listed players of the software industry using the publicly available published data. We compare the financial data obtained from the models, and use peer average data to provide customized recommendations for each company to improve their shareholder value. Assuming that the companies follow these rules, we also predict future RONW and EVA for the companies for the financial year 2005. Finally, we make several recommendations to software providers for effectively competing in the global arena.

  8. Reliability of Sleep Measures from Four Personal Health Monitoring Devices Compared to Research-Based Actigraphy and Polysomnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Mantua

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysomnography (PSG is the “gold standard” for monitoring sleep. Alternatives to PSG are of interest for clinical, research, and personal use. Wrist-worn actigraph devices have been utilized in research settings for measures of sleep for over two decades. Whether sleep measures from commercially available devices are similarly valid is unknown. We sought to determine the validity of five wearable devices: Basis Health Tracker, Misfit Shine, Fitbit Flex, Withings Pulse O2, and a research-based actigraph, Actiwatch Spectrum. We used Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests to assess differences between devices relative to PSG and correlational analysis to assess the strength of the relationship. Data loss was greatest for Fitbit and Misfit. For all devices, we found no difference and strong correlation of total sleep time with PSG. Sleep efficiency differed from PSG for Withings, Misfit, Fitbit, and Basis, while Actiwatch mean values did not differ from that of PSG. Only mean values of sleep efficiency (time asleep/time in bed from Actiwatch correlated with PSG, yet this correlation was weak. Light sleep time differed from PSG (nREM1 + nREM2 for all devices. Measures of Deep sleep time did not differ from PSG (SWS + REM for Basis. These results reveal the current strengths and limitations in sleep estimates produced by personal health monitoring devices and point to a need for future development.

  9. Reliability of Sleep Measures from Four Personal Health Monitoring Devices Compared to Research-Based Actigraphy and Polysomnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantua, Janna; Gravel, Nickolas; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) is the “gold standard” for monitoring sleep. Alternatives to PSG are of interest for clinical, research, and personal use. Wrist-worn actigraph devices have been utilized in research settings for measures of sleep for over two decades. Whether sleep measures from commercially available devices are similarly valid is unknown. We sought to determine the validity of five wearable devices: Basis Health Tracker, Misfit Shine, Fitbit Flex, Withings Pulse O2, and a research-based actigraph, Actiwatch Spectrum. We used Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests to assess differences between devices relative to PSG and correlational analysis to assess the strength of the relationship. Data loss was greatest for Fitbit and Misfit. For all devices, we found no difference and strong correlation of total sleep time with PSG. Sleep efficiency differed from PSG for Withings, Misfit, Fitbit, and Basis, while Actiwatch mean values did not differ from that of PSG. Only mean values of sleep efficiency (time asleep/time in bed) from Actiwatch correlated with PSG, yet this correlation was weak. Light sleep time differed from PSG (nREM1 + nREM2) for all devices. Measures of Deep sleep time did not differ from PSG (SWS + REM) for Basis. These results reveal the current strengths and limitations in sleep estimates produced by personal health monitoring devices and point to a need for future development. PMID:27164110

  10. Reliability of Sleep Measures from Four Personal Health Monitoring Devices Compared to Research-Based Actigraphy and Polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantua, Janna; Gravel, Nickolas; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2016-05-05

    Polysomnography (PSG) is the "gold standard" for monitoring sleep. Alternatives to PSG are of interest for clinical, research, and personal use. Wrist-worn actigraph devices have been utilized in research settings for measures of sleep for over two decades. Whether sleep measures from commercially available devices are similarly valid is unknown. We sought to determine the validity of five wearable devices: Basis Health Tracker, Misfit Shine, Fitbit Flex, Withings Pulse O2, and a research-based actigraph, Actiwatch Spectrum. We used Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests to assess differences between devices relative to PSG and correlational analysis to assess the strength of the relationship. Data loss was greatest for Fitbit and Misfit. For all devices, we found no difference and strong correlation of total sleep time with PSG. Sleep efficiency differed from PSG for Withings, Misfit, Fitbit, and Basis, while Actiwatch mean values did not differ from that of PSG. Only mean values of sleep efficiency (time asleep/time in bed) from Actiwatch correlated with PSG, yet this correlation was weak. Light sleep time differed from PSG (nREM1 + nREM2) for all devices. Measures of Deep sleep time did not differ from PSG (SWS + REM) for Basis. These results reveal the current strengths and limitations in sleep estimates produced by personal health monitoring devices and point to a need for future development.

  11. Measuring the value of groundwater and other forms of natural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Eli P; Abbott, Joshua K; Bayham, Jude; Boone, Whitney; Haacker, Erin M K; Pfeiffer, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Valuing natural capital is fundamental to measuring sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme, World Bank, and other agencies have called for inclusion of the value of natural capital in sustainability metrics, such as inclusive wealth. Much has been written about the importance of natural capital, but consistent, rigorous valuation approaches compatible with the pricing of traditional forms of capital have remained elusive. We present a guiding quantitative framework enabling natural capital valuation that is fully consistent with capital theory, accounts for biophysical and economic feedbacks, and can guide interdisciplinary efforts to measure sustainability. We illustrate this framework with an application to groundwater in the Kansas High Plains Aquifer, a rapidly depleting asset supporting significant food production. We develop a 10-y time series (1996-2005) of natural capital asset prices that accounts for technological, institutional, and physical changes. Kansas lost approximately $110 million per year (2005 US dollars) of capital value through groundwater withdrawal and changes in aquifer management during the decade spanning 1996-2005. This annual loss in wealth is approximately equal to the state's 2005 budget surplus, and is substantially more than investments in schools over this period. Furthermore, real investment in agricultural capital also declined over this period. Although Kansas' depletion of water wealth is substantial, it may be tractably managed through careful groundwater management and compensating investments in other natural and traditional assets. Measurement of natural capital value is required to inform management and ongoing investments in natural assets.

  12. Quality, Safety, Value: From Theory to Practice Management What Should We Measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Benjamin J; Murphy, Robert F; Hogue, Grant D

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 35 years the health care community and in particular orthopaedic surgery, has undergone a transformation from retrospective case-series-based expert opinion to randomized prospective clinical trials. During this transition, orthopaedic surgeons have become very skilled in the measurement of physician-derived outcomes (radiographic angles, complications, recurrences, and mortality); however, these are not patient-centered outcomes and they are of little importance to our patients' satisfaction. Moving forward outcome measurement needs to be restructured to focus more on patient-reported outcomes. This paper outlines why outcome measurement is important, reviews outcome strategies that have been used historically, introduces a new outcome measurement tool and identifies strategies for future implementation and measurement of health care quality and value within pediatric orthopaedics.

  13. Online Vce measurement method for wear-out monitoring of high power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    A simple Vce online monitoring circuit is presented in this paper. It allows an accurate wear out prediction of IGBT modules, in high-power applications, during normal converter operation. Bipolar measurement allows monitoring of both IGBT and antiparallel diode. The circuit uses two serial...... connected diodes to sense the Vce voltage with millivolt accuracy. One diode acts as a protection to block high DC voltage present on input terminals. When the device is conducting the voltage on the second diode is measured to compensate for the voltage drop on the protection diode thus eliminating voltage...

  14. A Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Elimination Measurements Between a Portable Indirect Calorimeter and Volumetric Capnography Monitor: An In Vitro Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Craig D; Martinez, Enid E; Mehta, Nilesh M

    2016-03-01

    Gas exchange measurements for carbon dioxide elimination (V̇CO2 ) and oxygen consumption (V̇O2 ) have been used to derive resting energy expenditure and guide energy prescription. Volumetric capnography is used in intensive care units and provides V̇CO2 measurements that could be used for titrating respiratory and nutritional support. We have recently suggested that measuring V̇CO2 may be sufficient to obtain a reasonable estimate of energy expenditure. However, data describing the accuracy of gas exchange measurement devices are limited. We used an in vitro simulation model to test the accuracy of gas exchange measurements by 2 devices: the CCM Express indirect calorimeter and the NM3, a volumetric capnography monitor. A Huszczuk gas injection system combined with a high-fidelity lung simulator was used to simulate V̇O2 and V̇CO2 values in the pediatric and adult range. Bland-Altman analysis was used to examine the agreement between the measured and simulated values across a range of tidal volumes and gas exchange values. Additionally, agreement between the 2 devices was examined. During the adult simulation with the CCM Express, the mean bias (95% CI) for V̇CO2 values was -12.6% (-16.4 to -8.8%) and -17.5% (-19.9 to -15.1%) for V̇O2 values. For the pediatric simulation with the CCM Express, mean bias for V̇O2 was -14.7% (-16.4 to -13.0%) and V̇CO2 was -10.9% (-13.5 to -8.3%). For the adult and pediatric simulations with the NM3, the bias for V̇CO2 was -8.2% (-15.7 to -0.7%) and -8.3% (-19.4 to -2.8%), respectively. Between the 2 devices, the mean bias was -4.4% (-10.2 to 1.3%) and -2.3% (-11.4 to 6.8%) for the adult and pediatric V̇CO2 simulations, respectively. Currently available portable gas exchange monitors demonstrated acceptable agreement with reference V̇O2 and V̇CO2 values in an in vitro simulation. The devices demonstrated good agreement with each other. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. Influence of cone beam CT scanning parameters on grey value measurements at an implant site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, A; Ibrahim, N; Hassan, B; Motroni, A; van der Stelt, P; Wismeijer, D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the grey value variation at the implant site with different scan settings, including field of view (FOV), spatial resolution, number of projections, exposure time and dose selections in two cone beam CT (CBCT) systems and to compare the results with those obtained from a multislice CT system. A partially edentulous human mandibular cadaver was scanned by three CT modalities: multislice CT (MSCT) (Philips, Best, the Netherlands), and two CBCT systems: (Accuitomo 170(®), Morita, Japan) and (NewTom 5G(®), QR, Verona, Italy). Using different scan settings 36 and 24 scans were obtained from the Accuitomo and the NewTom, respectively. The scans were converted to digital imaging and communications in medicine 3 format. The analysis of the data was performed using 3Diagnosys(®) software (v. 3.1, 3diemme, Cantù, Italy) and Geomagic studio(®) 2012 (Morrisville, NC). On the MSCT scan, one probe designating the site for pre-operative implant placement was inserted. The inserted probe on MSCT was transformed to the same region on each CBCT scan using a volume-based three-dimensional registration algorithm. The mean voxel grey value of the region around the probe was derived separately for each CBCT. The influence of scanning parameters on the measured mean voxel grey values was assessed. Grey values in both CBCT systems significantly deviated from Hounsfield unit values measured with MSCT (p = 0.0001). In both CBCT systems, scan FOV and spatial resolution selections had a statistically significant influence on grey value measurements (p = 0.0001). The number of projections selection had a statistically significant influence in the Accuitomo system (p = 0.0001) while exposure time and dose selections had no statistically significant influence on grey value measurements in the NewTom (p = 0.43 and p = 0.37, respectively). Grey-level values from CBCT images are influenced by device and scanning settings.

  16. Value of serum free light chain testing for the diagnosis and monitoring of monoclonal gammopathies in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Sundar

    2007-09-01

    The automated quantification of serum free kappa and lambda light chain concentrations provides a highly sensitive tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of monoclonal gammopathies. An abnormal kappa:lambda ratio supports the presence of clonal plasma cell expansion and requires further investigation. More than 94% of myeloma, light chain myeloma, and AL amyloidosis and, likewise, a majority of patients with light chain deposition disease are detectable with this technology. Importantly, these assays identify M-proteins in most patients with oligosecretory disease and permit their recruitment into clinical trials from which they have been previously excluded. Combining serum free light chain testing with traditional electrophoresis provides > 99% accuracy in the first-line diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathies and eliminates the need for urine testing in most instances. One third of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance have an abnormal free light chain ratio, and these patients harbor a greater risk of progression to plasma cell dyscrasia. For monitoring response to therapy, the international uniform response criteria define a normal free light chain ratio as an essential element of the "stringent complete response" category. Because the half-life of free light chains is chain measurements at short sampling intervals allow real-time measurement of treatment-induced tumor kill, and provide prompt indications of chemosensitivity, dose adequacy, need for alternative approaches, and even prognosis, as demonstrated in AL amyloidosis if the involved free light chain concentration normalizes. Clinical applications of these assays will likely increase as their utility is more widely explored.

  17. Environmental monitoring in emergency situations. On the measurements of environmental gamma rays and radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriuchi, Shigeru [Nuclear Safety Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the present situations, the previously developed technique and the future problems on the monitoring of environmental radiation at emergency. The present maintenance conditions of surveying systems for environmental radiation monitoring and measuring apparatuses for low-level radiation in an environment are extremely satisfactory in Japan. With the accident of TMI-2 reactor in U.S.A. the studies on monitoring and assessment systems for environmental radiation at emergency have been extensively progressed as a priority subject for environmental safety research. Here, an aerial radiological survey and assessment system, which is a block diagram example for aerial survey system developed by JAERI was presented. Also an observation pattern of {sup 41}Ar plume {gamma}-ray at a site under the lee several hundred meters apart from the source was obtained. It was found that there remain many problems to be taken into consideration to practically perform environmental monitoring. (M.N.)

  18. Transitive inference in pigeons: measuring the associative values of Stimuli B and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareva, Olga F; Wasserman, Edward A

    2012-03-01

    Several reinforcement-based models have been proposed to explain transitive-like behavior in nonverbal transitive inference tasks. These models assume that the initial training required for memorizing the premises produces an ordered series of associative values (A>B>C>D>E); these values can then be used to select the "transitively correct" stimulus in a novel pair (e.g., BD). Our study experimentally tested this assumption by using resistance-to-extinction and resistance-to-reinforcement techniques to obtain empirical measures of associative strength for Stimuli B and D. We first measured the associative strengths of these stimuli after completion of initial training with overlapping pairs of colored squares (A+B-, B+C-, C+D-, and D+E-) using resistance-to-extinction and resistance-to-reinforcement procedures. Next, we used massed presentations of Pair D+E- (termed bias reversal) that ought to increase the associative value of Stimulus D, and again measured the associative strengths of the stimuli. None of our experimental measures of associative strength correlated with pigeons' behavior in the BD test or with BD performance predicted by associative models either before or after bias reversal (Wynne, 1995; Siemann and Delius, 1998). These results question validity of reinforcement-based models for explaining animals' behavior in nonverbal TI tasks.

  19. Measuring and Managing Value Co-Creation Process: Overview of Existing Theoretical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skaržauskaitė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — the article is to provide a holistic view on concept of value co-creation and existing models for measuring and managing it by conducting theoretical analysis of scientific literature sources targeting the integration of various approaches. Most important and relevant results of the literature study are presented with a focus on changed roles of organizations and consumers. This article aims at contributing theoretically to the research stream of measuring co-creation of value in order to gain knowledge for improvement of organizational performance and enabling new and innovative means of value creation. Design/methodology/approach. The nature of this research is exploratory – theoretical analysis and synthesis of scientific literature sources targeting the integration of various approaches was performed. This approach was chosen due to the absence of established theory on models of co-creation, possible uses in organizations and systematic overview of tools measuring/suggesting how to measure co-creation. Findings. While the principles of managing and measuring co-creation in regards of consumer motivation and involvement are widely researched, little attempt has been made to identify critical factors and create models dealing with organizational capabilities and managerial implications of value co-creation. Systematic analysis of literature revealed a gap not only in empirical research concerning organization’s role in co-creation process, but in theoretical and conceptual levels, too. Research limitations/implications. The limitations of this work as a literature review lies in its nature – the complete reliance on previously published research papers and the availability of these studies. For a deeper understanding of co-creation management and for developing models that can be used in real-life organizations, a broader theoretical, as well as empirical, research is necessary. Practical implications. Analysis of the

  20. Real-time measurement of dust in the workplace using video exposure monitoring: Farming to pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, P. T.; Forth, A. R.; Clark, R. D. R.; Dowker, K. P.; Thorpe, A.

    2009-02-01

    Real-time, photometric, portable dust monitors have been employed for video exposure monitoring (VEM) to measure and highlight dust levels generated by work activities, illustrate dust control techniques, and demonstrate good practice. Two workplaces, presenting different challenges for measurement, were used to illustrate the capabilities of VEM: (a) poultry farming activities and (b) powder transfer operations in a pharmaceutical company. For the poultry farm work, the real-time monitors were calibrated with respect to the respirable and inhalable dust concentrations using cyclone and IOM reference samplers respectively. Different rankings of exposure for typical activities were found on the small farm studied here compared to previous exposure measurements at larger poultry farms: these were mainly attributed to the different scales of operation. Large variations in the ratios of respirable, inhalable and real-time monitor TWA concentrations of poultry farm dust for various activities were found. This has implications for the calibration of light-scattering dust monitors with respect to inhalable dust concentration. In the pharmaceutical application, the effectiveness of a curtain barrier for dust control when dispensing powder in a downflow booth was rapidly demonstrated.

  1. Magnetically insulated baffled probe for real-time monitoring of equilibrium and fluctuating values of space potentials, electron and ion temperatures, and densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, V I; Koepke, M E; Raitses, Y

    2010-10-01

    By restricting the electron-collection area of a cold Langmuir probe compared to the ion-collection area, the probe floating potential can become equal to the space potential, and thus conveniently monitored, rather than to a value shifted from the space potential by an electron-temperature-dependent offset, i.e., the case with an equal-collection-area probe. This design goal is achieved by combining an ambient magnetic field in the plasma with baffles, or shields, on the probe, resulting in species-selective magnetic insulation of the probe collection area. This permits the elimination of electron current to the probe by further adjustment of magnetic insulation which results in an ion-temperature-dependent offset when the probe is electrically floating. Subtracting the floating potential of two magnetically insulated baffled probes, each with a different degree of magnetic insulation, enables the electron or ion temperature to be measured in real time.

  2. Measurement of the dosimetric parameters for low monitor units in step-and-shoot IMRT delivered by Siemens Artiste linear accelerators; Medida de los parametros dosimetricos para bajo numero de unidades monitor en IMRT segmentada estatica administrada por aceleradores lineales Siemens Artiste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, C.; Lopez Fernandez, A.; Saez Beltran, M.; Martin Martin, G.; Alonso Iracheta, L.

    2012-07-01

    Absorbed dose linearity and beam stability, both for low monitor units, are important factors for ensuring planned dose delivery in step-and-shoot IMRT. For Siemens Artiste linear accelerators, under IMRT stable irradiation conditions and for a single segment of 20 cm x 20 cm field size, the linearity of the absorbed dose with the monitor units, field flatness and symmetry have been measured for the range between 1 and 10 monitor units. We have found that absorbed dose linearity with monitor units is within 2% down to 2 monitor units and it is about 9% for 1 monitor unit. Flatness and symmetry values show variations within 1% down to 2 monitor units and increase by 9% for lower values. Using our monitor unit distribution per segment in IMRT we estimate that the uncertainty in absorbed dose for a whole treatment due to these factors is less than 1% (k= 3). (Author) 13 refs.

  3. [Prognostic value of dynamic monitoring of RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcript in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H T; Zhang, Y; Sun, K; Guo, J M; Chen, Y Q; Chen, X L; Shi, J; Niu, X N; Wang, F; Huo, L

    2017-03-14

    Objective: To investigate the prognostic value of dynamic monitoring of RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcript in pediatric patients with t (8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) . Methods: The clinical features and RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcript levels of 55 pediatric t (8;21) AML patients, newly diagnosed from Jan. 2010 to Apr. 2016, were analyzed retrospectively. The relationship between the minimal residual disease (MRD) and prognosis was analysed by dynamic monitoring of RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcript levels using real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) technology. Results: The RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcript levels in bone marrow cells at diagnosis was not related to relapse. After one course of induction therapy, patients with a more than 2 Log reduction of RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcript levels (>2 Log) had lower 5 years cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) [ (24.3±8.4) % vs (52.6±9.7) %, χ(2)=9.046, P=0.003], relapse-free survival (RFS) [ (71.6±12.7) % vs (48.1±13.2) %, χ(2)=5.814, P=0.016], and better overall survival (OS) [ (76.9±12.5) % vs (48.9±14.7) %, χ(2)=6.346, P=0.012], compared to patients with a less than 2 Log reduction (a2 Log reduction in RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcript levels after a course of induction therapy was an independent prognostic factor for RFS (HR=0.263, 95%CI 0.081-0.851, P=0.026) and OS (HR=0.214, 95% CI 0.057-0.808, P=0.023) . During consolidation therapy and follow-up period, molecular relapse of 16 cases and hematologic relapse of 13 cases were identified by continuous dynamic monitoring of RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcript levels, with a median interval of 4.0 (1.5-5.8) months from the molecular relapse to hematologic relapse. 2 cases of molecular relapse who received timely allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation did not experience hematologic relapse. Conclusion: Dynamic monitoring RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcript levels by RQ-PCR technique can subdivide patients into relatively low and high risk group, early screen patients at high risk of relapse and provide a

  4. Measurement of the activation cross section for the (p,xn) reactions in niobium with potential applications as monitor reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila-Rodriguez, M.A. [Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada)], E-mail: miguel.avila-rodriguez@utu.fi; Wilson, J.S. [Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Schueller, M.J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); McQuarrie, S.A. [Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    Excitation functions of the {sup 93}Nb(p,n){sup 93m}Mo, {sup 93}Nb(p,pn){sup 92m}Nb and {sup 93}Nb(p,{alpha}n){sup 89}Zr nuclear reactions were measured up to 17.4 MeV by the conventional activation method using the stacked-foil technique. Stacks were irradiated at different incident energies on the TR19/9 cyclotron at the Edmonton PET Centre. The potential of the measured excitation functions for use as monitor reactions was evaluated and tested by measuring activity ratios at a different facility. Single Nb foils were irradiated at incident energies in the range from 12 to 19 MeV on the TR19/9 cyclotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Results are compared with the published data and with theoretical values as determined by the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE.

  5. The relationship between intellectual capital and value-based performance measurement variables (Case study: automotive industry companies of Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMADI CHESHMEH KABOUDI, Afshin; JOORBONYAN, Saeed; EBRAHIMI, Ebrahim; MOJAHED, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and value-based performance measurement variables of automotive companies operating in Iran in the period 2008-2014 and it was found that efficient use of material and intellectual resources is effective on value-based performance measurement indicators. Also, the efficiency of human capital impacts on economic value added, market value added and value-added cash and the efficiency of capital employed impa...

  6. Possible applications of instruments of measurement of the customer value in the operations of logistics companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growing popularity in recent years of marketing concepts of putting clients in the centre of the interest of companies as well as easy access to data related to customers' behaviors led to the increase of the importance of such concepts as the profitability and the value of the customer. But the customer value in not an unequivocal concept. It can be defined and measured individually depending on the needs of a company, an industry character, objectives or a time horizon. Methods: The following, most often used, methods for measuring customer value were selected, described and analyzed from the point of view of their usefulness: different types of the portfolio method (e.g. two-steps and three-steps one, nine-field matrix, etc, multidimensional analysis of customers, analysis of the rentability of customers, model PCV, ABC method, RFM method and CLV indicator. Results: The advantages and disadvantages of each of analyzed methods were presented and evaluated. The possible use of each of the methods was presented and discussed. In the sector of logistics companies, the measurement of the customer value can be an effective tool in managing the customer relationships and in increasing their profitability. Since there is no only one universal way of measuring the customer value, which is appropriate for every selected industry branch, the choice of a particular method depends on many factors, such as a business profile or number of clients served by a company. Conclusions: The aim of the identification of key customers is to facilitate the optimal allocation of resources of the company. Not all customers are equally important for the company, and the company is not able and should not try to acquire and satisfy needs of each customer. It should be remembered, that the evaluation of the customer value in logistics companies should not be restricted to only one of discussed methods. The analysis presented in this paper indicates, that

  7. Measurement of back-scattered radiation from micro multileaf collimator into the beam monitor chamber from a dual energy linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements designed to find the collimator backscatter into the beam monitor chamber from Micro Multileaf collimator of 6 MV photon beams of the Siemens Primus linear accelerator were made with the help of dose rate feedback control. The photons and electrons backscattered from the upper and lower secondary collimator jaws give rise to a significant increase in the ion charge measured by monitor chamber. This increase varies between the different accelerators. The output measurements were carried out in air at the isocenter. The effect of collimator backscatter was investigated by measuring the pulse width, number of beam pulses per monitor unit, monitor unit rate and dose for different mMLC openings. These measurements were made with and without dose rate feedback control, i.e., with constant electron beam current in the accelerator. Monitor unit rate (MU/min was almost constant for all field sizes. The maximum variation between the open and the closed feedback control circuits was 2.5%. There was no difference in pulse width and negligible difference in pulse frequency. Maximum value of backscattered radiation from the micro Multileaf collimator into the beam monitor chamber was found to be 0.5%.

  8. Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafrullah Arifin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management. Cervical spine injury is one of the most common spinal cord injuries in trauma patients. From 100,000 spinal cord injury cases reported in the United States of America (2008, sixty seven percent involve cervical spine injury. American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA impairment score is used as an initial assessment but not enough attention prognostic outcome of these patients was paid to. The objective of this study is to analyze the value of functional independence measure (FIM cervical spine injury patients with conservative management and its correlation with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma, cervical abnormalities, type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score. A prospective cohort study was performed to all patients with cervical spine injury treated inNeurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung that fullfiled the inclusion criteria. The subjects were classified based on age, sex, single/multiple trauma, acute /chronic, cervical abnormalities, complete/incomplete lesion and ASIA impairment score. The FIM examination was performed in Outpatient clinic of Neurosurgery. T-test and chi-square test was done to analyze the data. There were 17 cervical spine injury patients treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital during April 2009–April 2010. The average FIM value of cervical spine injury in those patients is 4+ 1.63 by cohort prospective study. There were no correlation between FIM value with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma and cervical abnormalities. Significant correlations were found between FIM value with type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score in cervical spine patients. Type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score have significant correlation with FIM value of patients in 6 months after cervical injury.

  9. Normal SUV values measured from NaF18- PET/CT bone scan studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Zaw Win

    Full Text Available Cancer and metabolic bone diseases can alter the SUV. SUV values have never been measured from healthy skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans. The primary aim of this study was to measure the SUV values from normal skeletons in NaF18-PET/CT bone scans.A retrospective study was carried out involving NaF18- PET/CT bone scans that were done at our institution between January 2010 to May 2012. Our excluding criteria was patients with abnormal real function and patients with past history of cancer and metabolic bone diseases including but not limited to osteoporosis, osteopenia and Paget's disease. Eleven studies met all the criteria.The average normal SUVmax values from 11 patients were: cervical vertebrae 6.84 (range 4.38-8.64, thoracic vertebrae 7.36 (range 6.99-7.66, lumbar vertebrae 7.27 (range 7.04-7.72, femoral head 2.22 (range 1.1-4.3, humeral head 1.82 (range 1.2-2.9, mid sternum 5.51 (range 2.6-8.1, parietal bone 1.71 (range 1.3-2.4.According to our study, various skeletal sites have different normal SUV values. SUV values can be different between the normal bones and bones with tumor or metabolic bone disease. SUV can be used to quantify NaF-18 PET/CT studies. If the SUV values of the normal skeleton are known, they can be used in the characterization of bone lesions and in the assessment of treatment response to bone diseases.

  10. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  11. Ultrasonic crystallization monitoring technique for simultaneous in-line measurement of liquid and solid phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, T.; Pertig, D.; Ulrich, J.

    2013-01-01

    The mean crystal size, the suspension density and the liquid concentration are the three most important process parameters to quantify the progress of industrial crystallization processes. It will be shown that these parameters can be in-line monitored simultaneously by means of an ultrasonic crystallization monitoring technique (UCM), which will be introduced here in a proof of concept. This process analytical technology (PAT) differs from the known ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy (UAS). For the UCM the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation were correlated and related to characteristic events during a crystallization process measured at only one frequency (no spectra of frequencies as it is used for UAS). The results shown in this study prepare the ground to establish the UCM as a simple, less complex, robust, universal applicable, inexpensive and, therefore, a winning alternative PAT to monitor and control in-line the solid as well as the liquid phase in the industrial crystallization by means of only one measuring device with two sensors.

  12. Added value measures in education show genetic as well as environmental influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M A; Asbury, Kathryn; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2011-02-02

    Does achievement independent of ability or previous attainment provide a purer measure of the added value of school? In a study of 4000 pairs of 12-year-old twins in the UK, we measured achievement with year-long teacher assessments as well as tests. Raw achievement shows moderate heritability (about 50%) and modest shared environmental influences (25%). Unexpectedly, we show that for indices of the added value of school, genetic influences remain moderate (around 50%), and the shared (school) environment is less important (about 12%). The pervasiveness of genetic influence in how and how much children learn is compatible with an active view of learning in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities.

  13. Storage stability of crips measured by headspace and peroxide value analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahtinen, R. M.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal sunflower oil and high oleic acid sunflower oil were tested in industrial frying of crisps against the reference oil palm olein. A protective agent, dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS, was also tested in crisp frying. Peroxide values and volatile contents of the crisps stored in normal storage conditions (room temperature were measured during storage. From the peroxide values it could be seen that crisps fried in normal sunflower oil were the most unstable during storage. Crisps fried in high oleic sunflower oil proved to be almost as stable towards oxidation as crisps fried in reference oil palm olein. Volatile contents, measured by a static headspace - gas chromatograph - mass spectrometry system, confirmed the conclusions of peroxide analysis. Neither of the methods could find any difference between the samples which had been fried with and without DMPS.

  14. Distance Measures between Vague Sets(VALUES)%Vague集(值)间的距离测度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢正鼎; 王天江

    2003-01-01

    At present in the area of intelligence it is more and more widely and deeply to research vague set. For mea-suring vague set, similarity measures between vague sets have been proposed in [1]. But in many cases we need themeasuring method with distance characteristics, so we propose a series of distance measures for vague sets (values)and elements of vague sets. And we prove all characteristics of vague sets proposed by us, and then an example is al-so presented to illustrate the application of the proposed distance measures in handling behavior analysis problems.The method proposed in the example can provide a useful way in handling the behavior analysis problems. It providesa useful tool for intelligence system.

  15. Health Value Added (HVA): linking strategy, performance, and measurement in healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Nurit L; Kokia, Ehud; Shemer, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes "Health Value Added"--an innovative model that links performance measurement to strategy in health maintenance organizations. The HVA model was developed by Maccabi Healthcare Services, Israel's second largest HMO, with the aim of focusing all its activities on providing high quality care within budgetary and regulatory constraints. HVA draws upon theory and practice from strategic management and performance measurement in order to assess an HMO's ability to improve the health of its members. The model consists of four interrelated levels--mission, goals, systems, and resources--and builds on the existence of advanced computerized information systems that make comprehensive measurements available to decision makers in real time. HVA enables management to evaluate overall organizational performance as well as the performance of semi-autonomous units. In simple terms, the sophisticated use of performance measures can help healthcare organizations obtain more health for the same money.

  16. Time-dependent spectrum of a single photon and its positive-operator-valued measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Enk, S. J.

    2017-09-01

    Suppose we measure the time-dependent spectrum of a single photon. That is, we first send the photon through a set of frequency filters (which we assume to have different filter frequencies but the same finite bandwidth Γ ) and then record at what time (with some finite precision Δ t and some finite efficiency η ) and after passing what filter the photon is detected. What is the positive-operator-valued measure (POVM), the most general description of a quantum measurement, corresponding to such a measurement? We show how to construct the POVM in various cases, with special interest in the case Γ Δ t ≪1 (time-frequency uncertainty still holds, even in that limit). One application of the formalism is to heralding single photons. We also find a Hong-Ou-Mandel type of interference effect with two photons entering a frequency filter.

  17. Group differences in measures of voice production and revised values of maximum airflow declination rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkell, J S; Hillman, R E; Holmberg, E B

    1994-08-01

    In previous reports, aerodynamic and acoustic measures of voice production were presented for groups of normal male and female speakers [Holmberg et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 511-529 (1988); J. Voice 3, 294-305 (1989)] that were used as norms in studies of voice disorders [Hillman et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 32, 373-392 (1989); J. Voice 4, 52-63 (1990)]. Several of the measures were extracted from glottal airflow waveforms that were derived by inverse filtering a high-time-resolution oral airflow signal. Recently, the methods have been updated and a new study of additional subjects has been conducted. This report presents previous (1988) and current (1993) group mean values of sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, maximum airflow declination rate, ac flow, peak flow, minimum flow, ac-dc ratio, inferred subglottal air pressure, average flow, and glottal resistance. Statistical tests indicate overall group differences and differences for values of several individual parameters between the 1988 and 1993 studies. Some inter-study differences in parameter values may be due to sampling effects and minor methodological differences; however, a comparative test of 1988 and 1993 inverse filtering algorithms shows that some lower 1988 values of maximum flow declination rate were due at least in part to excessive low-pass filtering in the 1988 algorithm. The observed differences should have had a negligible influence on the conclusions of our studies of voice disorders.

  18. Can the reinforcing value of food be measured in bulimia nervosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebendach, Janet; Broft, Allegra; Foltin, Richard W; Walsh, B Timothy

    2013-03-01

    Binge eating is a core clinical feature of bulimia nervosa (BN). Enhanced reinforcing value of food may play a role in this behavioral disturbance, but a systematic behavioral assessment of objective measures of the rewarding value of binge eating is lacking. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reinforcing value of food in BN patients as compared with normal controls. A progressive ratio (PR) computerized work task was completed under binge and non-binge instruction. The task consisted of 12 trials. The first trial required 50 keyboard taps to earn one portion of yogurt shake, and subsequent trials required progressive work increments of 200 taps for each additional portion. Completion of all 12 trials required 13,800 taps to earn 2100ml of shake. The breakpoint, defined as the largest ratio completed before a participant stopped working, was the measure of reinforcing efficacy. Ten patients and 10 controls completed the experiment. Under binge instruction, patients completed more trials and taps, and had a higher breakpoint than controls. The non-binge instruction yielded opposite findings; compared to controls, patients completed fewer trials and taps, and had a lower breakpoint. These results support the feasibility and potential utility of a PR task to quantify the reinforcing value of food in patients with BN. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating the value of ENVISAT ASAR Data for the mapping and monitoring of peatland water table depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Michel; Schlaffer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) onboard ENVISAT collected C-Band microwave backscatter data from 2005 to 2012. Backscatter in the C-Band depends to a large degree on the roughness and the moisture status of vegetation and soil surface with a penetration depth of ca. 3 cm. In wetlands with stable high water levels, the annual soil surface moisture dynamics are very distinct compared to the surrounding areas, which allows the monitoring of such environments with ASAR data (Reschke et al. 2012). Also in drained peatlands, moisture status of vegetation and soil surface strongly depends on water table depth due to high hydraulic conductivities of many peat soils in the low suction range (Dettmann et al. 2014). We hypothesize that this allows the characterization of water table depths with ASAR data. Here we analyze whether ASAR data can be used for the spatial and temporal estimation of water table depths in different peatlands (natural, near-natural, agriculturally-used and rewetted). Mapping and monitoring of water table depths is of crucial importance, e.g. for upscaling greenhouse gas emissions and evaluating the success of peatland rewetting projects. Here, ASAR data is analyzed with a new map of water table depths for the organic soils in Germany (Bechtold et al. 2014) as well as with a comprehensive data set of monitored peatland water levels from 1100 dip wells and 54 peatlands. ASAR time series from the years 2005-2012 with irregular temporal sampling intervals of 3-14 days were processed. Areas covered by snow were masked. Primary results about the accuracy of spatial estimates show significant correlations between long-term backscatter statistics and spatially-averaged water table depths extracted from the map at the resolution of the ASAR data. Backscatter also correlates with long-term averages of point-scale water table depth data of the monitoring wells. For the latter, correlation is highest between the dry reference backscatter values and

  20. Minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure on a separable Hilbert space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramochi, Yui, E-mail: kuramochi.yui.22c@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, 6158540 Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    We introduce a concept of a minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure (POVM), which is the least redundant POVM among the POVMs that have the equivalent information about the measured quantum system. Assuming the system Hilbert space to be separable, we show that for a given POVM, a sufficient statistic called a Lehmann-Scheffé-Bahadur statistic induces a minimal sufficient POVM. We also show that every POVM has an equivalent minimal sufficient POVM and that such a minimal sufficient POVM is unique up to relabeling neglecting null sets. We apply these results to discrete POVMs and information conservation conditions proposed by the author.

  1. Standard systems for measurement of pK values and ionic mobilities: 2. Univalent weak bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slampová, Andrea; Krivánková, Ludmila; Gebauer, Petr; Bocek, Petr

    2009-04-24

    This paper contributes to the methodology of measuring pK values and ionic mobilities by capillary zone electrophoresis by introducing the principle of constant ionic strength and minimum interaction of analytes with counterionic components and presenting a standard system of cationic buffers for measurements of weak bases. The system is designed so that all buffers comprise the same concentration of Cl(-) present as the only counter anion. This minimizes problems caused by interactions between the counterion and the analytes which may otherwise bring biased values of obtained effective mobilities. Further, the buffer system provides constant and accurately known ionic strength for an entire set of measurements. When additionally all measurements are performed with constant Joule heating, one correction for ionic strength and temperature is then needed for the obtained set of experimental data. This considerably facilitates their evaluation and regression analysis as the corrections for ionic strength and Joule heating need not be implemented in the computation software and may be applied only once to the final regression results. An experimental example of the proposed methodology is presented and the reliability and the advantages of the proposed system are shown, where the known problematic groups of amines and pyridine were measured with high accuracy and without any notice of anomalous behavior.

  2. Partial discharge measurements on 110kV current transformers. Setting the control value. Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, C.; Morar, R.

    2017-05-01

    The case study presents a series of partial discharge measurements, reflecting the state of insulation of 110kV CURRENT TRANSFORMERS located in Sibiu county substations. Measurements were performed based on electrical method, using MPD600: an acquisition and analysis toolkit for detecting, recording, and analyzing partial discharges. MPD600 consists of one acquisition unit, an optical interface and a computer with dedicated software. The system allows measurements of partial discharge on site, even in presence of strong electromagnetic interferences because it provides synchronous acquisition from all measurement points. Therefore, measurements, with the ability to be calibrated, do render: - a value subject to interpretation according to IEC 61869-1:2007 + IEC 61869-2:2012 + IEC 61869-3:2011 + IEC 61869-5:2011 and IEC 60270: 2000; - the possibility to determine the quantitative limit of PD (a certain control value) to which the equipment can be operated safely and repaired with minimal costs (relative to the high costs implied by eliminating the consequences of a failure) identified empirically (process in which the instrument transformer subjected to the tests was completely destroyed).

  3. Weak-strong uniqueness for measure-valued solutions of some compressible fluid models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, Piotr; Świerczewska-Gwiazda, Agnieszka; Wiedemann, Emil

    2015-10-01

    We prove weak-strong uniqueness in the class of admissible measure-valued solutions for the isentropic Euler equations in any space dimension and for the Savage-Hutter model of granular flows in one and two space dimensions. For the latter system, we also show the complete dissipation of momentum in finite time, thus rigorously justifying an assumption that has been made in the engineering and numerical literature.

  4. Weak-strong uniqueness for measure-valued solutions of some compressible fluid models

    CERN Document Server

    Gwiazda, Piotr; Wiedemann, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We prove weak-strong uniqueness in the class of admissible measure-valued solutions for the isentropic Euler equations in any space dimension and for the Savage-Hutter model of granular flows in one and two space dimensions. For the latter system, we also show the complete dissipation of momentum in finite time, thus rigorously justifying an assumption that has been made in the engineering and numerical literature.

  5. Picoradian deflection measurement with an interferometric quasi-autocollimator using weak value amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Matthew D; Hagedorn, Charles A; Schlamminger, Stephan; Gundlach, Jens H

    2011-04-15

    We present an "interferometric quasi-autocollimator" that employs weak value amplification to measure angular deflections of a target mirror. The device has been designed to be insensitive to all translations of the target. We present a conceptual explanation of the amplification effect used by the device. An implementation of the device demonstrates sensitivities better than 10 picoradians per root hertz between 10 and 200 Hz.

  6. Measurements of Sc I gf-values. [absorption spectroscopy using heat pipe oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Reeves, E. M.; Tomkins, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute gf-values were obtained for 98 transitions in neutral scandium by the hook method using an inductively coupled heat-pipe oven. Of the 98 lines, 51 are classified, 33 are unclassified lines that occur in pairs with the lower energy level identified, and 14 are unclassified but are believed to originate from one of the two lower levels of the ground state. The results are compared with semiempirical and other measurement results in the literature.

  7. What Weak Measurements and Weak Values Really Mean: Reply to Kastner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Eliahu

    2017-06-01

    Despite their important applications in metrology and in spite of numerous experimental demonstrations, weak measurements are still confusing for part of the community. This sometimes leads to unjustified criticism. Recent papers have experimentally clarified the meaning and practical significance of weak measurements, yet in Kastner (Found Phys 47:697-707, 2017), Kastner seems to take us many years backwards in the the debate, casting doubt on the very term "weak value" and the meaning of weak measurements. Kastner appears to ignore both the basics and frontiers of weak measurements and misinterprets the weak measurement process and its outcomes. In addition, she accuses the authors of Aharonov et al. (Ann Phys 355:258-268, 2015) in statements completely opposite to the ones they have actually made. There are many points of disagreement between Kastner and us, but in this short reply I will leave aside the ontology (which is indeed interpretational and far more complex than that described by Kastner) and focus mainly on the injustice in her criticism. I shall add some general comments regarding the broader theory of weak measurements and the two-state-vector formalism, as well as supporting experimental results. Finally, I will point out some recent promising results, which can be proven by (strong) projective measurements, without the need of employing weak measurements.

  8. Identifying Effective and Sustainable Measures for Community-Based Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ariana J.; Johnson, Chris J.

    2017-09-01

    Resource development projects typically result in monitoring programs that fail to fully consider the values and participation of surrounding communities. Also, monitoring protocols for single environmental values can be insufficient for addressing the cumulative impacts of resource development. Community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM) has emerged as a way to meaningfully include local citizens in the decision-making process and assessment of the development of natural resources. Our research explored how to develop effective and sustainable CBEM. Interviews were conducted with staff from 15 CBEM programs established across Canada to identify criteria of what constitutes effective CBEM. Results demonstrate that CBEM offers an effective, locally adapted, and culturally applicable approach to facilitate community participation in natural resource management and to track environmental change. Benefits of CBEM include: locally relevant monitoring protocols, inclusion of cumulative impacts, better informed decision-making, and increased awareness and collaboration amongst community, governments, and proponents. Challenges associated with CBEM are cost, capacity, longevity, distribution of results, and establishing credibility. This research validates the use of CBEM for improving resource management.

  9. Measurement of definite integral of sinusoidal signal absolute value third power using digital stochastic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljić Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a special case of digital stochastic measurement of the third power of definite integral of sinusoidal signal’s absolute value, using 2-bit AD converters is presented. This case of digital stochastic method had emerged from the need to measure power and energy of the wind. Power and energy are proportional to the third power of wind speed. Anemometer output signal is sinusoidal. Therefore an integral of the third power of sinusoidal signal is zero. Two approaches are proposed for the third power calculation of the wind speed signal. One approach is to use absolute value of sinusoidal signal (before AD conversion for which there is no need of multiplier hardware change. The second approach requires small multiplier hardware change, but input signal remains unchanged. For the second approach proposed minimal hardware change was made to calculate absolute value of the result after AD conversion. Simulations have confirmed theoretical analysis. Expected precision of wind energy measurement of proposed device is better than 0,00051% of full scale. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR32019

  10. Using effort to measure reward value of faces in children with autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ewing

    Full Text Available According to one influential account, face processing atypicalities in autism reflect reduced reward value of faces, which results in limited attention to faces during development and a consequent failure to acquire face expertise. Surprisingly, however, there is a paucity of work directly investigating the reward value of faces for individuals with autism and the evidence for diminished face rewards in this population remains equivocal. In the current study, we measured how hard children with autism would work to view faces, using an effortful key-press sequence, and whether they were sensitive to the differential reward value of attractive and unattractive faces. Contrary to expectations, cognitively able children with autism did not differ from typically developing children of similar age and ability in their willingness to work to view faces. Moreover, the effort expended was strongly positively correlated with facial attractiveness ratings in both groups of children. There was also no evidence of atypical reward values for other, less social categories (cars and inverted faces in the children with autism. These results speak against the possibility that face recognition difficulties in autism are explained by atypical reward value of faces.

  11. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  12. Exploration of ion temperature profile measurements at JET using the upgraded neutron profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marocco, D.; Esposito, B.; Riva, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, Frascati I-00044, Roma (Italy); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2012-10-15

    The neutron profile monitor (NPM), routinely used at the Joint European Torus for neutron emissivity profile measurements, consists of two fan-shaped arrays of collimators and each line of sight (LOS) is equipped with a NE213 liquid organic scintillator for simultaneous measurements of the 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutrons. A digital system developed in ENEA has replaced the analog acquisition electronics and now enables the NPM to perform spatially resolved neutron spectrometry by providing neutron pulse height spectra (PHS) for each LOS. However, the NPM was not originally designed as a spectrometer and, therefore, lacks several key features, such as detailed measurements of the detector response functions and the presence of detector stability monitors. We present a proof of principle of ion temperature profile measurements derived from the NPM PHS in high plasma current discharges using simulated detector response functions.

  13. 4.0 Measuring and monitoring forest carbon stocks and fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; Peter S. Murdoch; Richard A. Birdsey; John L. Hom

    2008-01-01

    Measuring and monitoring forest productivity and carbon (C) is of growing concern for natural resource managers and policymakers. With the Delaware River Basin (DRB) as a pilot region, this subproject of the CEMRI sought to: improve the ability of the ground-based Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) networks to more completely assess forest C stocks and fluxes,...

  14. Passive acoustic measurements of snapping shrimp from a reef monitoring feasibility test in Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntera, A.; Fillingera, L.; Clarijs, M.

    2014-01-01

    In December 2013, TNO made underwater measurements in Aruba to assess the feasibility of reef health monitoring using passive acoustics; this work was conducted in collaboration with Aruba Ports Authority, Aruba Marine Park, and Aruba Reef Care Foundation. Ambient noise recordings were made at vario

  15. Comparing Elicited Imitation and Word Monitoring as Measures of Implicit Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuichi; DeKeyser, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The present study challenges the validity of elicited imitation (EI) as a measure for implicit knowledge, investigating to what extent online error detection and subsequent sentence repetition draw on implicit knowledge. To assess online detection during listening, a word monitoring component was built into an EI task. Advanced-level Japanese L2…

  16. A Linguistic Communication Measure for Monitoring Changes in Chinese Aphasic Narrative Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Law, Sam-Po

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM) in monitoring changes of narrative production in five Chinese adults with aphasia in the period of spontaneous recovery (SR group) and four who underwent anomia therapies (Tx group). Language samples elicited from a picture description task were…

  17. Performance Measurement of Location Enabled e-Government Processes: A Use Case on Traffic Safety Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, D.; Vancauwenberghe, G.

    2016-12-01

    The European Union Location Framework (EULF), as part of the Interoperable Solutions for European Public Administrations (ISA) Programme of the EU (EC DG DIGIT), aims to enhance the interactions between governments, businesses and citizens by embedding location information into e-Government processes. The challenge remains to find scientific sound and at the same time practicable approaches to estimate or measure the impact of location enablement of e-Government processes on the performance of the processes. A method has been defined to estimate process performance in terms of variables describing the efficiency, effectiveness, as well as the quality of the output of the work processes. A series of use cases have been identified, corresponding to existing e-Government work processes in which location information could bring added value. In a first step, the processes are described by means of BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) to better understand the process steps, the actors involved, the spatial data flows, as well as the required input and the generated output. In a second step the processes are assessed in terms of the (sub-optimal) use of location information and the potential enhancement of the process by better integrating location information and services. The process performance is measured ex ante (before using location enabled e-Government services) and ex-post (after the integration of such services) in order to estimate and measure the impact of location information. The paper describes the method for performance measurement and highlights how the method is applied to one use case, i.e. the process of traffic safety monitoring. The use case is analysed and assessed in terms of location enablement and its potential impact on process performance. The results of applying the methodology on the use case revealed that performance is highly impacted by factors such as the way location information is collected, managed and shared throughout the

  18. Project management metrics, KPIs, and dashboards a guide to measuring and monitoring project performance

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Today, with the growth of complex projects, stakeholder involvement in projects, advances in computer technology for dashboard designs, metrics, and key performance indicators for project management have become an important focus. This Second Edition of the bestselling book walks readers through everything from the basics of project management metrics and key performance indicators to establishing targets and using dashboards to monitor performance. The content is aligned with PMI's PMBOK Guide and stresses "value" as the main focal point.

  19. Water Level Loggers as a Low-Cost Tool for Monitoring of Stormwater Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Toran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater control measures (SCMs are a key component of watershed health in urbanized areas. SCMs are used to increase infiltration and reduce discharge to streams or storm sewer systems during rain events. Monitoring is important for the evaluation of design and causes of failure in SCMs. However, the expense of monitoring means it is not always included in stormwater control planning. This study shows how low-cost water level loggers can be used to answer certain questions about SCM performance. Five case studies are presented that use water level loggers to evaluate the overflow of basins, compare a traditional stormpipe trench with an infiltration trench, monitor timing of blue roof storage, show the effects of retrofitting a basin, and provide long term performance data. Water level loggers can be used to answer questions about the timing and location of stormwater overflows, which helps to evaluate the effectiveness of SCMs. More expensive monitoring and modeling can be used as a follow up if needed to more thoroughly assess a site. Nonetheless, low-cost monitoring can be a first step in identifying sites that need improvement or additional monitoring.

  20. Clustering of reads with alignment-free measures and quality values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Matteo; Leoni, Andrea; Schimd, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The data volume generated by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies is growing at a pace that is now challenging the storage and data processing capacities of modern computer systems. In this context an important aspect is the reduction of data complexity by collapsing redundant reads in a single cluster to improve the run time, memory requirements, and quality of post-processing steps like assembly and error correction. Several alignment-free measures, based on k-mers counts, have been used to cluster reads. Quality scores produced by NGS platforms are fundamental for various analysis of NGS data like reads mapping and error detection. Moreover future-generation sequencing platforms will produce long reads but with a large number of erroneous bases (up to 15 %). In this scenario it will be fundamental to exploit quality value information within the alignment-free framework. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that incorporates quality value information and k-mers counts, in the context of alignment-free measures, for the comparison of reads data. Based on this principles, in this paper we present a family of alignment-free measures called D (q) -type. A set of experiments on simulated and real reads data confirms that the new measures are superior to other classical alignment-free statistics, especially when erroneous reads are considered. Also results on de novo assembly and metagenomic reads classification show that the introduction of quality values improves over standard alignment-free measures. These statistics are implemented in a software called QCluster (http://www.dei.unipd.it/~ciompin/main/qcluster.html).