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Sample records for molten nacl-k2so4 system

  1. Molten-salt reactor information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Cardwell, D.W.; Engel, J.R.

    1975-06-01

    The Molten-Salt Reactor Information System (MSRIS) is a computer-based file of abstracts of documents dealing with the technology of molten-salt reactors. The file is stored in the IBM-360 system at ORNL, and may be searched through the use of established interactive computer programs from remote terminals connected to the computer via telephone lines. The system currently contains 373 entries and is subject to updating and expansion as additional information is developed. The nature and general content of the data file, a general approach for obtaining information from it, and the manner in which material is added to the file are described. Appendixes provide the list of keywords currently in use, the subject categories under which information is filed, and simplified procedures for searching the file from remote terminals. (U.S.)

  2. Thorium Molten Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System (THORIMS-NES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ritsuo; Mitachi, Koshi

    2013-01-01

    The authors have been promoting nuclear energy technology based on thorium molten salt as Thorium Molten Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System (THORIMS-NES). This system is a combination of fission power reactor of Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), and Accelerator Molten Salt Breeder (AMSB) for production of fissile 233 U with connecting chemical processing facility. In this paper, concept of THORIMS-NES, advantages of thorium and molten salt recent MSR design results such as FUJI-U3 using 233 U fuel, FUJI-Pu, large sized super-FUJI, pilot plant miniFUJI, AMSB, and chemical processing facility are described. (author)

  3. Tritium loss in molten flibe systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A. [Idaho National Eng. and Environ. Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scott Willms, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    2000-04-01

    An emerging issue relative to beryllium technology in fusion involves tritium interactions with molten beryllium-bearing salts. Innovative designs for fusion reactors, both magnetic and inertially confined, feature the molten salt mixture 2LiF.BeF{sub 2}, commonly called Flibe, as a tritium breeder and coolant. Tritium is bred in the Flibe as neutrons from the plasma are absorbed by Li atoms, which then transmute to tritium and helium. Transmutation of tritium from Be also occurs. Among the issues to be resolved for such coolant systems is the potential loss of tritium from the Flibe coolant to the walls of the system, particularly through heat exchanger tubes, and from there into secondary coolants or working fluids and the environment. Effectively removing tritium from Flibe in clean-up units is also important. In quiescent or low Reynolds number flow, tritium movement through Flibe is governed by diffusion. For Flibe in turbulent flow, as in heat exchanger tubes, transport is by turbulent mixing, and the same flow conditions and structural design features that maximize heat transfer to the heat exchanger walls will enhance the transport of tritium to those same surfaces. Analyses have been performed to estimate the fractional loss of tritium through heat exchanger tubes and release rates from Flibe droplets in vacuum disengagers in molten Flibe systems. The calculations suggest unacceptably large losses of tritium through heat exchanger tubes. The gravity of the implications of these estimates calls for experimental verification to determine if tritium losses through molten Flibe heat exchangers or other Flibe systems can really be so high and whether vacuum disengagers will really work. There is also a need for better information on evolution of tritium from Flibe droplets in a vacuum. Several experiments are presently being planned to address these issues and are discussed. These include experiments to induce tritium in Flibe using spontaneous fission neutrons

  4. Tritium loss in molten flibe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Scott Willms, R.

    2000-01-01

    An emerging issue relative to beryllium technology in fusion involves tritium interactions with molten beryllium-bearing salts. Innovative designs for fusion reactors, both magnetic and inertially confined, feature the molten salt mixture 2LiF.BeF 2 , commonly called Flibe, as a tritium breeder and coolant. Tritium is bred in the Flibe as neutrons from the plasma are absorbed by Li atoms, which then transmute to tritium and helium. Transmutation of tritium from Be also occurs. Among the issues to be resolved for such coolant systems is the potential loss of tritium from the Flibe coolant to the walls of the system, particularly through heat exchanger tubes, and from there into secondary coolants or working fluids and the environment. Effectively removing tritium from Flibe in clean-up units is also important. In quiescent or low Reynolds number flow, tritium movement through Flibe is governed by diffusion. For Flibe in turbulent flow, as in heat exchanger tubes, transport is by turbulent mixing, and the same flow conditions and structural design features that maximize heat transfer to the heat exchanger walls will enhance the transport of tritium to those same surfaces. Analyses have been performed to estimate the fractional loss of tritium through heat exchanger tubes and release rates from Flibe droplets in vacuum disengagers in molten Flibe systems. The calculations suggest unacceptably large losses of tritium through heat exchanger tubes. The gravity of the implications of these estimates calls for experimental verification to determine if tritium losses through molten Flibe heat exchangers or other Flibe systems can really be so high and whether vacuum disengagers will really work. There is also a need for better information on evolution of tritium from Flibe droplets in a vacuum. Several experiments are presently being planned to address these issues and are discussed. These include experiments to induce tritium in Flibe using spontaneous fission neutrons

  5. Molten carbonate fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Kinoshita, Mamoru; Murakami, Shuzo; Furukawa, Nobuhiro

    1987-09-26

    Reformed gas or coal gasification gas, etc. is used as the fuel gas for fused carbonate fuel cells, however sulfuric compounds are contained in these gases and even after these gases have been treated beforehand through a desulfurizer, a trace quantity of H/sub 2/S is sent to a fuel electrode. Sulfur oxide which is formed at the time of burning and oxidating the exhaust gas from the fuel electrode is supplied together with the air to an oxygen electrode and becomes sulfate after substituting carbonate, which is the electrolyte of the electrode, causing deterioration of the cell characteristics and durability. With regard to a system that hydrogen rich gas which was reformed from the raw fuel is supplied to a fuel electrode, and its exhaust gas is oxidated through a burner to form carbon dioxide which is supplied together with the air to an oxygen electrode, this invention proposes the prevention of the aforementioned defects by providing at the down stream of the above burner a remover to trap with fused carbonate such sulfur compounds as SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 3/ in the gas after being oxidated as above. (3 figs)

  6. Combined system of accelerator molten-salt breeder (AMSB) apd molten-salt converter reactor (MSCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.; Kato, Y.; Ohmichi, T.; Ohno, H.

    1983-01-01

    A design and research program is discUssed of the development of accelerator molten-salt breeder (AMSB) consisting of a proton accelerator and a molten fluoride target. The target simultaneously serves as a blanket for fissionable material prodUction. An addition of some amoUnt of fissile nuclides to a melt expands the AMSB potentialities as the fissionable material production increases and the energy generation also grows up to the level of self-provision. Besides the blanket salts may be used as nuclear fuel for molten-salt converter reactor (MSCR). The combined AM SB+MSCR system has better parameters as compared to other breeder reactors, molten-salt breeder reactors (MSBR) included

  7. Molten metal feed system controlled with a traveling magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a continuous metal casting system in which the feed of molten metal controlled by means of a linear induction motor capable of producing a magnetic traveling wave in a duct that connects a reservoir of molten metal to a caster. The linear induction motor produces a traveling magnetic wave in the duct in opposition to the pressure exerted by the head of molten metal in the reservoir

  8. Advances in molten salt electrochemistry towards future energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yasuhiko

    2005-01-01

    This review article describes some selected novel molten salt electrochemical processes which have been created/developed by the author and his coworkers, with emphasis on the applications towards future energy systems. After showing a perspective of the applications of molten salt electrochemistry from the viewpoints of energy and environment, several selected topics are described in detail, which include nitride fuel cycle in a nuclear field, hydrogen energy system coupled with ammonia economy, thermally regenerative fuel cell systems, novel Si production process for solar cell and novel molten salt electrochemical processes for various energy and environment related functional materials including nitrides, rare earth-transition metal alloys, fine particles obtained by plasma-induced electrolysis, and carbon film. And finally, the author stresses again, the importance and potential of molten salt electrochemistry, and encourages young students, scientists and researchers to march in a procession hand in hand towards a bright future of molten salts. (author)

  9. Symbiotic molten-salt systems coupled with accelerator molten-salt breeder (AMSB) or inertial-confined fusion hybrid molten-salt breeder (IHMSB) and their comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of breeder systems are proposed. One is the combined system of Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder (AMSB) and Molten-Salt Converter Reactor (MSCR), and the other is the combined system of Inertial-confined Fusion Hybrid Molten-Salt Breeder (IHMSB) and modified MSCR. Both apply the molten-fluorides and have technically deep relations. AMSB would be much simpler and have already high technical feasibility. This will become economical the Th breeder system having a doubling time shorter than ten years and distributing any size of power stations MSCR. (orig.) [de

  10. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  11. Molten metal feed system controlled with a traveling magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous metal casting system in which the feed of molten metal is controlled by means of a linear induction motor capable of producing a magnetic traveling wave in a duct that connects a reservoir of molten metal to a caster. The linear induction motor produces a traveling magnetic wave in the duct in opposition to the pressure exerted by the head of molten metal in the reservoir so that p.sub.c =p.sub.g -p.sub.m where p.sub.c is the desired pressure in the caster, p.sub.g is the gravitational pressure in the duct exerted by the force of the head of molten metal in the reservoir, and p.sub.m is the electromagnetic pressure exerted by the force of the magnetic field traveling wave produced by the linear induction motor. The invention also includes feedback loops to the linear induction motor to control the casting pressure in response to measured characteristics of the metal being cast.

  12. New rational nuclear energy system composed of accelerator molten-salt breeder (AMSB) and molten-salt power stations (MSCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.

    1985-01-01

    For the next century, it was predicted that some rational fission energy system breeding in significantly short doubling time less than 10 years should be developed replacing the fossil fuels. In practice, this rationality, that is, simplicity and high economy could be realized by the natural combination of: molten salt fuel concept; accelerator (spallation) breeding concept; and Thorium fuel cycle concept, in the symbiont system of Accelerator Molten-Salt breeders and Molten-Salt Power Stations. The economy of this system might significantly become better than the other breeder systems, although the prediction in Chapter 6 was too much conservative. Its more important aspect is the low cost of future R and D, which depend on the rational character of Molten-Fluoride Technology and really is verified by the basic R and D cost (only $0.13 B) in Oak Ridge N.L. It is interesting that molten-salt technology will be able to apply to chemical processing of U-Pu oxide fuels by the developing effort by USSR in near future. This fact and the demand of small power stations such as 150MWe MSCR presented here will be able to bridge between the present and the next century

  13. Tunable molten oxide pool assisted plasma-melter vitrification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Charles H.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides tunable waste conversion systems and apparatus which have the advantage of highly robust operation and which provide complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The systems provide the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced use or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a net energy or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production. Methods and apparatus for converting metals, non-glass forming waste streams and low-ash producing inorganics into a useful gas are also provided. The methods and apparatus for such conversion include the use of a molten oxide pool having predetermined electrical, thermal and physical

  14. Molten Chloride Salts for Heat Transfer in Nuclear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosek, James Wallace

    2011-12-01

    A forced convection loop was designed and constructed to examine the thermal-hydraulic performance of molten KCl-MgCl2 (68-32 at %) salt for use in nuclear co-generation facilities. As part of this research, methods for prediction of the thermo-physical properties of salt mixtures for selection of the coolant salt were studied. In addition, corrosion studies of 10 different alloys were exposed to the KCl-MgCl2 to determine a suitable construction material for the loop. Using experimental data found in literature for unary and binary salt systems, models were found, or developed to extrapolate the available experimental data to unstudied salt systems. These property models were then used to investigate the thermo-physical properties of the LINO3-NaNO3-KNO 3-Ca(NO3), system used in solar energy applications. Using these models, the density, viscosity, adiabatic compressibility, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and melting temperatures of higher order systems can be approximated. These models may be applied to other molten salt systems. Coupons of 10 different alloys were exposed to the chloride salt for 100 hours at 850°C was undertaken to help determine with which alloy to construct the loop. Of the alloys exposed, Haynes 230 had the least amount of weight loss per area. Nickel and Hastelloy N performed best based on maximum depth of attack. Inconel 625 and 718 had a nearly uniform depletion of Cr from the surface of the sample. All other alloys tested had depletion of Cr along the grain boundaries. The Nb in Inconel 625 and 718 changed the way the Cr is depleted in these alloys. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. A high temperature pump, thermal flow meter, and pressure differential device was designed, constructed and tested for use in the loop, The heat transfer of the molten chloride salt was found to

  15. Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system customer interface document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald D.

    2013-09-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate %E2%80%9Csolar salt%E2%80%9D and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 40 bar (600psi), temperature to 585%C2%B0C, and flow rate of 44-50kg/s(400-600GPM) depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

  16. Sythesis of rare earth metal - GIC graphite intercalation compound in molten chloride system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masafumi; Hagiwara, Rika; Ito, Yasuhiko

    1994-01-01

    Graphite intercalation compounds of ytterbium and neodymium have been prepared by interacting graphite and metals in molten chlorides. These rare earth metals can be suspended in molten chlorides in the presence of trichlorides via disproportionation reaction RE(0) + RE(III) = 2RE(II) at lower than 300 degC. Carbides-free compounds are obtained in these systems. (author)

  17. System Requirements Document for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, R.D.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the conversion process is to convert the {sup 233}U fluoride compounds that are being extracted from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) equipment to a stable oxide for long-term storage at Bldg. 3019.

  18. Electrochemical behavior of molten fluoride-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, Toshihide; Ito, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Takayasu; Oishi, Jun

    1984-11-01

    The cathodic behavior of a molten fluoride-water system was investigated by the potential sweep method. LiF-KF-NaF eutectic melt was used as an electrolyte and HF-H/sub 2/O gas mixture with Ar as a carrier was bubbled into it. Gold wire was used as a working electrode. The peak currents due to the reduction of HF and H/sub 2/O were clearly observed. The relations between peak currents and the square roots of the scanning rates were linear, strongly suggesting that the reduction reactions of the HF and H/sub 2/O dissolved in the melt were diffusion controlled. From the linearity of the relations between peak currents and partial pressures of HF and H/sub 2/O in the low partial pressure region, it was concluded that the concentrations of HF and H/sub 2/O in a fluoride melt are proportional to the partial pressure of each gas. The peak current due to the reduction of OH/sup -/ ion could not be observed, though a clear peak current was observed when OH/sup -/ ion was added to the melt and a cathodic scan was applied immediately. This indicates that OH/sup -/ ion is unstable in a fluoride melt under HF-H/sub 2/O atmosphere.

  19. Development of High Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is one of the the most promising technologies for the advanced fuel cycle with favorable economic potential and intrinsic proliferation-resistance. The electrorefining process, one of main processes which is composed of pyroprocess to recover the useful elements from spent fuel, is under development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a sub process of the pyrochemical treatment of spent PWR fuel. High-temperature molten salt transport technologies are required because a molten salt should be transported from the electrorefiner to electrowiner after the electrorefining process. Therefore, in pyrometallurgical processing, the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technologies is a crucial prerequisite. However, there have been a few transport studies on high-temperature molten salt. In this study, an apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high temperature transport technology for molten salt, and the performance test of the apparatus was performed. And also, predissolution test of the salt was carried out using the reactor with furnace in experimental apparatus

  20. Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonemann, M.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

  1. Molten salt reactor technology for long-range and wide-scale nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.; Alexseev, P.; Menshikov, L.; Prusakov, V.; Subbotine, S.

    1997-01-01

    A possibility of creation of multi-component nuclear power system in which alongside with thermal and fast reactors, molten salt burner reactors, for incineration of weapon grade plutonium, some minor actinides and transmutation of some fission products will be presented. The purposes of this work are to review the present status of the molten salt reactor technology and innovative non-aqueous chemical processing methods, to indicate the importance of the uncertainties remaining, to identify the additional work needed, and to evaluate the probability of success in obtaining improved safety characteristics for new concept of molten salt - burner reactor with external neutron source. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: salt selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Huang, V.S.

    1976-08-01

    A research program aimed at the development of a molten salt thermal energy storage system commenced in June 1976. This topical report describes Work performed under Task I: Salt Selection is described. A total of 31 inorganic salts and salt mixtures, including 9 alkali and alkaline earth carbonate mixtures, were evaluated for their suitability as heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage materials at temperatures of 850 to 1000/sup 0/F. Thermophysical properties, safety hazards, corrosion, and cost of these salts were compared on a common basis. We concluded that because alkali carbonate mixtures show high thermal conductivity, low volumetric expansion on melting, low corrosivity and good stability, they are attractive as heat-of-fusion storage materials in this temperature range. A 35 wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (50 mole percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-50 mole percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) mixture was selected as a model system for further experimental work. This is a eutectoid mixture having a heat of fusion of 148 Btu/lb (82 cal/g) that forms an equimolar compound, LiKCO/sub 3/. The Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ mixture is intended to serve as a model system to define heat transfer characteristics, potential problems, and to provide ''first-cut'' engineering data required for the prototype system. The cost of a thermal energy storage system containing this mixture cannot be predicted until system characteristics are better defined. However, our comparison of different salts indicated that alkali and alkaline earth chlorides may be more attractive from a salt cost point of view. The long-term corrosion characteristics and the effects of volume change on melting for the chlorides should be investigated to determine their overall suitability as a heat-of-fusion storage medium.

  3. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin

    2014-01-01

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high

  4. Development of High-Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt in Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Tae; Park, Sung Bin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The electrorefining process, which is a key process in pyroprocessing, is composed of two parts, electrorefining to deposit a uranium with a solid cathode and electrowinning to co-deposit TRU and RE with a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC). As the electrorefining operation proceedes, TRU and RE are accumulated in electrolyte LiCl-KCl salt, and after the electrorefining process, the molten salt used in an electrorefining reactor should by transported to the next process, the electrowinning process, to recover U/TRU/RE; Thus, a molten salt transfer system by suction is now being developed. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high- temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The feasibility of pyro-reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory-scale experiments. In pyroprocessing, a eutectic LiCl-KCl salt was used as a liquid elextrolyte for a recovery of actinides. However, reliable transport technologies for these high temperature liquids have not yet been developed. A preliminary study on high-temperature transport technology for molten salt by suction is now being carried out. In this study, three different salt transport technologies (gravity, suction pump, and centrifugal pump) were investigated to select the most suitable method for molten salt transport. An apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and installed for the development of high-temperature molten salt transport technology. Basic preliminary suction transport experiments were carried out using the prepared LiC-KCl eutectic salt at 500 .deg. C to observe the transport behavior of LiCl-KCl molten salt. In addition, a PRIDE salt transport system was designed and installed for an engineering-scale salt transport demonstration. Several types of suction transport experiments using molten salt (LiCl-KCl eutectics) for the development of a high

  5. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    -170-degrees-C) depending on melt acidity and anode material. DMTC, being specifically adsorbed and reduced on the tungsten electrode surface, had an inhibiting effect on the aluminum reduction, but this effect was suppressed on the aluminum substrate. An electrochemical process with high current density (tens...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active......The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...

  6. Automatic Welding System of Aluminum Pipe by Monitoring Backside Image of Molten Pool Using Vision Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskoro, Ario Sunar; Kabutomori, Masashi; Suga, Yasuo

    An automatic welding system using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding with vision sensor for welding of aluminum pipe was constructed. This research studies the intelligent welding process of aluminum alloy pipe 6063S-T5 in fixed position and moving welding torch with the AC welding machine. The monitoring system consists of a vision sensor using a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to monitor backside image of molten pool. The captured image was processed to recognize the edge of molten pool by image processing algorithm. Neural network model for welding speed control were constructed to perform the process automatically. From the experimental results it shows the effectiveness of the control system confirmed by good detection of molten pool and sound weld of experimental result.

  7. Transmutation and inventory analysis in an ATW molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisolak, J.E.; Truebenbach, M.T.; Henderson, D.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-10-01

    As an extension of earlier work to determine the equilibrium state of an ATW molten salt, power producing, reactor/transmuter, the WAIT code provides a time dependent view of material inventories and reactor parameters. By considering several cases, the authors infer that devices of this type do not reach equilibrium for dozens of years, and that equilibrium design calculations are inapplicable over most of the reactor life. Fissile inventory and k{sub eff} both vary by factors of 1.5 or more between reactor startup and ultimate convergence to equilibrium.

  8. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in a Novel Molten Salt Aerosol System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ammon N; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2017-04-01

    In the pyrochemical separation of used nuclear fuel (UNF), fission product, rare earth, and actinide chlorides accumulate in the molten salt electrolyte over time. Measuring this salt composition in near real-time is advantageous for operational efficiency, material accountability, and nuclear safeguards. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been proposed and demonstrated as a potential analytical approach for molten LiCl-KCl salts. However, all the studies conducted to date have used a static surface approach which can lead to issues with splashing, low repeatability, and poor sample homogeneity. In this initial study, a novel molten salt aerosol approach has been developed and explored to measure the composition of the salt via LIBS. The functionality of the system has been demonstrated as well as a basic optimization of the laser energy and nebulizer gas pressure used. Initial results have shown that this molten salt aerosol-LIBS system has a great potential as an analytical technique for measuring the molten salt electrolyte used in this UNF reprocessing technology.

  9. Molten salts as possible fuel fluids for TRU fuelled systems: ISTC no. 1606 approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.; Zakirov, R.; Grebenkine, K.

    2001-01-01

    The principle attraction of the molten salt reactor (MSR) technology is the use of fuel/fertile material flexibility (easy of fuel preparation and processing) for gaining additional profits as compared with solid materials. This approach presents important departures from traditional philosophy, applied in current nuclear power plants, and to some extent contradicts the straightforward interpretation of the defence-in-depth principal. Nevertheless we understand there may be potential to use MSR technology to support back end fuel cycle technologies in future commercial environment. The paper aims at reviewing results of the work performed in Russia, relevant to the problems of MSR technology development. Also this contribution aims at evaluation of remaining uncertainties for molten salt burner concept implementation. Fuel properties and behaviour, container materials, and clean-up of fuels with emphasis on experiments will be of priority. Recommendations are made regarding the types of experimental studies needed on a way to implement molten salt technology to the back-end of the fuel cycle. To better understand the potential and limitations of the molten salts as a fuel for reactor of incinerator type, Russian Institutes have submitted to the ISTC the Task no. 1606 Experimental Study of Molten Salt Technology for Safe and Low Waste Treatment of Plutonium and Minor Actinides in Accelerator Driven and Critical Systems. The project goals, technical approach and expected specific results are discussed. (author)

  10. Design study of advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. Conceptual study of recycle system using molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehi, I.; Shirai, N.; Hatano, M.; Kajitani, M.; Yonezawa, S.; Kawai, T.; Kawamura, F.; Tobe, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1996-12-01

    For the purpose of developing the future nuclear fuel recycle system, the design study of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system is being conducted. This report describes intermediate accomplishments in the conceptual system study of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. Fundamental concepts of this system is the recycle system using molten salt which intend to break through the conventional concepts of purex and pellet fuel system. Contents of studies in this period are as follows, 1)feasibility study of the process by Cd-cathode for nitride fuel, 2)application study for the molten salt of low melting point (AlCl3+organic salt), 3)research for decladding (advantage of decladding by heat treatment), 4)behavior of FPs in electrorefining (behavior of iodine and volatile FP chlorides, FPs behavior in chlorination), 5)criticality analysis in electrorefiner, 6)drawing of off-gas flow diagram, 7)drawing of process machinery concept (cathode processor, vibration packing), 8)evaluation for the amounts of the high level radioactive wastes, 9)quality of the recycle fuels (FPs contamination of recycle fuel), 10)conceptual study of in-cell handling system, 11)meaning of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. The conceptual system study will be completed in describing concepts of the system and discussing issues for the developments. (author)

  11. The Characteristic of Molten Heat Salt Storage System Utilizing Solar Energy Combined with Valley Electric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI .Jiu-ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the environmental pollution and energy consumption clue to the large difference between peak and valley of power grid,the molten salt heat storage system(MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric is presented for good energy saving and low emissions. The costs of MSHSS utilizing solar Energy combined with valley electric are greatly reduced. The law of heat transfer in molten salt heat storage technology is studied with the method of grey correlation analysis. The results show the effect of elbow sizes on surface convective heat transfer coefficient with different flow velocities.

  12. Molten salt reactor as asymptotic safety nuclear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.M.; Ignatyev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Safety is becoming the main and priority problem of the nuclear power development. An increase of the active safety measures could hardly be considered as the proper way to achieve the asymptotically high level of nuclear safety. It seem that the more realistic way to achieve such a goal is to minimize risk factors and to maximize the use of inherent and passive safety properties. The passive inherent safety features of the liquid fuel molten salt reactor (MSR) technology are making it attractive for future energy generation. The achievement of the asymptotic safety in MSR is being connected with the minimization of such risk factors as a reactivity excess, radioactivity stored, decay heat, non nuclear energy stored in core. In this paper safety peculiarities of the different MSR concepts are discussed

  13. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Keiser, J.R.; Klueh, R.L.; Eatherly, W.P.

    1995-03-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF 2 molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized

  14. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Keiser, J.R.; Klueh, R.L.; Eatherly, W.P.

    1995-02-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF 2 molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized

  15. Nuclear power technology system with molten salt reactor for transuranium nuclides burning in closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Dudnikov, A.A.; Ignatiev, V.V.; Prusakov, V.N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Subbotin, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A concept of nuclear power technology system with homogeneous molten salt reactors for burning and transmutation of long-lived radioactive toxic nuclides is considered in the paper. Disposition of such reactors in enterprises of fuel cycle allows to provide them with power and facilitate solution of problems with rad waste with minimal losses. (Authors)

  16. Chemical interactions and thermodynamic studies in aluminum alloy/molten salt systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ramesh

    The recycling of aluminum and aluminum alloys such as Used Beverage Container (UBC) is done under a cover of molten salt flux based on (NaCl-KCl+fluorides). The reactions of aluminum alloys with molten salt fluxes have been investigated. Thermodynamic calculations are performed in the alloy/salt flux systems which allow quantitative predictions of the equilibrium compositions. There is preferential reaction of Mg in Al-Mg alloy with molten salt fluxes, especially those containing fluorides like NaF. An exchange reaction between Al-Mg alloy and molten salt flux has been demonstrated. Mg from the Al-Mg alloy transfers into the salt flux while Na from the salt flux transfers into the metal. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the amount of Na in metal increases as the Mg content in alloy and/or NaF content in the reacting flux increases. This is an important point because small amounts of Na have a detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the Al-Mg alloy. The reactions of Al alloys with molten salt fluxes result in the formation of bluish purple colored "streamers". It was established that the streamer is liquid alkali metal (Na and K in the case of NaCl-KCl-NaF systems) dissipating into the melt. The melts in which such streamers were observed are identified. The metal losses occurring due to reactions have been quantified, both by thermodynamic calculations and experimentally. A computer program has been developed to calculate ternary phase diagrams in molten salt systems from the constituting binary phase diagrams, based on a regular solution model. The extent of deviation of the binary systems from regular solution has been quantified. The systems investigated in which good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental phase diagrams included NaF-KF-LiF, NaCl-NaF-NaI and KNOsb3-TINOsb3-LiNOsb3. Furthermore, an insight has been provided on the interrelationship between the regular solution parameters and the topology of the phase

  17. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderoni, Pattrick

    2010-01-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogeneous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R and D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part

  18. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattrick Calderoni

    2010-09-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the

  19. HTGR molten salt sensible energy transmission and storage system design and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report, which was prepared for Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates by United Engineers and Constructors under Contract No. GCRA/UE and C 81-203, presents the design and cost for a molten salt Sensible Energy Transmission and Storage (SETS) System. Although the reference system for this study is sized to be compatible with an 1170 MW(t) HTGR Nuclear Heat Source, the results and conclusions should be generally applicable to most large scale molten salt energy transmission system applications. A preliminary conceptual design is presented and alternative configurations are discussed. The sensitivity of system costs to variations in important system parameters are also presented. Costs for a reference case conceptual design are reported in constant 1980 dollars and inflated 1995 dollars

  20. Computational Analysis of Nanoparticles-Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrated Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinod [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2017-05-05

    High fidelity computational models of thermocline-based thermal energy storage (TES) were developed. The research goal was to advance the understanding of a single tank nanofludized molten salt based thermocline TES system under various concentration and sizes of the particles suspension. Our objectives were to utilize sensible-heat that operates with least irreversibility by using nanoscale physics. This was achieved by performing computational analysis of several storage designs, analyzing storage efficiency and estimating cost effectiveness for the TES systems under a concentrating solar power (CSP) scheme using molten salt as the storage medium. Since TES is one of the most costly but important components of a CSP plant, an efficient TES system has potential to make the electricity generated from solar technologies cost competitive with conventional sources of electricity.

  1. Electric conductivity of molten mixtures of ternary mutual KF-KCl-ZrF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darienko, S.E.; Raspopin, S.P.; Chervinskij, Yu.F.

    1988-01-01

    Using the relative capillary method at the frequency of 50 kHz the specific electric conductivity of molten mixtures of the KF-KCl-ZnF 4 system is measured. All the measurements were made in the atmosphere of purified argon. Temperature dependence of electric conductivity of the mixtures studied (800-1260 K) is described by the equations of exponential type with sufficient accuracy. Curves of identical specific electric conductivity of the three-component system are presented. With an increase in zirconium tetrachloride concentration in the mixtures electric conductivity of the melts decreases. On the basis of the measurement results of KF-ZrF 4 and KCl-ZrF 4 molten mixture specific electric conductivity and data on the melt density the values of molar electric conductivity at 1200 K are calculated

  2. Development of fuel cycle technology for molten-salt reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The Molten-Salt Reactor (MSR) represents one of promising advanced reactor type assigned to the GEN IV reactor systems. It can be operated either as thorium breeder within the Th -133U fuel cycle or as actinide transmuter incinerating transuranium fuel. Essentially the main advantage of MSR comes out from the prerequisite, that this reactor type should be directly connected with the 'on-line' reprocessing of circulating liquid (molten-salt) fuel. This principle should allow very effective extraction of freshly constituted fissile material (233U). Besides, the on-line fuel salt clean up is necessary within a long run to keep the reactor in operation. As a matter of principle, it permits to clear away typical reactor poisons like xenon, krypton, lanthanides etc. and possibly also other products of burned plutonium and transmuted minor actinides. The fuel salt clean up technology should be linked with the fresh MSR fuel processing to continuously refill the new fuel (thorium or transuranics) into the reactor system. On the other hand, the technologies of fresh transuranium molten-salt fuel processing from the current LWR spent fuel and of the on-line reprocessing of MSR fuel represent two killing points of the whole MSR technology, which have to be successfully solved before MSR deployment in the future. There are three main pyrochemical partitioning techniques proposed for processing and/or reprocessing of MSR fuel: Fluoride volatilization processes, Molten salt / liquid metal extraction processes and Electrochemical separation processes. Two of them - Fluoride Volatility Method and Electrochemical separation process from fluoride media are under development in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez pic. R and D in the field of Fluoride Volatility Method is concentrated to the development and verification of experimental semi-pilot technology for LWR spent fuel reprocessing, which may result in a product the form and composition of which might be

  3. Transient freezing of molten salts in pipe-flow systems: Application to the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, N.; Hewitt, G.F.; Markides, C.N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermo-hydraulic model has been proposed to simulate the transient freezing of molten salts in complex piping systems. • The passive safety system DRACS in Generation-IV, molten salt reactor is susceptible to failure due to salt freezing. • For the prototypical 0.2 MW reactor considered in this study considerable freezing occurs after 20 minutes leading to reactor temperatures above 900 °C within 4 hours. • Conservative criteria for the most important/least known variables in the design of DRACS have been discussed. • Over-conservative approaches in designing the NDHX should be used with caution as they can promote pipe clogging due to freezing. - Abstract: The possibility of molten-salt freezing in pipe-flow systems is a key concern for the solar-energy industry and a safety issue in the new generation of molten-salt reactors, worthy of careful consideration. This paper tackles the problem of coolant solidification in complex pipe networks by developing a transient thermohydraulic model and applying it to the ‘Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System’ (DRACS), the passive-safety system proposed for the Generation-IV molten-salt reactors. The results indicate that DRACS, as currently envisioned, is prone to failure due to freezing in the air/molten-salt heat exchanger, which can occur after approximately 20 minutes, leading to reactor temperatures above 900 °C within 4 hours. The occurrence of this scenario is related to an unstable behaviour mode of DRACS in which newly formed solid-salt deposit on the pipe walls acts to decrease the flow-rate in the secondary loop, facilitating additional solid-salt deposition. Conservative criteria are suggested to facilitate preliminary assessments of early-stage DRACS designs. The present study is, to the knowledge of the authors, the first of its kind in serving to illustrate possible safety concerns in molten-salt reactors, which are otherwise considered very safe in the literature. Furthermore

  4. The molten salt reactors (MSR) pyro chemistry and fuel cycle for innovative nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossard, Ph.; Garzenne, C.; Mouney, H.

    2002-01-01

    In the frame of the studies on next generation nuclear systems, and especially for the molten salt reactors and for the integrated fuel cycle (as IFR), the fuel cycle constraints must be taken into account in the preliminary studies of the system to improve the cycle and reactor optimisation. Among the purposes for next generation nuclear systems, sustainability and waste (radio-toxicity and mass) management are important goals. These goals imply reprocessing and recycling strategies. The objectives of this workshop are to present and to share the different strategies and scenarios, the needs based on these scenarios, the experimental facilities available today or in the future and their capabilities, the needs for demonstration. It aims at: identifying the needs for fuel cycle based on solid fuel or liquid fuel, and especially, the on-line reprocessing or clean up for the molten salt reactors; assessing the state-of-the-art on the pyro-chemistry applied to solid fuel and to present the research activities; assessing the state-of-the-art on liquid fuels (or others), and to present the research activities; expressing the R and D programs for pyro-chemistry, molten salt, and also to propose innovative processes; and proposing some joint activities in the frame of GEDEON and PRACTIS programs. This document brings together the transparencies of 18 contributions dealing with: scenario studies with AMSTER concept (Scenarios, MSR, breeders (Th) and burners); fuel cycle for innovative systems; current reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in molten salts (review of pyro-chemistry processes (non nuclear and nuclear)); high temperature NMR spectroscopies in molten salts; reductive extraction of An from molten fluorides (salt - liquid metal extraction); electrochemistry characterisation; characterisation with physical methods - extraction coefficient and kinetics; electrolytic extraction; dissolution-precipitation of plutonium in the eutectic LiCl-KCl (dissolution and

  5. Thermodynamics investigation of a solar power system integrated oil and molten salt as heat transfer fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qibin; Bai, Zhang; Sun, Jie; Yan, Yuejun; Gao, Zhichao; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concentrating solar power system with a dual-solar field is proposed. • The superheated steam with more than 773 K is produced. • The performances of the proposed system are demonstrated. • The economic feasibility of the proposed system is validated. - Abstract: In this paper, a new parabolic trough solar power system that incorporates a dual-solar field with oil and molten salt as heat transfer fluids (HTFs) is proposed to effectively utilize the solar energy. The oil is chosen as a HTF in the low temperature solar field to heat the feeding water, and the high temperature solar field uses molten salt to superheat the steam that the temperature is higher than 773 K. The produced superheated steam enters a steam turbine to generate power. Energy analysis and exergy analysis of the system are implemented to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed system. Under considerations of variations of solar irradiation, the on-design and off-design thermodynamic performances of the system and the characteristics are investigated. The annual average solar-to-electric efficiency and the nominal efficiency under the given condition for the proposed solar thermal power generation system reach to 15.86% and 22.80%, which are higher than the reference system with a single HTF. The exergy losses within the solar heat transfer process of the proposed system are reduced by 7.8% and 45.23% compared with the solar power thermal systems using oil and molten salt as HTFs, respectively. The integrated approach with oil and molten salt as HTFs can make full use of the different physical properties of the HTFs, and optimize the heat transfer process between the HTFs and the water/steam. The exergy loss in the water evaporation and superheated process are reduced, the system efficiency and the economic performance are improved. The research findings provide a new approach for the improvement of the performances of solar thermal power plants.

  6. Development and application of a system analysis code for liquid fueled molten salt reactors based on RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Chengbin; Cheng, Maosong; Liu, Guimin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New point kinetics and thermo-hydraulics models as well as a numerical method are added into RELAP5 code to be suitable for liquid fueled molten salt reactor. • The extended REALP5 code is verified by the experimental benchmarks of MSRE. • The different transient scenarios of the MSBR are simulated to evaluate performance during the transients. - Abstract: The molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of the six advanced reactor concepts declared by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), which can be characterized by attractive attributes as inherent safety, economical efficiency, natural resource protection, sustainable development and nuclear non-proliferation. It is important to make system safety analysis for nuclear power plant of MSR. In this paper, in order to developing a system analysis code suitable for liquid fueled molten salt reactors, the point kinetics and thermo-hydraulic models as well as the numerical method in thermal–hydraulic transient code Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5) developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are extended and verified by Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) experimental benchmarks. And then, four transient scenarios including the load demand change, the primary flow transient, the secondary flow transient and the reactivity transient of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) are modeled and simulated so as to evaluate the performance of the reactor during the anticipated transient events using the extended RELAP5 code. The results indicate the extended RELAP5 code is effective and well suited to the liquid fueled molten salt reactor, and the MSBR has strong inherent safety characteristics because of its large negative reactivity coefficient. In the future, the extended RELAP5 code will be used to perform transient safety analysis for a liquid fueled thorium molten salt reactor named TMSR-LF developed by the Center

  7. Development and application of a system analysis code for liquid fueled molten salt reactors based on RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Chengbin [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng, Maosong, E-mail: mscheng@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Liu, Guimin [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • New point kinetics and thermo-hydraulics models as well as a numerical method are added into RELAP5 code to be suitable for liquid fueled molten salt reactor. • The extended REALP5 code is verified by the experimental benchmarks of MSRE. • The different transient scenarios of the MSBR are simulated to evaluate performance during the transients. - Abstract: The molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of the six advanced reactor concepts declared by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), which can be characterized by attractive attributes as inherent safety, economical efficiency, natural resource protection, sustainable development and nuclear non-proliferation. It is important to make system safety analysis for nuclear power plant of MSR. In this paper, in order to developing a system analysis code suitable for liquid fueled molten salt reactors, the point kinetics and thermo-hydraulic models as well as the numerical method in thermal–hydraulic transient code Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5) developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) are extended and verified by Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) experimental benchmarks. And then, four transient scenarios including the load demand change, the primary flow transient, the secondary flow transient and the reactivity transient of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) are modeled and simulated so as to evaluate the performance of the reactor during the anticipated transient events using the extended RELAP5 code. The results indicate the extended RELAP5 code is effective and well suited to the liquid fueled molten salt reactor, and the MSBR has strong inherent safety characteristics because of its large negative reactivity coefficient. In the future, the extended RELAP5 code will be used to perform transient safety analysis for a liquid fueled thorium molten salt reactor named TMSR-LF developed by the Center

  8. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior which can be used effectively to reduce the amount of development required for future systems, some significant molten salt chemical questions must still be addressed. copyright American Institute of Physics 1995

  9. The Molten Salt Fast Reactor as Highly Efficient Transmutation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, B.; Rohde, U.; Scholl, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion and future steps: • MSFR offers very attractive features for efficient transmutation; • significant advantages due to liquid fuel and online refuelling and reprocessing; • significant developments are required on the way to application; • system is very promising for transmutation; • development of a safety approach for liquid fuel reactors (RSWG); • investigation of possibilities to solve the “last transmuter” problem (ICAPP2013) – as future for countries envisaging nuclear phase out or no transition to fast reactor fleet for energy production; • establishing of a strong group “MSFR for transmutation”; • development of a transmutation optimized design

  10. Study of a molten carbonate fuel cell combined heat, hydrogen and power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Tarek A.; Agll, Abdulhakim A.; Hamad, Yousif M.; Bapat, Sushrut; Thomas, Mathew; Martin, Kevin B.; Sheffield, John W.

    2014-01-01

    To address the problem of fossil fuel usage and high greenhouse gas emissions at the Missouri University of Science and Technology campus, using of alternative fuels and renewable energy sources can lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas, produced by anaerobic digestion of wastewater, organic waste, agricultural waste, industrial waste, and animal by-products is a potential source of renewable energy. In this work, we have discussed the design of CHHP (combined heat, hydrogen and power) system for the campus using local resources. An energy flow and resource availability study is performed to identify the type and source of feedstock required to continuously run the fuel cell system at peak capacity. Following the resource assessment study, the team selects FuelCell Energy DFC (direct fuel cell) 1500™ unit as a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CHHP system provides electricity to power the university campus, thermal energy for heating the anaerobic digester, and hydrogen for transportation, back-up power and other needs. In conclusion, the CHHP system will be able to reduce fossil fuel usage, and greenhouse gas emissions at the university campus. - Highlights: • A molten carbonate fuel cell tri-generation by using anaerobic digestion system. • Anaerobic digestion system will be able to supply fuel for the DFC1500™ unit. • Use locally available feedstock to production electric power, hydrogen and heat. • Application energy end-uses on the university. • CHHP system will reduce energy consumption, fossil fuel usage, and GHG emissions

  11. System Requirements Document for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment 233U conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigner, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the conversion process is to convert the 233 U fluoride compounds that are being extracted from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) equipment to a stable oxide for long-term storage at Bldg. 3019

  12. Study of a molten carbonate fuel cell combined heat, hydrogen and power system: Energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agll, Abdulhakim Amer A.; Hamad, Yousif M.; Hamad, Tarek A.; Thomas, Mathew; Bapat, Sushrut; Martin, Kevin B.; Sheffield, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Countries around the world are trying to use alternative fuels and renewable energy to reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas contains methane is considered a potential source of clean renewable energy. This paper discusses the design of a combined heat, hydrogen and power system, which generated by methane with use of Fuelcell, for the campus of Missouri University of Science and Technology located in Rolla, Missouri, USA. An energy flow and resource availability study was performed to identify sustainable type and source of feedstock needed to run the Fuelcell at its maximum capacity. FuelCell Energy's DFC1500 unit (a molten carbonate Fuelcell) was selected as the Fuelcell for the tri-generation (heat, hydrogen and electric power) system. This tri-generation system provides electric power to the campus, thermal energy for heating the anaerobic digester, and hydrogen for transportation, backup power and other applications on the campus. In conclusion, the combined heat, hydrogen and power system reduces fossil fuel usage, and greenhouse gas emissions at the university campus. -- Highlights: • Combined heat, hydrogen and power (CHHP) using a molten carbonate fuel cell. • Energy saving and alternative fuel of the products are determined. • Energy saving is increased when CHHP technology is implemented. • CHHP system reduces the greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption

  13. An optimized symbiotic fusion and molten-salt fission reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkin, V.L.; Novikov, V.M.

    A symbiotic fusion-fission reactor system which breeds nuclear fuel is discussed. In the blanket of the controlled thermonuclear reactor (CTR) uranium-233 is generated from thorium, which circulates in the form of ThF 4 mixed with molten sodium and beryllium fluorides. The molten-salt fission reactor (MSR) burns up the uranium-233 and generates tritium for the fusion reactor from lithium, which circulates in the form of LiF mixed with BeF 2 and 233 UF 4 through the MSR core. With a CTR-MSR thermal power ratio of 1:11 the system can produce electrical energy and breed fuel with a doubling time of 4-5 years. The system has the following special features: (1) Fuel reprocessing is much simpler and cheaper than for contemporary fission reactors; reprocessing consists simply in continuous removal of 233 U from the salt circulating in the CTR blanket by the fluorination method and removal of xenon from the MSR fuel salt by gas scavenging; the MSR fuel salt is periodically exchanged for fresh salt and the 233 U is then removed from it; (2) Tritium is produced in the fission reactor, which is a much simpler system than the fusion reactor; (3) The CTR blanket is almost ''clean''; no tritium is produced in it and fission fragment activity does not exceed the activity induced in the structural materials; (4) Almost all the thorium introduced into the CTR blanket can be used for producing 233 U

  14. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  15. Main Experimental Results of ISTC-1606 for Recycling and Transmutation in Molten Salt Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Feynberg, Olga; Merzlyakov, Aleksandr; Surenkov, Aleksandr; Subbotin, Vladimir; Zakirov, Raul; Toropov, Andrey; Panov, Aleksandr; Afonichkin, Valery

    2008-01-01

    To examine and demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactors (MSR) to reduce long lived waste toxicity and to produce efficiently electricity in closed fuel cycle, some national and international studies were initiated last years. In this paper main focus is placed on experimental evaluation of single stream Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter (MOSART) system fuelled with different compositions of plutonium plus minor actinide trifluoride (AnF 3 ) from LWR spent nuclear fuel without U-Th support. This paper summarizes main experimental results of ISTC-1606 related to physical and chemical properties of fuel salt, container materials for fuel circuit, and fuel salt clean up of MOSART system. As result of ISTC-1606 studies claim is made, that the 7 Li,Na,Be/F and 7 Li,Be/F solvents selected for primary system appear to resolve main reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials compatibility, fuel salt clean up and safety problems as applied to the MOSART concept development. The created experimental facilities and the database on properties of fuel salt mixtures and container materials are used for a choice and improvement fuel salts and coolants for new applications of this high temperature technology for sustainable nuclear power development. (authors)

  16. Main Experimental Results of ISTC-1606 for Recycling and Transmutation in Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Feynberg, Olga; Merzlyakov, Aleksandr; Surenkov, Aleksandr [Russian Research Center - Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov sq. 1, Moscow, RF, 123182 (Russian Federation); Subbotin, Vladimir; Zakirov, Raul; Toropov, Andrey; Panov, Aleksandr [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Afonichkin, Valery [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    To examine and demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactors (MSR) to reduce long lived waste toxicity and to produce efficiently electricity in closed fuel cycle, some national and international studies were initiated last years. In this paper main focus is placed on experimental evaluation of single stream Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter (MOSART) system fuelled with different compositions of plutonium plus minor actinide trifluoride (AnF{sub 3}) from LWR spent nuclear fuel without U-Th support. This paper summarizes main experimental results of ISTC-1606 related to physical and chemical properties of fuel salt, container materials for fuel circuit, and fuel salt clean up of MOSART system. As result of ISTC-1606 studies claim is made, that the {sup 7}Li,Na,Be/F and {sup 7}Li,Be/F solvents selected for primary system appear to resolve main reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials compatibility, fuel salt clean up and safety problems as applied to the MOSART concept development. The created experimental facilities and the database on properties of fuel salt mixtures and container materials are used for a choice and improvement fuel salts and coolants for new applications of this high temperature technology for sustainable nuclear power development. (authors)

  17. Customer interface document for the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettit, Kathleen; Kolb, William J.; Gill, David Dennis; Briggs, Ronald D.

    2012-03-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate 'solar salt' and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 600psi, temperature to 585 C, and flow rate of 400-600GPM depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

  18. Electrochemical separation of uranium in the molten system LiF-NaF-KF-UF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenko, M.; Straka, M.; Szatmáry, L.; Ambrová, M.; Uhlíř, J.

    2013-09-01

    This article is focused on the electrochemical investigation (cyclic voltammetry and related studies) of possible reduction of U4+ ions to metal uranium in the molten system LiF-NaF-KF(eut.)-UF4 that can provide basis for the electrochemical extraction of uranium from molten salts. Two-step reduction mechanism for U4+ ions involving one electron exchange in soluble/soluble U4+/U3+ system and three electrons exchange in the second step were found on the nickel working electrode. Both steps were found to be reversible and diffusion controlled. Based on cyclic voltammetry, the diffusion coefficients of uranium ions at 530 °C were found to be D(U4+) = 1.64 × 10-5 cm2 s-1 and D(U3+) 1.76 × 10-5 cm2 s-1. Usage of the nickel spiral electrode for electrorefining of uranium showed fairly good feasibility of its extraction. However some oxidant present during the process of electrorefining caused that the solid deposits contained different uranium species such as UF3, UO2 and K3UO2F5.

  19. Experimental observations on electrorefining spent nuclear fuel in molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T. A.; Laug, D. V.; Li, S. X.; Sofu, T.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is currently performing a demonstration program for the Department of Energy (DOE) which processes spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). One of the key steps in this demonstration program is electrorefining of the spent fuel in a molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system using a pilot scale electrorefiner (Mk-IV ER). This article summarizes experimental observations and engineering aspects for electrorefining spent fuel in the molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system. It was found that the liquid cadmium pool acted as an intermediate electrode during the electrorefining process in the ER. The cadmium level was gradually decreased due to its high vapor pressure and vaporization rate at the ER operational temperature. The low cadmium level caused the anode assembly momentarily to touch the ER vessel hardware, which generated a periodic current change at the salt/cathode interface and improved uranium recovery efficiency for the process. The primary current distributions calculated by numerical simulations were used in interpreting the experimental results

  20. Molten Salt Power Tower Cost Model for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for molten-salt power tower solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), using data from several prior studies, including a contracted analysis from WorleyParsons Group, which is included herein as an Appendix. The WorleyParsons' analysis also estimated material composition and mass for the plant to facilitate a life cycle analysis of the molten salt power tower technology. Details of the life cycle assessment have been published elsewhere. The cost model provides a reference plant that interfaces with NREL's System Advisor Model or SAM. The reference plant assumes a nominal 100-MWe (net) power tower running with a nitrate salt heat transfer fluid (HTF). Thermal energy storage is provided by direct storage of the HTF in a two-tank system. The design assumes dry-cooling. The model includes a spreadsheet that interfaces with SAM via the Excel Exchange option in SAM. The spreadsheet allows users to estimate the costs of different-size plants and to take into account changes in commodity prices. This report and the accompanying Excel spreadsheet can be downloaded at https://sam.nrel.gov/cost.

  1. Electrical conductivity of molten carbonate and carbonate-chloride systems coexisting with aluminium oxide powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V. [Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural State Economic Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Bovet, Andrey L.; Zakiryanova, Irina D. [Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2018-04-01

    The electrical properties of composite electrolytes (suspensions) composed of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder and molten carbonate eutectic (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut} or molten carbonate-chloride mixture 0.72(Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut}-0.28NaCl have been investigated by AC impedance method. This system shows a dependence of the electrical conductivity upon the temperature and the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The specific electrical conductivity of the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut} system can be adequately described by the Maxwell equation for two-phase heterogeneous materials. The regression equation for the dependence of the specific conductivity of the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut} composite on the aluminium oxide concentration and temperature was obtained.

  2. The electrodeposition and rare earths reduction in the molten salt actinides recovery systems using liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, J-B.; Lee, J-H.; Kwon, S-W.; Ahn, B-G.; Woo, M-S.; Lee, B-J.; Kim, E-H.; Park, H-S.; Yoo, J-H.

    2005-01-01

    A pyrochemical partitioning system uses liquid metals such as cadmium and bismuth in order to recover the actinide metals from a molten salt mixture containing rare earth fission product metals. The liquid metals play roles as a cathode in the electrowinning or an extracting phase in the reductive extraction operation. The product resulting from the above operations is metal-cadmium or-bismuth alloy, which should contain the rare earth element amounts as low as possible for a transmutation purpose. In this study, the electrodeposition behaviours of uranium and lanthanide elements such as La, Ce and Nd were investigated for solid molybdenum and liquid cadmium electrodes in a molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. Electrochemical methods used are a cyclic voltammetry (CV) and a chronopotentiometry for monitoring the salt phase and recovering the metals, respectively. The CV graphs for monitoring the oxidizing agent CdCl 2 in the salt phase were obtained. These show a time dependently disappearance of the oxidizing agent corresponding to the formation of UCl 3 by inserting the uranium metal into the salt. Also, a sequential oxidation technique which is added at a controlled amount of the oxidizing agents into the salt phase was applied. It was found that this method is feasible for the selective reduction of the rare earths content in liquid metal alloys. (author)

  3. Phase equilibrium of the system Ag-Fe-Nd, and Nd extraction from magnet scraps using molten silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, O.; Okabe, T.H.; Umetsu, Y.

    2004-01-01

    To develop a new recycling process, we examined the direct extraction of neodymium (Nd) metal from Nd-Fe-B magnet scraps using molten silver (Ag) as an extraction medium. Prior to the extraction experiment, the phase equilibrium of the system Ag-Fe-Nd was investigated to estimate the theoretical extraction limit. It was observed that the Fe/Nd 2 Fe 17 mixture equilibrates with the molten Ag-Nd alloy containing 50-52 mol% Nd (57-59 mass% Nd) at 1363 K. The experimental results were in good agreement with the thermodynamic calculation based on literature values. By reacting Nd-Fe-B magnet scraps with molten silver at 1273 K, more than 90% of the neodymium in the scrap was extracted, and an Ag-Nd alloy containing 40-50 mass% Nd was obtained. The neodymium in the Ag-Nd alloy was separated from silver as Nd 2 O 3 by oxidizing the obtained alloy in air. Although the wettability of Nd 2 O 3 with molten silver caused some difficulties in the separation of neodymium from silver, molten silver is shown to be an effective medium for neodymium extraction from magnet scrap

  4. Quantitative Analysis of KF-LiF-ZrF4 Molten Salt by Probe Assisted in-situ LIBS Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Moon, J.H.; Kim, D.H.; Hwang, I.S.; Lee, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Pyro-processing draws attention as a recycling process of spent nuclear fuel for future nuclear reactor. In the aspect of process control and safeguards of the pyro-processing, it requires a technology to measure the concentration of molten salt in real-time. The existing technologies measure the concentration by chemical analysis of sampled molten salt in the hot cell but it is disadvantageous in the aspects of cost, safety and time. The LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) is a form of atomic emission spectroscopy in which a pulsed laser is used as the excitation source. LIBS technology is appropriate to measure sensitive nuclear materials in hot cell because it is capable of measuring specimen quantitatively and qualitatively by exited atom by laser. Spectrum obtained from plasma is largely influenced by laser operation conditions and physical properties of specimens. Also, plasma induction is limited on the surface of specimen, so analysis of composition inside of the molten salt is extremely difficult. Thus, several restrictions should be overcome in order to apply LIBS for the measurement of molten salt (KF-LiF-ZrF 4 ) composition in real-time. In this study probe assisted LIBS system will be introduced with KF-LiF-ZrF 4 to quantitatively measure molten salt composition. Echelle spectrometer was used and the measurable wavelength area was 250-400 nm, the range of UV ray. NIST atomic spectra database measured the wavelength for molten salt composition, and each element was selected high signal intensity and wavelength range that is not overlapped by other elements. (authors)

  5. A study on conductivity, density, and viscosity of molten salt systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kangjo

    1976-01-01

    A relation between the equivalent conductivity and density for molten salts is deduced with the aid of significant structures theory, and the solid state density at melting point is evaluated approximately for some rare-earth metal chlorides and the other chlorides. Furthermore, the relation among the equivalent conductivity, density, and viscosity for some molten salts is discussed. (auth.)

  6. Electrochemistry in molten borates (Na2B4O7). Electroanalytical study of oxidoreducing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori de Pinochet, Ida de

    1978-01-01

    The results of a study developing suitable electroanalytical means of investigation such as linear sweep voltametry and chronopotentiometry in molten borates are described. It has been shown that the reduction of U (VI) to U (V) proceeds reversibly at a platinum electrode. The diffusion coefficient for the U (VI) species at 800 0 C and the activation energy of diffusion are respectively 4 10 -7 cm 2 s -1 and (34,8+-0,8) k cal mol -1 . UO 2 is an insoluble oxide in this fused salt. Electrochemical studies of As (V) and Cu (II) show a two step reduction process at a platinum electrode. According to the solvent system definitions, the 'acid-base' equilibrium B 4 O 7 2- reversible 2 BO 2 - + B 2 O 3 is characterised at 820 0 C by the constant Ksub(D)=10sup(0,4)molsup(3)kgsup(-3) estimated by potentiometric study at a boron electrode [fr

  7. Preliminary Study on the High Temperature Transport System for Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is one of the the most promising technologies for the advanced fuel cycle with favorable economic potential and intrinsic proliferation-resistance. The electrorefining process, one of main processes is compos- ed of pyroprocess to recover the useful elements from spent fuel, is under development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute as a sub process of the pyrochemical treatment of spent PWR fuel. High-temperature molten salt transport technologies are required because a molten salt should be transported from the electrorefiner to electrowiner after the electrorefining process. Therefore, in pyroprocessing technology, the development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a crucial prerequisite. However, there have been a few transport studies on high-temperature molten salt. In this study, an apparatus for suction transport experiments was designed and constructed for the development of high temperature molten salt transport technology. Suction transport experiments were performed using LiC-KCl eutectic salt

  8. Design study on advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. Conceptual design study of recycle system using molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Y.; Kakehi, I.; Moro, T.; Higashi, T.; Tobe, K.; Kawamura, F.; Yonezawa, S.; Yoshiuji, T.

    1998-10-01

    Advanced recycle system engineering group of OEC (Oarai Engineering Center) has being carried out a design study of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system using molten salt (electro-metallurgical process). This system is aiming for improvements of fuel cycle economy and reduction of environmental burden (MA recycles, Minimum of radioactive waste disposal), and also improvement of safety and nuclear non-proliferation. This report describes results of the design study that has been continued since December 1996. (1) A design concept of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system, that is a module type recycles system of pyrochemical reprocessing and fuel re-fabrication was studied. The module system has advantage in balance of Pu recycle where modules are constructed in coincidence with the construction plan of nuclear power plants, and also has flexibility for technology progress. A demonstration system, minimum size of the above module, was studies. This system has capacity of 10 tHM/y and is able to demonstrate recycle technology of MOX fuel, metal fuel and nitride fuel. (2) Each process of the system, which are pyrochemical electrorefining system, cathode processor, de-cladding system, waste disposal system, etc., were studied. In this study, capacity of an electrorefiner was discussed, and vitrification experiment of molten salt using lead-boric acid glass was conducted. (3) A hot cell system and material handling system of the demonstration system was studied. A robot driven by linear motor was studied for the handling system, and an arrangement plan of the cell system was made. Criticality analysis in the cell system and investigation of material accountancy system of the recycle plant were also made. This design study will be continued in coincidence with design study of reactor and fuel, aiming to establish the concept of FBR recycle system. (author)

  9. Performance optimum analysis of an irreversible molten carbonate fuel cell–Stirling heat engine hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liwei; Zhang, Houcheng; Gao, Songhua; Yan, Huixian

    2014-01-01

    A new hybrid system mainly consists of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a Stirling heat engine is established, where the Stirling heat engine is driven by the high-quality waste heat generated in the MCFC. Based on the electrochemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, analytical expressions for the efficiency and power output of the hybrid system are derived by taking various irreversible losses into account. It shows that the performance of the MCFC can be greatly enhanced by coupling a Stirling heat engine to further convert the waste heat for power generation. By employing numerical calculations, not only the influences of multiple irreversible losses on the performance of the hybrid system are analyzed, but also the impacts of some operating conditions such as the operating temperature, input gas compositions and operating pressure on the performance of the hybrid system are also discussed. The investigation method in the present paper is feasible for some other similar energy conversion systems as well. - Highlights: • A model of MCFC–Stirling heat engine hybrid system is established. • Analytical expressions for the efficiency and power output are derived. • MCFC performance can be greatly enhanced by coupling a Stirling heat engine. • Effects of some operating conditions on the performance are discussed. • Optimum operation regions are subdivided by multi-objective optimization method

  10. Molten metal technologies advance waste processing systems for liquid radioactive waste treatment for PWRs and BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, Gary; Vance, Jene N.

    1997-01-01

    Molten Metal Technologies (MMT) has recently acquired a proprietary filtration process for specific use in radioactive liquid waste processing systems. The filtration system has been incorporated in to a PWR liquid radwaste system which is currently being designed for the ComEd Byron Nuclear Station. It has also been adopted as the prefiltration step up from of the two RO systems which were part of the VECTRA acquisition and which are currently installed in the ComEd Dresden and Lacily Nuclear Stations. The filtration process has been successfully pilot-tested at both Byron and Dresden and is currently being tested at LaSalle. The important features of the filtration process are the high removal efficiencies for particulates, including colloidal particles, and the low solid waste volume generation per gallon filtered which translates into very small annual solid waste volumes. This filtration process system has been coupled with the use of selective ion exchange media in the PWR processing system to reduce the solid waste volumes generated compared to the current processing methods and to reduce the curie quantities discharged to the environs. In the BWR processing system, this filtration method allows the coupling of an RO system to provide for recycling greater than 95% of the liquid radwaste back to the plant for reuse while significantly reducing the solid waste volumes and operating costs. This paper discusses the process system configurations for the MMT Advanced Waste Processing Systems for both PWRs and BWRs. In addition, the pilot test data and full-scale performance projections for the filtration system are discussed which demonstrate the important features of the filtration process

  11. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  12. Numerical Analyses of a single-phase natural convection system for Molten Flibe using MARS-FLIBE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sarah; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    These advantages make the MSR attractive and to be one of the six candidates for the Generation IV Reactor. Therefore, the researches related to the MSR are being conducted. To analyze the molten salt-cooled systems in the laboratory, this study generated the properties of molten salt using MARS-LMR. In this research, the implemented salts were Flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) in a molar mixture that is 66% LiF and 34% BeF{sub 2}, respectively. Table 1 indicates the comparison of thermal properties of various coolants in nuclear power plants. Molten salt was added to the MARS-LMR code to support the analysis of Flibe-cooled systems. The molten salt includes LiF-BeF{sub 2} in a molar mixture that is 66% LiF and 34% BeF{sub 2}, respectively. MARS-LMR code for liquid metals uses the soft sphere model based on Monte Carlo calculations for particles interacting with pair potentials. Although MARS was originally intended for a safety analysis of light water reactor, Flibe properties were newly added to this code as so-called MARS-FLIBE which is applicable for Flibe-cooled systems. By using this thermodynamic property table file, the thermal hydraulic systems of Flibe can be simulated for numerical and parametric studies. In this study, the natural convection phenomena in the rectangular natural convection loop and IVR-ERVC in APR 1400 were simulated. Through the simulations in Flibe-cooled systems, the temperature distribution and mass flowrate of Flibe can be calculated and the heat transfer coefficients of Flibe in natural convection loop will be calculated by adding the related heat transfer correlations in the MARS-FLIBE code. MARS-FLIBE code will be used to predict and design of Flibe-cooled systems.

  13. Analysis of an HVAC system for the molten cuprous chloride pouring operation in an industrial hydrogen production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandehariun, S.; Talimi, M.; Rosen, M.A.; Naterer, G.F. [University of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen can be produced by thermochemical water decomposition from various heat sources. The copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle is a potential future cycle that could be linked with nuclear reactors to thermally decompose water into oxygen and hydrogen, through intermediate copper and chlorine compounds. Heat is transferred between various processes. Effective heat recovery from the molten CuCl within the cycle is important for achieving high efficiency. This paper described the fundamentals of a preliminary HVAC system design for the molten CuCl pouring operation in an industrial facility, and the use of air cleaning devices to remove contaminants before discharge to the outdoor air. Heat recovery from molten CuCl involves calculating duct diameters to provide the desired duct air velocity through the system. The fan size is determined by evaluating the static pressure. An adequate supply of make-up air must be provided to replace the air exhausted through the ventilation system. This paper described the economics of the ventilation system as well as ways to protect employee health and minimize the costs associated with exhaust ventilation. 20 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  14. Fluoride partitioning R and D programme for molten salt transmutation reactor systems in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, J.; Priman, V.; Vanicek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is considered a prospective alternative conception to the current conception based on the non-reprocessed spent fuel disposal into underground repository. The Czech research and development programme in the field of partitioning and transmutation is founded on the Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor system concept with fluoride salts based liquid fuel, the fuel cycle of which is grounded on pyrochemical / pyrometallurgical fluoride partitioning of spent fuel. The main research activities in the field of fluoride partitioning are oriented mainly towards technological research of Fluoride Volatility Method and laboratory research on electro-separation methods from fluoride melts media. The Czech national conception in the area of P and T research issues from the national power industry programme and from the Czech Power Company intentions of the extensive utilization of nuclear power in our country. The experimental R and D work is concentrated mainly in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc that plays a role of main nuclear research workplace for the Czech Power Company. (author)

  15. A analysis of molten salt separation system for nuclear wastes transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Soon; Park, Byung Gi [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Bum; Kwon, Ou Sung [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Typical molten salt separation is ANL-IFR pyroprocessing and ORNL-MSRE pyroprocessing. IFR pyroprocessing is based on Chloride chemistry and electrorefining. MSRE pyroprocessing is base on fluoride chemistry and reductive extraction. Major technologies of molten salt separation are electrorefining, electrowining, reductive extraction, and oxide reduction. Common characteristics of this technologies is to utilize reduction-oxidation phenomena in molten salt. Electrorefining process is modeled on the basis of diffusion layer theory and Butler-Volmor relation. This model is numerically solved by LSODA package. To acquire the technology of electrorefining process, 3-electrode electrochemical cell is developed where electrolyte is 500 degree C LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salt, working electrodes are Ni and Au, and reference electrode is Ag/AgCl. We have investigated the stable potential range using cyclic voltammogram of Ni electrode. We have measured steady state polarization curve of Ni electrode. Then corrosion potential of Ni electrode is -0.38V{sub Ag/AgCl} and corrosion current is 1.23 x 10{sup -4} A/cm{sup 2}. 12 refs., 6 tabs., 24 figs. (author)

  16. R and D of On-line Reprocessing Technology for Molten-Salt Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, Jan; Tulackova, Radka; Chuchvalcova Bimova, Karolina

    2006-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) represents one of promising future nuclear reactor concept included in the Generation IV reactors family. The reactor can be operated as the thorium breeder or as the actinide transmuter. However, the future deployment of Molten-Salt Reactors will be significantly dependent on the successful mastering of advanced reprocessing technologies dedicated to their fuel cycle. Here the on-line reprocessing technology connected with the fuel circuit of MSR is of special importance because the reactor cannot be operated for a long run without the fuel salt clean-up. Generally, main MSR reprocessing technologies are pyrochemical, majority of them are fluoride technologies. The proposed flow-sheets of MSR on-line reprocessing are based on a combination of molten-salt / liquid metal extraction and electro-separation processes, which can be added to the gas extraction process already verified during the MSRE project in ORNL. The crucial separation method proposed for partitioning of actinides from fission products is based on successive Anodic dissolution and Cathodic deposition processes in molten fluoride media. (authors)

  17. Measurements of void fraction in a water-molten tin system by X-ray absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Michael C.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Corradini, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    A facility has been developed to study the explosive interactions of gas-water injection into a molten tin pool. The experimental apparatus allows for variable nitrogen gas and water injection into the base of a steel tank containing up to 25 kg of molten tin. Due to the opaque nature of the molten metal-gas-water mixture and steel tank, a visualization and measurement technique using continuous high energy x-rays had to be developed. Visualization of the multiphase mixture can be done at 220 Hz with 256x256 pixel resolution or at 30 Hz with 480x1128 pixel resolution. These images are stored digitally and subsequently processed to obtain two dimensional mappings of the chordal average void fraction in the mixture. The image processing method has been used to measure void fraction in experiments that did not include water in the injection mixture. This work includes a comparison to previous studies of integral void fraction data in pools of molten metal with gas injection. (author)

  18. Development of system analysis code for pyrochemical process using molten salt electrorefining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Kakehi, I.

    2000-04-01

    This report describes accomplishment of development of a cathode processor calculation code to simulate the mass and heat transfer phenomena with the distillation process and development of an analytical model for cooling behavior of the pyrochemical process cell on personal computers. The pyrochemical process using molten salt electrorefining would introduce new technologies for new fuels of particle oxide, particle nitride and metallic fuels. The cathode processor calculation code with distillation process was developed. A code validation calculation has been conducted on the basic of the benchmark problem for natural convection in a square cavity. Results by using the present code agreed well for the velocity-temperature fields, the maximum velocity and its location with the benchmark solution published in a paper. The functions have been added to advance the reality in simulation and to increase the efficiency in utilization. The test run has been conducted using the code with the above modification for an axisymmetric enclosed vessel simulating a cathode processor, and the capability of the distillation process simulation with the code has been confirmed. An analytical model for cooling behavior of the pyrochemical process cell was developed. The analytical model was selected by comparing benchmark analysis with detailed analysis on engineering workstation. Flow and temperature distributions were confirmed by the result of steady state analysis. In the result of transient cooling analysis, an initial transient peak of temperature occurred at balanced heat condition in the steady-state analysis. Final gas temperature distribution was dependent on gas circulation flow in transient condition. Then there were different final gas temperature distributions on the basis of the result of steady-state analysis. This phenomenon has a potential for it's own metastable condition. Therefore it was necessary to design gas cooling flow pattern without cooling gas circulation

  19. High-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage systems for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, R. J.; Claar, T. D.; Ong, E.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results of compatibility screening studies of 100 salt/containment/thermal conductivity enhancement (TCE) combinations for the high temperature solar thermal application range of 704 deg to 871 C (1300 to 1600 F) are presented. Nine candidate containment/HX alloy materials and two TCE materials were tested with six candidate solar thermal alkali and alkaline earth carbonate storage salts (both reagent and technical grade of each). Compatibility tests were conducted with salt encapsulated in approx. 6.0 inch x 1 inch welded containers of test material from 300 to 3000 hours. Compatibility evaluations were end application oriented, considering the potential 30 year lifetime requirement of solar thermal power plant components. Analyses were based on depth and nature of salt side corrosion of materials, containment alloy thermal aging effects, weld integrity in salt environment, air side containment oxidation, and chemical and physical analyses of the salt. A need for more reliable, and in some cases first time determined thermophysical and transport property data was also identified for molten carbonates in the 704 to 871 C temperature range. In particular, accurate melting point (mp) measurements were performed for Li2CO3 and Na2CO3 while melting point, heat of fusion, and specific heat determinations were conducted on 81.3 weight percent Na2CO3-18.7 weight percent K2CO3 and 52.2 weight percent BaCO3-47.8 weight percent Na2CO3 to support future TES system design and ultimate scale up of solar thermal energy storage (TES) subsystems.

  20. Performance evaluation and parametric optimum design of a molten carbonate fuel cell-thermophotovoltaic cell hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhimin; Liao, Tianjun; Zhou, Yinghui; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A molten carbonate fuel cell-thermophotovoltaic cell hybrid system is established. • The performance characteristics of the hybrid system are systematically evaluated. • The optimal regions of the power output density and efficiency are determined. • The values of key parameters at the maximum power output density are calculated. • The proposed system is proved to have advantages over other hybrid systems. - Abstract: A new model of the hybrid system composed of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a thermophotovoltaic cell (TPVC) is proposed to recovery the waste heat produced by the MCFC. Expressions for the power output and the efficiency of the hybrid system are analytically derived. The performance characteristics of the hybrid system are evaluated. It is found that when the current density of the MCFC, voltage output of the TPVC, electrode area ratio of the MCFC to the TPVC, and energy gap of the material in the photovoltaic cell are optimally chosen, the maximum power output density of the hybrid system is obviously larger than that of the single MCFC. Moreover, the improved percentages of the maximum power output density of the proposed model relative to that of the single MCFC are calculated for differently operating temperatures of the MCFC and are compared with those of some MCFC-based hybrid systems reported in the literature, and consequently, the advantages of the MCFC-TPVC hybrid system are revealed.

  1. An Investigation on the Thermophysical Properties of a Binary Molten Salt System Containing Both Aluminum Oxide and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticle Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, Kunal

    Molten salts are showing great potential to replace current heat transfer and thermal energy storage fluids in concentrated solar plants because of their capability to maximize thermal energy storage, greater stability, cost effectiveness and significant thermal properties. However one of the major drawbacks of using molten salt as heat transfer fluid is that they are in solid state at room temperature and they have a high freezing point. Hence, significant resources would be required to maintain it in liquid form. If molten salt freezes while in operation, it would eventually damage piping network due to its volume shrinkage along with rendering the entire plant inoperable. It is long known that addition of nanoparticle suspensions has led to significant changes in thermal properties of fluids. In this investigation, aluminum oxide and titanium oxide nanoparticles of varying concentrations are added to molten salt/solar salt system consisting of 60% sodium nitrate and 40% potassium nitrate. Using differential scanning calorimeter, an attempt will be made to investigate changes in heat capacity of system, depression in freezing point and changes in latent heat of fusion. Scanning electron microscope will be used to take images of samples to study changes in micro-structure of mixture, ensure uniform distribution of nanoparticle in system and verify authenticity of materials used for experimentation. Due to enormous magnitude of CSP plant, actual implementation of molten salt system is on a large scale. With this investigation, even microscopic enhancement in heat capacity and slight lowering of freezing point will lead to greater benefits in terms of efficiency and cost of operation of plant. These results will further the argument for viability of molten salt as a heat transfer fluid and thermal storage system in CSP. One of the objective of this experimentation is to also collect experimental data which can be used for establishing relation between concentration

  2. Thermodynamic study of the molten salt binary system KHSO4-NaHSO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Hatem, G

    2002-01-01

    The partial molar enthalpies of mixing of NaHSO4 and KHSO4 have been measured at 528 K by dropping samples of pure compounds into molten mixtures of NaHSO4 and KHSO4 in Calvet calorimeter. From these values the molar enthalpy of mixing has been deduced.The same method has been used for the determ......The partial molar enthalpies of mixing of NaHSO4 and KHSO4 have been measured at 528 K by dropping samples of pure compounds into molten mixtures of NaHSO4 and KHSO4 in Calvet calorimeter. From these values the molar enthalpy of mixing has been deduced.The same method has been used...

  3. Molten salt data for pyro chemistry: new research advanced and development of information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaune-Escard, M.; Adya, A.K.; Rycerz, L.

    2001-01-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing of nuclear fuels simultaneously involves materials, energy production and environmental aspects. However, the data relative to molten lanthanide and actinide salts (and compounds), specific to this field, are not easily available. Because of characteristic physicochemical properties, which do not promote experimental investigations, data are scarce. Very often, most of the data is buried in grey literature. When available, they reveal to arise from estimations. Co-ordination and standardisation of existing data is therefore essential, as research efforts should be intensified together with development of numerical prediction tools. This paper aims, firstly, to discuss the new experimental data obtained through an intensive international research co-operation and, secondly, to present ongoing efforts for the development of a molten salt database. (author)

  4. Front-end and back-end electrochemistry of molten salt in accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.A.; Venneri, F.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop preparation and clean-up processes for the fuel and carrier salt in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology molten salt nuclear system. The front-end or fuel preparation process focuses on the removal of fission products, uranium, and zirconium from spent nuclear fuel by utilizing electrochemical methods (i.e., electrowinning). The same method provides the separation of the so-called noble metal fission products at the back-end of the fuel cycle. Both implementations would have important diversion safeguards. The proposed separation processes and a thermodynamic analysis of the electrochemical separation method are presented

  5. RELOS.MOD2: a code system for the determination of instationary fission product releases from molten pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortz, Ch.; Koch, M.K.; Unger, H.; Funke, F.

    1999-01-01

    For the assessment of molten corium pool source terms, a mechanistic model has been developed to describe the transport of fission products from liquid corium pool surfaces into a colder gas atmosphere. Modelling is based on an approach for diffusive and convective transport processes coupled with thermochemical equilibrium considerations enabling detailed speciation analyses of the fission products released. Both have been implemented into the code system RELOS.MOD2. RELOS.MOD2 sensitivity calculations on possible effects of anticipated uncertainties in the thermo-chemical data on the fission product release predictions are presented. (author)

  6. Reactive transport in a partially molten system with binary solid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J.; Hesse, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Melt extraction from the Earth's mantle through high-porosity channels is required to explain the composition of the oceanic crust. Feedbacks from reactive melt transport are thought to localize melt into a network of high-porosity channels. Recent studies invoke lithological heterogeneities in the Earth's mantle to seed the localization of partial melts. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the reaction fronts that form as melt flows across the lithological interface of a heterogeneity and the background mantle. Simplified melting models of such systems aide in the interpretation and formulation of larger scale mantle models. Motivated by the aforementioned facts, we present a chromatographic analysis of reactive melt transport across lithological boundaries, using theory for hyperbolic conservation laws. This is an extension of well-known linear trace element chromatography to the coupling of major elements and energy transport. Our analysis allows the prediction of the feedbacks that arise in reactive melt transport due to melting, freezing, dissolution and precipitation for frontal reactions. This study considers the simplified case of a rigid, partially molten porous medium with binary solid solution. As melt traverses a lithological contact-modeled as a Riemann problem-a rich set of features arise, including a reacted zone between an advancing reaction front and partial chemical preservation of the initial contact. Reactive instabilities observed in this study originate at the lithological interface rather than along a chemical gradient as in most studies of mantle dynamics. We present a regime diagram that predicts where reaction fronts become unstable, thereby allowing melt localization into high-porosity channels through reactive instabilities. After constructing the regime diagram, we test the one-dimensional hyperbolic theory against two-dimensional numerical experiments. The one-dimensional hyperbolic theory is sufficient for predicting the

  7. Study for electrochemical behavior of uranium oxide in a molten LiCl-Li2O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Park, Byung Heung; Seo, Chung Seok; Jung, Ki Jung; Park, Seong Won

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide is increasing in the treatment of spent fuel oxides. With complicated and expensive procedures many reactive metals can be prepared in a pure metal form, the electrochemical reduction of a metal oxide has been recently proposed in metallurgy. The electrochemical reduction process is simple and rapid when compared to the conventional processes. The process can reduce the production costs and be applicable to a wide range of metal oxides. Chen et al. proposed the direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in a molten calcium chloride. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has reported the experimental results of an electrochemical reduction of the uranium oxide fuel in a bench-scale apparatus with a cyclic voltammetry, and has designed high-capacity reduction (HCR) cells and conducted three kg-scale UO 2 reduction runs. Gourishankar et al. classified the mechanisms of the electrolytic reduction of the metal oxides in a LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt system into two types; the simultaneous reduction and the direct electrochemical reduction. The uranium oxide in LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt was converted to uranium metal according to two mechanisms. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed the Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) to be an innovative technology in handling the PWR spent fuel. As part of ACP, the electrolytic reduction process (ER process) is the electrochemical reduction process of uranium oxide to uranium metal in molten salt. The ER process has advantages in a technical stability, an economic potential and a good proliferation resistance. KAERI has reported on the good experimental results of an electrochemical reduction of the uranium oxide in a 20 kg HM/batch lab-scale. In this work, cyclic voltammograms for a LiCl-3 wt% Li 2 O system and an U 3 O 8 -LiCl-3 wt% Li 2 O system with the integrated cathode assembly have been obtained. From the cyclic

  8. The results of the investigations of Russian Research Center-'Kurchatov Institute' on molten salt applications to problems of nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, Vladimir M.

    1995-01-01

    The results of investigations on molten salt (MS) applications to problems of nuclear energy systems that have been conducted in Russian Research 'Kurchatov Institute' are presented and discussed. The spectrum of these investigations is rather broad and covers the following items: physical characteristics of molten salt nuclear energy systems (MSNES); nuclear and radiation safety of MSNES; construction materials compatible with MS of different compositions; technological aspects of MS loops; in-reactor loop testing. It is shown that main findings of completed program support the conclusion that there are no physical nor technological obstacles on a way of MS application to different nuclear energy systems

  9. The results of the investigations of Russian Research Center - {open_quotes}Kurchatov Institute{close_quotes} on molten salt applications to problems of nuclear energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, V.M. [Russian Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    The results of investigations on molten salt (MS) applications to problems of nuclear energy systems that have been conducted in Russian Research {open_quotes}Kurchatov Institute{close_quotes} are presented and discussed. The spectrum of these investigations is rather broad and covers the following items: physical characteristics of molten salt nuclear energy systems (MSNES); nuclear and radiation safety of MSNES; construction materials compatible with MS of different compositions; technological aspects of MS loops; in-reactor loop testing. It is shown that main findings of completed program support the conclusion that there are no physical nor technological obstacles on way of MS application to different nuclear energy systems.

  10. Electrochemical separation of uranium in the molten system LiF–NaF–KF–UF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenko, M., E-mail: Michal.Korenko@savba.sk [Fluorine Chemistry Department, Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Řež Plc., Husinec-Řež 130, CZ-250 68 (Czech Republic); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Straka, M.; Szatmáry, L. [Fluorine Chemistry Department, Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Řež Plc., Husinec-Řež 130, CZ-250 68 (Czech Republic); Ambrová, M. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Technology and Materials, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, SK-812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Uhlíř, J. [Fluorine Chemistry Department, Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Řež Plc., Husinec-Řež 130, CZ-250 68 (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-15

    This article is focused on the electrochemical investigation (cyclic voltammetry and related studies) of possible reduction of U{sup 4+} ions to metal uranium in the molten system LiF–NaF–KF(eut.)–UF{sub 4} that can provide basis for the electrochemical extraction of uranium from molten salts. Two-step reduction mechanism for U{sup 4+} ions involving one electron exchange in soluble/soluble U{sup 4+}/U{sup 3+} system and three electrons exchange in the second step were found on the nickel working electrode. Both steps were found to be reversible and diffusion controlled. Based on cyclic voltammetry, the diffusion coefficients of uranium ions at 530 °C were found to be D(U{sup 4+}) = 1.64 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1} and D(U{sup 3+}) 1.76 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}. Usage of the nickel spiral electrode for electrorefining of uranium showed fairly good feasibility of its extraction. However some oxidant present during the process of electrorefining caused that the solid deposits contained different uranium species such as UF{sub 3}, UO{sub 2} and K{sub 3}UO{sub 2}F{sub 5}.

  11. Non-linear model reduction and control of molten carbonate fuel cell systems with internal reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Min

    2007-10-12

    Currently, the process design of fuel cells and the development of control strategies is mainly based on heuristic methods. Fuel cell models are often too complex for control purposes, or they are developed for a specific type of fuel cell and valid only in a small range of operation conditions. The application of fuel cell models to controller design is still limited. Furthermore, suitable and simple-to-implement design strategies for fuel cell control remain an open area. There is thus a motivation for simplifying dynamic models for process control applications and for designing suitable control strategies for fuel cells. This is the main objective of this work. As an application example, the 250 kW industrial molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system HotModule by MTU CFC Solutions, Germany is considered. A detailed dynamic two-dimensional spatially distributed cross-flow model of a MCFC from literature is taken as a starting point for the investigation. In Chapter 2, two simplified model versions are derived by incorporating additional physical assumptions. One of the simplified models is extended to a three-dimensional stack model to deal with physical and chemical phenomena in the stack. Simulations of the stack model are performed in Chapter 3 in order to calculate the mass and temperature distributions in the direction perpendicular to the electrode area. The other simplified model forms the basis for a low order reduced model that is derived in Chapter 4. The reduced-order model is constructed by application of the Karhunen-Loeve Galerkin method. The spatial temperature, concentration and potential profiles are approximated by a set of orthogonal time independent spatial basis functions. Problem specific basis functions are generated numerically from simulation data of the detailed reference model. The advantage of this approach is that a small number of basis functions suffices in order to approximate the solution of the detailed model very well. The

  12. Molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system. Yoyu tansan prime en gata nenryo denchi hatsuden sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, K; Hatori, S [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-11-01

    In an indirect internal reforming type molten carbonate fuel cell, the reforming temperature is limited less than the operating temperature of the fuel cell, as the heat source for reforming is depended on the reaction heat at about 650 {degree} C of the fuel cell. To improve the reforming rate at the low temperature range, it is considered to increase S/C (ratio of steam to carbon), but this scheme will cause such problems as to increase the voltage drop of the anode, to drop the heat recovery ratio on the cogenerator, to increase the capacity of the heat exchanger, etc. In this invention, in the power generating plant of a molten carbonate fuel cell the inert gas is added to the reforming raw gas, and in addition to the above the gas is mixed with steam and led into the reforming chamber of the plant. When the inert gas which is not directly concerned in the reforming reaction is added to, total mol number increases and the reforming reaction is acceralated. Consequently, the reforming rate can be raised, though the reforming temperature is low. 2 figs.

  13. Validation of the TRACE code for the system dynamic simulations of the molten salt reactor experiment and the preliminary study on the dual fluid molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), which was confirmed as one of the six Generation IV reactor types by the GIF (Generation IV International Forum in 2008), recently draws a lot of attention all around the world. Due to the application of liquid fuels the MSR can be regarded as the most special one among those six GEN-IV reactor types in a sense. A unique advantage of using liquid nuclear fuel lies in that the core melting accident can be thoroughly eliminated. Besides, a molten salt reactor can have several fuel options, for instance, the fuel can be based on "2"3"5U, "2"3"2Th-"2"3"3U, "2"3"8U-"2"3"9Pu cycle or even the spent nuclear fuel (SNF), so the reactor can be operated as a breeder or as an actinides burner both with fast, thermal or epi-thermal neutron spectrum and hence, it has excellent features of the fuel sustainability and for the non-proliferation. Furthermore, the lower operating pressure not only means a lower risk of the explosion as well as the radioactive leakage but also implies that the reactor vessel and its components can be lightweight, thus lowering the cost of equipments. So far there is no commercial MSR being operated. However, the MSR concept and its technical validation dates back to the 1960s to 1970s, when the scientists and engineers from ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the United States managed to build and run the world's first civilian molten salt reactor called MSRE (Molten Salt Reactor Experiment). The MSRE was an experimental liquid-fueled reactor with 10 MW thermal output using "4LiF-BeF_2-ZrF_4-UF_4 as the fuel also as the coolant itself. The MSRE is usually taken as a very important reference case for many current researches to validate their codes and simulations. Without exception it works also as a benchmark for this thesis. The current thesis actually consists of two main parts. The first part is about the validation of the current code for the old MSRE concept, while the second one is about the demonstration of a new

  14. Validation of the TRACE code for the system dynamic simulations of the molten salt reactor experiment and the preliminary study on the dual fluid molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xun

    2016-06-14

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), which was confirmed as one of the six Generation IV reactor types by the GIF (Generation IV International Forum in 2008), recently draws a lot of attention all around the world. Due to the application of liquid fuels the MSR can be regarded as the most special one among those six GEN-IV reactor types in a sense. A unique advantage of using liquid nuclear fuel lies in that the core melting accident can be thoroughly eliminated. Besides, a molten salt reactor can have several fuel options, for instance, the fuel can be based on {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th-{sup 233}U, {sup 238}U-{sup 239}Pu cycle or even the spent nuclear fuel (SNF), so the reactor can be operated as a breeder or as an actinides burner both with fast, thermal or epi-thermal neutron spectrum and hence, it has excellent features of the fuel sustainability and for the non-proliferation. Furthermore, the lower operating pressure not only means a lower risk of the explosion as well as the radioactive leakage but also implies that the reactor vessel and its components can be lightweight, thus lowering the cost of equipments. So far there is no commercial MSR being operated. However, the MSR concept and its technical validation dates back to the 1960s to 1970s, when the scientists and engineers from ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the United States managed to build and run the world's first civilian molten salt reactor called MSRE (Molten Salt Reactor Experiment). The MSRE was an experimental liquid-fueled reactor with 10 MW thermal output using {sup 4}LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrF{sub 4}-UF{sub 4} as the fuel also as the coolant itself. The MSRE is usually taken as a very important reference case for many current researches to validate their codes and simulations. Without exception it works also as a benchmark for this thesis. The current thesis actually consists of two main parts. The first part is about the validation of the current code for the old MSRE concept, while the second

  15. Development of a high-resolution Thomson scattering system for plasma interactions with molten salt (FLiNaK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. Y. [National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A high-resolution Thomson scattering system is presently being developed to measure the electron temperature and density profile during plasma interaction with molten salt. The system uses a 20-Hz Nd:YAG laser operating at the second harmonic (532 nm). The collection lens, having a 1:10 magnification ratio, measures 63 points along the 10-cm profile. The scattered light is transmitted by using an optical-fiber bundle, and is analyzed with a triple-grating spectrometer to further reduce stray light. Its spectral resolution is expected to be 0.03 nm. An intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera consisting of a gated image intensifier coupled to the CCD camera is used to record the spectral distribution of the scattered light. An additional feature of operating the ICCD camera at 40-Hz to record the background signal is incorporated.

  16. Electrochemical formation of AlN in molten LiCl-KCl-Li{sub 3}N systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Takuya [Department of Fundamental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: goto@energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Iwaki, Takayuki [Department of Fundamental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ito, Yasuhiko [Department of Fundamental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2005-01-30

    Electrochemical formation of aluminum nitride was investigated in molten LiCl-KCl-Li{sub 3}N systems at 723 K. When Al was anodically polarized at 1.0 V (versus Li{sup +}/Li), oxidation of nitride ions proceeded to form adsorbed nitrogen atoms, which reacted with the surface to form AlN film. The obtained nitrided film had a thickness of sub-micron order. The obtained nitrided layer consisted of two regions; the outer layer involving AlN and aluminum oxynitride and the inner layer involving metallic Al and AlN. When Al electrode was anodically polarized at 2.0 V, anodic dissolution of Al electrode occurred to give aluminum ions, which reacted with nitride ions in the melt to produce AlN particles (1-5 {mu}m of diameter) of wurtzite structure.

  17. Formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li3N system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Takuya; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2004-01-01

    We investigated a possibility of electrochemical formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li 3 N system at 673 K. Zinc nitride films were obtained by means of potentiostatic electrolysis of zinc electrodes in the melt. From XRD analysis, it was confirmed that obtained films consisted of Zn 3 N 2 and LiZnN and that the composition of each film was effected by the applied potential value. In the potential range from 0.75 to 1.6 V (versus Li + /Li), the ratio of Zn 3 N 2 increased as the applied potential was more positive. Based on the result, we achieved the formation of Zn 3 N 2 film (3-5 μm) in anti-scandium oxide structure (a = 0.977 nm) by means of potentiostatic electrolysis at 1.6 V for 3 h

  18. Behavior study on Na heat pipe in passive heat removal system of new concept molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chenglong; Tian Wenxi; Su Guanghui; Zhang Dalin; Wu Yingwei; Qiu Suizheng

    2013-01-01

    The high temperature Na heat pipe is an effective device for transporting heat, which is characterized by remarkable advantages in conductivity, isothermally and passively working. The application of Na heat pipe on passive heat removal system of new concept molten salt reactor (MSR) is significant. The transient performance of high temperature Na heat pipe was simulated by numerical method under the MSR accident. The model of the Na heat pipe was composed of three conjugate heat transfer zones, i.e. the vapor, wick and wall. Based on finite element method, the governing equations were solved by making use of FORTRAN to acquire the profiles of the temperature, velocity and pressure for the heat pipe transient operation. The results show that the high temperature Na heat pipe has a good performance on operating characteristics and high heat transfer efficiency from the frozen state. (authors)

  19. Design and analysis on fume exhaust system of blackbody cavity sensor for continuously measuring molten steel temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui Mei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fume exhaust system is the main component of the novel blackbody cavity sensor with a single layer tube, which removes the fume by gas flow along the exhaust pipe to keep the light path clean. However, the gas flow may break the conditions of blackbody cavity and results in the poor measurement accuracy. In this paper, we analyzed the influence of the gas flow on the temperature distribution of the measuring cavity, and then calculated the integrated effective emissivity of the non-isothermal cavity based on Monte-Carlo method, accordingly evaluated the sensor measurement accuracy, finally obtained the maximum allowable flow rate for various length of the exhaust pipe to meet the measurement accuracy. These results will help optimize the novel blackbody cavity sensor design and use it better for measuring the temperature of molten steel.

  20. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  1. The Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel 316L in Novel Quaternary Eutectic Molten Salt System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Mantha, Divakar; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2017-03-01

    In this article, the corrosion behavior of stainless steel 316L in a low melting point novel LiNO3-NaNO3-KNO3-NaNO2 eutectic salt mixture was investigated at 695 K which is considered as thermally stable temperature using electrochemical and isothermal dipping methods. The passive region in the anodic polarization curve indicates the formation of protective oxides layer on the sample surface. After isothermal dipping corrosion experiments, samples were analyzed using SEM and XRD to determine the topography, corrosion products, and scale growth mechanisms. It was found that after long-term immersion in the LiNO3-NaNO3-KNO3-NaNO2 molten salt, LiFeO2, LiFe5O8, Fe3O4, (Fe, Cr)3O4 and (Fe, Ni)3O4 oxides were formed. Among these corrosion products, LiFeO2 formed a dense and protective layer which prevents the SS 316L from severe corrosion.

  2. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  3. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer of the Tb(III)-Nd(III) Binary System in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, J. I. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The lanthanides act as a neutron poison in nuclear reactor with large neutron absorption cross section. For that reason, very low amount of lanthanides is required in the recovered U/TRU ingot product from pyrochemical process. In view of that, the investigation of thermodynamic properties and chemical behaviors of lanthanides in molten chloride salt are necessary to estimate the performance efficiency of pyrochemical process. However, there are uncertainties about knowledge and understanding of basic mechanisms in pyrochemical process, such as chemical speciation and redox behaviors due to the lack of in-situ monitoring methods for high temperature molten salt. The spectroscopic analysis is one of the probable techniques for in-situ qualitative and quantitative analysis. Recently, a few fluorescence spectroscopic measurements on single lanthanide element in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic have been investigated. The fluorescence intensity and the fluorescence lifetime of Tb(III) were decreased as increasing the concentration of Nd(III), demonstrating collisional quenching between donor ions and acceptor ions. The Forster distance (..0) of Tb(III)-Nd(III) binary system in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic was determined in the specific range of .... (0.1-1.0) and .. (1.387-1.496)

  4. System design description of forced-convection molten-salt corrosion loops MSR-FCL-3 and MSR-FCL-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, W.R.; Silverman, M.D.

    1976-11-01

    Molten-salt corrosion loops MSR-FCL-3 and MSR-FCL-4 are high-temperature test facilities designed to evaluate corrosion and mass transfer of modified Hastelloy N alloys for future use in Molten-Salt Breeder Reactors. Salt is circulated by a centrifugal sump pump to evaluate material compatibility with LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 fuel salt at velocities up to 6 m/s (20 fps) and at salt temperatures from 566 to 705 0 C (1050 to 1300 0 F). The report presents the design description of the various components and systems that make up each corrosion facility, such as the salt pump, corrosion specimens, salt piping, main heaters, salt coolers, salt sampling equipment, and helium cover-gas system, etc. The electrical systems and instrumentation and controls are described, and operational procedures, system limitations, and maintenance philosophy are discussed

  5. Disagregation of (U, Pu)O2 fuels in molten sodium nitrate and oxides system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.

    1976-01-01

    An oxidation process based on the use of an alkali-nitrate melt has been considered as a possible head end step for the reprocessing of FBR spent fuels. The total alkali solubility in the nitrate melt was examined. It is influenced by the temperature. At 500 degC the alkali solubility in the sodium nitrate melt is about 17 mol %. Examining solidified mixture of sodium and nitrate or sodium oxides and nitrite by X-ray diffraction has revealed five unknown lattices. NaNO 3 .xNa 2 O 2 is cubic (a=8.71A), NaNO 2 .xNa 2 O 2 is tetragonal (a=5.939A, c=9.997A), NaNO 2 .xNa 2 O is cubic (a=10.586A). The structure of NaNO 3 .xNa 2 O and NaNO 3 .xNaO 2 could not be determined. The solubility of barium and ruthenium was briefly investigated. The reaction (U,Pu)O 2 with the alkaline sodium nitrate melt proceeds along the grain boundaries of the solid solution. Two steps have been recognized. First (U,Pu)O 2 is oxidized to (U,Pu)Osub(2+x) and in a subsequent step (U,Pu)Osub(2+x) reacts with sodium peroxide to form (U,Pu) 2 O 5 .xNa 2 O 2 . Disaggregation efficiency is a function of temperature, alkali concentration and physical properties of the pellets. High temperature and low alkali concentration lead to high efficiency. The structure of the reaction products (U,Pu)O 2 with alkaline NaNO 3 melt was shown to depend mainly on the alkali concentration. As the alkali concentration is lower than 2 mole % (U,Pu) 2 O 5 . Na 2 O 2 is the dominate phase. (U,Pu) 2 O 5 .3Na 2 O 2 corresponds to 6 mole % and over 11 mole % alkali, (U,Pu) 2 O 5 .xNa 2 O 2 becomes the main product. The solubility of the fuel (U,Pu) in the alkali sodium nitrate melt increases with the alkali concentration up to 6000-8000 ppm for uranium and 1200-1700 ppm for plutonium at 500 degC with only 5 mole % alkali. As a result of high losses of fissile material in the salt bath molten salt process must regarded as uneligible for a general head end step in fuel reprocessing. Nevertheless its application can still be

  6. Measurement of erosion of stainless steel by molten lead-free solder using micro-focus x-ray CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Takemoto, Tadashi; Kang, Songai

    2009-01-01

    The severe erosion damage, which is caused by a molten lead-free solder, of wave solder equipment made into stainless steel has been encountered in operation. Then, the higher maintenance frequency and reduced life time of wave solder machine component is a serious issue in a manufacturing process. In this study, the evaluation method of erosion of stainless steel by molten lead-free solders was investigated using micro-focus X-ray systems for fluoroscopic and computed tomography (CT). As a result, it was found that the fluoroscopic image could truly reconstruct the cross-shape of the stainless steel sample after immersion test without destruction. In the case of X-ray systems for fluoroscopic and CT used in this study, three-dimensional data can be obtained. Therefore, it was possible to easily check the whole picture of the test sample after immersion test and to decide the maximum erosion depth of test sample. (author)

  7. Heat transfer and flow characteristics of a cooling thimble in a molten salt reactor residual heat removal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonghao Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the passive residual heat removal system of a molten salt reactor, one of the residual heat removal methods is to use the thimble-type heat transfer elements of the drain salt tank to remove the residual heat of fuel salts. An experimental loop is designed and built with a single heat transfer element to analyze the heat transfer and flow characteristics. In this research, the influence of the size of a three-layer thimble-type heat transfer element on the heat transfer rate is analyzed. Two methods are used to obtain the heat transfer rate, and a difference of results between methods is approximately 5%. The gas gap width between the thimble and the bayonet has a large effect on the heat transfer rate. As the gas gap width increases from 1.0 mm to 11.0 mm, the heat transfer rate decreases from 5.2 kW to 1.6 kW. In addition, a natural circulation startup process is described in this paper. Finally, flashing natural circulation instability has been observed in this thimble-type heat transfer element.

  8. Formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li{sub 3}N system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Takuya; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2004-08-25

    We investigated a possibility of electrochemical formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li{sub 3}N system at 673 K. Zinc nitride films were obtained by means of potentiostatic electrolysis of zinc electrodes in the melt. From XRD analysis, it was confirmed that obtained films consisted of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} and LiZnN and that the composition of each film was effected by the applied potential value. In the potential range from 0.75 to 1.6 V (versus Li{sup +}/Li), the ratio of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} increased as the applied potential was more positive. Based on the result, we achieved the formation of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} film (3-5 {mu}m) in anti-scandium oxide structure (a = 0.977 nm) by means of potentiostatic electrolysis at 1.6 V for 3 h.

  9. Development of Tokamak reactor system code and conceptual studies of DEMO with He Cooled Molten Li blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, B.G.; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Yong Hi

    2007-01-01

    To develop the concepts of fusion power plants and identify the design parameters, we have been developing the tokamak reactor system code. The system code can take into account a wide range of plasma physics and technology effects simultaneously and it can be used to find design parameters which optimize the given figure of merits. The outcome of the system studies using the system code is to identify which areas of plasma physics and technologies and to what extent should be developed for realization of a given fusion power plant concepts. As an application of the tokamak reactor system code, we investigate the performance of DEMO for early realization with a limited extension from the plasma physics and technology used in the design of the ITER. Main requirements for DEMO are selected as: 1) to demonstrate tritium self-sufficiency, 2) to generate net electricity, and 3) for steady-state operation. The size of plasma is assumed to be same as that of ITER and the plasma parameters which characterize the performance, i.e. normalized β value, β N , confinement improvement factor for the H-mode, H and the ratio of the Greenwald density limit n/n G are assumed to be improved beyond those of ITER: β N >2.0, H>1.0 and n/n G >1.0. Tritium self-sufficiency is provided by the He Cooled Molten Lithium (HCML) blanket with the total thickness of 2.5 m including the shield. With n/n G >1.2, net electric power bigger than 500 MW is possible with β N >4.0 andH>1.2. To access operation space for higher electric power, main restrictions are given by the divertor heat load and the steady-state operation requirements. Developments in both plasma physics and technology are required to handle high heat load and to increase the current drive efficiency. (orig.)

  10. First principles study of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of U in an electrorefining system using molybdenum cathode and LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Choah; Kang, Joonhee; Kang, Woojong; Kwak, Dohyun; Han, Byungchan

    2016-01-01

    Using first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations we obtain thermodynamic and kinetic properties of U in an electrorefining process for spent nuclear fuels using a LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salt and Mo as a cathode. The thermodynamic stability of electrodeposited U from the molten salt onto the Mo(110) surface electrode is evaluated by activity coefficients as function of surface coverages of U and Cl. Additionally, ab-initio molecular dynamic simulations combined with the Stokes-Einstein-Sutherland relation enables us to calculate the viscosity of the LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salt. Our results well agree with previously reported experimental data endorsing the credibility. Based on our atomic-level mechanical understanding we propose that an accurate computational model system incorporating the electrochemical conditions of the electrorefining process essential for the purpose of establishing thermodynamic and kinetic database of U, otherwise critical deviations are inevitable. More interestingly, the effect of coadsorption of Cl with U on the Mo(110) surface plays a key role in stabilizing electrodeposited U on the cathode. Our approach can be useful for validating published experimental database and for identifying key factors guiding a rational design of highly efficient electrorefining system for spent nuclear fuels, and thus reducing high-level radioactive nuclear wastes.

  11. Controlling the discharge of molten material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geel, J. van; Dobbels, F.; Theunissen, W.

    1980-01-01

    A method and device are described for controlling the discharge of molten material from a melter or an intermediate vessel, in which a primary outflow is fed to an overflow system, the working level of which is regulated by means of pneumatic pressure on a communicating chamber pertaining to the overflow system. Molten material may be led into a primary overflow by means of a pneumatic lift. The material melted may be a glass used for disposing of radioactive liquid wastes. (author)

  12. Molten salt electrorefining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Shoji, Yuichi; Matsumaru, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    A molten cadmium phase (lower side) and a molten salt phase (upper side) are filled in an electrolytic bath. A basket incorporating spent nuclear fuels is inserted/disposed in the molten cadmium phase. A rotatable solid cathode is inserted/disposed in the molten salt phase. The spent fuels, for example, natural uranium, incorporated in the basket is dissolved in the molten cadmium phase. In this case, the uranium concentration in the molten salt phase is determined as from 0.5 to 20wt%. Then, electrolysis is conducted while setting a stirring power for stirring at least the molten salt phase of from 2.5 x 10 2 to 1 x 10 4 based on a reynolds number. Crystalline nuclei of uranium are precipitated uniformly on the surface of the solid cathode, and they grow into fine dendrites. With such procedures, since short-circuit between the cathode precipitates and the molten cadmium phase (anode) is scarcely caused, to improve the recovering rate of uranium. (I.N.)

  13. Exergy analysis and optimisation of a marine molten carbonate fuel cell system in simple and combined cycle configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, George G.; Stefanatos, Iason C.; Kakalis, Nikolaos M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Process modelling and optimisation of an integrated marine MCFC system. • Component-level and spatially distributed exergy analysis and balances. • Optimal simple cycle MCFC system with 45.5% overall exergy efficiency. • Optimal combined cycle MCFC system with 60% overall exergy efficiency. • Combined cycle MCFC system yields 30% CO_2 relative emissions reduction. - Abstract: In this paper we present the exergy analysis and design optimisation of an integrated molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system for marine applications, considering waste heat recovery options for additional power production. High temperature fuel cells are attractive solutions for marine energy systems, as they can significantly reduce gaseous emissions, increase efficiency and facilitate the introduction of more environmentally-friendly fuels, like LNG and biofuels. We consider an already installed MCFC system onboard a sea-going vessel, which has many tightly integrated sub-systems and components: fuel delivery and pre-reforming, internal reforming sections, electrochemical conversion, catalytic burner, air supply and high temperature exhaust gas. The high temperature exhaust gasses offer significant potential for heat recovery that can be directed into both covering the system’s auxiliary heat requirements and power production. Therefore, an integrated systems approach is employed to accurately identify the true sources of losses in the various components and to optimise the overall system with respect to its energy efficiency, taking into account the various trade-offs and subject to several constraints. Here, we present a four-step approach: a. dynamic process models development of simple and combined-cycle MCFC system; b. MCFC components and system models calibration via onboard MCFC measurements; c. exergy analysis, and d. optimisation of the simple and combined-cycle systems with respect to their exergetic performance. Our methodology is based on the

  14. Structure and thermodynamics of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheodorou, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates single-component molten salts and multicomponent salt mixtures. Molten salts provide an important testing ground for theories of liquids, solutions, and plasmas. Topics considered include molten salts as liquids (the pair potential, the radial distribution function, methods of characterization), single salts (structure, thermodynamic correlations), and salt mixtures (the thermodynamics of mixing; spectroscopy and structure). Neutron and X-ray scattering techniques are used to determine the structure of molten metal halide salts. The corresponding-states theory is used to obtain thermodynamic correlations on single salts. Structural information on salt mixtures is obtained by using vibrational (Raman) and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Charge-symmetrical systems and charge-unsymmetrical systems are used to examine the thermodynamics of salt mixtures

  15. Diagnostic system of steam generator, especially molten metal heated steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Martoch, J.

    1986-01-01

    A diagnostic system is described and graphically represented consisting of a leak detector, a medium analyzer and sensors placed on the piping connected to the indication sections of both tube plates. The advantage of the designed system consists in the possibility of detecting tube failure immediately on leak formation, especially in generators with duplex tubes. This shortens the period of steam generator shutdown for repair and reduces power losses. The design also allows to make periodical leak tests during planned steam generator shutdowns. (A.K.)

  16. Proposal of a molten-salt system for long-term energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthou, V.; Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.

    2002-01-01

    Within the framework of nuclear waste management studies, the 'ose-composent' concept is considered to be an attractive option for the long-term perspective. This paper proposes a new system called TASSE ('Thorium-based Accelerator-drives System with Simplified fuel cycle for long-term Energy production') destined for the current French park renewal. The main idea of the TASSE concept is to simplify both the front end and the back end of the fuel cycle. Its major goal is to provide electricity with low waste production and economical competitiveness. (author)

  17. Solidification of high temperature molten salts for thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The solidification of phase change materials for the high temperature thermal energy storage system of an advanced solar thermal power system has been examined theoretically. In light of the particular thermophysical properties of candidate phase change high temperature salts, such as the eutectic mixture of NaF - MgF2, the heat transfer characteristics of one-dimensional inward solidification for a cylindrical geometry have been studied. The Biot number for the solidified salt is shown to be the critical design parameter for constant extraction heat flux. A fin-on-fin design concept of heat transfer surface augmentation is proposed in an effort to minimize the effects of the salt's low thermal conductivity and large volume change upon fusing.

  18. Discriminators for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) concept using a subcritical molten salt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.; Busksa, J.; Davidson, W.; Poston, D.

    1995-05-01

    Discriminators are described that quantify enhancements added to plutonium destruction and/or nuclear waste transmutation systems through use of an accelerator/fluid fuel combination. This combination produces a robust and flexible nuclear system capable of the destruction of all major long-lived actinides (including plutonium) and fission products. The discriminators discussed in this report are (1) impact of subcritical operation on safety, (2) impact of subcritical and fluid fuel operation on plutonium burnout scenarios, and (3) neutron economy enhancements brought about by subcritical operation. Neutron economy enhancements are quantified through assessment of long-term dose reduction resulting from transmutation of key fission products along with relaxation of processing frequencies afforded by subcritical operation

  19. Molten salt engineering for thorium cycle. Electrochemical studies as examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yasuhiko

    1998-01-01

    A Th-U nuclear energy system utilizing accelerator driven subcritical molten salt breeder reactor has several advantages compared to conventional U-Pu nuclear system. In order to obtain fundamental data on molten salt engineering of Th-U system, electrochemical study was conducted. As the most primitive simulated study of beam irradiation of molten salt, discharge electrolysis was investigated in molten LiCl-KCl-AgCl system. Stationary discharge was generated under atmospheric argon gas and fine Ag particles were obtained. Hydride ion (H - ) behavior in molten salts was also studied to predict the behavior of tritide ion (T - ) in molten salt fuel. Finally, hydrogen behavior in metals at high temperature was investigated by electrochemical method, which is considered to be important to confine and control tritium. (author)

  20. Molten salt fuels for treatment of plutonium and radwastes in ADS critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, Victor V.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction of the innovative reactor concept of the incinerator type in the future nuclear power system should provide the following: Low Plutonium and Minor Actinides Total Inventory in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (M) Reduced Actinides Total Losses to Waste (W) Minimal Uranium-235 SupportMinimal Neutron Captures Outside Actinides (Coolant and Structural Material Activation Products). Estimations have shown strong dependence of the first two parameters (M and W), which are responsible for incinerator efficiency, from the burnup (c) reached in the core of an incinerator and the actinides mass flow rate in the fuel cycle (A(t)=G(t)/Q(t), where G(t)=amount of TRU fed to the process during t, and Q(t)=electricity produced during (t)

  1. Waste treatment using molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Stewart, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    MSO technology can be characterized as a submerged oxidation process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The molten salt (usually sodium carbonate at 900-1000 C) provides four waste management functions: providing a heat transfer medium, catalyzing the oxidation reaction, preventing the formation of acid gases by forming stable salts, and efficiently capturing ash particles and radioactive materials by the combined effects of wetting, encapsulation and dissolution. The MSO process requires no wet scrubbing system for off-gas treatment. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous wastes). (author). 24 refs, 2 tabs, 2 figs

  2. Development of fluoride reprocessing technology for molten salt transmutation reactor systems in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, J.; Hosnedl, P.; Matal, O.

    2000-01-01

    At present, the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is considered a prospective alternative conception with respect to the current conception based on the non-reprocessed spent fuel disposal into a deep geological repository. The Czech research and development programme in the area of partitioning is directed primarily on the development of the fuel cycle technology for the accelerator - driven subcritical reactor with a liquid fuel based on fluoride melts. The final objective of the research programme is the development of pyrochemical technologies suitable for a continuous or semi-continuous separation process which would allow practically perfect utilization of the transmutation potentialities of the reactor system. The present research is directed particularly on the development of suitable fluoride separation methods the target of which is the removal of the uranium component from spent nuclear fuel and on the research of the electro-separation procedures and further on the development of appropriate construction materials and equipment for the technology of fluoride salt melts. (authors)

  3. Update on Small Modular Reactors Dynamics System Modeling Tool -- Molten Salt Cooled Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Borum, Robert C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chaleff, Ethan S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rogerson, Doug W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Batteh, John J. [Modelon Corporation (Sweden); Tiller, Michael M. [Xogeny Corporation, Canton, MI (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Dynamic System Modeling Tool project is in the third year of development. The project is designed to support collaborative modeling and study of various advanced SMR (non-light water cooled) concepts, including the use of multiple coupled reactors at a single site. The objective of the project is to provide a common simulation environment and baseline modeling resources to facilitate rapid development of dynamic advanced reactor SMR models, ensure consistency among research products within the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technical area, and leverage cross-cutting capabilities while minimizing duplication of effort. The combined simulation environment and suite of models are identified as the Modular Dynamic SIMulation (MoDSIM) tool. The critical elements of this effort include (1) defining a standardized, common simulation environment that can be applied throughout the program, (2) developing a library of baseline component modules that can be assembled into full plant models using existing geometry and thermal-hydraulic data, (3) defining modeling conventions for interconnecting component models, and (4) establishing user interfaces and support tools to facilitate simulation development (i.e., configuration and parameterization), execution, and results display and capture.

  4. Metalcasting: Filtering Molten Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauren Poole; Lee Recca

    1999-01-01

    A more efficient method has been created to filter cast molten metal for impurities. Read about the resulting energy and money savings that can accrue to many different industries from the use of this exciting new technology

  5. Electrochemical Behavior of Molten V2O5-K2S2O7-KHSO4 Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrushina, Irina; Bjerrum, Niels; Berg, Rolf W.

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of K2S2O7-KHSO4-V2O5, K2S2O7-V2O4 and K2S2O7-KHSO4-V2O4 melts was studied in argon and SO2/air atmospheres using a gold electrode. In order to identify the voltammetric waves due to KHSO4, molten KHSO4 and mixtures of K2S2O7-KHSO4 were investigated by voltammetry...

  6. Fuzzy-based failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) of a hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and gas turbine system for marine propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Junkeon; Noh, Yeelyong; Park, Sung Ho; Choi, Byung Il; Chang, Daejun

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes a fuzzy-based FMEA (failure mode and effect analysis) for a hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell and gas turbine system for liquefied hydrogen tankers. An FMEA-based regulatory framework is adopted to analyze the non-conventional propulsion system and to understand the risk picture of the system. Since the participants of the FMEA rely on their subjective and qualitative experiences, the conventional FMEA used for identifying failures that affect system performance inevitably involves inherent uncertainties. A fuzzy-based FMEA is introduced to express such uncertainties appropriately and to provide flexible access to a risk picture for a new system using fuzzy modeling. The hybrid system has 35 components and has 70 potential failure modes, respectively. Significant failure modes occur in the fuel cell stack and rotary machine. The fuzzy risk priority number is used to validate the crisp risk priority number in the FMEA.

  7. Preparation of tungsten coatings on graphite by electro-deposition via Na2WO4–WO3 molten salt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ning-bo; Zhang, Ying-chun; Jiang, Fan; Lang, Shao-ting; Xia, Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings on graphite were firstly obtained by electro-deposition method via Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 molten salt system. • Uniform and dense tungsten coatings could be easily prepared in each face of the sample, especially the complex components. • The obtained tungsten coatings are with high purity, ultra-low oxygen content (about 0.022 wt%). • Modulate pulse parameters can get tungsten coatings with different thickness and hardness. - Abstract: Tungsten coating on graphite substrate is one of the most promising candidate materials as the ITER plasma facing components. In this paper, tungsten coatings on graphite substrates were fabricated by electro-deposition from Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 molten salt system at 1173 K in atmosphere. Tungsten coatings with no impurities were successfully deposited on graphite substrates under various pulsed current densities in an hour. By increasing the current density from 60 mA cm −2 to 120 mA cm −2 an increase of the average size of tungsten grains, the thickness and the hardness of tungsten coatings occurs. The average size of tungsten grains can reach 7.13 μm, the thickness of tungsten coating was in the range of 28.8–51 μm, and the hardness of coating was higher than 400 HV. No cracks or voids were observed between tungsten coating and graphite substrate. The oxygen content of tungsten coating is about 0.022 wt%

  8. Thorium-based Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) project in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Zhimin; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Making great efforts in development of nuclear energy is one of the long-term-plan in China's energy strategies. The advantages of Thorium-based nuclear energy are: rich resource in nature, less nuclear waste, low toxicity, nuclear non-proliferation and so on. Furthermore, China is a country with abundant thorium, thus it is necessary to develop the Thorium-based Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) in China. Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SINAP) had designed and constructed the first China's light-water reactor and developed a zero-power thorium-based molten salt reactor successfully in the early 1970s. The applied research project 'thorium molten salt reactor nuclear power system' by SINAP together with several other institutes had been accepted and granted by China government in 2011. The whole project has been divided into three stages: Firstly, built a 2 MW-zero-power high temperature solid molten salt reactor in 2015 and a 2 MW-zero-power high temperature liquid molten salt reactor in 2017. Secondly, in 2020 built a 10 MW high temperature liquid molten salt reactor. Thirdly, on the base of previous work, a 100 MW high temperature molten salt reactor should be achieving in 2030. After more than one years of efforts, a high quality scientific research team has been formed, which is able to design the molten salt reactor, the molten salt loop and related key equipment, the systems of molten salt preparation, purification and the radioactive gas removal. In the past one year, the initial physical design of high temperature molten salt reactor has been completed; the nuclear chemistry and radiation chemical laboratory has been built, a high temperature salt (HTS) loop and radioactive gas removal experiment device system have been successfully developed and constructed. Further, the preliminary study on reactor used carbon-carbon composite material has been investigated. (author)

  9. Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Lecocq, A.; Kato, Yoshio; Mitachi, Kohshi.

    1990-01-01

    In the next century, the 'fission breeder' concept will not be practical to solve the global energy problems, including environmental and North-South problems. As a new measure, a simple rational Th molten salt breeding fuel cycle system, named 'Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics (THORIMS-NES)', which composed of simple power stations and fissile producers, is proposed. This is effective to establish the essential improvement in issues of resources, safety, power-size flexibility, anti-nuclear proliferation and terrorism, radiowaste, economy, etc. securing the simple operation, maintenance, chemical processing, and rational breeding fuel cycle. As examples, 155 MWe fuel self-sustaining power station 'FUJI-II', 7 MWe pilot-plant 'miniFUJI-II', 1 GeV-300 mA proton Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder 'AMSB', and their combined fuel cycle system are explained. (author)

  10. Molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Simon, N.; Renault, C.

    2014-01-01

    Molten salt reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. The principle of this reactor is very innovative: the nuclear fuel is dissolved in the coolant which allows the online reprocessing of the fuel and the online recovery of the fission products. A small prototype: the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE - 8 MWt) was operating a few years in the sixties in the USA. The passage towards a fast reactor by the suppression of the graphite moderator leads to the concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) which is presently studied through different European projects such as MOST, ALISIA and EVOL. Worldwide the main topics of research are: the adequate materials resisting to the high level of corrosiveness of the molten salts, fuel salt reprocessing, the 3-side coupling between neutron transport, thermohydraulics and thermo-chemistry, the management of the changing chemical composition of the salt, the enrichment of lithium with Li 7 in the case of the use of lithium fluoride salt and the use of MSFR using U 233 fuel (thorium cycle). The last part of the article presents a preliminary safety analysis of the MSFR. (A.C.)

  11. Molten salt reactors: chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  12. Electrochemical noise measurements of steel corrosion in the molten NaCl-K2SO4 system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappeln, Frederik Vilhelm; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    2005-01-01

    -called active corrosion (i.e., the corrosion proceeds with no passivation due to the influence of chlorine), characterized by the formation of volatile metal chlorides as a primary corrosion product. It was found possible to obtain an empirical separation of general and intergranular corrosion using kurtosis (a......Electrochemical noise measurements have been carried out on AISI347, 10CrMo910, 15Mo3, and X20CrMoV121 steels in molten NaCl-K2SO4 at 630 degrees C. Different types of current noise have been identified for pitting, intergranular and peeling corrosion. The corrosion mechanism was the so...... statistical parameter calculated from the electrochemical noise data). It was found that average kurtosis values above 6 indicated intergranular corrosion and average values below 6 indicated general corrosion. The response time for localized corrosion detection in in-plant monitoring was approximately 90 min...

  13. Extraction of lanthanide elements and bismuth in molten lithium chloride-liquid bismuth-lithium alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Makoto; Adachi, Motonari; Kai, Yuichi; Koike, Kenichi

    1987-01-01

    The equilibrium distributions of neodymium and samarium between molten LiCl and liquid Bi-Li alloy were measured in a wide range of Li-mole fraction in the alloy phase, X Li . These lanthanide elements were extracted through redox reactions. In high X Li range, X Li > 0.03, the distributions of neodymium and bismuth in the salt phase increased markedly. The anomalous increase is attributed to the formation of the compound comprized of Nd, Li, Bi and oxygen in the salt phase. The reaction processes in samarium and neodymium were very fast and the extraction rates are controlled by the diffusion processes of the solutes and metallic lithium. (author)

  14. A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K. [Power and Industrial Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0862 (Japan); Oomori, T. [Chemical System Design and Engineering Department, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

  15. Molten salts and nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed

  16. Molten salt burner fuel behaviour and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.V.; Zakirov, R.Y.; Grebenkine, K.F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of molten salt reactor technology for treatment of Pu, minor actinides and fission products, when the reactor and fission product clean-up unit are planned as an integral system. This contribution summarises the available R and D which led to selection of the fuel compositions for the molten salt reactor of the TRU burner type (MSB). Special characteristics of behaviour of TRUs and fission products during power operation of MSB concepts are presented. The present paper briefly reviews the processing developments underlying the prior molten salt reactor programmes and relates them to the separation requirements of the MSB concept, including the permissible range of processing cycle times and removal times. Status and development needs in the thermodynamic properties of fluorides, fission product clean-up methods and container materials compatibility with the working fluids for the fission product clean-up unit are discussed. (authors)

  17. Preparation of tungsten coatings on graphite by electro-deposition via Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ning-bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Ying-chun, E-mail: zycustb@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Fan; Lang, Shao-ting [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Xia, Min [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Institute of Powder Metallurgy and Advanced Ceramics, Southwest Jiaotong University, 111, 1st Section, Northern 2nd Ring Road, Chengdu (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings on graphite were firstly obtained by electro-deposition method via Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system. • Uniform and dense tungsten coatings could be easily prepared in each face of the sample, especially the complex components. • The obtained tungsten coatings are with high purity, ultra-low oxygen content (about 0.022 wt%). • Modulate pulse parameters can get tungsten coatings with different thickness and hardness. - Abstract: Tungsten coating on graphite substrate is one of the most promising candidate materials as the ITER plasma facing components. In this paper, tungsten coatings on graphite substrates were fabricated by electro-deposition from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system at 1173 K in atmosphere. Tungsten coatings with no impurities were successfully deposited on graphite substrates under various pulsed current densities in an hour. By increasing the current density from 60 mA cm{sup −2} to 120 mA cm{sup −2} an increase of the average size of tungsten grains, the thickness and the hardness of tungsten coatings occurs. The average size of tungsten grains can reach 7.13 μm, the thickness of tungsten coating was in the range of 28.8–51 μm, and the hardness of coating was higher than 400 HV. No cracks or voids were observed between tungsten coating and graphite substrate. The oxygen content of tungsten coating is about 0.022 wt%.

  18. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Tsukada, Kineo; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Oomichi, Toshihiko; Oono, Hideo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure, as well as improve the technical reliability and safety by the elimination of a proton beam entering window. Constitution: The nuclear reactor container main body is made of Hastelloy N and provided at the inner surface with two layers of graphite shields except for openings. An aperture was formed in the upper surface of the container, through which protons accelerated by a linear accelerator are directly entered to the liquid surface of molten salts such as 7LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 , 7LiF-NaF-ThF 4 , 7LiF-Rb-UF 4 , NaF-KF-UF 4 and the like. The heated molten salts are introduced by way of a pipeway into a heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to coolant salts and electric generation is conducted by way of heated steams. (Furukawa, Y.)

  19. Molten core retention assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods

  20. Analysis of the design and economics of molten carbonate fuel cell tri-generation systems providing heat and power for commercial buildings and H2 for FC vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuping; Ogden, Joan; Yang, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This study models the operation of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) tri-generation systems for “big box” store businesses that combine grocery and retail business, and sometimes gasoline retail. Efficiency accounting methods and parameters for MCFC tri-generation systems have been developed. Interdisciplinary analysis and an engineering/economic model were applied for evaluating the technical, economic, and environmental performance of distributed MCFC tri-generation systems, and for exploring the optimal system design. Model results show that tri-generation is economically competitive with the conventional system, in which the stores purchase grid electricity and NG for heat, and sell gasoline fuel. The results are robust based on sensitivity analysis considering the uncertainty in energy prices and capital cost. Varying system sizes with base case engineering inputs, energy prices, and cost assumptions, it is found that there is a clear tradeoff between the portion of electricity demand covered and the capital cost increase of bigger system size. MCFC Tri-generation technology provides lower emission electricity, heat, and H2 fuel. With NG as feedstock the CO2 emission can be reduced by 10%-43.6%, depending on how the grid electricity is generated. With renewable methane as feedstock CO2 emission can be further reduced to near zero.

  1. Suppression of Vapor Explosions in a Water-Molten-Tin System by Augmentation of the Void Fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, Michael K.; Baker, Michael C.; Bonazza, Riccardo

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the likelihood of a vapor explosion when injecting an inert gas (nitrogen) and a coolant (water) into a pool of molten metal (tin) in a large-scale chamber (∼20 kg fuel). The injection flow rates of the water and nitrogen gas were the principal experimental variables, with average water flow rates up to 0.05 x 10 -3 m 3 /s and gas flow rates ranging from 0.33 x 10 -3 to 1.67 x 10 -3 m 3 /s. Of 35 successful experiments, 11 resulted in an explosive interaction, as determined by audible signals, videotape, and accelerometer data. The main objective of the investigation was to determine the existence of a boundary between explosive and nonexplosive regions in the water-gas flow rate plane: Such a boundary was indeed identified and approximated by a straight line. Two experiments in which explosive interactions were obtained in the low water/gas flow regions after a relatively long time of coolant injection (∼5 to 10 s) demonstrate the hitherto undervalued importance of the temporal variable

  2. Control structure design of a solid oxide fuel cell and a molten carbonate fuel cell integrated system: Top-down analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jienkulsawad, Prathak; Skogestad, Sigurd; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Control structure of the combined fuel cell system is designed. • The design target is trade-off between power generation and carbon dioxide emission. • Constraints are considered according to fuel cell safe operation. • Eight variables have to be controlled to maximize profit. • Two control structures are purposed for three active constraint regions. - Abstract: The integrated system of a solid oxide fuel cell and molten carbonate fuel cell theoretically has very good potential for power generation with carbon dioxide utilization. However, the control strategy of such a system needs to be considered for efficient operation. In this paper, a control structure design for an integrated fuel cell system is performed based on economic optimization to select manipulated variables, controlled variables and control configurations. The objective (cost) function includes a carbon tax to get an optimal trade-off between power generation and carbon dioxide emission, and constraints include safe operation. This study focuses on the top-down economic analysis which is the first part of the design procedure. Three actively constrained regions as a function of the main disturbances, namely, the fuel and steam feed rates, are identified; each region represents different sets of active constraints. Under nominal operating conditions, the system operates in region I. However, operating the fuel cell system in region I and II can use the same structure, but in region III, a different control structure is required.

  3. Physical properties of core-concrete systems: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} molten materials measured by aerodynamic levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Yuji, E-mail: ohishi@see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Kargl, F. [Institute of Materials Physics in Space, German Aerospace Center (Germany); Nakamori, F.; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Yamanaka, Shinsuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (Japan); Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    During a molten core–concrete interaction, molten oxides consisting of molten core materials (UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}) and concrete (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, CaO) are formed. Reliable data on the physical properties of the molten oxides will allow us to accurately predict the progression of a nuclear reactor core meltdown accident. In this study, the viscosities and densities of molten (ZrO{sub 2}){sub x}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 1-x} (x = 0.356 and 0.172) were measured using an aerodynamic levitation technique. The densities of two small samples were estimated from their masses and their volumes (calculated from recorded images of the molten samples). The droplets were forced to oscillate using speakers, and their viscosities were evaluated from the damping behaviors of their oscillations. The results showed that the viscosity of molten (ZrO{sub 2}){sub x}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 1-x} compared to that of pure molten Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 25% lower for x = 0.172, while it is unexpectedly 20% higher for x = 0.356. - Highlights: •The physical properties of molten (ZrO{sub 2}){sub x}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 1-x} (x = 0.356 and 0.172) have been evaluated. •The measurement was conducted using an aerodynamic levitation technique. •The density and viscosity were measured.

  4. Molten salt actinide recycler and transforming system without and with Th–U support: Fuel cycle flexibility and key material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.; Feynberg, O.; Gnidoi, I.; Merzlyakov, A.; Surenkov, A.; Uglov, V.; Zagnitko, A.; Subbotin, V.; Sannikov, I.; Toropov, A.; Afonichkin, V.; Bovet, A.; Khokhlov, V.; Shishkin, V.; Kormilitsyn, M.; Lizin, A.; Osipenko, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine feasibility of MOSART system without and with U–Th support. • We experimentally studied key material properties to prove MOSART flowsheet. • MOSART potential as the system with flexible fuel cycle scenarios is emphasized. • MOSART can operate with different TRU loadings in transmuter or even breeder modes. - Abstract: A study is under progress to examine the feasibility of MOlten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transforming (MOSART) system without and with U–Th support fuelled with different compositions of transuranic elements (TRU) trifluorides from spent LWR fuel. New design options with homogeneous core and fuel salt with high enough solubility for transuranic elements trifluorides are being examined because of new goals. The paper has the main objective of presenting the fuel cycle flexibility of the MOSART system while accounting technical constrains and experimental data received in this study. A brief description is given of the experimental results on key physical and chemical properties of fuel salt and combined materials compatibility to satisfy MOSART system requirements

  5. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  6. Investigation of molten salt fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kenichi; Konomura, Mamoru

    2002-01-01

    On survey research for practicability strategy of fast reactor (FR) (phase 1), to extract future practicability image candidates of FR from wide options, in addition to their survey and investigation objects of not only solid fuel reactors of conventional research object but also molten salt reactor as a flowing fuel reactor, investigation on concept of molten salt FR plant was carried out. As a part of the first step of the survey research for practicability strategy, a basic concept on plant centered at nuclear reactor facility using chloride molten salt reactor capable of carrying out U-Pu cycle was examined, to perform a base construction to evaluate economical potential for a practical FBR. As a result, a result could be obtained that because of inferior fuel inventory and heat transmission to those in Na cooling reactor in present knowledge, mass of reactor vessel and intermediate heat exchanger were to widely increased to expect reduction of power generation unit price even on considering cheapness of its fuel cycle cost. Therefore, at present step further investigation on concept design of the chloride molten salt reactor plant system is too early in time, and it is at a condition where basic and elementary researches aiming at upgrading of economical efficiency such as wide reduction of fuel inventory, a measure expectable for remarkable rationalization effect of reprocessing system integrating a reactor to a processing facility, and so on. (G.K.)

  7. Detection and removal of molten salts from molten aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Butcher; D. Smith; C. L. Lin; L. Aubrey

    1999-08-02

    Molten salts are one source of inclusions and defects in aluminum ingots and cast shapes. A selective adsorption media was used to remove these inclusions and a device for detection of molten salts was tested. This set of experiments is described and the results are presented and analyzed.

  8. Thermal diffusivity measurement of molten fluoride salt containing ThF4 (improvement of the simple ceramic cell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Araki, N.; Kobayashi, K.; Makino, A.

    1985-01-01

    Design conditions of a cylindrical ceramic cell are estimated which can be used to measure the absolute value of thermal diffusivity of molten salts by applying the stepwise heating method. Molten salt is expected to be used in nuclear systems such as the Molten-Salt Reactor, the Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder, the Fusion Reactor Blanket Coolant, the Fuel Reprocessing System, and so on

  9. Transfer characteristics of a lithium chloride–potassium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Mullen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing is an alternative method of reprocessing spent fuel, usually involving the dissolving spent fuel in a molten salt media. The National Nuclear Laboratory designed, built, and commissioned a molten salt dynamics rig to investigate the transfer characteristics of molten lithium chloride–potassium chloride eutectic salt. The efficacy and flow characteristics of a high-temperature centrifugal pump and argon gas lift were obtained for pumping the molten salt at temperatures up to 500°C. The rig design proved suitable on an industrial scale and transfer methods appropriate for use in future molten salt systems. Corrosion within the rig was managed, and melting techniques were optimized to reduce stresses on the rig. The results obtained improve the understanding of molten salt transport dynamics, materials, and engineering design issues and support the industrialization of molten salts pyroprocessing.

  10. Dynamics and control of molten-salt breeder reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of the dynamic analysis of a two-fluid molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR system are presented. Based on an earlier work on the preliminary dynamic model of the concept, the model presented here is nonlinear and has been revised to accurately reflect the design exemplified in ORNL-4528. A brief overview of the model followed by results from simulations performed to validate the model is presented. Simulations illustrate stable behavior of the reactor dynamics and temperature feedback effects to reactivity excursions. Stable and smooth changes at various nodal temperatures are also observed. Control strategies for molten-salt reactor operation are discussed, followed by an illustration of the open-loop load-following capability of the molten-salt breeder reactor system. It is observed that the molten-salt breeder reactor system exhibits “self-regulating” behavior, minimizing the need for external controller action for load-following maneuvers.

  11. Dynamics and control of molten-salt breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing, Vikram; Lish, Matthew R.; Chvala, Ondrej; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Preliminary results of the dynamic analysis of a two-fluid molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR) system are presented. Based on an earlier work on the preliminary dynamic model of the concept, the model presented here is nonlinear and has been revised to accurately reflect the design exemplified in ORNL-4528. A brief overview of the model followed by results from simulations performed to validate the model is presented. Simulations illustrate stable behavior of the reactor dynamics and temperature feedback effects to reactivity excursions. Stable and smooth changes at various nodal temperatures are also observed. Control strategies for molten-salt reactor operation are discussed, followed by an illustration of the open-loop load-following capability of the molten-salt breeder reactor system. It is observed that the molten-salt breeder reactor system exhibits “self-regulating” behavior, minimizing the need for external controller action for load-following maneuvers.

  12. Structural analysis of molten Na2O-NaF-SiO2 system by Raman spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yasushi; Urata, Hidehiro; Ishii, Kuniyoshi

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of F ions on the structure of the molten alkali silicate systems, quenched Na 2 O-SiO 2 -NaF systems were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation. The systematic increase of 1100cm -1 band intensity in the Raman spectra of the silicate melts accompanying the replacement of O by F provides the evidence for concomitant polymerization of melts. From the molecular dynamics simulation, it was confirmed that most of substituted F was mainly coordinated to Na + ions but not Si 4+ ions at least up to 12.5 mol% of F ion content. A small amount of F was found to be coordinated to Si as a non-bridging ion from the molecular dynamics simulation, although there was no recognizable evidence from Raman Spectroscopy. These results were consistent with the mechanism in which F associated with otherwise network-modifying Na rather than with network-forming Si. Since F was associated to Na + ions, the replace of O ion by two F ions promote the polymerization of silicate melts. (author)

  13. Molten fuel studies at Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, A.J.; Knowles, J.B.; Tattersall, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the experimental facilities available for molten fuel studies at Winfrith. These include a large facility capable of testing components at full LMFBR subassembly scale and also a high pressure facility for experiments at pressures up to 25 MPa, covering the whole range of temperatures and pressures of interest for the PWR. If the hypothetical accident conditions initiating the release of molten fuel do not produce an explosive transfer of thermal energy on contact of molten fuel with the reactor coolant, then an intermediate rate of heat transfer over several hundred milliseconds may occur. Theoretical work is described which is being carried out to predict the resulting pressurisation and the degree of mechanical loading on the reactor structure. Finally the current programme of molten fuel studies and recent progress are reviewed, and future plans, which are chiefly focussed on the study of thermal interactions between molten fuel and sodium coolant for the LMFBR are outlined. (author)

  14. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  15. Computer simulation on molten ionic salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, K.; Okada, I.

    1978-01-01

    The extensive advances in computer technology have since made it possible to apply computer simulation to the evaluation of the macroscopic and microscopic properties of molten salts. The evaluation of the potential energy in molten salts systems is complicated by the presence of long-range energy, i.e. Coulomb energy, in contrast to simple liquids where the potential energy is easily evaluated. It has been shown, however, that no difficulties are encountered when the Ewald method is applied to the evaluation of Coulomb energy. After a number of attempts had been made to approximate the pair potential, the Huggins-Mayer potential based on ionic crystals became the most often employed. Since it is thought that the only appreciable contribution to many-body potential, not included in Huggins-Mayer potential, arises from the internal electrostatic polarization of ions in molten ionic salts, computer simulation with a provision for ion polarization has been tried recently. The computations, which are employed mainly for molten alkali halides, can provide: (1) thermodynamic data such as internal energy, internal pressure and isothermal compressibility; (2) microscopic configurational data such as radial distribution functions; (3) transport data such as the diffusion coefficient and electrical conductivity; and (4) spectroscopic data such as the intensity of inelastic scattering and the stretching frequency of simple molecules. The computed results seem to agree well with the measured results. Computer simulation can also be used to test the effectiveness of a proposed pair potential and the adequacy of postulated models of molten salts, and to obtain experimentally inaccessible data. A further application of MD computation employing the pair potential based on an ionic model to BeF 2 , ZnCl 2 and SiO 2 shows the possibility of quantitative interpretation of structures and glass transformation phenomena

  16. Electrical Conductivity of Molten DyCl3-NaCl and DyCl3-KCl Systems: An Approach to Structural Interpretations of Rare Earth Chloride Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwadate, Yasuhiko; Ohkubo, Takahiro

    2017-11-01

    Electrical conductivities (κs) of molten DyCl3-NaCl and DyCl3-KCl systems were estimated by measuring the impedances of each mixture melt at any temperature and/or frequency. The molar volumes (Vms) were measured by dilatometry and represented as a polynomial empirical equation of temperature and composition. Due to both the properties, the molar conductivities (Λms) were calculated and their temperature and/or composition dependences were discussed from the standpoint of structural features as well. The κs increased curvilinearly with increasing temperature across the whole composition ranges. This trend was also applied to the Λms which was fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The relationship of Λms with melt composition was studied and the Λms were found to decrease with increasing composition of DyCl3. These findings were interpreted based on the results of structural science so far reported, and finally, the relationship between Λms and the structures of pure rare earth chloride melts was discussed.

  17. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part describes the MSBR core (data presented are from ORNL 4541). The principal characteristics of the core are presented in tables together with plane and elevation drawings, stress being put upon the reflector, and loading and unloading. Neutronic, and thermal and hydraulic characteristics (core and reflectors) are more detailed. The reasons why a graphite with a tight graphite layer has been chosen are briefly exposed. The physical properties of the standard graphite (irradiation behavior) have been determined for an isotropic graphite with fine granulometry; its dimensional variations largely ressemble that of Gilsonite. The mechanical stresses computed (Wigner effect) do not implicate in any way the graphite stack [fr

  18. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part 'CIRCUITS' regroups under a condensed form - in French and using international units - the essential information contained in both basic documents of the American project for a molten-salt breeder power plant. This part is only dealing with things relating to the CEA-EDF workshop 'CIRCUITS'. It is not concerned with information on: the reactor and the moderator replacement, the primary and secondary salts, and the fuel salt reprocessing, that are dealt with in parts 'CORE' and 'CHEMISTRY' respectively. The possible evolutions in the data - and solutions - taken by the American designers for their successive projects (1970 to 1972) are shown. The MSBR power plant comprises three successive heat transfer circuits. The primary circuit (Hastelloy N), radioactive and polluted, containing the fuel salt, includes the reactor, pumps and exchangers. The secondary circuit (pipings made of modified Hastelloy N) contaminated in the exchanger, ensures the separation between the fuel and the fluid operating the turbo-alternator. The water-steam circuit feeds the turbine with steam. This steam is produced in the steam generator flowed by the secondary fluid. Some subsidiary circuits (discharge and storage of the primary and secondary salts, ventilation of the primary circuit ...) complete the three principal circuits which are briefly described. All circuits are enclosed inside the controlled-atmosphere building of the nuclear boiler. This building also ensures the biological protection and the mechanical protection against outer aggressions [fr

  19. Thermal conductivity of molten metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta-Martinez, Maria Vita

    2000-02-01

    A new instrument for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of molten metals has been designed, built and commissioned. The apparatus is based on the transient hot-wire technique and it is intended for operation over a wide range of temperatures, from ambient up to 1200 K, with an accuracy approaching 2%. In its present form the instrument operates up to 750 K. The construction of the apparatus involved four different stages, first, the design and construction of the sensor and second, the construction of an electronic system for the measurement and storage of data. The third stage was the design and instrumentation of the high temperature furnace for the melting and temperature control of the sample, and finally, an algorithm was developed for the extraction of the thermal conductivity from the raw measurement data. The sensor consists of a cylindrical platinum-wire symmetrically sandwiched between two rectangular plane sheets of alumina. The rectangular sensor is immersed in the molten metal of interest and a voltage step is applied to the ends of the platinum wire to induce heat dissipation and a consequent temperature rise which, is in part, determined by the thermal conductivity of the molten metal. The process is described by a set of partial differential equations and appropriate boundary conditions rather than an approximate analytical solution. An electronic bridge configuration was designed and constructed to perform the measurement of the resistance change of the platinum wire in the time range 20 {mu}s to 1 s. The resistance change is converted to temperature change by a suitable calibration. From these temperature measurements as a function of time the thermal conductivity of the molten metals has been deduced using the Finite Element Method for the solution of the working equations. This work has achieved its objective of improving the accuracy of the measurement of the thermal conductivity of molten metals from {+-}20% to {+-}2%. Measurements

  20. Electrochemical studies in molten sodium fluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigaudeau, M.; Wagner, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Physical properties of sodium fluoroborate are recalled and first results obtained during experimental study of molten NaBF 4 are exposed. The system Cu/CuF is used as an indicator of fluoride ion activity and dissociation constant of the solvent is determined by adding NaF to NaBF 4 saturated with BF 3 at a pressure of 1 atm and found equal to 2.7x10 -3 [fr

  1. Advanced heat exchanger development for molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabharwall, Piyush, E-mail: Piyush.Sabharwall@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Clark, Denis; Glazoff, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Zheng, Guiqiu; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Hastelloy N and 242, shows corrosion resistance to molten salt at nominal operating temperatures. • Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in at 650, 700, and 850 °C for 200, 500, and 1000 h. • Thermal gradients and galvanic couples in the molten salts enhance corrosion rates. • Corrosion rates found were typically <10 mils per year. - Abstract: This study addresses present work concerned with advanced heat exchanger development for molten salt in nuclear and non-nuclear thermal systems. The molten salt systems discussed herein use alloys, such as Hastelloy N and 242, that show good corrosion resistance in molten salt at nominal operating temperatures up to 700 °C. These alloys were diffusion welded, and the corresponding information is presented. Test specimens were prepared for exposing diffusion welds to molten salt environments. Hastelloy N and 242 were found to be weldable by diffusion welding, with ultimate tensile strengths about 90% of base metal values. Both diffusion welds and sheet material in Hastelloy N were corrosion tested in 58 mol% KF and 42 mol% ZrF{sub 4} at 650, 700, and 850 °C for 200, 500, and 1000 h. Corrosion rates were similar between welded and nonwelded materials, typically <100 μm per year after 1000 h of corrosion tests. No catastrophic corrosion was observed in the diffusion welded regions. For materials of construction, nickel-based alloys and alloys with dense nickel coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides, but not so in chlorides. Hence, additional testing of selected alloys for resistance to intergranular corrosion is needed, as is a determination of corrosion rate as a function of the type of salt impurity and alloy composition, with respect to chromium and carbon, to better define the best conditions for corrosion resistance. Also presented is the division of the nuclear reactor and high-temperature components per American Society of Mechanical

  2. The molten salt reactor adventure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    A personal history of the development of molten salt reactors in the United States is presented. The initial goal was an aircraft propulsion reactor, and a molten fluoride-fueled Aircraft Reactor Experiment was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1954. In 1956, the objective shifted to civilian nuclear power, and reactor concepts were developed using a circulating UF 4 -ThF 4 fuel, graphite moderator, and Hastelloy N pressure boundary. The program culminated in the successful operation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment in 1965 to 1969. By then the Atomic Energy Commission's goals had shifted to breeder development; the molten salt program supported on-site reprocessing development and study of various reactor arrangements that had potential to breed. Some commercial and foreign interest contributed to the program which, however, was terminated by the government in 1976. The current status of the technology and prospects for revived interest are summarized

  3. Vibrational modes and Structure of Niobium(V) Oxosulfato Complexes in the Molten Nb2O5-K2S2O7-K2SO4 System Studied by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Andreas L.; Borup, Flemming; Berg, Rolf W.

    2010-01-01

    The structural and vibrational properties of NbV oxosulfato complexes formed in Nb2O5-K2S2O7 and Nb2O5-K2S2O7-K2SO4 molten mixtures with 0 ... for the binary Nb2O5-K2S2O7 molten system indicate that the dissolution of Nb2O5 proceeds with consumption of S2O7 leading to the formation of a NbV oxosulfato complex according to Nb2O5 + nS2O7 --> C2n-; a simple formalism exploiting the relative Raman band intensities is used for determining the stoichiometric...... coefficient, n, pointing to n = 3 and to the following reaction: Nb2O5 + 3S2O7 --> 2NbO(SO4)3, which is consistent with the Raman spectra of the molten mixtures. Nb2O5 could be dissolved much easier when K2SO4 was present in an equimolar (1:1) SO4/Nb ratio; the incremental presence of K2SO4 in Nb2O5-K2S2O7...

  4. The molten salt reactors (MSR) pyro chemistry and fuel cycle for innovative nuclear systems; Congres sur les reacteurs a sels fondus (RSF) pyrochimie et cycles des combustibles nucleaires du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, Ph. [GEDEON, Groupement de Recherche CEA CNRS EDF FRAMATOME (France); Garzenne, C.; Mouney, H. [and others

    2002-07-01

    In the frame of the studies on next generation nuclear systems, and especially for the molten salt reactors and for the integrated fuel cycle (as IFR), the fuel cycle constraints must be taken into account in the preliminary studies of the system to improve the cycle and reactor optimisation. Among the purposes for next generation nuclear systems, sustainability and waste (radio-toxicity and mass) management are important goals. These goals imply reprocessing and recycling strategies. The objectives of this workshop are to present and to share the different strategies and scenarios, the needs based on these scenarios, the experimental facilities available today or in the future and their capabilities, the needs for demonstration. It aims at: identifying the needs for fuel cycle based on solid fuel or liquid fuel, and especially, the on-line reprocessing or clean up for the molten salt reactors; assessing the state-of-the-art on the pyro-chemistry applied to solid fuel and to present the research activities; assessing the state-of-the-art on liquid fuels (or others), and to present the research activities; expressing the R and D programs for pyro-chemistry, molten salt, and also to propose innovative processes; and proposing some joint activities in the frame of GEDEON and PRACTIS programs. This document brings together the transparencies of 18 contributions dealing with: scenario studies with AMSTER concept (Scenarios, MSR, breeders (Th) and burners); fuel cycle for innovative systems; current reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in molten salts (review of pyro-chemistry processes (non nuclear and nuclear)); high temperature NMR spectroscopies in molten salts; reductive extraction of An from molten fluorides (salt - liquid metal extraction); electrochemistry characterisation; characterisation with physical methods - extraction coefficient and kinetics; electrolytic extraction; dissolution-precipitation of plutonium in the eutectic LiCl-KCl (dissolution and

  5. Molten material-containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagawa, Katsuhiko

    1998-01-01

    The molten material-containing vessel of the present invention comprises a vessel main body having an entrance opened at the upper end, a lid for closing the entrance, an outer tube having an upper end disposed at the lower surface of the lid, extended downwardly and having an closed lower end and an inner tube disposed coaxially with the outer tube. When a molten material is charged from the entrance to the inside of the vessel main body of the molten material-containing vessel and the entrance is closed by the lid, the outer tube and the inner tube are buried in the molten material in the vessel main body, accordingly, a fluid having its temperature elevated by absorption of the heat of the molten material rises along the inner circumferential surface of the outer tube, abuts against the lower surface of the lid and cooled by exchanging heat with the lid and forms a circulating flow. Since the heat in the molten material is continuously absorbed by the fluid, transferred to the lid and released from the lid to the atmospheric air, heat releasing efficiency can be improved compared with conventional cases. (N.H.)

  6. Hydrogen permeation through Flinabe fluoride molten salts for blanket candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiumi, Ryosuke, E-mail: r.nishiumi@aees.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Fukada, Satoshi; Nakamura, Akira; Katayama, Kazunari

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • H{sub 2} diffusivity, solubility and permeability in Flinabe as T breeder are determined. • Effects in composition differences among Flibe, Fnabe and Flinabe are compared. • Changes of pressure dependence of Flinabe permeation rate are clarified. - Abstract: Fluoride molten salt Flibe (2LiF + BeF{sub 2}) is a promising candidate for the liquid blanket of a nuclear fusion reactor, because of its large advantages of tritium breeding ratio and heat-transfer fluid. Since its melting point is higher than other liquid candidates, another new fluoride molten salt Flinabe (LiF + NaF + BeF{sub 2}) is recently focused on because of its lower melting point while holding proper breeding properties. In this experiment, hydrogen permeation behavior through the three molten salts of Flibe (2LiF + BeF{sub 2}), Fnabe (NaF + BeF{sub 2}) and Flinabe are investigated in order to clarify the effects of their compositions on hydrogen transfer properties. After making up any of the three molten salts and purifying it using HF, hydrogen permeability, diffusivity and solubility of the molten salts are determined experimentally by using a system composed of tertiary cylindrical tubes. Close agreement is obtained between experimental data and analytical solutions. H{sub 2} permeability, diffusivity and solubility are correlated as a function of temperature and are compared among the three molten salts.

  7. Thermohydraulic behaviour and heat transfer in the molten core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineke, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    Increasing the application of nuclear reactors to produce electrical power extremely unprobable accidents should be investigated too. In the Federal Republic of Germany, a research program is performed for some years engaged in accidents at light water reactors in which the melting of the reactor core is presumed. A part of this program is to investigate the thermohydraulic and the heat transfer behavior in an accumulation of molten core material. The knowledge of these events is necessary to analyse the accident exactly. Further on the results of this work are of great importance to build a catcher for the molten core material. As a result of the decay heat the molten material is heated up and the density differences induce a free convection motion. In this work the thermohydraulic behavior and the distribution of the escaping heat fluxes for several accumulations of molten core material were determined. The numerical methods for solving the system of partial differential equation were used to develop computer codes, able to compute the average and local heat fluxes at the walls enclosing the molten core material and the inside increase of the temperature. The numerical computations were confirmed and verified by experimental investigations. In these investigations the molten core material was always assumed as a homogeneous fluid. In this case, the results could be reproduced by simple power laws

  8. Study of the pyrochemical treatment-recycling process of the Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussier, H.; Heuer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Separation Processes Studies Laboratory (Commissariat a l'energie Atomique) has made a preliminary assessment of the reprocessing system associated with Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). The scheme studied in this paper is based on the principle of reductive extraction and metal transfer that constituted the core process designed for the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR), although the flow diagram has been adapted to the current needs of the Molten Salt Reactor Fast (MSFR).

  9. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  10. Dynamics of the Molten Contact Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonin, Ain A.; Duthaler, Gregg; Liu, Michael; Torresola, Javier; Qiu, Taiqing

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a basic understanding of how a molten material front spreads over a solid that is below its melting point, arrests, and freezes. Our hope is that the work will contribute toward a scientific knowledge base for certain new applications involving molten droplet deposition, including the "printing" of arbitrary three-dimensional objects by precise deposition of individual molten microdrops that solidify after impact. Little information is available at this time on the capillarity-driven motion and arrest of molten contact line regions. Schiaffino and Sonin investigated the arrest of the contact line of a molten microcrystalline wax spreading over a subcooled solid "target" of the same material. They found that contact line arrest takes place at an apparent liquid contact angle that depends primarily on the Stefan number S=c(T(sub f) -T(sub t)/L based on the temperature difference between the fusion point and the target temperature, and proposed that contact line arrest occurs when the liquid's dynamic contact angle approaches the angle of attack of the solidification front just behind the contact line. They also showed, however, that the conventional continuum equations and boundary conditions have no meaningful solution for this angle. The solidification front angle is determined by the heat flux just behind the contact line, and the heat flux is singular at that point. By comparing experiments with numerical computations, Schiaffino and Sonin estimated that the conventional solidification model must break down within a distance of order 0.1 - 1 microns of the contact line. The physical mechanism for this breakdown is as yet undetermined, and no first-principles theory exists for the contact angle at arrest. Schiaffino and Sonin also presented a framework for understanding how to moderate Weber number molten droplet deposition in terms of similarity laws and experimentation. The study is based on experiments with three molten

  11. Chemical Reactions of Simulated Producer Gas with Molten Tin-Bismuth Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith J. Bourne

    2012-01-01

    A pyrolysis and gasification system utilizing molten metal as an energy carrier has been proposed and the initial stages of its design have been completed. However, there are several fundamental questions that need to be answered before the design of this system can be completed. These questions include: How will the molten metal interact with the products of biomass...

  12. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad, E-mail: Anas@uniten.edu.my [Centre of Nuclear Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector [School of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Civil Engineering (MACE), University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-29

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  13. Apparatus for controlling molten core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.

    1972-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten core debris assumed to melt through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a core meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a core debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed. 9 claims, 22 figures

  14. Molten fuel-moderator interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.S.; Kynstautas, R.

    1987-02-01

    A critical review of the current understanding of vapor explosions was carried out. It was concluded that, on the basis of actual industrial accidents and large scale experiments, energetic high yield steam explosion cannot be regarded as an improbable event if large quantities of molten fuel and coolant are mixed together. This study also reviewed a hydrodynamic transient model proposed by Henry and Fauske Associates to assess a molten fuel-moderator interaction event. It was found that the proposed model negates a priori the possibility of a violent event, by introducing two assumptions: 1) fine fragmentation of the molten fuel, and ii) rapid heat transfer from the fine fragments to form steam. Using the Hicks and Menzies thermodynamic model, maximum work potential and pressure rise in the calandria were estimated. However, it is recommended that a more representative upper bound model based on an underwater explosion of a pressurized volume of steam be developed

  15. Ceramics for Molten Materials Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Evan; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews the main issues associated with molten materials transfer and handling on the lunar surface during the operation of a hig h temperature electrowinning cell used to produce oxygen, with molten iron and silicon as byproducts. A combination of existing technolog ies and purposely designed technologies show promise for lunar exploi tation. An important limitation that requires extensive investigation is the performance of refractory currently used for the purpose of m olten metal containment and transfer in the lunar environment associa ted with electrolytic cells. The principles of a laboratory scale uni t at a scale equivalent to the production of 1 metric ton of oxygen p er year are introduced. This implies a mass of molten materials to be transferred consistent with the equivalent of 1kg regolithlhr proces sed.

  16. Aluminum titanate crucible for molten uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbury, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    An improved crucible for molten uranium is described. The crucible or crucible liner is formed of aluminum titanate which essentially eliminates contamination of uranium and uranium alloys during molten states thereof. (U.S.)

  17. The introduction of the safety of molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Jiaxu; Zhang Chunming

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the generation TV Nuclear Energy Systems and molten salt reactor which is the only fluid fuel reactor in the Gen-TV. Safety features and attributes of MSR are described. The supply of fuel and the minimum of waste are described. The clean molten salt in the secondary heat transport system transfers the heat from the primary heat exchanger to a high-temperature Brayton cycle that converts the heat to electricity. With the Brayton cycle, the thermal efficiency of the system will be improved. Base on the MSR, the thorium-uranium fuel cycle is also introduced. (authors)

  18. Rheological behavior and constitutive equations of heterogeneous titanium-bearing molten slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Liao, De-ming; Zhou, Mi; Zhang, Qiao-yi; Yue, Hong-rui; Yang, Song-tao; Duan, Pei-ning; Xue, Xiang-xin

    2015-08-01

    Experimental studies on the rheological properties of a CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-TiO2-(TiC) blast furnace (BF) slag system were conducted using a high-temperature rheometer to reveal the non-Newtonian behavior of heterogeneous titanium-bearing molten slag. By measuring the relationships among the viscosity, the shear stress and the shear rate of molten slags with different TiC contents at different temperatures, the rheological constitutive equations were established along with the rheological parameters; in addition, the non-Newtonian fluid types of the molten slags were determined. The results indicated that, with increasing TiC content, the viscosity of the molten slag tended to increase. If the TiC content was less than 2wt%, the molten slag exhibited the Newtonian fluid behavior when the temperature was higher than the critical viscosity temperature of the molten slag. In contrast, the molten slag exhibited the non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluid characteristic and the shear thinning behavior when the temperature was less than the critical viscosity temperature. However, if the TiC content exceeded 4wt%, the molten slag produced the yield stress and exhibited the Bingham and plastic pseudoplastic fluid behaviors when the temperature was higher and lower than the critical viscosity temperature, respectively. When the TiC content increased further, the yield stress of the molten slag increased and the shear thinning phenomenon became more obvious.

  19. Molten-salt converter reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Molten-salt reactors appear to have substantial promise as advanced converters. Conversion ratios of 0.85 to 0.9 should be attainable with favourable fuel cycle costs, with 235 U valued at $12/g. An increase in 235 U value by a factor of two or three ($10 to $30/lb. U 3 O 8 , $75/SWU) would be expected to increase the optimum conversion ratio, but this has not been analyzed in detail. The processing necessary to recover uranium from the fuel salt has been partially demonstrated in the MSRE. The equipment for doing this would be located at the reactor, and there would be no reliance on an established recycle industry. Processing costs are expected to be quite low, and fuel cycle optimization depends primarily on inventory and burnup or replacement costs for the fuel and for the carrier salt. Significant development problems remain to be resolved for molten-salt reactors, notably the control of tritium and the elimination of intergranular cracking of Hastelloy-N in contact with tellurium. However, these problems appear to be amenable to solution. It is appropriate to consider separating the development schedule for molten-salt reactors from that for the processing technology required for breeding. The Molten-Salt Converter Reactor should be a useful reactor in its own right and would be an advance towards the achievement of true breeding in thermal reactors. (author)

  20. Catalysis in Molten Ionic Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, Soghomon; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    This chapter deals with catalysis in molten salts and ionic liquids, which are introduced and reviewed briefly, while an in-depth review of the oxidation catalyst used for the manufacturing of sulfuric acid and cleaning of flue gas from electrical power plants is the main topic of the chapter...

  1. thermic oil and molten salt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A

    1 mai 2016 ... [27] Zavoico, AB. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document. Tech. rep, Sandia National. Laboratories, SAND2001-2100, 2001. How to cite this article: Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A. Performance simulation of parabolic trough solar collector using two fluids (thermic oil and molten salt).

  2. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  3. LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

    2008-12-11

    The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

  4. LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.; Brown, N.; Caro, A.; Farmer, J.; Halsey, W.; Kaufman, L.; Kramer, K.; Latkowski, J.; Powers, J.; Shaw, H.; Turchi, P.

    2008-01-01

    The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

  5. Fundamental experiment on simulated molten core/concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Katsumura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    gas from concrete, respectively. Fundamental experiments were performed using simulated materials to observe the behaviors of the hot pool, slag and gases at the interface. From the experimental observation, a model without empirical constants was proposed to calculate the interface heat transfer. In this system, comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental results showed good agreement. For the future work, it is necessary to develop heat transfer models under other conditions for molten corium concrete reaction (MCCI) evaluation

  6. Workshop on large molten pool heat transfer summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The CSNI Workshop on Large Molten Heat Transfer held at Grenoble (France) in March 1994 was organised by CSNI's Principal Working Group on the Confinement of Accidental Radioactive Releases (PWG4) with the cooperation of the Principal Working Group on Coolant System Behaviour (FWG2) and in collaboration with the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre of the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Conclusions and recommendations are given for each of the five sessions of the workshops: Feasibility of in-vessel core debris cooling through external cooling of the vessel; Experiments on molten pool heat transfer; Calculational efforts on molten pool convection; Heat transfer to the surrounding water - experimental techniques; Future experiments and ex-vessel studies (open forum discussion)

  7. Establishment of cooperation basis of joint research on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hee Chul; Cho, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Yoo, J. H.; Yun, H. C.; Lee, D. G.

    2005-08-01

    Molten salt oxidation, MSO for short, is a robust technology that can effectively treat mixed waste (radioactive waste including hazardous metals or organics). It can safely and economically treat the difficult wastes such as not-easily destroyable toxic organic waste, medical waste, chemical warfare and energetic materials such as propellant and explosives, all of which are not easily treated by an incinerator or other currently existing thermal treatment system. Therefore, molten salt oxidation technology should be developed and utilized to treat a lot of niche waste stored in the nuclear and environmental industries. So, if we put the MSO technology to practical use by Korea-Vietnam joint research, we can reduce R and D fund for MSO technology by ourselves and we can expect an export of the outcome of nuclear R and D in Korea. For Establishment of cooperation basis of joint research concerning molten salt oxidation technology between KOREA and VIETNAM, in this research, We invited two Vietnamese researchers and we introduced our experimental scale molten salt oxidation system in order to let them understand molten salt oxidation technology. We also visited Viet man and we consulted about molten salt oxidation process. We held seminar on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology, discussed on the joint research on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology and finally we wrote MOU for joint research

  8. Establishment of cooperation basis of joint research on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hee Chul; Cho, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Yoo, J. H.; Yun, H. C.; Lee, D. G

    2005-08-01

    Molten salt oxidation, MSO for short, is a robust technology that can effectively treat mixed waste (radioactive waste including hazardous metals or organics). It can safely and economically treat the difficult wastes such as not-easily destroyable toxic organic waste, medical waste, chemical warfare and energetic materials such as propellant and explosives, all of which are not easily treated by an incinerator or other currently existing thermal treatment system. Therefore, molten salt oxidation technology should be developed and utilized to treat a lot of niche waste stored in the nuclear and environmental industries. So, if we put the MSO technology to practical use by Korea-Vietnam joint research, we can reduce R and D fund for MSO technology by ourselves and we can expect an export of the outcome of nuclear R and D in Korea. For Establishment of cooperation basis of joint research concerning molten salt oxidation technology between KOREA and VIETNAM, in this research, We invited two Vietnamese researchers and we introduced our experimental scale molten salt oxidation system in order to let them understand molten salt oxidation technology. We also visited Viet man and we consulted about molten salt oxidation process. We held seminar on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology, discussed on the joint research on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology and finally we wrote MOU for joint research.

  9. Subcritical enhanced safety molten-salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Ignatiev, V.V.; Men'shikov, L.I.; Prusakov, V.N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Subbotin, S.A.; Krasnykh, A.K.; Rudenko, V.T.; Somov, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear power and its fuel cycle safety requirements can be met in the main by providing nuclear power with subcritical molten salt reactors (SMSR) - 'burner' with an external neutron source. The utilized molten salt fuel is the decisive advantage of the SMSR over other burners. Fissile and fertile nuclides in the burner are solved in a liquid salt in the form of fluorides. This composition acts simultaneously as: a) fuel, b) coolant, c) medium for chemical partitioning and reprocessing. The effective way of reducing the external source power consists in the cascade neutron multiplication in the system of coupled reactors with suppressed feedback between them. (author)

  10. Thermal conditions and functional requirements for molten fuel containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.S.; Torri, A.

    1980-05-01

    This paper discusses the configuration and functional requirements for the molten fuel containment system (MFCS) in the GCFR demonstration plant design. Meltdown conditions following a loss of shutdown cooling (LOSC) accident were studied to define the core debris volume for a realistic meltdown case. Materials and thicknesses of the molten fuel container were defined. Stainless steel was chosen as the sacrificial material and magnesium oxide was chosen as the crucible material. Thermal conditions for an expected quasi-steady state were analyzed. Highlights of the functional requirements which directly affect the MFCS design are discussed

  11. High-frequency dynamics in a molten binary alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Bermejo, F.J.; Verkerk, P.; Roessli, B.

    1999-01-01

    The nature of the finite wavelength collective excitations in liquid binary mixtures composed of atoms of very different masses has been of interest for more than a decade. The most prominent fact is the high frequencies at which they appear, well above those expected for a continuation to large wave vector of hydrodynamic sound. To better understand the microscopic dynamics of such systems, an inelastic neutron scattering experiment was performed on the molten alloy Li 4 Pb. We present the high-frequency excitations of molten Li 4 Pb which indeed show features substantially deviating from those expected for the propagation of an acoustic mode. (authors)

  12. Compatibility tests between molten salts and metal materials (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki

    2003-08-01

    Latent heat storage technology using molten salts can reduce temperature fluctuations of heat transfer fluid by latent heat for middle and high temperature regions. This enables us to operate several heat utilization systems in cascade connected to High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) from high to low temperature range by setting the latent heat storage system after a heat utilization system to reduce thermal load after the heat utilization systems. This latent heat technology is expected to be used for effective use of heat such as equalization of electric load between night and daytime. In the application of the latent heat technology, compatibility between molten salts and metal materials is very important because molten salts are corrosive, and heat transfer pipes and vessels will contact with the molten salts. It will be necessary to prevail the latent heat storage technique that normal metal materials can be used for the pipes and vessels. However, a few studies have been reported of compatibility between molten salts and metals in middle and high temperature ranges. In this study, four molten salts, range of the melting temperature from 490degC to 800degC, are selected and five metals, high temperature and corrosion resistance steels of Alloy600, HastelloyB2, HastelloyC276, SUS310S and pure Nickel are selected for the test with the consideration of metal composition. Test was performed in an electric furnace by setting the molten salts and the metals in melting pots in an atmosphere of nitrogen. Results revealed excellent corrosion resistance of pure Nickel and comparatively low corrosion resistance of nickel base alloys such as Alloy600 and Hastelloys against Li 2 CO 3 . Corrosion resistance of SUS310S was about same as nickel based alloys. Therefore, if some amount of corrosion is permitted, SUS310S would be one of the candidate alloys for structure materials. These results will be used as reference data to select metals in latent heat technology

  13. Heat transfer on liquid-liquid interface of molten-metal and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Saito, Yasushi; Mishima, Kaichiro

    2001-01-01

    Molten-core pool had been formed in the lower-head of TMI-2 pressure vessel at the severe accident. The lower head, however, didn't receive any damage by reactor core cooling. Heat transfer at outside of the lower head and boiling heat transfer at liquid-liquid interface of molten-metal and water, however, are important for initial cooling process of the molten-core pool. The heat transfer experiments for the liquid-liquid interface of molten-metal and water are carried out over the range of natural convection to film boiling region. Phenomenon on the heat transfer experiments are visualized by using of high speed video camera. Wood's metal and U-alloy 78 are used as molten-metal. The test section of the experiments consists of a copper block with heater, wood's metal, and water. Three thermocouple probes are used for temperature measurement of water side and the molten-metal side. Stability of the liquid-liquid interface is depended on the wetness of container wall for molten metal and the temperature distribution of the interface. Entrainment phenomena of molten-metal occurs by a fluctuation of the interface after boiling on the container wall surface. The boiling curves obtained from the liquid-liquid interface experiments are agree with the nucleate boiling and the film boiling correlations of solid-liquid system. (Suetake, M.)

  14. Accelerator molten-salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Kuroi, Hideo; Kato, Yoshio; Oomichi, Toshihiko.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain fission products and to transmute transuranium elements and other radioactive wastes by the use of Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor. Constitution: Beams from an accelerator pipe at one end of a target vessel is injected through a window into target molten salts filled inside of the target vessel. The target molten salts are subjected to pump recycling or spontaneous convection while forcively cooled by blanket molten salts in an outer vessel. Then, energy is recovered from the blanket molten salts or the target molten salts at high temperatures through electric power generation or the like. Those salts containing such as thorium 232 and uranium 238 are used as the blanket molten salts so that fission products may be produced by neutrons generated in the target molten salts. PbCl 2 -PbF 2 and LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 can be used as the target molten salts and as the blanket molten salts respectively. (Seki, T.)

  15. A basic study on fluoride-based molten salt electrolysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Kwang Bum [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Byung Gi [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this project is to study on the physicochemical properties of fluoride molten salt, to develop numerical model for simulation of molten salt electrolysis, and to establish experimental technique of fluoride molten salt. Physicochemical data of fluoride molten salt are investigated and summarized. The numerical model, designated as REFIN is developed with diffusion-layer theory and electrochemical reaction kinetics. REFIN is benchmarked with published experimental data. REFIN has a capability to simulate multicomponent electrochemical system at transient conditions. Experimental device is developed to measure electrochemical properties of structural material for fluoride molten salt. Ni electrode is measured with cyclic voltammogram in the conditions of 600 .deg. C LiF-BeF{sub 2} and 700 .deg. C LiF-BeF{sub 2}. 74 refs., 23 figs., 57 tabs. (Author)

  16. Partially molten magma ocean model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    The properties of the lunar crust and upper mantle can be explained if the outer 300-400 km of the moon was initially only partially molten rather than fully molten. The top of the partially molten region contained about 20% melt and decreased to 0% at 300-400 km depth. Nuclei of anorthositic crust formed over localized bodies of magma segregated from the partial melt, then grew peripherally until they coverd the moon. Throughout most of its growth period the anorthosite crust floated on a layer of magma a few km thick. The thickness of this layer is regulated by the opposing forces of loss of material by fractional crystallization and addition of magma from the partial melt below. Concentrations of Sr, Eu, and Sm in pristine ferroan anorthosites are found to be consistent with this model, as are trends for the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-rich suites on a diagram of An in plagioclase vs. mg in mafics. Clustering of Eu, Sr, and mg values found among pristine ferroan anorthosites are predicted by this model

  17. Heat transfer investigation of molten salts under laminar and turbulent flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Vaidya, A.M.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    High temperature reactor and solar thermal power plants use Molten Salt as a coolant, as it has low melting point and high boiling point, enabling us to operate the system at low pressure. Molten fluoride salt (eutectic mixture of LiF-NaF-KF) and molten nitrate salt (mixture of NaNO 3 and KNO 3 in 60:40 ratios by weight) are proposed as a candidate coolant for High Temperature Reactors (HTR) and solar power plant respectively. BARC is developing a 600 MWth pebble bed high temperature reactor, cooled by natural circulation of fluoride salt and capable of supplying process heat at 1000℃ to facilitate hydrogen production by splitting water. Beside this, BARC is also developing a 2MWe solar power tower system using molten nitrate salt as a primary coolant and storage medium. In order to design this, it is necessary to study the heat transfer characteristics of various molten salts. Most of the previous studies related to molten salts are based on the experimental works. These experiments essentially measured the physical properties of molten salts and their heat transfer characteristics. Ferri et al. introduced the property definitions for molten salts in the RELAP5 code to perform transient simulations at the ProvaCollettoriSolari (PCS) test facility. In this paper, a CFD analysis has been performed to study the heat transfer characteristics of molten fluoride salt and molten nitrate salt flowing in a circular pipe for various regimes of flow. Simulation is performed with the help of in-house developed CFD code, NAFA, acronym for Numerical Analysis of Flows in Axi-symmetric geometries. Uniform velocity and temperature distribution are set as the inlet boundary condition and pressure is employed at the outlet boundary condition. The inlet temperature for all simulation is set as 300℃ for nitrate salt and 500℃ for fluoride salt and the operating pressure is 1 atm in both the cases

  18. Numerical study on heat transfer characteristics of liquid-fueled molten salt using OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2017-01-01

    To pursue sustainability and safety enhancement of nuclear energy, molten salt reactor is regarded as a promising candidate among various types of gen-IV reactors. Besides, pyroprocessing, which treats molten salt containing fission products, should consider safety related to decay heat from fuel material. For design of molten salt-related nuclear system, it is required to consider both thermal-hydraulic characteristics and neutronic behaviors for demonstration. However, fundamental heat transfer study of molten salt in operation condition is not easy to be experimentally studied due to its large scale, high temperature condition as well as difficulties of treating fuel material. >From that reason, numerical study can have benefit to investigate behaviors of liquid-fueled molten salt in real condition. In this study, open source CFD package OpenFOAM was used to analyze liquid-fueled molten salt loop having internal heat source as a first step of research. Among various molten salts considered as a candidate of liquid fueled molten salt reactors, in this study, FLiBe was chosen as liquid salt. For simulating heat generation from fuel material within fluid flow, volumetric heat source was set for fluid domain and OpenFOAM solver was modified as fvOptions as customized. To investigate thermal-hydraulic behavior of molten salt, CFD model was developed and validated by comparing experimental results in terms of heat transfer and pressure drop. As preliminary stage, 2D cavity simulations were performed to validate the modeling capacity of modified solver of OpenFOAM by comparison with those of ANSYS-CFX. In addition, cases of external heat flux and internal heat source were compared to configure the effect of heat source setting in various operation condition. As a result, modified solver of OpenFOAM considering internal heat source have sufficient modeling capacity to simulate liquid-fueled molten salt systems including heat generation cases. (author)

  19. Final report on the small-scale vapor-explosion experiments using a molten NaCl--H2O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.P.; Bova, L.

    1976-04-01

    Vapor explosions were produced by injecting small quantities of water into a container filled with molten NaCl. Minimum explosion efficiencies, as evaluated from reaction-impulse measurements, were relatively large. Subsurface movies showed that the explosions resulted from a two-step sequence: an initial bulk-mixing phase in which the two liquids intermix on a large scale, but remain locally separated by an insulating gas-vapor layer; and a second step, immediately following breakdown of the gas layer, during which the two liquids locally fragment, intermix, and pressurize very rapidly. The experimental results were compared with various mechanistic models that had been proposed to explain vapor explosions. Early models seemed inconsistent with the results. More recent theories suggest that vapor explosions may be caused by a nucleation limit or by dynamic mixing combined with high surface-heat-transfer rates. Both types of models are consistent with the results

  20. Partial structures in molten AgBr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Hiroki [Department of Condensed Matter Chemistry and Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)], E-mail: ueno@gemini.rc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tahara, Shuta [Faculty of Pharmacy, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Science, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Kawakita, Yukinobu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takeda, Shin' ichi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)

    2009-02-21

    The structure of molten AgBr has been studied by means of neutron and X-ray diffractions with the aid of structural modeling. It is confirmed that the Ag-Ag correlation has a small but well-defined first peak in the partial pair distribution function whose tail penetrates into the Ag-Br nearest neighbor distribution. This feature on the Ag-Ag correlation is intermediate between that of molten AgCl (non-superionic melt) and that of molten AgI (superionic melt). The analysis of Br-Ag-Br bond angle reveals that molten AgBr preserves a rocksalt type local ordering in the solid phase, suggesting that molten AgBr is clarified as non-superionic melt like molten AgCl.

  1. Thermal performances of molten salt steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yibo; He, Canming; Lu, Jianfeng; Ding, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal performances of molten salt steam generator were experimentally studied. • Overall heat transfer coefficient reached maximum with optimal molten salt flow rate. • Energy efficiency first rose and then decreased with salt flow rate and temperature. • Optimal molten salt flow rate and temperature existed for good thermal performance. • High inlet water temperature benefited steam generating rate and energy efficiency. - Abstract: Molten salt steam generator is the key technology for thermal energy conversion from high temperature molten salt to steam, and it is used in solar thermal power station and molten salt reactor. A shell and tube type molten salt steam generator was set up, and its thermal performance and heat transfer mechanism were studied. As a coupling heat transfer process, molten salt steam generation is mainly affected by molten salt convective heat transfer and boiling heat transfer, while its energy efficiency is also affected by the heat loss. As molten salt temperature increased, the energy efficiency first rose with the increase of heat flow absorbed by water/steam, and then slightly decreased for large heat loss as the absorbed heat flow still rising. At very high molten salt temperature, the absorbed heat flow decreased as boiling heat transfer coefficient dropping, and then the energy efficiency quickly dropped. As the inlet water temperature increased, the boiling region in the steam generator remarkably expanded, and then the steam generation rate and energy efficiency both rose with the overall heat transfer coefficient increasing. As the molten salt flow rate increased, the wall temperature rose and the boiling heat transfer coefficient first increased and then decreased according to the boiling curve, so the overall heat transfer coefficient first increased and then decreased, and then the steam generation rate and energy efficiency of steam generator both had maxima.

  2. Structure of molten Bi-Sb-alloys by means of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamparter, P.; Knoll, W.; Steeb, S.

    1976-01-01

    The structural investigations with melts can be subdivided into two groups: The first group contains molten metals and molten alloys, and one can state that the structure of molten metals and of molten alloys nowadays is rather well understood. Interference functions of molten metals may be described by a hard sphere model. This is valid also for molten alloys with statistical distribution. For the second group, namely molten non-metals and molecular melts, the interference functions as well as the pair correlation functions are very offen rather complicated and not well understood. The present study is concerned with the transition region between these two groups. It is shown that the melts of the Bi-Sb system exhibit a change from metallic to non-metallic structure. Regarding the experimental details: the experiments were done with the two-axes spectrometer D 4 at the high-flux reactor at Grenoble. The containers consisted of cylindrical quartz tubes with a wall thickness of 0.1 cm. The furnace consisted of a direct-heated vanadium tube. The wavelength of the neutrons was 0.695 A. The final result is that the structure in molten Bi-Sb-alloys consists of primitive tetrahedra with coordination number 3. There are less tetrahedra in molten Bi than in molten Sb. Also with rising temperature the number of tetrahedra decreases. It is shown how to compose the coordination numbers of two structures to get the observed coordination number. The observed values are always the mean values of the two structures. (orig./HK) [de

  3. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  4. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.

    1999-01-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238 Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na 2 SO 4 , Na 3 PO 4 and NaAsO 2 or Na 3 AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238 Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  5. Structure of partly quenched molten copper chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1995-09-01

    The structural modifications induced in a model of molten CuCl by quenching the chlorine component into a microporous disordered matrix are evaluated using the hypernetted-chain closure in Ornstein-Zernike relations for the pair distribution functions in random systems. Aside from obvious changes in the behaviour of long-wavelength density fluctuations, the main effect of partial quenching is an enhanced delocalization of the Cu + ions. The model suggests that the ionic mobility in a superionic glass is enhanced relative to the melt at the same temperature and density. Only very minor quantitative differences are found in the structural functions when the replica Ornstein-Zernike relations derived by Given and Stell for a partly quenched system are simplified to those given earlier by Madden and Glandt. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  6. Diffusion phenomena of fluorine and cations in molten Li2BeF4, LiBeF3 and NaBeF3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Hideo

    1984-03-01

    Self-diffusion coefficients of fluorine and cations in molten LiF-BeF 2 and NaF-BeF 2 systems were summarized by the capillary reservoir technique. The diffusion coefficients and the activation energies of cations in these molten salts follow a similar behavior with those of cations in molten alkali halides. On the other hand, self-diffusion of fluorine have unusually high diffusion coefficients and activation energies. The characteristic diffusion phenomena of fluorine in these molten alkali fluoroberyllates are very similar to those of oxygen in molten CaO-SiO 2 and CaO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 slag. The dynamical behavior of Li and F in molten Li 2 BeF 4 was also analyzed by NMR technique. According to both these experiments, most probable mechanism of characteristic diffusion of fluorine in these molten systems could be dissociation of F atom from complex anion and long distance diffusion. (author)

  7. Fiscal 1997 development of fuel cell power generation technology. Part 3. Supplementary explanation to R and D of molten carbonate fuel cell and power generation system; 1997 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu hosoku setsumeisho. 3. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi (hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-05-01

    A supplementary explanation was compiled for the results of a commissioned project reported in fiscal 1997 (development of fuel cell power generation technology, and R and D (3) of molten carbonate fuel cell and power generation system). The supplementary explanation was given on the development of parallel flow stack, design/manufacturing of 250 kW stacks, design and manufacturing of 250 kW stacks in connection with installation/adjustment. (NEDO)

  8. Probability safety assessment of LOOP accident to molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Mudan; Shao Shiwei; Yu Zhizhen; Chen Kun; Zuo Jiaxu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Loss of offsite power (LOOP) is a possible accident to any type of reactor, and this accident can reflect the main idea of reactor safety design. Therefore, it is very important to conduct a study on probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of the molten salt reactor that is under LOOP circumstance. Purpose: The aim is to calculate the release frequency of molten salt radioactive material to the core caused by LOOP, and find out the biggest contributor to causing the radioactive release frequency. Methods: We carried out the PSA analysis of the LOOP using the PSA process risk spectrum, and assumed that the primary circuit had no valve and equipment reliability data based on the existing mature power plant equipment reliability data. Results: Through the PSA analysis, we got the accident sequences of the release of radioactive material to the core caused by LOOP and its frequency. The results show that the release frequency of molten salt radioactive material to the core caused by LOOP is about 2×10 -11 /(reactor ·year), which is far below that of the AP1000 LOOP. In addition, through the quantitative analysis, we obtained the point estimation and interval estimation of uncertainty analysis, and found that the biggest contributor to cause the release frequency of radioactive material to the core is the reactor cavity cooling function failure. Conclusion: This study provides effective help for the design and improvement of the following molten salt reactor system. (authors)

  9. Candidate molten salt investigation for an accelerator driven subcritical core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sooby, E., E-mail: soobyes@tamu.edu [Texas A and M University, Accelerator Research Laboratory, 3380 University Dr. East, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Baty, A. [Texas A and M University, Accelerator Research Laboratory, 3380 University Dr. East, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Beneš, O. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N. [Texas A and M University, Accelerator Research Laboratory, 3380 University Dr. East, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Salanne, M. [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS, Laboratoire PECSA, F-75005 Paris (France); Sattarov, A. [Texas A and M University, Accelerator Research Laboratory, 3380 University Dr. East, College Station, TX 77845 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Developing accelerator driven subcritical fission to destroy transuranics in SNF. • The core is a vessel containing a molten mixture of NaCl and transuranic chlorides. • Molecular dynamics used to calculate the thermophysical properties of the salt. • Density and molecular structure for actinide salts reported here. • The neutronics of ADS fission in molten salt are presented. -- Abstract: We report a design for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) that utilizes a fuel salt composed of NaCl and transuranic (TRU) chlorides. The ADSMS core is designed for fast neutronics (28% of neutrons >1 MeV) to optimize TRU destruction. The choice of a NaCl-based salt offers benefits for corrosion, operating temperature, and actinide solubility as compared with LiF-based fuel salts. A molecular dynamics (MD) code has been used to estimate properties of the molten salt system which are important for ADSMS design but have never been measured experimentally. Results from the MD studies are reported. Experimental measurements of fuel salt properties and studies of corrosion and radiation damage on candidate metals for the core vessel are anticipated.

  10. Candidate molten salt investigation for an accelerator driven subcritical core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sooby, E.; Baty, A.; Beneš, O.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N.; Salanne, M.; Sattarov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Developing accelerator driven subcritical fission to destroy transuranics in SNF. • The core is a vessel containing a molten mixture of NaCl and transuranic chlorides. • Molecular dynamics used to calculate the thermophysical properties of the salt. • Density and molecular structure for actinide salts reported here. • The neutronics of ADS fission in molten salt are presented. -- Abstract: We report a design for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) that utilizes a fuel salt composed of NaCl and transuranic (TRU) chlorides. The ADSMS core is designed for fast neutronics (28% of neutrons >1 MeV) to optimize TRU destruction. The choice of a NaCl-based salt offers benefits for corrosion, operating temperature, and actinide solubility as compared with LiF-based fuel salts. A molecular dynamics (MD) code has been used to estimate properties of the molten salt system which are important for ADSMS design but have never been measured experimentally. Results from the MD studies are reported. Experimental measurements of fuel salt properties and studies of corrosion and radiation damage on candidate metals for the core vessel are anticipated

  11. Visualization of steam bubbles with evaporation in molten alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Izumi; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Matsubayashi, Masahito

    1997-01-01

    An innovative Steam Generator concept of Fast Breeder Reactors by using liquid-liquid direct contact heat transfer has been developed. In this concept, the SG shell is filled with a molten alloy heated by primary sodium. Water is fed into the high temperature molten alloy, and evaporates by direct contact heating. In order to obtain the fundamental information to discuss the heat transfer mechanisms of the direct contact between the water and the molten alloy, this phenomenon was visualized by neutron radiography. JRR-3M radiography in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was used. Followings are main results. (1) The bubbles with evaporation are risen with vigorous form changing, coalescence and break-up. Because of these vigorous evaporation, this system have the high heat transfer performance. (2) The rising velocities and volumes of bubbles are calculated from pixcel values of images. The velocities of the bubbles with evaporation are about 60 cm/s, which is larger than that of inert gas bubbles in molten alloy (20-40 cm/s). (3) The required heat transfer length of evaporation is calculated from pixcel values of images. The relation between heat transfer length and superheat temperature, obtained through the heat transfer test, is conformed by this calculation. (author)

  12. Niobium electrodeposition from molten fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Niobium electrodeposition from molten alkali fluorides has been studied aiming the application of this technic to the processes of electrorefining and galvanotechnic of this metal. The effects of current density, temperature, niobium concentration in the bath, electrolysis time, substrate nature, ratio between anodic and cathodic areas, electrodes separation and the purity of anodes were investigated in relation to the cathodic current efficiency, electrorefining, electroplating and properties of the deposit and the electrolytic solution. The work also gives the results of the conctruction and operation of a pilot plant for refractory metals electrodeposition and shows the electrorefining and electroplating compared to those obtained at the laboratory scale. (author) [pt

  13. Fuel processing for molten-salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the development of processes for the isolation of protactinium and for the removal of fission products from molten-salt breeder reactors. The metal transfer experiment MTE-3 (for removing rare earths from MSRE fuel salt) was completed and the equipment used in that experiment was examined. The examination showed that no serious corrosion had occurred on the internal surfaces of the vessels, but that serious air oxidation occurred on the external surfaces of the vessels. Analyses of the bismuth phases indicated that the surfaces in contact with the salts were enriched in thorium and iron. Mass transfer coefficients in the mechanically agitated nondispersing contactors were measured in the Salt/Bismuth Flow-through Facility. The measured mass transfer coefficients are about 30 to 40 percent of those predicted by the preferred literature correlation, but were not as low as those seen in some of the runs in MTE-3. Additional studies using water--mercury systems to simulate molten salt-bismuth systems indicated that the model used to interpret results from previous measurements in the water--mercury system has significant deficiencies. Autoresistance heating studies were continued to develop a means of internal heat generation for frozen-wall fluorinators. Equipment was built to test a design of a side arm for the heating electrode. Results of experiments with this equipment indicate that for proper operation the wall temperature must be held much lower than that for which the equipment was designed. Studies with an electrical analog of the equipment indicate that no regions of abnormally high current density exist in the side arm. (JGB)

  14. Design of a natural draft air-cooled condenser and its heat transfer characteristics in the passive residual heat removal system for 10 MW molten salt reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hangbin; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Licheng; Zhao, Kaibin; Fa, Dan

    2015-01-01

    As one of the Generation IV reactors, Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has its superiorities in satisfying the requirements on safety. In order to improve its inherent safety, a concept of passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) for the 10 MW Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was put forward, which mainly consisted of a fuel drain tank, a feed water tank and a natural draft air-cooled condenser (NDACC). Besides, several valves and pipes are also included in the PRHRS. A NDACC for the PRHRS was preliminarily designed in this paper, which contained a finned tube bundle and a chimney. The tube bundle was installed at the bottom of the chimney for increasing the velocity of the air across the bundle. The heat transfer characteristics of the NDACC were investigated by developing a model of the PRHRS using C++ code. The effects of the environmental temperature, finned tube number and chimney height on heat removal capacity of the NDACC were analyzed. The results show that it has sufficient heat removal capacity to meet the requirements of the residual heat removal for MSRE. The effects of these three factors are obvious. With the decay heat reducing, the heat dissipation power declines after a short-time rise in the beginning. The operation of the NDACC is completely automatic without the need of any external power, resulting in a high safety and reliability of the reactor, especially once the accident of power lost occurs to the power plant. - Highlights: • A model to study the heat transfer characteristics of the NDACC was developed. • The NDACC had sufficient heat removal capacity to remove the decay heat of MSRE. • NDACC heat dissipation power depends on outside temperature and condenser geometry. • As time grown, the effects of outside temperature and condenser geometry diminish. • The NDACC could automatically adjust its heat removal capacity

  15. Simulation, optimal control and parametric sensitivity analysis of a molten carbonate fuel cell using a partial differential algebraic dynamic equation system; Simulation, Optimale Steuerung und Sensitivitaetsanalyse einer Schmelzkarbonat-Brennstoffzelle mithilfe eines partiellen differential-algebraischen dynamischen Gleichungssystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternberg, K

    2007-02-08

    Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) allow an efficient and environmentally friendly energy production by converting the chemical energy contained in the fuel gas in virtue of electro-chemical reactions. In order to predict the effect of the electro-chemical reactions and to control the dynamical behavior of the fuel cell a mathematical model has to be found. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) can indeed be described by a highly complex,large scale, semi-linear system of partial differential algebraic equations. This system includes a reaction-diffusion-equation of parabolic type, several reaction-transport-equations of hyperbolic type, several ordinary differential equations and finally a system of integro-differential algebraic equations which describes the nonlinear non-standard boundary conditions for the entire partial differential algebraic equation system (PDAE-system). The existence of an analytical or the computability of a numerical solution for this high-dimensional PDAE-system depends on the kind of the differential equations and their special characteristics. Apart from theoretical investigations, the real process has to be controlled, more precisely optimally controlled. Hence, on the basis of the PDAE-system an optimal control problem is set up, whose analytical and numerical solvability is closely linked to the solvability of the PDAE-system. Moreover the solution of that optimal control problem is made more difficult by inaccuracies in the underlying database, which does not supply sufficiently accurate values for the model parameters. Therefore the optimal control problem must also be investigated with respect to small disturbances of model parameters. The aim of this work is to analyze the relevant dynamic behavior of MCFCs and to develop concepts for their optimal process control. Therefore this work is concerned with the simulation, the optimal control and the sensitivity analysis of a mathematical model for MCDCs, which can be characterized

  16. Concept of the demonstration molten salt unit for the transuranium elements transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.; Dudnikov, A.; Prusakov, V.; Subbotin, S.; Zakirov, R.; Lelek, V.; Peka, I.

    1999-01-01

    Fluorine reprocessing is discussed of spent fuel and of fluoride molten salt reactor in critical and subcritical modes for plutonium and minor actinides burning. International collaboration for creation of such system is proposed. Additional neutron source in the core will have positive influence on the transmutation processes in the reactor. Demonstration critical molten salt reactor of small power capacity will permit to decide the most part of problems inherent to large critical reactors and subcritical drivers. It could be expected that fluoride molten salt transmuter can work without accelerator as a critical reactor. (author)

  17. Design report on SCDAP/RELAP5 model improvements - debris bed and molten pool behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, C.M.; Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.

    1994-11-01

    The SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 computer code is designed to describe the overall reactor coolant system thermal-hydraulic response, core damage progression, and in combination with VICTORIA, fission product release and transport during severe accidents. Improvements for existing debris bed and molten pool models in the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.1 code are described in this report. Model improvements to address (a) debris bed formation, heating, and melting; (b) molten pool formation and growth; and (c) molten pool crust failure are discussed. Relevant data, existing models, proposed modeling changes, and the anticipated impact of the changes are discussed. Recommendations for the assessment of improved models are provided

  18. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF 2 was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.)

  19. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Masahiro [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF{sub 2} was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.).

  20. Fundamentals of molten-salt thermal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This book has been published by the Society of Molten-Salt Thermal Technology to publish a part of the achievement of its members. This book is composed of seven chapters. The chapter 1 is Introduction. The chapter 2 explains the physical properties of molten salts, such as thermal behavior, surface tension, viscosity, electrical conductivity and others. The chapter 3 presents the compatibility with construction materials. Corrosion in molten salts, the electrochemical behavior of fluoride ions on carbon electrodes in fluoride melts, the behaviors of hastelloy N and metals in melts are items of this chapter. The equipments and instruments for molten salts are described in chapter 4. The heat transfer in molten salts is discussed in chapter 5. The chapter 6 explains the application of molten salt technology. The molten salt technology can be applied not only to thermal engineering and energy engineering but also to chemical and nuclear engineerings, and the technical fundamentals, current development status, technical problems and the perspective for the future are outlined. The chapter 7 is the summary of this book. The commercialization of molten salt power reactors is discussed at the end of this book. (Kato, T.)

  1. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  2. The Integral Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, D. [Terrestrial Energy, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    The Integral Molten Salt Reactor is a simple burner or converter design that seeks to maximize passive and inherent safety features in order to minimize development time and achieve true cost innovation. Its integration of all primary systems into a unit sealed for the design life of the reactor will be reviewed with focus on the unique design aspects that make this a pragmatic approach. The IMSR is being developed by Terrestrial Energy in a range of power outputs with initial focus on an 80 MWth (32.5 MWe) unit primarily for remote energy needs. Similar units of modestly larger dimension and up to 600 MWth (291 MWe) are planned that remain truck transportable and able to compete in base load electricity markets worldwide. (author)

  3. The Integral Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, D., E-mail: dleblanc@terrestrialenergy.com [Terrestrial Energy, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Integral Molten Salt Reactor is a simple burner or converter design that seeks to maximize passive and inherent safety features in order to minimize development time and achieve true cost innovation. Its integration of all primary systems into a unit sealed for the design life of the reactor will be reviewed with focus on the unique design aspects that make this a pragmatic approach. The IMSR is being developed by Terrestrial Energy in a range of power outputs with initial focus on an 80 MWth (32.5 MWe) unit primarily for remote energy needs. Similar units of modestly larger dimension and up to 600 MWth (291 MWe) are planned that remain truck transportable and able to compete in base load electricity markets worldwide. (author)

  4. Molten-salt reactor strategies viewed from fuel conservation effect, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Akira

    1976-01-01

    Saving of material requirements in the long-term fuel cycle is studied by introducing molten-salt reactors with good neutron economy into a projection of nuclear generating capacity in Japan. In this first report an examination is made on the effects brought by the introduction of molten-salt converter reactors starting with Pu which are followed by 233 U breeders of the same type. It is shown that the sharing of some Pu in the light water- and fast breeder-reactor system with molten-salt reactors provides a more rapid transition to the self-supporting, breeding cycle than the simple fast breeding system, thus leading to an appreciable fuel conservation. Considerations are presented on the strategic repartition of generating capacity among reactor types and it is shown that all of the converted 233 U should be promptly invested to molten-salt breeders to quickly establish the dual breeding system, instead of recycling to converters themselves. (auth.)

  5. Visualization study of molten metal-water interaction by using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Hibiki, T.; Saito, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to visualize the behavior of molten metal dropped into water during the premixing process by means of neutron radiography which makes use of the difference in the attenuation characteristics of materials. For this purpose, a high-sensitive, high-frame-rate imaging system using neutron radiography was constructed and was applied to visualization of the behavior of molten metal dropped into water. The test rig consisted of a furnace and a test section. The furnace could heat the molten metal up to 650 C. The test section was a rectangular tank made of aluminum alloy. The tank was filled with heavy water and molten Wood's metal was dropped into heavy water. Visualization study was carried out with use of the high-frame-rate neutron radiography to see the breakup of molten metal jet or lump dropped into heavy water pool. In the images obtained, water, steam or air bubbles, molten metal jets or droplets, cloud of small particles of molten metal after atomization could be distinguished. The debris of Wood's metal was collected after the experiment, and the relation between the break-up behavior and the size and the shape of the debris particles was investigated. (orig.)

  6. Molten salt processes in special materials preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, N.; Suri, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    As a class, molten salts are the largest collection of non aqueous inorganic solvents. On account of their stability at high temperature and compatibility to a number of process requirements, molten salts are considered indispensable to realize many of the numerous benefits of high temperature technology. They play a crucial role and form the basis for numerous elegant processes for the preparation of metals and materials. Molten salt are considered versatile heat transfer media and have led to the evolution of many interesting reactor concepts in fission and possibly in fusion. They also have been the basis of thinking for few novel processes for power generation. While focusing principally on the actual utilization of molten salts for a variety of materials preparation efforts in BARC, this lecture also covers a few of the other areas of technological applications together with the scientific basis for considering the molten salts in such situations. (author)

  7. Improvement to molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1975-01-01

    The invention proposes a molten salt nuclear reactor whose core includes a mass of at least one fissile element salt to which can be added other salts to lower the melting temperature of the mass. This mass also contains a substance with a low neutron capture section that does not give rise to a chemical reaction or to an azeotropic mixture with these salts and having an atmospheric boiling point under that of the mass in operation. Means are provided for collecting this substance in the vapour state and returning it as a liquid to the mass. The kind of substance chosen will depend on that of the molten salts (fissile element salts and, where required, salts to lower the melting temperature). In actual practice, the substance chosen will have an atmospheric pressure boiling point of between 600 and 1300 0 C and a melting point sufficiently below 600 0 C to prevent solidification and clogging in the return line of the substance from the exchanger. Among the materials which can be considered for use, mention is made of magnesium, rubidium, cesium and potassium but metal cesium is not employed in the case of many fissile salts, such as fluorides, which it would reduced to the planned working temperatures [fr

  8. Time-of-flight pulsed neutron diffraction of molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Y; Misawa, M; Suzuki, K [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Iron, Steel and Other Metals

    1975-06-01

    In this work, the pulsed neutron diffraction of molten alkali metal nitrate and bismuth trihalide was measured by the time-of-flight method. An electron linear accelerator was used as the pulsed neutron source. All the measurements were carried out with the T-O-F neutron diffractometer installed on the 300 MeV electron lineac. Molten NaNO/sub 3/ and RbNO/sub 3/ were adopted as the samples for alkali metal nitrate. The measurement is in progress for KNO/sub 3/ and LiNO/sub 3/. As the first step of the study on bismuth-bismuth trihalide system, the temperature dependence of structure factors was observed for BiCl/sub 3/, BiBr/sub 3/ and BiI/sub 3/ in the liquid state. The structure factors Sm(Q) for molten NaNO/sub 3/ at 340/sup 0/C and RbNO/sub 3/ at 350/sup 0/C were obtained, and the form factor F/sub 1/(Q) for single NO/sub 3//sup -/ radical with equilateral triangle structure was calculated. In case of molten NaNO/sub 3/, the first peak of Sm(Q) is simply smooth and a small hump can be observed in the neighbourhood of the first minimum Q position. The first peak of Sm(Q) for molten RbNO/sub 3/ is divided into two peaks, whereas a hump at the first minimum becomes big, and shifts to the low Q side of the second peak. The size of the NO/sub 3//sup -/ radical in molten NaNO/sub 3/ is a little smaller than that in molten RbNO/sub 3/. The values of the bond length in the NO/sub 3//sup -/ radical are summarized for crystal state and liquid state. The temperature dependence of the structure factor S(Q) was observed for BiCl/sub 3/, BiBr/sub 3/ and BiI/sub 3/, and shown in a figure.

  9. Molten salt oxidation as an alternative to incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Adamson, M.G.; Cooper, J.F.; Farmer, J.C.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation was originally developed by Rockwell International as part of their coal gasification, and nuclear-and hazardous-waste treatment programs. Single-stage oxidation units employing molten carbonate salt mixtures were found to process up to one ton/day of common solid and liquid wastes (such as paper, rags, plastics, and solvents), and (in larger units) up to one ton/hour of coal. After the oxidation of coal with excess oxygen, coal ash residuals (alumina-silicates) were found adhering to the vessel walls above the liquid level. The phenomenon was not observed with coal gasification-i.e., under oxygen-deficient conditions. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a two-stage/two-vessel approach as a possible means of extending the utility of the process to wastes which contain high concentrations of alumina-silicates in the form of soils or clays, or high concentrations of nitrates including low-level and transuranic wastes. The first stage operates under oxygen-deficient (''pyrolysis'') conditions; the second stage completes oxidation of the evolved gases. The process allows complete oxidation of the organic materials without an open flame. In addition, all acidic gases that would be generated in incinerators are directly metathesized via the molten Na 2 CO 3 to form stable salts (NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 etc.). Molten salt oxidation therefore avoids the corrosion problems associated with free HCl in incineration. The process is being developed to use pure O 2 feeds in lieu of air, in order to reduce offgas volume and retain the option of closed system operation. In addition, ash is wetted and retained in the melt of the first vessel which must be replaced (continuously or batch-wise). The LLNL Molten Salt unit is described together with the initial operating data

  10. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  11. Study of trans-uranian incineration in molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valade, M.

    2000-01-01

    With the emergence of new options for nuclear power, molten salt reactors are envisaged for waste management. The aim of this thesis is to show how molten salt reactors can help to solve the transuranics issue. Their high versatility regarding to isotopic vector allows to accommodate large fractions of minor actinides as compared to solid fuel system. In this thesis, a neutronics study of molten salt reactors, MSR, has been conducted. For this purpose, two reference systems were considered, TIER1 and AMSTER. In the case of TIER1, an optimisation was made to reach an equilibrium. The analysis of both systems showed the main characteristics of MSR: their link to chemistry and on line reprocessing. In this work, several methods to drive the system to a state of equilibrium have been implemented and compared. During this process the isotopic composition and neutron spectrum, thus the nuclear reaction cross sections, vary tremendously. It is essential to take these evolutions into account in order to accurately estimate the equilibrium state. This has been accomplished inside the multi-recycling procedure we set with ERANOS. A dedicated calculation schema has been realized to simulate superthermal systems with this computation code. These results were checked through a benchmark against other computer codes. Then, with multi-recycling method, several molten salt systems have been compared in order to define the optimal reactor for transuranics incineration. Nevertheless, a final choice can not only be done using only neutronics characteristics since chemistry and thermal-hydraulics constraints are really important for MSR. Moreover, a complete safety study would be required. (author)

  12. Sampling device for radioactive molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Masato

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for accurately sampling molten salts to which various kinds of metals in a molten salt storage tank are mixed for analyzing them during a spent fuel dry type reprocessing. Namely, the device comprises a sampling tube having an opened lower end to be inserted into the radioactive molten salts stored in a tank and keeps reduced pressure from the upper end, and a pressure reducing pipeline having one end connected to the sampling tube and other end connected to an evacuating pump. In this device, the top end of the sampling tube is inserted to a position for sampling the radioactive molten salts (molten salts). The pressure inside the evacuating pipeline connected to the upper portion of the sampling tube is reduced for a while. In this case, the inside of the pressure reducing pipeline is previously evacuated by the evacuating pump so as to keep a predetermined pressure. Since the pressure in the sampling tube is lowered, molten salts are inserted into the sampling tube, the sampling tube is withdrawn, and the molten salts flown in the sampling tube are analyzed. (I.S.)

  13. The multi region molten-salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyula, Csom; Sandor, Feher; Szieberth, M.; Szabolcs, Czifrus

    2003-01-01

    The molten-salt reactor (MSR) concept is one of the most promising systems for the realisation of transmutation. The objective is the development of a transmutation technique along with a device implementing it, which yield higher transmutation efficiencies than that of the known procedures. The procedure is the multi-step transmutation, in which the transformation is carried out in several consecutive steps of different neutron flux and spectrum. In order to implement this, a multi-region transmutation device, i.e. nuclear reactor or sub-critical system is proposed, in which several separate flow-through irradiation rooms are formed with various neutron spectra and fluxes. The paper presents calculations that were performed for a special 5-region version of the multi-region molten-salt reactor. (author)

  14. Inertia-confining thermonuclear molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Yamanaka, Chiyoe; Nakai, Sadao; Imon, Shunji; Nakajima, Hidenori; Nakamura, Norio; Kato, Yoshio.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the heat generating efficiency while improving the reactor safety and thereby maintaining the energy balance throughout the reactor. Constitution: In an inertia-confining type D-T thermonuclear reactor, the blanket is made of lithium-containing fluoride molten salts (LiF.BeF 2 , LiF.NaF.KF, LiF.KF, etc) which are cascaded downwardly in a large thickness (50 - 100 cm) along the inner wall of the thermonuclear reaction vessel, and neutrons generated by explosive compression are absorbed to lithium in the molten salts to produce tritium, Heat transportation is carried out by the molten salts. (Ikeda, J.)

  15. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  16. Transient Analyses for a Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor Using the Extended SIMMER-III Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shisheng; Rineiski, Andrei; Maschek, Werner; Ignatiev, Victor

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments extending the capabilities of the SIMMER-III code for the dealing with transient and accidents in Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) are presented. These extensions refer to the movable precursor modeling within the space-time dependent neutronics framework of SIMMER-III, to the molten salt flow modeling, and to new equations of state for various salts. An important new SIMMER-III feature is that the space-time distribution of the various precursor families with different decay constants can be computed and took into account in neutron/reactivity balance calculations and, if necessary, visualized. The system is coded and tested for a molten salt transmuter. This new feature is also of interest in core disruptive accidents of fast reactors when the core melts and the molten fuel is redistributed. (authors)

  17. Method for converting UF5 to UF4 in a molten fluoride salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.R.; Bamberge, C.E.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    The subject relates to fuel preparation for molten salt breeder reactors, and more particularly to the reconstitution of spent molten fuel salt after fission product removal. During the course of reactor operation, fission products including rare earths and bred-in protactinium build up in the fuel salt and adversely affect the nuclear properties of the fuel. In order to more efficiently operate the reactor, the level of neutron poison fission products must be kept at a minimum. This is accomplished by continuously removing spent fuel from the primary circuit, processing it to remove fission products, and returning the reprocessed molten salt to the primary circuit. It is desirable for safety and economy that the fuel processing plant be a component of the reactor itself and that the salt be kept in the molten state throughout the processing system. (auth)

  18. Investigation of Inner Vacuum Sucking method for degassing of molten aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Jianmin; Gu, Ping; Wang, Youbing

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is a harmful gas element that is appreciably soluble in aluminum and its alloys. Removal of hydrogen from molten aluminum has been one of the most important tasks in aluminum melt processing. In this paper, a patented degassing process, which is based on principle of vacuum metallurgy, is proposed. A porous head that connects a vacuum system is immersed in the molten aluminum. The vacuum is created within the porous head and the dissolved hydrogen will diffuse unidirectionally towards the porous head according to Sievert's law. In this way, the hydrogen in the molten aluminum can be removed. The Fick's diffusion equation is used to explain hydrogen transfer in the molten aluminum. RPT experiments are carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the new degassing process. The experiments indicate that the hydrogen content can be dramatically reduced by use of this process.

  19. Thermodynamic characterization of the molten salt reactor fuel - 5233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelli, E.; Konings, R.J.M.; Benes, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has been selected as one of the Generation IV nuclear systems. The very unique feature of this reactor concept is the liquid nature of the fuel which offers numerous advantages concerning the reactor safety. Nowadays, the research in Europe is focused on an innovative concept, the MSFR (Molten Salt Fast Reactor), that combines the generic assets of molten salt as liquid fuel with those related to fast neutron reactors and the thorium fuel cycle. For the design and safety assessment of the MSFR concept, it is extremely important to have a thorough knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of fluorides salts, which is the class of materials that is the best suited for nuclear applications. Potential chemical systems have been critically reviewed and an extensive thermodynamic database describing the most relevant systems has been created at the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the Joint Research Centre (JRC). Thermochemical equilibrium calculations are a very important tool that allows the evaluation of the performance of several salt mixtures predicting their properties and thus the optimization of the fuel composition. The work combines the experimental determination of different salt properties with the modelling of the thermodynamic functions, using the Calphad method. An overview of the experimental work and the thermodynamic assessments will be given in this paper and different fuel options for the MSFR will be discussed. (authors)

  20. Hot filament technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of molten lithium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Perry, William D.

    1990-01-01

    Molten salts, such as lithium fluoride, are attractive candidates for thermal energy storage in solar dynamic space power systems because of their high latent heat of fusion. However, these same salts have poor thermal conductivities which inhibit the transfer of heat into the solid phase and out of the liquid phase. One concept for improving the thermal conductivity of the thermal energy storage system is to add a conductive filler material to the molten salt. High thermal conductivity pitch-based graphite fibers are being considered for this application. Although there is some information available on the thermal conductivity of lithium fluoride solid, there is very little information on lithium fluoride liquid, and no information on molten salt graphite fiber composites. This paper describes a hot filament technique for determining the thermal conductivity of molten salts. The hot filament technique was used to find the thermal conductivity of molten lithium fluoride at 930 C, and the thermal conductivity values ranged from 1.2 to 1.6 W/mK. These values are comparable to the slightly larger value of 5.0 W/mK for lithium fluoride solid. In addition, two molten salt graphite fiber composites were characterized with the hot filament technique and these results are also presented.

  1. Molecular dynamics calculation of shear viscosity for molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Yokokawa, Mitsuo; Ogawa, Toru

    1993-12-01

    A computer program of molecular dynamics simulation has been made to calculate shear viscosity of molten salt. Correlation function for an off-diagonal component of stress tensor can be obtained as the results of calculation. Shear viscosity is calculated by integration of the correlation function based on the Kubo-type formula. Shear viscosities for a molten KCl ranging in temperature from 1047K to 1273K were calculated using the program. Calculation of 10 5 steps (1 step corresponds to 5 x 10 -15 s) was performed for each temperature in the 216 ions system. The obtained results were in good agreement with the reported experimental values. The program has been vectorized to achieve a faster computation in supercomputer. It makes possible to calculate the viscosity using a large number of statistics amounting to several million MD steps. (author)

  2. Using physical properties of molten glass to estimate glass composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwan Sik; Yang, Kyoung Hwa; Park, Jong Kil

    1997-01-01

    A vitrification process is under development in KEPRI for the treatment of low-and medium-level radioactive waste. Although the project is for developing and building Vitrification Pilot Plant in Korea, one of KEPRI's concerns is the quality control of the vitrified glass. This paper discusses a methodology for the estimation of glass composition by on-line measurement of molten glass properties, which could be applied to the plant for real-time quality control of the glass product. By remotely measuring viscosity and density of the molten glass, the glass characteristics such as composition can be estimated and eventually controlled. For this purpose, using the database of glass composition vs. physical properties in isothermal three-component system of SiO 2 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 , a software TERNARY has been developed which determines the glass composition by using two known physical properties (e.g. density and viscosity)

  3. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO 2 and PuO 2 in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  4. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  5. Electrochemical ion separation in molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerke, Erik David; Ihlefeld, Jon; Waldrip, Karen; Wheeler, Jill S.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Small, Leo J.; Wheeler, David R.

    2017-12-19

    A purification method that uses ion-selective ceramics to electrochemically filter waste products from a molten salt. The electrochemical method uses ion-conducting ceramics that are selective for the molten salt cations desired in the final purified melt, and selective against any contaminant ions. The method can be integrated into a slightly modified version of the electrochemical framework currently used in pyroprocessing of nuclear wastes.

  6. Assessment of the Capability of Molten Salt Reactors as a Next Generation High Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsheikh, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactor according to Aircraft Reactor Experiment (ARE) and the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) programs, was designed to be the first full-scale, commercial nuclear power plant utilizing molten salt liquid fuels that can be used for producing electricity, and producing fissile fuels (breeding)burning actinides. The high temperature in the primary cycle enables the realization of efficient thermal conversion cycles with net thermal efficiencies reach in some of the designs of nuclear reactors greater than 45%. Molten salts and liquid salt because of their low vapor pressure are excellent candidates for meeting most of the requirements of these high temperature reactors. There is renewed interest in MSRs because of changing goals and new technologies in the use of high-temperature reactors. Molten Salt Reactors for high temperature create substantial technical challenges to have high effectiveness intermediate heat transfer loop components. This paper will discuss and investigate the capability and compatibility of molten salt reactors, toward next generation high temperature energy system and its technical challenges

  7. Apparatus for making molten silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  8. Molten salt reactor related research in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepel, Jiri; Hombourger, Boris; Fiorina, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Switzerland represented by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a member of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). In the past, the research at PSI focused mainly on HTR, SFR, and GFR. Currently, a research program was established also for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR). Safety is the key point and main interest of the MSR research at the Nuclear Energy and Safety (NES) department of PSI. However, it cannot be evaluated without knowing the system design, fuel chemistry, salt thermal-hydraulics features, safety and fuel cycle approach, and the relevant material and chemical limits. Accordingly, sufficient knowledge should be acquired in the other individual fields before the safety can be evaluated. The MSR research at NES may be divided into four working packages (WP): WP1: MSR core design and fuel cycle, WP2: MSR fuel behavior at nominal and accidental conditions, WP3: MSR thermal-hydraulics and decay heat removal system, WP4: MSR safety, fuel stream, and relevant limits. The WPs are proposed so that there are research topics which can be independently studied within each of them. The work plan of the four WPs is based on several ongoing or past national and international projects relevant to MSR, where NES/PSI participates. At the current stage, the program focuses on several specific and design independent studies. The safety is the key point and main long-term interest of the MSR research at NES. (author)

  9. Reactor chemical considerations of the accelerator molten-salt breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Kato, Yoshio; Ohno, Hideo; Ohmichi, Toshihiko

    1982-01-01

    A single phase of the molten fluoride mixture is simultaneously functionable as a nuclear reaction medium, a heat medium and a chemical processing medium. Applying this characteristics of molten salts, the single-fluid type accelerator molten-salt breeder (AMSB) concept was proposed, in which 7 LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 was served as a target-and-blanket salt (Fig. 1 and Table 1), and the detailed discussion on the chemical aspects of AMSB are presented (Tables 2 -- 4 and Fig.2). Owing to the small total amount of radiowaste and the low concentrations of each element in target salt, AMSB would be chemically managable. The performance of the standard-type AMSB is improved by adding 0.3 -- 0.8 m/o 233 UF 4 as follows(Tables 1 and 4, and Figs. 2 and 3): (a) this ''high-gain'' type AMSB is feasible to design chemically, in which still only small amount of radiowaste is included ; (b) the fissile material production rate will be increased significantly; (c) this target salt is straightly fed as an 233 U additive to the fuel of molten-salt converter reactor (MSCR) ; (d) the dirty fuel salt suctioned from MSCR is batch-reprocessed in the safeguarded regional center, in which many AMSB are facilitated ; (e) the isolated 233 UF 4 is blended in the target salt sent to many MSCRs, and the cleaned residual fertile salt is used as a diluent of AMSB salt ; (f) this simple and rational thorium fuel breeding cycle system is also suitable for the nuclear nonproliferation and for the fabrication of smaller size power-stations. (author)

  10. Candidate molten salt investigation for an accelerator driven subcritical core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooby, E.; Baty, A.; Beneš, O.; McIntyre, P.; Pogue, N.; Salanne, M.; Sattarov, A.

    2013-09-01

    We report a design for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) that utilizes a fuel salt composed of NaCl and transuranic (TRU) chlorides. The ADSMS core is designed for fast neutronics (28% of neutrons >1 MeV) to optimize TRU destruction. The choice of a NaCl-based salt offers benefits for corrosion, operating temperature, and actinide solubility as compared with LiF-based fuel salts. A molecular dynamics (MD) code has been used to estimate properties of the molten salt system which are important for ADSMS design but have never been measured experimentally. Results from the MD studies are reported. Experimental measurements of fuel salt properties and studies of corrosion and radiation damage on candidate metals for the core vessel are anticipated. A special thanks is due to Prof. Paul Madden for introducing the ADSMS group to the concept of using the molten salt as the spallation target, rather than a conventional heavy metal spallation target. This feature helps to optimize this core as a Pu/TRU burner.

  11. Study on corrosion of metal materials in nitrate molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wei; Yang, Bo; Li, Maodong; Li, Shiping; Xin, Mingliang; Zhang, Shuanghong; Huang, Guojia

    2017-01-01

    High temperature molten salts as a heat transfer heat storage medium has been more widely used in the field of concentrated solar thermal power generation. In the thermal heat storage system, metal material stability and performance at high temperatures are of one major limitation in increasing this operating temperature. In this paper, study on corrosion of 321H, 304, 316L, P91 metal materials in modified solar two molten salts. The corrosion kinetics of 304, 316L, 321H, P91 metal material in the modified solar two molten salts at 450°C, 500°C is also investigated. Under the same condition it was found that 304, 321H corroded at a rate of 40% less than P91. Spallation of corrosion products was observed on P91 steel, while no obvious observed on other kinds of stainless steel. Corrosion rates of 304, 321H, and 316L slowly increased with temperature. Oxidation mechanisms little varied with temperature. Corrosion products of metal materials observed at 450°C, 500°C were primarily Fe oxide and Fe, Cr oxide.

  12. A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M., Donaldson, A.D.

    1990-12-12

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figs.

  13. Performance Testing of Molten Regolith Electrolysis with Transfer of Molten Material for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Laurent; Sadoway, Donald; Tripathy, Prabhat; Standish, Evan; Sirk, Aislinn; Melendez, Orlando; Stefanescu, Doru

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated the production of oxygen by electrolysis of molten regolith simulants at temperatures near 1600 C. Using an inert anode and suitable cathode, direct electrolysis (no supporting electrolyte) of the molten silicate is carried out, resulting in the production of molten metallic products at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Initial direct measurements of current efficiency have confirmed that the process offer potential advantages of high oxygen production rates in a smaller footprint facility landed on the moon, with a minimum of consumables brought from Earth. We now report the results of a scale-up effort toward the goal of achieving production rates equivalent to 1 metric ton O2/year, a benchmark established for the support of a lunar base. We previously reported on the electrochemical behavior of the molten electrolyte as dependent on anode material, sweep rate and electrolyte composition in batches of 20-200g and at currents of less than 0.5 A. In this paper, we present the results of experiments performed at currents up to 10 Amperes) and in larger volumes of regolith simulant (500 g - 1 kg) for longer durations of electrolysis. The technical development of critical design components is described, including: inert anodes capable of passing continuous currents of several Amperes, container materials selection, direct gas analysis capability to determine the gas components co-evolving with oxygen. To allow a continuous process, a system has been designed and tested to enable the withdrawal of cathodically-reduced molten metals and spent molten oxide electrolyte. The performance of the withdrawal system is presented and critiqued. The design of the electrolytic cell and the configuration of the furnace were supported by modeling the thermal environment of the system in an effort to realize a balance between external heating and internal joule heating. We will discuss the impact these simulations and experimental findings have

  14. Materials testing for molten carbonate fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mario, F.; Frangini, S.

    1995-01-01

    Unlike conventional generation systems fuel cells use an electrochemical reaction between a fossil fuel and an oxidant to produce electricity through a flame less combustion process. As a result, fuel cells offer interesting technical and operating advantages in terms of conversion efficiencies and environmental benefits due to very low pollutant emissions. Among the different kinds of fuel cells the molten carbonate fuel cells are currently being developed for building compact power generation plants to serve mainly in congested urban areas in virtue of their higher efficiency capabilities at either partial and full loads, good response to power peak loads, fuel flexibility, modularity and, potentially, cost-effectiveness. Starting from an analysis of the most important degradative aspects of the corrosion of the separator plate, the main purpose of this communication is to present the state of the technology in the field of corrosion control of the separator plate in order to extend the useful lifetime of the construction materials to the project goal of 40,000 hours

  15. New primary energy source by thorium molten-salt reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Kato, Yoshio; Furuhashi, Akira; Numata, Hiroo; Mitachi, Koushi; Yoshioka, Ritsuo; Sato, Yuzuru; Arakawa, Kazuto

    2005-01-01

    Among the next 30 years, we have to implement a practical measure in the global energy/environmental problems, solving the followings: (1) replacing the fossil fuels without CO 2 emission, (2) no severe accidents, (3) no concern on military, (4) minimizing wastes, (5) economical, (6) few R and D investment and (7) rapid/huge global application supplying about half of the total primary energy till 50 years later. For this purpose the following system was proposed: THORIMS-NES [Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System], which is composed of (A) simple fission Molten-Salt power stations (FUJI), and (B) fissile-producing Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder (AMSB). It has been internationally prepared a practical Developmental Program for its huge-size industrialization of Th breeding fuel cycle to produce a new rational primary energy. Here it is explained the social meaning, the conceptual system design and technological bases, especially, including the molten fluoride salt technology, which was developed as the triple-functional medium for nuclear-engineering, heat-transfer and chemical engineering. The complex function of this system is fully achieved by the simplified facility using a single phase molten-salt only. (author)

  16. Electrochemistry of plutonium in molten halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurry, L.E.; Moy, G.M.M.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    The electrochemistry of plutonium in molten halides is of technological importance as a method of purification of plutonium. Previous authors have reported that plutonium can be purified by electrorefining impure plutonium in various molten haldies. Work to eluciate the mechanism of the plutonium reduction in molten halides has been limited to a chronopotentiometric study in LiCl-KCl. Potentiometric studies have been carried out to determine the standard reduction potential for the plutonium (III) couple in various molten alkali metal halides. Initial cyclic voltammetric experiments were performed in molten KCL at 1100 K. A silver/silver chloride (10 mole %) in equimolar NaCl-KCl was used as a reference electrode. Working and counter electrodes were tungsten. The cell components and melt were contained in a quartz crucible. Background cyclic voltammograms of the KCl melt at the tungsten electrode showed no evidence of electroactive impurities in the melt. Plutonium was added to the melt as PuCl/sub 3/, which was prepared by chlorination of the oxide. At low concentrations of PuCl/sub 3/ in the melt (0.01-0.03 molar), no reduction wave due to the reduction of Pu(III) was observed in the voltammograms up to the potassium reduction limit of the melt. However on scan reversal after scanning into the potassium reduction limit a new oxidation wave was observed

  17. Physical properties of molten carbonate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, T.; Yanagida, M.; Tanimoto, K. [Osaka National Research Institute (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Recently many kinds of compositions of molten carbonate electrolyte have been applied to molten carbonate fuel cell in order to avoid the several problems such as corrosion of separator plate and NiO cathode dissolution. Many researchers recognize that the addition of alkaline earth (Ca, Sr, and Ba) carbonate to Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} eutectic electrolytes is effective to avoid these problems. On the other hand, one of the corrosion products, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion is found to dissolve into electrolyte and accumulated during the long-term MCFC operations. This would affect the performance of MCFC. There, however, are little known data of physical properties of molten carbonate containing alkaline earth carbonates and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. We report the measured and accumulated data for these molten carbonate of electrical conductivity and surface tension to select favorable composition of molten carbonate electrolytes.

  18. Dissolution of Si in Molten Al with Gas Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Ahmadi, Mehran

    Silicon is an essential component of many aluminum alloys, as it imparts a range of desirable characteristics. However, there are considerable practical difficulties in dissolving solid Si in molten Al, because the dissolution process is slow, resulting in material and energy losses. It is thus essential to examine Si dissolution in molten Al, to identify means of accelerating the process. This thesis presents an experimental study of the effect of Si purity, bath temperature, fluid flow conditions, and gas stirring on the dissolution of Si in molten Al, plus the results of physical and numerical modeling of the flow to corroborate the experimental results. The dissolution experiments were conducted in a revolving liquid metal tank to generate a bulk velocity, and gas was introduced into the melt using top lance injection. Cylindrical Si specimens were immersed into molten Al for fixed durations, and upon removal the dissolved Si was measured. The shape and trajectory of injected bubbles were examined by means of auxiliary water experiments and video recordings of the molten Al free surface. The gas-agitated liquid was simulated using the commercial software FLOW-3D. The simulation results provide insights into bubble dynamics and offer estimates of the fluctuating velocities within the Al bath. The experimental results indicate that the dissolution rate of Si increases in tandem with the melt temperature and bulk velocity. A higher bath temperature increases the solubility of Si at the solid/liquid interface, resulting in a greater driving force for mass transfer, and a higher liquid velocity decreases the resistance to mass transfer via a thinner mass boundary layer. Impurities (with lower diffusion coefficients) in the form of inclusions obstruct the dissolution of the Si main matrix. Finally, dissolution rate enhancement was observed by gas agitation. It is postulated that the bubble-induced fluctuating velocities disturb the mass boundary layer, which

  19. Local coordination of polyvalent metal ions in molten halide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdeniz, Z.; Tosi, M.P.

    1989-07-01

    Ample experimental evidence is available in the literature on the geometry and the stability of local coordination for polyvalent metal ions in molten mixtures of their halides with alkali halides. Recent schemes for classifying this evidence are discussed. Dissociation of tetrahedral halocomplexes in good ionic systems can be viewed as a classical Mott problem of bound-state stability in a conducting matrix. More generally, structural coordinates can be constructed from properties of the component elements, to separate out systems with long-lived fourfold or sixfold coordination and to distinguish between these. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig

  20. Development of viscometers for molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hirokazu; Kato, Yoshio; Ogawa, Toru; Sato, Yuzuru.

    1997-06-01

    Viscometers specially designed for molten salts were made. One is a oscillating cup type and the other is a capillary type. In the case of the oscillating cup viscometer, the viscosity is determined absolutely through the period and the logarithmic decrement of oscillation with other physical parameters. The period and the logarithmic decrement are calculated from the time intervals between two photo-detectors' intercepts of the reflected laser beam. The capillary viscometer used is made of quartz and the sample is sealed under vacuum, which is placed in a transparent furnace. Efflux time is measured by direct visual observation. Cell constants are determined with distilled water as a calibrating liquid. Viscosities of molten KCl are measured with each viscometer. The differences between measured and standard values of molten KCl at several temperatures are within 5% for the oscillating cup viscometer and within 3% for the capillary viscometer. (author)

  1. Molten salt reactors - safety options galore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.; Dodds, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    Safety features and attributes of molten salt reactors (MSR) are described. The unique features of fluid fuel reactors of on-line continuous processing and the ability for so-called external cooling result in simple and safe designs with low excess reactivity, low fission product inventory, and small source term. These, in turn, make a criticality accident unlikely and reduce the severity of a loss of coolant to where they are no longer severe accidents. A melt down is not an accident for a reactor that uses molten fuel. The molten salts are stable, non-reactive and efficient heat transfer media that operate at high temperatures at low pressures and are highly compatible with selected structural materials. All these features reduce the accident plethora. Freeze valves can be used for added safety. An ultimate safe reactor (U.S.R) is described with safety features that are passive, inherent and non-tamperable (PINT)

  2. Modelling of molten fuel/concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, J.F.; Benjamin, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program modelling the interaction between molten core materials and structural concrete (CORCON) is being developed to provide quantitative estimates of fuel-melt accident consequences suitable for risk assessment of light water reactors. The principal features of CORCON are reviewed. Models developed for the principal interaction phenomena, inter-component heat transfer, concrete erosion, and melt/gas chemical reactions, are described. Alternative models for the controlling phenomenon, heat transfer from the molten pool to the surrounding concrete, are presented. These models, formulated in conjunction with the development of CORCON, are characterized by the presence or absence of either a gas film or viscous layer of molten concrete at the melt/concrete interface. Predictions of heat transfer based on these models compare favorably with available experimental data

  3. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  4. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Hydrogen production using the waste heat of Benchmark pressurized Molten carbonate fuel cell system via combination of organic Rankine cycle and proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nami, Hossein; Akrami, Ehsan; Ranjbar, Faramarz

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste heat of the Benchmark system recovered using an ORC. • An integrated system is proposed to produce power and hydrogen. • The effects of some decision parameters on the produced hydrogen have investigated. - Abstract: Energy and exergy analyses are carried out for hydrogen production via combination of Benchmark system and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) coupled with a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer. A parametric study is reported and effects of such organic Rankine cycle significant variables as evaporator temperature, pinch point temperature difference in the evaporator and degree of superheat at the ORC turbine inlet on the rate of produced hydrogen, sustainability index, overall exergy efficiency and organic Rankine cycle net produced power are investigated. It is observed that the rate of produced hydrogen and overall exergy efficiency of the proposed combined system take the maximum value to change in the evaporator temperature. Also, it is revealed that increasing the pinch point temperature difference in the evaporator decreases the rate of produced hydrogen and the overall exergy efficiency of the system. Furthermore, the effects on the rate of produced hydrogen and the overall exergy efficiency of the degree of superheat at the ORC turbine inlet are the same as the effect of pinch point temperature difference.

  7. Chemistry and technology of Molten Salt Reactors - history and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactors represent one of promising future nuclear reactor concept included also in the Generation IV reactors family. This reactor type is distinguished by an extraordinarily close connection between the reactor physics and chemical technology, which is given by the specific features of the chemical form of fuel, representing by molten fluoride salt and circulating through the reactor core and also by the requirements of continuous 'on-line' reprocessing of the spent fuel. The history of Molten Salt Reactors reaches the period of fifties and sixties, when the first experimental Molten Salt Reactors were constructed and tested in ORNL (US). Several molten salt techniques dedicated to fresh molten salt fuel processing and spent fuel reprocessing were studied and developed in those days. Today, after nearly thirty years of discontinuance, a renewed interest in the Molten Salt Reactor technology is observed. Current experimental R and D activities in the area of Molten Salt Reactor technology are realized by a relatively small number of research institutions mainly in the EU, Russia and USA. The main effort is directed primarily to the development of separation processes suitable for the molten salt fuel processing and reprocessing technology. The techniques under development are molten salt/liquid metal extraction processes, electrochemical separation processes from the molten salt media, fused salt volatilization techniques and gas extraction from the molten salt medium

  8. Broadband phase difference method for ultrasonic velocimetry in molten glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikura, Hiroshige; Ihara, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry in molten glass. Realization of such a technique has two difficulties: ultrasonic transmission into molten salt and Doppler signal processing. Buffer rod technique was developed in our research to transmit ultrasound into high temperature molten glass. This article discusses newly developed signal processing technique named broadband phase difference method. (J.P.N.)

  9. Refractory thermowell for continuous high temperature measurement of molten metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesen, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a vessel for handling molten metal having an interior refractory lining, apparatus for continuous high temperature measurement of the molten metal. It comprises a thermowell; the thermowell containing a multiplicity of thermocouples; leads being coupled to a means for continuously indicating the temperature of the molten metal in the vessel

  10. Economic Optimization of a Concentrating Solar Power Plant with Molten-salt Thermocline Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Flueckiger, S. M.; Iverson, B. D.; Garimella, S V

    2014-01-01

    System-level simulation of a molten-salt thermocline tank is undertaken in response to year-long historical weather data and corresponding plant control. Such a simulation is enabled by combining a finite-volume model of the tank that includes a sufficiently faithful representation at low computation cost with a system-level power tower plant model. Annual plant performance of a 100 MWe molten-salt power tower plant is optimized as a function of the thermocline tank size and the plant solar m...

  11. Design of a molten heavy-metal coolant and target for fast-thermal accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyamurthy, P.; Degwekar, S.B.; Nema, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator Driven sub-critical Systems (ADS) have evoked considerable interest in recent years. The Energy Amplifier concept developed by C. Rubbia and others at CERN incorporates a buoyancy driven, lead-coolant primary system for extracting the heat generated in the fast reactor as well as that in neutron spallation target. In earlier publications, our BARC group has proposed a one-way coupled booster reactor system which could be operated at proton beam currents as low as 1-2 mA for a power output of 750 MW th . Here, the basic idea is to have a fast booster reactor zone of low power (- 100 MW th ) which is separated by a large gap from the main thermal reactor zone. In this arrangement, the spallation neutron source feeds neutrons to the fast reactor zone where neutrons are further multiplied. Further in this system, the neutrons from the booster region enter the main reactor but very few neutrons from main reactor return to booster, thus ensuring one-way coupling. In earlier work, several possible configurations of the booster and thermal regions were presented. In the present work, we describe an engineering design particularly with respect to thermal hydraulics of lead/lead-bismuth eutectic coolant also acting as spallation neutron source. This hybrid ADS reactor consists of fast and thermal reactor zones producing about 100 MW th and 650 MW th respectively. The scheme of the system is shown. The fast core consists of 48 hexagonal fuel bundles each containing 169 fuel pins of 8.2 mm diameter arranged in 11.4 mm triangular array pitch. The average thermal power per fuel pin is about 13.46 kw. However, due to neutron flux peaking effect, the maximum fuel pin power can be up to 2.5 times this average power. The thermal reactor consists of heavy water as moderator and coolant similar to a typical CANDU type Indian PHWR except for fuel composition. Though the gap between fast and thermal zones essentially provides one way coupling of neutron flux, a thermal

  12. Accelerator-driven molten-salt blankets: Physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Durkee, J.W.; Perry, R.T.; Poston, D.I.

    1994-01-01

    A number of nuclear physics issues concerning the Los Alamos molten-salt, accelerator-driven plutonium converter are discussed. General descriptions of several concepts using internal and external, moderation are presented. Burnup and salt processing requirement calculations are presented for four concepts, indicating that both the high power density externally moderated concept and an internally moderated concept achieve total plutonium burnups approaching 90% at salt processing rates of less than 2 m 3 per year. Beginning-of-life reactivity temperature coefficients and system kinetic response are also discussed. Future research should investigate the effect of changing blanket composition on operational and safety characteristics

  13. Coating applications for the molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A.; Skok, A.J.; Patel, P.S.; Maru, H.C.

    1981-09-25

    The molten carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient low polluting fuel-to-electricity conversion device which is at present being developed for power plant and industrial use. Because the alkali carbonates at the operating temperature of 650/sup 0/C are corrosive and the methods employed for sealing the cell lead to certain electrochemical corrosion couples, different types of protective coatings are needed to minimize attack in a cost-effective manner. Besides protective purposes, other opportunities are also described where coating technology can be gainfully employed in this system.

  14. Kinetics, dynamics and neutron noise in Molten Salt Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Reactor kinetic and dynamic properties of Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) are investigated in a simple model, which allows closed compact analytical solutions to be obtained. The goal is to gain insight, rather than to produce high-quality quantitative data. Through an interpretation of the different terms in the basic equations, and by means of analytical solutions, various approximations are introduced and their validity discussed. The dynamical behaviour of MSRs and their response to small stationary perturbations is described and discussed in comparison with traditional systems. (author)

  15. Corrosion of vessel steel during its interaction with molten corium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechta, S.V.; Khabensky, V.B.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Lopukh, D.B.; Gusarov, V.V.; Martinov, A.P.; Martinov, V.V.; Fieg, G.; Tromm, W.; Bottomley, D.; Tuomisto, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with corrosion of a cooled vessel steel structure interacting with molten corium in air and neutral (nitrogen) atmospheres during an in-vessel retention scenario. The data on corrosion kinetics at different temperatures on the heated steel surface, heat flux densities and oxygen potential in the system are presented. The post-test physico-chemical and metallographic analyses of melt samples and the corium-specimen ingot have clarified certain mechanisms of steel corrosion taking place during the in-vessel melt interaction

  16. Measurement of plutonium and americium in molten salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, F.X.; Lawless, J.L.; Herren, W.E.; Hughes, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The measurement of plutonium and americium in molten salt residues using a segmented gamma-ray scanning device is described. This system was calibrated using artificially fabricated as well as process generated samples. All samples were calorimetered and the americium to plutonium content of the samples determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. For the nine samples calorimetered thus far, no significant biases are present in the comparison of the segmented gamma-ray assay and the calorimetric assay. Estimated errors are of the order of 10 percent and is dependent on the americium to plutonium ratio determination

  17. ESR hollows molten metal/slag interface detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, B.; Klein, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    A system for detecting the location of a molten metal/slag interface during the casting of electroslag remelted hollows includes a gamma ray radiation source and a scintillation counter. The source and counter reside outside the casting mould and are held in fixed spatial relationships with respect to one another and with respect to the mandrel. The radiation from the source is directed chordally through the mould and through the annular casting zone, defined between the sidewalls of the upwardly driven mandrel and the mould without contacting said mandrel. The counter provides an electrical signal responsive to the rate of radiation events detected thereby. (author)

  18. The compatibility of various austenitic steels with molten sodium (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champeix, L.; Sannier, J.; Darras, R.; Graff, W.; Juste, P.

    1963-01-01

    Various techniques for studying corrosion by molten sodium have been developed and applied to the case of 18/10 austenitic steels. The results obtained are discussed as a function of various parameters: type of steel, temperature, oxygen content of the sodium, surface treatment, welds, mechanical strain. In general, these steels have an excellent resistance to sodium when the oxygen content is limited by a simple purification system of the 'cold trap' type, and when an attempt is made to avoid cavitation phenomena which are particularly dangerous, as is shown by the example given. (authors) [fr

  19. Accelerator-driven molten-salt blankets: Physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Durkee, J.W.; Perry, R.T.; Poston, D.I.

    1994-01-01

    A number of nuclear physics issues concerning the Los Alamos molten-salt accelerator-driven plutonium converter are discussed. General descriptions of several concepts using internal and external moderation are presented. Burnup and salt processing requirement calculations are presented for four concepts, indicating that both the high power density externally moderated concept and an internally moderated concept achieve total plutonium burnups approaching 90% at salt processing rates of less than 2 m 3 per year. Beginning-of-life reactivity temperature coefficients and system kinetic response are also discussed. Future research should investigate the effect of changing blanket composition on operational and safety characteristics

  20. Recent electroanalytical studies in molten fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, D.L.; Mamantov, G.

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes the voltametric and chronopotentiometric studies of Bi, Fe, Te, oxide and U(IV)/U(III) ratio determinations in molten LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 (72-16-12 mole percent) and LiF--BeF 2 --ZrF 4 (65.6-29.4-5.0 mole percent). 54 references, 11 figures

  1. Galvanic high energy cells with molten electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borger, W.; Kappus, W.; Kunze, D.; Laig-Hoerstebrock, H.; Panesar, H.; Sterr, G.

    1981-01-01

    To develop a galvanic cell with molten salt electrolyte for electric vehicle propulsion and load leveling as well as to fabricate ten prototype cells with a capacity of at least 150 Ah (5 hour rate) and an energy density of 80 Wh/kg was the objective of this project.

  2. Deployment of quasi-digital sensor for high temperature molten salt level measurement in pyroprocessing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Ramesh; Agarwal, Sourabh; Sivaramakrishna, M.; Rao, G. Prabhakara

    2018-04-01

    Development of a liquid molten salt level sensor device that can detect the level of liquid molten salt in the process vessels of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent metallic fuels is detailed. It is proposed to apply a resistive-type pulsating sensor-based level measurement approach. There are no commercially available sensors due to limitations of high temperature, radiation, and physical dimensions. A compact, simple, rugged, low power, and high precise pulsating sensor-based level probe and simple instrumentation for the molten salt liquid level sensor to work in the extreme conditions has been indigenously developed, with high precision and accuracy. The working principle, design concept, and results have been discussed. This level probe is mainly composed of the variable resistor made up of ceramic rods. This resistor constitutes the part of resistance-capacitance-type Logic Gate Oscillator (LGO). A change in the molten salt level inside the tank causes a small change in the resistance which in turn changes the pulse frequency of the LGO. Thus the frequency, the output of the instrument that is displayed on the LCD of an embedded system, is a function of molten salt level. In the present design, the range of level measurement is about 10 mm. The sensitivity in position measurement up to 10 mm is ˜2.5 kHz/mm.

  3. Development of a three dimension multi-physics code for molten salt fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Maosong; Dai Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) was selected as one of the six innovative nuclear reactors by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). The circulating-fuel in the can-type molten salt fast reactor makes the neutronics and thermo-hydraulics of the reactor strongly coupled and different from that of traditional solid-fuel reactors. In the present paper: a new coupling model is presented that physically describes the inherent relations between the neutron flux, the delayed neutron precursor, the heat transfer and the turbulent flow. Based on the model, integrating nuclear data processing, CAD modeling, structured and unstructured mesh technology, data analysis and visualization application, a three dimension steady state simulation code system (MSR3DS) for the can-type molten salt fast reactor is developed and validated. In order to demonstrate the ability of the code, the three dimension distributions of the velocity, the neutron flux, the delayed neutron precursor and the temperature were obtained for the simplified MOlten Salt Advanced Reactor Transmuter (MOSART) using this code. The results indicate that the MSR3DS code can provide a feasible description of multi-physical coupling phenomena in can-type molten salt fast reactor. Furthermore, the code can well predict the flow effect of fuel salt and the transport effect of the turbulent diffusion. (authors)

  4. Theoretical study of energetic interactions between high temperature molten materials and a low temperature fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical models are developed to predict the hydrodynamical transients resulting from the energetic interactions between a high temperature molten material and a low temperature liquid coolant. Initially, the molten material at high temperature and pressure is separated from the low temperature fluid by a solid metal barrier. Upon contact between the molten material and solid barrier, thermal attack occurs eventually resulting in a loss of barrier integrity. Subsequently, the molten material is injected into the liquid pool resulting in energetic interactions. The analytical models integrate a wide variety of potentially mutually-interacting transport phenomena which dominate the transient process into a deterministic scheme to predict the hydrodynamic transient process into a deterministic scheme to predict the hydrodynamic transient process. The model calculations are compared with the existing experimental results to show its engineering accuracy and adequacy in predicting such energetic interactions. Two models are formulated to bracket the transport of molten material to the rupture site for the reactor system. The stratified model minimized the rate of transport of material to the break location while the dispersed model maximized such transport. These two models are applied to a reference pressure tube reactor to evaluate the pressure transients and the potential structural damages as a result of a postulated severe primary coolant blockage in a power channel

  5. Volume reduction of waste contaminated by fission product elements and plutonium using molten salt combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.E.; Grantham, L.F.; Paulson, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    In the Molten Salt Combustion Process, transuranic or β-γ organic waste and air are continuously introduced beneath the surface of a sodium carbonate-containing melt at a temperature of about 800 0 C. Complete combustion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and steam occurs without the conversion of nitrogen to nitrogen oxides. The noxious gases formed by combustion of the chloride, sulfur or phosphorus content of the waste instantly react with the melt to form the corresponding sodium compounds. These compounds as well as the ash and radionuclides are retained in the molten salt. The spent salt is either fused cast into an engineered disposal container or processed to recover salt and plutonium. Molten salt combustion reduces the waste to about 2% of its original volume. Many reactor or reprocessing wastes which cannot be incinerated without difficulty are readily combusted in the molten salt. A 50 kg/hr molten salt combustion system is being designed for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Construction of the combustor started during 1977, and combustor startup was scheduled for the spring of 1978

  6. Molten salt: Corrosion problems and electrometallurgy in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarini, G.

    1981-01-01

    A bibliographic survey is given of corrosion problems and electrometallurgical problems of molten salt in nuclear reactor applications. Due to the high potential to be achieved, their high ionic conductivity and the rapidity of reactions in a molten salt atmosphere, molten salts are interesting solvents for various electrometallurgical processes. Another important field of application is in the separation or electrolytical refining of various metals (Be, U, Pu, Th, Hf, Zr). However, these very characteristics of molten salts may also cause serious corrosion problems. Results obtained for the molten-salt reactor and the different causes of corrosion are reviewed an possible countermeasures analyzed. (orig.)

  7. Results of and prospects for studies on molten salt nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hery, M.; Lecocq, A.

    1983-04-01

    This paper reviews the various studies performed in France by the EDF and CEA teams in the field of molten salt nuclear reactors. These studies include graphite moderating systems, feasibility of a 625 MWth core, lead cooling, structural materials, salts tritium diffusion and corrosion. The experience gained allows eventual development prospects of this system to appraised [fr

  8. Simulation of Molten Salt Reactor dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepel, J.; Rohde, U.; Grundmann, U.

    2005-01-01

    Dynamics of the Molten Salt Reactor - one of the 'Generation IV' concepts - was studied in this paper. The graphite-moderated channel type MSR was selected for the numerical simulation of the reactor with liquid fuel. The MSR dynamics is very specific because of two physical peculiarities of the liquid fueled reactor: the delayed neutrons precursors are drifted by the fuel flow and the fission energy is immediately released directly into the coolant. Presently, there are not many accessible numerical codes appropriate for the MSR simulation, therefore the DYN3D-MSR code was developed based on the FZR in-house code DYN3D. It allows calculating of full 3D transient neutronics in combination with parallel channel type thermal-hydraulics. By means of DYN3D-MSR, several transients typical for the liquid fuel system were analyzed. Those transients were initiated by reactivity insertion, by overcooling of fuel at the core inlet, by the fuel pump start-up or coast-down, or by the blockage of selected fuel channels. In these considered transients, the response of the MSR is characterized by the immediate change of the fuel temperature with changing power and fast negative temperature feedback to the power. The response through the graphite temperature is slower. Furthermore, for big MSR cores fueled with U233 the graphite feedback coefficient can be positive. In this case the addition of erbium to the graphite can ensure the inherent safety features. The DYN3D-MSR code has been shown to be an effective tool for MSR dynamics studies. (author)

  9. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia; Piyush Sabharwall

    2012-09-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 °C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700

  10. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling and simulation of a molten salt cavity receiver with Dymola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Jinbai; El-Hefni, Baligh; Xu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Molten salt receivers play an important role in converting solar energy to thermal energy in concentrating solar power plants. This paper describes a dynamic mathematical model of the molten salt cavity receiver that couples the conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer processes in the receiver. The temperature dependence of the material properties is also considered. The radiosity method is used to calculate the radiation heat transfer inside the cavity. The outlet temperature of the receiver is calculated for 11 sets of transient working conditions. The simulation results compare well with experimental data, thus the model can be further used in system simulations of entire power plants. - Highlights: • A detailed model for molten salt cavity receiver is presented. • The model couples the conduction, convection and thermal radiation. • The simulation results compare well with experimental data. • The model can be further used for many purposes.

  12. Novel ceramic coatings for containment of uranium and reactive molten metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Satpute, R.U.; Ramanathan, S.; Thiyagarajan, T.K.; Padmanabhan, P.V.A.; Kutty, T.R.G.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma sprayed aluminium oxide coatings, which are currently used for casting uranium metal are, however, not suitable for long duration handling of molten uranium and is also unstable under reducing conditions. Yttrium oxide and rare earth phosphates are suggested as promising materials for prevention of high temperature corrosion by molten metals. The present paper reports research efforts directed towards development of plasma sprayed coatings of yttria and lanthanum phosphate. Thermal spray grade powders of yttrium oxide and lanthanum phosphate, synthesized using locally available raw materials have been used as feedstock powders for plasma spray deposition. The coatings have been deposited using the indigenously developed 40 kW atmospheric plasma spray system and have been characterized. Results of preliminary experiments on compatibility of yttria and lanthanum phosphate with molten uranium are quite encouraging. (author)

  13. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR.

  14. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR

  15. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  16. Algorithm for prevention of molten steel sticking onto mold in continous casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blažević, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In continuous casting steel production a significant loss reduction – in terms of scrap material, time and money – can be achieved by developing an appropriate algorithm for the prevention of molten steel sticking onto mould. The logic of such algorithm should be simple and manageable to ensure its practical implementation on a computer system via the usage of thermo sensors. This suggests that both the algorithm and the automated data collection can be implemented by means of applicative software. Despite its simplicity, the algorithm should accurately trace physical phenomena in molten steel.

  17. Methane-steam reforming by molten salt - membrane reactor using concentrated solar thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanuki, K.; Nakajima, H.; Hasegawa, N.; Kaneko, H.; Tamaura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    By utilization of concentrated solar thermal energy for steam reforming of natural gas, which is an endothermic reaction, the chemical energy of natural gas can be up-graded. The chemical system for steam reforming of natural gas with concentrated solar thermal energy was studied to produce hydrogen by using the thermal storage with molten salt and the membrane reactor. The original steam reforming module with hydrogen permeable palladium membrane was developed and fabricated. Steam reforming of methane proceeded with the original module with palladium membrane below the decomposition temperature of molten salt (around 870 K). (authors)

  18. Analysis of molten salt thermal-hydraulics using computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, B.; Csom, G.; Aszodi, A.

    2003-01-01

    To give a good solution for the problem of high level radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation is expected to be a pro missing option. Application of this technology also could extend the possibilities of nuclear energy. Large number of liquid-fuelled reactor concepts or accelerator driven subcritical systems was proposed as transmutors. Several of these consider fluoride based molten salts as the liquid fuel and coolant medium. The thermal-hydraulic behaviour of these systems is expected to be fundamentally different than the behaviour of widely used water-cooled reactors with solid fuel. Considering large flow domains three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis is the method seeming to be applicable. Since the fuel is the coolant medium as well, one can expect a strong coupling between neutronics and thermal-hydraulics too. In the present paper the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics for three-dimensional thermal-hydraulics simulations of molten salt reactor concepts is introduced. In our past and recent works several calculations were carried out to investigate the capabilities of Computational Fluid Dynamics through the analysis of different molten salt reactor concepts. Homogenous single region molten salt reactor concept is studied and optimised. Another single region reactor concept is introduced also. This concept has internal heat exchanges in the flow domain and the molten salt is circulated by natural convection. The analysis of the MSRE experiment is also a part of our work since it may form a good background from the validation point of view. In the paper the results of the Computational Fluid Dynamics calculations with these concepts are presented. In the further work our objective is to investigate the thermal-hydraulics of the multi-region molten salt reactor (Authors)

  19. Preliminary model validation for integral stability behavior in molten salt natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Chuangxiong; He Zhaozhong; Chen Kun

    2017-01-01

    Passive safety system is an important characteristic of Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR). In order to remove the decay heat, a direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) which uses the passive safety technology is proposed to the FHR as the ultimate heat sink. The DRACS is relying on the natural circulation, so the study of molten salt natural circulation plays an important role at TMSR. A high-temperature molten salt natural circulation test loop has been designed and constructed at the TMSR center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) to understand the characteristics of the natural circulation and verify the design model. It adopts nitrate salt as the working fluid to simulate fluoride salts, and uses air as the ultimate heat sink. The test shows the operation very well and has a very nice performance, the Heat transfer coefficients (salt-salt or salt-air), power of the loop, heat loss of molten salt pool (or molten salt pipe or air cooling tower), starting time of the loop, flow rate that can be verified in this loop. A series of experiments have been done and the results show that the experimental data are well matched with the design data. This paper aims at analyzing the molten salt circulation model, studying the characteristics of the natural circulation, and verifying the Integral stability behavior by three different natural circulation experiments. Also, the experiment is going on, and more experiments will been carry out to study the molten salt natural circulation for optimizing the design. (author)

  20. Experimental and theoretical studies in Molten Salt Natural Circulation Loop (MSNCL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Borgohain, A.; Jana, S.S.; Bagul, R.K.; Singh, R.R.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Belokar, D.G.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2014-12-01

    High Temperature Reactors (HTR) and solar thermal power plants use molten salt as a coolant, as it has low melting point and high boiling point, enabling us to operate the system at low pressure. Molten fluoride salt and molten nitrate salt are proposed as a candidate coolant for High Temperature Reactors (HTR) and solar power plant respectively. BARC is developing a 600 MWth pebble bed high temperature reactor, cooled by natural circulation of fluoride salt and capable of supplying process heat at 1000°C to facilitate hydrogen production by splitting water. Beside this, BARC is also developing a 2MWe solar power tower system using molten nitrate salt. With these requirements, a Molten Salt Natural Circulation Loop (MSNCL) has been designed, fabricated, installed and commissioned in Hall-7, BARC for thermal hydraulic, instrumentation development and material compatibility related studies. Steady state natural circulation experiments with molten nitrate salt (mixture of NaNO 3 and KNO 3 in 60:40 ratio) have been carried out in the loop at different power level. Various transients viz. startup of natural circulation, step power change, loss of heat sink and heater trip has also been studied in the loop. A well known steady state correlation given by Vijayan et. al. has been compared with experimental data. In-house developed code LeBENC has also been validated against all steady state and transient experimental results. The detailed description of MSNCL, steady state and transient experimental results and validation of in-house developed code LeBENC have been described in this report. (author)

  1. Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product

  2. Molten salt reactors. The AMSTER concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, J.; Garzenne, C.; Lecarpentier, D.; Mouney, H.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the concept of actinide molten salt transmuter (AMSTER). This reactor is graphite-moderated and is dedicated to the burning of actinides. The main difference with a molten salt reactor is that its liquid fuel undergoes an on-line partial reprocessing in which fission products are extracted and heavy nuclei are reintroduced into the fuel. In order to maintain the reactivity regular injections of 235 U-salt are made. In classical reactors, fuel burn-up is limited by the swelling of the cladding and the radiation fuel pellets resistance, in AMSTER there is no limitation to the irradiation time of the fuel, so all the actinides can be burnt or transmuted. (A.C.)

  3. Molten salt combustion of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.; Richards, W.L.; Oldenkamp, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Atomics International Molten Salt Combustion Process reduces the weight and volume of combustible β-γ contaminated transuranic waste by utilizing air in a molten salt medium to combust organic materials, to trap particulates, and to react chemically with any acidic gases produced during combustion. Typically, incomplete combustion products such as hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are below detection limits (i.e., 3 ) is directly related to the sodium chloride vapor pressure of the melt; >80% of the particulate is sodium chloride. Essentially all metal oxides (combustion ash) are retained in the melt, e.g., >99.9% of the plutonium, >99.6% of the europium, and >99.9% of the ruthenium are retained in the melt. Both bench-scale radioactive and pilot scale (50 kg/hr) nonradioactive combustion tests have been completed with essentially the same results. Design of three combustors for industrial applications are underway

  4. Ethanol steam reforming heated up by molten salt CSP: Reactor assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Falco, Marcello; Gallucci, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper hydrogen production via reforming of ethanol has been studied in a novel hybrid plant consisting in a ethanol reformer and a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant using molten salt as heat carrier fluid. The heat needed for the reforming of ethanol has been supplied to the system by

  5. Thermodynamics of soluble fission products cesium and iodine in the Molten Salt Reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.; Beneš, O.; Konings, R.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    The present study describes the full thermodynamic assessment of the Li,Cs,Th//F,I system. The existing database for the relevant fluoride salts considered as fuel for the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has been extended with two key fission products, cesium and iodine. A complete evaluation of all

  6. Ethanol steam reforming heated up by molten salt CSP : reactor assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, de M.; Gallucci, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper hydrogen production via reforming of ethanol has been studied in a novel hybrid plant consisting in a ethanol reformer and a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant using molten salt as heat carrier fluid. The heat needed for the reforming of ethanol has been supplied to the system by

  7. Analysis of a molten salt reactor benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Biplab; Bajpai, Anil; Degweker, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses results of our studies of an IAEA molten salt reactor (MSR) benchmark. The benchmark, proposed by Japan, involves burnup calculations of a single lattice cell of a MSR for burning plutonium and other minor actinides. We have analyzed this cell with in-house developed burnup codes BURNTRAN and McBURN. This paper also presents a comparison of the results of our codes and those obtained by the proposers of the benchmark. (author)

  8. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  9. Corrosion of technical ceramics by molten aluminium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwabe, U.; Wolff, L.R.; Loo, van F.J.J.; Ziegler, G.

    1992-01-01

    The corrosion of 8 types of ceramics, i.e., 1 grade of hot isostatically pressed reaction-bonded Si3N4 (HIPRBSN), 3 grades of hot pressed Si3N4 (HPSN), and 4 grades of RBSN, and 2 types of SiC (HIPSiC and Si-impregnated SiC (SiSiC)) in molten Al (pure Al and AlZnMgCu1.5) was studied. The HIPRBSN and

  10. Preparation and characterization of molten salt based nanothermic fluids with enhanced thermal properties for solar thermal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madathil, Pramod Kandoth; Balagi, Nagaraj; Saha, Priyanka; Bharali, Jitalaxmi; Rao, Peddy V.C.; Choudary, Nettem V.; Ramesh, Kanaparthi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Prepared and characterized inorganic ternary molten salt based nanothermic fluids. • MoS_2 and CuO nanoparticles incorporated ternary molten salts have been prepared. • Thermal properties enhanced by the addition of MoS_2 and CuO nanoparticles. • The amount of nanoparticles has been optimized. - Abstract: In the current energy scenario, solar energy is attracting considerable attention as a renewable energy source with ample research and commercial opportunities. The novel and efficient technologies in the solar energy are directed to develop methods for solar energy capture, storage and utilization. High temperature thermal energy storage systems can deal with a wide range of temperatures and therefore they are highly recommended for concentrated solar power (CSP) applications. In the present study, a systematic investigation has been carried out to identify the suitable inorganic nanoparticles and their addition in the molten salt has been optimized. In order to enhance the thermo-physical properties such as thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of molten salt based HTFs, we report the utilization of MoS_2 and CuO nanoparticles. The enhancement in the above mentioned thermo-physical properties has been demonstrated for optimized compositions and the morphologies of nanoparticle-incorporated molten salts have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nanoparticle addition to molten salts is an efficient method to prepare thermally stable molten salt based heat transfer fluids which can be used in CSP plants. It is also observed that the sedimentation of nanoparticles in molten salt is negligible compared to that in organic heat transfer fluids.

  11. Thorium molten-salt nuclear energy synergetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo

    1989-01-01

    One of the most practical and rational approaches for establishing the idealistic Thorium resource utilization program has been presented, which might be effective to solve the principal energy problems, concerning safety, proliferation and terrorism, resource, power size and fuel cycle economy, for the next century. The first step will be the development of Small Molten-Salt Reactors as a flexible power station, which is suitable for early commercialization of Th reactors not necessarily competing with proven Large Solid-Fuel Reactors. Therefore, the more detailed design works and practical R and D planning should be performed under the international cooperations soon, soundly depending on the basic technology established by ORNL already. R and D cost would be surprisingly low. This reactor(MSR) seems to be idealistic not only in power-size, siting, safety, safeguard and economy, but also as an effective partner of Molten-Salt Fissile Breeders(MSB) in order to establish the simplest and economical Thorium molten-salt breeding fuel cycle named THORIMS-NES in all over the world including the developing countries and isolated areas. This would be one of the most practical replies to the Lilienthal's appeal of 'A NEW START' in Nuclear Energy. (author)

  12. Thermal interaction of molten copper with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyszkowski, W.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental work was performed to study the thermal interaction between molten copper particles (in the range of temperature from the copper melting point to about 1800 0 C) and water from about 15-80 0 C. The transient temperatures of the copper particles and water before and during their thermal interaction were measured. The history of the phenomena was filmed by means of a high speed FASTAX camera (to 8000 f/s). Classification of the observed phenomena and description of the heat-transfer modes were derived. One among the phenomena was the thermal explosion. The necessary conditions for the thermal explosion are discussed and their physical interpretation is given. According to the hypothesis proposed, the thermal explosion occurs when the molten metal has the temperature of its solidification and the heat transfer on its surface is sufficiently intensive. The 'sharp-change' of the crystalline structure during the solidification of the molten metal is the cause of the explosion fragmentation. (author)

  13. Development of a safety analysis code for molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dalin; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui

    2009-01-01

    The molten salt reactor (MSR) well suited to fulfill the criteria defined by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is presently revisited all around the world because of different attractive features of current renewed relevance. The MSRs are characterized by using the fluid-fuel, so that their technologies are fundamentally different from those used in the conventional solid-fuel reactors. In this work, in particular, the attention is focused on the safety characteristic analysis of the MSRs, in which a point kinetic model considering the flow effects of the fuel salt is established for the MSRs and calculated by developing a microcomputer code coupling with a simplified heat transfer model in the core. The founded models and developed code are applied to analyze the safety characteristics of the molten salt actinide recycler and transmuter system (MOSART) by simulating three types of basic transient conditions including the unprotected loss of flow, unprotected overcooling accident and unprotected transient overpower. Some reasonable results are obtained for the MOSART, which show that the MOSART conceptual design is an inherently stable reactor design. The present study provides some valuable information for the research and design of the new generation MSRs.

  14. Study of the pyrochemical treatment-recycling process of the Molten Salt Reactor fuel; Estudio de sistema de un proceso de tratamiento-reciclaje piroquimico del combustible de un reactor de sales fundidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussier, H.; Heuer, D.

    2010-07-01

    The Separation Processes Studies Laboratory (Commissariat a l'energie Atomique) has made a preliminary assessment of the reprocessing system associated with Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). The scheme studied in this paper is based on the principle of reductive extraction and metal transfer that constituted the core process designed for the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR), although the flow diagram has been adapted to the current needs of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR).

  15. The Experiences and Challenges in Drilling into Semi molten or Molten Intrusive in Menengai Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, A. K.; Mibei, G. K.

    2017-12-01

    Drilling in Menengai has experienced various challenges related to drilling operations and the resource itself i.e. quality discharge fluids vis a vis gas content. The main reason for these challenges is related to the nature of rocks encountered at depths. Intrusives encountered within Menengai geothermal field have been group into three based on their geological characteristics i.e. S1, S2 and S3.Detailed geology and mineralogical characterization have not been done on these intrusive types. However, based on physical appearances, S1 is considered as a diorite dike, S2 is syenite while S3 is molten rock material. This paper summarizes the experiences in drilling into semi molten or molten intrusive (S3).

  16. Beryllium research on FFHR molten salt blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terai, T.; Tanaka, S.; Sze, D.-K.

    2000-01-01

    Force-free helical reactor, FFHR, is a demo-relevant heliotron-type D-T fusion reactor based on the great amount of R and D results obtained in the LHD project. Since 1993, collaboration works have made great progress in design studies of FFHR with standing on the major advantage of current-less steady operation with no dangerous plasma disruptions. There are two types of reference designs, FFHR-1 and FFHR-2, where molten Flibe (LiF-BeF2) is utilized as tritium breeder and coolant. In this paper, we present the outline of FFHR blanket design and some related R and D topics focusing on Be utilization. Beryllium is used as a neutron multiplier in the design and Be pebbles are placed in the front part of the tritium breeding zone. In a Flibe blanket, HF (TF) generated due to nuclear transmutation will be a problem because of its corrosive property. Though nickel-based alloys are thought to be intact in such a corrosive environment, FFHR blanket design does not adopt the alloys because of their induced radioactivity. The present candidate materials for the structure are low-activated ferritic steel (JLF-1), V-4Cr-4Ti, etc. They are capable to be corroded by HF in the operation condition, and Be is expected to work as a reducing agent in the system as well. Whether Be pebbles placed in a Flibe flow can work well or not is a very important matter. From this point, Be solubility in Flibe, reaction rate of the Redox reaction with TF in the liquid and on the surface of Be pebbles under irradiation, flowing behavior of Flibe through a Be pebble bed, etc. should be investigated. In 1997, in order to establish more practical and new data bases for advanced design works, we started a collaboration work of R and D on blanket engineering, where the Be research above mentioned is included. Preliminary dipping-test of Be sheets and in-situ tritium release experiment from Flibe with Be sheets have got started. (orig.)

  17. Compatibility studies of potential molten-salt breeder reactor materials in molten fluoride salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, J.R.

    1977-05-01

    The molten fluoride salt compatibility studies carried out during the period 1974--76 in support of the Molten-Salt Reactor Program are summarized. Thermal-convection and forced-circulation loops were used to measure the corrosion rate of selected alloys. Results confirmed the relationship of time, initial chromium concentration, and mass loss developed by previous workers. The corrosion rates of Hastelloy N and Hastelloy N modified by the addition of 1--3 wt percent Nb were well within the acceptable range for use in an MSBR. 13 figures, 3 tables

  18. FY 1999 Report on the technical results. Part 1. Development of fuel cell power generation technologies (Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system); 1999 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi (hatsuden system no kenknyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    This research and development project is aimed at development of the stacking, cooling and operating technologies for the molten carbonate fuel cell power generation systems, to improve service life and performance of these systems and reduce their cost, based on the results obtained so far by the FY 1993. The R and D efforts are directed to (1) technologies for improving stack performance, (2) development of the plant system by operating a 1,000kW class power generation system, and (3) support technologies, e.g., those for stack materials. The item (1) studies 3 stack types, cross-flow, parallel-flow and internal reforming types, including the electrodes, electrolyte-supporting bases and improvement of performance and service life by separator reforming for the cross-flow and parallel-flow types, and installation and operation of a 200kW class stack system for the internal reforming type, where cells are assembled into the system and tested for their operability, after the auxiliary units are PAC-tested. The item (2) installs a 1,000kW class plant, which is operated, after clearing the requirements set by the related laws, e.g., Electric Utility Industry Law, for starting the operation, to achieve the intended targets. The item (3) includes development of the technologies for stack materials, technologies for handling gases produced by coal gasification, and studies on the total systems. (NEDO)

  19. Accelerator molten-salt breeding and thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Kato, Yoshio; Ohno, Hideo; Mitachi, Kohshi.

    1990-01-01

    The recent efforts at the development of fission energy utilization have not been successful in establishing fully rational technology. A new philosophy should be established on the basis of the following three principles: (1) thorium utilization, (2) molten-salt fuel concept, and (3) separation of fissile-breeding and power-generating functions. Such philosophy is called 'Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics [THORIMS-NES]'. The present report first addresses the establishment of 233 U breeding fuel cycle, focusing on major features of the Breeding and Chemical Processing Centers and a small molten-salt power station (called FUJI-II). The development of fissile producing breeders is discussed in relation to accelerator molten-salt breeder (AMSB), impact fusion molten-salt breeder, and inertial-confined fusion hybrid molten-salt breeder. Features of the accelerator molten-salt breeder are described, focusing on technical problems with accelerator breeders (or spallators), design principle of the accelerator molten-salt breeder, selection of molten salt compositions, and nuclear- and reactor-chemical aspects of AMSB. Discussion is also made of further research and development efforts required in the future for AMSB. (N.K.)

  20. Crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, R.J.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    Experimental and analytical studies of the crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability have been performed to examine the crust formation process as a function of boundary temperatures as well as to investigate heat transfer characteristics between molten pool and overlying water in order to evaluate coolability of the molten pool. The experimental test results have shown that the surface temperature of the bottom plate is a dominant parameter in the crust formation process of the molten pool. It is also found that the crust thickness of the case with direct coolant injection into the molten pool is greater than that of the case with a heat exchanger. Increasing mass flow rate of direct coolant injection to the molten pool does not affect the temperature of molten pool after the crust has been formed in the molten pool because the crust behaves as a thermal barrier. The Nusselt number between the molten pool and the coolant of the case with no crust formation is greater than that of the case with crust formation. The results of FLOW-3D analyses have shown that the temperature distribution contributes to the crust formation process due to Rayleigh-Benard natural convection flow.

  1. Core-concrete molten pool dynamics and interfacial heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical models are derived for the heat transfer from molten oxide pools to an underlying concrete surface and from molten steel pools to a general concrete containment. To accomplish this, two separate effects models are first developed, one emphasizing the vigorous agitation of the molten pool by gases evolving from the concrete and the other considering the insulating effect of a slag layer produced by concrete melting. The resulting algebraic expressions, combined into a general core-concrete heat transfer representation, are shown to provide very good agreement with experiments involving molten steel pours into concrete crucibles

  2. Studies on components for a molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejedly, M.; Matal, O.

    2003-01-01

    The aim is contribute to a design of selected components of molten salt reactors with fuel in the molten fluoride salt matrix. Molten salt reactors (MSRs) permit the utilization of plutonium and minor actinides as new nuclear fuel from a traditional nuclear power station with production of electric energy. Results of preliminary feasibility studies of an intermediate heat exchanger, a small power molten salt pump and a modular conception of a steam generator for a demonstration unit of the MSR (30 MW) are summarized. (author)

  3. REAKTOR INNOVATIVE MOLTEN SALT (IMSR DENGAN SISTEM KESELAMATAN PASIF MENYELURUH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andang Widiharto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan Teknologi Reaktor Nuklir pada masa mendatang mengarah pada peningkatan aspek keselamatan, peningkatan pendayagunaan bahan bakar, reduksi limbah radioaktif, ketahanan terhadap proliferasi bahan-bakar nuklir dan peningkatan aspek ekonomi. reaktor Innovative Molten Salt (IMSR adalah reaktor nuklir yang menggunakan bahan bakar cair berupa garam lebur fluoride (7LiF-ThF4-UF4-MaFx. Reaktor IMSR didesain sebagai reaktor pembiak termal, yaitu membiakkan U-233 dari Th-232. Hal ini untuk menjawab permasalahan sustainabilitas ketersedian sumber daya bahan bakar nuklir dan reduksi limbah radioaktif. Dalam aspek keselamatan, desain reaktor IMSR memiliki sifat inherent safe, yaitu koefisien umpan balik daya yang negatif serta memiliki fitur-fitur keselamatan pasif. Fitur-fitur keselamatan pasif terdiri dari sistem shutdown pasif, sistem pendinginan pasif pasca shutdown serta sistem pendinginan pasif untuk produk fisi. Kecelakaan yang berpotensi terjadi pada IMSR, yaitu kecelakaan kehilangan aliran bahan bakar, kecelakaan kehilangan aliran pendingin, kecelakaan kehilangan kemampuan pengambilan kalor serta kecelakaan kerusakan integritas sistem reaktor, dapat ditangani sepenuhnya secara pasif hingga mencapai kondisi shutdown selamat. Kata kunci: keselamatan pasif, inherent safe, IMSR   The next Nuclear Reactor Technology developments are directed to the increasing of the aspects of safety, fuel utility, radioactive waste reduction, proliferation retention and economy. Innovative Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR is a nuclear reactor design that uses fluoride molten salt (7LiF-ThF4-UF4-MaFx. IMSR is designed as a thermal breeder reactor, i.e. to produce U-233 from Th-232. This is the answer of natural nuclear fuel sustainability and radioactive waste problems. In term of safety aspect, IMSR design has inherent safe characteristics, i.e. negative power feedback coefficient, and passive safety features. The passive safety features are passive shutdown

  4. Static fuel molten salt reactors - simpler, cheaper and safer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The many conceptual designs for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR's) today are all evolutions from the prototype MSR that went critical at Oak Ridge 50 years ago. Critically, they are based on pumping the molten fuel salt from a reaction chamber where the fuel achieves critical mass through a heat exchanger where the resulting heat is transferred to another working fluid. This basic concept was not the first idea that the Oak Ridge scientists considered. Their initial preference was to put the molten salt fuel into tubes, just like solid fuel pellets in their cladding, and circulate a coolant past the tubes. They concluded however that the low thermal conductivity of the salt meant that the tubes could be no wider than 2mm which would be entirely impractical. In this analysis they ignored the contribution of convection to heat transfer in fluids, probably because they were designing an aircraft engine where varying g forces would make convection unreliable. Moltex Energy has re-examined this decision using the modern tools of computational fluid dynamics to simulate convective flow in the molten salt and discovered that in fact tubes of similar diameter to those used for solid fuels are entirely practical. Power densities of 250kW/litre of fuel salt are readily attainable providing a higher overall power density than a PWR reactor. This discovery permits MSR's to be built without any of the complex pumping, passively safe drain systems, on line degassing, filtration and chemical processing needed in pumped MSR's. Their design is very simple and they have many intrinsic safety factors including low pressure operation, chemically unreactive fluids and strongly negative fuel thermal and coolant voiding reactivity coefficients. Most importantly, the highly radioactive fission products are retained in non-volatile form within the fuel tubes in the reactor core. Radioactive fuel salt never leaves the reactor vessel except in an immobile frozen form during

  5. Filbe molten salt research for tritium breeder applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Petti, D.A.; Smolik, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Flibe (2Lif·BeF 2 ) molten salt research activities conducted at the INEEL as part of the Japan-US JUPITER-II joint research program. The research focuses on tritium/chemistry issues for self-cooled Flibe tritium breeder applications and includes the following activities: (1) Flibe preparation, purification, characterization and handling, (2) development and testing of REDOX strategies for containment material corrosion control, (3) tritium behavior and management in Flibe breeder systems, and (4) safety testing (e.g., mobilization of Flibe during accident scenarios). This paper describes the laboratory systems developed to support these research activities and summarizes key results of this work to date. (author)

  6. Electrochemical study in molten sodium fluoroborate at 4200C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.

    1983-06-01

    By analysing the behavior of the electrochemical system Cu (I)/Cu it was possible to study the acid-base properties of molten sodium fluoroborate. The anion of the solvent BF 4 - is shown to undergo a strong dissociation according to the equilibrium BF 4 - BF 3 (g) + F - , the Ki constant at 420 0 C being evaluated at 1.58 x 10 -2 mol kg -1 atm. The acidity variations of sodium fluoroborate at this temperature are limited to about two pF units (pKi=1.8). A potentiometric study of the copper, silver and nickel systems showed that the corresponding metallic cations are little complexed by fluoride ions in spite of the strong dissociation of the solvent [fr

  7. Development of molten carbonate fuel cells for power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    The broad and comprehensive program included elements of system definition, cell and system modeling, cell component development, cell testing in pure and contaminated environments, and the first stages of technology scale up. Single cells, with active areas of 45 sq cm and 582 sq cm, were operated at 650 C and improved to state of the art levels through the development of cell design concepts and improved electrolyte and electrode components. Performance was shown to degrade by the presence of fuel contaminants, such as sulfur and chlorine, and due to changes in electrode structure. Using conventional hot press fabrication techniques, electrolyte structures up to 20" x 20" were fabricated. Promising approaches were developed for nonhot pressed electrolyte structure fabrication and a promising electrolyte matrix material was identified. This program formed the basis for a long range effort to realize the benefits of molten carbonate fuel cell power plants.

  8. Molten salts in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirian, J.; Saint-James

    1959-01-01

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author) [fr

  9. Report on achievement in developing fuel cell power generation technology in fiscal 1998. Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system (Test of the research result report); 1998 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu (kenkyu seika no honbun)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This paper summarizes the text of the research result report in the separate volume II-1 from among the fiscal 1998 report on the achievement made on researching and developing a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power generation system. For the AC-DC type system whose high performance and large capacity stacks are being developed, detail designs were made on 250-kW class stack module assembly and installation procedure. At the same time, processing and forming were continued on such main components as electrodes, electrolyte plates and separators. The cells were assembled as modules, sintered, installed and adjusted. Aids were given by the process and control (PAC) test on devices and piping of the fuel cell system block. Cell life extension is also under study. For the parallel flow type stack, two 250-kW stacks were fabricated, and an overall adjustment test was begun thereon in March. For the reformer, an internal reforming system was developed for the 200-kW class system, whose adjustment test is scheduled for April 1999. Capacity increase is also under discussion. For practical use of MCFC, stack life of 40,000 hours is said required. The current status is at the level of exceeding 10,000 hours, but the necessity is seen in suppressing voltage drop associated with lapse of time. (NEDO)

  10. Report on achievement in developing fuel cell power generation technology in fiscal 1998. Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system (Summary of the research result); 1998 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu (kenkyu seika no yoyaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Based on the achievement made in the second term plan of researching and developing a molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system, attempts are made on extending the service life, improving the performance, and reducing the cost. At the same time, lamination, cooling and operation technologies will be established, and a 1000-kW class power generation plant will be developed. Realization of use of coal gasified fuel in the future is aimed. Stack materials and their processing technologies will be developed, the cell durability will be improved, and the total system research will be carried out. This paper describes the achievements made during fiscal 1998. A process and control (PAC) test was performed on the fuel system facilities in the 1000-kW class generation plant, and its result was analyzed. The fuel system facilities had the test program using simulated fuel cells set from the system side digested nearly completely, verifying that actions can be taken for operation using actual fuel cells to be executed in fiscal 1999. Analysis of the test result presented raw material conversion rate of 96.6% or higher, generation of hydrogen plus CO of 740 m{sup 3} N/h, and NOx generation of 10 ppm or less. Stable combustion of a low calorie gas (500 kcal/m{sup 3} N) was achieved, completing all of the research objectives planned for fiscal 1998. (NEDO)

  11. Scaling options for integral experiments for molten salt fluid mechanics and heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe Bardet; Per F Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Molten fluoride salts have potentially large benefits for use in high-temperature heat transport in fission and fusion energy systems, due to their very very low vapor pressures at high temperatures. Molten salts have high volumetric heat capacity compared to high-pressure helium and liquid metals, and have desirable safety characteristics due to their chemical inertness and low pressure. Therefore molten salts have been studied extensively for use in fusion blankets, as an intermediate heat transfer fluid for thermochemical hydrogen production in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, as a primary coolant for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor, and as a solvent for fuel in the Molten Salt Reactor. This paper presents recent progress in the design and analysis of scaled thermal hydraulics experiments for molten salt systems. We have identified a category of light mineral oils that can be used for scaled experiments. By adjusting the length, velocity, average temperature, and temperature difference scales of the experiment, we show that it is possible to simultaneously match the Reynolds (Re), Froude (Fr), Prandtl (Pr) and Rayleigh (Ra) numbers in the scaled experiments. For example, the light mineral oil Penreco Drakesol 260 AT can be used to simulate the molten salt flibe (Li 2 BeF 4 ). At 110 deg. C, the oil Pr matches 600 deg. C flibe, and at 165 deg. C, the oil Pr matches 900 deg. C flibe. Re, Fr, and Ra can then be matched at a length scale of Ls/Lp = 0.40, velocity scale of U s /U p = 0.63, and temperature difference scale of ΔT s /ΔT p = 0.29. The Weber number is then matched within a factor of two, We s /We p = 0.7. Mechanical pumping power scales as Qp s /Qp p = 0.016, while heat inputs scale as Qh s /Qh p = 0.010, showing that power inputs to scaled experiments are very small compared to the prototype system. The scaled system has accelerated time, t s /t p = 0.64. When Re, Fr, Pr and Ra are matched, geometrically scaled

  12. Electrochemical studies on plutonium in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, G.; Lambertin, D.; Rochefort, S.; Delpech, S.; Picard, G.

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical studies on plutonium have been supporting the development of pyrochemical processes involving plutonium at CEA. The electrochemical properties of plutonium have been studied in molten salts - ternary eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl-BaCl 2 , equimolar mixture NaCl-KCl and pure CaCl 2 - and in liquid gallium at 1073 K. The formal, or apparent, standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu redox couple in eutectic mixture of NaCl-KCl-BaCl 2 at 1073 K determined by potentiometry is equal to -2.56 V (versus Cl 2 , 1 atm/Cl - reference electrode). In NaCl-KCl eutectic mixture and in pure CaCl 2 the formal standard potentials deduced from cyclic voltammetry are respectively -2.54 V and -2.51 V. These potentials led to the calculation of the activity coefficients of Pu(III) in the molten salts. Chronoamperometry on plutonium in liquid gallium using molten chlorides - CaCl 2 and equimolar NaCl/KCl - led to the determination of the activity coefficient of Pu in liquid Ga, log γ = -7.3. This new data is a key parameter to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of a process using gallium as solvent metal. By comparing gallium with other solvent metals - cadmium, bismuth, aluminum - gallium appears to be, with aluminum, more favorable for the selectivity of the separation at 1073 K of plutonium from cerium. In fact, compared with a solid tungsten electrode, none of these solvent liquid metals is a real asset for the selectivity of the separation. The role of a solvent liquid metal is mainly to trap the elements

  13. Thermal Stress and Heat Transfer Coefficient for Ceramics Stalk Having Protuberance Dipping into Molten Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Nao-Aki; Hendra; Li, Wenbin; Takase, Yasushi; Ogura, Hiroki; Higashi, Yusuke

    Low pressure die casting is defined as a net shape casting technology in which the molten metal is injected at high speeds and pressure into a metallic die. The low pressure die casting process plays an increasingly important role in the foundry industry as a low-cost and high-efficiency precision forming technique. In the low pressure die casting process is that the permanent die and filling systems are placed over the furnace containing the molten alloy. The filling of the cavity is obtained by forcing the molten metal, by means of a pressurized gas, to rise into a ceramic tube having protuberance, which connects the die to the furnace. The ceramics tube, called stalk, has high temperature resistance and high corrosion resistance. However, attention should be paid to the thermal stress when the stalk having protuberance is dipped into the molten aluminum. It is important to reduce the risk of fracture that may happen due to the thermal stresses. In this paper, thermo-fluid analysis is performed to calculate surface heat transfer coefficient. The finite element method is applied to calculate the thermal stresses when the stalk having protuberance is dipped into the crucible with varying dipping speeds. It is found that the stalk with or without protuberance should be dipped into the crucible slowly to reduce the thermal stress.

  14. Modified ADS molten salt processes for back-end fuel cycle of PWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In-Kyu; Yeon, Jei-Won; Kim, Won-Ho

    2002-01-01

    The back-end fuel cycle concept for PWR spent fuel is explained. This concept is adequate for Korea, which has operated both PWR and CANDU reactors. Molten salt processes for accelerator driven system (ADS) were modified both for the transmutation of long-lived radioisotopes and for the utilisation of the remained fissile uranium in PWR spent fuels. Prior to applying molten salt processes to PWR fuel, hydrofluorination and fluorination processes are applied to obtain uranium hexafluoride from the spent fuel pellet. It is converted to uranium dioxide and fabricated into CANDU fuel. From the remained fluoride compounds, transuranium elements can be separated by the molten salt technology such as electrowinning and reductive extraction processes for transmutation purpose without weakening the proliferation resistance of molten salt technology. The proposed fuel cycle concept using fluorination processes is thought to be adequate for our nuclear program and can replace DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactor) fuel cycle. Each process for the proposed fuel cycle concept was evaluated in detail

  15. Destruction of high explosives and wastes containing high explosives using the molten salt destruction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process which has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD has been used by Rockwell International and by Anti-Pollution Systems to destroy hazardous wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents (including the HE) of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. In the case of HE-containing mixed wastes, any actinides in the waste are retained in the molten salt, thus converting the mixed wastes into low-level wastes. (Even though the MSD process is applicable to mixed wastes, this paper will emphasize HE-treatment.) The destruction of HE is accomplished by introducing it, together with oxidant gases, into a crucible containing a molten salt, such as sodium carbonate, or a suitable mixture of the carbonates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium. The temperature of the molten salt can be between 400 to 900 degrees C. The combustible organic components of the waste react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, nitrogen and steam

  16. Apparatus and Method for Increasing the Diameter of Metal Alloy Wires Within a Molten Metal Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Alan D.; Argetsinger, Edward R.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Paige, Jack I.; King, Paul E.; Turner, Paul C.

    2002-01-29

    In a dip forming process the core material to be coated is introduced directly into a source block of coating material eliminating the need for a bushing entrance component. The process containment vessel or crucible is heated so that only a portion of the coating material becomes molten, leaving a solid portion of material as the entrance port of, and seal around, the core material. The crucible can contain molten and solid metals and is especially useful when coating core material with reactive metals. The source block of coating material has been machined to include a close tolerance hole of a size and shape to closely fit the core material. The core material moves first through the solid portion of the source block of coating material where the close tolerance hole has been machined, then through a solid/molten interface, and finally through the molten phase where the diameter of the core material is increased. The crucible may or may not require water-cooling depending upon the type of material used in crucible construction. The system may operate under vacuum, partial vacuum, atmospheric pressure, or positive pressure depending upon the type of source material being used.

  17. Applications of molten salts in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900 0 C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and/or reaction medium. Salts for these operations were selected early in the development cycle. The selection criteria are being reevaluated. In this article we describe the processes now in use at Los Alamos and our studies of alternate salts and eutectics

  18. Electrorecovery of tantalum in molten fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinola, A.; Dutra, A.J.B.; Silva, F.T. da

    1988-01-01

    Considering the privileged situation of Brazil as a productor of tantaliferous minerals, the authors have in view the development of a technology for production of metallic tantalum via molten salts electrolysis; this has the advantage of improving the aggregate value of exportation products, additionally to tantalum oxide and tantalum concentrates. Having in view the preliminary determintion of better conditions of temperature, electrolyte composition and current density for this process, electrolysis were conducted with a solvent composed of an eutetic mixture of lithium, sodium and potassium fluoride for dipotassium fluotantalate and occasionally for tantalum oxide. Current efficiencies as high as 83% were obtained in favoured conditions. (author) [pt

  19. Safe actinide disposition in molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.

    1997-01-01

    Safe molten salt reactors (MSR) can readily accommodate the burning of all fissile actinides. Only minor compromises associated with plutonium are required. The MSRs can dispose safely of actinides and long lived isotopes to result in safer and simpler waste. Disposing of actinides in MSRs does increase the source term of a safety optimized MSR. It is concluded that the burning and transmutation of actinides in MSRs can be done in a safe manner. Development is needed for the processing to handle and separate the actinides. Calculations are needed to establish the neutron economy and the fuel management. 9 refs

  20. On purpose simulation model for molten salt CSP parabolic trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranese, Carlo; Matino, Francesca; Maccari, Augusto

    2017-06-01

    The utilization of computer codes and simulation software is one of the fundamental aspects for the development of any kind of technology and, in particular, in CSP sector for researchers, energy institutions, EPC and others stakeholders. In that extent, several models for the simulation of CSP plant have been developed with different main objectives (dynamic simulation, productivity analysis, techno economic optimization, etc.), each of which has shown its own validity and suitability. Some of those models have been designed to study several plant configurations taking into account different CSP plant technologies (Parabolic trough, Linear Fresnel, Solar Tower or Dish) and different settings for the heat transfer fluid, the thermal storage systems and for the overall plant operating logic. Due to a lack of direct experience of Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) commercial plant operation, most of the simulation tools do not foresee a suitable management of the thermal energy storage logic and of the solar field freeze protection system, but follow standard schemes. ASSALT, Ase Software for SALT csp plants, has been developed to improve MSPT plant's simulations, by exploiting the most correct operational strategies in order to provide more accurate technical and economical results. In particular, ASSALT applies MSPT specific control logics for the electric energy production and delivery strategy as well as the operation modes of the Solar Field in off-normal sunshine condition. With this approach, the estimated plant efficiency is increased and the electricity consumptions required for the plant operation and management is drastically reduced. Here we present a first comparative study on a real case 55 MWe Molten Salt Parabolic Trough CSP plant placed in the Tibetan highlands, using ASSALT and SAM (System Advisor Model), which is a commercially available simulation tool.

  1. Neutron shielding studies on an advanced molten salt fast reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, Bruno; Konheiser, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Material damage due to irradiation has already been discovered at the MSRE. • Neutronic analysis of MSFR with curved blanket wall geometry. • Neutron fluence limit at the wall of the outer vessel can be kept for 80 years. • Shielded MSFR core will be of same dimension than a SFR core. - Abstract: The molten salt reactor technology has gained some new interest. In contrast to the historic molten salt reactors, the current projects are based on designing a molten salt fast reactor. Thus the shielding becomes significantly more challenging than in historic concepts. One very interesting and innovative result of the most recent EURATOM project on molten salt reactors – EVOL – is the fluid flow optimized design of the inner reactor vessel using curved blanket walls. The developed structure leads to a very uniform flow distribution. The design avoids all internal structures. Based on this new geometry a model for neutron physics calculation is presented. The major steps are: the modeling of the curved geometry in the unstructured mesh neutron transport code HELIOS and the determination of the real neutron flux and power distribution for this new geometry. The developed model is then used for the determination of the neutron fluence distribution in the inner and outer wall of the system. Based on these results an optimized shielding strategy is developed for the molten salt fast reactor to keep the fluence in the safety related outer vessel below expected limit values. A lifetime of 80 years can be assured, but the size of the core/blanket system will be comparable to a sodium cooled fast reactor. The HELIOS results are verified against Monte-Carlo calculations with very satisfactory agreement for a deep penetration problem

  2. Interaction of calcium oxide with molten alkali metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.V.; Zhuravlev, V.I.; Ermakov, D.S.; Magurina, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium oxide solubility in molten lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium chlorides and their binary mixtures is determined in a temperature range of 973-1173 K by the method of isothermal saturation. Mechanisms of calcium oxide interaction with molten alkali metal chlorides are proposed

  3. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  4. Advancing Molten Salts and Fuels at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Salvador B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-26

    SNL has a combination of experimental facilities, nuclear engineering, nuclear security, severe nuclear accidents, and nuclear safeguards expertise that can enable significant progress towards molten salts and fuels for Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs). The following areas and opportunities are discussed in more detail in this white paper.

  5. On the ionic equilibrium between complexes in molten fluoroaluminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdeniz, Z.; Tankeshwar, K.; Tosi, M.P.

    1991-02-01

    We discuss theoretically (i) the effect of the alkali cation species on the ionic equilibrium between (AlF 6 ) 3- and (AlF 4 ) - complexes in molten alkali fluoroaluminates, and (ii) the possible presence of (AlF 5 ) 2 - complexes in molten cryolite, in relation to very recent Raman scattering experiments by Gilbert and Materne. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  6. 46 CFR 151.50-55 - Sulfur (molten).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-55 Sulfur (molten). (a.... Heat transfer media shall be steam, and alternate media will require specific approval of the... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfur (molten). 151.50-55 Section 151.50-55 Shipping...

  7. Redox reactions in rare earth chloride molten electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, V.A.; Novoselova, A.V.; Nikolaeva, E.V.; Tkacheva, O.Yu.; Salyulev, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    Rare earth (REM, Ln) solutions in chloride melts including MCI+LnCl 3 mixtures, where M - alkali metals, were investigated by potentiometry, voltammetry, conductometry in wide concentration and temperature intervals. Findings present complete and trusty information on the valent state of rare earths, structure and composition of complex ions affecting essentially on properties of electrolytes. It is demonstrated that the coexistence of rare earth ions with different oxidation level formed as a result of possible redox reactions: 2Ln 3+ + Ln ↔3Ln 2+ , Ln 2+ + Ln↔2Ln + and nM + + Ln↔nM + Ln n+ appears sharply in thermodynamic and transport properties of molten Ln-LnCl 3 and Ln-LnCl 3 -MCl systems [ru

  8. Definition of breeding gain for molten salt reactors - 147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, K.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Lathouwers, D.; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The graphite-moderated Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a potential breeder reactor using the thorium fuel cycle. The MSR has unique properties due to the possibility of making changes to the salt composition during operation. Most important is the extraction of protactinium, which separates the fissile uranium production into two volumes: the reactor core and the external stockpile. The paper focuses on the definition of breeding gain in such a system. The prospects of using breeding gain expressions defined for solid fuel reactors are investigated and new definitions are given which incorporate the processes occurring in the reactor core and the external stockpile. The difference of the growth rate of the mass of fissile material and breeding gain is pointed out. The new definitions are applied to an optimization study of the graphite-salt lattice of a breeder MSR. (authors)

  9. Molten Salt Fuel Cycle Requirements for ADTT Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.; Williams, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The operation of an ADT system with the associated nuclear reactions has a profound effect upon the chemistry of the fuel - especially with regards to container compatibility and the chemical separations that may be required. The container can be protected by maintaining the redox chemistry within a relatively narrow, non-corrosive window. Neutron economy as well as other factors require a sophisticated regime of fission product separations. Neither of these control requirements has been demonstrated on the scale or degree of sophistication necessary to support an ADT device. We review the present situation with respect to fluoride salts, and focus on the critical issues in these areas which must be addressed. One requirement for advancement in this area - a supply of suitable materials - will soon be fulfilled by the remediation of ORNLs Molten Salt Reactor Experiment, and the removal of a total of 11,000 kg of enriched (Li-7 > 99.9%) coolant, flush, and fuel salts

  10. Experimental evaluation of mercury release from molten lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutu, N.K.; Greene, G.A.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    In order to assess the worst impact of an extremely improbable accident in an accelerator target for producing tritium, an event scenario was developed and analyzed, and an experiment was Performed to resolve an important question raised by the analysis. The target, known as SILC for ''Spallation Induced Lithium Conversion,'' contains approximately 22 metric tons of Pb, with small inventories of potentially hazardous radionuclides which continue to accumulate as the production cycle continues. Analysis of a scenario involving several failures in the normal, backup, and emergency cooling systems is presented, including event simulation by BNL indicating when and how long the Pb continues to melt, and a summary of SNL estimates of the releases of potentially hazardous spallation products is given. Finally, a recent experiment is described in which it was shown that virtually no mercury is likely to escape from the molten Pb, a result having significant impact on the potential risk of such worst-case scenarios

  11. Characteristics of fission product release from a molten pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J.I.; Suh, K.Y.; Kang, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    The volatile fission products are released from the debris pool, while the less volatile fission products tend to remain as condensed phases because of their low vapor pressure. The release of noble gases and the volatile fission products is dominated by bubble dynamics. The release of the less volatile fission products from the pool can be analyzed based on mass transport through a liquid with the convection flow. The physico-numerical models were orchestrated from existing submodels in various disciplines of engineering to estimate the released fraction of fission products from a molten pool. It was assumed that the pool has partially filled hemispherical geometry. For the high pool pressure, the diameter of the bubbles at detachment was calculated utilizing the Cole and Shulman correlation with the effect of system pressure. Sensitivity analyses were performed and results of the numerical calculations were compared with analysis results for the TMI-2 accident. (author)

  12. Preliminary Neutronics Design Studies for a Molten Salt Blanket LIFE Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) Program being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) aims to design a hybrid fission-fusion subcritical nuclear engine that uses a laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system to drive a subcritical fission blanket. This combined fusion-fission hybrid system could be used for generating electricity, material transmutation or incineration, or other applications. LIFE does not require enriched fuel since it is a sub-critical system and LIFE can sustain power operation beyond the burnup levels at which typical fission reactors need to be refueled. In light of these factors, numerous options have been suggested and are being investigated. Options being investigated include fueling LIFE engines with spent nuclear fuel to aid in disposal/incineration of commercial spent nuclear fuel or using depleted uranium or thorium fueled options to enhance proliferation resistance and utilize non-fissile materials (1]. LIFE engine blanket designs using a molten salt fuel system represent one area of investigation. Possible applications of a LIFE engine with a molten salt blanket include uses as a spent nuclear fuel burner, fissile fuel breeding platform, and providing a backup alternative to other LIFE engine blanket designs using TRISO fuel particles in case the TRISO particles are found to be unable to withstand the irradiation they will be subjected to. These molten salts consist of a mixture of LiF with UF 4 or ThF 4 or some combination thereof. Future systems could look at using PuF 3 or PuF 4 as well, though no work on such system with initial plutonium loadings has been performed for studies documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to document preliminary neutronics design studies performed to support the development of a molten salt blanket LIFE engine option, as part of the LIFE Program being performed at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory. Preliminary design studies

  13. Preliminary Neutronics Design Studies for a Molten Salt Blanket LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J

    2008-10-23

    The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) Program being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) aims to design a hybrid fission-fusion subcritical nuclear engine that uses a laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system to drive a subcritical fission blanket. This combined fusion-fission hybrid system could be used for generating electricity, material transmutation or incineration, or other applications. LIFE does not require enriched fuel since it is a sub-critical system and LIFE can sustain power operation beyond the burnup levels at which typical fission reactors need to be refueled. In light of these factors, numerous options have been suggested and are being investigated. Options being investigated include fueling LIFE engines with spent nuclear fuel to aid in disposal/incineration of commercial spent nuclear fuel or using depleted uranium or thorium fueled options to enhance proliferation resistance and utilize non-fissile materials [1]. LIFE engine blanket designs using a molten salt fuel system represent one area of investigation. Possible applications of a LIFE engine with a molten salt blanket include uses as a spent nuclear fuel burner, fissile fuel breeding platform, and providing a backup alternative to other LIFE engine blanket designs using TRISO fuel particles in case the TRISO particles are found to be unable to withstand the irradiation they will be subjected to. These molten salts consist of a mixture of LiF with UF{sub 4} or ThF{sub 4} or some combination thereof. Future systems could look at using PuF{sub 3} or PuF{sub 4} as well, though no work on such system with initial plutonium loadings has been performed for studies documented in this report. The purpose of this report is to document preliminary neutronics design studies performed to support the development of a molten salt blanket LIFE engine option, as part of the LIFE Program being performed at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory

  14. Experimental studies of oxidic molten corium-vessel steel interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechta, S.V.; Khabensky, V.B.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.; Lopukh, D.B.; Petrov, Yu.B.; Petchenkov, A.Yu.; Kulagin, I.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Kovtunova, S.V.; Martinov, V.V.; Gusarov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results of molten corium-steel specimen interaction with molten corium on the 'Rasplav-2' test facility are presented. In the experiments, cooled vessel steel specimens positioned on the molten pool bottom and uncooled ones lowered into the molten pool were tested. Interaction processes were studied for different corium compositions, melt superheating and in alternative (inert and air) overlying atmosphere. Hypotheses were put forward explaining the observed phenomena and interaction mechanisms. The studies presented in the paper were aimed at the detection of different corium-steel interaction mechanisms. Therefore certain identified phenomena are more typical of the ex-vessel localization conditions than of the in-vessel corium retention. Primarily, this can be referred to the phenomena of low-temperature molten corium-vessel steel interaction in oxidizing atmosphere

  15. Experimental studies of oxidic molten corium-vessel steel interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechta, S.V. E-mail: niti-npc@sbor.net; Khabensky, V.B.; Vitol, S.A.; Krushinov, E.V.; Lopukh, D.B.; Petrov, Yu.B.; Petchenkov, A.Yu.; Kulagin, I.V.; Granovsky, V.S.; Kovtunova, S.V.; Martinov, V.V.; Gusarov, V.V

    2001-12-01

    The experimental results of molten corium-steel specimen interaction with molten corium on the 'Rasplav-2' test facility are presented. In the experiments, cooled vessel steel specimens positioned on the molten pool bottom and uncooled ones lowered into the molten pool were tested. Interaction processes were studied for different corium compositions, melt superheating and in alternative (inert and air) overlying atmosphere. Hypotheses were put forward explaining the observed phenomena and interaction mechanisms. The studies presented in the paper were aimed at the detection of different corium-steel interaction mechanisms. Therefore certain identified phenomena are more typical of the ex-vessel localization conditions than of the in-vessel corium retention. Primarily, this can be referred to the phenomena of low-temperature molten corium-vessel steel interaction in oxidizing atmosphere.

  16. Measurement and analyses of molten Ni-Co alloy density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; K. MUKAI; FANG Liang; FU Ya; YANG Ren-hui

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of powerful mathematical modeling techniques for material phenomena, there is renewed interest in reliable data for the density of the Ni-based superalloys. Up to now, there has been few report on the density of molten Ni-Co alloy.In order to obtain more accurate density data for molten Ni-Co alloy, the density of molten Ni-Co alloy was measured with a modified sessile drop method, and the accommodation of different atoms in molten Ni-Co alloy was analyzed. The density of alloy is found to decrease with increasing temperature and Co concentration in the alloy. The molar volume of molten Ni-Co alloy increases with increasing Co concentration. The molar volume of Ni-Co alloy determined shows a positive deviation from the linear molar volume, and the deviation of molar volume from ideal mixing increases with increasing Co concentration over the experimental concentration range.

  17. Molten salt extractive distillation process for zirconium-hafnium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for zirconium-hafnium separation. It utilizes an extractive distillation column with a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides introduced into a distillation column having a top and bottom with hafnium enriched overheads taken from the top of the column and a molten salt solvent circulated through the column to provide a liquid phase, and with molten salt solvent containing zirconium chloride being taken from the bottom of the distillation column. The improvements comprising: utilizing a molten salt solvent consisting principally of lithium chloride and at least one of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium chlorides; stripping of the zirconium chloride taken from the bottom of the distillation column by electrochemically reducing zirconium from the molten salt solvent; and utilizing a pressurized reflux condenser on the top of the column to add the hafnium chloride enriched overheads to the molten salt solvent previously stripped of zirconium chloride

  18. Molten core material holding device in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hisashi; Tanaka, Nobuo; Takahashi, Katsuro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the function of cooling to hold molten core materials in a molten core material holding device. Constitution: Plenum structures are formed into a pan-like configuration, in which liners made of metal having high melting point and relatively high heat conductivity such as tantalum, tungsten, rhenium or alloys thereof are integrally appended to hold and directly cool the molten reactor core materials. Further, a plurality of heat pipes, passing through the plenum structures, facing the cooling portion thereof to the coolants at the outer side and immersing the heating portion into the molten core materials fallen to deposit in the inner liners are disposed radially. Furthermore, heat pipes embodded in the plenum structure are disposed in the same manner below the liners. Thus, the plenum structures and the molten reactor core materials can be cooled at a high efficiency. (Seki, T.)

  19. ANALISIS TRANSIEN PADA PASSIVE COMPACT MOLTEN SALT REACTOR (PCMSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Makrus Imron

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan bahan bakar cair berupa garam LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 pada Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR meyebabkan pengendalian daya pada PCMSR dapat dilakukan dengan mengendalikan laju aliran bahan bakar dan pendingin. Sedangkan dari sistem keselamatan, penggunaan bahan bakar cair menjadikan PCMSR memiliki karakter keselamatan melekat (inherent safety yang baik. Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan analisis transien PCMSR pada tiga kondisi, yaitu: ketika terjadi perubahan laju aliran bahan bakar, ketika terjadi perubahan laju aliran pendingin dan ketika terdapat kegagalan pada sistem pelepasan panas (loss of heat sink. Penelitian dilakukan dengan memodelkan reaktor pada kondisi tunak menggunakan paket program. Standart Reactor Analysis Code (SRAC. Selanjutnya dari keluaran paket program SRAC diperoleh data data yang meliputi fluks netron,konstanta grup, kontanta peluran prekusor netron, fraksi netron kasip untuk perhitungan transien. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penurunan laju aliran bahan bakar sebesar 50 % dari laju bahan bakar sebelumnya, menyebabkan daya pada PCMSR turun menjadi 78 % dari daya sebelumnya. Dan penurunan laju aliran pendingin sebesar 50 % dari laju pendingin sebelumnya, menyebabkan daya pada PCMSR turun menjadi 63 % dari daya sebelumnya. Sedangkan pada saat terjadi loss of heat sink daya PCMSR menunjukkan penurunan. Kata kunci: PCMSR, transien, daya, laju aliran.   The use of liquid fuels in the form of molten salts LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4 in Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR makes power control at PCMSR can be done by controlling the flow rate of fuel and coolant. In addition, from safety systems aspect, the use of liquid fuels makes PCMSR has good inherent safety characteristics. In this study transient analysis has been carried out on three conditions of PCMSR, namely when the fuel flow rate is changing, when the coolant flow rate is changing and when there is loss of heat sink condition. This research is

  20. Fuel processing for molten-salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Research devoted to development of processes for the isolation of protactinium and for the removal of fission products from molten-salt breeder reactors is reported. During this report period, engineering development progressed on continuous fluorinators for uranium removal, the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal, the fuel reconstitution step, and molten salt--bismuth contactors to be used in reductive extraction processes. The metal transfer experiment MTE-3B was started. In this experiment all parts of the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal are demonstrated using salt flow rates which are about 1 percent of those required to process the fuel salt in a 1000-MW(e) MSBR. During this report period the salt and bismuth phases were transferred to the experimental vessels, and two runs with agitator speeds of 5 rps were made to measure the rate of transfer of neodymium from the fluoride salt to the Bi--Li stripper solution. The uranium removed from the fuel salt by fluorination must be returned to the processed salt in the fuel reconstitution step before the fuel salt is returned to the reactor. An engineering experiment to demonstrate the fuel reconstitution step is being installed. In this experiment gold-lined equipment will be used to avoid introducing products of corrosion by UF 6 and UF 5 . Alternative methods for providing the gold lining include electroplating and mechanical fabrication

  1. Preliminary Study of Single-Phase Natural Circulation for Lab-scaled Molten Salt Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yukyung; Kang, Sarah; Kim, In Guk; Seo, Seok Bin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Advanced reactors such as MSR (FHR), VHTR and AHTR utilized molten salt as a coolant for efficiency and safety which has advantages in higher heat capacity, lower pumping power and scale compared to liquid metal. It becomes more necessary to study on the characteristics of molten salt. However, due to several characteristics such as high operating temperature, large-scale facility and preventing solidification, satisfying that condition for study has difficulties. Thus simulant fluid was used with scaling method for lab-scale experiment. Scaled experiment enables simulant fluid to simulate fluid mechanics and heat transfer behavior of molten salt on lower operating temperature and reduced scale. In this paper, as a proof test of the scaled experiment, simplified single-phase natural circulation loop was designed in a lab-scale and applied to the passive safety system in advanced reactor in which molten salt is considered as a major coolant of the system. For the application of the improved safety system, prototype was based on the primary loop of the test-scale DRACS, the main passive safety system in FHR, developed at the OSU. For preliminary experiment, single-phase natural circulation under low power was performed. DOWTHERM A and DOWTHERM RP were selected as simulant candidates. Then, study of feasibility with simulant was conducted based on the scaling law for heat transfer characteristics and geometric parameters. Additionally, simulation with MARS code and ANSYS-CFX with the same condition of natural circulation was carried out as verification. For the accurate code simulation, thermo-physical properties of DOWTHERM A and RP were developed and implemented into MARS code. In this study, single-phase natural circulation experiment was performed with simulant oil, DOWTHERM RP, based on the passive safety system of FHR. Feasibility of similarity experiment for molten salt with oil simulant was confirmed by scaling method. In addition, simulation with two

  2. Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Anderson, Mark; Simpson, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal

  3. Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Simpson, Mike [Idaho National Lab., (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

  4. Global measure for energy + environmental problems by thorium molten-salt nuclear energy synergetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.; Lecocq, A.; Mitachi, K.; Kato, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The new global fission industry as a measure for energy and environmental problems of the next century should keep a strong public acceptance, which means to ensure an enough rational safety feature not only in the engineering issue but also in the all issues of integral fuel-cycle system. In these sense, the rational characteristics of the Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetic System (THORIMS-NES) is widely explained relating with a) resources and environmental problems, b) safety, c) nuclear-proliferation and -terrorism, d) breeding fuel-cycle, chemical processing and radio-wastes, and e) social acceptability and economy, including 'North-South' problems. The basic technology of Molten-Salt Reactor system has been established, and the practical and economical development program of THORIMS-NES is also proposed. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs

  5. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  6. Behaviour of metals and alloys in molten fluoride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, St.

    2009-01-01

    Fluoride salts are contemplated for Generation IV nuclear systems which structural materials need to resist corrosion at high temperatures. Corrosion of metals in molten fluorides has been investigated in support of the Molten Salt Reactor's development and led to an optimized alloy, Hastelloy-N, but it lacked fundamentals data for the comprehension of materials' degradation mechanisms. The main objective of this work is then to help with the understanding of the corrosion behaviour of nickel and its alloys in fluoride salts. An experimental method was built up using electrochemical techniques and enabled to investigate the thermochemical conditions of the media and the influence of different parameters (media, temperature and quantity of impurities) on the behaviour of the materials. Most tests were performed in LiF-NaF mixtures between 800 and 1000 C. Pure metals can be classified as follows: Cr ≤ Fe ≤ Ni ≤ Mo ≤ W in increasing stability order and two specific behaviours were evidenced: Cr and Fe corrode in the melt, whereas Ni, Mo and W are stable, underlining the significance level of the redox couple controlling the reactions in the mixture. Moreover, corrosion current densities increase with temperature, fluoro-acidity and the quantity of dissolved oxide in the melt. Binary Ni-Cr alloys were also tested; selective attack of Cr is first observed before both elements are oxidized. Combining thermochemical calculations and experimental results enables to propose an approach to establish an optimized composition for a stable alloy. Immersion tests were finally achieved in addition to the electrochemical tests: interpretations of both methods were compared and completed. (author)

  7. Rotating disk electrode study of borohydride oxidation in a molten eutectic electrolyte and advancements in the intermediate temperature borohydride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew; Gyenge, Előd L.

    2017-08-01

    The electrode kinetics of the NaBH4 oxidation reaction (BOR) in a molten NaOH-KOH eutectic mixture is investigated by rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry on electrochemically oxidized Ni at temperatures between 458 K and 503 K. The BH4- diffusion coefficient in the molten alkali eutectic together with the BOR activation energy, exchange current density, transfer coefficient and number of electrons exchanged, are determined. Electrochemically oxidized Ni shows excellent BOR electrocatalytic activity with a maximum of seven electrons exchanged and a transfer coefficient up to one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals the formation of NiO as the catalytically active species. The high faradaic efficiency and BOR rate on oxidized Ni anode in the molten electrolyte compared to aqueous alkaline electrolytes is advantageous for power sources. A novel molten electrolyte battery design is investigated using dissolved NaBH4 at the anode and immobilized KIO4 at the cathode. This battery produces a stable open-circuit cell potential of 1.04 V, and a peak power density of 130 mW cm-2 corresponding to a superficial current density of 160 mA cm-2 at 458 K. With further improvements and scale-up borohydride molten electrolyte batteries and fuel cells could be integrated with thermal energy storage systems.

  8. Effect of focusing condition on molten area characteristics in micro-welding of borosilicate glass by picosecond pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, I.H.W.; Okamoto, Y.; Okada, A.; Takekuni, T. [Okayama University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama (Japan); Sakagawa, T. [Kataoka Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The characteristics of the molten area are attributed not only by laser energy condition but also the focusing condition. In this study, a picosecond pulsed laser of 1064 nm in wavelength and 12.5 ps in pulse duration was used as a laser source for joining glass material. Influence of focusing condition on micro-welding of glasses was experimentally investigated by using an objective lens with and without spherical aberration correction, and its molten area was characterized. The usage of objective lens with spherical aberration correction led to a larger molten area inside the bulk material of glass even under the same pulse energy, which related to the efficient micro-welding of glass materials. In addition, an optical system with the spherical aberration correction led to a stable absorption of laser energy inside the bulk glass material, stabilizing the shape of molten area, which resulted in the reliable weld joint. On the other hand, breaking strength of the specimens with spherical aberration correction was higher than that without spherical aberration correction. Therefore, it is concluded that the focusing condition with spherical aberration correction led to the larger and stable molten area, which resulted in higher joining strength in micro-welding of glass materials. (orig.)

  9. Review on the current status of molten chloride reactor and its future prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seok Bin; Shin, Yukyung; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper has summarized and reviewed the current status of MCR as an online pyroprocessing reactor, and introduced the related works in UNIST. As the developments of the next generation nuclear energy systems require the fuel sustainability, passive operation safety, nuclear proliferation, and reduction of highly radioactive waste, only several types of nuclear reactor systems survive to the last. Among these, molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising concepts of next generation nuclear reactor system that deliver on these requirements. MSR have great advantages in the fuel cycle and reduction of nuclear waste, since MSR can serve the online reprocessing system for the reprocessing of spent fuel. Especially, MSR utilizing chloride-based fuel, called molten chloride reactor (MCR) has been recently highlighted in USA under the DOE’s Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) program. Recently, the interests in the molten chloride salt have arisen. The use of chloride-based salt gives great advantages to the reactor operating in a fast spectrum. Then MCR can serve waste management functions or fuel cycle sustainability functions, which can solve the current issues in nuclear field. Thus, research plan was established in UNIST which includes the investigation of thermal-hydraulic characteristics of chloride salt and optimization of heat transport system of MCR, using both numerical method and experimental method.

  10. Review on the current status of molten chloride reactor and its future prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Seok Bin; Shin, Yukyung; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-01-01

    This paper has summarized and reviewed the current status of MCR as an online pyroprocessing reactor, and introduced the related works in UNIST. As the developments of the next generation nuclear energy systems require the fuel sustainability, passive operation safety, nuclear proliferation, and reduction of highly radioactive waste, only several types of nuclear reactor systems survive to the last. Among these, molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising concepts of next generation nuclear reactor system that deliver on these requirements. MSR have great advantages in the fuel cycle and reduction of nuclear waste, since MSR can serve the online reprocessing system for the reprocessing of spent fuel. Especially, MSR utilizing chloride-based fuel, called molten chloride reactor (MCR) has been recently highlighted in USA under the DOE’s Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) program. Recently, the interests in the molten chloride salt have arisen. The use of chloride-based salt gives great advantages to the reactor operating in a fast spectrum. Then MCR can serve waste management functions or fuel cycle sustainability functions, which can solve the current issues in nuclear field. Thus, research plan was established in UNIST which includes the investigation of thermal-hydraulic characteristics of chloride salt and optimization of heat transport system of MCR, using both numerical method and experimental method

  11. Thermodynamic Assessment of Hot Corrosion Mechanisms of Superalloys Hastelloy N and Haynes 242 in Eutectic Mixture of Molten Salts KF and ZrF4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael V. Glazoff

    2012-02-01

    The KF - ZrF4 system was considered for the application as a heat exchange agent in molten salt nuclear reactors (MSRs) beginning with the work carried out at ORNL in early fifties. Based on a combination of excellent properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity in the molten state, and other thermo-physical and rheological properties, it was selected as one of possible candidates for the nuclear reactor secondary heat exchanger loop.

  12. Specific electrical conductivity in molten potassium dihydrogen phosphate KH2PO4 - An electrolyte for water electrolysis at ∼300°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich; Berg, Rolf W.; Petrushina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The conductivity of pure molten KH2PO4 salt and four mixtures with more or less water (KH2PO4-H2O and KH2PO4-KPO3 systems, respectively) were measured at temperatures of 240-320°C and under their own water vapor pressures. Molten KH2PO4 has been proven to be a promising electrolyte for an elevated...

  13. Fast Thorium Molten Salt Reactors Started with Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Heuer, D.; Le Brun, C.; Brissot, R.; Liatard, E.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; Mathieu, L.

    2006-01-01

    One of the pending questions concerning Molten Salt Reactors based on the 232 Th/ 233 U fuel cycle is the supply of the fissile matter, and as a consequence the deployment possibilities of a fleet of Molten Salt Reactors, since 233 U does not exist on earth and is not yet produced in the current operating reactors. A solution may consist in producing 233 U in special devices containing Thorium, in Pressurized Water or Fast Neutrons Reactors. Two alternatives to produce 233 U are examined here: directly in standard Molten Salt Reactors started with Plutonium as fissile matter and then operated in the Th/ 233 U cycle; or in dedicated Molten Salt Reactors started and fed with Plutonium as fissile matter and Thorium as fertile matter. The idea is to design a critical reactor able to burn the Plutonium and the minor actinides presently produced in PWRs, and consequently to convert this Plutonium into 233 U. A particular reactor configuration is used, called 'unique channel' configuration in which there is no moderator in the core, leading to a quasi fast neutron spectrum, allowing Plutonium to be used as fissile matter. The conversion capacities of such Molten Salt Reactors are excellent. For Molten Salt Reactors only started with Plutonium, the assets of the Thorium fuel cycle turn out to be quickly recovered and the reactor's characteristics turn out to be equivalent to Molten Salt Reactors operated with 233 U only. Using a combination of Molten Salt Reactors started or operated with Plutonium and of Molten Salt Reactors started with 233 U, the deployment capabilities of these reactors fully satisfy the condition of sustainability. (authors)

  14. Corrosion study in molten fluoride salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keny, S.J.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Rangarajan, S.; Gupta, V.K.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion behaviors of two alloys viz. Inconel 625 and Inconel 617 were tested in molten fluoride salts of lithium, sodium and potassium (FLiNaK) in the temperature range of 550-750 ℃ in a nickel lined Inconel vessel. Electrochemical polarization (Tafel plot) technique was used for this purpose. For both alloys, the corrosion rate was found to increase sharply beyond 650 ℃ . At 600 ℃ , Inconel 625 showed a decreasing trend in the corrosion rate over a period of 24 hours, probably due to changes in the surface conditions. After fifteen days, re-testing of Inconel 625 in the same melt showed an increase in the corrosion rate. Inconel 625 was found to be more corrosion resistant than Inconel 617. (author)

  15. Terrestrial Energy bets on molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial Energy is a Canadian enterprise, founded in 2013, for marketing the integral molten salt reactor (IMSR). A first prototype (called MSRE and with an energy output of 8 MW) was designed and operated between 1965 and 1969 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. IMSR is a small, modular reactor with a thermal energy output of 400 MW. According to Terrestrial Energy the technology of conventional power reactors is too complicated and too expensive. On the contrary IMSR's technology appears to be simple, easy to operate and affordable. With a staff of 30 people Terrestrial Energy appears to be a start-up in the nuclear sector. A process of pre-licensing will be launched in 2016 with the Canadian nuclear safety authority. (A.C.)

  16. Fabrication of aluminum nitride crucibles for molten salt and plutonium compatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this research was to fabricate a calcium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride crucible and determine the compatibility of this crucible with molten chloride salts and plutonium metal in the DOR process. Calcium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride was preferred over yttrium oxide sinter-aided aluminum nitride because of (1) the presence of calcium chloride, calcium oxide, and calcium metal in the molten salts utilized in the DOR process, and (2) the higher volatility of the secondary phases formed compared with phases resulting from the addition of yttrium oxide during the aluminum nitride sintering process. The calcium oxide system may yield a higher purity crystal structure with fewer secondary phases present than in the yttrium oxide system. The secondary phases that are present in the grain boundaries may be unreactive with the calcium chloride salt due to the presence of calcium in the secondary phases

  17. Wetting of B4C, TiC and graphite substrates by molten Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dan; Shen Ping; Shi Laixin; Jiang Qichuan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The wettability of TiC, B4C and C by molten Mg was determined using an improved sessile drop method. → A new method to evaluate the wetting behavior coupled with evaporation and reaction was proposed. → The bonding characteristics in the Mg/B4C, Mg/TiC and Mg/graphite systems were evaluated. - Abstract: The isotherm wetting of B 4 C, TiC and graphite substrates by molten Mg was studied in a flowing Ar atmosphere at 973-1173 K using an improved sessile drop method. The initial contact angles are in the ranges of 95-87 deg., 74-60 deg. and 142-124 deg., respectively, moderately depending on the temperature. All the systems are non-reactive in nature; however, the presence of impurity of free boron at the B 4 C surface gave rise to the chemical reaction with molten Mg and thus promoted the wettability to a certain degree. A new method was proposed to evaluate the wetting behavior coupled with evaporation and chemical reaction. Furthermore, based on the comparison of the work of adhesion and cohesion, the bonding in the Mg/B 4 C and Mg/TiC systems is presumably mainly chemical while that in the Mg/graphite system is physical.

  18. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    OpenAIRE

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450?470??C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, a...

  19. Mechanical structure and problem of thorium molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    After Fukushima Daiichi accident, there became great interest in Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) for the safety as station blackout leading to auto drainage of molten salts with freeze valve. This article described mechanical structure of MSR and problems of materials and pipes. Material corrosion problem by molten salts would be solved using modified Hastelloy N with Ti and Nb added, which should be confirmed by operation of an experimental reactor. Trends in international activities of MSR were also referred including China declaring MSR development in January 2011 to solve thorium contamination issues at rare earth production and India rich in thorium resources. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Indian programme on molten salt cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuIera, I.V.; Vijayan, P.K.; Sinha, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is developing a 600 MWth pebble bed high temperature reactor, cooled by natural circulation of molten fluoride salts and is capable of supplying process heat at 1000 ℃ to facilitate hydrogen production by splitting water. BARC has also initiated studies for a reactor concept in which salts of molten fluoride fuel and coolant in fluid form, flows through the reactor core of graphite moderator, resulting in nuclear fission within the molten salt. For thorium fuel cycle, this concept is very attractive, since the fuel can be re-processed on-line, enabling it to be an efficient neutron breeder. (author)

  1. FY 1999 Report on the technical results. Part 2-1. Development of fuel cell power generation technologies (Research and development of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system); 1999 nendo nenryo denchi hatsuden gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2-1. Yoyu tansan'engata nenryo denchi (hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    This research and development project is aimed at modification and improvement of the stacking technologies, to improve service life and performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell power generation system and reduce its cost. For the cross-flow type stack, optimization of the anode firing conditions leads to controlled reduction of the fine pores, and incorporation of the cathode with MgO successfully leads to controlled elution of NiO and Ni short-cut. For the separator, the service life is extended by treatment of the material with Al and controlling its rigidity. The cell life prediction method is improved to enhance its accuracy. The cell life of -4.3mV/1,000h is achieved by these technologies. For the parallel-flow type stack, the electrodes are improved to achieve the cell life of -1.4mV/1,000h, the technologies for producing the separator for a 1m{sup 2} class unit are developed, and the basic structures of a large-capacity stack are designed. For the internal reforming type, a 200kW class reforming stack is constructed, and operated for 5,259 hours. The causes for electrolyte loss are analyzed by developing the relationships between operating temperature and electrolyte loss, electrolyte mass and sustainability of the cell characteristics, and steam partial pressure over the cathode and electrolyte loss, and also by testing the Ni short-cut. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Venture business raising type regional consortium - small business creating base type (Development of direct production system by lamination molding of molten materials); 1998 nendo netsuyokai sekiso zokeiho ni yoru direct production system no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Tests and studies are conducted for the manufacture of metal or plastic articles by the above-named technology. For the development of a molten material discharging mechanism, a laminating unit is checked for behavior, and conditions for suitable lamination molding are identified. In a study for enhancing precision of laminated geometry, specimens containing metal power and binder are exposed to YAG laser beams different in intensity at various processing speeds, and optimum processing conditions are determined. In an effort to improve the functions of JCAD3 which is a CAD (computer aided design) system, studies are made about the formation of smoothly curved lines and surfaces, and the usefulness of the new technique is verified. For the formation of a smoothly curved surface out of polyhedral data, a C program is prepared. Three dimensional programs and curved line/surface programs are combined, and a high performance CAD program is completed. For the commercialization of sintered products of lamination molding, MIM (metal powder injection molding) materials are tested using atomized and non-atomized powders of SUS304/{phi}8. (NEDO)

  3. Concept of the demonstration molten salt unit for the transuranium elements transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.; Dudnikov, A.; Prusakov, V.; Subbotin, S.; Zakirov, R.; Lelek, V.; Peka, I.

    1999-01-01

    In this report it is considered fluorine reprocessing of spent fuel and fluoride molten salt reactor in critical and subcritical modes for plutonium and minor actinides burning. International collaboration for creation of such system is proposed. It is without any doubt that additional neutron source in the core will have positive influence on the transmutation process in the reactor. On the other side there is a lot of problems to realize it technically and to ensure stable work of the whole complex. (Authors)

  4. Residual salts separation from metal reduced electrolytically in a LiCl-Li2O molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin Mok; Oh, Seung Chul; Hong, Sun Seok; Seo, Chung Seok; Park, Seong Won

    2005-01-01

    The PWR spent oxide fuel can be reduced electrolytically in a hot molten salt for the conditioning and the preparation of a metallic fuel. Then the metal product is smelted into an ingot to be treated in the post process. Incidentally, the residual salt which originated from the molten salt and spent fuel elements should be separated from the metal product during the smelting. In this work, we constructed a surrogate material system to simulate the salt separation from the reduced spent fuel and studied the vaporization behaviors of the salts

  5. The concept of fuel cycle integrated molten salt reactor for transmuting Pu+MA from spent LWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Y.; Takashima, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Japan should need a new fuel cycle, not to save spent fuels indefinitely as the reusable resources but to consume plutonium and miner actinides orderly without conventional reprocessing. The key component is a molten salt reactor fueled with the Pu+MA (PMA) separated from LWR spent fuels using fluoride volatility method. A double-tiered once-through reactor system can burn PMA down to 5% remnant ratio, and can make PMA virtually free from the HAW to be disposed geometrically. A key issue to be demonstrated is the first of all solubility behavior of trifluoride species in the molten fuel salt of 7 LiF-BeF 2 mixture. (author)

  6. Fission product removal from molten salt using zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.; Babcock, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) can be treated in a molten salt electrorefiner for conversion into metal and mineral waste forms for geologic disposal. The fuel is dissolved in molten chloride salt. Non-transuranic fission products in the molten salt are ion-exchanged into zeolite A, which is subsequently mixed with glass and consolidated. Zeolite was found to be effective in removing fission product cations from the molten salt. Breakthrough of cesium and the alkaline earths occurred more rapidly than was observed for the rare earths. The effluent composition as a function of time is presented, as well as results for the distribution of fission products along the length of the column. Effects of temperature and salt flow rate are also discussed

  7. Boric Ester-Type Molten Salt via Dehydrocoupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyoshi Matsumi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel boric ester-type molten salt was prepared using 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as a key starting material. After an ion exchange reaction of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with lithium (bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide (LiNTf2, the resulting 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium NTf2 was reacted with 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN to give the desired boric ester-type molten salt in a moderate yield. The structure of the boric ester-type molten salt was supported by 1H-, 13C-, 11B- and 19F-NMR spectra. In the presence of two different kinds of lithium salts, the matrices showed an ionic conductivity in the range of 1.1 × 10−4–1.6 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 51 °C. This was higher than other organoboron molten salts ever reported.

  8. Conceptual design of Indian molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, P.K.; Basak, A.; Dulera, I.V.; Vaze, K.K.; Basu, S.; Sinha, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    The fuel in a molten salt breeder reactor is in the form of a continuously circulating molten salt. Fluoride based salts have been almost universally proposed. A crucial part for achieving reasonable breeding in such reactors is the need to reprocess the salt continuously, either online or in batch mode. This constitutes a major technological challenge for this type of reactors. India has recently started carrying out fundamental studies so as to arrive at a conceptual design of Indian Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (IMSBR). Presently various design options and possibilities are being studied from the point of view of reactor physics and thermal hydraulic design. In parallel fundamental studies as regards various molten salts have also been initiated. This paper would discuss conceptual design of these reactors, as well as associated issues and technologies

  9. Advanced Additive Manufacturing Feedstock from Molten Regolith Electrolysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate the feasibility of Molten Regolith Electrolysis (MRE) Reactor start by initiating resistive-heating of the regolith past its melting point using...

  10. High Surface Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith...

  11. Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, Peter A.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Serrano, Brenda E.; Fredrickson, Guy L.; Cowan, Ben F.; Herrmann, Steven D.; Li, Shelly X.

    2010-01-01

    Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-β(double p rime)-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-β(double p rime)-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in

  12. Detection of Fluorescence for Lanthanides in LiCl-KCl Molten Salt Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Hee Jung; Kim, Tack Jin; Song, Kyu Seok; Jee, Kwang Yong

    2007-01-01

    In the electrorefining step of the pyrochemical process, actinide ions dissolved in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt are recovered as pure actinide metals at a cathode for a re-use as a nuclear fuel from the aspect of its nonproliferation of the nuclear fuel cycles. The lanthanide species dissolved in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt play an important role in an effective metal purification during the electrorefining step, so it is necessary to understand the chemical and physical behaviors of lanthanides in molten salt. The in situ spectroscopic measurement system and studies according to temperature changes are essential for better understandable information. To our knowledge, the absorption studies of lanthanides at high temperatures have been reported before, but the fluorescence studies of those at high temperature are not reported yet. We will discuss here the fluorescence behaviors of lanthanides in LiCl-KCl molten salt medium according to a changing temperature

  13. Thermophysical Property Measurements of Molten Slag and Welding Flux by Aerodynamic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Kenta; Nakamura, Airi; Hakamada, Shinya; Watanabe, Masahito; Kargl, Florian

    Molten slag and welding flux are important materials for steel processing. Due to lack of durable refractory materials, there is limited publication data on the thermophysical properties of these slags. Therefore, in this study, we measured density and viscosity of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 slag and welding flux using Aerodynamic Levitation (ADL) with CO2-laser heating in which can be achieve containerless and non-contacting conditions for measurements. For density measurements, in order to obtain correct shape of the droplet we used high-speed camera with the extended He-Ne laser to project the shadow image without the influence of the selfluminescence at the high temperature. For viscosity measurement, we also have a unique vibration method; it caused oscillation in a sample by letting gas for levitation vibrate by an acoustic speaker. Using these techniques, we succeeded to measure systematically density and viscosity of molten oxides system.

  14. The nonmetal-metal transition in solutions of metals in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.

    1997-04-01

    Solutions of metals in molten salts present a rich phenomenology: localization of electrons in disordered ionic media, activated electron transport increasing with metal concentration towards a nonmetal-metal (NM-M) transition, and liquid-liquid phase separation. A brief review of progress in the study of these systems is given in this article, with main focus on the NM-M transition. After recalling the known NM-M behaviour of the component elements in the case of expanded fluid alkali metals and mercury and of solid halogens under pressure, the article focuses on liquid metal - molten salt solutions and traces the different NM-M behaviours of the alkalis in their halides and of metals added to polyvalent metal halides. (author). 51 refs, 2 figs

  15. Electrorefining of High Carbon Ferromanganese in Molten Salts to Produce Pure Ferromanganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao S. J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High carbon ferromanganese is used as a starting material to prepare pure ferromanganese by electrorefining in molten salts. High carbon ferromanganese was applied as the anode, molybdenum was the cathode and Ag/AgCl was the reference electrode. The anodic dissolution was investigated by linear polarization in molten NaCl-KCl system. Then potentiostatic electrolysis was carried out to produce pure ferromanganese from high carbon ferromanganese. The cathodic product was determined to be a mixture of manganese and iron by x-ray diffraction (XRD. The content of carbon in the product was analyzed by carbon and sulfur analyzer. The post-electrolysis anode was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The mechanism of the anode dissolution and the distribution of the main impurity of carbon and silicon after electrolysis were discussed.

  16. Lewis-Acid/Base Effects on Gallium Volatility in Molten Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    It has been proposed that GaCl 3 can be removed by direct volatilization from a Pu-Ga alloy that is dissolved in a molten chloride salt. Although pure GaCl 3 is quite volatile (boiling point, 201 C), the behavior of GaCl 3 dissolved in chloride salts is different due to solution effects and is critically dependent on the composition of the solvent salt (i.e., its Lewis-acid/base character). In this report, the behavior of gallium in prototypical Lewis-acid and Lewis-base salts is compared. It was found that gallium volatility is suppressed in basic melts and enhanced in acidic melts. The implications of these results on the potential for simple gallium removal in molten salt systems are significant

  17. High-safety and economical small molten-salt fission power stations and their developmental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.; Mitachi, K.; Minami, K.; Kato, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry is not settled yet as one of the sound economical industries. Its establishment should obviously depend on the solution of the following problems: ''natural'' safety (depending on inherent natures), nuclear proliferation resistance - nearly non-production and effective incineration of Pu, Am and Om, universal resource, flexible power-size and excellent economy - wide applicability including Developing Countries. Therefore, some essentially new principles have to introduce in the nuclear energy system design. These are thorium utilization, fluid-fuel concepts, especially molten-fluoride technology, and separation of fissile-breeding and power-generation. This philosophy is named Thorium Molten-Salt Nuclear Energy Synergetics [THOMSNES]. Its practical development program is presented

  18. Production and Release of ISOL Beams from Molten Fluoride Salt Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Mendonca, T M; Ghetta, V; Alibert, M; Heuer, D; Noah, E; Cimmino, S; Delonca, M; Gottberg, A; Kronberger, M; Ramos, J; Seiffert, C; Stora, T; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the Beta Beams study, a molten fluoride target has been proposed for the production of the required 1013 18Ne/s. The production and extraction of such rates are obtained on a circulating molten salt with proton beam energy beams at close to 1 MW power. As a most important step to validate the concept, a prototype has been designed and investigated at CERN-ISOLDE using a static target unit. The target material consisted of a binary fluoride system, NaF:LiF (39:61 % mol.), with melting point at 649ºC. The production of Ne beams has been monitored as a function of the target temperature and proton beam intensity. The prototype development and the results of the first online tests with 1.4 GeV proton beam are presented in this paper.

  19. Density and Structure Analysis of Molten Ni-W Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG

    2004-01-01

    Density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys was measured in the temperature range of 1773~1873 K with a sessile drop method.The density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys trends to decrease with increasing temperature. The density and molar volume of the alloys trend to increase with increasing W concentration in the alloys. The calculation result shows an ideal mixing of Ni-W alloys.

  20. Molten fluoride mixtures as possible fission reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Molten mixtures of fluorides with UF 4 as a component have been used as combined fuel and primary heat transfer agent in experimental high-temperature reactors and have been proposed for use in breeders or converters of 233 U from thorium. Such use places stringent and diverse demands upon the fluid fuel. A brief review of chemical behavior of molten fluorides is given to show some of their strengths and weaknesses for such service

  1. Internal cation mobilities in molten lithium. Potassium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Haruaki; Ohashi, Ryo; Chou, Pao-Hwa; Takagi, Ryuzo

    2006-01-01

    Relative differences between internal cation mobilities in molten (Li, K) F have been measured by countercurrent electromigration (Klemm method) at 1023 K. Internal mobilities of K + are larger than those of Li + in all composition on which we have measured so far. More striking feature is that the isotherms have minimum of mobilities at ca. x K =0.5. The local structural parameters would be highly related to the ionic conduction behavior in molten fluorides. (author)

  2. Measurement of emittance of metal interface in molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, N.; Makino, A.; Nakamura, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A new technique for measuring the total normal emittance of a metal in a semi-transparent liquid has been proposed and this technique has been applied to measure the emittance of stainless steel (SUS304), nickel, and gold in molten potassium nitrate KNO 3 . These emittance data are indispensable to analyzing the radiative heat transfer between a metal and a semitransparent liquid, such as a molten salt

  3. Dynamic Reference Electrode development for redox potential measurements in fluoride molten salt at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durán-Klie, Gabriela; Rodrigues, Davide; Delpech, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of redox potential in fluoride media is a major problem due to the difficulty to design a reference electrode with high stability, high mechanical resistance and high accuracy. In the frame of molten salt reactor studies, a dynamic reference electrode (DRE) is developed to measure redox potential in fluoride molten salt at high temperature. DRE is based on the in-situ generation of a transient redox system. The choice of the redox couple corresponds to the cathodic limit of the molten salt considered. As a preliminary step, the demonstration of feasibility of generating a DRE was done in LiF-NaF-KF (46.5–11.5–42 mol%) media at 500 °C. In this salt, the reference redox system generated by coulometry at applied current is KF/K, metallic potassium being electrodeposited on a tungsten wire electrode. The validation of the DRE response and the experimental optimization parameters for DRE generation were realized by following the NiF 2 /Ni redox potential evolution as a function of NiF 2 concentration in the fused salt. The current value applied for DRE generation was optimized. It depends on the amount of metallic cations contained in the fused salt and which can be electrochemically reduced simultaneously during the DRE generation. The current corresponding to the DRE generation has to be 4 times greater than the current corresponding to the reduction of the other elements.

  4. Synthesis of molybdenum borides and molybdenum silicides in molten salts and their oxidation behavior in an air-water mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuznetsov, S.A.; Kuznetsova, S.V.; Rebrov, E.V.; Mies, M.J.M.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of various coatings in molybdenum-boron and molybdenum-silicon systems was investigated. Boronizing and siliciding treatments were conducted in molten salts under inert gas atm. in the 850-1050 DegC temp. range for 7 h. The presence of boride (e.g. Mo2B, MoB, Mo2B5) and silicide

  5. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450-470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl-KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. •The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept.•This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L.•The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going.

  6. Novel waste printed circuit board recycling process with molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel waste PCBs recycling process which uses inert, stable molten salts as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this molten salt to separate the metal products in either liquid (solder, zinc, tin, lead, etc.) or solid (copper, gold, steel, palladium, etc.) form at the operating temperatures of 450–470 °C. The PCB recovery reactor is essentially a U-shaped reactor with the molten salt providing a continuous fluid, allowing molten salt access from different depths for metal recovery. A laboratory scale batch reactor was constructed using 316L as suitable construction material. For safety reasons, the inert, stable LiCl–KCl molten salts were used as direct heat transfer fluid. Recovered materials were washed with hot water to remove residual salt before metal recovery assessment. The impact of this work was to show metal separation using molten salts in one single unit, by using this novel reactor methodology. • The reactor is a U-shaped reactor filled with a continuous liquid with a sloped bottom representing a novel reactor concept. • This method uses large PCB pieces instead of shredded PCBs as the reactor volume is 2.2 L. • The treated PCBs can be removed via leg B while the process is on-going. PMID:26150977

  7. Study on mechanical interaction between molten alloy and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Ueda, Nobuyuki; Nishi, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Izumi

    1999-01-01

    Simulant experiments using low melting point molten alloy and water have been conducted to observe both fragmentation behavior of molten jet and boiling phenomena of water, and to measure both particle size and shape of fragmented solidified jet, focusing on post-pin-failure molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCl) which was important to evaluate the sequence of the initiating phase for metallic fueled FBR. In addition, characteristics of coolant boiling phenomena on FCIs have been investigated, focusing on the boiling heat transfer in the direct contact heat transfer mode. As a results, it is concluded that the fragmentation of poured molten alloy jet is affected by a degree of boiling of water and is classified into three modes by thermal conditions of both the instantaneous contact interface temperature of two liquids and subcooling of water. In the case of forced convection boiling in direct contact mode, it is found that the heat transfer performance is enhanced by increase of the heat transfer area, due to oscillation of the surface and fragmentation of molten alloy. As a results of preliminary investigation of FCI behavior for metallic fuel core based on these results, it is expected that the ejected molten fuel is fragmented into almost spherical particles due to the developed boiling of sodium. (author)

  8. Development of a Chemical Equilibrium Model for a Molten Core-Concrete Interaction Analysis Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Uk; Lee, Dae Young; Park, Chang Hwan [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This molten core could interact with the reactor cavity region which consists of concrete. In this process, components of molten core react with components of concrete through a lot of chemical reactions. As a result, many kinds of gas species are generated and those move up forming rising bubbles into the reactor containment atmosphere. These rising bubbles are the carrier of the many kinds of the aerosols coming from the MCCI (Molten Core Concrete Interaction) layers. To evaluate the amount of the aerosols released from the MCCI layers, the amount of the gas species generated from those layers should be calculated. The chemical equilibrium state originally implies the final state of the multiple chemical reactions; therefore, investigating the equilibrium composition of molten core can be applicable to predict the gas generation status. The most common way for finding the chemical equilibrium state is a minimization of total Gibbs free energy of the system. In this paper, the method to make good guess of initial state is suggested and chemical reaction results are compared with results of CSSI report No 164. Total mass of system and the number of atoms of each element are conserved. The tendency of calculation results is similar with results presented in CSNI Report except a few species. These differences may be caused by absence of Gibbs energy data of the species such as Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, U(OH){sub 3}, UO(OH), UO{sub 2}(OH), U{sub 3}O{sub 7}, La, Ce.

  9. Fast molten salt reactor-transmuter for closing nuclear fuel cycle on minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnikov, A. A.; Alekseev, P. N.; Subbotin, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Creation fast critical molten salt reactor for burning-out minor actinides and separate long-living fission products in the closed nuclear fuel cycle is the most perspective and actual direction. The reactor on melts salts - molten salt homogeneous reactor with the circulating fuel, working as burner and transmuter long-living radioactive nuclides in closed nuclear fuel cycle, can serve as an effective ecological cordon from contamination of the nature long-living radiotoxic nuclides. High-flux fast critical molten-salt nuclear reactors in structure of the closed nuclear fuel cycle of the future nuclear power can effectively burning-out / transmute dangerous long-living radioactive nuclides, make radioisotopes, partially utilize plutonium and produce thermal and electric energy. Such reactor allows solving the problems constraining development of large-scale nuclear power, including fueling, minimization of radioactive waste and non-proliferation. Burning minor actinides in molten salt reactor is capable to facilitate work solid fuel power reactors in system NP with the closed nuclear fuel cycle and to reduce transient losses at processing and fabrications fuel pins. At substantiation MSR-transmuter/burner as solvents fuel nuclides for molten-salt reactors various salts were examined, for example: LiF - BeF2; NaF - LiF - BeF2; NaF-LiF ; NaF-ZrF4 ; LiF-NaF -KF; NaCl. RRC 'Kurchatov institute' together with other employees have developed the basic design reactor installations with molten salt reactor - burner long-living nuclides for fluoride fuel composition with the limited solubility minor actinides (MAF3 10 mol %) allows to develop in some times more effective molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum - burner/ transmuter of the long-living radioactive waste. In high-flux fast reactors on melts salts within a year it is possible to burn ∼300 kg minor actinides per 1 GW thermal power of reactor. The technical and economic estimation given power

  10. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinsu; Jeong, Yongjin; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Utilizing the uranium-thorium fuel cycle shows considerable potential for the possibility of MSR. The concept of MSBR should be revised because of molten salt reactor's advantage such as outstanding neutron economy, possibility of continuous online reprocessing and refueling, a high level of inherent safety, and economic benefit by keeping off the fuel fabrication process. For the development of MSR research, this paper provides the MSBR single-cell, two-cell and whole core model for computer code input, and several calculation results including depletion calculation of each models. The calculations are carried out by using MCNP6, a Monte Carlo computer code, which has CINDER90 for depletion calculation using ENDF-VII nuclear data. From the calculation results of various reactor design parameters, the temperature coefficients are all negative at the initial state and MTC becomes positive at the equilibrium state. From the results of core rod worth, the graphite control rod alone cannot makes the core subcritical at initial state. But the equilibrium state, the core can be made subcritical state only by graphite control rods. Through the comparison of the results of each models, the two-cell method can represent the MSBR core model more accurately with a little more computational resources than the single-cell method. Many of the thermal spectrum MSR have adopted a multi-region single-fluid strategy.

  11. Fragmentation of molten core material by sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.Y.

    1982-01-01

    A series of scoping experiments was performed to study the fragmentation of prototypic high temperature melts in sodium. The quantity of melt involved was at least one order of magnitude larger than previous experiments. Two modes of contact were used: melt streaming into sodium and sodium into melt. The average bulk fragment size distribution was found to be in the range of previous data and the average size distribution was found to be insensitive to mode of contact. SEM studies showed that the metal component typically fragmented in the molten phase while the oxide component fragmented in the solid phase. For UO 2 -ZrO 2 /stainless steel melts no sigificant spatial separation of the metal and oxide was observed. The fragment size distribution was stratified vertically in the debris bed in all cases. While the bulk fragment size showed generally consistent trends, the individual experiments were sufficiently different to cause different degrees of stratification in the debris bed. For the highly stratified beds the permeability can decrease by as much as a factor of 20 from the bottom to the top of the bed

  12. Molten aluminum alloy fuel fragmentation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Purviance, R.T.; Cassulo, J.C.; Spencer, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in which molten aluminum alloys were injected into a 1.2 m deep pool of water. The parameters varied were (i) injectant material (8001 aluminum alloy and 12.3 wt% U-87.7 wt% Al), (ii) melt superheat (O to 50 K), (iii) water temperature (313, 343 and 373 K) and (iv) size and geometry of the pour stream (5, 10 and 20 mm diameter circular and 57 mm annular). The pour stream fragmentation was dominated by surface tension with large particles (∼30 mm) being formed from varicose wave breakup of the 10-mm circular pours and from the annular flow off a 57 mm diameter tube. The fragments produced by the 5 mm circular et were smaller (∼ mm), and the 20 mm jet which underwent sinuous wave breakup produced ∼100 mm fragments. The fragments froze to form solid particles in 313 K water, and when the water was ≥343 K, the melt fragments did not freeze during their transit through 1.2 m of water

  13. Molten salt destruction process for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Wilder, J.G.; Karlsen, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    We are developing an advanced two-stage process for the treatment of mixed wastes, which contain both hazardous and radioactive components. The wastes, together with an oxidant gas, such as air, are injected into a bed of molten salt comprising a mixture of sodium-, potassium-, and lithium-carbonates, with a melting point of about 580 degree C. The organic constituents of the mixed waste are destroyed through the combined effect of pyrolysis and oxidation. Heteroatoms. such as chlorine, in the mixed waste form stable salts, such as sodium chloride, and are retained in the melt. The radioactive actinides in the mixed waste are also retained in the melt because of the combined action of wetting and partial dissolution. The original process, consists of a one-stage unit, operated at 900--1000 degree C. The advanced two-stage process has two stages, one for pyrolysis and one for oxidation. The pyrolysis stage is designed to operate at 700 degree C. The oxidation stage can be operated at a higher temperature, if necessary

  14. Actuation method of molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Kimoto, Mamoru; Murakami, Shuzo; Furukawa, Nobuhiro

    1987-10-17

    A molten carbonate fuel cell uses reformed gas of crude fuel as fuel gas, but in this gas, CO/sub 2/ is contained in addition to H/sub 2/ and CO which participate the reaction in its fuel electrode. In order to make the reaction of the cell by these gases smoothly, CO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas from the fuel electrode must be introduced efficiently to its oxygen electrode, however since unreacted H/sub 2/ and CO are contained in the above exhaust gas, they are oxidated and burned once in a boiler and transformed into H/sub 2/O (steam) and CO/sub 2/, then CO/sub 2/ generated in the fuel electrode is added thereto, and afterwards these gases with the air are introduced into the oxygen electrode. However, since this method hinders the high power generation efficiency, in this invention, the exhaust gas from the fuel electrode which burns the reformed gas is introduced into separation chambers separated with CO/sub 2/ permselective membranes, and the mixture of CO/sub 2/ in the above exhaust gas separated with the aforementioned permeable membranes and the air is supplied to the oxygen electrode. At the same time, H/sub 2/ and CO in the above exhaust gas which were not separated with the above permeable membranes are recirculated to the above fuel electrode. (3 figs)

  15. Molten fuel behaviour during slow overpower transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Y.; Boidron, M.

    1985-01-01

    In large commercial reactors as Super-Phenix, if we take into account all the uncertainties on the pins and on the core, it is no longer possible to guarantee the absence of fuel melting during incidental events such as slow overpower transients. We have then to explain what happens in the pins when fuel melting occurs and to demonstrate that a limited amount of molten fuel generates no risk of clad failure. For that purpose, we may use the results of a great number of experiments (about 40) that have been performed at C.E.A., most of them in thermal reactor, but some experiments have also been performed in Rapsodie, especially during the last run of this reactor. In a great part of these experiments, fuel melting occurred at beginning of life, but we have also some results at different burnups up to 5 at %. It is not the aim of this paper to describe all these experiments and the results of their post irradiation examination, but to summarize the main conclusions that have been set out of them and that have enabled us to determine the main characteristics of fuel element behaviour when fuel melting occurs

  16. Molten salt related extensions of the SIMMER-III code and its application for a burner reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shisheng; Rineiski, Andrei; Maschek, Werner

    2006-01-01

    Molten salt reactors (MSRs) can be used as effective burners of plutonium (Pu) and minor actinides (MAs) from light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. In this paper a study was made to examine the thermal hydraulic behaviour of the conceptual design of the molten salt advanced reactor transmuter (MOSART) [Ignatiev, V., Feynberg, O., Myasnikov, A., Zakirov, R., 2003a. Neutronic properties and possible fuel cycle of a molten salt transmuter. Proceedings of the 2003 ANS/ENS International Winter Meeting (GLOBAL 2003), Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, LA, USA 16-20 November 2003]. The molten salt fuel is a ternary NaF-LiF-BeF 2 system fuelled with ca. 1 mol% typical compositions of transuranium-trifluorides (PuF 3 , etc.) from light water reactor spent fuel. The MOSART reactor core does not contain graphite structure elements to guide the flow, so the neutron spectrum is rather hard in order to improve the burning performance. Without those structure elements in the core, the molten salt in core flows freely and the flow pattern could be potentially complicated and may affect significantly the fuel temperature distribution in the core. Therefore, some optimizations of the salt flow pattern may be needed. Here, the main attention has been paid to the fluid dynamic simulations of the MOSART core with the code SIMMER-III [Kondo, Sa., Morita, K., Tobita, Y., Shirakawa, K., 1992. SIMMER-III: an advanced computer program for LMFBR severe accident analysis. Proceedings of the ANP' 92, Tokyo, Japan; Kondo, Sa., Tobita, Y., Morita, K., Brear, D.J., Kamiyama, K., Yamano, H., Fujita, S., Maschek, W., Fischer, E.A., Kiefhaber, E., Buckel, G., Hesselschwerdt, E., Flad, M., Costa, P., Pigny, S., 1999. Current status and validation of the SIMMER-III LMFR safety analysis code. Proceedings of the ICONE-7, Tokyo, Japan], which was originally developed for the safety assessment of sodium-cooled fast reactors and recently extended by the authors for the thermo-hydraulic and neutronic models so as

  17. Investigation of molten metal droplet deposition and solidification for 3D printing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chien-Hsun; Tsai, Ho-Lin; Wu, Yu-Che; Hwang, Weng-Sing

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the transient transport phenomenon during the pile up of molten lead-free solder via the inkjet printing method. With regard to the droplet impact velocity, the distance from nozzle to substrate can be controlled by using the pulse voltage and distance control apparatus. A high-speed digital camera was used to record the solder impact and examine the accuracy of the pile up. These impact conditions correspond to We  =  2.1–15.1 and Oh  =  5.4  ×  10 −3 –3.8  ×  10 −3 . The effects of impact velocity and relative distance between two types of molten droplets on the shape of the impact mode are examined. The results show that the optimal parameters of the distance from nozzle to substrate and the spreading factor in this experiment are 0.5 mm and 1.33. The diameter, volume and velocity of the inkjet solder droplet are around 37–65 μ m, 25–144 picoliters, and 2.0–3.7 m s −1 , respectively. The vertical and inclined column structures of molten lead-free solder can be fabricated using piezoelectric ink-jet printing systems. The end-shapes of the 3D micro structure have been found to be dependent upon the distance from nozzle to substrate and the impact velocity of the molten lead-free solder droplet. (paper)

  18. A simplified burnup calculation strategy with refueling in static molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Gupta, Anurag; Krishnani, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactors, by nature can be refuelled and reprocessed online. Thus, a simulation methodology has to be developed which can consider online refueling and reprocessing aspect of the reactor. To cater such needs a simplified burnup calculation strategy to account for refueling and removal of molten salt fuel at any desired burnup has been identified in static molten salt reactor in batch mode as a first step of way forward. The features of in-house code ITRAN has been explored for such calculations. The code also enables us to estimate the reactivity introduced in the system due to removal of any number of considered nuclides at any burnup. The effect of refueling fresh fuel and removal of burned fuel has been studied in batch mode with in-house code ITRAN. The effect of refueling and burnup on change in reactivity per day has been analyzed. The analysis of removal of 233 Pa at a particular burnup has been carried out. The similar analysis has been performed for some other nuclides also. (author)

  19. Low temperature synthesis & characterization of lead-free BCZT ceramics using molten salt method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai Shree, K.; Chandrakala, E.; Das, Dibakar

    2018-04-01

    Piezoelectric properties are greatly influenced by the synthesis route, microstructure, stoichiometry of the chemical composition, purity of the starting materials. In this study, molten salt method was used to prepare lead-free BCZT ceramics. Molten salt method is one of the simplestmethods to prepare chemically-purified, single phase powders in high yield often at lower temperatures and shorten reaction time. Calcination of the molten salt synthesized powders resulted in asingle-phase perovskite structure at 1000 °C which is ˜ 350 °C less than the conventional solid-sate reaction method. With increasing calcination temperature the average template size was increased (˜ 0.5-2 µm). Formation of well dispersive templates improves the sinterability at lower temperatures. Lead-free BCZT ceramics sintered at 1500 °C for 2 h resulted in homogenous and highly dense microstructure with ˜92% of the theoretical density and a grain size of ˜ 35 µm. This highly dense microstructure could enhance the piezoelectric properties of the system.

  20. Simulation tools and new developments of the molten salt fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Doligez, X.; Heuer, D.; Allibert, M.; Ghetta, V.

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor project of Oak-Ridge, we have performed parametric studies in terms of safety coefficients, reprocessing requirements and breeding capabilities. In the frame of this major re-evaluation of the molten salt reactor (MSR), we have developed a new concept called Molten Salt Fast Reactor or MSFR, based on the Thorium fuel cycle and a fast neutron spectrum. This concept has been selected for further studies by the MSR steering committee of the Generation IV International Forum in 2009. Our reactor's studies of the MSFR concept rely on numerical simulations making use of the MCNP neutron transport code coupled with a code for materials evolution which resolves the Bateman's equations giving the population of each nucleus inside each part of the reactor at each moment. Because of MSR's fundamental characteristics compared to classical solid-fuelled reactors, the classical Bateman equations have to be modified by adding two terms representing the reprocessing capacities and the fertile or fissile alimentation. We have thus coupled neutronic and reprocessing simulation codes in a numerical tool used to calculate the extraction efficiencies of fission products, their location in the whole system (reactor and reprocessing unit) and radioprotection issues. (authors)

  1. Experimental studies on natural circulation in molten salt loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Borgohain, A.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Molten salts are increasingly getting attention as a coolant and storage medium in solar thermal power plants and as a liquid fuel, blanket and coolant in Molten Salt Reactors (MSR’s). Two different test facilities named Molten Salt Natural Circulation Loop (MSNCL) and Molten Active Fluoride salt Loop (MAFL) have been setup for thermal hydraulics, instrument development and material related studies relevant to MSR and solar power plants. The working medium for MSNCL is a molten nitrate salt which is a mixture of NaNO 3 and KNO 3 in 60:40 ratio and proposed as one of the coolant option for molten salt based reactor and coolant as well as storage medium for solar thermal power application. On the other hand, the working medium for MAFL is a eutectic mixture of LiF and ThF 4 and proposed as a blanket salt for Indian Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR). Steady state natural circulation experiments at different power level have been performed in the MSNCL. Transient studies for startup of natural circulation, loss of heat sink, heater trip and step change in heater power have also been carried out in the same. A 1D code LeBENC, developed in-house to simulate the natural circulation characteristics in closed loops, has been validated with the experimental data obtained from MSNCL. Further, LeBENC has been used for Pretest analysis of MAFL. This paper deals with the description of both the loops and experimental studies carried out in MSNCL. Validation of LeBENC along with the pretest analysis of MAFL using the same are also reported in this paper. (author)

  2. Proton conducting ceramics for potentiometric hydrogen sensors for molten metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, H.; Llivina, L.; Colominas, S.; Abellà, J., E-mail: jordi.abella@iqs.edu

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis and chemical characterization of proton conductor ceramics. • Qualification of ceramics for hydrogen sensors in molten lithium–lead. • Ceramics have well-defined grains with a wide distribution of sizes. • Good agreement with predictions obtained with BaZrY, BaCeZrY and SrFeCo ceramics. -- Abstract: Tritium monitoring in lithium–lead eutectic (Pb–15.7Li) is of great importance for the performance of liquid blankets in fusion reactors. Also, tritium measurements will be required in order to proof tritium self-sufficiency in liquid metal breeding systems. On-line hydrogen (isotopes) sensors must be design and tested in order to accomplish these goals. Potentiometric hydrogen sensors for molten lithium–lead eutectic have been designed at the Electrochemical Methods Lab at Institut Quimic de Sarria (IQS) at Barcelona and are under development and qualification. The probes are based on the use of solid state electrolytes and works as proton exchange membranes (PEM). In this work the following compounds: BaZr{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3}, BaCe{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.3}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−α}, Sr(Ce{sub 0.6}-Zr{sub 0.4}){sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−α} and Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 1.8}Co{sub 2}O{sub 7} have been synthesized in order to be tested as PEM H-probes. Potentiometric measurements of the synthesized ceramic elements at 500 °C have been performed at a fixed hydrogen concentration. The sensors constructed using the proton conductor elements BaZr{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3}, BaCe{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.3}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ} and Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 1.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 7−δ} exhibited stable output potential and its value was close to the theoretical value calculated with the Nernst equation (deviation around 60 mV). In contrast, the sensor constructed using the proton conductor element Sr(Ce{sub 0.6}–Zr{sub 0.4}){sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ} showed a deviation higher than 100 mV between experimental an theoretical data.

  3. A study on the reduction of uranium oxide to uranium metal in LiCl molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J. S.; Hur, J. M.; Lee, W. K.; Hong, S. S.; Kang, D. S.; Park, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    Research for the analysis on a metallization process of uranium oxide in LiCl-Li molten salt was carried out. Effect of a concentration of Li 2 O on the metallization process was also studied. The new concept, electrochemical reduction of uranium oxide in LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt was proposed. The concept is based on the integrated process of metallization of UO 2 with simultaneous electrochemical reduction of Li 2 O which is recycled in a closed system. In a LiCl-Li molten salt system, U 3 O 8 whose conversion ratio to U turns out to be 97.1%, showed a better metallization characteristic than UO 2 . It is verified that electrochemically reduced Li is well deposited on the UO 2 powder cathode through a porous magnesia filter in LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt. In that process Li 2 O was from by the reduction process of UO 2 to U. This electrochemical reduction process showed good results to covert UO 2 to U

  4. Deep-Earth Equilibration between Molten Iron and Solid Silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, M.; Zurkowski, C. C.; Chidester, B.; Campbell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental partitioning between iron-rich metals and silicate minerals influences the properties of Earth's deep interior, and is ultimately responsible for the nature of the core-mantle boundary. These interactions between molten iron and solid silicates were influential during planetary accretion, and persist today between the mantle and liquid outer core. Here we report the results of diamond anvil cell experiments at lower mantle conditions (40 GPa, >2500 K) aimed at examining systems containing a mixture of metals (iron or Fe-16Si alloy) and silicates (peridotite). The experiments were conducted at pressure-temperature conditions above the metallic liquidus but below the silicate solidus, and the recovered samples were analyzed by FIB/SEM with EDS to record the compositions of the coexisting phases. Each sample formed a three-phase equilibrium between bridgmanite, Fe-rich metallic melt, and an oxide. In one experiment, using pure Fe, the quenched metal contained 6 weight percent O, and the coexisting oxide was ferropericlase. The second experiment, using Fe-Si alloy, was highly reducing; its metal contained 10 wt% Si, and the coexisting mineral was stishovite. The distinct mineralogies of the two experiments derived from their different starting metals. These results imply that metallic composition is an important factor in determining the products of mixed phase iron-silicate reactions. The properties of deep-Earth interfaces such as the core-mantle boundary could be strongly affected by their metallic components.

  5. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  6. Application of molten salts in pyrochemical processing of reactive metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Averill, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    Various mixes of chloride and fluoride salts are used as the media for conducting pyrochemical processes in the production and purification of reactive metals. These processes generate a significant amount of contaminated waste that has to be treated for recycling or disposal. Molten calcium chloride based salt systems have been used in this work to electrolytically regenerate calcium metal from calcium oxide for the in situ reduction of reactive metal oxides. The recovery of calcium is characterized by the process efficiency to overcome back reactions in the electrowinning cell. A thermodynamic analysis, based on fundamental rate theory, has been performed to understand the process parameters controlling the metal deposition, rate, behavior of the ceramic anode-sheath and influence of the back-reactions. It has been observed that the deposition of calcium is dependent on the ionic diffusion through the sheath. It has also been evidenced that the recovered calcium is completely lost through the back-reactions in the absence of a sheath. A practical scenario has also been presented where the electrowon metal can be used in situ as a reductant to reduce another reactive metal oxide

  7. Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourishankar, K. V.

    1998-01-01

    Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li 2 O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes

  8. Steam gasification of plant biomass using molten carbonate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, Brandon J.; Honda, Masanori; Kittelson, David B.; Davidson, Jane H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of molten alkali-carbonate salts as a reaction and heat transfer medium for steam gasification of plant biomass with the objectives of enhanced heat transfer, faster kinetics, and increased thermal capacitance compared to gasification in an inert gas. The intended application is a solar process in which concentrated solar radiation is the sole source of heat to drive the endothermic production of synthesis gas. The benefits of gasification in a molten ternary blend of lithium, potassium, and sodium carbonate salts is demonstrated for cellulose, switchgrass, a blend of perennial plants, and corn stover through measurements of reaction rate and product composition in an electrically heated reactor. The feedstocks are gasified with steam at 1200 K in argon and in the molten salt. The use of molten salt increases the total useful syngas production by up to 25%, and increases the reactivity index by as much as 490%. Secondary products, in the form of condensable tar, are reduced by 77%. -- Highlights: ► The presence of molten salt increases the rate of gasification by up to 600%. ► Reaction rates across various feedstocks are more uniform with salt present. ► Useful syngas yield is increased by up to 30% when salt is present. ► Secondary production of liquid tars are reduced by 77% when salt is present.

  9. Natural convection heat transfer in the molten metal pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.J.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D.; Choi, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Analytical studies using the FLOW-3D computer program have been performed on natural convection heat transfer of a high density molten metal pool, in order to evaluate the coolability of the corium pool. The FLOW-3D results on the temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate in the molten metal pool region have been compared and evaluated with the experimental data. The FLOW-3D results have shown that the developed natural convection flow contributes to the solidified crust formation of the high density molten metal pool. The present FLOW-3D results, on the relationship between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region, are more similar to the calculated results of Globe and Dropkin's correlation than any others. The natural convection heat transfer in the low aspect ratio case is more substantial than that in the high aspect ratio case. The FLOW-3D results, on the temperature profile and on the heat transfer rate in the molten metal pool region, are very similar to the experimental data. The heat transfer rate of the internal heat generation case is higher than that of the bottom heating case at the same heat supply condition. (author)

  10. Aluminide slurry coatings for protection of ferritic steel in molten nitrate corrosion for concentrated solar power technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigié, Pauline; Bizien, Nicolas; Baráibar, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Sergio; Pastor, Ana; Hernández, Marta; Agüero, Alina

    2017-06-01

    Molten nitrates can be employed as heat storage fluids in solar concentration power plants. However molten nitrates are corrosive and if operating temperatures are raised to increase efficiencies, the corrosion rates will also increase. High temperature corrosion resistant coatings based on Al have demonstrated excellent results in other sectors such as gas turbines. Aluminide slurry coated and uncoated P92 steel specimens were exposed to the so called Solar Salt (industrial grade), a binary eutectic mixture of 60 % NaNO3 - 40 % KNO3, in air for 2000 hours at 550°C and 580°C in order to analyze their behavior as candidates to be used in future solar concentration power plants employing molten nitrates as heat transfer fluids. Coated ferritic steels constitute a lower cost technology than Ni based alloy. Two different coating morphologies resulting from two heat treatment performed at 700 and 1050°C after slurry application were tested. The coated systems exhibited excellent corrosion resistance at both temperatures, whereas uncoated P92 showed significant mass loss from the beginning of the test. The coatings showed very slow reaction with the molten Solar Salt. In contrast, uncoated P92 developed a stratified, unprotected Fe, Cr oxide with low adherence which shows oscillating Cr content as a function of coating depth. NaFeO2 was also found at the oxide surface as well as within the Fe, Cr oxide.

  11. Three-dimensional numerical investigation of a Molten Salt reactor concept with the code CFX-5.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, B.; Csom, G.; Aszodi, A.

    2002-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of actinides and long-lived fission products is a promising option to extend the possibilities and enhance the environmentally acceptable capabilities of nuclear energy. Also the possible implementation of the thorium cycle is considered as a way to reduce the problem of energy resources in the future. For both objectives different molten salt reactor concepts were proposed mainly based on the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Not only critical reactors but also accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADSs) have advantages worth considering for those aims, especially those ones with liquid fuel, such as molten salts. By using liquid fuel which is the coolant medium, too, a basically different thermalhydraulic behavior is expected than in the case of solid fuel and water coolant. In this work our purpose is to present the possible use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology in molten salt thermal hydraulics. The simulations were performed with the three-dimensional code CFX-5.5.(author)

  12. Molten salt based nanofluids based on solar salt and alumina nanoparticles: An industrial approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Belén; Nieto-Maestre, Javier; Guerreiro, Luis; Julia, José Enrique; Collares-Pereira, Manuel; García-Romero, Ana

    2017-06-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) and its associated dispatchability is extremely important in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants since it represents the main advantage of CSP technology in relation to other renewable energy sources like photovoltaic (PV). Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 600°C. Their main problems are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve the thermal properties of molten salts is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. Additionally, the use of molten salt based nanofluids as TES materials and Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) has been attracting great interest in recent years. The addition of tiny amounts of nanoparticles to the base salt can improve its specific heat as shown by different authors1-3. The application of these nano-enhanced materials can lead to important savings on the investment costs in new TES systems for CSP plants. However, there is still a long way to go in order to achieve a commercial product. In this sense, the improvement of the stability of the nanofluids is a key factor. The stability of nanofluids will depend on the nature and size of the nanoparticles, the base salt and the interactions between them. In this work, Solar Salt (SS) commonly used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3 wt.) was doped with alumina nanoparticles (ANPs) at a solid mass concentration of 1% wt. at laboratory scale. The tendency of nanoparticles to agglomeration and sedimentation is tested in the molten state by analyzing their size and concentration through the time. The specific heat of the nanofluid at 396 °C (molten state) is measured at different times (30 min, 1 h, 5 h). Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms of agglomeration. A good understanding of the interactions between the nanoparticle surface and the ionic media would provide

  13. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was

  14. Conception of electron beam-driven subcritical molten salt ultimate safety reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abalin, S.S.; Alekseev, P.N.; Ignat`ev, V.V. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    This paper is a preliminary sketch of a conception to develop the {open_quotes}ultimate safety reactor{close_quotes} using modern reactor and accelerator technologies. This approach would not require a long-range R&D program. The ultimate safety reactor could produce heat and electric energy, expand the production of fuel, or be used for the transmutation of long-lived wastes. The use of the combined double molten salt reactor system allows adequate neutron multiplication to permit using an electron accelerator for the initial neutron flux. The general parameters of such a system are discussed in this paper.

  15. Electrochemical-metallothermic reduction of zirconium in molten salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Talko, F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method for separating hafnium from zirconium of the type wherein a feed containing zirconium and hafnium chlorides is prepared from zirconium-hafnium chloride and the feed is introduced into a distillation column, which distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at the top and wherein a hafnium chloride enriched stream is taken from the top of the column and a zirconium enriched chloride stream is taken from the bottom of the column. It comprises: reducing the zirconium enriched chloride stream taken from the distillation column to metal by electrochemically reducing an alkaline earth metal in a molten salt bath with the molten salt in the molten salt bath consisting essentially of a mixture of at least one alkali metal chloride and at least one alkaline earth metal chloride and zirconium chloride, with the reduced alkaline earth metal reacting with the zirconium chloride to produce zirconium metal and alkaline earth metal chloride

  16. Critical survey on electrode aging in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, K.

    1979-12-01

    To evaluate potential electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells, we reviewed the literature pertaining to these cells and interviewed investigators working in fuel cell technology. In this critical survey, the effect of three electrode aging processes - corrosion or oxidation, sintering, and poisoning - on these potential fuel-cell electrodes is presented. It is concluded that anodes of stabilized nickel and cathodes of lithium-doped NiO are the most promising electrode materials for molten carbonate fuel cells, but that further research and development of these electrodes are needed. In particular, the effect of contaminants such as H/sub 2/S and HCl on the nickel anode must be investigated, and methods to improve the physical strength and to increase the conductivity of NiO cathodes must be explored. Recommendations are given on areas of applied electrode research that should accelerate the commercialization of the molten carbonate fuel cell. 153 references.

  17. Propagating particle density fluctuations in molten NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmel, F.; Hosokawa, S.; Pilgrim, W.-C.; Lorenzen, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the observation of acoustic modes in the spectra of molten NaCl measured over a large momentum transfer range using synchrotron radiation. A surprisingly large positive dispersion was deduced with a mode velocity exceeding the adiabatic value by nearly 70%. The large effect seems to be describable as a viscoelastic reaction of the liquid. Additionally, the derived dispersion resembles the Q-ω relation of the acoustic modes in liquid sodium. As an explanation for the large positive dispersion we propose that the density fluctuations in molten NaCl can be interpreted as a decoupled motion of the lighter and smaller cations on a nearly resting anionic background. These molten alkali halide measurements are the first experimental evidences for the so-called fast sound in a binary ionic liquid

  18. Behaviour of molten reactor fuels under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier Swamikannu, A.; Mathews, C.K.

    1980-01-01

    The behaviour of molten reactor fuels under accident conditions has received considerable importance in recent times. The chemical processes that occur in the molten state among the fuel, the clad components and the concrete of the containment building under the conditions of a core melt down accident in oxide fuelled reactors have been reviewed with the purpose of identifying areas of developmental work required to be performed to assess and minimize the consequences of such an accident. This includes the computation and estimation of vapour pressure of various gaseous species over the fuel, the clad and the coolant, providing of sacrificial materials in the concrete in order to protect the containment building in order to prevent release of radioactive gases into the atmosphere and understanding the distribution and chemical state of fission products in the molten fuel in order to provide for the effective removal of their decay heats. (auth.)

  19. Deuterium retention in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hai-Shan; Xu, Yu-Ping; Sun, Ning-Bo; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Oya, Yasuhisa; Zhao, Ming-Zhong; Mao, Hong-Min; Ding, Fang; Liu, Feng; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate D retention in electrodeposition W coatings. • W coatings are exposed to D plasmas in the EAST tokamak. • A cathodic current density dependence on D retention is found. • Electrodeposition W exhibits lower D retention than VPS-W. - Abstract: Molten salt electrodeposition is a promising technology to manufacture the first wall of a fusion reactor. Deuterium (D) retention behavior in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten (W) coatings has been investigated by D-plasma exposure in the EAST tokamak and D-ion implantation in an ion beam facility. Tokamak exposure experiments demonstrate that coatings prepared with lower current density exhibit less D retention and milder surface damage. Deuterium-ion implantation experiments indicate the D retention in the molten salt electrodeposition W is less than that in vacuum plasma spraying W and polycrystalline W.

  20. Basic studies for molten-salt reactor engineering in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, R.; Sugiyama, K.; Sakashita, H.

    1985-01-01

    A research project of nuclear engineering for the molten-salt reactor is underway which is supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research of the Ministry of Education of Japan. At present, the major effort is devoted only to basic engineering problems because of the limited amount of the grant. The reporters introduce these and related studies that have been carrying out in Japanese universities. Discussions on the following four subjects are summerized in this report: a) Vapour explosion when hight temperature molten-salts are brought into direct contact with water. b) Measurements of exact thermophysical properties of molten-salt. c) Free convection heat transfer with uniform internal heat generation and a constant heating rate from the bottem. d) Stability of frozen salt film on the container surface. (author)

  1. Deuterium retention in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hai-Shan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Xu, Yu-Ping [Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Sun, Ning-Bo; Zhang, Ying-Chun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China); Oya, Yasuhisa [Radioscience Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Zhao, Ming-Zhong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Mao, Hong-Min [Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Ding, Fang; Liu, Feng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Luo, Guang-Nan, E-mail: gnluo@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Hefei Center for Physical Science and Technology, Hefei (China); Hefei Science Center of Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • We investigate D retention in electrodeposition W coatings. • W coatings are exposed to D plasmas in the EAST tokamak. • A cathodic current density dependence on D retention is found. • Electrodeposition W exhibits lower D retention than VPS-W. - Abstract: Molten salt electrodeposition is a promising technology to manufacture the first wall of a fusion reactor. Deuterium (D) retention behavior in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten (W) coatings has been investigated by D-plasma exposure in the EAST tokamak and D-ion implantation in an ion beam facility. Tokamak exposure experiments demonstrate that coatings prepared with lower current density exhibit less D retention and milder surface damage. Deuterium-ion implantation experiments indicate the D retention in the molten salt electrodeposition W is less than that in vacuum plasma spraying W and polycrystalline W.

  2. Molten salt reactors. Synthesis of studies realized between 1973 and 1983. Chemistry file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The chemistry of molten salt reactors was first acquired by foreign literature and developed by experimental studies. Salt preparation, analysis, chemical and electrochemical properties, interaction with metals or graphites and use of molten lead for direct cooling are examined. [fr

  3. Compatibility of AlN ceramics with molten lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Sato, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Satoru [Tokyo Univ., Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    AlN ceramics were a candidate for electrically insulating materials and facing materials against molten breeder in a nuclear fusion reactor. In the nuclear fusion reactor, interactions of various structural materials with solid and liquid breeder materials as well as coolant materials are important. Therefore, corrosion tests of AlN ceramics with molten lithium were performed. AlN specimens of six kinds, different in sintering additives and manufacturing method, were used. AlN specimens were immersed into molten lithium at 823 K. Duration for the compatibility tests was about 2.8 Ms (32 days). Specimens with sintering additive of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} by about 5 mass% formed the network structure of oxide in the crystals of AlN. It was considered that the corrosion proceeded by reduction of the oxide network and the penetration of molten lithium through the reduced pass of this network. For specimens without sintering additive, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing by about 1.3% in raw material was converted to fine oxynitride particles on grain boundary or dissolved in AlN crystals. After immersion into lithium, these specimens were found to be sound in shape but reduced in electrical resistivity. These degradation of the two types specimens were considered to be caused by the reduction of oxygen components. On the other hand, a specimen sintered using CaO as sintering additive was finally became appreciably high purity. This specimen showed good compatibility for molten lithium at least up to 823 K. It was concluded that the reduction of oxygen concentration in AlN materials was essential in order to improve the compatibility for molten lithium. (author)

  4. Calculation of β-effective of a molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, N.; Sakaba, H.

    1987-01-01

    A method to calculate the β eff of a molten salt reactor was developed taking the effect of the flow of the molten salt into account. The method was applied to the 1000MW MSR design made by ORNL. The change in β eff due to the change in the residence time outside of the core of the fuel salt and to the change in the flow velocity when the total amount of the fuel salt is kept constant were investigated. It was found that β eff was reduced to 47.9% of the value when the fuel salt is at rest for the present design. (author)

  5. Metallic materials corrosion problems in molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, G.; Dixmier, J.; Jarny, P.

    1977-01-01

    The USA forecastings concerning the molten salt reactors are reviewed (mixtures of fluorides containing the fuel, operating between 560 and 700 0 C). Corrosion problems are important in these reactors. The effects of certain characteristic factors on corrosion are analyzed: humidity and metallic impurities in the salts, temperature gradients, speed of circulation of salts, tellurium from fission products, coupling. In the molten fluorides and experimental conditions, the materials with high Ni content are particularly corrosion resistant alloys (hastelloy N). The corrosion of this material is about 2.6 mg.cm -2 at 700 0 C [fr

  6. Study of an F center in molten KCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1984-01-15

    It is shown that a discretized version of Feynman's path integral provides a convenient tool for the numerical investigation of the properties of an electron solvated in molten KCl. The binding energy, the magnetic susceptibility, and the pair correlation functions are calculated. The local structure around the solute electron appears to be different from that of an F center in the solid. The Feynman path of the electron dissolved in molten KCl is highly localized thus justifying the F center model. The effect of varying the e/sup -/-K/sup +/ pseudopotential is also reported.

  7. Molten core debris-sodium interactions: M-Series experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, E.S.; Gabor, J.D.; Pavlik, J.R.; Cassulo, J.C.; Cook, C.J.; Baker, L. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Five new kilogram-scale experiments have been carried out. Four of the experiments simulated the situation where molten core debris flows from a breached reactor vessel into a dry reactor cavity and is followed by a flow of sodium (Ex-vessel case) and one experiment simulated the flow of core debris into an existing pool of sodium (In-vessel case). The core debris was closely simulated by a thermite reaction which produced a molten mixture of UO 2 , ZrO 2 , and stainless steel. There was efficient fragmentation of the debris in all experiments with no explosive interactions observed

  8. Molten carbonate fuel cell integral matrix tape and bubble barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, C.A.; Maricle, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell matrix material is described made up of a matrix tape portion and a bubble barrier portion. The matrix tape portion comprises particles inert to molten carbonate electrolyte, ceramic particles and a polymeric binder, the matrix tape being flexible, pliable and having rubber-like compliance at room temperature. The bubble barrier is a solid material having fine porosity preferably being bonded to the matrix tape. In operation in a fuel cell, the polymer binder burns off leaving the matrix and bubble barrier providing superior sealing, stability and performance properties to the fuel cell stack

  9. Fabrication of catalytic electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.

    1988-01-01

    A porous layer of catalyst material suitable for use as an electrode in a molten carbonate fuel cell includes elongated pores substantially extending across the layer thickness. The catalyst layer is prepared by depositing particulate catalyst material into polymeric flocking on a substrate surface by a procedure such as tape casting. The loaded substrate is heated in a series of steps with rising temperatures to set the tape, thermally decompose the substrate with flocking and sinter bond the catalyst particles into a porous catalytic layer with elongated pores across its thickness. Employed as an electrode, the elongated pores provide distribution of reactant gas into contact with catalyst particles wetted by molten electrolyte.

  10. Molten salt steam generator subsystem research experiment. Volume I. Phase 1 - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-10-01

    A study was conducted for Phase 1 of a two-phase project whose objectives were to develop a reliable, cost-effective molten salt steam generating subsystem for solar thermal plants, minimize uncertainty in capital, operating, and maintenance costs, and demonstrate the ability of molten salt to generate high-pressure, high-temperature steam. The Phase 1 study involved the conceptual design of molten salt steam generating subsystems for a nominal 100-MWe net stand-alone solar central receiver electric generating plant, and a nominal 100-MWe net hybrid fossil-fueled electric power generating plant that is 50% repowered by a solar central receiver system. As part of Phase 1, a proposal was prepared for Phase 2, which involves the design, construction, testing and evaluation of a Subsystem Research Experiment of sufficient size to ensure successful operation of the full-size subsystem designed in Phase 1. Evaluation of several concepts resulted in the selection of a four-component (preheater, evaporator, superheater, reheater), natural circulation, vertically oriented, shell and tube (straight) heat exchanger arrangement. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the system included full and part load performance, circulation requirements, stability, and critical heat flux analysis. Flow-induced tube vibration, tube buckling, fatigue evaluation of tubesheet junctions, steady-state tubesheet analysis, and a simplified transient analysis were included in the structural analysis of the system. Operating modes and system dynamic response to load changes were identified. Auxiliary equipment, fabrication, erection, and maintenance requirements were also defined. Installed capital costs and a project schedule were prepared for each design.

  11. Molten salt reactors. Synthesis of studies realized between 1973 and 1983. General synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hery, M.; Lecocq, A.

    1983-03-01

    After a brief recall of the MSBR project, French studies on molten salt reactors are summed up. Theoretical and experimental studies for a graphite moderated 1000 MWe reactor using molten Li, Be, Th and U fluorides cooled by salt-lead direct contact are given. These studies concern the core, molten salt chemistry, graphite, metals (molybdenum, alloy TZM), corrosion, reactor components [fr

  12. Thermochemical investigation of molten fluoride salts for Generation IV nuclear applications - an equilibrium exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of the Molten Salt Reactor, one of the so-called Generation IV future reactors, is that the fuel, a fissile material, which is dissolved in a molten fluoride salt, circulates through a closed circuit. The heat of fission is transferred to a second molten salt coolant loop, the heat of

  13. Coupling NMR with Synchrotron radiation at high temperature for the study of molten fluorides : applied to zirconium fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksoud, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Molten fluorides are used in Molten Salt Reactors MSR such as the non moderated fast reactor MSFR, where the molten salt LiF-ThF 4 is the fuel and the coolant. The formation of fission products (FP) such as lanthanides, during the reactor operation, possibly modifies the physicochemical properties of the melt. It is therefore important to characterize the melt from the structural and the dynamics point of view in order to determine its properties. Because of problems related to the radioactivity of thorium, as well as requirements related to spectroscopic methods, the system studied in this thesis is the LiF-ZrF 4 -LaF 3 (zirconium and lanthanum are possible FP). The approach followed in this thesis combines measurements by NMR spectroscopy and EXAFS at 850 C with molecular dynamics simulations. In the molten salt, we have shown the existence of zirconium and lanthanum complexes with different coordination numbers, whose proportions depend on the composition. Depending on the content of ZrF 4 , [ZrF 7 ] 3- species are dominant but change slightly and are further connected between each other's via bridging fluorine. The addition of LaF 3 to the mixture stabilizes the 7 coordination number around the zirconium and tends to enrich the environment of lanthanum with fluorides. A medium-range order is established between the various complexes containing zirconium and lanthanum due to bridging fluorine. Species dynamics is slower when the amount of either ZrF 4 or LaF 3 is higher. We noted a significant effect on the structure and dynamics of species starting 10 mol% LaF 3 added to the medium. The data obtained by this novel approach concerning the chemistry of the molten salt in MSR containing FP, are fundamental to improve the separation of these products and optimize the process. (author)

  14. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillejo, Y.; Fernandez, P.; Medina, J.; Hernandez, P.; Barrado, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) ↔ Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al 3 Sm and Al 2 Sm.

  15. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, Y., E-mail: ycastril@qa.uva.es [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Fernandez, P. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Medina, J. [Dept Fisica Materia Condensada Cristalografia y Mineralogia, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Hernandez, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42076 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Barrado, E. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) {r_reversible} Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al{sub 3}Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm.

  16. Liquid-liquid reductive extraction in molten fluoride salt/liquid aluminium as a core of process for the An/Ln group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conocar, O.

    2007-06-01

    This report concerns a pyrochemical process based on liquid-liquid extraction in a molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system as a core process for actinide (An)/lanthanide (Ln) group separation, studied at CEA. The basic and demonstrative experiments have established the feasibility of the An/Ln group separation in the molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system (U, Pu, Np, Am, Cm traces from Nd, Ce, Eu, Sm, Eu, La - An/Ln separation factors over 1000 - An recovery yield over 98 % in one batch). The main experimental efforts must now be targeted on the recovery of actinides from the Al matrix. A thermodynamic and bibliographical survey has been done. It shows that back-extraction in a molten chloride melt could be a promising technique for this purpose

  17. Liquid-liquid reductive extraction in molten fluoride salt/liquid aluminium as a core of process for the An/Ln group separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocar, O

    2007-06-15

    This report concerns a pyrochemical process based on liquid-liquid extraction in a molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system as a core process for actinide (An)/lanthanide (Ln) group separation, studied at CEA. The basic and demonstrative experiments have established the feasibility of the An/Ln group separation in the molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system (U, Pu, Np, Am, Cm traces from Nd, Ce, Eu, Sm, Eu, La - An/Ln separation factors over 1000 - An recovery yield over 98 % in one batch). The main experimental efforts must now be targeted on the recovery of actinides from the Al matrix. A thermodynamic and bibliographical survey has been done. It shows that back-extraction in a molten chloride melt could be a promising technique for this purpose.

  18. Physical and chemical feasibility of fueling molten salt reactors with TRU's trifluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.; Feinberg, O.; Konakov, S.; Subbotine, S.; Surenkov, A.; Zakirov, R.

    2001-01-01

    The molten salt reactor (MSR) concept is very important for consideration as an element of future nuclear energy systems. These reactor systems are unique in many ways. Particularly, the MSRs appear to have substantial promise not only as advanced TRU free system operating in U-Th cycle, but also as transmuter of TRU. Physical and chemical feasibility of fueling MSR with TRU trifluorides is examined. Solvent compositions with and without U-Th as fissile / fertile addition are considered. The principle reactor and fuel cycle variables available for optimizing the performance of MSR as TRU transmuting system are discussed. These efforts led to the definition in minimal TRU mass flow rate, reduced total losses to waste and maximum possible burn up rate for the molten salt transmuter. The current status of technology and prospects for revisited interest are summarized. Significant chemical problems are remain to be resolved at the end of prior MSRs programs, notably, graphite life durability, tritium control, fate of noble metal fission products. Questions arising from plutonium and minor actinide fueling include: corrosion and container chemistry, new redox buffer for systems without uranium, analytical chemistry instrumentation, adequate constituent solubilities, suitable fuel processing and waste form development. However these problems appear to be soluble. (author)

  19. A new thermodynamic model of energetic molten fuel-coolant interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    A new thermodynamic model of energetic molten fuel-coolant interactions is presented, in which the response of fluid around the interaction zone is treated explicitly. By assuming that this fluid is compressed reversibly and adiabatically, a qualified lower limit to the efficiency of conversion of thermal energy to mechanical work is obtained. A detailed comparison of the model predictions with the results of the SUW series of experiments at AEE Winfrith is made. The predicted efficiencies are found to be in close agreement with those determined experimentally. Model predictions for a system of infinite volume are also presented. (author)

  20. Comparison of slagging pyrolysis and molten salt incinerators for treating TRU waste at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    For the comparison, it is assumed that the waste product is required to meet the acceptance criteria of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, i.e., low leachability. Slagging pyrolysis incinerates combustible waste and melts noncombustible waste; the resulting slag forms a glass of low leachability. In the molten salt incinerator, combustion occurs at low temperatures with no accumulation of explosive gases, but the waste must have been previously sorted into combustibles and noncombustibles and then shredded. The economics, safety, and technical features are compared. Advantages, disadvantages, and areas of technical uncertainty of the two systems are listed. Development costs and schedules for the two types of incinerators are discussed

  1. Corrosion Behavior of Superalloys in Hot Lithium Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Soo-Haeng; Hur, Jin-Mok; Seo, Chung-Seok; Park, Seoung-Won

    2006-01-01

    The Li-reduction process involves the chemical reduction of spent fuel oxides by liquid lithium metal in a molten LiCl salt bath at 650 .deg. C followed by a separate electrochemical reduction of lithium oxide (Li 2 O), which builds up in the salt bath. This process requires a high purity inert gas atmosphere inside remote hot cell nuclear facility to prevent unwanted Li oxidation and fires during the handling of chemically active Li metal. In light of the limitations of the Li-reduction process, a direct electrolytic reduction technology is being developed by KAERI to enhance process safety and economic viability. The electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuel involves the liberation of oxygen in a molten LiCl electrolyte, which results in a chemically aggressive environment that is too corrosive for typical structural materials. Even so, the electrochemical process vessel must be resilient at ∼ 650 .deg. C in the presence of oxygen to enable high processing rates and an extended service life. But, the mechanism and the rate of the corrosion of metals in LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt under oxidation condition are not clear. In the present work, the corrosion behavior and corrosion mechanism of superalloys have been studied in the molten salt of LiCl-Li 2 O under oxidation condition

  2. Study of an F center in molten KCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1983-05-01

    It is shown that a discretized version of Feynman's path integral provides a convenient tool for the numerical investigation of the properties of an electron solvated in molten KCl. The binding energy and the pair correlation functions are calculated. The local structure around the solute electron appears to be different from that of an F center in the solid

  3. Ion diffusion related to structure in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.

    1996-08-01

    A model first developed by Zwanzig to derive transport coefficients in cold dense fluids directly from the Green-Kubo time correlation formulae allows one to relate macroscopic diffusion coefficients to the local fluid structure. Applications to various ionic diffusion processes in molten salts are reviewed. Consequences of partial structural quenching are also discussed. (author). 28 refs, 3 tabs

  4. Experimental investigation of a molten salt thermocline storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Yang, Xiaoxi; Qin, Frank G. F.; Jiang, Runhua

    2016-07-01

    Thermal energy storage is considered as an important subsystem for solar thermal power stations. Investigations into thermocline storage tanks have mainly focused on numerical simulations because conducting high-temperature experiments is difficult. In this paper, an experimental study of the heat transfer characteristics of a molten salt thermocline storage tank was conducted by using high-temperature molten salt as the heat transfer fluid and ceramic particle as the filler material. This experimental study can verify the effectiveness of numerical simulation results and provide reference for engineering design. Temperature distribution and thermal storage capacity during the charging process were obtained. A temperature gradient was observed during the charging process. The temperature change tendency showed that thermocline thickness increased continuously with charging time. The slope of the thermal storage capacity decreased gradually with the increase in time. The low-cost filler material can replace the expensive molten salt to achieve thermal storage purposes and help to maintain the ideal gravity flow or piston flow of molten salt fluid.

  5. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a

  6. Nuclear energy synergetics and molten-salt technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    There are various problems with nuclear energy techniques in terms of resources, safety, environmental effects, nuclear proliferation, reactor size reduction and overall economics. To overcome these problems, future studies should be focused on utilization of thorium resources, separation of multiplication process and power generation process, and application of liquid nuclear fuel. These studies will lead to the development of molten thorium salt nuclear synergetics. The most likely candidate for working medium is Lif-BeF 2 material (flibe). 233 U production facilities are required for the completion of the Th cycle. For this, three ideas have been proposed: accelerator M.S. breeder, impact fusion MSB and inertial conf. fusion hybrid MSB. The first step toward the development of molten Th salt nuclear energy synergetics will be the construction of a pilot plant of an extreme small size. As candidate reactor, the author has selected mini FUJI-II (7.0 MWe), an extremely small molten salt power reactor. Mini FUJI-II facilities are expected to be developed in 7 - 8 years. For the next step (demonstration step), the designing of a small power reactor (FUJI 160 MWe) has already been carried out. A small molten salt reactor will have good safety characteristics in terms of chemistry, material, structure, nuclear safety and design basis accidents. Such reactors will also have favorable economic aspects. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Nonmetal-metal transition in metal–molten-salt solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestrelli, P.-L.; Alavi, A.; Parrinello, M.; Frenkel, D.

    1996-01-01

    The method of ab initio molecular dynamics, based on finite-temperature density-functional theory, is used to study the nonmetal-metal transition in two different metal–molten-salt solutions, Kx(KCl)1-x and Nax(NaBr)1-x. As the excess metal concentration is increased the electronic density becomes

  8. Study of an F center in molten KCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1983-05-01

    It is shown that a discretized version of Feynman's path integral provides a convenient tool for the numerical investigation of the properties of an electron solvated in molten KCl. The binding energy and the pair correlation functions are calculated. The local structure around the solute electron appears to be different from that of an F center in the solid.

  9. Sorbitol dehydration into isosorbide in a molten salt hydrate medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Spina, A.; Moulijn, J.A.; Makkee, M.

    2013-01-01

    The sorbitol conversion in a molten salt hydrate medium (ZnCl2; 70 wt% in water) was studied. Dehydration is the main reaction, initially 1,4- and 3,6-anhydrosorbitol are the main products that are subsequently converted into isosorbide; two other anhydrohexitols, (1,5- and 2,5-), formed are in less

  10. Raman spectra of zirconium tetrachloride in molten and evaporational states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyuev, A.B.; Kornyakova, I.D.

    1994-01-01

    For the first time raman spectra of ZrCl 4 are obtained in the temperature range of its existence in molten state as well as in vapors near the critical point. It is shown, that rupture of zigzag chains is taking place when ZrCl 4 is melting

  11. Molten salt scrubbing of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.D.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a continuous process for removing impurities of iron or aluminum chloride or both from vaporous zirconium or hafnium chloride or both. It comprises: introducing impure zirconium or hafnium chloride vapor or both into a middle portion of an absorbing column containing a molten salt phase, the molten salt phase absorbing the impurities of iron or aluminum chloride or both to produce chloride vapor stripped of zirconium or hafnium chloride; introducing sodium or potassium chloride or both into a top portion of the column; controlling the top portion of the column to between 300--375 degrees C.; heating a bottom portion of the column to 450--550 degrees C. To vaporize zirconium chloride or hafnium chloride or hafnium and zirconium chloride from the molten salt; withdrawing molten salt substantially free of zirconium and hafnium chloride from the bottom portion of the column; and withdrawing zirconium chloride or hafnium chloride or hafnium and zirconium chloride vapor substantially free of impurities of iron and aluminum chloride from the top of the column

  12. Nickel catalysts for internal reforming in molten carbonate fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, R.J.; Berger, R.J.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; van Ommen, J.G.; Ross, J.R.H.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas may be used instead of hydrogen as fuel for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by steam reforming the natural gas inside the MCFC, using a nickel catalyst (internal reforming). The severe conditions inside the MCFC, however, require that the catalyst has a very high stability. In

  13. Conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, George (Inventor); Torbet, Walter (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material consists of a composite structure incorporating a quartz transfer tube as the innermost member, with an outer thermally insulating layer designed to serve the dual purposes of minimizing heat losses from the quartz tube and maintaining mechanical strength and rigidity of the conduit at the elevated temperatures encountered. The composite structure ensures that the molten semiconductor material only comes in contact with a material (quartz) with which it is compatible, while the outer layer structure reinforces the quartz tube, which becomes somewhat soft at molten semiconductor temperatures. To further aid in preventing cooling of the molten semiconductor, a distributed, electric resistance heater is in contact with the surface of the quartz tube over most of its length. The quartz tube has short end portions which extend through the surface of the semiconductor melt and which are lef bare of the thermal insulation. The heater is designed to provide an increased heat input per unit area in the region adjacent these end portions.

  14. Fluid Mechanics Of Molten Metal Droplets In Additive Manufacturing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Šonský, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2016), s. 403-412 ISSN 2046-0546 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : additive manufacturing * droplets * molten metal Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://www.witpress.com/elibrary/cmem-volumes/4/4/1545

  15. Research and development issues for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes issues pertaining to the development of molten carbonate fuel cells. In particular, the corrosion resistance and service life of nickel oxide cathodes is described. The resistivity of lithium oxide/iron oxides and improvement with doping is addressed.

  16. Structure and thermodynamic properties of molten rubidium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballone, P.; Pastore, G.; Tosi, M.P.; Trieste Univ.

    1984-02-01

    Self-consistent calculations of partial pair distribution functions and thermodynamic properties are presented for molten RbCl in a non-polarizable-ion model and compared with computer simulation data. The theory, which is quantitatively very successful, hinges on an empirical evaluation of bridge diagrams including both excluded-volume effects and long-range Coulomb effects. (author)

  17. Release properties of UC sub x and molten U targets

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Sauvage, J; Bajeat, O; Barre, N; Clapier, F; Cottereau, E; Donzaud, C; Ducourtieux, M; Essabaa, S; Guillemaud-Müller, D; Lau, C; Lefort, H; Liang, C F; Le Blanc, F; Müller, A C; Obert, J; Pauwels, N; Potier, J C; Pougheon, F; Proust, J; Sorlin, O; Verney, D; Wojtasiewicz, A

    2002-01-01

    The release properties of UC sub x and molten U thick targets associated with a Nier-Bernas ion source have been studied. Two experimental methods are used to extract the release time. Results are presented and discussed for Kr, Cd, I and Xe.

  18. Thorium and Molten Salt Reactors: "Essential Questions for Classroom Discussions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLisi, Gregory A.; Hirsch, Allison; Murray, Meredith; Rarick, Richard

    2018-01-01

    A little-known type of nuclear reactor called the "molten salt reactor" (MSR), in which nuclear fuel is dissolved in a liquid carrier salt, was proposed in the 1940s and developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 1960s. Recently, the MSR has generated renewed interest as a remedy for the drawbacks associated with conventional…

  19. Molar Volume Analysis of Molten Ni-Al-Co Alloy by Measuring the Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; FANG Liang; FU Yuechao; YANG Lingchuan

    2004-01-01

    The density of molten Ni-Al-Co alloys was measured in the temperature range of 1714~1873K using a modified pycnometric method, and the molar volume of molten alloys was analyzed. The density of molten Ni-Al-Co alloys was found to decrease with increasing temperature and Co concentration in alloys. The molar volume of molten Ni-Al-Co alloys increases with increasing Co concentration in alloys. The molar volume of molten Ni-Al-Co alloys shows a negative deviation from the linear molar volume.

  20. Development of galvanic high energy cells with molten salt electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borger, W.; Ely, G.; Kunze, D.; Laig-Hoerstebrock, H.; Panesar, H.; Sterr, G.; Wunderlich, A.

    1985-01-01

    The development work during the period 1980-1983 was mainly directed towards the development of technical LiAl/FeS cells, the development of separators, tests of cells and modules, and more basic work. An important objective was the improvement of cycle life at constant specific energy. Technical cells with 140 Ah nominal capacity at the five hour rate and 100 Wh.kg/sup -1/ specific energy performed up to 400 full cycles (30 A discharge), while in 10 Ah test cells more than 2000 full cycles have been demonstrated. The improvement of cycle life of technical cells was achieved by the use of improved separators fabricated from MgO-powder and by a vacuum-tight electrical feedthrough. A design concept of a 10 cell module has been developed based upon 200 Ah cell with two positive and three negative plates. A detailed investigation of safety aspects showed that there is no specific risk related to the LiAl/molten salt/FeS system. Thermal management of a 24 kWh battery was investigated and the Ohmic heat generated in the leads seems to be the critical factor. A range of total materials cost between 60 and 130 DM/kWh has been estimated. The price of LiAl/FeS batteries will most probably also be in the range of conventional secondary batteries. The cost/benefit analysis shows a considerable potential of energy conservation by the use of light-weight high energy batteries. Compared with a expected technical life of 7 years a pay-back period between 2 and 6 years seems attractive. However, the economy of the electric vehicle is strongly influenced by the higher purchase price of an electric vehicle and the present energy level.

  1. Structural investigation of molten fluorides of nuclear interest by NMR and XAFS spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauvert, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of the renewal of the different nuclear plans, the molten salt reactor is one of the six concepts of reactors of 4. generation. This reactor has the particularity to use a liquid fuel based on LiF-ThF 4 mixtures. In order to develop and to optimize this concept, it is important to characterize the structure of the melt and to describe its physical and chemical properties. Our work has been based on the study of the system MF-ZrF 4 (M = Li, Na, K) selected as a model of ThF 4 based systems. We have combined two spectroscopic techniques, the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and the X-ray Absorption at high temperature, with molecular dynamics calculations. We particularly focused on the local environments of the fluorine and the zirconium. In order to interpret the NMR data obtain in the molten state, we performed a preliminary study on zirconium halides and rare earth and alkali fluoro zirconates using the 91 Zr solid-state NMR at very high magnetic fields. New correlations between structural parameters and NMR data have been established. At high temperature, in MF-ZrF 4 melts we have shown the coexistence of three different kind of Zr-based complexes with different proportions depending on the amount of ZrF 4 and on the nature of the alkali. Depending on the ZrF 4 content, three kinds of fluorine have been characterized: form free fluorines at low amount of zirconium fluorides, fluorines involved in Zr-based complexes and bridging fluorines at higher ZrF 4 content. This original and innovative approach of molten fluorides mixtures, combining NMR and EXAFS at high temperature with molecular dynamics calculations, is very efficient to describe their speciation and thus their fluoro-acidity. (author)

  2. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for the Molten Salt Reactor Fuel - 15573

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelli, E.; Konings, R.J.M.; Benes, A.

    2015-01-01

    Molten fluoride salts are considered as primary candidates for nuclear fuel in the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), one of the 6 generation IV nuclear reactor designs. In order to determine the safety limits and to access the properties of the potential fuel mixtures, thermodynamic studies are very important. This study is a combination of experimental work and thermodynamic modelling and focusses on the fluoride systems with alkaline and alkaline earth fluorides as matrix and ThF 4 , UF 4 and PuF 3 as fertile and fissile materials. The purification of the single components was considered as essential first step for the study of more complex systems and ternary phase diagrams were described using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and drop calorimetry, which are used to measure phase transitions, enthalpy of mixing and heat capacity. In addition to the calorimetric techniques, Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to collect data on vapour pressure and crystal structure of fluorides. The results are then coupled with thermodynamic modelling using the Calphad method for the assessment of the phase diagrams. A thermodynamic database describing the most important systems for MSR application has been developed and it has been used to optimize the fuel composition in view of the relevant properties such as melting temperature. A reliable database of thermodynamic properties of fluoride salts has been generated. It includes the key systems for the MSR fuel and it is very useful to predict the properties of the fuel

  3. Supplying Fe from molten coal ash to revive kelp community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Sadakata, M. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-02-15

    The phenomenon of a kelp-dominated community changing to a crust-dominated community, which is called 'barren-ground', is progressing in the world, and causing serious social problems in coastal areas. Among several suggested causes of 'barren-ground', we focused on the lack of Fe in seawater. Kelp needs more than 200 nM of Fe to keep its community. However there are the areas where the concentration of Fe is less than 1 nM, and the lack of Fe leads to the 'barren-ground.' Coal ash is one of the appropriate materials to compensate the lack of Fe for the kelp growth, because the coal ash is a waste from the coal combustion process and contains more than 5 wt% of Fe. The rate of Fe elution from coal fly ash to water can be increased by 20 times after melting in Ar atmosphere, because 39 wt% of the Fe(III) of coal fly ash was reduced to Fe(II). Additionally molten ash from the IGCC (integrated coal gasification combined cycle) furnace in a reducing atmosphere and one from a melting furnace pilot plant in an oxidizing atmosphere were examined. Each molten ash was classified into two groups; cooled rapidly with water and cooled slowly without water. The flux of Fe elution from rapidly cooled IGCC molten ash was the highest; 9.4 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. It was noted that the coal ash melted in a reducing atmosphere could elute Fe effectively, and the dissolution of the molten ash itself controlled the rate of Fe elution in the case of rapidly cooled molten ash.

  4. Propagation mechanisms of molten fuel/moderator interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, D.L.; Ciccarelli, G.

    1991-06-01

    It is well known that a vapor explosion can result when molten is suddenly brought into contact with a cold volatile liquid such as water. However, the rapid melt fragmentation and heat transfer processes that occur during a propagating melt-water interaction are poorly understood. Experiments were carried out in the present work to investigate the fragmentation processes for single molten metal drops in water. To determine the time scale for the fragmentation of a drop, liquid metal drops (in thermal equilibrium with the water) as well as hot molten drops surrounded by a vapor film were subjected to underwater shocks with overpressures of up to about 20 MPa. In the hot molten drop tests, the induction time for the initiation of the explosion is typically less than 100 μs; at a corresponding time in the cold drop tests, very little or no direct hydrodynamic fragmentation of the drop has occurred. Therefore, in the hot drop case the fragmentation of the drop is dominated by thermal effects; i.e., the heat transfer from the melt to the water leads to violent boiling, pressurization, and drop fragmentation. The melt-water interaction consists of several cycles involving bubble growth and collapse. The strength of the interaction was not found to be a strong function of initial shock pressure (for molten tin drops with trigger pressures of up to 20 MPa), but depends on the thermal energy in the melt: high-temperature thermite drops generated a larger first bubble than lower temperature melt drops. A model for the fine fragmentation process for a hot drop is proposed that is based on thermal effects. The fragmentation processes governed by thermal effects observed in the present experiments are expected to play an important role in the escalation of a local interaction to a large-scale coherent vapor explosion, and are not accounted for in current transient models for propagating vapor explosions

  5. Rare Earth Electrochemical Property Measurements and Phase Diagram Development in a Complex Molten Salt Mixture for Molten Salt Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinsuo; Guo, Shaoqiang

    2018-03-30

    novel process using a galvanic couple between a cathode basket made of stainless steel and a Gd rod is investigated in LiCl-KCl-UCl3-MgCl2. The process shows rapid reduction of UCl3 to U and MgCl2 to Mg without any co-reduction of LaCl3, NdCl3, or CeCl3 because of the higher standard potential of Gd3+/Gd. Electrolysis of the molten salt results in a perturbation of the composition, which in turn can affect the equilibrium phase behavior. Studies on phase behavior in more complex salt mixtures as will be encountered in real electrorefiner salt drawdown are very limited. In present research, the solidus and liquidus temperatures for four quaternary LiCl-KCl-CsCl-RECl3 (RE = La, Nd, Ce, and Gd) salt systems are analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement. The presence of CsCl causes a slight depression in the liquidus temperature for all of the four rare earth chloride mixtures when compared to the corresponding ternary system liquidus temperatures in the absence of any CsCl. Thermodynamic assessment for the LiCl-KCl-LnCl3 ternary system(here Gd as a reprehensive of Ln) has been carried out by CALPHAD method using two-sublattice model. From the optimized phase diagram, the solubility of GdCl3 in LiCl-KCl eutectic is obtained. This model can also be applied to other salt system to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of other REs in pyroprocessing salt systems with more components. In the end, an electrolysis model is developed to predict the electrolysis process for RE drawdown from LiCl-KCl salt. The model considers both the diffusion in electrolyte and Faraday process on the electrode surface and a surface layer is introduced to account for the fact that diffusion current is not necessarily equal to the current due to the Butler-Volmer equation. Using the fundamental data obtained from this study, the proposed model is validated by chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry experimental data.

  6. Preview of DATACHOA Ver. 1.0: Database for Chemical and Physical Properties of Molten Chloride Salts Comprising Actinide and Lanthanide Chloride Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Yun; Lee, Jin-Hong; Park, Tae-Hong; Bae, Sang-Eun; Cho, Young Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides molten salt database based on a world-wide-web (WWW) server. However, many data useful for the pyroprocess under development in Korea are missing. We have developed various measurement techniques for obtaining the chemical and physical data of the molten salts over the last four years: absorption spectra, emission spectra, molar absorptivity, Gibbs free energy, apparent potential, activity coefficient, exchange current density, solubility, electrical conductivity, density, surface tension, viscosity, melting point, diffusion coefficient, etc, which have been of our current interests. Those property data are essential in the understanding and the operation of the pyrochemical system. Some properties are intercorrelated, and multi-component molten salt systems can be understood by using a multivariate chemometric data analysis. Our final goal is to establish the 'Expert System', which is defined as a system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. Although expert systems have been successful in the artificial intelligence, they are not known to chemists or chemical engineers for many years. The DATACHOA is the first step forward to the 'Expert System', although the amount of our property data is not currently enough to build up the 'Expert System'. DATACHOA is our first attempt to collect extensive basic and fundamental properties of molten salts of interest to pyroprocess chemists and engineers in Korea. DATACHOA ver. 1.0 will be released to the pyroprocess engineers within a few months.

  7. Analysis of the transmutational characteristics of a novel molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gy.; Feher, S.; Szieberth, M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the arguments most frequently brought up by the opponents of the utilization of nuclear energy is the requirement that the radioactive waste and the long-lived radioisotopes accumulated in the spent fuel should be isolated for a very long time from the biosphere. The solution is the elimination of long-lived actinides (plutonium isotopes and minor actinides) and long-lived fission products by transforming (transmuting) them into short-lived or stable nuclei. The high neutron flux required for transmutation can be realized in nuclear installations. these may be conventional therma; and fast reactors, furthermore dedicated devices, namely thermal and fast reactors and accelerator driven subcritical systems (ADSs), which are specifically designed for this purpose. Some of the most promising systems are the molten salt reactors and subcritical systems, in which the fuel and material to be transmuted circulate dissolved in some molten salt. In the present paper this transmutational device, as well as recommendations for the improvement are discussed in detail (Authors)

  8. Electrochemical study in the molten sodium acid sulphate - potassium acid sulphate eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ber, F.

    1964-01-01

    The general properties of the NaHSO 4 - KHSO 4 molten eutectic resemble those of neutral sulphates and those of concentrated H 2 SO 4 . We have been able to show the existence in solution of the ions HSO - 4 SO 2- 4 , and H 3 O + , these last being formed by the action of the HSO - 4 ions on dissolved H 2 O. The electro-active zone with a polished platinum electrode is limited in oxidation by the ions H 3 O + and SO 2- 4 , and in reduction by the protons of HSO - 4 . We have compared the electro-active zones obtained with different electrodes (Ag-Au-graphite-mercury). We have considered the dissolution of a few metallic oxides and halides. This work shows the role as O 2- ion acceptors of HSO - 4 ions. We have undertaken an electro-chemical study of a few oxido-reduction Systems: H + / H 2 , Ag↓ / Ag (1), the vanadium and uranium Systems, those of mercury Hg↓ / Hg 2- 2 and of gold Au/Au 3+ , then of the attack by the solvent of a few common metals such as aluminium, iron, copper and nickel. The study of silver Systems has made it possible to obtain the solubility products of AgCl and AgBr and to consider the possibility of coulometric titration Cl - ions with Ag + ions. We have shown the existence of various chemical species of vanadium which may exist in the molten eutectic. (author) [fr

  9. Liquid-liquid extraction from molten alkaline nitrates by using nitrogenous and organophosphorus derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittori, Olivier

    1971-01-01

    This research thesis reports the use of a system made of the LiNO 3 -KNO 3 eutectic at 160 deg. C and poly-phenyls in order to study the behaviour of phosphine and arsine oxides as extracting agents in a liquid-liquid process. In a first part, the author presents the studied system, its physical characteristics and its preparation, and the various analytical methods which have used. He discusses existing computation methods adapted to the separation of molten salts and organic phase, and proposes a specific method. Then, he reports the study of the behaviour of a phosphine oxide with Cobalt II and Nickel II, and discusses its application to the separation of this pair, Co II and Ni II. He highlights the different possibilities of three agents which are derivatives of phosphine and arsine in their ability to extract rare earths. A study of separation of rare earths is then addressed. The author reports the application of extraction equilibriums to the study of equilibriums in environments of molten salts with the Co II - chloride ions system. The author finally addresses the synergic phenomenon that pairs of neutral complexing agents of neighbouring structure or different donor central atom may display in liquid-liquid extraction

  10. Compatibility of different stainless steels in molten Pb-Bi eutectic at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, K.; Kain, Vivekanand; Laik, A.; Sharma, B.P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Debnath, A.K.

    2005-10-01

    Advanced nuclear reactors and the accelerator driven subcritical (ADS) system require the structural materials to be in contact with the molten metals/lead-bismuth eutectic at 400 degC and higher temperatures. One of the primary concerns in using the molten lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) as a coolant in the primary circuit of these systems is the degradation of structural materials in contact with LBE. An experimental setup has been fabricated to expose the materials in the molten LBE at high temperatures in stagnant condition under inert atmosphere. Samples from five different stainless steels (types 304L, 316L, 403, duplex SS SAF 2205 and super austenitic SS 2RK65) were exposed in this setup at 450 degC for 200h and at 500 degC for 600 and 2100 h under argon atmosphere. A different setup was prepared in which type 316L SS tube in the as-welded condition was exposed in molten LBE at 500 degC for 1200 h in rotating condition. All the samples showed formation of oxide on their surfaces. The thickness and compositional profiles of these oxides analyzed by EPMA confirmed formation of a double layer oxide on type 316L SS. The oxide thickness was highest on SS 403, while it was lowest on 304L and 316L SS. SEM results showed dissolution of materials at the surface in Sandvik 2RK65 and preferential dissolution of austenite phase in duplex SS. None of the stainless steels, except the duplex and the super austenitic stainless steels, showed any localized or selective corrosion. The composition of LBE before and after the exposure tests was analyzed by XRF technique. The result showed presence of Fe, Cr and Ni in the used LBE but these elements were not present in the virgin Pb-Ei alloy. This showed that the corrosion of stainless steels in LBE at temperatures upto 500 degC is due to oxidation and dissolution of alloying elements through the oxide on stainless steels. (author)

  11. Conceptual Design of Forced Convection Molten Salt Heat Transfer Testing Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Piyush Sabharwall; Pattrick Calderoni; Alan K. Wertsching; S. Brandon Grover

    2010-09-01

    This report develops a proposal to design and construct a forced convection test loop. A detailed test plan will then be conducted to obtain data on heat transfer, thermodynamic, and corrosion characteristics of the molten salts and fluid-solid interaction. In particular, this report outlines an experimental research and development test plan. The most important initial requirement for heat transfer test of molten salt systems is the establishment of reference coolant materials to use in the experiments. An earlier report produced within the same project highlighted how thermophysical properties of the materials that directly impact the heat transfer behavior are strongly correlated to the composition and impurities concentration of the melt. It is therefore essential to establish laboratory techniques that can measure the melt composition, and to develop purification methods that would allow the production of large quantities of coolant with the desired purity. A companion report describes the options available to reach such objectives. In particular, that report outlines an experimental research and development test plan that would include following steps: •Molten Salts: The candidate molten salts for investigation will be selected. •Materials of Construction: Materials of construction for the test loop, heat exchangers, and fluid-solid corrosion tests in the test loop will also be selected. •Scaling Analysis: Scaling analysis to design the test loop will be performed. •Test Plan: A comprehensive test plan to include all the tests that are being planned in the short and long term time frame will be developed. •Design the Test Loop: The forced convection test loop will be designed including extensive mechanical design, instrument selection, data acquisition system, safety requirements, and related precautionary measures. •Fabricate the Test Loop. •Perform the Tests. •Uncertainty Analysis: As a part of the data collection, uncertainty analysis will

  12. Proposal on the accelerator driven molten-salt reactor (ATW concept) benchmark calculations. (STAGE 1 - without an external neutron source)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svarny, J.; Mikolas, P.

    1999-01-01

    The first stage of ATW neutronic benchmark (without an external source), based on the simple modelling of two component concept is presented. The simple model of two component concept of the ATW (graphite + molten salt system) was found. The main purpose of this benchmark is not only to provide the basic characteristics of given ADS but also to test codes in calculations of the rate of transmutation waste and to evaluate basic kinetics parameters and reactivity effects. (author)

  13. A new method to evaluate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for Molten Salt Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiming, E-mail: liqiming@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Tian, Jian; Zhou, Chong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Naxiu, E-mail: wangnaxiu@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We novelly valuate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for MSRs. • We focus on the passive decrease of the leak impetus in flanged connections. • The modified flanged connections are acquired a sealing ability of self-adjustment. • Effects of redesigned flange configurations on molten salt leakage are discussed. - Abstract: The Thorium based Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) project is a future Generation IV nuclear reactor system proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences with the strategic goal of meeting the growing energy needs in the Chinese economic development and social progress. It is based on liquid salts served as both fuel and primary coolant and consequently great challenges are brought into the sealing of the flanged connections. In this study, an improved prototype flange assembly is performed on the strength of the Freeze-Flange initially developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The calculation results of the finite element model established to analyze the temperature profile of the Freeze-Flange agree well with the experimental data, which indicates that the numerical simulation method is credible. For further consideration, the ideal-gas thermodynamic model, together with the mathematical approximation, is novelly borrowed to theoretically evaluate the sealing performance of the modified Freeze-Flange and the traditional double gaskets bolted flange joint. This study focuses on the passive decrease of the leak driving force due to multiple gaskets introduced in flanged connections for MSR. The effects of the redesigned flange configuration on molten salt leakage resistance are discussed in detail.

  14. Direct Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirk, Aislinn H. C.; Sadoway, Donald R.; Sibille, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    When considering the construction of a lunar base, the high cost ($ 100,000 a kilogram) of transporting materials to the surface of the moon is a significant barrier. Therefore in-situ resource utilization will be a key component of any lunar mission. Oxygen gas is a key resource, abundant on earth and absent on the moon. If oxygen could be produced on the moon, this provides a dual benefit. Not only does it no longer need to be transported to the surface for breathing purposes; it can also be used as a fuel oxidizer to support transportation of crew and other materials more cheaply between the surface of the moon, and lower earth orbit (approximately $20,000/kg). To this end a stable, robust (lightly manned) system is required to produce oxygen from lunar resources. Herein, we investigate the feasibility of producing oxygen, which makes up almost half of the weight of the moon by direct electrolysis of the molten lunar regolith thus achieving the generation of usable oxygen gas while producing primarily iron and silicon at the cathode from the tightly bound oxides. The silicate mixture (with compositions and mechanical properties corresponding to that of lunar regolith) is melted at temperatures near 1600 C. With an inert anode and suitable cathode, direct electrolysis (no supporting electrolyte) of the molten silicate is carried out, resulting in production of molten metallic products at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. The effect of anode material, sweep rate, and electrolyte composition on the electrochemical behavior was investigated and implications for scale-up are considered. The activity and stability of the candidate anode materials as well as the effect of the electrolyte composition were determined. Additionally, ex-situ capture and analysis of the anode gas to calculate the current efficiency under different voltages, currents and melt chemistries was carried out.

  15. A new method to evaluate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for Molten Salt Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiming; Tian, Jian; Zhou, Chong; Wang, Naxiu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We novelly valuate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for MSRs. • We focus on the passive decrease of the leak impetus in flanged connections. • The modified flanged connections are acquired a sealing ability of self-adjustment. • Effects of redesigned flange configurations on molten salt leakage are discussed. - Abstract: The Thorium based Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) project is a future Generation IV nuclear reactor system proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences with the strategic goal of meeting the growing energy needs in the Chinese economic development and social progress. It is based on liquid salts served as both fuel and primary coolant and consequently great challenges are brought into the sealing of the flanged connections. In this study, an improved prototype flange assembly is performed on the strength of the Freeze-Flange initially developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The calculation results of the finite element model established to analyze the temperature profile of the Freeze-Flange agree well with the experimental data, which indicates that the numerical simulation method is credible. For further consideration, the ideal-gas thermodynamic model, together with the mathematical approximation, is novelly borrowed to theoretically evaluate the sealing performance of the modified Freeze-Flange and the traditional double gaskets bolted flange joint. This study focuses on the passive decrease of the leak driving force due to multiple gaskets introduced in flanged connections for MSR. The effects of the redesigned flange configuration on molten salt leakage resistance are discussed in detail

  16. CFD to modeling molten core behavior simultaneously with chemical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir V Chudanov; Anna E Aksenova; Valerii A Pervichko

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper deals with the basic features of a computing procedure, which can be used for modeling of destruction and melting of a core with subsequent corium retaining into the reactor vessel. The destruction and melting of core mean the account of the following phenomena: a melting, draining (moving of the melt through a porous layer of core debris), freezing with release of an energy, change of geometry, formation of the molten pool, whose convective intermixing and distribution influence on a mechanism of borders destruction. It is necessary to take into account that during of heating molten pool and development in it of convective fluxes a stratification of a multi-component melt on two layers of metal light and of oxide heavy components is observed. These layers are in interaction, they can exchange by the separate components as result of diffusion or oxidizing reactions. It can have an effect considerably on compositions, on a specific weight, and on properties of molten interacting phases, and on a structure of the molten stratified pool. In turn, the retaining of the formed molten masses in reactor vessel requires the solution of a matched heat exchange problem, namely, of a natural convection in a heat generating fluid in partially or completely molten corium and of heat exchange problem with taking into account of a melting of the reactor vessel. In addition, it is necessary to take into account phase segregation, caused by influence of local and of global natural convective flows and thermal lag of heated up boundaries. The mathematical model for simulation of the specified phenomena is based on the Navier-Stokes equations with variable properties together with the heat transfer equation. For modeling of a corium moving through a porous layer of core debris, the special computing algorithm to take into account density jump on interface between a melt and a porous layer of core debris is designed. The model was

  17. Coupled study of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor core physics and its associated reprocessing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doligez, X.; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Ghetta, V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The limit on the reprocessing is due to the redox potential control. • Alkali and Earth-alkaline elements do not have to be extracted. • Criticality risks have to be studied in the reprocessing unit. • The neutronics properties are not sensitive to chemical data. • The reprocessing chemistry, from a pure numerical point of view, is an issue. - Abstract: Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) are liquid-fuel reactors, in which the fuel is also the coolant and flows through the core. A particular configuration presented in this paper called the Molten Salt Fast Reactor consists in a Molten Salt Reactor with no moderator inside the core and a salt composition that leads to a fast neutron spectrum. Previous studies showed that this concept (previously called Thorium Molten Salt Reactor – Nonmoderated) has very promising characteristics. The liquid fuel implies a special reprocessing. Each day a small amount of the fuel salt is extracted from the core for on-site reprocessing. To study such a reactor, the materials evolution within the core has to be coupled to the reprocessing unit, since the latter cleans the salt quasi continuously and feeds the reactor. This paper details the issues associated to the numerical coupling of the core and the reprocessing. It presents how the chemistry is introduced inside the classical Bateman equation (evolution of nuclei within a neutron flux) in order to carry a numerical coupled study. To achieve this goal, the chemistry has to be modeled numerically and integrated to the equations of evolution. This paper presents how is it possible to describe the whole concept (reactor + reprocessing unit) by a system of equations that can be numerically solved. Our program is a connection between MCNP and a homemade evolution code called REM. Thanks to this tool; constraints on the fuel reprocessing were identified. Limits are specified to preserve the good neutronics properties of the MSFR. In this paper, we show that the limit

  18. Effect of thermodiffusion on the fluid flow, heat transfer, and solidification of molten metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jafar-Salehi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a transient Finite Element (FE method has been employed to solve the transport equations to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow and the effect of thermodiffusion on vertical solidification of a binary molten metal alloy, forming a rod. The binary system considered in this study is SnBi composed of 65% Sn and 35% Bi subjected to bottom cooling. It is found that the flow of molten metal at the boundary of the mushy region plays an important role in the shape and geometry of the zone. The presence of thermodiffusion shows considerable difference in the composition of the solidified rod, compared with the one without considering the effect of thermodiffusion. Thermodiffusion also causes a faster solidification and a more uniform concentration distribution. The results of this study may be extended to similar binary and multicomponent systems in which a temperature gradient exists and the Soret coefficient is large enough so as to affect the fluid flow and concentration of the species.

  19. A final report on the Phase 1 testing of a molten-salt cavity receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, J M [ed.; Smith, D C [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States). Nuclear Equipment Div.

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and testing of a solar central receiver using molten nitrate salt as a heat exchange fluid. Design studies for large commercial plants (30--100 MWe) have shown molten salt to be an excellent fluid for solar thermal plants as it allows for efficient thermal storage. Plant design studies concluded that an advanced receiver test was required to address uncertainties not covered in prior receiver tests. This recommendation led to the current test program managed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy. The 4.5 MWt receiver is installed at Sandia National Laboratories' Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The receiver incorporates features of large commercial receiver designs. This report describes the receiver's configuration, heat absorption surface (design and sizing), the structure and supporting systems, and the methods for control. The receiver was solar tested during a six-month period at the Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque, NM. The purpose of the testing was to characterize the operational capabilities of the receiver under a number of solar operating and stand-by conditions. This testing consisted of initial check-out of the systems, followed by steady-state performance, transient receiver operation, receiver operation in clouds, receiver thermal loss testing, receiver start-up operation, and overnight thermal conditioning tests. This report describes the design, fabrication, and results of testing of the receiver.

  20. Many-electron electrochemical processes. Reactions in molten salts, room-temperature ionic liquids and ionic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriiko, Aleksandr A. [National Technical Univ. Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine). Kyiv Polytechnic Inst.; Andriyko, Yuriy O. [CEST Centre of Electrochemical Surface Technology, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Nauer, Gerhard E. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    2013-02-01

    The authors provide a unified concept for understanding multi-electron processes in electrochemical systems such as molten salts, ionic liquids, or ionic solutions. A major advantage of this concept is its independence of assumptions like one-step many-electron transfers or 'discrete' discharge of complex species. This book contains the following main topics: 1. Many-electron electrochemical systems: Concepts and definitions. 2. Many-electron systems at equilibrium. 3. Phenomenology of electrochemical kinetics. 4. Electrode film systems: experimental evidences. 5. Dynamics of a non-equilibrium electrochemical system. 6. Electrochemistry of Ti(IV) in ionic liquids.