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Sample records for mollusc donax rugosus

  1. Relationships of the Pachydactylus rugosus group of geckos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined phylogenetic relationships of the Pachydactylus rugosus complex using DNA sequence data from segments of the mitochondrial genes ... Further, high levels of sequence divergence observed between currently recognized subspecies (19.1–26.8 % for cyt b), even across short geographic distances, support ...

  2. Reproduction and recruitment patterns of the surf clam Donax serra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproduction and recruitment patterns of the surf clam Donax serra (Bivalvia, Donacidae) on two ... Keywords: condition index, Donax serra, histology, Namibia, recruitment, reproduction, sandy beach ecology ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 69396 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... alternatives to, the release of Arundo scale into the continental United States for use as a biological control... a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Arundo donax infestations. A. donax is a highly...

  5. VARIABILITY IN SOILS AND VEGETATION ASSOCIATED WITH HARVESTER ANT (POGONOMYRMEX RUGOSUS) NESTS ON A CHIHUAHUAN DESERT WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus) nests on the density and cover of spring annual plants and on soil characteristics were measured at three locations characterized by different soils and dominant vegetation on a desert watershed. There were few differences in ve...

  6. Effect of edta on arsenic phytoextraction by arundo donax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, N.; Pervez, A.; Mahmood, Q.; Shah, M.M.; Farooq, U.

    2014-01-01

    Ligand assisted metal uptake by plants is recent trend in environmental clean-up. Arundo donax L. has been demonstrated as a suitable bioresource for the phytoextraction of arsenic recently. A. donax L. plants were grown in arsenic contaminated soil with doses (5 and 10 mg kg/sup -1/) of Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) to investigate chelator-assisted phytoextraction. The arsenic treatments included control (no metal) and five doses of arsenic, i.e., 50, 100, 300, 600 and 1000 micro g kg/sup -1/ . The arsenic concentrations linearly increased in parts of plant with the increasing arsenic and EDTA in growth medium. Ligand addition also resulted in the increased arsenic accumulation in the shoot over its control plants. EDTA additionat the rate 5 mg kg/sup -1/ to the treatment system may effectively increase the arsenic uptake by A. donax without severe growth suppression. (author)

  7. Phytochemical and toxicological investigations of crude methanolic extracts, subsequent fractions and crude saponins of Isodon rugosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Zeb Abdul Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isodon rugosus is used traditionally in the management of hypertension, rheumatism, tooth-ache and pyrexia. Present study was arranged to investigate I. rugosus for phytoconstituents, phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities to explore its toxicological, pharmacological potentials and to rationalize its ethnomedicinal uses. Briefly, qualitative phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were carried out for the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, oils, glycosides, anthraquinones, terpenoids, sterols and tannins. Plant crude methanolic extract (Ir.Cr, its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ir.Hex, chloroform (Ir.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ir.EtAc, aqueous (Ir.Aq and saponins (Ir.Sp in different concentrations were tested for phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities using radish seeds and brine shrimps (Artemia salina respectively. The phytotoxic activity was determined by percent root length inhibition (RLI and percent seeds germination inhibition (SGI while the cytotoxicity was obtained with percent lethality of the brine shrimps. RESULTS: Ir.Cr was tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, oils, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and anthraquinones. Among different fractions Ir.Sp, Ir.Chf, Ir.EtAc, and Ir.Cr were most effective causing 93.55, 89.32, 81.32 and 58.68% inhibition of seeds in phytotoxicity assay, with IC50 values of 0.1, 0.1, 0.1 and 52 μg/ml respectively. Similarly, among all the tested samples, Ir.Sp exhibited the highest phytotoxic effect causing 91.33% root length inhibition with IC50 of 0.1 μg/ml. Ir.Sp and Ir.Chf were most effective against brine shrimps showing 92.23 and 76.67% lethality with LC50 values of 10 and 12 μg/ml respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It may be inferred from the current investigations that I. rugosus contains different secondary metabolites and is a potential source for the isolation of natural anticancer and herbicidal drug molecules. Different fractions exhibited phytotoxic and

  8. Heavy metal distribution and bioaccumulation in Chihuahuan Desert Rough Harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus) populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Toro, I.; Floyd, K.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.; Borrok, D.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination can negatively impact arid ecosystems; however a thorough examination of bioaccumulation patterns has not been completed. We analyzed the distribution of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils, seeds and ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus) populations of the Chihuahuan Desert near El Paso, TX, USA. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Pb in soils, seeds and ants declined as a function of distance from a now inactive Cu and Pb smelter and all five metals bioaccumulated in the granivorous ants. The average bioaccumulation factors for the metals from seeds to ants ranged from 1.04x (As) to 8.12x (Cd). The findings show bioaccumulation trends in linked trophic levels in an arid ecosystem and further investigation should focus on the impacts of heavy metal contamination at the community level. - Heavy metals bioaccumulate in desert ants.

  9. Organisms associated with the sandy-beach bivalve Donax serra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    57: 134-136. BROWN, AC. & WEBB, S.c. 1994. Organisms associated \\.,.,ith burrowing whelks of the genus Bullia. S Afr. 1. Zool. 29: 144-151. BROWN, A.C., STENTON-DOZEY, J.~.E. & TRUEMAN, E.R.. 1989. Sandy-beach bivalves and gastropods; a comparison between Donax serra and Ruilia digitalis. Adv. mar. Bioi. 25:.

  10. Mechanisms causing size differences of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus among eco-islands in Southern Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsuan Hsu

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental factors can influence body size. Comparing populations in different ecological contexts is one potential approach to elucidating the most critical of such factors. In the current study, we found that the body size of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus was significantly larger on Dongsha Island in the South China Sea than on other eco-islands around Southern Taiwan. We hypothesized that this could be due to differences in (1 shell resources, (2 parasite impact, (3 competition, (4 predation, and (5 food. We found no supporting evidence for the first three hypotheses; the shells used by the hermit crabs on Dongsha were in poorer condition than were those used elsewhere, extremely few individuals in the region had ectoparasites, and the density of hermit crabs varied considerably among localities within each island. However, significantly higher percentages of C. rugosus reached age 3 years on Dongsha than at Siziwan bay in Taiwan. Two growth rate indices inferred from size structures suggested faster growth on Dongsha than at Siziwan. The condition index (i.e., the body mass/shield length ratio of C. rugosus was also greater on Dongsha than at Siziwan. Therefore, Dongsha hermit crabs seem to have superior diet and growth performance. Seagrass debris accumulation at the shore of Dongsha was considerable, whereas none was observed at Siziwan or on the other islands, where dicot leaves were the dominant food item for the vegetarian hermit crabs. We then experimentally evaluated the possible role of seagrass as food for C. rugosus. The crabs on Dongsha preferred seagrass to dicot leaves, and their growth increment was faster when they fed on seagrass than when they fed on dicot leaves; no such differences were found in the Siziwan hermit crabs. The aforementioned results are compatible with the food hypothesis explaining the size differences among the islands. The predator hypothesis could explain the greater life span but

  11. [Phytoremediation of mercury and cadmium polluted wetland by Arundo donax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiping; Hu, Xiaobin; Hu, Zhenghai

    2005-05-01

    With a pot culture of simulated mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd)-polluted wetland, this paper studied the capability of Arundo donax in accumulating these heavy metals, and their distribution in the plant. The results showed that after grown in a 101 mg.kg(-1) Hg-polluted wetland for 8 months, the Hg-concentrating capability of Arundo donax was in order of root > stem > leaf, and the Hg concentration in its aboveground parts was 200 +/- 20 mg.kg(-1) (DW); while in the case of 115 mg.kg(-1) Cd-pollution, the Cd-concentrating capability was in order of leaf > root > stem, and the Cd concentration in leaf was 160 +/- 26 mg.kg(-1) (DW). The heavy metals concentration in Arundo donax organs increased with its growth time, being 30%-50% higher for 8 months than for 4 months. The BCF (Bio-concentration factor) decreased with increasing heavy metals concentration. In polluted wetland, the BCFs of Hg by the leaf and stem were 1.9 and 2.1, and those of Cd were 1.5 and 0.3, respectively; while in unpolluted wetland, the concentration of Hg and Cd was 6.8 and 8.5 mg.kg(-1), the BCFs of Hg by the leaf and stem were 6.8 and 12.2, and those of Cd were 7.0 and 2.7, respectively. It was indicated that Arundo donax not only had the characters of large biomass, exuberant root, and good adaptability, but also exhibited high tolerance and concentrating capability to Cd and Hg.

  12. Investigations of anticholinestrase and antioxidant potentials of methanolic extract, subsequent fractions, crude saponins and flavonoids isolated from Isodon rugosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Zeb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Based on the ethnomedicinal uses and the effective outcomes of natural products in various diseases, this study was designed to evaluate Isodon rugosus as possible remedy in oxidative stress, alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases. Acetylecholinestrase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibitory activities of crude methanolic extract (Ir.Cr, resultant fractions (n-hexane (Ir.Hex, chloroform (Ir.Cf, ethyl acetate (Ir.EtAc, aqueous (Ir.Aq, flavonoids (Ir.Flv and crude saponins (Ir.Sp of I. rugosus were investigated using Ellman's spectrophotometric method. Antioxidant potential of I. rugosus was determined using DPPH, H2O2 and ABTS free radicals scavenging assays. Total phenolic and flavonoids contents of plant extracts were determined and expressed in mg GAE/g dry weight and mg RTE/g of dry sample respectively. RESULTS: Among different fractions Ir.Flv and Ir.Cf exhibited highest inhibitory activity against AChE (87.44 ± 0.51, 83.73 ± 0.64% and BChE (82.53 ± 0.71, 88.55 ± 0.77% enzymes at 1 mg/ml with IC50 values of 45, 50 for AChE and 40, 70 μg/ml for BChE respectively. Activity of these fractions were comparable to galanthamine causing 96.00 ± 0.30 and 88.61 ± 0.43% inhibition of AChE and BChE at 1 mg/ml concentration with IC50 values of 20 and 47 μg/ml respectively. In antioxidant assays, Ir.Flv, Ir.Cf, and Ir.EtAc demonstrated highest radicals scavenging activities in DPPH and H2O2 assays which were comparable to ascorbic acid. Ir.Flv was found most potent with IC50 of 19 and 24 μg/ml against DPPH and H2O2 radicals respectively. Whereas antioxidant activates of plant samples against ABTS free radicals was moderate. Ir.Cf, Ir.EtAc and Ir.Cr showed high phenolic and flavonoid contents and concentrations of these compounds in different fractions correlated well to their antioxidant and anticholinestrase activities. CONCLUSION: It may be inferred from the current investigations that the

  13. Scaling of olfactory antennae of the terrestrial hermit crabs Coenobita rugosus and Coenobita perlatus during ontogeny

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    Lindsay D. Waldrop

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although many lineages of terrestrial crustaceans have poor olfactory capabilities, crabs in the family Coenobitidae, including the terrestrial hermit crabs in the genus Coenobita, are able to locate food and water using olfactory antennae (antennules to capture odors from the surrounding air. Terrestrial hermit crabs begin their lives as small marine larvae and must find a suitable place to undergo metamorphosis into a juvenile form, which initiates their transition to land. Juveniles increase in size by more than an order of magnitude to reach adult size. Since odor capture is a process heavily dependent on the size and speed of the antennules and physical properties of the fluid, both the transition from water to air and the large increase in size during ontogeny could impact odor capture. In this study, we examine two species of terrestrial hermit crabs, Coenobita perlatus H. Milne-Edwards and Coenobita rugosus H. Milne-Edwards, to determine how the antennule morphometrics and kinematics of flicking change in comparison to body size during ontogeny, and how this scaling relationship could impact odor capture by using a simple model of mass transport in flow. Many features of the antennules, including the chemosensory sensilla, scaled allometrically with carapace width and increased slower than expected by isometry, resulting in relatively larger antennules on juvenile animals. Flicking speed scaled as expected with isometry. Our mass-transport model showed that allometric scaling of antennule morphometrics and kinematics leads to thinner boundary layers of attached fluid around the antennule during flicking and higher odorant capture rates as compared to antennules which scaled isometrically. There were no significant differences in morphometric or kinematic measurements between the two species.

  14. Physiological response of Arundo donax to cadmium stress by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shunhui; Sheng, Li; Zhang, Chunyan; Deng, Hongping

    2018-06-01

    The present paper deals with the physiological response of the changes in chemical contents of the root, stem and leaf of Arundo donax seedlings stressed by excess cadmium using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique, cadmium accumulation in plant by atomic absorption spectroscopy were tested after different concentrations cadmium stress. The results showed that low cadmium concentrations (spectroscopy technique for the non-invasive and rapid monitoring of the plants stressed with heavy metals, Arundo donax is suitable for phytoremediation of cadmium -contaminated wetland.

  15. [Study of alkaline lignin from Arundo donax linn based on FT Raman spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ting-ting; Ma, Jian-feng; Guo, Si-qin; Xu, Feng

    2014-08-01

    Arundo donax linn, as a perennial energy crop, has promising application prospect. In the present study, Fourier transform Raman (FT Raman) spectroscopy was applied to determine the structural information of materials, milled wood lignin (MWL), and alkaline lignins (AL, under different treated time) from A. donax stem nondestructively. The results indicated that, extractable compounds in A. donax had negative contribution to the Raman spectra without rising new Raman peaks. FT Raman spectrum of MWL indicated that MWL from A. donax was HGS type lignins. Compared with the spectra of MWL from wood materials, the peak at 1173 cm(-1) was much higher in intensity for the MWL from A. donax stem, which may be assigned to hydroxycinnamic acid by analyzing the standard. With respect to FT Raman spectra of ALs, the relatively highest intensity of 1173 cm(-1) was found in alkaline lignin (AL2), which was treated for 40 min by alkaline. Moreover, the peak of coniferaldehyde/sinapaldehyde (1630 cm(-1)) was lowest in intensity while the band attributed to coniferyl alcohol/sinapyl alcohol (1660 cm(-1)) was almost disappeared in AL2. It could be inferred that AL2 demonstrated a highest content of phenolic acid, which may improve its potential application, such as for antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the results obtained by FT Raman spectra were verified by two dimensional heteronuclear singlequantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Above all, FT Raman spectroscopy provided alternative safe, rapid, accurate, and nondestructive technology for lignin structure determination.

  16. Phytoremediation potential of Arundo donax in arsenic-contaminated synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid; Ahmad, Raza; Farooq, Robina; Shah, Mohammad Maroof; Azim, Muhammad Rashid

    2010-08-01

    The present study reports the potential of Arundo donax for phytoextraction of arsenic from synthetic wastewater. A. donax plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing a nutrient solution amended with increasing doses of As (0, 50, 100, 300, 600 and 1000 microg L(-1)) for 21 days in a completely randomized design. Shoot and roots dry matter production, growth parameters, arsenic and nutrient tissue concentrations were measured at the end of the experiment. Increasing As concentration in nutrient solution caused an increase in shoot and root biomass without toxicity symptoms in A. donax growing under a range of As concentration from 50 to 600 microg L(-1). Elevated oxidative stress was observed at As supplied level of 1000 microg L(-1). The As doses up to 600 microg L(-1) did not affect the growth of A. donax. It is suggested that A. donax plants may be employed to treat contaminated waters containing arsenic concentrations up to 600 microg L(-1). (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomass valorisation of Arundo donax L., Miscanthus × giganteus and Sida hermaphrodita for biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krička, Tajana; Matin, Ana; Bilandžija, Nikola; Jurišić, Vanja; Antonović, Alan; Voća, Neven; Grubor, Mateja

    2017-10-01

    In the context of the growing demand for biomass, which is being encouraged by the EU directives on the promotion of the use of renewable energy, recent investigations have been increasingly focused on fast-growing energy crops. The aim of this study was to investigate the energy properties of three types of agricultural energy crops: Arundo donax L., Miscanthus × giganteus and Sida hermaphrodita. This investigation looked into the content of non-combustible and combustible matter, higher and lower heating values, lignocellulose content, and biomass macro-elements. The results indicate that the energy values of these crops are comparable, while their lignocellulose content shows significant variations. Thus, Arundo donax L. can best be utilised as solid biofuel due to its highest lignin content, while Miscanthus × giganteus and Sida hermaphrodita L. can be used for both liquid and solid biofuels production. As far as Arundo donax L. is concerned, a higher ash level should be taken into consideration.

  18. Optimization of Arundo donax Saccharification by (Hemicellulolytic Enzymes from Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Liguori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An enzymatic mixture of cellulases and xylanases was produced by Pleurotus ostreatus using microcrystalline cellulose as inducer, partially characterized and tested in the statistical analysis of Arundo donax bioconversion. The Plackett-Burman screening design was applied to identify the most significant parameters for the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated A. donax. As the most significant influence during the enzymatic hydrolysis of A. donax was exercised by the temperature (°C, pH, and time, the combined effect of these factors in the bioconversion by P. ostreatus cellulase and xylanase was analyzed by a 33 factorial experimental design. It is worth noting that the best result of 480.10 mg of sugars/gds, obtained at 45°C, pH 3.5, and 96 hours of incubation, was significant also when compared with the results previously reached by process optimization with commercial enzymes.

  19. Neuro-endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bech Sanderhoff, Lene; Waller, Stine P.

    The Mollusca phylum is the second largest animal phylum with around 85,000 registered mollusc species and increasing attention to effects of chemicals on the molluscan endocrine system have been given during the last years. This includes initiation of the development of OECD test guidelines (TG...... efficient and fast in vivo system using embryos of the freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (the great pond snail). It is known that serotonin and dopamine are involved in many reproductive processes in molluscs Incl. egg maturation and spawning and that pedal ciliary activity causing L....... stagnalis embryos to rotate in the eggs is serotonin/dopamine regulated. We have developed a system to quantify embryo rotation and present results of exposure to serotonin, dopamine and different anti-depressive pharmaceuticals (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRI´s) using the L. stagnalis...

  20. Physiological response of Arundo donax to cadmium stress by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shunhui; Sheng, Li; Zhang, Chunyan; Deng, Hongping

    2018-06-05

    The present paper deals with the physiological response of the changes in chemical contents of the root, stem and leaf of Arundo donax seedlings stressed by excess cadmium using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique, cadmium accumulation in plant by atomic absorption spectroscopy were tested after different concentrations cadmium stress. The results showed that low cadmium concentrations (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique for the non-invasive and rapid monitoring of the plants stressed with heavy metals, Arundo donax is suitable for phytoremediation of cadmium -contaminated wetland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Concentration parameters for radionuclides by marine molluscs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Makamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Matsuba, Mitsue

    1994-01-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine molluscs was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were 57 Co, 95m Tc, 103 Ru, 137 Cs, 65 Zn and 54 Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into nonradioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus) were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except 137 Cs and 54 Mn. Retention of 137 Cs and 54 Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25% of the radioactivity dosed. (author)

  2. Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment for biorefining giant reed (Arundo donax L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Cosentino; Jae-Won Lee; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    Biomass pretreatment is essential to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose for ethanol production. In the present study we pretreated giant reed (Arundo donax L.), a perennial, rhizomatous lignocellulosic grass with dilute oxalic acid. The effects of temperature (170-190 ºC), acid loading (2-10% w/w) and reaction time (15-40 min) were handled as a single...

  3. Potential of a polyculture of Arundo donax and Typha latifolia for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arundo donax and Typha latifolia are emergent macrophyte species that commonly reproduce in humid areas during warm months. This study investigated the growth and pollutant removal capacity of these two species planted in polyculture in a vertical flow filter bed for rural wastewater treatment. Plant shoot height was ...

  4. Concentration parameters for radionuclides by marine molluscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Makamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Matsuba, Mitsue [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Nakaminato, Ibaraki (Japan). Nakaminato Lab. Branch Office

    1994-03-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine molluscs was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were {sup 57}Co, {sup 95m}Tc, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 65}Zn and {sup 54}Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into nonradioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus) were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except {sup 137}Cs and {sup 54}Mn. Retention of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 54}Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25% of the radioactivity dosed. (author).

  5. Some effects of temperature and starvation on the bivalve @iDonax vittatus@@ (da Costa) in experimental laboratory populations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansell, A.D.; Sivadas, P.

    The effect of temperature on the body weight and composition, and on respiration, filtration and NH, excretion of the bivalve Donax uittatus (da Costa) has been investigated in laboratory-maintained populations under conditions of starvation In all...

  6. Transcriptome of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melody S; Thorne, Michael A S

    2015-12-01

    454 RNA-Seq transcriptome data were generated from foot tissue of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica. A total of 6195 contigs were assembled de novo, providing a useful resource for researchers with an interest in Antarctic marine species, phylogenetics and mollusc biology, especially shell production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on Arundo donax L. response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastri, Susanna; Savvides, Andreas; Pesando, Massimo; Lumini, Erica; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Faccio, Antonella; De Cunzo, Fausta; Michelozzi, Marco; Lambardi, Maurizio; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Loreto, Francesco; Centritto, Mauro; Balestrini, Raffaella

    2018-03-01

    AM symbiosis did not strongly affect Arundo donax performances under salt stress, although differences in the plants inoculated with two different fungi were recorded. The mechanisms at the basis of the improved tolerance to abiotic stresses by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been investigated mainly focusing on food crops. In this work, the potential impact of AM symbiosis on the performance of a bioenergy crop, Arundo donax, under saline conditions was considered. Specifically, we tried to understand whether AM symbiosis helps this fast-growing plant, often widespread in marginal soils, withstand salt. A combined approach, involving eco-physiological, morphometric and biochemical measurements, was used and the effects of two different AM fungal species (Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis) were compared. Results indicate that potted A. donax plants do not suffer permanent damage induced by salt stress, but photosynthesis and growth are considerably reduced. Since A. donax is a high-yield biomass crop, reduction of biomass might be a serious agronomical problem in saline conditions. At least under the presently experienced growth conditions, and plant-AM combinations, the negative effect of salt on plant performance was not rescued by AM fungal colonization. However, some changes in plant metabolisms were observed following AM-inoculation, including a significant increase in proline accumulation and a trend toward higher isoprene emission and higher H 2 O 2 , especially in plants colonized by R. irregularis. This suggests that AM fungal symbiosis influences plant metabolism, and plant-AM fungus combination is an important factor for improving plant performance and productivity, in presence or absence of stress conditions.

  8. Fossils mollusc asemblage found at Zagarzazu, marine Pleistocene, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, A. . E mail: alejandra@fcien.edu.uy

    2004-01-01

    There are presented the results of the paleoecological analysis of the mollusc assemblage found at Zagarzazu, Colonia department. The fossils are well preserved, arranged in thin shell-beds with some specimens in life position. The assemblage is indicative of higher temperatures than present, and a strong marine influence. It is important to stress that new thermophilic molluscs for the marine Quaternary were found and that this locality represents a new Pleistocene marine record in Uruguay [es

  9. THE MEDICALLY IMPORTANT MOLLUSCS OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machfudz Djajasasmita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At present in Indonesia 32 species of non-marine molluscs which belong to IS families have been known to be potentially of medicalor veterinary importance, since they are suspected to be capable in transmitting human and animal diseases. The brackish water family Potamididae comprises of 1 species; whereas the freshwater snails are : Viviparidae (3 sp., Ampullariidae (3 sp., Bythiniidae (1 sp.. Pomatiopsidae (1 sp., Thiaridae (7 sp., Lymnaeidae(l sp. and Planorbidae (5 sp.; freshwater bivalve are: Corbiculidae (4 sp.; land snails are: Subulinidae (2 sp., Achatinidae (1 sp. and Bradybaenidae (1 sp.; land slug: Veronicelidae (2 sp. Philomycidae (1 sp. and Limacidae (1 sp.. All are common species which can be found in the vicinity of human habitation (ponds, rice-field, ditches, gardens etc. The parasitological studies on these molluscs are rather limited, only 9 species have been studied and confirmed to be the intermediate host of parasitic nematodes and nematodes; i.e. Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, the intermediate host of the blood fluke Schistosoma japonica in Central Sulawesi: Pila suctata, Achatina fulica and Laevicaulis alte from several places in Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi and Flores have been found to be harbouring the larvae of the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis; Bellamy a rudipelis, Gyraulus sarasinorum and Corbicula lindoensis were recorded as the intermediate host of the intestinal fluke Echinostoma lindoensis in Central Sulawesi; Lymnaea rubiginosa plays an important role in the life-cycle of the cattle liver fluke Fasciola gigantica and F.hepatica, which may reduce the national meat production; and Digoniostoma truncatum from Bali has been recorded naturally infected with radiae and cercariae of Paramphistoma sp., the causative agent of the fatal paramphistomiasis of cattle. Gyraulus convexiusculus is considered to be the most likely first intermediate host of

  10. Caracterização de ninhos e tamanho de colônia de Acromyrmex rugosus (F. Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Attini em restingas de Ilhéus, BA, Brasil Characterization of nest and colony size of Acromyrmex rugosus (F. Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Attini in sandbanks at Ilhéus, BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Maria Fernandes Soares

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Oito ninhos de Acromyrmex rugosus foram escavados para estudar sua estrutura e estimar sua população. Esses ninhos eram sempre encontrados escondidos por plantas; apresentaram pequena quantidade de solo e tinham 1 ou 2 entradas; uma delas tinham a forma de um "U" invertido. Internamente, o número de câmaras foi variável e o volume de fungo foi pequeno(X=196 ml. O total da população do ninho foi aproximadamente, 895 indivíduos.Eight nests of Acromyrmex rugosus were excavated aiming to study their structure and to estimate their population. These nests were always found hidden by plants; presented a small heap of sandy soil and had 1 or 2 nest entrances; one of this had the shape of an inverted "U". Internally, the number of chambers was variable and the volume of fungus small (X=196 ml. The total nest population amounted, on the average, to 895 individuals.

  11. Cadmium Phytoremediation by Arundo donax L. from Contaminated Soil and Water

    OpenAIRE

    Sabeen, Maria; Mahmood, Qaisar; Irshad, Muhammad; Fareed, Iftikhar; Khan, Afsar; Ullah, Farid; Hussain, Jamshaid; Hayat, Yousaf; Tabassum, Sobia

    2013-01-01

    The potential of Arundo donax L. for phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soil and water was probed. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing a nutrient solution or soil with increasing doses of Cd (0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000  μ g L−1) for 21 days. The growth and physiology of plants were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The maximum Cd content in root was 300  μ g g−1 during hydroponics experiments over 230  μ g g−1 in soil experiment. ...

  12. Mollusc reproductive toxicity tests - Development and validation of test guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    . Draft standard operating procedures (SOPs) have been designed based upon literature and expert knowledge from project partners. Pre-validation studies have been implemented to validate the proposed test conditions and identify issues in performing the SOPs and analyzing test results. Pre-validation work......The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development is promoting the development and validation of mollusc toxicity tests within its test guidelines programme, eventually aiming for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests. Through collaborative work between academia, industry...... and stakeholders, this study aims to develop innovative partial life-cycle tests on the reproduction of the freshwater gastropods Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lymnaea stagnalis, which are relevant candidate species for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests assessing reprotoxic effects of chemicals...

  13. Una nueva especie de Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 del suroeste de Marruecos incluida en el grupo de M. (Eurymeloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz, José L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid hold an extense set of entomological materials collected in Morocco along the first decades of the XXth century by the preeminent naturalist M. Martínez de la Escalera. Morphological studies of the specimens of the genus Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Meloidae reveals the existence of populations morphologically differentiated along the coastal regions of Essaouira and Ifni. These populations are included within the Meloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 species group in the subgenus Eurymeloe Reitter, 1911. Their differential traits with respect to all other North African and European species of the Meloe rugosus species group are constant, and permit considering these populations as a taxonomic independent unit described herein, Meloe baamarani n. sp. This new species is characterized by having a black, opaque, general coloration all over the body and appendages; black short vestiture; broad head with broadly rounded temples, without median longitudinal groove; long antennae, with segments III to VIII subcylindrical and longer than wide; pronotum transverse, with convergent sides toward the base, without median groove; head and pronotum punctuation dense; aedeagus narrow, median lobe wide and strong, dorsally sinuous, with ventral hooks close to the apex. Meloe baamarani can be only confused on the western regions of northern Africa with Meloe mediterraneus Müller, 1925. This species shares a general appearance with M. baamarani, but differs in many morphological traits. Among those, tegument micro-reticulation, absence of median groove along the head, pronotum morphology and macrosculpture, and configuration of the male genitalia, are included.Las colecciones científicas del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid albergan un extenso material entomológico recogido en Marruecos a principios del siglo XX por el insigne naturalista M. Mart

  14. Sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic individuals can indicate allergy to molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, C; Bartolomé, B; Rodríguez, V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic patients according to tolerance to molluscs. Thirty-one patients with anaphylaxis to crustaceans (14 with mollusc allergy and 17 with mollusc tolerance) were studied using skin prick tests (SPTs), specific IgEs (sIgEs) and SDS-PAGE...

  15. Cadmium Phytoremediation by Arundo donax L. from Contaminated Soil and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sabeen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Arundo donax L. for phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd from contaminated soil and water was probed. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing a nutrient solution or soil with increasing doses of Cd (0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 μg L−1 for 21 days. The growth and physiology of plants were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The maximum Cd content in root was 300 μg g−1 during hydroponics experiments over 230 μg g−1 in soil experiment. Cd concentration in stem was 262 μg g−1 at 750 μg L−1 supplied Cd in hydroponics over 191.2 μg g−1 at 1000 in soil experiment. The maximum Cd concentration in leaves from hydroponics was 187 μg g−1. Relatively low Cd uptake occurred during soil experiment with low translocation factor (TF values. Both Bioaccumulation Factor (BF and TF values for hydroponics were greater than 1. The IC50 values of ABTS and DPPH showed that both time and increasing Cd concentrations affected the production of antioxidants with lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value on the 21st days. A. donax showed better potential for Cd remediation of aquatic environments.

  16. Cadmium Phytoremediation by Arundo donax L. from Contaminated Soil and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeen, Maria; Mahmood, Qaisar; Irshad, Muhammad; Fareed, Iftikhar; Ullah, Farid; Hussain, Jamshaid; Hayat, Yousaf; Tabassum, Sobia

    2013-01-01

    The potential of Arundo donax L. for phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soil and water was probed. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing a nutrient solution or soil with increasing doses of Cd (0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 μg L−1) for 21 days. The growth and physiology of plants were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The maximum Cd content in root was 300 μg g−1 during hydroponics experiments over 230 μg g−1 in soil experiment. Cd concentration in stem was 262 μg g−1 at 750 μg L−1 supplied Cd in hydroponics over 191.2 μg g−1 at 1000 in soil experiment. The maximum Cd concentration in leaves from hydroponics was 187 μg g−1. Relatively low Cd uptake occurred during soil experiment with low translocation factor (TF) values. Both Bioaccumulation Factor (BF) and TF values for hydroponics were greater than 1. The IC50 values of ABTS and DPPH showed that both time and increasing Cd concentrations affected the production of antioxidants with lower half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value on the 21st days. A. donax showed better potential for Cd remediation of aquatic environments. PMID:24459667

  17. Adsorption of malachite green from aqueous solution onto carbon prepared from Arundo donax root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian; Li Yan; Zhang Chenglu; Jing Yuming

    2008-01-01

    Arundo donax root carbon (ADRC), a new adsorbent, was prepared from Arundo donax root by carbonization. The surface area of the adsorbent was determined 158 m 2 /g by N 2 adsorption isotherm. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution using ADRC as adsorbent. The effects of various parameters such as solution pH (3-10), carbon dose (0.15-1.0 g/100 ml) and initial MG concentration (10-100 mg/l) on the adsorption system were investigated. The effective pH was 5-7 and the optimum adsorbent dose was found to be 0.6 g/100 ml. Equilibrium experimental data at 293, 303 and 313 K were better represented by Langmuir isotherm than Freundlich isotherm using linear and non-linear methods. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were also calculated. The negative Gibbs free energy change and the positive enthalpy change indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption. The adsorption equilibrium time was 180 min. Adsorption kinetics was determined using pseudo-first-order model, pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model. The results showed that the adsorption of MG onto ADRC followed pseudo-second-order model

  18. Structural and mechanical design of tissue interfaces in the giant reed Arundo donax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüggeberg, Markus; Burgert, Ingo; Speck, Thomas

    2010-03-06

    The culms of the giant reed Arundo donax represent slender tube-like structures. Several nodes along the culm, a ring of sclerenchymatous fibres in the periphery of the culm wall and numerous isolated vascular bundles enclosed by fibre rings in the culm wall function as stiffening elements. The bundles are embedded in lignified parenchyma. Micromechanical analysis indicated differences in stiffness between the individual tissues of more than one order of magnitude. In case of abrupt transitions in stiffness at the interfaces, stress discontinuities arise under dynamic loads. This eventually leads to critical shear stresses at cell ends, and culm failure may be initiated at these points. Pronounced mechanical differences between individual tissues can be compromised by gradual transitions at their interfaces. Ultrastructural and spectroscopic investigations with high spatial resolution revealed a gradual transition of cell parameters (cell wall area fraction and cell length). However, cell wall parameters (cellulose microfibril angle and lignin content) showed abrupt transitions or remained almost constant across the interfaces between various tissues. The design principles found at the interfaces between tissues in the culm walls of A. donax are discussed as an adaptation strategy to mechanical loads at different levels of hierarchy.

  19. Patterns of DNA barcode variation in Canadian marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Kara K S; Martel, André L; Hebert, Paul D N

    2014-01-01

    Molluscs are the most diverse marine phylum and this high diversity has resulted in considerable taxonomic problems. Because the number of species in Canadian oceans remains uncertain, there is a need to incorporate molecular methods into species identifications. A 648 base pair segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene has proven useful for the identification and discovery of species in many animal lineages. While the utility of DNA barcoding in molluscs has been demonstrated in other studies, this is the first effort to construct a DNA barcode registry for marine molluscs across such a large geographic area. This study examines patterns of DNA barcode variation in 227 species of Canadian marine molluscs. Intraspecific sequence divergences ranged from 0-26.4% and a barcode gap existed for most taxa. Eleven cases of relatively deep (>2%) intraspecific divergence were detected, suggesting the possible presence of overlooked species. Structural variation was detected in COI with indels found in 37 species, mostly bivalves. Some indels were present in divergent lineages, primarily in the region of the first external loop, suggesting certain areas are hotspots for change. Lastly, mean GC content varied substantially among orders (24.5%-46.5%), and showed a significant positive correlation with nearest neighbour distances. DNA barcoding is an effective tool for the identification of Canadian marine molluscs and for revealing possible cases of overlooked species. Some species with deep intraspecific divergence showed a biogeographic partition between lineages on the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific coasts, suggesting the role of Pleistocene glaciations in the subdivision of their populations. Indels were prevalent in the barcode region of the COI gene in bivalves and gastropods. This study highlights the efficacy of DNA barcoding for providing insights into sequence variation across a broad taxonomic group on a large geographic scale.

  20. Shell biofilm-associated nitrous oxide production in marine molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, I.M.; Schramm, Andreas; Larsen, Lone Heimann

    2013-01-01

    Emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) from freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates has exclusively been ascribed to N2O production by ingested denitrifying bacteria in the anoxic gut of the animals. Our study of marine molluscs now shows that also microbial biofilms on shell surfaces...... are important sites of N2O production. The shell biofilms of Mytilus edulis, Littorina littorea and Hinia reticulata contributed 18-94% to the total animal-associated N2O emission. Nitrification and denitrification were equally important sources of N2O in shell biofilms as revealed by 15N-stable isotope...... mollusc species. Ammonium excretion by the animals was found to be sufficient to sustain N2O production in the shell biofilm. Apparently, the animals provide a nutrient-enriched microenvironment that stimulates growth and N2O production of the shell biofilm. This animal-induced stimulation...

  1. Thermal damping effect due to a green barrier which includes Arundo donax as bioclimatic element in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rodríguez-Salinas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the main environmental impacts of the operation of residential buildings are those due to greenhouse gases generation as a result of electric consumption of air conditioning systems. The use of vegetation systems in residential buildings represents an alternative to reduce this energy consumption. Green vegetation systems barriers are often used as protection against winds, but recently they are also being used as acoustic dampers. This work explores their use as thermal insulation systems for buildings. Specifically, we report the behavior of an Arundo donax green barrier as a bioclimatic element. The results are analyzed based on indoor and outdoor temperature measurement in prototype buildings, in function of the green barrier presence. Additionally Arundo donax transpiration under extreme environmental conditions was determined.

  2. Arundo donax L. reed: new perspectives for pulping and bleaching. Part 4. Peroxide bleaching of organosolv pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatalov, A A; Pereira, H

    2005-05-01

    A comparative study on TCF (totally chlorine-free) bleachability of organosolv pulps from the annual fibre crop Arundo donax L. (giant reed) was carried out using a simple three-stage peroxide bleaching sequence without oxygen pre-bleaching. ASAM (alkali-sulfite-anthraquinone-methanol), Organocell (alkali-anthraquinone-methanol) and ethanol-soda organosolv pulps were bleached and compared with kraft pulp, as a reference. The final brightness of 76-78% ISO was attained for all tested pulps. The chemical charge required to reach this level of brightness varied for different pulps (despite the equal initial content of the residual lignin) and directly related to starting brightness values. No direct correlation between brightness improvement and lignin removal during bleaching was found, indicating the influence of the specific pulp properties introduced by pulping process on bleaching chemistry. The general higher bleaching response of organosolv pulps from A. donax was noted in comparison with kraft.

  3. Biomimetic and bio-inspired uses of mollusc shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J P; Wang, Y; Backeljau, T; Chapelle, G

    2016-06-01

    Climate change and ocean acidification are likely to have a profound effect on marine molluscs, which are of great ecological and economic importance. One process particularly sensitive to climate change is the formation of biominerals in mollusc shells. Fundamental research is broadening our understanding of the biomineralization process, as well as providing more informed predictions on the effects of climate change on marine molluscs. Such studies are important in their own right, but their value also extends to applied sciences. Biominerals, organic/inorganic hybrid materials with many remarkable physical and chemical properties, have been studied for decades, and the possibilities for future improved use of such materials for society are widely recognised. This article highlights the potential use of our understanding of the shell biomineralization process in novel bio-inspired and biomimetic applications. It also highlights the potential for the valorisation of shells produced as a by-product of the aquaculture industry. Studying shells and the formation of biominerals will inspire novel functional hybrid materials. It may also provide sustainable, ecologically- and economically-viable solutions to some of the problems created by current human resource exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of yolk protein as biomarkers for endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Jane Ebsen; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    is also regulated by estrogens in molluscs even though it still remains unknown if and where vertebrate steroids are synthesized in molluscs and regulation of the endocrine system in molluscs is also unknown. By using our newly developed ELISA the present work investigates if yolk protein is a suitable......During recent years invertebrates and especially molluscs have received increasing attention in the field of endocrine disruption and development of OECD test guidelines to assess the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in molluscs is under development. The development of standardized...... tests to detect effects of EDCs in molluscs has proved cumbersome due to lack of specific biomarkers and endpoints for endocrine effects. Intersex (presence of oocytes in the testis) and induction of vitellogenin (the yolk protein precursor in oviparous vertebrates) have been used as biomarkers for EDCs...

  5. Rodriguesic acids, modified diketopiperazines from the gastropod mollusc Pleurobranchus areolatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabio R.; Santos, Mario F.C.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S., E-mail: rgsberlinck@iqsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Williams, David E.; Andersen, Raymond J. [Departments of Chemistry and Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Padula, Vinicius [SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München, München, Germany and Department Biology II and GeoBio-Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, (Germany); Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-04-15

    In the present investigation, two specimens of the nudipleuran mollusc Pleurobranchus areolatus have shown to accumulate oxidized rodriguesin A derivatives. Rodriguesic acid presents a carboxylic acid replacing the terminal methyl group of the alkyl chain of rodriguesin A. A hydroxamate group was also present on the diketopiperazine moiety of a rodriguesic acid derivative. The structures of both rodriguesic acid and of rodriguesic acid hydroxamate have been established by analysis of spectroscopic data, including their absolute configuration. Two methyl esters of the rodriguesic acids have been isolated as major compounds, but were considered to be isolation artifacts. (author)

  6. Rodriguesic acids, modified diketopiperazines from the gastropod mollusc Pleurobranchus areolatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Fabio R.; Santos, Mario F.C.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Padula, Vinicius; Ferreira, Antonio G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, two specimens of the nudipleuran mollusc Pleurobranchus areolatus have shown to accumulate oxidized rodriguesin A derivatives. Rodriguesic acid presents a carboxylic acid replacing the terminal methyl group of the alkyl chain of rodriguesin A. A hydroxamate group was also present on the diketopiperazine moiety of a rodriguesic acid derivative. The structures of both rodriguesic acid and of rodriguesic acid hydroxamate have been established by analysis of spectroscopic data, including their absolute configuration. Two methyl esters of the rodriguesic acids have been isolated as major compounds, but were considered to be isolation artifacts. (author)

  7. The use of yolk protein as biomarkers for endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund; Bjerregaard, Poul

    Invertebrates and especially molluscs have received increasing attention in relation to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs) during the last few years and the development of OECD test guidelines to assess the effect of EDs with molluscs are in progress. One of the main problems with the development...

  8. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the cephalopod mollusc, Idiosepius notoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Loesel, R.; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    For more than a century, cephalopod molluscs have been the subject of extensive studies with respect to their complex neuroanatomy and behavior. In comparison to gastropod molluscs surprisingly little work has been carried out on the characterization of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS...

  9. Detecting the presence of infectious hepatitis A virus in molluscs positive to RT-nested-PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medici, de D.; Croci, L.; Pasquale, di S.; Fiore, A.; Toti, L.

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study was to det. the presence of infectious hepatitis A virus (HAV) in molluscs naturally contaminated with viral HAV-RNA. Methods and Results: One hundred and forty-two mollusc samples were analyzed for the presence of viral HAV-RNA using RT-nested-PCR; pos. samples

  10. Full recovery of Arundo donax particleboard from swelling test without waterproofing additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Antonio Flores-Yepes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of particleboard based on common reed, reproducing the industry standard manufacturing process applied to wood chipboard. One of the main properties of the resulting board was its resistance to water, due to the hydrophobic properties of the common reed, despite there being no incorporation of melamine or any other waterproofing additive. The boards that were developed were analyzed using 2 mm and 4 mm sieves for fibre selection, a manufacturing pressure of 3 N/mm2 and 25 N/mm2, and a volume of urea formaldehyde resin content ranging from 5.2% to 13% (8 to 20% liquid format. Standard destructive tests were performed. It was found that under certain applied conditions, namely high pressure and adequate resin proportion (a pressure of over 3 N/mm2 and over 15% liquid resin, Arundo donax L. particleboard demonstrated full recovery from the swelling test. This finding highlights an unmatched property in terms of recovery from the swelling test of the designed board. This property confers a interesting property to be used in high humidity environments without the need for special resin or waterproofing process.

  11. Two new miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements in the genome of the clam Donax trunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatović, Eva; Plohl, Miroslav

    2017-10-01

    Repetitive sequences are important components of eukaryotic genomes that drive their evolution. Among them are different types of mobile elements that share the ability to spread throughout the genome and form interspersed repeats. To broaden the generally scarce knowledge on bivalves at the genome level, in the clam Donax trunculus we described two new non-autonomous DNA transposons, miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), named DTC M1 and DTC M2. Like other MITEs, they are characterized by their small size, their A + T richness, and the presence of terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). DTC M1 and DTC M2 are 261 and 286 bp long, respectively, and in addition to TIRs, both of them contain a long imperfect palindrome sequence in their central parts. These elements are present in complete and truncated versions within the genome of the clam D. trunculus. The two new MITEs share only structural similarity, but lack any nucleotide sequence similarity to each other. In a search for related elements in databases, blast search revealed within the Crassostrea gigas genome a larger element sharing sequence similarity only to DTC M1 in its TIR sequences. The lack of sequence similarity with any previously published mobile elements indicates that DTC M1 and DTC M2 elements may be unique to D. trunculus.

  12. Development and validation of OECD test guidelines on mollusc reproductive toxicity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagadic, Laurent; Holbech, Henrik; hutchinson, tom

    the comparison of endpoints relevant for reproduction in invertebrates often shows a much higher sensitivity in molluscs vs. e.g. daphnids. The OECD test guideline programme has thus been extended to cover reproduction effects of chemicals in molluscs. Existing mollusc toxicity test protocols have been reviewed...... in an OECD Detailed Review Paper that identifies two relevant candidate species for developing freshwater tests: Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lymnaea stagnalis. However, this review did not clarify which toxicity test design/conditions are the most appropriate for chemicals assessment. Therefore, a mollusc...... reproduction test guideline will be developed describing partial- and full- life-cycle test protocols in these species, so as to propose a balanced suite of apical mollusc toxicity tests applicable for the assessment of any type of chemical, including endocrine disruptors, as level 4 and 5 assays of the EDTA...

  13. Review of intersex in gastropods and other molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    Various studies have demonstrated that the presence of imposex, i.e. an imposition of a penis and/or a vas deferens in addition to the normal reproductive tracts in females of gonochoristics prosobranch gastropod species, is a common phenomenon in the marine environment today. However, also other....... This includes examples like transformation of the reproductive and genital tracts in gastropods and cephalopods, spermatogenesis in the female ovary and oocyte development in male testis (ovo-testis).  ......Various studies have demonstrated that the presence of imposex, i.e. an imposition of a penis and/or a vas deferens in addition to the normal reproductive tracts in females of gonochoristics prosobranch gastropod species, is a common phenomenon in the marine environment today. However, also other...... signs of endocrine disruption causing sex reversal, characterized as intersex, have been reported for marine molluscs. Intersex can more generally be defined as disturbance of the phenotypic sex characters and different types of intersex have been recorded for both female and male molluscs...

  14. Responses in chemical traits and biomass allocation of Arundo donax L. to deficit resources in the establishment year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pompeiano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large expansion in renewable energy production is underway with an increasing focus on sustainable second-generation biofuels. Fast growing rhizomatous perennial grasses are leading candidates for lignocellulosic feedstock thanks to their positive energy balance, and low ecological/agro-management demands. Biomass accumulation is favored by the efficient use of available resources. The aim of this study was to identify which accumulation processes were most affected in the establishment year of a giant reed (Arundo donax L. field crop grown under water and N deficiencies. The relative plasticity of growth of A. donax in response to various levels of resource availability was evaluated. A field scale experiment was carried out, and treatments were arranged as a randomized complete block, strip-plot design with irrigation treatments as the main plot factor and pre-planting N rate as the sub-plot factor. Biometric relationships between variables were assessed to understand how agro-management factors influence the above ground biomass of giant reed, as well as yield over time. Evidence is presented indicating that growth is strongly enhanced by water availability (+97% dry weight biomass. Changes in composition were not significant within or among fixed treatments, rather changes were observed over time. A high content of glucans and xylans were detected from early stage, and as the mobilization of minerals increased, lignin content significantly increased as well (from 12% to 36% w/w. These results suggest that an increase in the growth of A. donax in the establishment year is accomplished by a limited use of the water input

  15. Ancient DNA analysis identifies marine mollusc shells as new metagenomic archives of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Pichereau, Vianney; Dupont, Catherine; Ilsøe, Peter C; Perrigault, Mickael; Butler, Paul; Chauvaud, Laurent; Eiríksson, Jón; Scourse, James; Paillard, Christine; Orlando, Ludovic

    2017-09-01

    Marine mollusc shells enclose a wealth of information on coastal organisms and their environment. Their life history traits as well as (palaeo-) environmental conditions, including temperature, food availability, salinity and pollution, can be traced through the analysis of their shell (micro-) structure and biogeochemical composition. Adding to this list, the DNA entrapped in shell carbonate biominerals potentially offers a novel and complementary proxy both for reconstructing palaeoenvironments and tracking mollusc evolutionary trajectories. Here, we assess this potential by applying DNA extraction, high-throughput shotgun DNA sequencing and metagenomic analyses to marine mollusc shells spanning the last ~7,000 years. We report successful DNA extraction from shells, including a variety of ancient specimens, and find that DNA recovery is highly dependent on their biomineral structure, carbonate layer preservation and disease state. We demonstrate positive taxonomic identification of mollusc species using a combination of mitochondrial DNA genomes, barcodes, genome-scale data and metagenomic approaches. We also find shell biominerals to contain a diversity of microbial DNA from the marine environment. Finally, we reconstruct genomic sequences of organisms closely related to the Vibrio tapetis bacteria from Manila clam shells previously diagnosed with Brown Ring Disease. Our results reveal marine mollusc shells as novel genetic archives of the past, which opens new perspectives in ancient DNA research, with the potential to reconstruct the evolutionary history of molluscs, microbial communities and pathogens in the face of environmental changes. Other future applications include conservation of endangered mollusc species and aquaculture management. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. An investigation of green iridescence on the mollusc Patella granatina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, D J; Berg, N G van der [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2005-01-21

    In this paper we investigate the relatively rare phenomenon of iridescence on the outer surface of seashells (not the well known pearly inner surfaces). Using reflection spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy we show that rows of iridescent green spots on the mollusc Patella granatina are caused by a thin-film stack buried about 100 {mu}m below the rough outer surface of the shell. The high-density layers in the stack seem to be made of crystalline aragonite, but according to Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometry measurements the low-density layers as well as the bulk of the shell wall are a mixture of porous aragonite and organic materials such as carotenoids.

  17. Spectral discrimination of giant reed (Arundo donax L.): A seasonal study in riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Aguiar, Francisca C.; Silva, João M. N.; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pereira, José M. C.

    2013-06-01

    The giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is amongst the one hundred worst invasive alien species of the world, and it is responsible for biodiversity loss and failure of ecosystem functions in riparian habitats. In this work, field spectroradiometry was used to assess the spectral separability of the giant reed from the adjacent vegetation and from the common reed, a native similar species. The study was conducted at different phenological periods and also for the giant reed stands regenerated after mechanical cutting (giant reed_RAC). A hierarchical procedure using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Classification and Regression Trees (CART) was used to select the minimum number of optimal bands that discriminate the giant reed from the adjacent vegetation. A new approach was used to identify sets of wavelengths - wavezones - that maximize the spectral separability beyond the minimum number of optimal bands. Jeffries Matusita and Bhattacharya distance were used to evaluate the spectral separability using the minimum optimal bands and in three simulated satellite images, namely Landsat, IKONOS and SPOT. Giant reed was spectrally separable from the adjacent vegetation, both at the vegetative and the senescent period, exception made to the common reed at the vegetative period. The red edge region was repeatedly selected, although the visible region was also important to separate the giant reed from the herbaceous vegetation and the mid infrared region to the discrimination from the woody vegetation. The highest separability was obtained for the giant reed_RAC stands, due to its highly homogeneous, dense and dark-green stands. Results are discussed by relating the phenological, morphological and structural features of the giant reed stands and the adjacent vegetation with their optical traits. Weaknesses and strengths of the giant reed spectral discrimination are highlighted and implications of imagery selection for mapping purposes are argued based on present results.

  18. Application of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) to detect irradiated molluscs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesani, G.; Chiaravalle, A.E.; Chiesa, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In contrast to thermally processed foods, irradiation is a cold treatment both to reduce microbiological contamination and to increase the shelf-life of raw seafood. According to the list of States' authorizations molluscs can be irradiated in a range of 0.5 / 3 kGy only in authorized countries (e.g. UK, Belgium and Czech Republic). Therefore the aim of this study is to identify, at different dose levels (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 kGy), irradiated oysters, clams and mussels using luminescence materials from different sites (shells and pulps) and to determine sample sensitivity for previous screening result confirmation. A total number of 10 samples for each species were analyzed by both procedures: screening and calibrated PSL. Samples were irradiated using a low energy X-ray irradiator (RS-2400, Radsource Inc.) with the following operational settings: 150 kV and 45 mA. Whole pulps were simply dispensed into a clean Petri-dish whereas shells powder required to be fixed as a thick layer with silicone grease. Results obtained showed that screening analysis can be used to identify correctly all irradiated and non irradiated samples. Particularly untreated sample exhibited a sensitivity index from 2 to 4 order of magnitude greater than the exposed sample one, while for exposed specimen calibrated PSL signals, after re-irradiation at defined dose, were of the same order of the first measurement (initial PSL counts). In conclusion mineral debris contaminating pulps and biocarbonates from shells can be considered reliable radioinduced markers and PSL techniques can be easily applied for rapid and simple analysis to identify irradiated molluscs in official controls.

  19. De novo assembly, functional annotation, and analysis of the giant reed (Arundo donax L.) leaf transcriptome provide tools for the development of a biofuel feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evangelistella, Chiara; Valentini, Alessio; Ludovisi, Riccardo; Firrincieli, Andrea; Fabbrini, Francesco; Scalabrin, Simone; Cattonaro, Federica; Morgante, Michele; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.; Harfouche, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Arundo donax has attracted renewed interest as a potential candidate energy crop for use in biomass-to-liquid fuel conversion processes and biorefineries. This is due to its high productivity, adaptability to marginal land conditions, and suitability for biofuel and biomaterial

  20. Concentration peculiarities of radionuclides by freshwater molluscs of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, D.I.; Kuz'menko, M.I.; Nazarov, A.B.; Derevets, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The results of radionuclides 90 Sr and 137 Cs content in molluscs tissue of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. The age dynamics of radionuclides content in some species of Gastropoda was studied

  1. INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION OF MOLLUSC IN CORAL REEF OF BACAN ISLAND WATERS, NORTH MALUKU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik A.W. Cappenberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacan Island waters of North Maluku Province consisted of three main tropical ecosystems, namely mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef with the highest marine biodiversity. Mollusc is a group of marine fauna that most of them associated with coral reef.  However, little is known about their information in the Bacan Island due to lack of study conducted there. The purpose of this study is to observe the diversity and distribution of mollusc fauna in the coral reef flat of Bacan Island. Mollusc inventory was done using Rapid Reef Resource Assessment (RRA method by snorkling in the reefs of east coast (25 sites and west coast (10 sites of Bacan Island. The molluscs found were directly identified into species level and recorded.  Results of inventory show that there are 47 species belong to 19 families with the family of Muricidae is the highest diversity (6 species, while the lowest are Buccinidae, Bursidae, Haliotidae, Olividae, Cardiidae, Isognomonidae and Spondylidae, respectively with only 1 species in each of those families. The highest species number of mollusc was distributed along the east coast of the island (40 species, and the lowest one was in the west coast (37 species. Some species such as Tridacna spp., Pinctada margaritifera and Pteria penguin are important species, because they have economical values. Keywords:       biodiversity, molluscs, coral reef, Bacan Island, North Maluku

  2. Growth and production of Donax striatus(Bivalvia: Donacidae from Las Balsas beach, Gibara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A Ocaña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Clams of the genus Donaxare worldwide the dominating group of the invertebrate community on sandy beaches. They are primary consumers that provide a significant abundance and biomass to the ecosystem. In the Caribbean, Donax striatushas an important role for nature and human, nonetheless studies on the population dynamics of this beach clam are scarce and no information exists on secondary production of this species. Growth parameters and secondary production of D. striatuswere estimated from February 2008 to November 2009 at Las Balsas beach, Northeastern Cuba, in order to provide basic information for management purposes. In each month 45 samples were taken by means of a PVC corer of 0.025 m2 area and sieved with a 1 mm mesh. Animals were measured and weighted with and without shell. A total of 5 471 specimens were collected during the sampling period. Shell length ranged from 2.7-33.3 mm. Growth parameters estimated from length frequency data were Lm = 36.1 mm, K= 0.8/yr and t0 = 0.2/yr. The growth performance resulted in values of 0'= 3.02. Life span was 2.4 yrs and mortality rate was 3.07 /yr. In 2008, mean abundance of D. striatusranged between 17.1770.7 ind./m2. In 2009 the lowest mean abundance was 34.4 and the highest was 892.5 ind./m2. During 2009 biomass and production was more than twice higher in comparison with 2008. Individual production showed highest values in the 24 mm shell size (3.74 g/m2.yr and 25 mm (0.71 g/m2.yr, considering mass with shell and without shell, respectively. During 2009 abundance of individuals with 15 mm shell length or more increased resulting in higher biomass and production, compared to 2008. Using the conversion factor of wet mass to ash free dry mass (AFDM, annual production ranged between 2.87-6.11 g AFDM/m2.yr, resulting in a turnover rate (P/B between 5.11 and 3.47 in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The rapid growth and high turnover rate of D. striatussuggest a rapid recovery of the

  3. Tributyltin accumulation and effects in marine molluscs from West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.; Asmund, G

    2003-05-01

    Tributyltin is accumulated in marine molluscs living in Greenland, with the highest levels found in harbour areas. - The levels of the antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) and its breakdown products in bivalves were investigated in 1999-2000 at six areas along the west coast of Greenland with focus on locations inside and outside harbours. In addition female gastropods were examined for the development of TBT-induced masculine characteristics in form of imposex or intersex. The highest TBT concentration, 254 ng g{sup -1} ww, was found in the bivalve Mytilus edulis sampled inside Nuuk harbour, but significant TBT concentrations were also present in bivalves from the other harbour areas. Only low levels of TBT were detected in bivalves sampled outside the harbours and in several of the samples the TBT level was below the detection limit. The examination of neogastropods like Buccinum revealed that imposex development occurred in all the harbours. In contrast, imposex was not found in any neogastropods sampled outside the harbour areas. However, the value of marine neogastropods as indicators of TBT contamination in West Greenland seems limited, because of large species diversity and the difficulties in sampling enough specimens at least with the current sampling strategy. No effects, which could be related to TBT contamination, were found in the most abundant tidal gastropod in West Greenland, Littorina saxatilis.

  4. Tributyltin accumulation and effects in marine molluscs from West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.; Asmund, G.

    2003-01-01

    Tributyltin is accumulated in marine molluscs living in Greenland, with the highest levels found in harbour areas. - The levels of the antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) and its breakdown products in bivalves were investigated in 1999-2000 at six areas along the west coast of Greenland with focus on locations inside and outside harbours. In addition female gastropods were examined for the development of TBT-induced masculine characteristics in form of imposex or intersex. The highest TBT concentration, 254 ng g -1 ww, was found in the bivalve Mytilus edulis sampled inside Nuuk harbour, but significant TBT concentrations were also present in bivalves from the other harbour areas. Only low levels of TBT were detected in bivalves sampled outside the harbours and in several of the samples the TBT level was below the detection limit. The examination of neogastropods like Buccinum revealed that imposex development occurred in all the harbours. In contrast, imposex was not found in any neogastropods sampled outside the harbour areas. However, the value of marine neogastropods as indicators of TBT contamination in West Greenland seems limited, because of large species diversity and the difficulties in sampling enough specimens at least with the current sampling strategy. No effects, which could be related to TBT contamination, were found in the most abundant tidal gastropod in West Greenland, Littorina saxatilis

  5. Infectious diseases of marine molluscs and host responses as revealed by genomic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    More and more infectious diseases affect marine molluscs. Some diseases have impacted commercial species including MSX and Dermo of the eastern oyster, QPX of hard clams, withering syndrome of abalone and ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections of many molluscs. Although the exact transmission mechanisms are not well understood, human activities and associated environmental changes often correlate with increased disease prevalence. For instance, hatcheries and large-scale aquaculture create high host densities, which, along with increasing ocean temperature, might have contributed to OsHV-1 epizootics in scallops and oysters. A key to understanding linkages between the environment and disease is to understand how the environment affects the host immune system. Although we might be tempted to downplay the role of immunity in invertebrates, recent advances in genomics have provided insights into host and parasite genomes and revealed surprisingly sophisticated innate immune systems in molluscs. All major innate immune pathways are found in molluscs with many immune receptors, regulators and effectors expanded. The expanded gene families provide great diversity and complexity in innate immune response, which may be key to mollusc's defence against diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Further advances in host and parasite genomics should improve our understanding of genetic variation in parasite virulence and host disease resistance. PMID:26880838

  6. Contamination of raw bivalve molluscs available in Poland between 2009 and 2013 with marine biotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Mirosław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing consumption of shellfish is associated with an increased risk of food poisoning. The study was carried out on live bivalve molluscs available on the Polish market between 2009 and 2013. Material and Methods: ELISA was used for the determination of the following marine biotoxins: paralytic shellfish poison (PSP, amnaesic shellfish poison (ASP, and diarrhoeic shellfish poison (DSP. The molluscs, of which seven species were examined, were obtained from wholesale companies and markets. Results: Marine biotoxins were detected below the permitted levels in 67.6% of the samples. The maximum amounts of PSP and ASP biotoxins were found in great scallops (532.6 μg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg respectively and the peak for DSP was in blue mussels (107 μg/kg. Conclusion: The analysis of toxicological status of raw bivalve molluscs available on the market in Poland indicates that they are safe for consumers.

  7. Labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Meloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25% presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35% and open-air markets (25% compared with the big retailing chains (20%. The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  8. Labelling and Marketing of Bivalve and Gastropod Molluscs Retailed in Sardinia, Italy Between 2009 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico

    2015-05-28

    The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25%) presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35%) and open-air markets (25%) compared with the big retailing chains (20%). The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  9. Ancient DNA analysis identifies marine mollusc shells as new metagenomic archives of the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Pichereau, Vianney; Dupont, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Marine mollusc shells enclose a wealth of information on coastal organisms and their environment. Their life history traits as well as (palaeo-) environmental conditions, including temperature, food availability, salinity and pollution, can be traced through the analysis of their shell (micro...... extraction, high-throughput shotgun DNA sequencing and metagenomic analyses to marine mollusc shells spanning the last ~7,000 years. We report successful DNA extraction from shells, including a variety of ancient specimens, and find that DNA recovery is highly dependent on their biomineral structure......, carbonate layer preservation and disease state. We demonstrate positive taxonomic identification of mollusc species using a combination of mitochondrial DNA genomes, barcodes, genome-scale data and metagenomic approaches. We also find shell biominerals to contain a diversity of microbial DNA from the marine...

  10. Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Spaan, Denise; Nekaris, K. Anne-Isola

    2015-01-01

    Background Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013), collected data from wholesale traders (2013), and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008–2013). All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for trade involves networks stretching hundreds of kilometres throughout Indonesia. Wholesale traders offer protected marine mollusc shells for the export market by the container or by the metric ton. Data from 20 confiscated shipments show an on-going trade in these molluscs. Over 42,000 shells were seized over a 5-year period, with a retail value of USD700,000 within Indonesia; horned helmet (Cassis cornuta) (>32,000 shells valued at USD500,000), chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) (>3,000 shells, USD60,000) and giant clams (Tridacna spp.) (>2,000 shells, USD45,000) were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries. PMID:26717021

  11. Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Spaan, Denise; Nekaris, K Anne-Isola

    2015-01-01

    Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes. We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013), collected data from wholesale traders (2013), and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008-2013). All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for Java and Bali, but the trade involves networks stretching hundreds of kilometres throughout Indonesia. Wholesale traders offer protected marine mollusc shells for the export market by the container or by the metric ton. Data from 20 confiscated shipments show an on-going trade in these molluscs. Over 42,000 shells were seized over a 5-year period, with a retail value of USD700,000 within Indonesia; horned helmet (Cassis cornuta) (>32,000 shells valued at USD500,000), chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) (>3,000 shells, USD60,000) and giant clams (Tridacna spp.) (>2,000 shells, USD45,000) were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region. We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

  12. Fauna of gastropod molluscs in the Curonian Lagoon littoral biotopes (Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Filippenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the gastropod mollusc fauna in the coastal waters of the southern part of the Curonian Lagoon (Kaliningrad region, Russia were carried out. Study revealed 34 aquatic gastropods representing 30% of Prosobranchia and 70% of Pulmonata. Obtained data showed higher mollusc diversity in the littoral biotopes in comparison with open areas of the Lagoon. The fauna is represented by a typical Central European species complex of freshwater gastropods. The reed zone along the coastline in the Lagoon functions as a barrier and provides shallow water habitats with slow moving and warmer water, where maximum gastropod species concentrate.

  13. Optimizing in vitro large scale production of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) by liquid medium culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallaro, Valeria; Patanè, Cristina; Cosentino, Salvatore L.; Di Silvestro, Isabella; Copani, Venera

    2014-01-01

    Tissue culture methods offer the potential for large-scale propagation of giant reed (Arundo donax L.), a promising crop for energy biomass. In previous trials, giant reed resulted particularly suitable to in vitro culture. In this paper, with the final goal of enhancing the efficiency of in vitro production process and reducing costs, the influence of four different culture media (agar or gellan-gum solidified medium, liquid medium into a temporary immersion system-RITA ® or in a stationary state) on in vitro shoot proliferation of giant reed was evaluated. Giant reed exhibited a particular sensitivity to gelling agents during the phase of secondary shoot formation. Gellan gum, as compared to agar, improved the efficiency of in vitro culture giving more shoots with higher mean fresh and dry weight. Moreover, the cultivation of this species into a liquid medium under temporary immersion conditions or in a stationary state, was comparatively as effective as and cheaper than that into a gellan gum medium. Increasing 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) up to 4 mg l −1 also resulted in a further enhancement of secondary shoot proliferation. The good adaptability of this species to liquid medium and the high multiplication rates observed indicate the possibility to obtain from a single node at least 1200 plantlets every six multiplication cycles (about 6 months), a number 100 fold higher than that obtained yearly per plant by the conventional methods of vegetative multiplication. In open field, micropropagated plantlets guaranteed a higher number of survived plants, secondary stems and above ground biomass as compared to rhizome ones. - Highlights: • In vitro propagation offers the potential for large-scale propagation of giant reed. • The success of an in vitro protocol depends on the rate and mode of shoot proliferation. • Substituting liquid media to solid ones may decrease propagation costs in Arundo donax. • Giant reed showed good proliferation rates in

  14. Predicting the Response of Molluscs to the Impact of Ocean Acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Wright

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevations in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 are anticipated to acidify oceans because of fundamental changes in ocean chemistry created by CO2 absorption from the atmosphere. Over the next century, these elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are expected to result in a reduction of the surface ocean waters from 8.1 to 7.7 units as well as a reduction in carbonate ion (CO32− concentration. The potential impact that this change in ocean chemistry will have on marine and estuarine organisms and ecosystems is a growing concern for scientists worldwide. While species-specific responses to ocean acidification are widespread across a number of marine taxa, molluscs are one animal phylum with many species which are particularly vulnerable across a number of life-history stages. Molluscs make up the second largest animal phylum on earth with 30,000 species and are a major producer of CaCO3. Molluscs also provide essential ecosystem services including habitat structure and food for benthic organisms (i.e., mussel and oyster beds, purification of water through filtration and are economically valuable. Even sub lethal impacts on molluscs due to climate changed oceans will have serious consequences for global protein sources and marine ecosystems.

  15. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in eight mollusc species along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasingam, S; Venkatachalapathy, R; Sudhakar, S; Raja, P; Rajeswari, V

    2011-01-01

    Eight mollusc species and sediment samples collected from three different stations along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India were analysed for the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons to elucidate the status of the petroleum residues in mollusc meant for human consumption. The concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments along Tamilnadu coast varied from 5.04-25.5 microg/g dw (dry weight). High concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediment of Uppanar estuary (25.5 +/- 1.45 microg/g dw) was perhaps land and marine based anthropogenic sources of this region. The petroleum hydrocarbon residues in eight mollusc species collected from Uppanar, Vellar and Coleroon estuaries varied between 2.44-6.04 microg/g ww (wet weight). Although the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment of the Uppanar region was markedly higher than the background, the petroleum hydrocarbon residues in mollusc collected from Uppanar estuary did not suggest bioaccumulation. The results signified that industrial growth has affected the aquatic environments and regular monitoring will help to adopt stringent pollution control measures for better management of the aquatic region.

  16. EU Regulatory Risk Management of Marine Biotoxins in the Marine Bivalve Mollusc Food-Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheál O’Mahony

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Food safety risk assessment in the European Union (EU recognises consumer illness that arises from marine biotoxins as a risk associated with bivalve mollusc consumption. EU food regulations contain various general food safety obligations, which should contribute significantly to managing this risk. EU food regulations additionally impose various specific obligations on both Food Business Operators and Competent Authorities in order to manage the marine biotoxin food safety risk in the bivalve mollusc food-chain. These have a particular focus on the pre-harvest component of the food-chain. A central component of these specific systems is the requirement for ongoing monitoring of phytoplankton and biotoxin concentrations in water and molluscs, respectively. This monitoring explicitly brings a potential outcome of closing production areas delineated by classification to prohibit the harvest of bivalve molluscs as food from those areas when acceptable biotoxin concentrations are exceeded. This review considers the utility of these systems, at conceptual and practical levels, and explores their contribution to an effective regulatory risk management approach.

  17. Eye structure and vision in the freshwater pulmonate mollusc Planorbarius corneus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhukov, VV; Bobkova, MB; Vakolyuk, IA

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the mollusc Planorbarius corneus eye was studied using light and electron microscopy. The eye consists of the cornea, eye lens of non-spherical shape, and the vitreous body tightly bound to it, as well as of a monolayer non-inverted retina composed of photoreceptor and supporting

  18. Isolation of living Algae growing in the shells of Molluscs and Barnacles with EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.; Hoek, van den C.

    1966-01-01

    Several decalcifying mixtures or aqueous solutions of inorganic or organic acids are generally used for releasing algae growing in the shells of molluscs and barnacles, for instance dilute hydrochloric, nitric, citric, or acetic acid (4), a mixture of nitric acid, chromic acid and alcolhol (1),

  19. Predicting the Response of Molluscs to the Impact of Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Laura M.; Ross, Pauline M.; O’Connor, Wayne A.; Pörtner, Hans O.; Scanes, Elliot; Wright, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevations in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are anticipated to acidify oceans because of fundamental changes in ocean chemistry created by CO2 absorption from the atmosphere. Over the next century, these elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are expected to result in a reduction of the surface ocean waters from 8.1 to 7.7 units as well as a reduction in carbonate ion (CO32−) concentration. The potential impact that this change in ocean chemistry will have on marine and estuarine organisms and ecosystems is a growing concern for scientists worldwide. While species-specific responses to ocean acidification are widespread across a number of marine taxa, molluscs are one animal phylum with many species which are particularly vulnerable across a number of life-history stages. Molluscs make up the second largest animal phylum on earth with 30,000 species and are a major producer of CaCO3. Molluscs also provide essential ecosystem services including habitat structure and food for benthic organisms (i.e., mussel and oyster beds), purification of water through filtration and are economically valuable. Even sub lethal impacts on molluscs due to climate changed oceans will have serious consequences for global protein sources and marine ecosystems. PMID:24832802

  20. Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Nijman

    Full Text Available Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes.We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013, collected data from wholesale traders (2013, and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008-2013. All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for 32,000 shells valued at USD500,000, chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius (>3,000 shells, USD60,000 and giant clams (Tridacna spp. (>2,000 shells, USD45,000 were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

  1. EU Regulatory Risk Management of Marine Biotoxins in the Marine Bivalve Mollusc Food-Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Micheál

    2018-03-10

    Food safety risk assessment in the European Union (EU) recognises consumer illness that arises from marine biotoxins as a risk associated with bivalve mollusc consumption. EU food regulations contain various general food safety obligations, which should contribute significantly to managing this risk. EU food regulations additionally impose various specific obligations on both Food Business Operators and Competent Authorities in order to manage the marine biotoxin food safety risk in the bivalve mollusc food-chain. These have a particular focus on the pre-harvest component of the food-chain. A central component of these specific systems is the requirement for ongoing monitoring of phytoplankton and biotoxin concentrations in water and molluscs, respectively. This monitoring explicitly brings a potential outcome of closing production areas delineated by classification to prohibit the harvest of bivalve molluscs as food from those areas when acceptable biotoxin concentrations are exceeded. This review considers the utility of these systems, at conceptual and practical levels, and explores their contribution to an effective regulatory risk management approach.

  2. Plant indicator values as a tool for land mollusc autecology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsák, Michal; Hájek, Michal; Tichý, Lubomír; Juřičková, Lucie

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to utilize Ellenberg's plant indicator system for assessing mollusc autecology and to highlight possibilities and advantages of that approach in the case of fen mollusc communities. Molluscs and plants from 137 fen sites in the Western Carpathian Mountains were recorded quantitatively from homogeneous areas of 16 m 2. Water conductivity and pH were measured in the field. Values of Ellenberg's "light, temperature, continentality, moisture, soil reaction, and nutrients" were estimated for each site. The whole data set was processed using ordinations (PCA, DCA, and CCA) and generalized additive models (GAMs). We observed a strong correlation between water pH and Ellenberg soil reaction estimated by plant indicator values ( r = 0.72, P < 0.001). Ellenberg soil reaction was found to be the best predictor of mollusc species composition, which expressed the main mineral-richness gradient. We found the existence of a second important gradient, the gradient of "light", expressing site and canopy openness. A tight correspondence between the results of species response curve modelling based on water conductivity and Ellenberg soil reaction confirmed that "soil reaction" does not express merely pH, but rather the total amount of calcium. We conclude that the Ellenberg's indicator system can be used to study the ecology of land molluscs, an important group of invertebrates in bioindication and nature conservation. Our data and approach could help design appropriate conservation management regimes for threatened snail species. We propose that our approach will be useful also in ecological studies of other animal groups.

  3. Shoot cuttings propagation of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) in water and moist soil: The path forward?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceotto, Enrico; Di Candilo, Mario [C.R.A. - Centro di Ricerca per le Colture Industriali, Via di Corticella 133, 40128 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial rhizomatous grass that can be regarded as an ideal crop for bioenergy production, owing to several intrinsic characteristics. Despite to the promising yield results obtained in many plot experiments, the cultivation of giant reed at field scale is still a challenge. Owing to the floral sterility of the species, rhizome propagation has been predominantly used to establish field plots experiments, although this method is unpractical and monetarily expensive. Giant reed is a hydrophytic plant that typically spread in riparian systems by flood-mediated fragmentation and dispersal of vegetative propagules. Since giant reed propagation is strictly dependent on temporary abundance of water, this plant characteristic might be exploited for fostering the diffusion of giant reed as a bioenergy field crop. The objectives of this paper were: i) to disseminate some techniques for shoot cutting propagation of giant reed in water and in moist soil; ii) to address the critical points that remain to be solved for a widespread diffusion of this species as a bioenergy field crop. (author)

  4. Methods for suspension culture, protoplast extraction, and transformation of high-biomass yielding perennial grass Arundo donax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigna, Gaia; Dhillon, Taniya; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Yuan, Joshua S; Gorman, Connor; Morandini, Piero; Lenaghan, Scott C; Stewart, C Neal

    2016-12-01

    Arundo donax L. is a promising biofuel feedstock in the Mediterranean region. Despite considerable interest in its genetic improvement, Arundo tissue culture and transformation remains arduous. The authors developed methodologies for cell- and tissue culture and genetic engineering in Arundo. A media screen was conducted, and a suspension culture was established using callus induced from stem axillary bud explants. DBAP medium, containing 9 µM 2,4-D and 4.4 µM BAP, was found to be the most effective medium among those tested for inducing cell suspension cultures, which resulted in a five-fold increase in tissue mass over 14 days. In contrast, CIM medium containing 13 µM 2,4-D, resulted in just a 1.4-fold increase in mass over the same period. Optimized suspension cultures were superior to previously-described solidified medium-based callus culture methods for tissue mass increase. Suspension cultures proved to be very effective for subsequent protoplast isolation. Protoplast electroporation resulted in a 3.3 ± 1.5% transformation efficiency. A dual fluorescent reporter gene vector enabled the direct comparison of the CAMV 35S promoter with the switchgrass ubi2 promoter in single cells of Arundo. The switchgrass ubi2 promoter resulted in noticeably higher reporter gene expression compared with that conferred by the 35S promoter in Arundo. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Seasonal variation in biomarker responses of Donax trunculus from the Gulf of Annaba (Algeria): Implication of metal accumulation in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amira, Akila; Merad, Isma; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Guimarães, Laura; Soltani, Nourredine

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to test biomarker responses in an edible mollusk, Donax trunculus L. (Mollusca, Bivalvia) associated with environmental pollution in the Gulf of Annaba (northeastern Algeria). The biomarkers selected were glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and metallothioneins (MTs). Samples were collected seasonally (September 2014, and January, April and July 2015) from two sites located over the Gulf of Annaba: El Battah and Sidi Salem. The results obtained reveal that autumn and winter were the two seasons that show an increase in GST activity, an inhibition of AChE activity and a high rate of MT. In addition, a decrease in AChE activity, an increase in both GST activity and MT levels in D. Trunculus collected from Sidi Salem in comparison with those of El Battah were observed. The biomarker responses at the Sidi Salem site reflect the presence of certain pro-oxidative compounds such as metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn and Fe) determined in sediments in winter (January) 2015. Moreover, metal concentrations, except Fe, were higher at Sidi Salem than at El Battah. Overall, the Gulf of Annaba remains contaminated by heavy metal. However, this metallic contamination is relatively low and the risks for local population via this edible species were also low.

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis with Arundo donax Decreases Root Respiration and Increases Both Photosynthesis and Plant Biomass Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Munar, Antònia; Del-Saz, Néstor Fernández; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Flexas, Jaume; Baraza, Elena; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Fernie, Alisdair Robert; Gulías, Javier

    2017-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis on plant growth is associated with the balance between costs and benefits. A feedback regulation loop has been described in which the higher carbohydrate cost to plants for AM symbiosis is compensated by increases in their photosynthetic rates. Nevertheless, plant carbon balance depends both on photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory carbon consumption. The hypothesis behind this research was that the role of respiration in plant growth under AM symbiosis may be as important as that of photosynthesis. This hypothesis was tested in Arundo donax L. plantlets inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae. We tested the effects of AM inoculation on both photosynthetic capacity and in vivo leaf and root respiration. Additionally, analyses of the primary metabolism and ion content were performed in both leaves and roots. AM inoculation increased photosynthesis through increased CO 2 diffusion and electron transport in the chloroplast. Moreover, respiration decreased only in AM roots via the cytochrome oxidase pathway (COP) as measured by the oxygen isotope technique. This decline in the COP can be related to the reduced respiratory metabolism and substrates (sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates) observed in roots. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Review of the RNA Interference Pathway in Molluscs Including Some Possibilities for Use in Bivalves in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Owens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generalised reviews of RNA interference (RNAi in invertebrates, and for use in aquaculture, have taken for granted that RNAi pathways operate in molluscs, but inspection of such reviews show little specific evidence of such activity in molluscs. This review was to understand what specific research had been conducted on RNAi in molluscs, particularly with regard to aquaculture. There were questions of whether RNAi in molluscs functions similarly to the paradigm established for most eukaryotes or, alternatively, was it more similar to the ecdozoa and how RNAi may relate to disease control in aquaculture? RNAi in molluscs appears to have been only investigated in about 14 species, mostly as a gene silencing phenomenon. We can infer that microRNAs including let-7 are functional in molluscs. The genes/proteins involved in the actual RNAi pathways have only been rudimentarily investigated, so how homologous the genes and proteins are to other metazoa is unknown. Furthermore, how many different genes for each activity in the RNAi pathway are also unknown? The cephalopods have been greatly overlooked with only a single RNAi gene-silencing study found. The long dsRNA-linked interferon pathways seem to be present in molluscs, unlike some other invertebrates and could be used to reduce disease states in aquaculture. In particular, interferon regulatory factor genes have been found in molluscs of aquacultural importance such as Crassostrea, Mytilus, Pinctada and Haliotis. Two possible aquaculture scenarios are discussed, zoonotic norovirus and ostreid herpesvirus 1 to illustrate the possibilities. The entire field of RNAi in molluscs looks ripe for scientific exploitation and practical application.

  8. Biologia e anatomia funcional de Donax gemmula Morrison (Bivalvia, Donacidae do litoral de São Paulo, Brasil Biology and functional anatomy of Donax gemmula Morrison (Bivalvia, Donacidae from the littoral of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Dias Passos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Donax gemmula Morrison, 1971 ocorre em praias arenosas da costa sudeste-sul do Brasil até o Uruguai. Espécimes foram coletados na Praia de Barequeçaba, São Sebastião, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O comportamento do animal foi registrado "in situ" e em aquários e a morfologia funcional a partir de espécimes dissecados sob estereomicroscópio; detalhes da anatomia foram obtidos a partir de cortes histológicos. A concha pequena, lisa, subglobosa, e o pé grande, muscular, provido de um par de músculos elevadores bem desenvolvidos, permitem escavação rápida, vital em praias sujeitas à intensa ação de ondas onde a espécie vive. Aparato bissal vestigial ocorre desde a fase juvenil à adulta e este donacídeo de vida livre, infaunal, não migra acompanhando o ritmo das marés. As margens do manto possuem prega mediana duplicada; além de tentáculos captados, as pregas medianas possuem tentáculos sensoriais filiformes, longos, estes últimos restritos à região posterior do animal. A espécie tem hábito alimentar suspensívoro seletivo, o qual é revelado pela presença de ctenídios grandes, completos e homorhábdicos, palpos labiais pequenos e muito seletivos, intestino curto, fracamente sinuoso, separado do saco do estilete cristalino, e tentáculos ramificados formando um crivo em torno da abertura inalante.Donax gemmula Morrison, 1971 is a small bivalve occurring on sandy beaches throughout the Southeastern Brazilian coast to Uruguai. Live specimens were collected from Barequeçaba Beach, São Sebastião, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The animal's behaviour was recorded in situ as well as in aquaria, and its functional morphology registered from specimens dissected under stereomicroscope; details of the anatomy were obtained from histological sections. The minute, smooth subglobose shell, and the large, muscular foot provided with a pair of well-developed elevator muscles allow fast burrowing, vital in the disturbed beach

  9. Sensitivity of Mediterranean bivalve mollusc aquaculture to climate change, ocean acidification, and other environmental pressures: findings from a producers’ survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, L.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Mass, F.; Theodorou, J.A.; Ziveri, P.; Gazeau, F.

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced climate change and ocean acidification are global environmental phenomena with a common driver: anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. Both processes potentially threaten the Mediterranean bivalve mollusc aquaculture sector, which is economically relevant to several regions and

  10. First record of molluscs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lima Caldeira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeking the identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as a potential etiological agent of three clinical cases of eosinophilic meningitis, mollusc specimens were collected in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The snails were identified as Sarasinula marginata (45 specimens, Subulina octona (157, Achatina fulica (45 and Bradybaena similaris (23. Larvae obtained were submitted to polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnosis. Their genetic profile were corresponded to A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with third-stage larvae, developed menigoencephalitis, and parasites became sexually mature in the lungs. Additionally, larvae obtained from A. fulica snails, from São Vicente, state of São Paulo, also showed genetic profiles of this nematode. This is the first record of Brazilian molluscs infected with this nematode species.

  11. Microsatellite variation in Donax trunculus from the Iberian Peninsula, with particular attention to Galician estuaries (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantón, A.; Arias-Pérez, A.; Freire, R.; Fernández-Pérez, J.; Nóvoa, S.; Méndez, J.

    2017-10-01

    Genetic variation and population structure information is essential for conservation and stock management policies. The wedge clam Donax trunculus is an important fishing resource in the Iberian Peninsula and in some areas, such as the northwestern Spain, wild stocks have decreased greatly. Despite this, information is mainly from the southwestern Atlantic to the northwestern Mediterranean of the Iberian Peninsula. In this study, fifteen microsatellite loci were examined at 17 localities along the Iberian Peninsula to characterize its genetic diversity and population structure. Particular attention was paid to the northwestern Atlantic area, and to test if the pattern previously described for this species is confirmed when localities distributed across the Atlantic coast are included and different microsatellite markers are used. All localities displayed similar allelic richness values and heterozygosity levels but when genetic diversity levels were compared among groups of localities, tests were significant and samples from the northwestern area (Galicia) showed the lowest values. The analysis of population structure indicated that localities from the Atlantic coast are genetically homogeneous although some samples showed significant pairwise Fst values. These values were low and Bayesian analysis of genetic differentiation did not show a consistent structure along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. However, Atlantic samples were genetically different from those located in Mediterranean coast, which may be explained by the existence of the Almeria-Oran front. Moreover, Fuengirola, locality situated in the Alboran Sea between the Strait of Gibraltar and Mediterranean Sea, showed significant differences from all remaining localities included in the study. Overall, the data showed the existence of genetic homogeneity along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula and support the three management units (Atlantic Ocean, the Alboran Sea and the northwestern

  12. Molluscs for Sale: Assessment of Freshwater Gastropods and Bivalves in the Ornamental Pet Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Hui; Tan, Siong Kiat; Wong, Wing Hing; Meier, Rudolf; Chan, Sow-Yan; Tan, Heok Hui; Yeo, Darren C J

    2016-01-01

    The ornamental pet trade is often considered a key culprit for conservation problems such as the introduction of invasive species (including infectious diseases) and overharvesting of rare species. Here, we present the first assessment of the biodiversity of freshwater molluscs in the ornamental pet trade in Singapore, one of the most important global hubs of the ornamental aquarium trade, and discuss associated conservation concerns. We recorded freshwater molluscs from ornamental pet shops and major exporters including non-ornamental species (e.g., hitchhikers, molluscs sold as fish feed). We recorded an unexpectedly high diversity-59 species-of freshwater bivalves and gastropods, with the majority (38 species or 64%) being from the Oriental region. In addition to morphological examination, we sequenced the DNA barcode region of mitochondrial CO1 and 16S genes to provide molecular data for the confirmation of the identification and for future re-identification. DNA barcodes were obtained for 50 species, and all but four were separated by > 3% uncorrected pairwise distances. The trade has been considered a main introduction pathway for non-native species to Singapore, and we found that out of 15 species in the trade as well as in the wild in Singapore, 12 are either introduced or of unknown origin, representing almost half of the known non-native freshwater molluscs in Singapore. Particularly prevalent are non-ornamental species: six hitchhikers on aquarium plants and six species sold as fish feed. We found that a quarter of the trade species have a history of introduction, which includes 11 known or potentially invasive species. We conclude that potential overharvesting is difficult to assess because only half of the trade species have been treated by IUCN. Of these, 21 species are of Least Concern and three are Data Deficient. Our checklist, with accompanying DNA barcodes, images, and museum vouchers, provides an important reference library for future monitoring

  13. Coral and mollusc resistance to ocean acidification adversely affected by warming

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo-Metalpa, R; Houlbrèque, F; Tambutté, E; Boisson, F; Baggini, C; Patti, FP; Jeffree, R; Fine, M; Foggo, A; Gattuso, JP; Hall-Spencer, JM

    2011-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentrations are expectedto decrease surface ocean pH by 0.3-0.5 units by 2100 (refs,), lowering the carbonate ion concentration of surfacewaters. This rapid acidification is predicted to dramatically decrease calcification in many marine organisms. Reduced skeletal growth under increased CO 2 levels has already been shown for corals, molluscs and many other marine organisms. The impact of acidification on the ability of individual species to cal...

  14. Marine 14C reservoir ages for 19th century whales and molluscs from the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangerud, Jan; Bondevik, Stein; Gulliksen, Steinar; Karin Hufthammer, Anne; Høisæter, Tore

    2006-12-01

    In order to compare radiocarbon dates on marine and terrestrial samples the former have to be corrected for a reservoir age. We present reservoir ages from dating 21 whales collected 1860-1901 and recalculating dates of 23 molluscs collected 1857-1926. Most of the whales were caught along the coast of Norway, but one is from France and one from Iceland. We assume the former mainly lived in the North and equatorial Atlantic and in the Norwegian Sea. Whales feed only on pelagic organisms and will provide the reservoir age for the open ocean surface water. However, they travel long distances and will integrate the reservoir ages of the different water masses along their way. Molluscs (dated from Norway, Spitsbergen and Arctic Canada) are stationary and monitor the sea water passing their dwelling site, but some also take up carbon from particulate food or sediment pore water. Coastal water also often contains some continental carbon. We present two different views on how to analyze and interpret the data. Mangerud recommends to use reservoir ages based on a combination of the whale and mollusc dates, i.e. 380±30 and 360±30 yr relative to Intcal04 and British oak, respectively, and a Δ R value of 20±30 for the surface water in the N-Atlantic and Norwegian Sea. Bondevik and Gulliksen maintain that the reservoir age—and Δ R—along the Norwegian coast is latitude dependant, with Δ R-values increasing from -3±22 in the South to 105±24 at Spitsbergen. Whales, reflecting North Atlantic open ocean surface water have lower Δ R (7±11) than most molluscs.

  15. The Mediterranean stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) as habitat provider for molluscs: colony size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitacco, Valentina; Crocetta, Fabio; Orlando-Bonaca, Martina; Mavrič, Borut; Lipej, Lovrenc

    2017-11-01

    The stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) is an important Mediterranean habitat builder, whose survival is now being threatened by human activities and possibly natural events such as mass mortality and bleaching. We characterized the mollusc assemblage associated with colonies in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) and then tested whether the number of mollusc species increases in relation with colony size, following a Species-Area Relationship (SAR) model. At least 62 taxa were found in association with coral colonies, with bivalves constituting the dominant group. More than half of the 3034 specimens encountered were juveniles. Mollusc taxa richness increased with increasing C. caespitosa colony size according to the power-function model, whilst the analyses of trophic and functional groups supports the hypothesis of at least two factors underlying SAR (area per se and habitat diversity). Our results confirmed the importance of C. caespitosa for benthic communities, indicating that larger colonies support higher biodiversity, and suggesting that C. caespitosa is the most important habit builder among Mediterranean cnidarians, having also an influential function as a natural nursery ground. These results underline the necessity of new investigations aimed at filling gaps in our knowledge and planning new measures to protect the species.

  16. [NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals.

  17. Facilitative ecological interactions between invasive species: Arundo donax stands as favorable habitat for cattle ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) along the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racelis, A E; Davey, R B; Goolsby, J A; Pérez de León, A A; Varner, K; Duhaime, R

    2012-03-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp. is a key vector of protozoa that cause bovine babesiosis. Largely eradicated from most of the United States, the cattle tick continues to infest south Texas, and recent outbreaks in this area may signal a resurgence of cattle tick populations despite current management efforts. An improved understanding of the dynamic ecology of cattle fever ticks along the U.S.-Mexico border is required to devise strategies for sustainable eradication efforts. Management areas of the cattle tick overlap considerably with dense, wide infestations of the non-native, invasive grass known as giant reed (Arundo donax L.). Here we show that stands of giant reed are associated with abiotic and biotic conditions that are favorable to tick survival, especially when compared with other nearby habitats (open pastures of buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) and closed canopy native forests). Overhead canopies in giant reed stands and native riparian forests reduce daily high temperature, which was the best abiotic predictor of oviposition by engorged females. In sites where temperatures were extreme, specifically open grasslands, fewer females laid eggs and the resulting egg masses were smaller. Pitfall trap collections of ground dwelling arthropods suggest a low potential for natural suppression of tick populations in giant reed stands. The finding that A. donax infestations present environmental conditions that facilitate the survival and persistence of cattle ticks, as well or better than native riparian habitats and open grasslands, represents an alarming complication for cattle fever tick management in the United States.

  18. Genetic diversity and population genetic analysis of Donax vittatus (Mollusca: Bivalvia) and phylogeny of the genus with mitochondrial and nuclear markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, Jenyfer; Froufe, Elsa; Nantón, Ana; Gaspar, Miguel B.; Méndez, Josefina

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the genetic diversity of Donax vittatus across the Iberian Peninsula was investigated using four mitochondrial (COI, Cytb, 16S F and M types) and three nuclear (H3, 18S and 28S) genes. These same molecular markers were also sequenced in D. semistriatus and D variegatus to address the phylogenetic relationships of the species of the genus Donax common along the European coasts. Our results showed high haplotype diversity in combination with a low nucleotide diversity and a star-shaped network with a predominant haplotype, indicating a recent population expansion for the examined sampling sites of D. vittatus. Furthermore, analyses of population differentiation performed with COI mitochondrial marker, including global FST estimation and pairwise FST values, indicated the non-existence of significant genetic structure in D. vittatus of Northwest Iberian populations. Because these localities show a high genetic similarity, we suggest that D. vittatus could be a potentially alternative exploitable resource, as complement to the D. trunculus fisheries, whose natural stocks have decreased dramatically in some areas. Furthermore, we present for the first time, evidence of DUI in the clams D. vittatus and D. semistriatus.

  19. The ecology, evolution, impacts and management of host-parasite interactions of marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Loren D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2015-10-01

    Molluscs are economically and ecologically important components of aquatic ecosystems. In addition to supporting valuable aquaculture and wild-harvest industries, their populations determine the structure of benthic communities, cycling of nutrients, serve as prey resources for higher trophic levels and, in some instances, stabilize shorelines and maintain water quality. This paper reviews existing knowledge of the ecology of host-parasite interactions involving marine molluscs, with a focus on gastropods and bivalves. It considers the ecological and evolutionary impacts of molluscan parasites on their hosts and vice versa, and on the communities and ecosystems in which they are a part, as well as disease management and its ecological impacts. An increasing number of case studies show that disease can have important effects on marine molluscs, their ecological interactions and ecosystem services, at spatial scales from centimeters to thousands of kilometers and timescales ranging from hours to years. In some instances the cascading indirect effects arising from parasitic infection of molluscs extend well beyond the temporal and spatial scales at which molluscs are affected by disease. In addition to the direct effects of molluscan disease, there can be large indirect impacts on marine environments resulting from strategies, such as introduction of non-native species and selective breeding for disease resistance, put in place to manage disease. Much of our understanding of impacts of molluscan diseases on the marine environment has been derived from just a handful of intensively studied marine parasite-host systems, namely gastropod-trematode, cockle-trematode, and oyster-protistan interactions. Understanding molluscan host-parasite dynamics is of growing importance because: (1) expanding aquaculture; (2) current and future climate change; (3) movement of non-native species; and (4) coastal development are modifying molluscan disease dynamics, ultimately leading to

  20. The Mg - SST relationship in mollusc shells: is there a rule? Examples from three tropical species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareth, C. E.; Guzmán, N.; Lecornec, F.; Cabioch, G.; Ortlieb, L.

    2009-04-01

    The geochemistry of mollusc shells is currently viewed as a powerful tool for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Indeed, molluscs are ubiquitous animals, with a worldly geographical and environmental distribution, providing various environmental records. Moreover, mollusc shells are abundantly found in fossil and archaeological settings. In the paleoclimatic reconstructions, the sea-surface temperatures (SST) are a key parameter. If shell stable oxygen isotope signatures can provide accurate SST records, this proxy is also influenced by the water isotopic composition. To find another tracer which would depend on the SST solely, the relationship between Mg content changes in mollusc shell and SST has been investigated for a few years. Nevertheless, if the reliability of shell Mg as SST tracer has been proven in some species, this is clearly not a "universal" and definitive rule. To reconstruct the past tropical SSTs, Mg calibration studies were undertaken on Concholepas concholepas (gastropod, South America), Protothaca thaca (bivalve, South America) and Tridacna squamosa (bivalve, New Caledonia). The very high-resolution (infra-daily) analyses of the C. concholepas gastropod revealed a significant metabolism control, at the nyctemeral scale, on the Mg incorporation into the calcite shell layer. Over a two months period, the Mg fluctuations in C. concholepas shell do not match with the SST instrumental measurements. Mg content changes along the aragonitic shell growth axis of several living P. thaca from a same Peruvian site are significantly different indicating no relationship between Mg and SST. The Mg variations measured in a Chilean P. thaca shell are, surprisingly, similar to variations of the instrumental SST. Unless this quite reliable relationship between P. thaca shell and SST is confirmed, and that the inter-site difference in Mg response to environmental forcing is understood, P. thaca shell Mg cannot be used as SST proxy. Lastly, a preliminary work

  1. Giant reed (Arundo donax L. for biogas production: land use saving and nitrogen utilisation efficiency compared with arable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Dragoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to improve the sustainability of biogas supply chains, the research for alternative feedstocks is a key issue and giant reed (Arundo donax L. is a promising no-food crop to be used in anaerobic digestion. In fact, giant reed is a perennial species characterised by low nutrient requirements and is able to provide promising biogas yields. Its suitability for anaerobic digestion is influenced by harvest time, since plant characteristics vary noticeably along the season. Moreover, ensiling is a storage technique that can assure a good preservation of the biomass over time, but also influence the methane yields. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the suitability for biogas production of giant reed silage, according to different cutting regimes, and to evaluate the efficiency in saving land and nitrogen for fuelling biogas plants, in comparison with maize and two sorghum varieties. Methane yields per hectare (Nm3 CH4 ha–1 were determined by multiplying the biochemical methane potential of each substrate by the aboveground biomass of the corresponding crop. The land use coefficient (LU, namely the land needed to fuel one kW power (ha kWe–1, was calculated from the estimated methane yields per hectare. Finally, nitrogen utilisation efficiency (NUtE, which is the ratio between the estimated methane yield and the nitrogen uptake per hectare (Nm3 CH4 kgN–1, was determined for each crop species and according to the harvest time and frequency of giant reed. Overall, a good suitability for ensiling was observed in giant reed. When harvested in September, the crop yielded about 9900 Nm3 CH4 ha–1, while in double harvest systems biomethane was about 12,000 Nm3 CH4 ha–1, +35% and +70% than maize and sorghum respectively. Moreover, giant reed under double harvest management was the most land-conservative option, as LU was about 0.22 ha kWe–1, while in annual crops it was about 0.35 ha kWe–1. The higher NUtE was observed in single

  2. Multiple spectroscopic studies on the interaction of BSA with pristine CNTs and their toxicity against Donax faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekar, Gajalakshmi; Vijayakumar, S.; Thanigaivel, S.; Thomas, John; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan, E-mail: nchandra40@hotmail.com

    2016-02-15

    Enhanced biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have necessitated the need for the fundamental understanding behind their interaction with biomolecules. Carbon nanotube bundles were dispersed with tween 20 to attain individual nanotubes that are active in UV–vis region. Plasmon resonance of dispersions was obtained at 252 nm of 4.88 eV. FT-Raman bands of dispersions of SWCNTs and MWCNTs at 1346 and 1573 cm{sup −1} corresponds to the existence of Disordered and Graphitic band of CNTs after dispersion. XRD revealed crystalline feature of graphitic structures of CNTs. SEM-EDAX showed tubular structures of CNTs along with the existence of lower percentage contents of metal impurities. Hyperchromic effect of BSA–CNT complex suggested the existence of ground state complex between them. Quenching nature of CNTs against the intrinsic fluorescence potential of BSA followed static mechanism. 3D fluorescence spectra of BSA confirmed the possibilities of their binding with CNTs via tryptophan and tyrosine residues, followed by the disturbances to their aromatic environment. Alterations were observed in the amide band position of FTIR spectra of BSA–CNT conjugates. Loss of alpha-helical structures and alteration in the tryptophan position were evidenced with respect to CD spectra. The toxicity profile of pristine and BSA–CNT conjugates were evaluated against Donax faba. On comparison with pristine CNTs, BSA–CNTs conjugates showed higher LC{sub 50} dose values. In addition, the histopathology of the tissues, treated with CNT–BSA conjugates has shown decreased effect on the cellular integrity rather than the pristine ones. Hence, the adsorption of biomolecules such as the proteins over CNTs surface could have possible effect on reducing their toxicity profile in nature. - Highlights: • UV–visible spectra showed hyper-chromic effect. • Binding existed with static quenching mechanism. • Aromatic environment around Trp and Tyr residues were affected

  3. Effect of power plant condenser coolant discharge on population density of intertidal bivalve Donax cuneatus (L. 1758)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahir Hussain, K.; Mohanty, A.K.; Prasad, M.V.R.; Satpathy, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Impact of thermal discharge from a coastal power station (Madras Atomic Power Station, south-east coast of India) on the spatial variability of Donax cuneatus abundance was assessed to determine the impact boundary. Totally twenty sites were selected both on south and north side of effluents mixing zone in increasing spatial scale. Twelve locations were selected towards south side at a distance from 0 (near mixing point) to 2000 m and eight locations were selected towards north from the effluent mixing zone. The present study was conducted during January 2008. Mean water temperature along the coast ranged from 29.1 ± 0.1 - 31.2 ± 0.1 deg C. Total organic carbon content in the sediment ranged from 0.27 to 0.70%. D. cuneatus population in the swash zone ranged between 1.3 ± 1.5 to 88.3 ± 9.6 m -2 . Meager population of the wedge clam was observed up to 100 m south from mixing point and abundance gradually increased with increasing distance from the mixing zone. Comparatively high abundance was observed from 400 m; the density reached maximum at 1000 m (64.0 ± 3.6 m -2 ). Similar pattern was observed on north side too but less abundance was observed only up to 80m. Maximum abundance was observed (88.3 ± 9.6 m -2 ) at control location located 500 m north of the discharge point. 40 m on either side of discharge point were highly impacted, 80 to 100m towards plume flow (south) were moderately impacted and 80 m north of mixing point also witnessed moderate impact. After 100 m, effluents did not affect the northern side, whereas between 100 to 400 m, south was influenced slightly. Multivariate clustering pattern on the environmental variables of all sampling locations and abundance pattern of D. cuneatus showed similarity. Present investigation unambiguously showed that the abundance pattern of D. cuneatus on the sandy beach of Kalpakkam is not governed by single major factor but is influenced by multiple interacting factors. The population size of the wedge clam

  4. Biomarkers of metabolism disturbance in bivalve molluscs induced by environmental pollution with processed by-products of oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sukharenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Processed by-products of oil are the most common pollutants in all river and sea water. The increase in oxidative stress in bivalve molluscs was studied in both tissues of the hepatopancreas and the gill. The model for artificial treatment with processed by-products of oil was performed in a laboratory experiment with the river mollusc Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771. The exposure of the molluscs over 28 days to mazut 50 mg/l induced significant increase of both final product of lipid peroxidation (LPO and antioxidant enzime activity. A significant increase in LPO was observed in the hepatopancreas and gill of D. polymorpha treated with mazut compared to the control group. Antioxidant enzyme activity of cartalase, supeoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a greater increase (by almost 1.5 times in the hepatopancreas than in the gill of D. polymorpha. A similar LPO growth and modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity were determined in the hepatopancreas and gill of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1879 collected in an area polluted with resins, hydrocarbons and asphaltenes, Donuzlav lake in the Kerch gulf. Varied cellular reactivation of the antioxidant enzyme system in the hepatopancreas rather than the gill was observed in both kinds of mollusc Dreissena and Mytilus. The obtained results are evidence of the higher sensitivity of the hepatopancreas cells of bivalve molluscs to organic pollutants compared to the gill cells.

  5. A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.E.; Cecchetti, Gaetano

    2003-01-01

    Marine organisms were evaluated as possible biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in marine coastal areas. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in the green algae Ulva lactuca L., the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, and the two gastropod molluscs Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella cerulea L. collected at six coastal stations in the area of the Gulf of Gaeta (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Italy). The coastal area of the Regional Park of Gianola and Monte di Scauri (a 'Protected Sea Park' area) was chosen as a control site. Seawater samples were also collected in each site to assess soluble and total metal concentrations and to gain additional information on both the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. Metal concentrations detected in algae and molluscs did not show significant differences among all stations studied. Moreover, statistical analyses (ANOVA, multiple comparison tests, cluster analysis) showed that the Sea Park station was not significantly different from the others. The hypothesis that the Protected Sea Park would be cleaner than the others must therefore be reconsidered. Data from this study were also compared with those previously obtained from uncontaminated sites in the Sicilian Sea, Italy. The results show clearly differences between these two marine ecosystems. The species examined showed great accumulations of metals, with concentration factors (CFs) higher than 10,000 with respect to the concentrations (soluble fractions) in marine waters. Metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for background levels for intraspecific comparison within the Tyrrhenian area, a body of water about which information is still very scarce

  6. Detection limits by EPR spectroscopy of cumulated doses ionizing radiations in molluscs shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, K.; Burlinska, G.; Dziedzic-Goclawska, A.; Stachowicz, W.; Michalik, J.; Sadlo, J.

    1997-01-01

    The exposure of waters to ionizing radiation from radionuclides stored in concrete containers or freed in nuclear accidents or underwater eruption might be difficult to be proved, when currents, rains, exchange of water displace sand soils or rocks in the bottom. Ionizing radiation evokes stable paramagnetic centers in the crystalline lattice of mineral components in bones as well as in exoskeletons of most molluscs, which are detected by the EPR spectroscopy and could be used as an indicator of the exposure to the action of radiation during prolonged period of time. (authors)

  7. Behaviour of molluscs in cantabrian biota with respect to the activity present in the marine medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesinos, M.; Santos, A.M. de los

    1981-01-01

    The behaviour of molluscs with regard to the activity present in the marine medium is studied. For this purpose three large groups are considered, with special reference to their ecology and their particular mode of incorporating activity. Determinations are made of the total alpha and beta activity, as well as that due to elements such as 90 Sr, 137 Cs and natural U, in the organisms in question and in their eco-environment. A comparison is likewise established between the biocoenoses inhabiting Cantabrian and Mediterranean biota. (author)

  8. [Distribution of acetylcholinesterase activity in the digestive system of the gastropod molluscs Littorina littorea and Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V

    2008-01-01

    With the use of the histochemical procedure for the demonstration of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, the distribution cholinergic regulatory elements was studied in the esophagus, the pharynx, the stomach, the liver (the digestive gland) and the intestine in sea and terrestrial gastropod molluscs that differed in their general organization level, lifestyle, habitat and feeding type. In both molluscs, all the parts of the digestive tract contained the significant amount of intraepithelial AchE-positive cells of the open type, single subepithelial neurons and the nervous fibers localized among the muscle cells of the wall of the organs. The basal processes of the AchE-positive intraepithelial cells were shown to form the intraepithelial nerve plexus and to pass under the epithelium. The peculiarities and common principles in the distribution of the nervous elements detected, their possible function and the regulatory role in the digestion in gastropod molluscs and other animals are discussed.

  9. Predicting the effects of ocean acidification on predator-prey interactions: a conceptual framework based on coastal molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Sanford, Eric; Jellison, Brittany M; Gaylord, Brian

    2014-06-01

    The influence of environmental change on species interactions will affect population dynamics and community structure in the future, but our current understanding of the outcomes of species interactions in a high-CO2 world is limited. Here, we draw upon emerging experimental research examining the effects of ocean acidification on coastal molluscs to provide hypotheses of the potential impacts of high-CO2 on predator-prey interactions. Coastal molluscs, such as oysters, mussels, and snails, allocate energy among defenses, growth, and reproduction. Ocean acidification increases the energetic costs of physiological processes such as acid-base regulation and calcification. Impacted molluscs can display complex and divergent patterns of energy allocation to defenses and growth that may influence predator-prey interactions; these include changes in shell properties, body size, tissue mass, immune function, or reproductive output. Ocean acidification has also been shown to induce complex changes in chemoreception, behavior, and inducible defenses, including altered cue detection and predator avoidance behaviors. Each of these responses may ultimately alter the susceptibility of coastal molluscs to predation through effects on predator handling time, satiation, and search time. While many of these effects may manifest as increases in per capita predation rates on coastal molluscs, the ultimate outcome of predator-prey interactions will also depend on how ocean acidification affects the specified predators, which also exhibit complex responses to ocean acidification. Changes in predator-prey interactions could have profound and unexplored consequences for the population dynamics of coastal molluscs in a high-CO2 ocean. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  10. The clam (Chamelea gallina: evaluation of the effects of solids suspended in seawater on bivalve molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatora Angela Angioni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the effects of solids in suspension in seawater on clams (Chamelea gallina. The aim was to investigate the possible correlation between the widespread deaths of clams in the coastal waters of the central and northern Adriatic in the last five years and increased concentrations of solids in suspension. The research involved conducting 96-hour tests on clams farmed in aquariums containing filtered seawater. The tests were preceded by a 7-day adaptation stage to allow the molluscs to acclimatise. During this period, the clams were fed on unicellular seaweed (Dunaliella tertiolecta. The molluscs were exposed to particles of solids in suspension consisting of pools of silica gel (SiO2 granules of various sizes, similar to those constituting silt, whose presence and suspension in the sea considerably increase after heavy rain and heavy seas. The study established that the number of deaths caused by solids suspended in seawater at the concentrations used in the tests was not statistically significant.

  11. FEATURES OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TERRESTRIAL MOLLUSCS IN THE CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Magomedova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. High population, high proliferation rates, a large species diversity, low mobility and small ability to overcome geographic barriers, ease of collecting material and sensitive response to changes in the external environment makes this group a convenient object of biogeographic and ecological research. Methods. The inventory of Caucasian ground malacofauna made it possible to make a complete list of species; their characteristics were determined by the geographical distribution of major natural regions of the Caucasus. Results. The comparative analysis of the geographical distribution of terrestrial molluscs on key areas of the Caucasus showed that among the 352 species belonging to 140 genera of 36 families, most richly represented Western Caucasus, which accounts for 51% or 181 species from 80 genera of 20 families, while the share of Armenian, Eastern and Central Caucasus accounts for 35-37%. Talysh, in turn, is characterized by the presence of only 11% of the species composition of the Caucasian land mollusc. Caucasus limited in distribution among the analyzed species is 72% or 255 species belonging to 104 genera of 24 families. Conclusion. The results prove the species diversity of the different regions of theCaucasus and could serve as the basis to reconsider the possible ways of formation of fauna of the region discussed. 

  12. Shell biofilm-associated nitrous oxide production in marine molluscs: processes, precursors and relative importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Ines M; Schramm, Andreas; Larsen, Lone H; Svenningsen, Nanna B; Lavik, Gaute; de Beer, Dirk; Stief, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O) from freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates has exclusively been ascribed to N2 O production by ingested denitrifying bacteria in the anoxic gut of the animals. Our study of marine molluscs now shows that also microbial biofilms on shell surfaces are important sites of N2 O production. The shell biofilms of Mytilus edulis, Littorina littorea and Hinia reticulata contributed 18-94% to the total animal-associated N2 O emission. Nitrification and denitrification were equally important sources of N2 O in shell biofilms as revealed by (15) N-stable isotope experiments with dissected shells. Microsensor measurements confirmed that both nitrification and denitrification can occur in shell biofilms due to a heterogeneous oxygen distribution. Accordingly, ammonium, nitrite and nitrate were important drivers of N2 O production in the shell biofilm of the three mollusc species. Ammonium excretion by the animals was found to be sufficient to sustain N2 O production in the shell biofilm. Apparently, the animals provide a nutrient-enriched microenvironment that stimulates growth and N2 O production of the shell biofilm. This animal-induced stimulation was demonstrated in a long-term microcosm experiment with the snail H. reticulata, where shell biofilms exhibited the highest N2 O emission rates when the animal was still living inside the shell. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode: Metastrongyloidea in molluscs from harbour areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common aetiological agent of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Following a report indicating the presence of this parasite in Brazil in 2007, the present study was undertaken to investigate the presence of A. cantonensis in the surrounding Brazilian port areas. In total, 30 ports were investigated and the following molluscs were identified: Achatina fulica, Belocaulus sp., Bradybaena similaris sp., Cyclodontina sp., Helix sp., Leptinaria sp., Melampus sp., Melanoides tuberculata, Phyllocaulis sp., Pomacea sp., Pseudoxychona sp., Rhinus sp., Sarasinula marginata, Streptaxis sp., Subulina octona, Succinea sp., Tomigerus sp., Wayampia sp. and specimens belonging to Limacidae and Orthalicinae. Digestion and sedimentation processes were performed and the sediments were examined. DNA was extracted from the obtained larvae and the internal transcribed spacer region 2 was analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism after digestion with the endonuclease ClaI. Of the 30 ports investigated in this study, 11 contained molluscs infected with A. cantonensis larvae. The set of infected species consisted of S. octona, S. marginata, A. fulica and B. similaris. A total of 36.6% of the investigated ports were positive for A. cantonensis, indicating a wide distribution of this worm. It remains uncertain when and how A. cantonensis was introduced into South America.

  14. Coral and mollusc resistance to ocean acidification adversely affected by warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; Houlbrèque, F.; Tambutté, É.; Boisson, F.; Baggini, C.; Patti, F. P.; Jeffree, R.; Fine, M.; Foggo, A.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Hall-Spencer, J. M.

    2011-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are expectedto decrease surface ocean pH by 0.3-0.5 units by 2100 (refs , ), lowering the carbonate ion concentration of surfacewaters. This rapid acidification is predicted to dramatically decrease calcification in many marine organisms. Reduced skeletal growth under increased CO2 levels has already been shown for corals, molluscs and many other marine organisms. The impact of acidification on the ability of individual species to calcify has remained elusive, however, as measuring net calcification fails to disentangle the relative contributions of gross calcification and dissolution rates on growth. Here, we show that corals and molluscs transplanted along gradients of carbonate saturation state at Mediterranean CO2 vents are able to calcify and grow at even faster than normal rates when exposed to the high CO2 levels projected for the next 300 years. Calcifiers remain at risk, however, owing to the dissolution of exposed shells and skeletons that occurs as pH levels fall. Our results show that tissues and external organic layers play a major role in protecting shells and skeletons from corrosive sea water, limiting dissolution and allowing organisms to calcify. Our combined field and laboratory results demonstrate that the adverse effects of global warming are exacerbated when high temperatures coincide with acidification.

  15. Are the Traditional Medical Uses of Muricidae Molluscs Substantiated by Their Pharmacological Properties and Bioactive Compounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Benkendorff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine molluscs from the family Muricidae hold great potential for development as a source of therapeutically useful compounds. Traditionally known for the production of the ancient dye Tyrian purple, these molluscs also form the basis of some rare traditional medicines that have been used for thousands of years. Whilst these traditional and alternative medicines have not been chemically analysed or tested for efficacy in controlled clinical trials, a significant amount of independent research has documented the biological activity of extracts and compounds from these snails. In particular, Muricidae produce a suite of brominated indoles with anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and steroidogenic activity, as well as choline esters with muscle-relaxing and pain relieving properties. These compounds could explain some of the traditional uses in wound healing, stomach pain and menstrual problems. However, the principle source of bioactive compounds is from the hypobranchial gland, whilst the shell and operculum are the main source used in most traditional remedies. Thus further research is required to understand this discrepancy and to optimise a quality controlled natural medicine from Muricidae.

  16. Lipids from the nacreous and prismatic layers of two Pteriomorpha Mollusc shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, B.; Dauphin, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Mollusc shells are the best-known Ca-carbonate biominerals. They are commonly described as a mineralized two layered structure: an outer layer composed of calcite prismatic units, and an internal layer composed of tablets of aragonite: the nacreous layer. An external organic layer (periostracum) is present in most taxa. However, the most common structure in the Mollusc shell is the aragonite crossed lamellar layer, but aragonite prisms, calcite foliated layers and homogeneous layers have been also described by Boggild (1930) in all the Mollusc orders. Since, more detailed descriptions of Bivalve shells have been done (Taylor et al., 1969, 1973). Despite the nacroprismatic arrangement is rare, calcite prismatic and aragonite nacreous layers are the best studied because of their simple 3D structure and large units. Among these Molluscs, some Bivalve species composed of these two layers are of commercial interest, such as the pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, cultivated in French Polynesia to produce black pearls. It is well established that Mollusc shells are composite structures of organic and inorganic components (Hatchett, 1799; Grégoire et al., 1955; Beedham, 1958; Simkiss, 1965; Mutvei, 1969; Cuif et al., 1980; Berman et al., 1993; Kobayashi and Samata, 2006). Numerous studies are concerned with the organic matrix of the shell. Organic components are commonly obtained after a strong or mild decalcification process. They are said to consist of both a soluble and insoluble fraction. The main part of studies is dedicated to the soluble components, and among them, proteins (Grégoire et al., 1955; Grégoire, 1961; Krampitz et al., 1976; Samata et al., 1980, 2004; Weiner, 1983; Miyamoto et al., 2006). Despite the pioneering work of Wada (1980) sugars are usually neglected despite their role in biomineralization. The third component of the organic matrix of calcareous biominerals is lipids. To date, there is a paucity of information concerning the presence

  17. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Bivalves Molluscs of Apulian Region: a 3-years control activity of a EU Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miedico O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve molluscs represent an important matrix to be studied for several reasons. Their nutritional properties make them valuable to the consumers, so that their consumption and commercial value has risen worldwide. Simultaneously, their significant water-filtering capability and their persistence in the same place make them good bio-indicators of marine ecosystems. The presence of the heavy metal contaminants, as Cd, Pb and Hg, was investigated in bivalve molluscs such as mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, clams (Venus gallina and oysters (Ostrea edulis. In the present study, a survey was carried out on 334 samples addressed to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale – Puglia e Basilicata, Foggia (ITALY between 2009-2011, and collected by official authorities along the coasts of Apulia Region. The conformity of heavy metal content in bivalve molluscs was verified, in according to EC Reg. 1881/2006. The compliance was found for the total amount of samples. The obtained data on heavy metals concentration in bivalve molluscs were compared with data found in monitoring studies on the incidence of heavy metals in 1981 in North-Western Mediterranean Sea, in 2003 in Tyrrhenian Sea and in 2010 in Pacific Ocean (Chile, reported in literature. The information obtained from this work offer an essential database, not only for the authorities involved in food control, but also for the official institutions responsible of a constant control of the marine ecosystem pollution.

  18. New trends in important diseases affecting the culture of fish and molluscs in the ICES area 2002-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfjorden, Anders; Areskog, Marlene; Bruno, David

    The ICES Working Group on Pathology and Diseases of Marine Organisms (WGPDMO) provides annual reviews of national reports on the disease status of wild and farmed fish and molluscs in the ICES area. In 2004, the group published a first report collating this information from 1998-2002. This second...

  19. Postglacial floodings of the Marmara Sea: molluscs and sediments tell the story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükmeriç, Yeşim

    2016-08-01

    The early Holocene marine flooding of the Black Sea has been the subject of intense scientific debate since the "Noah's Flood" hypothesis was proposed in the late 1990s. The chronology of the flooding is not straightforward because the connection between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea involves the intermediate Marmara Sea Basin via two sills (Dardanelles and Bosphorus). This study explores the chronology of late Pleistocene-Holocene flooding by examining sedimentary facies and molluscs from 24 gravity cores spanning shelf to slope settings in the southern Marmara Sea Basin. A late Pleistocene Ponto-Caspian (Neoeuxinian) mollusc association is found in 12 of the cores, comprising 14 mollusc species and dominated by brackish (oligohaline-lower mesohaline) endemic taxa (dreissenids, hydrobiids). The Neoeuxinian association is replaced by a Turritella- Corbula association at the onset of the Holocene. The latter is dominated by marine species, several of which are known to thrive under dysoxic conditions in muddy bottoms. This association is common in early Holocene intervals as well as sapropel intervals in younger Holocene strata. It is an indicator of low-salinity outflows from the Black Sea into the Marmara Sea that drive stratification. A marine Mediterranean association (87 species) represents both soft bottom and hard substrate faunas that lived in well-ventilated conditions and upper mesohaline-polyhaline salinities (ca. 25 psu). Shallower areas were occupied by hard substrate taxa and phytopdetritic communities, whereas deeper areas had soft bottom faunas. The middle shelf part of the northern Gemlik Gulf has intervals with irregular and discontinuous sedimentary structures admixed with worn Neoeuxinian and euryhaline Mediterranean faunas. These intervals represent reworking events (slumping) likely related to seismic activity rooted in the North Anatolian Fault system. The core data and faunas indicate an oscillating postglacial sea-level rise and

  20. Mollusc and brachiopod skeletal hardparts: Problematic archives of past seawater properties (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralized exo- or endoskeletons of fossil marine invertebrates are widespread and diverse components of the Phanerozoic rock record of Earth's past and present oceans. Exoskeletons serve as protection against environmental pressure or predators, whilst endoskeletons may act as support or serves as an attachment for muscles and ligaments and hence as a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. Biogenic hardparts represent sophisticated products resulting from the hierarchical interaction of inorganic minerals (95%) and macromolecular organic matrix, forming commonly less than 5%. The significance of biogenic carbonate archives lies in the time-resolved growth-increments and their respective multi-proxy geochemical signatures that have been widely used to assess past oceanic seawater properties. We here compile and review published work dealing with crystallization pathways of skeletal hardparts secreted by molluscs (i.e., bivalves and cephalopods) as well as brachiopods as widely used archives of ancient neritic epeiric settings. Bivalves and cephalopods (e.g., extinct ammonoids and belemnites and extant Sepia, Nautilus and Spirula) all form accretionary calcitic, aragonitic or vateritic skeletal hardparts. Despite the fact that molluscs and brachiopods form part of very different branches of the animal phylogenetic tree, their biomineralization strategies are surprisingly similar. Our main focus lies in a critical assessment of the complex pathways of ions and aquo-complexes from their source (seawater) to the final product (biomineral). We do this as an attempt to critically test the commonly held hypothesis that many fossil shell hardparts precipitated, under favourable conditions and pending subsequent diagenetic alteration, in equilibrium with seawater. Two main observations stand out: (1) the present knowledge on pathways and mechanisms (e.g., ion channel trans-membrane or endocytosis and vesicle transport, precursor mineralogies etc.) is surprisingly

  1. Molluscs production associated to lunar-tide cycle: a case study in Paraíba State under ethnoecology viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Rômulo RN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molluscs have been for a long time a very important food resource for humans. Therefore, oysters, clams, and mussels are highly required at seafood markets. Like any commercial food, it is necessary that molluscs present good quality standards, concerning some criteria such as amount of meat and appearance. In bivalves, condition index or fattening index is considered a satisfactory method for estimating the amount of meat related to the shell cavity. Molluscs gatherers of Paraíba State coast, northeastern Brazil, state that molluscan meat production increases during spring tide (designated by them as maré de lançamento in opposition to the meat decrease which happens during neap tide (maré de quebramento (they are designated technically in Portuguese as maré de sizígia and maré de quadratura, respectively. Weperformed a survey on the production of unha-de-velho or 'oldman'snail' (Tagelus plebeius caught by molluscs gatherers in the estuary of River Paraíba do Norte, by observing locally their work, applying questionnaires, searching for a possible scientific relation of that molluscs condition to the gatherers empirical statement. Thus, we estimatedthe molluscs condition index through the method of solids percentage determination. We studied their work and the molluscs condition index during a full lunar-tide cycle. Determinations were carried out between 2nd September and 20th October, 1998, through 20 catches performed to obtain condition index from 400 bivalves. We observed that several biotic and abiotic ecological factors, namely reproduction cycle, biochemical components variations, animal size, and even parasitism, may affect the animal condition index. Despite this aspect, our present results confirmed a high overlapping (80% of the condition index curve with lunar-tide cycle, in agreement with the gatherers statement. Although we recognize the need for formulating and testing other hypotheses, we consider a priori that

  2. Concentration of Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Different Molluscs from Tighra Reservoir, Gwalior, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Rao, R J; Wani, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-09-01

    Concentration of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides and their metabolites were determined in whole body homogenate of L. acuminata, I. exustus, V. dissimilis, V. bengalensis, from Tighra Reservoir during summer and post monsoon season using GC-MS technique. The different types of pesticides viz., HCB, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, p,p-DDT, choloropyrifos, methyl parathion, dicholorovos, ethion, malathion, parathion were found in resident molluscs studied. Concentration of these pesticides varied independently during the summer and the post monsoon season at monitored sites. The study concluded that presence of pesticides in Tighra Reservoir is a major concern on public and ecosystem health and use of biopesticides in the adjacent area of Reservoir is highly recommended.

  3. ESR-dating of subfossil mollusc shells: the problem of absorbed paleodose fading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molod'kov, A.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed investigation of paleodosimetric prperties of subfossil mollusc shells has been carried out with respect to their dating by ESR-spectroscopy. Attention has been paid to the connection between the absorbed paleodose value and factors on the upper dating limit. Energetic parameters of the CO 3 3- centres have been determined in the calcareous shell skeleton serving as a paleodetector: E=1.515 eV, ν 0 =8x10 13 s -1 , τ=1.14x10 6 years at 5 deg C. Mathematical models have been elaborated for the accumulation of paleodose in natural conditions. New paleodosimetric equations proposed for calculating the age of shells and some minerals may be applied both to ESR- and thermoluminescence-dating. The proposed method enables one to date the shells within the time span of nx10 2 -nx10 6 years

  4. On the safe of pesticides in controlling the terrestrial mollusc pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panigrahi

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The preferred food items of the slugs Laevicaulis alte and the snails Achatina fulica were used to prepare 'poison baits'by injecting the pesticides 'Rogor'and 'Nuvan'to kill these mollusc pests. The 'poison baits'prepared with Thrichosanthes dioica and Lycopersicum esculentum were accepted by 100% individuals of both the species irrespective of the pesticides used. In all cases the slug and the snail individuals died within a considerable length of time following consuption of the bait. The importance of using 'poison bait'lies not only with the sure success in killing the pests but also with the 'safe use'of toxic materials in order to avoid environmental hazards.

  5. Spatial distribution of epibenthic molluscs on a sandstone reef in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS. Martinez

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the distribution and abundance of epibenthic molluscs and their feeding habits associated to substrate features (coverage and rugosity in a sandstone reef system in the Northeast of Brazil. Rugosity, low coral cover and high coverage of zoanthids and fleshy alga were the variables that influenced a low richness and high abundance of a few molluscan species in the reef habitat. The most abundant species were generalist carnivores, probably associated to a lesser offer and variability of resources in this type of reef system, when compared to the coral reefs. The results found in this study could reflect a normal characteristic of the molluscan community distribution in sandstone reefs, with low coral cover, or could indicate a degradation state of this habitat if it is compared to coral reefs, once that the significantly high coverage of fleshy alga has been recognized as a negative indicator of reef ecosystems health.

  6. Spatial distribution of epibenthic molluscs on a sandstone reef in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A S; Mendes, L F; Leite, T S

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the distribution and abundance of epibenthic molluscs and their feeding habits associated to substrate features (coverage and rugosity) in a sandstone reef system in the Northeast of Brazil. Rugosity, low coral cover and high coverage of zoanthids and fleshy alga were the variables that influenced a low richness and high abundance of a few molluscan species in the reef habitat. The most abundant species were generalist carnivores, probably associated to a lesser offer and variability of resources in this type of reef system, when compared to the coral reefs. The results found in this study could reflect a normal characteristic of the molluscan community distribution in sandstone reefs, with low coral cover, or could indicate a degradation state of this habitat if it is compared to coral reefs, once that the significantly high coverage of fleshy alga has been recognized as a negative indicator of reef ecosystems health.

  7. Assessing the presence of marine toxins in bivalve molluscs from southwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew D; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Rowland-Pilgrim, Stephanie; Turner, Lucy M; Rai, Ashwin; Venugopal, Moleyur N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2017-12-15

    The south west coast of India has been showing a steady increase in shellfish cultivation both for local consumption and fishery export, over recent years. Perna viridis and Crassostrea madrasensis are two species of bivalve molluscs which grow in some selected regions of southern Karnataka, close to the city of Mangalore. In the early 1980s, shellfish consumers in the region were affected by intoxication from Paralytic Shellfish Poison present in local bivalves (clams and oysters) resulting in hospitalisation of many, including one fatality. Since then, there have been no further reports of serious shellfish intoxication and there is little awareness of the risks from natural toxins and no routine monitoring programme in place to protect shellfish consumers. This study presents the findings from the first ever systematic assessment of the presence of marine toxins in mussels and oysters grown in four different shellfish harvesting areas in the region. Shellfish were collected and subjected to analysis for ASP, PSP and lipophilic toxins, as well as a suite of non-EU regulated toxins such as tetrodotoxin and selected cyclic imines. Results revealed the presence of low levels of PSP toxins in oysters throughout the study period. Overall, total toxicities reached a maximum of 10% of the EU regulatory limit of 800 μg STX eq/kg. Toxin profiles were similar to those reported from the 1980 outbreak. No evidence was found for significant levels of ASP and lipophilic toxins, although some cyclic imines were detected, including gymnodimine. The results indicated that the risk to shellfish consumers during this specific study period would have been low. However, with historical evidence for extremely high levels of PSP toxins in molluscs, there is a strong need for routine surveillance of shellfish production areas for marine toxins, in order to mitigate against human health impacts resulting from unexpected harmful algal blooms, with potentially devastating socio

  8. Menadione Sodium Bisulphite (MSB) enhances the resistance response of tomato, leading to repel mollusc pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Perdomo, Estefanía; Jiménez-Arias, David; Aller, Ángel; Borges, Andrés A

    2016-05-01

    Snails and slugs are terrestrial gastropods representing an important biotic stress that adversely affects crop yields. These pests are typically controlled with molluscicides, which produce pollution and toxicity and further induce the evolution of resistance mechanisms, making pest management even more challenging. In our work, we have assessed the efficacy of two different plant defence activators, menadione sodium bisulphite (MSB) and 1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-thiocarboxylic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), as inducers of resistance mechanisms of the model plant for defence, Solanum lycopersicum, against the generalist mollusc Theba grasseti (Helicidae). The study was designed to test the feeding behaviour and choice of snails, and also to analyse the expression profile of different genes specifically involved in defence against herbivores and wounds. Our data suggest that, through the downregulation of the terpene volatile genes and the production of proteinase inhibitors, treated MSB plants may be less apparent to herbivores that use herbivore-induced plant volatiles for host location. By contrast, BTH was not effective in the treatment of the pest, probably owing to an antagonistic effect derived from the induction of both salicylic-acid-dependent and jasmonic-acid-dependent pathways. This information is crucial to determine the genetic basis of the choice of terrestrial gastropod herbivores in tomato, providing valuable insight into how the plant defence activators could control herbivore pests in plants. Our work not only reports for the first time the interaction between tomato and a mollusc pest but also presents the action of two plant defence inductors that seems to produce opposed responses by inducing resistance mechanisms through different defence pathways. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Butyltin compounds in sediment and molluscs from the shipping strait between Denmark and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, Jakob; Jacobsen, Jens A.; Pedersen, Britta; Granmo, Aake

    2003-01-01

    The deposit feeding bivalve Nuculana pernula is a suitable for monitoring bioavailability of TBT in sediment along a major shipping route. - The distribution of tributyltin (TBT) contamination in the subtidal zone of the waters between Denmark and Sweden was investigated in relation to major international shipping lanes. Sediment and different benthic molluscs were sampled in transects along and perpendicularly to the shipping lanes in the Sound (Oresund) and the Kattegat/Skagerrak region. The samples were analysed for TBT and its degradation products, dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT), using GC-PFPD. In sediments, the TBT concentration ranged from -1 dry weight (dw) with a strong correlation between the TBT concentration and the organic fraction in sediment (r 2 =0.90) in the samples collected in the Sound, where the highest concentrations were found. This relationship was not observed in the samples from the Kattegat because the TBT concentration in most sediment samples was below the limit of detection. In the molluscs, TBT and its degradation products were detected in all samples from the entire area with concentrations ranging from 8.1 ng g -1 dw in Buccinum undatum to 1316 ng g -1 dw in Nuculana pernula. The deposit-feeding bivalve N. pernula was found to have a particularly high accumulation potential for TBT. In addition, a strong correlation between TBT concentrations in sediment and N. pernula was found. Therefore this species seems to be an ideal organism for monitoring sediment contamination. The TBT concentration in N. pernula was found to decrease gradually along the shipping lanes from the Sound, through the Kattegat and into the Skagerrak

  10. Traditional utilization and biochemical composition of six mollusc shells in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademolu Kehinde O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The shells of molluscs protect them from physical damage, predators and dehydration. We studied various local uses of shells and their biochemical properties in Abeokuta, Nigeria. A standard structured questionnaire about use was applied to 100 snail and herb sellers and shells from 120 adult individuals of Archachatina marginata, Achatina achatina, Achatina fulica, Littorina littorea, Meretrix lusoria and Merceneria mercenaria were evaluated for their mineral components (Ca2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Na+, Zn+, P+, K+ and proximate composition (crude protein, ash, fibre, crude fat and carbohydrate using standard methods. Properties against fungi and bacteria isolates were also tested. These shells are used for bleaching, brushing, abrasion and others. The weight of the shells varied from 0.5g (L. littorea to 25.00g (A. marginata and thickness from 0.46mm in M .lusoria to 5.35mm in M. mercenaria. We found no inhibitory effect against fungi and bacterial isolates. The molluscs are high in carbohydrates (83.54-92.76g/100g and low in protein (0.16-0.38g/100g. The fat content ranged between 0.42g/100g and 0.82g/100g, and ash between 2.14g/100g and 9.45g/100g. Ca2+ was the most abundant (10.25-96.35mg/g while K+ was the least abundant (0.3-0.7mg/g (p<0.05. Active ingredients of these shells can be used in the feed and construction industries.

  11. Histopathologic and biochemical responses in Arctic marine bivalve molluscs exposed to experimentally spilled oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, J.M.; Hillman, R.E.; Carr, R.S.; Buhl, R.L.; Lahey, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Following two experimental spills of chemically dispersed and undispersed crude oil in shallow bays on the northwest coast of Baffin Island bivalve molluscs accumulated significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons in bay receiving dispersed oil and in those receiving crude oil alone. Specimens of Mya truncata and Macoma calcarea for histopathologic examination were collected immediately before, immediately after and one year after the experimental oil spills. Immediately after there was increased gill and digestive tract necrosis in Mya from the chemically dispersed oil. After one year a few clams had granulocytomas throughout the tissues. Three clams receiving oil alone collected one year after the spill had invasive neoplasias. There were few lesions in Macoma immediatelly after or one year after the spill; animals had a high incidence of vacuolization of the digestive tubule epithelium. The incidence of parasitism and hemocytic infiltration also was higher in Maccoma. Clams Mya truncata were collected for biochemical analysis before, after and two weeks after the simulated oil spills. Concentations in the clam tissues of glucose, glycogen, trehalose, total lipid, and free amino acids were measured; free amino acids in adductor muscles were the most useful indices of pollutant stress. The results of the biochemical analyses indicate that Mya were not severely stressed by either dispersed oil or oil alone. After two weeks, clams from the dispersed oil bays were nearly normal, while those from the bay receiving oil alone appeared stressed. These results seem to corroborate results that the acute effects of dispersed oil are greater than those of undispersed oil, but effects of undispersed oil on infaunal molluscs develop more slowly and persist longer than those from dispersed oil. 43 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Mollusc diversity associated with the non-indigenous macroalga Asparagopsis armata Harvey, 1855 along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubal, Marcos; Costa-Garcia, Ricardo; Besteiro, Celia; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Veiga, Puri

    2018-05-01

    The aims of this study were to explore mollusc assemblages associated with the non-indigenous macroalga Asparagopsis armata, to compare them with those on other macroalgae at the study region and to explore potential differences on mollusc assemblages between two regions in the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, where A. armata is present. To achieve this, at each region, four intertidal shores were sampled. Twenty-nine mollusc species were reported and thus, A. armata harboured similar or higher diversity than other annual macroalgae in this area. When compared with perennial macroalgae, results depend on the species and studied area. Moreover, significant differences in structure of mollusc assemblages between the two studied regions were found. However, these were due to differences in the relative abundance of species rather than the presence of exclusive species at each region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of torrefaction and low-temperature carbonization on the properties of biomass wastes from Arundo donax L. and Phoenix canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ricardo; Gonçalves, Margarida; Nobre, Catarina; Mendes, Benilde

    2017-01-01

    The impact of torrefaction and low-temperature carbonization on the properties of biomass wastes from Arundo donax L. and Phoenix canariensis was studied. Thermal treatments were performed at temperatures from 200°C to 350°C during 15 to 90min and temperature was the parameter that more influenced mass and energy yields as well as biochar composition. Torrefaction reduced moisture, volatile matter, O/C and H/C ratios of the biomass, while increasing heating value, ash content and fixed carbon. For torrefaction at 250°C or higher temperatures grindability of the biochars was significantly improved. The low volatile matter contents and high ash contents of these biochars restricts their use as solid fuels but they can be valorized otherwise. Raw biomasses and the biochars torrefied at 200°C could remove methylene blue from an aqueous solution, in fast adsorption test with a contact time of only 3s, with efficiencies higher than 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals: compost and Trichoderma effects on giant reed (Arundo donax L. uptake and soil N-cycle microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Fiorentino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available as to the real effectiveness of the phytoextraction remediation technique, since laboratory experiments are still the most common way in which this is measured. Given this, an experiment on a cadmium-polluted soil was carried out in open field conditions in Southern Italy with the aim of assessing the growth and the phytoextraction potential of giant reed (Arundo donax L. Compost fertilisation and Trichoderma harzianum A6 inoculations were used to verify the possibility of increasing the metal uptake of the crop. Biomass yield of giant reed in the first growth season (average 12.8 Mg ha–1 was not affected by the Cd concentration in the soil and this increased significantly with compost fertilisation (13.8 Mg ha–1. Both compost fertilisation and T. harzianum inoculation increased cadmium uptake and translocation in leaves. Nitrifying bacteria was shown to be a useful tool to biomonitor soil quality. These results proved the suitability of the giant reed for assisted-phytoremedation with the use of compost fertilisation and T. harzianum.

  15. Marine radiocarbon reservoir age variation in Donax obesulus shells from northern Peru: late Holocene evidence for extended El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etayo-Cadavid, Miguel F.; Andrus, C. Fred T.; Jones, Kevin B.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Uceda-Castillo, Sandiago; Quilter, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    For at least 6 m.y., El Niño events have posed the greatest environmental risk on the Peruvian coast. A better understanding of El Niño is essential for predicting future risk and growth in this tropical desert. To achieve this we analyzed archaeological and modern pre-bomb shells from the surf clam Donax for the radiocarbon reservoir effect (ΔR) to characterize late Holocene coastal upwelling conditions in northern Peru (8°14′S). Mean ΔR values from these shells suggest that modern upwelling conditions in this region were likely established between A.D. 539 and A.D. 1578. Our radiocarbon data suggest that upwelling conditions ca. A.D. 539 were less intense than those in modern times. The observed coastal water enrichment in 14C may be consequence of frequent strong El Niño events or extended El Niño–like conditions. These ΔR-inferred marine conditions are in agreement with proposed extended El Niño activity in proxy and archaeological records of ca. A.D. 475–530. Extended El Niño conditions have been linked to political destabilization, societal transformation, and collapse of the Moche civilization in northern Peru. A return to such conditions would have significant impacts on the dense population of this region today and in the near future.

  16. Shaping mechanisms of metal specificity in a family of metazoan metallothioneins: evolutionary differentiation of mollusc metallothioneins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrian Sílvia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of metal binding specificity in metalloproteins such as metallothioneins (MTs can be crucial for their functional accuracy. Unlike most other animal species, pulmonate molluscs possess homometallic MT isoforms loaded with Cu+ or Cd2+. They have, so far, been obtained as native metal-MT complexes from snail tissues, where they are involved in the metabolism of the metal ion species bound to the respective isoform. However, it has not as yet been discerned if their specific metal occupation is the result of a rigid control of metal availability, or isoform expression programming in the hosting tissues or of structural differences of the respective peptides determining the coordinative options for the different metal ions. In this study, the Roman snail (Helix pomatia Cu-loaded and Cd-loaded isoforms (HpCuMT and HpCdMT were used as model molecules in order to elucidate the biochemical and evolutionary mechanisms permitting pulmonate MTs to achieve specificity for their cognate metal ion. Results HpCuMT and HpCdMT were recombinantly synthesized in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+ or Cu2+ and corresponding metal complexes analysed by electrospray mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD and ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Both MT isoforms were only able to form unique, homometallic and stable complexes (Cd6-HpCdMT and Cu12-HpCuMT with their cognate metal ions. Yeast complementation assays demonstrated that the two isoforms assumed metal-specific functions, in agreement with their binding preferences, in heterologous eukaryotic environments. In the snail organism, the functional metal specificity of HpCdMT and HpCuMT was contributed by metal-specific transcription programming and cell-specific expression. Sequence elucidation and phylogenetic analysis of MT isoforms from a number of snail species revealed that they possess an unspecific and two metal-specific MT isoforms, whose metal specificity was

  17. Oxygen isotopes of marine mollusc shells record Eocene elevation change in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Damien; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Emmanuel, Laurent

    2012-09-01

    Constraining paleoaltimetry of collisional orogens is critical to understand the dynamics of topographic evolution and climate/tectonics retroactions. Here, we use oxygen stable-isotope record on oyster shells, preserved in marine foreland deposits, to examine the past elevation of the Pyrenees during the Eocene. Our approach is based on the comparison with the Paris basin, an intracratonic basin not influenced by orogenic growth. The finding of a shift of 1.5‰ between 49 and 41 Ma, indicating more negative δ18Oc in the south Pyrenean foreland, is interpreted to reflect the inflow of river water sourced from higher elevation in the Pyrenees. To test this and provide paleoelevation estimate, we adopt a morphologic-hydrological model accounting for the hypsometry of drainage basin. Our best fitting model shows that the Pyrenees rose up to 2000 m. This indicates that the Pyrenees reached high elevation in the Eocene, thus providing new critical constraints on their long-term orogenic development. δ18O of marine mollusc shells are proved potentially attractive for paleoelevation studies, especially for mountain belts where elevated continental surfaces have not been preserved.

  18. Metals in molluscs and algae: a north-south Tyrrhenian Sea baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2010-09-15

    We develop a 800 km long relative baseline of metal pollution for the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the north of Naples to south of Sicily (Italy), based on spatio-temporal (1997-2004) concentrations of trace metals in marine organisms and on the bioaccumulative properties of those organisms. The study concerns sites in the gulf of Gaeta-Formia, near Naples, and three islands north, west, and south of Sicily: Ustica, Favignana and Linosa. The five metals are: cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc; the species include: Monodonta turbinata (n=161), Patella caerulea (n=244) and the algae Padina pavonica (n=84). We use Johnson's (1949) [15] probabilistic method to determine the type of distribution that accounts for our data. It is a system of frequency curves that represents the transformation of the standard normal curves. We find an N-S pollution gradient in molluscs considered: the lowest metal pollution occurs around the Sicilian islands. Our method can accurately characterize marine pollution by contributing to: policy-making, coastal resources management, the assessments of environmental damages from marine accidents and other events. The method here presented is a useful tool for pollution comparisons purposes among ecosystems (i.e., risk monitoring) and it is an ideal starting point for its application on a global scale. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Metals in molluscs and algae: A north-south Tyrrhenian Sea baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2010-01-01

    We develop a 800 km long relative baseline of metal pollution for the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the north of Naples to south of Sicily (Italy), based on spatio-temporal (1997-2004) concentrations of trace metals in marine organisms and on the bioaccumulative properties of those organisms. The study concerns sites in the gulf of Gaeta-Formia, near Naples, and three islands north, west, and south of Sicily: Ustica, Favignana and Linosa. The five metals are: cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc; the species include: Monodonta turbinata (n = 161), Patella caerulea (n = 244) and the algae Padina pavonica (n = 84). We use Johnson's (1949) probabilistic method to determine the type of distribution that accounts for our data. It is a system of frequency curves that represents the transformation of the standard normal curves. We find an N-S pollution gradient in molluscs considered: the lowest metal pollution occurs around the Sicilian islands. Our method can accurately characterize marine pollution by contributing to: policy-making, coastal resources management, the assessments of environmental damages from marine accidents and other events. The method here presented is a useful tool for pollution comparisons purposes among ecosystems (i.e., risk monitoring) and it is an ideal starting point for its application on a global scale.

  20. Models for positional signalling, the threefold subdivision of segments and the pigmentation pattern of molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, H

    1984-11-01

    Models of biological pattern formation are discussed. The regulatory features expected from the models are compared to those observed experimentally. It will be shown that: (i) Stable gradients appropriate to supply positional information can be produced by local autocatalysis and long-range inhibition. (ii) Spatially ordered sequences of differentiated cell states can emerge if these cell states mutually activate each other on long range but exclude each other locally. Segmentation results from the repetition of three such cell states, S, A and P (and not of only two, as is usually assumed). With a repetition of three states, each segment has a defined polarity. The confrontation of P cells and S cells lead to the formation of a segment border (...P/SAP/SAP/S...) while the A-P confrontation is a prerequisite for appendage formation. Mutations of Drosophila affecting larval segmentation are discussed in terms of this model. (iii) The two models for the generation of sequences of structures in space (positional information including interpretation versus mutual activation) lead to different predictions with respect to intercalary regeneration. This allows a distinction between the two models on the basis of experiments. (iv) The pigmentation patterns of certain molluscs emerge from a coupled oscillation of cells (that is, a lateral inhibition in time, instead of space). The oblique lines result from a chain of triggering events.

  1. Testing cosmic dose rate models for ESR: Dating corals and molluscs on San Salvador, Bahamas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deely, A.E.; Blackwell, B.A.B.; Mylroie, J.E.; Carew, J.L.; Blickstein, J.I.B.; Skinner, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Sealevel curves are best developed on tectonically stable coastlines, like San Salvador, where eolianites preserve transgressive and regressive phases associated with Quaternary high seastands, while reef facies mark the highstands. At 11 locations around San Salvador, terrestrial molluscs (Cerion) from the eolianites, lagoonal bivalves (Codakia), and corals from the highstand deposits were dated by ESR. Volumetrically averaged sedimentary dose rates were calculated from sedimentary geochemistry and time-averaged cosmic dose rates from each sample's current and past geologic contexts. Rice Bay Formation corals dated at 3.9 ± 0.3 to 7.1 ± 0.4 ka (OIS 1). Minimum ages for the Cockburn Town Member's regressive phase ranged from 49 ± 6 to 75 ± 8 ka, correlating with OIS 3-4. Codakia dates showed that an OIS 5a sealevel approached modern levels at 91-78 ka. In situ corals from the Cockburn Town Reef averaged from 127 ± 6 to 138 ± 10 ka, correlating well with OIS 5e. Ages from the Reef's rubble zones hint that some coral reefs grew as early as OIS 7, but were likely reworked during OIS 5. San Salvador preserves deposits from three mid to late Quaternary highstands above, and as many as three that closely approach, modern sealevel.

  2. The importance of terrestrial carbon in supporting molluscs in the wetlands of Poyang Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Yu, Xiubo; Wang, Yuyu; Xu, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Allochthonous organic matter plays an important role in nutrient cycling and energy mobilization in freshwater ecosystems. However, the subsidies of this carbon source in floodplain ecosystems have not yet well understood. We used a Bayesian mixing model and stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) of primary food resources and dominant molluscs species, to estimate the relative importance of allochthonous carbon sources for consumers in a representative sub-lake of Poyang Lake during a prolonged dry season. Our study inferred that terrestrial-derived carbon from Carex spp. could be the primary contributor to snails and mussels in Dahuchi Lake. The mean percentage of allochthonous food resources accounted for 35%-50% of the C incorporated by these consumers. Seston was another important energy sources for benthic consumers. However, during the winter and low water-level period, benthic algae and submerged vegetation contributed less carbon to benthic consumers. Our data highlighted the importance of terrestrial organic carbon to benthic consumers in the wetlands of Poyang Lake during the prolonged dry period. Further, our results provided a perspective that linkages between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems might be facilitated by wintering geese via their droppings.

  3. Testing cosmic dose rate models for ESR: Dating corals and molluscs on San Salvador, Bahamas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deely, A.E. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Blackwell, B.A.B., E-mail: bonnie.a.b.blackwell@williams.edu [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States); Mylroie, J.E. [Dept. of Geosciences, Mississippi State University, MS, 39762-5448 (United States); Carew, J.L. [Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Skinner, A.R. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Sealevel curves are best developed on tectonically stable coastlines, like San Salvador, where eolianites preserve transgressive and regressive phases associated with Quaternary high seastands, while reef facies mark the highstands. At 11 locations around San Salvador, terrestrial molluscs (Cerion) from the eolianites, lagoonal bivalves (Codakia), and corals from the highstand deposits were dated by ESR. Volumetrically averaged sedimentary dose rates were calculated from sedimentary geochemistry and time-averaged cosmic dose rates from each sample's current and past geologic contexts. Rice Bay Formation corals dated at 3.9 {+-} 0.3 to 7.1 {+-} 0.4 ka (OIS 1). Minimum ages for the Cockburn Town Member's regressive phase ranged from 49 {+-} 6 to 75 {+-} 8 ka, correlating with OIS 3-4. Codakia dates showed that an OIS 5a sealevel approached modern levels at 91-78 ka. In situ corals from the Cockburn Town Reef averaged from 127 {+-} 6 to 138 {+-} 10 ka, correlating well with OIS 5e. Ages from the Reef's rubble zones hint that some coral reefs grew as early as OIS 7, but were likely reworked during OIS 5. San Salvador preserves deposits from three mid to late Quaternary highstands above, and as many as three that closely approach, modern sealevel.

  4. Major and c-series gangliosides in lenticular tissues: mammals to molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M; Sugiyama, K

    2001-10-01

    Gangliosides of eye lenses were examined in mammals (rat, rabbits, pig, cow), bird (chicken), reptile (terrapin), amphibian (bullfrog), bony fish (red sea bream, bluefin tuna, bonito, Pacific mackerel) and molluscs (common squid, Pacific octopus). Besides the fact that GM3 was the common ganglioside species, the composition of major gangliosides in mammalian eye lenses significantly differed from each other. While gangliotetraose gangliosides were abundant in rat eye lens, they did not constitute major components in porcine and bovine tissues. The c-series ganglioside GT3 was expressed in rat eye lenses but were practically absent in other mammalian tissues. The composition of major gangliosides in eye lenses of lower animals varied from species to species, whereas c-series gangliosides were consistently expressed, showing similar compositional profiles. Our results demonstrate the species-specific compositions of lenticular gangliosides. Evidence was also provided suggesting that eye lenses of common squid (Todarodes pacificus) and Pacific octopus (Octopus vulgaris) express gangliosides including gangliotetraose species and c-series gangliosides.

  5. Cryptomphalus aspersa Mollusc Egg Extract Promotes Regenerative Effects in Human Dermal Papilla Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Alameda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test, by an in vitro approach, whether a natural extract derived from eggs of the mollusc Cryptomphalus aspersa (e-CAF that seems to present regenerative properties, can enhance the mobilization of human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs and play a role on tissue repair and regeneration. We have tested HHDPCs proliferation by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT assay; cell migration by using a wound healing assay, as well as the modulation of the expression of cytoskeletal (F-actin and vimentin and cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM (vinculin and P-FAK proteins. We also explored whether e-CAF could lead HHDPCs to keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts by evaluating the expression of specific markers. We have compared these e-CAF effects with those induced by TGFβ1, implicated in regulation of cell proliferation and migration. e-CAF promotes proliferation and migration of HDDPCs cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner; it also increases the migratory behavior and the expression of adhesion molecules. These results support the fact that e-CAF could play a role on skin regeneration and be used for the prevention or repair of damaged tissue, either due to external causes or as a result of cutaneous aging.

  6. Growth-suppressing and algicidal properties of an extract from Arundo donax, an invasive riparian plant, against Prymnesium parvum, an invasive harmful alga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; Rashel, Rakib H.; Rubio, Amede; Longing, Scott

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the ability of acidic and neutral/alkaline fractions of a methanolic extract from giant reed (Arundo donax) and of two of its constituents, gramine and skatole, to inhibit growth of the ichthyotoxic golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) in batch culture. For this study, growth suppression was defined as inhibition of maximum cell density, algicidal activity as early occurrence of negative growth, and algistatic activity as lack of net growth. The acidic fraction did not affect algal growth. The neutral/alkaline fraction showed growth-suppressing and algicidal activities but no signs of algistatic activity – namely, cells in cultures surviving a partial-algicidal exposure concentration (causing transient negative growth) were later able to initiate positive growth but at higher concentrations, algicidal activity was full and irreversible. Gramine suppressed growth more effectively than skatole and at the highest concentration tested, gramine also showed partial-algicidal and algistatic activity. While the partial-algicidal activities of the neutral/alkaline fraction and of gramine were short-lived (≤6 days) and thus may share similar mechanisms, algistatic activity was unique to gramine and persisted for >3 weeks. Given gramine’s reported concentration in the neutral/alkaline fraction, its corresponding level of algicidal activity is much lower than the fraction’s suggesting the latter contains additional potent algicides. Inhibition of maximum cell density by all test compounds was associated with reductions in exponential growth rate, and in the case of the neutral/alkaline fraction and gramine also reductions in early (pre-exponential) growth. These results indicate that giant reed is a potential source of natural products to control golden alga blooms. Giant reed is an invasive species in North America, thus also providing incentive for research into strategies to couple management efforts for both species.

  7. Seasonal nutrient dynamics and biomass quality of giant reed (Arundo donax L. and miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus Greef et Deuter as energy crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Nassi o Di Nasso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of energy crops in displacing fossil fuels within the energy sector in Europe is growing. Among energy crops, the use of perennial rhizomatous grasses (PRGs seems promising owing to their high productivity and their nutrient recycling that occurs during senescence. In particular, nutrient requirements and biomass quality have a fundamental relevance to biomass systems efficiency. The objective of our study was to compare giant reed (Arundo donax L. and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter in terms of nutrient requirements and cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin content. This aim was to identify, in the Mediterranean environment, the optimal harvest time that may combine, beside a high biomass yield, high nutrient use efficiency and a good biomass quality for second generation biofuel production. The research was carried out in 2009, in San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Central Italy; latitude 43°41’ N, longitude 10°21’ E, on seven-year-old crops in a loam soil characterised by good water availability. Maximum above-ground nutrient contents were generally found in summer. Subsequently, a decrease was recorded; this suggested a nutrient remobilisation from above-ground biomass to rhizomes. In addition, miscanthus showed the highest N, P, and K use efficiency, probably related to its higher yield and its C4 pathway. Regarding biomass quality, stable values of cellulose (38%, hemicelluloses (25% and lignin (8% were reported from July onwards in both crops. Hence, these components appear not to be discriminative parameters in the choice of the harvest time in the Mediterranean environment. In conclusion, our results highlighted that, in our environment, a broad harvest period (from late autumn to winter seems suitable for these PRGs. However, further research is required to evaluate the role of rhizomes in nutrient storage and supply during the growing season, as well as ecological and productive performances in marginal

  8. Comparison of Arundo donax L. and Miscanthus x giganteus in a long-term field experiment in Central Italy: Analysis of productive characteristics and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, Luciana G.; Ceccarini, Lucia; Nassi o Di Nasso, Nicoletta; Bonari, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus) and Arundo donax L. (giant reed) are two perennial crops which have been received particular attention during the last decade as bioenergy crops. The main aim of the present study was to compare the above-ground biomass production and the energy balance of these perennial rhizomatous grasses in a long-term field experiment. The crops were cultivated from 1992 to 2003 in the temperate climate of Central Italy with 20,000 plants ha -1 , 100-100-100 kg N, P 2 O 5 , K 2 O per hectare, and without irrigation supply. For each year of trial, biomass was harvested in autumn to estimate biometric characteristics and productive parameters. Besides, energy analysis of biomass production was carried out determining energy output, energy input, energy efficiency (output/input) and net energy yield (output-input). Results showed high above-ground biomass yields over a period of 10 years for both species, with better productive performances in giant reed than in miscanthus (37.7 t DM ha -1 year -1 vs 28.7 t DM ha -1 year -1 averaged from 2 to 12 years of growth). Such high yields resulted positively correlated to number of stalks (miscanthus), plant height and stalk diameter (giant reed). Moreover, these perennial species are characterised by a favourable energy balance with a net energy yield of 467 and 637 GJ ha -1 (1-12 year mean) for miscanthus and giant reed respectively. With such characteristics, both grasses could be proposed as biomass energy crops in Southern Europe with a significant and environmentally compatible contribution to energy needs

  9. Comparison of Arundo donax L. and Miscanthus x giganteus in a long-term field experiment in Central Italy: Analysis of productive characteristics and energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, Luciana G.; Ceccarini, Lucia; Nassi o Di Nasso, Nicoletta [University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Agronomia e Gestione dell' Agroecosistema, Via S. Michele degli Scalzi 2, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Bonari, Enrico [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Piazza Martiri della Liberta, 33, 56100 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-04-15

    Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus) and Arundo donax L. (giant reed) are two perennial crops which have been received particular attention during the last decade as bioenergy crops. The main aim of the present study was to compare the above-ground biomass production and the energy balance of these perennial rhizomatous grasses in a long-term field experiment. The crops were cultivated from 1992 to 2003 in the temperate climate of Central Italy with 20,000 plants ha{sup -1}, 100-100-100 kg N, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, K{sub 2}O per hectare, and without irrigation supply. For each year of trial, biomass was harvested in autumn to estimate biometric characteristics and productive parameters. Besides, energy analysis of biomass production was carried out determining energy output, energy input, energy efficiency (output/input) and net energy yield (output-input). Results showed high above-ground biomass yields over a period of 10 years for both species, with better productive performances in giant reed than in miscanthus (37.7 t DM ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}vs 28.7 t DM ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} averaged from 2 to 12 years of growth). Such high yields resulted positively correlated to number of stalks (miscanthus), plant height and stalk diameter (giant reed). Moreover, these perennial species are characterised by a favourable energy balance with a net energy yield of 467 and 637 GJ ha{sup -1} (1-12 year mean) for miscanthus and giant reed respectively. With such characteristics, both grasses could be proposed as biomass energy crops in Southern Europe with a significant and environmentally compatible contribution to energy needs. (author)

  10. Supporting local farming communities and crop production resilience to climate change through giant reed (Arundo donax L.) cultivation: An Italian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, A; Impagliazzo, A; Fiorentino, N; Langella, G; Mori, M; Fagnano, M

    2017-12-01

    Bioenergy crops are well known for their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase the soil carbon stock. Although such crops are often held to be in competition with food crops and thus raise the question of current and future food security, at the same time mitigation measures are required to tackle climate change and sustain local farming communities and crop production. However, in some cases the actions envisaged for specific pedo-climatic conditions are not always economically sustainable by farmers. In this frame, energy crops with high environmental adaptability and yields, such as giant reed (Arundo donax L.), may represent an opportunity to improve farm incomes, making marginal areas not suitable for food production once again productive. In so doing, three of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations would be met, namely SDG 2 on food security and sustainable agriculture, SDG 7 on reliable, sustainable and modern energy, and SDG 13 on action to combat climate change and its impacts. In this work, the response of giant reed in the marginal areas of an agricultural district of southern Italy (Destra Sele) and expected farm incomes under climate change (2021-2050) are evaluated. The normalized water productivity index of giant reed was determined (WP; 30.1gm -2 ) by means of a SWAP agro-hydrological model, calibrated and validated on two years of a long-term field experiment. The model was used to estimate giant reed response (biomass yield) in marginal areas under climate change, and economic evaluation was performed to determine expected farm incomes (woodchips and chopped forage). The results show that woodchip production represents the most profitable option for farmers, yielding a gross margin 50% lower than ordinary high-input maize cultivation across the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-N,N'-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)cyclobutane-1,3-diimine , a unique compound from Arundo donax, and its analogues to test their antifeedant activity against the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Takikawa, H; Mori, K

    2000-03-01

    2,2,4,4-Tetramethyl-N,N'-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl) cyclobutane-1,3-diimine (1), which was isolated from the Thai plant Arundo donax as an antifeedant against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), and its analogues (9-13) were synthesized and shown to possess no remarkable antifeedant activity of practical interest.

  12. Quaternary ostracodes and molluscs from the Rukwa Basin (Tanzania) and their evolutionary and paleobiogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Todd, Jonathan A.; McGlue, Michael; Michel, Ellinor; Nkotagu, Hudson H.; Grove, A.T.; Delvaux, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Much of the spectacular biodiversity of the African Great Lakes is endemic to single lake basins so that the margins of these basins or their lakes coincide with biogeographic boundaries. Longstanding debate surrounds the evolution of these endemic species, the stability of bioprovinces, and the exchange of faunas between them over geologic time as the rift developed. Because these debates are currently unsettled, we are uncertain of how much existing distribution patterns are determined by modern hydrological barriers versus reflecting past history. This study reports on late Quaternary fossils from the Rukwa Basin and integrates geological and paleoecological data to explore faunal exchange between freshwater bioprovinces, in particular with Lake Tanganyika. Lake Rukwa's water level showed large fluctuations over the last 25 ky, and for most of this period the lake contained large habitat diversity, with different species assemblages and taphonomic controls along its northern and southern shores. Comparison of fossil and modern invertebrate assemblages suggests faunal persistence through the Last Glacial Maximum, but with an extirpation event that occurred in the last 5 ky. Some of the molluscs and ostracodes studied here are closely related to taxa (or part of clades) that are currently endemic to Lake Tanganyika, but others testify to wider and perhaps older faunal exchanges between the Rukwa bioprovince and those of Lake Malawi and the Upper Congo (in particular Lake Mweru). The Rukwa Basin has a long history of rifting and lacustrine conditions and, at least temporarily, its ecosystems appear to have functioned as satellites to Lake Tanganyika in which intralacustrine speciation occurred. Paleontological studies of the Rukwa faunas are particularly relevant because of the basin's important role in the late Cenozoic biogeography of tropical Africa, and because many of the molecular traces potentially revealing this history would have been erased in the late

  13. Comparative mapping of GABA-immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous systems of nudibranch molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Sakurai, Akira; Katz, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    The relative simplicity of certain invertebrate nervous systems, such as those of gastropod molluscs, allows behaviors to be dissected at the level of small neural circuits composed of individually identifiable neurons. Elucidating the neurotransmitter phenotype of neurons in neural circuits is important for understanding how those neural circuits function. In this study, we examined the distribution of γ-aminobutyric-acid;-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in four species of sea slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia): Tritonia diomedea, Melibe leonina, Dendronotus iris, and Hermissenda crassicornis. We found consistent patterns of GABA immunoreactivity in the pedal and cerebral-pleural ganglia across species. In particular, there were bilateral clusters in the lateral and medial regions of the dorsal surface of the cerebral ganglia as well as a cluster on the ventral surface of the pedal ganglia. There were also individual GABA-ir neurons that were recognizable across species. The invariant presence of these individual neurons and clusters suggests that they are homologous, although there were interspecies differences in the numbers of neurons in the clusters. The GABAergic system was largely restricted to the central nervous system, with the majority of axons confined to ganglionic connectives and commissures, suggesting a central, integrative role for GABA. GABA was a candidate inhibitory neurotransmitter for neurons in central pattern generator (CPG) circuits underlying swimming behaviors in these species, however none of the known swim CPG neurons were GABA-ir. Although the functions of these GABA-ir neurons are not known, it is clear that their presence has been strongly conserved across nudibranchs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Microplastics contamination in molluscs from the northern part of the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Nuri, Marzieh; Vethaak, A Dick

    2018-04-01

    Microplastics (MPs) are well-known emerging contaminants in the marine environment. A key route by which MPs can directly affect marine life is through ingestion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of MPs in marine life and seafood for human consumption in the Persian Gulf. We conducted a whole body analysis of MP (between 10 and 5000 μm in diameter) abundance in five species of molluscs with different feeding strategies, including both gastropods and bivalves from the littoral zone of the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. The mean number of total encountered MPs in all species ranged from 0.2 to 21.0 particles per g of soft tissue (wet weight) and from 3.7 to 17.7 particles per individual. Overall, microfibres followed by fragments were the most common type of MP isolated in each species (respectively > 50% and ≈26%). Film (≈14%) and pellets (≈2%) were less commonly observed. The observed MPs were classified into three size groups (ca. 10-25 μm, 25-250 μm and 250-5000 μm), and 37-58% of MPs fell into the smallest size group. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis confirmed the presence of polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and nylon (PA). Our results indicated that molluscan shellfish from the Persian Gulf contain MPs, with higher concentrations in a predatory species, suggesting trophic transfer of MPs in the food web. The consumption of edible species may be a source of human microplastic intake. We compared our results with those previously reported for other regions of the world and identified the need for further studies in the Persian Gulf. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Voyaging around nacre with the X-ray shuttle: From bio-mineralisation to prosthetics via mollusc phylogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateigner, D.; Ouhenia, S.; Krauss, C.; Hedegaard, C.; Gil, O.; Morales, M.; Lutterotti, L.; Rousseau, M.; Lopez, E.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nacre could be a non ancestral form of calcium carbonate in molluscs. → Texture terms as useful links to ancestors in classification. → X-ray diffraction useful for biomineralisation, phylogeny, cladistic and implantology. → Farming conditions do not influence much shell growth. → Electrodeposition of aragonite as future technique for implant coating. - Abstract: Strong textures of mollusc shell layers are utilised to provide phylogenetic information. Aragonitic and calcitic layers are the targets here, inside which nacre layers, but not only, play a specific role. At the light of the texture patterns and a parcimonious approach, nacre appears not as an ancestral form of calcium carbonate in mollusc layers. Also, from texture terms we can propose some links to ancestral fossilised species. The aragonite unit-cell distortions due to macromolecule complex insertions in the microstructures are measured on raw specimens for several aragonite layers of gastropods and bivalves. The textural information is used to provide precise structural determination of the biogenic aragonite. Such information might provide useful lights on the biomineralisation processes in the future, in cladistic approaches. Farming conditions are shown not to influence much shell textures of Helix aspersa aspersa. Closely related species exhibit globally close textures, among which three are good candidates for bone neogeneration and which textures are identical. Electrodeposition of aragonite, with inclusion of molecular extract from shell species, results in nacre-like layers exhibiting structural distortions similar to known inductive layers. X-ray diffraction experiments are shown to provide invaluable insights in testing biomineralisation and phylogenetic hypotheses.

  16. Inter-species variations in metal concentration in the soft tissue of some molluscs from the coasts of Aden Governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A. A.; Baharoon, A. Ab.

    2002-01-01

    Nearly most of the molluscs are considered as good biomonitors for heavy metals pollution due to their mode of life, but there are differences in the bioavailability of heavy metals in their soft tissues. This research shows that Turbo coronatus and A canthopleura haddoni are the best to accumulate Cd, Pb, Co, Cr, As for Ni, P. perna and the latter two speciments show higher concentrations. Turbo coronatus and Ostrea cucullata are the best to accumulate Cu, and Zn. A canthopleura haddoni and Veneridae pitar sp. show higher availability of Fe, and Mn in their soft tissues. (author)

  17. Monitoring changes in the intracellular calcium concentration and synaptic efficacy in the mollusc Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwar, Bjoern Ch; Evans, Colin G; Cropper, Elizabeth C

    2012-07-15

    It has been suggested that changes in intracellular calcium mediate the induction of a number of important forms of synaptic plasticity (e.g., homosynaptic facilitation). These hypotheses can be tested by simultaneously monitoring changes in intracellular calcium and alterations in synaptic efficacy. We demonstrate how this can be accomplished by combining calcium imaging with intracellular recording techniques. Our experiments are conducted in a buccal ganglion of the mollusc Aplysia californica. This preparation has a number of experimentally advantageous features: Ganglia can be easily removed from Aplysia and experiments use adult neurons that make normal synaptic connections and have a normal ion channel distribution. Due to the low metabolic rate of the animal and the relatively low temperatures (14-16 °C) that are natural for Aplysia, preparations are stable for long periods of time. To detect changes in intracellular free calcium we will use the cell impermeant version of Calcium Orange which is easily 'loaded' into a neuron via iontophoresis. When this long wavelength fluorescent dye binds to calcium, fluorescence intensity increases. Calcium Orange has fast kinetic properties and, unlike ratiometric dyes (e.g., Fura 2), requires no filter wheel for imaging. It is fairly photo stable and less phototoxic than other dyes (e.g., fluo-3). Like all non-ratiometric dyes, Calcium Orange indicates relative changes in calcium concentration. But, because it is not possible to account for changes in dye concentration due to loading and diffusion, it can not be calibrated to provide absolute calcium concentrations. An upright, fixed stage, compound microscope was used to image neurons with a CCD camera capable of recording around 30 frames per second. In Aplysia this temporal resolution is more than adequate to detect even a single spike induced alteration in the intracellular calcium concentration. Sharp electrodes are simultaneously used to induce and record

  18. Tinjauan Keanekaragaman Moluska Air Tawar Di Beberapa Situ Di DAS Ciliwung - Cisadane [Study on the Freshwater Mollusc Diversity of the Small Lakes Along Ciliwung and Cisadane Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Marwoto, Ristiyanti M; Isnaningsih, Nur R

    2014-01-01

    The freshwater molluscs (snails and bivalves) can be found in many type of water course either flowing or stagnant water. Some of them have survived living in bad condition such as polluted water. There are 199 situ (small lakes) in Jabodetabek (Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi) have been reported but only 20 % were in good condition, even 12% have dissapeared that caused by silting up of the situ. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diversity of the molluscs as well as to know t...

  19. The lunar-tide cycle viewed by crustacean and mollusc gatherers in the State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil and their influence in collection attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Rômulo RN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional human communities have a wide knowledge of their environment. Collection of animals in estuarine and coastal areas are directly influenced by tidal cycles. The aim of this study is to evaluate the understanding of the tides associated with the lunar cycle held by people who gather crustaceans and molluscs in the State of Paraiba. The empirical knowledge of 20 crab gatherers and 30 mollusc gatherers was recorded through open interviews and structured questionnaires. The results showed that the gatherers have an accurate comprehension of tidal phenomenon based on their exploitation of natural resources, which perpetuates through generations.

  20. Měkkýši Národní přírodní rezervace Soos Molluscs (Mollusca of the Soos National Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Horáčková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Soos National Nature Reserve nearby Františkovy Lázně Town (Western Bohemia, Czech Republic is a spectacular peatbog site with the occurrence of fens on numerous mineral spring effluents, emanations of pure carbon dioxide in mofettes (i.e. false mud volcanoes, parts with saltwater wetlands, and diatomite mantel in its central part. These natural conditions affect general character of all habitats, vegetation and malacocoenoses in the reserve. Altogether, 31 mollusc species were found there, but only two of them are considered as near threatened (Pisidium obtusale and Vertigo substriata. The majority of recorded assemblage was composed of common and generalist mollusc species.

  1. Managing marine mollusc diseases in the context of regional and international commerce: policy issues and emerging concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Ryan B.; Arzul, Isabelle; Bushek, David

    2016-01-01

    Marine mollusc production contributes to food and economic security worldwide and provides valuable ecological services, yet diseases threaten these industries and wild populations. Although the infrastructure for mollusc aquaculture health management is well characterized, its foundations are not without flaws. Use of notifiable pathogen lists can leave blind spots with regard to detection of unlisted and emerging pathogens. Increased reliance on molecular tools has come without similar attention to diagnostic validation, raising questions about assay performance, and has been accompanied by a reduced emphasis on microscopic diagnostic expertise that could weaken pathogen detection capabilities. Persistent questions concerning pathogen biology and ecology promote regulatory paralysis that impedes trade and which could weaken biosecurity by driving commerce to surreptitious channels. Solutions that might be pursued to improve shellfish aquaculture health management include the establishment of more broad-based surveillance programmes, wider training and use of general methods like histopathology to ensure alertness to emerging diseases, an increased focus on assay assessment and validation as fundamental to assay development, investment in basic research, and application of risk analyses to improve regulation. A continual sharpening of diagnostic tools and approaches and deepening of scientific knowledge is necessary to manage diseases and promote sustainable molluscan shellfish industries. PMID:26880834

  2. Comparison of gastropod mollusc (Apogastropoda: Hydrobiidae habitats in two crater lakes in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K McCrary

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic gastropod mollusc, Pyrgophorus coronatus, may perform an important role in the transmission of an emergent ocular pathology among fishes in Lake Apoyo, Nicaragua. This disease emerged after an introduction of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and the subsequent loss of Chara sp. beds in the lake. We compared the mollusc population densities in three habitats (sandy/muddy substrates, rocks, and Chara vegetation at varying depths (1.5, 10, 20, and 30 m in two volcanic crater lakes in Nicaragua: Lake Apoyo and Lake Xiloa, where lower numbers of affected fishes were found and tilapia has not been introduced. Duplicate samples at 1.5 m depth were taken in each habitat monthly for a year, and triplicate samples for bathymetric analysis of snail populations were performed during August, 2005. Samples of fixed surface area were filtered in a 0.4 cm size screen and live snails were counted from each sample. The preferred snail habitat in both lakes, Chara beds, was vastly reduced in Lake Apoyo via consumption by introduced Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Structureless sandy substrates (mean ± standard error 3.1±1.3 ind/m² had lower population densities than other habitats in Lake Xiloá (rocks 590.9±185.3 ind/m²; vegetation 3 686.5±698.2 ind/m2; ANOVA I, pEl gasterópodo acuático, Pyrgophorus coronatus, podría jugar un papel importante en la transmisión de una patología ocular emergente entre los peces de la laguna de Apoyo, Nicaragua. Esta enfermedad surgió después de una introducción de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus y la subsecuente pérdida de lechos de Chara sp. en la laguna. Comparamos las densidades poblacionales del caracol en tres hábitats (substratos arenosos/lodosos, rocas y vegetación de Chara en dos lagunas cratéricas volcánicas en Nicaragua: La laguna de Apoyo y la laguna de Xiloá, donde no se encuentraron grandes cantidades de peces afectados y donde no se han introducido tilapias. Mensualmente, por un a

  3. Decadal climate variation recorded in modern global carbonate archives (brachiopods, molluscs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanin, Marco; Zaki, Amir H.; Davis, Alyssa; Shaver, Kristen; Wang, Lisha; Aleksandra Bitner, Maria; Capraro, Luca; Preto, Nereo; Brand, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The progress of the Earth's warming trend has rapidly accelerated in the last few decades due to the increase in emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The exchange of heat between the atmosphere and seawater has consequently elevated the rate of temperature buildup in the low and high latitude ocean. Records of the variation in seawater temperature in response to local and global changes in climate are preserved within the carbonate structures of marine biogenic archives. Investigating the isotopic composition of the archives' growth increments documents the magnitude of sea surface temperature (SST) change. A long-term (1956-2012) record of temperature change in sub-tropical seawater was acquired from the giant clam Tridacna maxima collected from the Red Sea in conjunction with published results of the oyster Hyotissa hyotis (Titschack et al., 2010). Variation in polar-subpolar SST was obtained from the brachiopod Magellania venosa recovered from the coastal area of southern Chile, and from the proxy record of Hemithiris psittacea of Hudson Bay (Brand et al., 2014). The former reveals a long-term (1961-2012) time-series of Antarctic-induced oceanographic change in the southern hemisphere, while the latter represents a trend of Hudson Bay seawater SST in the northern hemisphere. Evaluation of the isotopic compositions confirms the equilibrium incorporation of oxygen isotopes with respect to ambient seawater in brachiopods and some bivalves. A general trend of decreasing δ18O values in the Red Sea molluscs is observed, indicating an increase in tropical seawater temperature of about 0.79°C since 1988. The δ18O values of the polar-subpolar brachiopods display similar depletion slopes but of larger magnitudes than that of the Red Sea archives. This signifies a rise in seawater temperature of about 1.47°C in Hudson Bay since 1991, and about 2.08°C in southern Chile since 1988. The 2013 IPCC report suggests an increase in SST of +0.094°C per decade (average

  4. Impoverishment of recent floodplain forest mollusc fauna in the lower Ohře River (Czech Republic) as a result of prehistoric human impact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juřičková, L.; Horáčková, J.; Ložek, Vojen; Horsák, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, 1 MAR (2013), s. 932-946 ISSN 0300-9483 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : floodplain * mollusc * Ohře River (Czech Republic) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.383, year: 2013

  5. Evaluation of the effect of temperature, pH, and bioproduction on Hg concentration in sediments, water, molluscs and algae of the delta of the Ebro river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, M; Domingo, J L; Llobet, J M; Corbella, J

    1993-01-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, and bioproduction on mercury levels in sediments, water, molluscs and algae from the delta of the Ebro river (NE Spain) were determined in this study. Mercury concentrations were measured in a cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The ranges of mercury concentrations were the following: sediments, 0.014-0.185 microgram g-1; water, 0.001-0.018 microgram g-1; molluscs, 0.118-0.861 microgram g-1; and algae 0.008-0.026 microgram g-1. Although not statistically significant, a decrease in the pH of the water corresponded with a diminution in the content of mercury in sediments and molluscs, while the mercury levels in water and algae were lower in the areas with high levels of bioproduction. The concentrations of mercury in water significantly decreased with temperature. However, the differences with temperature of the mercury concentrations in sediments did not reach the level of significance. Consequently, water would not be an adequate indicator to determine the levels of mercury contamination, although both sediments and molluscs can be used for this purpose.

  6. Mollusc succession of a prehistoric settlement area during the Holocene: A case study of the České středohoří Mountains (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juřičková, L.; Horáčková, J.; Jansová, A.; Ložek, Vojen

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2013), s. 1811-1823 ISSN 0959-6836 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : České středohoří Mountains * Holocene * mollusc succession * prehistoric settlement * radiocarbon AMS dating Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2013

  7. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta): importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R N M; Dias, T L P

    2014-08-01

    The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H'=1.25). Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa (C. B. Adams, 1845) was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  8. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta: importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RNM Queiroz

    Full Text Available The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H′=1.25. Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa(C. B. Adams, 1845 was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758 in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  9. Conservation thinning in secondary forest: negative but mild effect on land molluscs in closed-canopy mixed oak forest in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Rancka

    Full Text Available Secondary succession is changing the character of many temperate forests and often leads to closed-canopy stands. In such forests set aside for conservation, habitat management alternatives need to be tested experimentally, but this is rarely done. The Swedish Oak Project compares two often debated alternatives: minimal intervention and non-traditional active management (conservation thinning on plots of each type replicated at 25 sites. We study responses of several taxa, and here report results for land molluscs. They are considered to be sensitive to more open, drier forest and we predicted a negative effect of the thinning (26% reduction of the basal area; mean value for 25 experimental forests. We sampled molluscs in the litter in ten 20 x 25 cm subplots, and by standardised visual search, in each plot. In total, we recorded 53 species of snails and slugs (24 369 individuals and the mean species richness in plots was 17. Two seasons after thinning, mean (± SE species richness had decreased by 1.4 (± 0.9 species in thinning plots, but increased by 0.7 (± 1.0 species in minimal intervention plots, a significant but small change with considerable variation among sites. In matched comparisons with minimal intervention, thinning reduced the overall abundance of molluscs. Most species responded negatively to thinning - but only five of the 53 species were significantly affected, and reproduction seemed to be negatively affected in only one species. An ordination analysis did not reveal any particular change in the species community due to thinning. Thus, the negative effect of conservation thinning on land molluscs was apparently mild - one reason was that many trees, shrubs and other forest structures remained after the treatment. Conservation thinning may be recommended, since other taxa are favoured, but minimal intervention is also a useful form of management for molluscs and saproxylic taxa.

  10. Assessment of arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Al-Otaiby, Naif

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess arsenic on the Tarut coast, Saudi Arabian Gulf, 38 sediment samples, 26 seawater samples and 40 gastropod and bivalve specimens were collected for analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that coastal sediments of Tarut Island are severely enriched, strongly polluted and very highly contaminated with arsenic as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of As. The suggested natural sources of arsenic in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources include the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents. These anthropogenic sources are the dominant sources of As in the study area and mostly came from Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  11. Mollusc life and death assemblages on a tropical rocky shore as proxies for the taphonomic loss in a fossil counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Surlyk, Finn

    2013-01-01

    a lower taxonomic agreement to the death assemblage than found in previous published studies. Rocky shore life and death assemblages thus appear to show lower taxonomic agreement compared to muddy or sandy shelf assemblages due to the mix after death with the sandy beach assemblage. A hypothetical fossil......Comparison of a modern rocky shore mollusc life assemblage from Thailand with the associated death assemblage, and interpretation of the fossilization potential of the latter, are used to investigate the fidelity in reconstruction of ancient analogues. The fauna from the death assemblage represents...... species from the rocky shore and the associated sandy pocket beaches, and only a few exotic species from other, completely different habitats are present. The environmental fidelity between the life and death assemblage is thus high, with the majority of species from the death assemblage representing...

  12. [SPECTRAL AND ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF HEMOLYMPH PLASMA AND ITS FRACTIONS FROM GASTROPOD PULMONATE MOLLUSC ACHATINA FULICA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, T A; Lianguzov, A Yu; Malygina, N M

    2016-01-01

    The set of normal biochemical indicators of the hemolymph plasma of gastropod pulmonate mollusc Achatinafulica is described. Comparative analysis of the whole plasma and its subfractions enriched and depleted of oxygen-carrying protein hemocyanin was performed by spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry methods. Individual features of the absorption spectra were analyzed using fourth derivatives. The optimum method for estimating protein concentration was chosen. To characterize acid-base properties of plasma hemolymph and its sub-fractions we calculated buffer capacity, equivalence points and pK values of dominant buffer groups. It is shown that the major role in maintaining the buffer capacity of hemolymph belongs to the bicarbonate system. These results are compared with data for Helix pomatia available in literature. In the future the indicators studied in this work will be used to develop ecotoxicological criteria for the environmental assessment.

  13. Dentalium beads - shells of fosillised sea molluscs at the Vinča-Belo brdo site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During excavation of the Vinča-Belo Brdo site a significant number of decorated items made from clay, stone, bone, and seashells or snail shells have been collected over the years. Amongst the decorated objects which could be classified as jewellery the majority are bracelets, pendants, and beads made from Spondylus and Glycymeris shells, as well as beads made from Dentalium shells. The appearance of these beads and the question of their origin have not yet been specifically considered within studies of prehistoric cultures in the central Balkans. Furthermore, they have rarely been illustrated and mentioned in archaeological site inventories, which we presume has not been because of their poor representation, but rather because of their being unfamiliar. The aim of this work is therefore to: a systematize data about Dentalium beads from all phases of excavation of the Belo Brdo site in Vinča; b to show the importance of this kind of jewellery in the study of resources around the Vinča settlement; and c to indicate the wider chronological perspective and the significance of studying Dentalium beads within the prehistory of the central Balkans. Dentalium is a carnivorous Scaphopoda sea mollusc, uncommon and insufficiently studied. Representatives of this class of Scaphopoda have been found on Serbian territory in the Badenian sediments, deposited fifteen million years ago. Badenian sediments were discovered around Loznica, Belgrade, Aranđelovac, Golubac, Zaječar, and Negotin. The region of Belgrade and the surrounding area had been covered by a warm, shallow sea of normal salination. On the territory of Belgrade, offsprings of the Badenian sediments, rich in fossils, have been discovered in the city centre (Tašmajdan, Kalemegdan, as well as in many surrounding places (Rakovica, Kaluđerica, Leštani, and Jajinci (fig. 2. Scaphopod shells found at the Vinča-Belo Brdo archaeological site are usually transversally broken. Judging by the basic

  14. Ministry of Health Circular No. 36 on the physical requirements for marine waters intended for mollusc culture (Section 12 of Act No. 192 of 2 May 1977 and Section 5 of Ministerial Decree of 27 April 1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Circular by the Minister of Health follows up a Ministerial Decree of 27 April 1978 made in implementation of the 1977 Act on health protection standards for the production of and trade in molluscs. It fixes the microbiological, biological, chemical and physical quality requirements for waters intended for molluscs culture and production. These include radionuclide concentrations which must not exceed the limits laid down by Presidential Decree No. 185 of 13 February 1964 on radiation protection. (NEA) [fr

  15. SURVEY ON V. CHOLERAE, V. VULNIFICUS AND V. PARAHAEMOLYTICUS IN BIVALVE MOLLUSCS OF THE ADRIATIC SEA AND PROPOSAL OF AN ANALYTICAL PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Valeri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve molluscs from Adriatic sea were analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae e V. vulnificus presence. The isolates on TCBS Agar and m-CPC Agar were selected on the basis of a new biochemical screening, that showed a good performance, because among 2344 strains from primary culture only 237 (10% were presumptively assigned to the species of interest. The PCR analyses was performed for the target genes toxR hlyA, ctxA, tcpI (V. cholerae, toxR, tl, tdh, trh (V. parahaemolyticus, vvhA and viuB (V. vulnificus. Among the 9 strains confirmed to belong to V. parahaemolyticus specie, 6 were sucrose positive. On 215 samples of molluscs only 5 resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus being toxR+, tl+, although non pathogenic (tdh-, trh-, and none for V. cholerae e V. vulnificus.

  16. In Vivo Recording of Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Anesthesia Induction, Reversal, and Euthanasia in Cephalopod Molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna M. Butler-Struben

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopod molluscs are among the most behaviorally and neurologically complex invertebrates. As they are now included in research animal welfare regulations in many countries, humane and effective anesthesia is required during invasive procedures. However, currently there is no evidence that agents believed to act as anesthetics produce effects beyond immobility. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that two of the most commonly used agents in cephalopod general anesthesia, magnesium chloride and ethanol, are capable of producing strong and reversible blockade of afferent and efferent neural signal; thus they are genuine anesthetics, rather than simply sedating agents that render animals immobile but not insensible. Additionally, we demonstrate that injected magnesium chloride and lidocaine are effective local anesthetic agents. This represents a considerable advance for cephalopod welfare. Using a reversible, minimally invasive recording procedure, we measured activity in the pallial nerve of cuttlefish (Sepia bandensis and octopus (Abdopus aculeatus, Octopus bocki, during induction and reversal for five putative general anesthetic and two local anesthetic agents. We describe the temporal relationship between loss of behavioral responses (immobility, loss of efferent neural signal (loss of “consciousness” and loss of afferent neural signal (anesthesia for general anesthesia, and loss of afferent signal for local anesthesia. Both ethanol and magnesium chloride were effective as bath-applied general anesthetics, causing immobility, complete loss of behavioral responsiveness and complete loss of afferent and efferent neural signal. Cold seawater, diethyl ether, and MS-222 (tricaine were ineffective. Subcutaneous injection of either lidocaine or magnesium chloride blocked behavioral and neural responses to pinch in the injected area, and we conclude that both are effective local anesthetic agents for cephalopods. Lastly, we

  17. In Vivo Recording of Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Anesthesia Induction, Reversal, and Euthanasia in Cephalopod Molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Struben, Hanna M; Brophy, Samantha M; Johnson, Nasira A; Crook, Robyn J

    2018-01-01

    Cephalopod molluscs are among the most behaviorally and neurologically complex invertebrates. As they are now included in research animal welfare regulations in many countries, humane and effective anesthesia is required during invasive procedures. However, currently there is no evidence that agents believed to act as anesthetics produce effects beyond immobility. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that two of the most commonly used agents in cephalopod general anesthesia, magnesium chloride and ethanol, are capable of producing strong and reversible blockade of afferent and efferent neural signal; thus they are genuine anesthetics, rather than simply sedating agents that render animals immobile but not insensible. Additionally, we demonstrate that injected magnesium chloride and lidocaine are effective local anesthetic agents. This represents a considerable advance for cephalopod welfare. Using a reversible, minimally invasive recording procedure, we measured activity in the pallial nerve of cuttlefish ( Sepia bandensis ) and octopus ( Abdopus aculeatus, Octopus bocki ), during induction and reversal for five putative general anesthetic and two local anesthetic agents. We describe the temporal relationship between loss of behavioral responses (immobility), loss of efferent neural signal (loss of "consciousness") and loss of afferent neural signal (anesthesia) for general anesthesia, and loss of afferent signal for local anesthesia. Both ethanol and magnesium chloride were effective as bath-applied general anesthetics, causing immobility, complete loss of behavioral responsiveness and complete loss of afferent and efferent neural signal. Cold seawater, diethyl ether, and MS-222 (tricaine) were ineffective. Subcutaneous injection of either lidocaine or magnesium chloride blocked behavioral and neural responses to pinch in the injected area, and we conclude that both are effective local anesthetic agents for cephalopods. Lastly, we demonstrate that a

  18. Effects of urban wastewater on crab and mollusc assemblages in equatorial and subtropical mangroves of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannicci, Stefano; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Fratini, Sara; Litulo, Carlos; Macia, Adriano; Mrabu, Elisha J.; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Paula, José

    2009-09-01

    Mangrove forests are known to accomplish crucial ecosystem functions and services. They are nursery areas for fish, prawns and crabs, which provide coastal communities with a variety of food, timber and chemicals, and protect coasts from catastrophic events, such as tsunamis. Recently, a novel ecological service has been proposed for mangrove systems, namely natural wastewater treatment wetlands. This hypothesis was based on experimental data collected mainly in Chinese mangrove systems, which proved that mangrove soils were efficient in absorbing nutrients. Moreover, sewage loading seemed harmless to both plants and benthic communities in these systems. However, before promoting the use of natural mangroves as pollution buffers, or constructed mangrove wetlands as sewage treatment facilities, more data are needed on their overall tolerance to organic loading. Differences in macrobenthos patterns were thus investigated between peri-urban mangroves and sites not affected by sewage disposal in East Africa. We assessed differences in epifaunal assemblages, comprising crabs and molluscs, employing multivariate ACI unbalanced analyses to compare peri-urban mangrove swamps with those characteristic of non-urban mangroves with similar ecological traits. The sampling design was spatially nested, replicates being assessed at equatorial (southern Kenya) and subtropical (southern Mozambique) sites. The results manifested a consistent increase in crab biomass at the peri-urban sites in both Kenya and Mozambique. Moreover, the peri-urban systems were richer than the non-urban mangroves, both in terms of fiddler crabs ( Uca spp.) which feed on benthic microalgae and bacteria, and sesarmids, such as Perisesarma guttatum and Neosarmatium meinerti, which feed on both substratum and leaf litter. The abundance of gastropods, in contrast, decreased significantly, especially in Kenya, mainly due to the disappearance of the mud whelk Terebralia palustris. The results thus indicate that

  19. Structural determination of the carbohydrate chains from arthropod and mollusc hemocyanin by means of 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuik, J.A. van.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis carbohydrate structures of hemocyanins of arthropods and molluscs are studied. Hemocyanins are high-molecular-mass, copper-containing oxygen-transport proteins. The function of these carbohydrate chains are yet still unknown. It is not probable that they play a role in the oxygen-binding processes. They are rather thought to have a function in the build-up of the hemocyanin molecules. 286 refs.; 30 figs.; 25 tabs

  20. Relationship between anti-oxidant capacity and manganese accumulation in the soft tissues of two freshwater molluscs: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar RAVERA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an element of great importance in the life cycle of plants and animals. For example, it plays an essential role as an activator of various enzymatic systems such as isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase. Freshwater Unionidae concentrate relatively large amounts of manganese in their tissues, but little is known about the physiological role of this metal. The aim of this research is to acquire a better knowledge of the role of manganese in molluscs which accumulate large amounts of this metal and in those with low manganese concentrations. As manganese is one of the metals present in the superoxide molecule, the possible relationship between manganese concentration in the soft tissues of molluscs and the antioxidant capacity of the metal can usefully be tested. To this end two species of molluscs were analysed: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae, which is very rich in manganese, and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia which has a low manganese content. The adults of both species were analysed for manganese concentration by ICP, and for antioxidant capacity as RAC (Relative Antioxidant Capacity by a superoxide dismutase method. The results clearly demonstrate the active role played by manganese against free radicals and consequently the important role of the metal in protecting Unio against oxidative stress. The low concentration of manganese in Viviparus may be the result of the effective excretion of this metal, as was found for ruthenium.

  1. Macroevolutionary consequences of profound climate change on niche evolution in marine molluscs over the past three million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saupe, E.E.; Hendricks, J.R.; Portell, R.W.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Haywood, A. M.; Hunter, S.J.; Lieberman, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    In order to predict the fate of biodiversity in a rapidly changing world, we must first understand how species adapt to new environmental conditions. The long-term evolutionary dynamics of species' physiological tolerances to differing climatic regimes remain obscure. Here, we unite palaeontological and neontological data to analyse whether species' environmental tolerances remain stable across 3 Myr of profound climatic changes using 10 phylogenetically, ecologically and developmentally diverse mollusc species from the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, USA. We additionally investigate whether these species' upper and lower thermal tolerances are constrained across this interval. We find that these species' environmental preferences are stable across the duration of their lifetimes, even when faced with significant environmental perturbations. The results suggest that species will respond to current and future warming either by altering distributions to track suitable habitat or, if the pace of change is too rapid, by going extinct. Our findings also support methods that project species' present-day environmental requirements to future climatic landscapes to assess conservation risks.

  2. Eutrophication and Dreissena invasion as drivers of biodiversity: a century of change in the mollusc community of Oneida Lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim A Karatayev

    Full Text Available Changes in nutrient loading and invasive species are among the strongest human-driven disturbances in freshwater ecosystems, but our knowledge on how they affect the biodiversity of lakes is still limited. We conducted a detailed historical analysis of the mollusc community of Oneida Lake based on our comprehensive lakewide study in 2012 and previous surveys dating back to 1915. In the early 20th century, the lake had a high water clarity, with abundant macrophytes and benthic algae, and hosted the most diverse molluscan community in New York State, including 32 gastropod and 9 unionid species. By the 1960s, lake turbidity increased during a period of anthropogenic eutrophication, resulting in a 38% decline in species richness and a 95% reduction in abundance of native gastropods grazing on benthic algae. Following the invasion of Dreissena spp. in 1991 and subsequent increases in water clarity, native gastropod species richness expanded by 37% and abundance increased 20-fold by 2012. In contrast, filter-feeding unionids were unaffected by increased turbidity during the period of eutrophication but were extirpated by dreissenids. Through contrasting effects on turbidity, eutrophication and Dreissena spp. have likely driven the observed changes in native grazing gastropods by affecting the abundance of light-limited benthic algae. Given the high species richness and ecological importance of benthic grazers, monitoring and managing turbidity is important in preserving molluscan diversity.

  3. Molluscs and echinoderms aquaculture: biological aspects, current status, technical progress and future perspectives for the most promising species in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pais

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shellfish aquaculture is a widespread activity in the Italian peninsula. However, only two bivalve species are mainly cultured along the coastline of that country: the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum (Ruditapes philippinarum. By contrast, just a few other mollusc species of commercial interest are scarcely reared at a small-scale level. After analysing the current status of Italian shellfish production, this paper reports and discusses the potential for culturing several different invertebrate species [i.e., the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis, the grooved carpet shell Venerupis decussata (Ruditapes decussatus, the razor clams Ensis minor and Solen marginatus, the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris, and the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus] in this country. In addition, a detailed overview of the progress made in aquacultural techniques for these species in the Mediterranean basin is presented, highlighting the most relevant bottlenecks and the way forward to shift from the experimental to the aquaculture phase. Finally, an outlook of the main economic and environmental benefits arising from these shellfish culture practices is also given.

  4. Volatile and bioactive compounds in opercula from Muricidae molluscs supports their use in ceremonial incense and traditional medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongmaithem, Bijayalakshmi Devi; Mouatt, Peter; Smith, Joshua; Rudd, David; Russell, Michael; Sullivan, Caroline; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2017-12-12

    Muricidae molluscs are the source of a valuable purple dye that was traded as a luxury item in the Mediterranean region and by the late Byzantine was reserved for royalty and priests. Less well known is the use of muricid opercula in sacred incense and traditional medicines, although they are still used as rare ingredients today. This study provides the first chemical assessment of opercula from Muricidae, based on several traditional preparation procedures. Chemical analysis of opercula smoke revealed aromatic phenols, which act as fragrance stabilisers and produce a "medicinal" odour. Analysis of lipid extracts revealed pharmaceutically active compounds, including brominated indoles, choline esters and adenosine, consistent with their traditional medical applications. Depending on the preparation procedures, toxic pyridine was also detected. ICP-MS analysis of muricid opercula shows the presence of essential macro and microelements, as well as metals, some of which exceed the recommended safe levels for human use. Nevertheless, these findings support the Muricidae as an historically important marine resource, providing Biblical dyes, medicines and perfume. The opercula contains biologically active compounds and produces smoke containing volatile scent compounds, consistent with their identification as the most likely source of onycha, a controversial ingredient in sacred incense.

  5. Development and application of the mollusc Arctica islandica as a paleoceanographic tool for the North Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidman, C.R.

    1995-09-01

    Until now there has been no tool comparable to corals for reconstructing long term high-resolution geochemical time-series for the colder, higher-latitude oceans. In this thesis, the long-lived (+100 years) boreal mollusc (Bivalvia) Arctica islandica is shown to be practical for this purpose in the northern North Atlantic Ocean. The evidence, compiled here, demonstrates that the carbonate shell of this species faithfully records the ambient dissolved inorganic carbon`s (DIC) radiocarbon ({Delta}{sup 14}C) concentration and accurately reflects the ambient temperature in its stable oxygen isotope ({delta}{sup 18}O) composition. However, the stable carbon isotope ({delta}{sup 13}C) composition of the A. islandica shell likely is not a good recorder of ambient DIC {delta}{sup 13}C, and likely responds to physiological controls. Four {Delta}{sup 14}C time histories are reconstructed from the annual bands of A. islandica shells for the higher-latitudes of the northern North Atlantic Ocean (from 41{degree}N to 70{degree}N).

  6. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of the ferrous derivatives of the dimeric and tetrameric hemoglobin from the mollusc Scapharca inaequivalvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inubushi, Toshiero; Yonetani, Takahashi; Chiancone, E.; Univ. 'La Sapienza', Rome

    1988-01-01

    Proton NMR spectra have been measured for the two hemoglobins from the mollusc Scapharca inaequivalvis: HbI, a homodimer, and HbII, a heterotetramer. These hemoglobins are endowed with a unique subunit assembly, since the heme carrying E and F helices are involved in the major intersubunit contact. In the far-downfield region of hyperfine-shifted resonances the spectra of HbI and HbII in the deoxy state show respectively one (66.7 ppm) and two (67.8 and 63.6 ppm) exchangeable signals of the proximal histidine N/sub delta/H groups, the resonance position being indicative of a significant strain in the iron-imidazole interaction. In the hydrogen-bonded proton region, inter-and intrasubunit hydrogen-bonded proton signals have been detected for both hemoglobins. Deoxy-HbI shows two unique downfied resonances at 11.83 and 11.51 ppm which disappear in the oxygenated state, suggesting that the corresponding hydrogen bonds are iinvolved in the stabilization of the tertiary and/or quaternary structure of the deoxy form. HbII shows even smaller changes in this region upon changes in ligation state. These results therefore provide further proof that, at variance with the vertebrate hemoglobin tetramer, the unique subunit assembly of these proteins is stabilized mainly by hydrophobic interactions

  7. Choose Your Weaponry: Selective Storage of a Single Toxic Compound, Latrunculin A, by Closely Related Nudibranch Molluscs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Cheney

    Full Text Available Natural products play an invaluable role as a starting point in the drug discovery process, and plants and animals use many interesting biologically active natural products as a chemical defense mechanism against predators. Among marine organisms, many nudibranch gastropods are known to derive defensive metabolites from the sponges they eat. Here we investigated the putative sequestration of the toxic compound latrunculin A--a 16-membered macrolide that prevents actin polymerization within cellular processes--which has been identified from sponge sources, by five closely related nudibranch molluscs of the genus Chromodoris. Only latrunculin A was present in the rim of the mantle of these species, where storage reservoirs containing secondary metabolites are located, whilst a variety of secondary metabolites were found in their viscera. The species studied thus selectively accumulate latrunculin A in the part of the mantle that is more exposed to potential predators. This study also demonstrates that latrunculin-containing sponges are not their sole food source. Latrunculin A was found to be several times more potent than other compounds present in these species of nudibranchs when tested by in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays. Anti-feedant assays also indicated that latrunculin A was unpalatable to rock pool shrimps, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings led us to propose that this group of nudibranchs has evolved means both to protect themselves from the toxicity of latrunculin A, and to accumulate this compound in the mantle rim for defensive purposes. The precise mechanism by which the nudibranchs sequester such a potent compound from sponges without disrupting their own key physiological processes is unclear, but this work paves the way for future studies in this direction. Finally, the possible occurrence of both visual and chemosensory Müllerian mimicry in the studied species is discussed.

  8. Molecular and Biochemical Methods Useful for the Epigenetic Characterization of Chromatin-Associated Proteins in Bivalve Molluscs

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    Ciro Rivera-Casas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve molluscs constitute a ubiquitous taxonomic group playing key functions in virtually all ecosystems, and encompassing critical commercial relevance. Along with a sessile and filter-feeding lifestyle in most cases, these characteristics make bivalves model sentinel organisms routinely used for environmental monitoring studies in aquatic habitats. The study of epigenetic mechanisms linking environmental exposure and specific physiological responses (i.e., environmental epigenetics stands out as a very innovative monitoring strategy, given the role of epigenetic modifications in acclimatization and adaptation. Furthermore, the heritable nature of many of those modifications constitutes a very promising avenue to explore the applicability of epigenetic conditioning and selection in management and restoration strategies. Chromatin provides a framework for the study of environmental epigenetic responses. Unfortunately, chromatin and epigenetic information are very limited in most non-traditional model organisms and even completely lacking in most environmentally and ecologically relevant organisms. The present work aims to provide a comprehensive and reproducible experimental workflow for the study of bivalve chromatin. First, a series of guidelines for the molecular isolation of genes encoding chromatin-associated proteins is provided, including information on primers suitable for conventional PCR, Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE, genome walking and quantitative PCR (qPCR experiments. This section is followed by the description of methods specifically developed for the analysis of histone and SNBP proteins in different bivalve tissues, including protein extraction, purification, separation and immunodetection. Lastly, information about available antibodies, their specificity and performance is also provided. The tools and protocols described here complement current epigenetic analyses (usually limited to DNA methylation by incorporating

  9. Genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival effects of tritiated water in the early life stages of the marine mollusc, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, Josephine A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Atienzar, Franck A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jha, Awadhesh N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajha@plymouth.ac.uk

    2005-09-10

    Using an integrated approach linking different levels of biological organisation, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival impact of tritiated water (HTO) were investigated in the embryo-larvae of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis. One-hour-old embryos were exposed to a range of concentrations (0.37-370 kBq ml{sup -1}) of HTO, which delivered a dose between 0.02 and 21.41 mGy over the exposure period for different end points. Detrimental effects, if any, were monitored at different levels of biological organisation (i.e. DNA, chromosomal, cellular and individual). Genotoxic effects were assessed using molecular and cytogenetic approaches which included analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations (Cabs). Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the proliferative rate index (PRI) of the embryo-larval cells. Developmental and survival effects were also monitored every 24 h up to 72 h. Results in general indicated that HTO significantly increased cytogenetic damage, cytotoxicity, developmental abnormalities and mortality of the embryo-larvae as a function of concentration or radiation dose. The analysis of RAPD profiles also revealed qualitative effects in the HTO exposed population compared to controls. However, while the embryo-larvae showed dose or concentration dependent effects for mortality, developmental abnormalities and induction of SCEs, the dose-dependent effects were not apparent for Cabs and PRI at higher doses. The study contributes to our limited understanding of the impact of environmentally relevant radionuclides on non-human biota and emphasises the need for further investigations to elucidate potentially long term damage induced by persistent, low levels of other radionuclides on commercially and ecologically important species, in order to protect human and ecosystem health.

  10. A high molecular weight proteoglycan is differentially expressed during development of the mollusc Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca; Gastropoda; Muricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandan, E; González, M; Inestrosa, N C; Tremblay, C; Urrea, R

    1992-12-15

    Incorporation of radioactive sulfate to hatched veliger larvae of the gastropod muricid Concholepas concholepas indicated that over 87% of the sulfated macromolecules were found in the detergent insoluble fraction, rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The sulfated material was solubilized with guanidine salt followed by urea dialysis and fractionated by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. Three sulfated compounds eluting at 0.7, 1.1, and 3.0 M NaCl, called peaks I, II, and III, respectively, were obtained. The sulfated compound present in peak I was degraded by pronase or sodium alkaline treatment to a small sulfated resistant material, suggesting the presence of a proteoglycan (PG). Filtration analysis on Sephacryl S-500 and SDS-PAGE of the intact PG indicates that it has a high molecular weight (360,000 to over 1 x 10(6)). Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against this PG were produced. The specificity of one mAb, the 6H2, was demonstrated by size chromatography and ELISA analysis. The epitope recognized by this mAb seems to be present in the core protein of the PG. Both the extent of sulfation and the presence of different sulfated species of PGs were evaluated during the development of this mollusc. A twelvefold increase in the incorporation of sulfate to PGs per milligram of protein was found in veliger larvae compared to blastula-glastula stages. This change correlated well with the differential expression of the sulfated PG present in peak I. Biochemical and immunological analysis indicate that high levels of this PG are found in veliger and trocophore larvae in comparison with blastula-gastrula and early juveniles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. BIOCHRONOLOGY OF SELECTED MAMMALS, MOLLUSCS AND OSTRACODS FROM THE MIDDLE PLIOCENE TO THE LATE PLEISTOCENE IN ITALY. THE STATE OF THE ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GLIOZZI

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The Authors have elaborated four range charts of mammalian (large and micro, molluscs and fresh-water and brackish ostracodes faunas, for the selected Plio-Pleistocene fossiliferous localities of the Italy. A new Mammal Age (Aurelian correlatable to late Middle and Late Pleistocene has been defined. Inside this age two Faunal Units (Torre in Pietra and Vitinia have been defined as characteristic for Early and Middle Aurelian, while no gisements have been chosen for the late Aurelian. Biochronological units are calibrated on magnetostratigraphic and isotopic scales and by radiometric datings.    

  12. The effect of submarine thermal springs of Doğanbey Cape (Seferihisar - İzmir on foraminifer, ostracod and mollusc assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin MERİÇ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to fi gure out the effects of the submarine hot water springs located on the coast of Doğanbey Cape (north of Kuşadası Bay on various micro- and macrofaunal assemblages living around these springs. Young sediment samples were collected from different depths at 15 stations. The benthic foraminifer, ostracod and mollusc faunas were investigated. 35 genera and 61 species of benthic foraminifers, 16 genera and 20 species of ostracods and 14 genera and 15 species of molluscs were identifi ed. Typical Aeegan foraminifer fauna was found to be dominant. Besides, individuals with colored tests or abnormal morphology, as well as alien species, which are frequently observed on the Aegean coasts were also observed in the study area. The foraminifer, ostracod and mollusc species also constituted typical Aegean fauna. It is known that the ecological conditions experienced of the Amphistegina lobifera Larsen individuals in typical Aegean benthic foraminifer assemblage have an effect on the abundance distribution. Ideal conditions for Amphistegina lobifera Larsen was found to be 18.00-32.00 m depth range and 19-20oC temperatures. CTD conductivity values gradually increased near to the hot water spring but a decrease in the number of individuals were observed. Chemical analyzes in sediment samples were performed with X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis Spectrometer (WDXRF. Heavy metal ingredients (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb of the sediments were evaluated, concentrations were recorded as Cr>Ni>Mn in samples DB1-DB6 and also in DB15; Mn>Cr>Ni in DB8-DB11 and DB13-DB14; Cr>Mn>Ni in DB7 and in DB12. The radioactive elements U and Th were found to be high in DB9, DB10 and DB11. The chemical and radioactive properties of the sediments were observed to affect the tests of benthic foraminifers, where as no such effect was found on ostracod and mollusc tests.

  13. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  14. Dinámica poblacional de Donax dentifer (Veneroida: Donacidae en Bahía Málaga, Pacífico colombiano durante el fenómeno "El Niño" 1997/1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Riascos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Donax dentifer es un bivalvo dominante en comunidades de playa arenosa en la costa del Pacífico colombiano. Se muestreó mensualmente una población de este bivalvo en Bahía Málaga, Pacífico colombiano entre agosto de 1997 y julio de 1998 cuando ocurrió el evento "El Niño" 1997/1998. Se tomaron muestras cuantitativas mensuales usando transectos lineales perpendiculares y paralelos a la línea de costa para determinar la densidad poblacional y realizar una distribución de frecuencias de longitud. Se tomaron también muestras cualitativas mensuales para estudiar la reproducción y establecer relaciones peso-longitud. Se registró la temperatura, oxígeno disuelto, salinidad y pH de la columna de agua en el sitio de muestreo. Adicionalmente se realizó un experimento de marcaje-recaptura para estimar el crecimiento de la población. Los resultados indican que la población tiene un ciclo de reproducción continuo, con dos períodos de desove anuales en diciembre y marzo. Los parámetros de crecimiento de la función de crecimiento de von Bertalanffy fueron K=0.624 año-1 y L∞=29.3 mm. La mortalidad total (Z fue de Z=2.605 año -1 para los individuos pequeños (entre 2 mm y 5 mm y menor (Z=1.714 año -1 para los individuos grandes (entre 19 mm y 25 mm. La biomasa promedio anual de la población fue =1.22 g de peso seco libre de cenizas m-2 y la producción somática anual Psom/= 1.215 g de peso seco libre de cenizas m-2, lo que corresponde a una tasa de Psom/= 0.988. Aunque se observó un incremento en la densidad poblacional durante noviembre y abril, no hay evidencia de una clara relación entre la densidad poblacional y la ocurrencia del fenómeno "El Niño". Los cambios en la concentración de oxígeno disuelto mostraron una alta correlación con los parámetros del ciclo reproductivo, posiblemente como consecuencia de la influencia de este parámetro en procesos de asimilación y el ciclo de peso corporal. El crecimiento de D. dentifer

  15. Linking δ15N and histopathological effects in molluscs exposed in situ to effluents from land-based marine fish farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballeira, C.; Espinosa, J.; Carballeira, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Land-based marine aquaculture effluents induce branchial exfoliation and phagocytic haemocytosis in exposed molluscs. ► Transplanted clams are more sensitive to aquaculture discharges than native mussels. ► δ 15 N in organisms is a cost-effective means of biomonitoring exposure to contamination from aquaculture. ► δ 15 N analysis may facilitate the evaluation of potential effects at the tissue level. - Abstract: Histopathological alterations can indicate time-integrated impacts on organisms stemming from alterations at lower biological organisation levels. Long-term (native mussels) and short-term (transplanted clams) changes in the tissues of molluscs exposed to the effluents from two land-based marine fish farms (LBMFFs) were determined. Histological alterations were related to the δ 15 N isotopic signal measured in mussels and macroalgae. Effluents from LBMFFs were found to cause severe and moderate gill filament exfoliation in clams and mussels, respectively. Some transplanted clams showed severe degrees of hemocytic phagocytosis in gonads and connective tissue. In an attempt to semi-quantitatively summarize the observed histopathological alterations, a weighted index of damage (WID) was calculated for each type of alteration, species and sampling site. The WID was clearly related to the δ 15 N descriptor of exposure. Further studies aimed at standardizing this relationship may establish critical thresholds of the descriptor for its implementation within environmental monitoring plans for LBMFFs.

  16. Molluscs as evidence for a late Pleistocene and early Holocene humid period in the southern coastal desert of Peru (14.5°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mächtle, Bertil; Unkel, Ingmar; Eitel, Bernhard; Kromer, Bernd; Schiegl, Solveig

    2010-01-01

    The southern Peruvian coastal desert around Palpa, southern Peru (14.5°S) is currently characterized by hyper-arid conditions. However, the presence of two species of molluscs ( Scutalus, Pupoides) and desert-loess deposits indicates the past development of semi-desert and grassland ecosystems caused by a displacement of the eastern desert margin due to hydrological changes. Radiocarbon dating shows that the transition to a semi-arid climate in the southern Peruvian coastal desert took place during the Greenland interstadial 1, ˜ 13.5 cal ka BP. At the beginning of the Holocene, the mollusc fauna vanished due to increasing humidity and the development of grasslands. Dust particles were fixed by the grasses, as indicated by abundant Poaceae phytoliths, and desert loess was formed. The humid period we observe here is out of phase with the palaeoenvironmental records from the Titicaca region, which indicates dry conditions at that time. This paper offers a new idea for this contradiction: an orbitally driven meridional shift of the Bolivian high might have altered the moisture supply across the Andes.

  17. Characterization of South American Snails of the Genus Biomphalaria (Basommatophora: Planorbidae and Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda in Molluscs by PCR-RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lima Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of snails of the genus Biomphalaria can be done using morphological characteristics which depends on the size of the snails and skill and knowledge of researcher. These methods sometimes are not adequate for identification of species. The PCR-RFLP, using the ITS region of the rDNA, has been used to identify Brazilian species of the genus Biomphalaria. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about snails from other Latin American countries. In addition, some snails may be infected by Schistosoma mansoni and when submitted to PCR-RFLP they show molecular profiles different from those previously standardized for the other mollusc species. In this work the molecular profiles of 15 species and the subspecies were established by PCR-RFLP of ITS-rDNA with the enzyme DdeI. Moreover, the molecular profiles of host species, B. glabrata, B. straminea, B. tenagophila, and B. prona, infected by S. mansoni were also established. The molluscs were dissected to permit morphological identification. These results contribute to a correct identification of snails of the genus Biomphalaria and detection of these snails infected by S. mansoni.

  18. Caribbean Land Molluscs: Vertiginidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Fritz

    1960-01-01

    The area dealt with in this publication requires definition. In order to avoid misunderstanding, its individual components are listed as follows (see Table 1): Bahamas — Bimini’s, Cat Key, New Providence Lesser Antilles, with the following groups: Virgin Islands — St. Thomas, St. John, St. Croix

  19. THE SECTION OF TORRE PICCHIO (TERNI, UMBRIA, CENTRAL ITALY:A VILLAFRANCHIAN SITE RICH IN VERTEBRATES, MOLLUSCS,OSTRACODS AND PLANTS

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    ODOARDO GIROTTI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial deposits of the S. Maria di Ciciliano Formation crop out near Montecastrilli (Terni, in the southwestern branch of the Tiberino Basin.  Many specimens of plants ("mummified" woods, fruits and seeds, freshwater molluscs, ostracods, vertebrate bones and coprolites were collected at Torre Picchio. This small outcrop contains a fairly rich record of fruits and seeds, among which about 50 species were identified; the most frequent invariably belong to submerged, floating and emergent aquatic herbs, possibly because these were buried not far from their place of growth, thus representing the ancient local vegetation.  The fruits and seeds of woody plants, including several exotic elements, were transported from neighbouring areas and indicate a paleoclimate similar to the present day, though slightly wetter.  Among molluscs, three distinct assemblages were found, indicating fluvial, swampy and lacustrine environment, respectively.  They contain taxa of biochronological interest, most of them typical of Early Pleistocene deposits (late Villafranchian, but making their first appearance in the Late Pliocene (Middle Villafranchian. One species, Margarifera (Pseudunio auricularia, represents the oldest record everywhere, since it was known, so far, only from the Middle Pleistocene upwards.  As palaeoenvironmental indicators, the ostracods complete the information given by molluscs.  Vetrebrates are represented by large and small mammals, rare birds, reptiles, amphibians and some fishes.  A great number of coprolites was collected as well.  The mammal assemblage shows affinities with the Costa S. Giacomo and Olivola F. U. (Middle and Late Villafranchian, Late Pliocene. Mimomys medasensis, an Iberoccitane element, is signaled for the first time in Italy.  From the geological point of view, the S. Maria di Ciciliano Fm. is interfingering with the marine Chiani-Tevere Fm., which is mostly Santernian in age and lies unconformably on the Middle

  20. Physiological and morphological effects of high water tables on early growth of giant reed (Arundo donax), elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), energycane and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennewein, Stephen Peter [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Here, an increasing demand for renewable energy sources has spurred interest in high-biomass crops used for energy production. Species potentially well-suited for biofuel production in the seasonally wet organic Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida include giant reed (Arundo donax), elephant grass (Pennisetum Purpureum), energycane (Saccharum spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). The objectives in this study were to evaluate the role of fluctuating water tables on the morphology, physiology, and early season growth of these four genotypes. The candidate genotypes were grown in a greenhouse under three water table depths, defined by distance of the water table from the soil surface: two constant water tables (-16 cm and -40 cm) along with a flood cycle (2 weeks of flood to the soil level followed by 2 weeks at -40 cm from the soil level). The genotypes included CP 89-2143 (sugarcane), L 79-1002 (energycane), Merkeron (elephant grass), and wild type (giant reed). The experiment was repeated for plant cane, first ratoon, and successive plant cane crop cycles. Reductions in dry matter yield were observed among genotypes subjected to the -40 cm drained, periodically flooded (40F) water table relative to the -40 cm constant (40C) or -16 cm constant (16C). Plant cane dry weights were reduced by 37% in giant reed, 52% in elephant grass, 42% in energycane, and 34% in sugarcane in the 40F compared to 40C water table treatments. Similarly, in the first ratoon crop dry weights were reduced by 29% in giant reed, 42% in elephant grass, 27% in energycane, and 62% in sugarcane. In plant cane and successive plant cane, average total dry weight was greatest for elephant grass whereas ratoon total dry weight was greatest for energycane. Genotype had more pronounced effects on physiological attributes than water table including the highest stomatal conductance and SPAD values in giant reed, and the highest stalk populations in elephant grass and

  1. Stationary and non-stationary occurrences of miniature end plate potentials are well described as stationary and non-stationary Poisson processes in the mollusc Navanax inermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, M S; Spray, D C; Bennett, M V

    1988-06-28

    Protractor muscles in the gastropod mollusc Navanax inermis exhibit typical spontaneous miniature end plate potentials with mean amplitude 1.71 +/- 1.19 (standard deviation) mV. The evoked end plate potential is quantized, with a quantum equal to the miniature end plate potential amplitude. When their rate is stationary, occurrence of miniature end plate potentials is a random, Poisson process. When non-stationary, spontaneous miniature end plate potential occurrence is a non-stationary Poisson process, a Poisson process with the mean frequency changing with time. This extends the random Poisson model for miniature end plate potentials to the frequently observed non-stationary occurrence. Reported deviations from a Poisson process can sometimes be accounted for by the non-stationary Poisson process and more complex models, such as clustered release, are not always needed.

  2. Investigation and measurement of radio thermoluminescence properties of some calci tic mollusc shells of the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea (for γ radiation dosimetry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, H.; Rabbani, M.; Rouhi, U.

    2000-01-01

    Biogenic Calcium Carbonate, particularly as naturally thermoluminescent calci tic mollusc shells may serve as excellent radio thermoluminescent dosimeters. In this study the radio thermoluminescence properties of 8 different bivalves of the Persian Gulf, the Oman Sea and the internal calcite shell of Sepia sp. are investigated. The results of this investigation have shown that the shells of Sepia sp., Pinctata radiata and Card ita bicolor as appropriate dosimeters for both personal and industrial dosimetry purposes, among which Sepia sp. is the most sensitive one. Callista umbonella and Mactra sp. are relatively less thermoluminescent while Saccostrea Cucullata and Chlamys ruschenbergerii are completely inert with respect to γ - thermoluminescence. Thermoluminescence properties of Anadara refescens and Anadara secticostata decrease surprisingly by an increase in the absorbed dose of γ radiation, which can mainly be interpreted as the result of crystal lattice destruction caused by ionizing radiation

  3. Responses of freshwater molluscs to environmental factors in Southern Brazil wetlands Respostas de moluscos límnicos a fatores ambientais em áreas úmidas do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Maltchik

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater molluscs play an important role in aquatic ecosystems, providing food for many fish species and vertebrates. Investigations on factors that determine mollusc species richness and distribution in wetland systems are scarce in the Neotropical region. The main goal of this study was to determine how much variation in mollusc richness and composition is explained by area, hydroperiod, altitude, water conductivity, and dominant aquatic vegetation. This survey was performed in an extensive area of a Neotropical region (~280,000 km² in southern Brazil, with a large number of wetland systems (111 and covering a wide gradient of altitude and wetland surface area. The mollusc richness was positively associated with wetland area and negatively associated with altitude. The richness and composition of the freshwater molluscs were similar between permanent and intermittent wetlands and it did not differ significantly between aquatic bed and emergent wetlands. The first three axes of CCA explained 16.2% of the total variation in the composition of the freshwater mollusc observed. The variation in the composition had a correlation with wetland area, altitude and water conductivity. Our results showed that the wetlands are important habitats for molluscs in southern Brazil, and that the richness and the composition of molluscs were associated with area, altitude, water conductivity and dominant vegetation.Moluscos límnicos desempenham um papel importante em ecossistemas aquáticos, fornecendo alimento para diversos peixes e vertebrados. Investigações sobre os fatores que determinam a riqueza e a distribuição das espécies de moluscos em áreas úmidas são escassos na região neotropical. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a variação na riqueza e na composição de moluscos em função da área, hidroperíodo, altitude, condutividade da água e tipo de vegetação aquática dominante. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em uma extensa

  4. Variation in the composition of corals, fishes, sponges, echinoderms, ascidians, molluscs, foraminifera and macroalgae across a pronounced in-to-offshore environmental gradient in the Jakarta Bay-Thousand Islands coral reef complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, D F R; Polónia, A R M; Renema, W; Hoeksema, B W; Rachello-Dolmen, P G; Moolenbeek, R G; Budiyanto, A; Yahmantoro; Tuti, Y; Giyanto; Draisma, S G A; Prud'homme van Reine, W F; Hariyanto, R; Gittenberger, A; Rikoh, M S; de Voogd, N J

    2016-09-30

    Substrate cover, water quality parameters and assemblages of corals, fishes, sponges, echinoderms, ascidians, molluscs, benthic foraminifera and macroalgae were sampled across a pronounced environmental gradient in the Jakarta Bay-Thousand Islands reef complex. Inshore sites mainly consisted of sand, rubble and turf algae with elevated temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll concentrations and depauperate assemblages of all taxa. Live coral cover was very low inshore and mainly consisted of sparse massive coral heads and a few encrusting species. Faunal assemblages were more speciose and compositionally distinct mid- and offshore compared to inshore. There were, however, small-scale differences among taxa. Certain midshore sites, for example, housed assemblages resembling those typical of the inshore environment but this differed depending on the taxon. Substrate, water quality and spatial variables together explained from 31% (molluscs) to 72% (foraminifera) of the variation in composition. In general, satellite-derived parameters outperformed locally measured parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molluscs of an intertidal soft-sediment area in China: Does overfishing explain a high density but low diversity community that benefits staging shorebirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bing; Piersma, Theunis; Zhang, Zhengwang; Ding, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    The Yellow Sea is a key staging ground for shorebirds that migrate from Australasia to the Arctic each spring. A lot of attention has been paid to the impact of habitat loss due to land reclamation on shorebird survival, but any effects of overfishing of coastal resources are unclear. In this study, the abundance of molluscs in the intertidal mudflats of northern Bohai Bay on the Chinese Yellow Sea was investigated in 2008-2014 from the perspective of their importance as food for northward migrating shorebirds, especially Red Knots Calidris canutus. Numerically contributing 96% to the numbers of 17 species found in spring 2008, the bivalve Potamocorbula laevis (the staple food of Red Knots and other shorebirds) dominated the intertidal mollusc community. In the spring of 2008-2014, the densities of P. laevis were surprisingly high, varying between 3900 and 41,000 individuals/m2 at distinctly small sizes (average shell lengths of 1.1 to 4.8 mm), and thus reaching some of the highest densities of marine bivalves recorded worldwide and providing good food for shorebirds. The distribution of P. laevis was associated with relatively soft sediments in close proximity to the recently built seawalls. A monthly sampling programme showed steep seasonal changes in abundance and size. P. laevis were nearly absent in winter, each year settling on the intertidal mudflats anew. Peak densities were reached in spring, when 0-age P. laevis were 1-3 mm long. The findings point to a highly unusual demographic structure of the species, suggesting that some interfering factors are at play. We hypothesise that the current dominance of young P. laevis in Bohai Bay reflects the combined pressures of a nearly complete active removal of adult populations from mid-summer to autumn for shrimp farming (this clearing of adults may offer space for recruitment during the next spring) and low numbers of epibenthic predators of bivalves, such as shrimps and crabs, due to persistent overfishing in

  6. Biomonitoring of Heavy metals using the bivalve molluscs in sunderban mangrove wetland, Northeast Coast of Bay of bengal (india): possible risks to Human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Henrique; Cardoso, Ines [Departamento de Biologia Animal/Instituto de Oceanografia, Campo Grande, Lisboa (Portugal); Chatterjee, Mousumi; Kumar Bhattacharya, Asok; Aftab Alam, Mohammad [Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India); Kanta Satpathy, Kamala [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Environmental and Industrial Safety Section, Safety Group, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Kumar Sarkar, Santosh

    2008-02-15

    The suitability of using four bivalve molluscs (Sanguinolaria acuminata, Anadara granosa, Meretrix meretrix, and Pelecyora trigona) in biomonitoring of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Hg) collected from intertidal regions of the Sunderban mangrove wetland, northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal, were evaluated. Both speciesdependent variability and temporal variations were pronounced. A high degree of organ specificity was evident in the bivalves where gill and mantle exhibited higher metal accumulation due to ion exchange property of the mucous layer covering these organs while shells represent very poor accumulation. Elevated values of Zn and Cu reflect high potential for biomagnification through marine food chain. Metal concentrations in different body size groups of the bivalves do not follow uniform trend. Correlation coefficient between different metal couplings as tested statistically revealed significant coupling for Pb-Zn, Pb-Cu, Zn-Cu, and Hg-Cu. Concentrations of all the metals in specific organs (visceral mass, mantle and gill) of the bivalves exceeded the safe levels according to the international standards for metals compiled by Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and would be of great risk for human consumption. It is concluded that the mussel and clam are suitable biomonitors to employ in programs designed to assess changes in metal pollution in the Sunderban mangrove wetland. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Bioaccumulation of Iron and Lead in the soft tissue of some marine molluscs and associated sediment at labor Island,Aden,yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Anis Ahmed; Baharoon Aqil Abdulrahman

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this research work is to know the effect of the oil spill from the oil pipes that pass near the Labor Island, in addition the use of the Island as a station for gathering the old ships and boats that been prepared for re-exportation. For this purpose, a number of marine molluscs were used such as, A canthopleura haddoni (chitons), Ostrea cucullata (oysters), Turbo coronatus (sea snails). The were classified to their classes and sizes. Associated surfacial sediments were also used after sieving to <63 μm, in order to be analyzed by using the AAS. The results obtained showed high concentration in Fe and Pb in the soft tissue of the marine animals used and the associated sediment. These results indicate that these two heavy metals were bioaccumulated, and this accumulation may be returned to the oil spill from the oil pipes, or to the spill of drainage from the Iron mountain camp, or all the probabilities together. (author)

  8. Structure and density population of the invasive mollusc Limnoperna fortunei associated with Eichhornia crassipes in lakes of the Middle Paraná floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela E. Musin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The roots of Eichhornia crassipes provide different microhabitats for invertebrates, including substrate for the Asian invasive bivalve Limnoperna fortunei. This work evaluated the density and size structure of L. fortunei on the roots of E. crassipes in lentic waterbodies associated with the Middle Paraná floodplain. The field work was carried out between November 2009–2010, covering different phases of the hydrological regime. Floating meadows of E. crassipes were sampled monthly in two lakes with different degrees of connection to the main channel of the Paraná River. Bivalve densities were not associated with variations of the biomass of E. crassipes roots and the highest mussel densities were recorded during months of high temperature. The maximum size recorded in both lakes corresponded to individuals approximately 2.5 years old; however, up to 75% of the molluscs were represented by pre-reproductive individuals (up to 6 months old. In these lakes with soft bottom and limited hard substrates, E. crassipes is an important site for the mussel attachment during its early stages of development and could not be the final site of settlement during its lifecycle.

  9. Modulation of pumping rate by two species of marine bivalve molluscs in response to neurotransmitters: Comparison of in vitro and in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Dana M; Deaton, Lewis; Shumway, Sandra E; Holohan, Bridget A; Ward, J Evan

    2015-07-01

    Most studies regarding the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of molluscan ctenidia have focused on isolated ctenidial tissue preparations. This study investigated how bivalve molluscs modulate their feeding rates by examining the effects of a variety of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, and the dopamine agonist apomorphine on both isolated ctenidial tissue and in intact members of two commercially important bivalve species: the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis; and the bay scallop Argopecten irradians. In particular, we examined the effect of changes in: 1) beat of the lateral cilia (in vitro), 2) distance between ctenidial filaments and/or plicae (in vivo), and 3) diameter of the siphonal openings (in vivo) on alteration of bulk water flow through the mantle cavity. Important differences were found between isolated tissue and whole animals, and between species. Drugs that stimulated ciliary beat in vitro did not increase water processing rate in vivo. None of the treatments increased water flow through the mantle cavity of intact animals. Results suggest that A. irradians was primarily modulating lateral ciliary activity, while M. edulis appeared to have a number of ways to control water processing activity, signifying that the two species may have different compensatory and regulatory mechanisms controlling feeding activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An illustrated catalogue of Rudolf Sturany’s type specimens in the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria (NHMW: deep-sea Eastern Mediterranean molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo G. Albano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Pola” expeditions were the first to explore the deep Eastern Mediterranean Sea in the 1890s. They remained the most intense surveys in that area for a century and constitute today a fundamental baseline to assess change in the basin, whose fauna is still inadequately described. Solid taxonomic foundations for the study of deep-sea organisms are needed and we here contribute by revising the name-bearing types of mollusc species introduced by Rudolf Sturany on the basis of the “Pola” material from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea stored in the Natural History Museum in Vienna. Sturany introduced 15 names (Marginella occulta var. minor Sturany, 1896 shall not be considered as the introduction of a new name. He described and established two manuscript names by Monterosato: Jujubinus igneus and Pseudomurex ruderatus. The genus Isorropodon was also introduced together with its type species I. perplexum. For each name, we list the available type material, provide the original description and a translation into English and illustrate the specimens in colour and with SEM imaging.

  11. Donax serra in 'the East Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1979-06-05

    Jun 5, 1979 ... Growth is initially rapid, to about. 32 mm at one year and 48 mm ... to be a more important energy reserve than lipids. S.Afr.J.Zoo/. ... lyzed for particle-size by dry sieving (Morgans 1956). At. R eprodu ... 48 hours and noting the mass loss. The whole .... ions have verified that the two richest stretches, viz. from.

  12. The importance of pre-annealing treatment for ESR dating of mollusc shells: A key study for İsmil in Konya closed Basin/Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Gamze; Sayin, Ulku; Aydin, Hulya; Isik, Mesut; Kapan, Sevinc; Demir, Ahmet; Engin, Birol; Delikan, Arif; Orhan, Hukmu; Biyik, Recep; Ozmen, Ayhan

    2018-02-01

    In this study, Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is used to determine the geological ages of fossil mollusc shells systematically collected from two different geological splitting at İsmil Location (37.72769° N, 33.17781° E) in eastern part of Konya. According to the assessment of obtained ESR ages, the importance of pre-annealing treatment emphasize in the case of g=2.0007 dating signal is overlapped with the other signals arisen from short lived radicals that cause the wrong age calculation. To overcome this problem, the samples are pre-annealed at 180°C for 16 minutes and, in this case ESR ages are re-calculated for g=1.9973 dating signal. Dose response curves are obtained using 1.9973 signals after pre-annealing treatments for each samples. ESR ages of samples are obtained in the range of 138 ± 38 ka and 132 ± 30 ka (Upper Pleistocene) according to the Early Uranium Uptake model and the results are in good agreement with the estimated ages from stratigraphic and paleontological correlation by geologists. Thus, it is suggested that especially in the case of 2.0007 dating signal cannot been used due to superimposition case, the signal with 1.9973 g value can be used for dating after pre-annealing treatment. The results reports the first ESR ages on shells collected from İsmil Location and highlight the importance of pre-annealing treatment. This study is supported by TUBITAK 114Y237 research project.

  13. ESR analyses for herbivore teeth and molluscs from Kharga, Dakhleh, and Bir Tarfawi Oases: Constraining water availability and hominin paleolithic activity in the Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, B. A. B.; Skinner, A. R.; Smith, J. R.; Hill, C. L.; Churcher, C. S.; Kieniewicz, J. M.; Adelsberger, K. A.; Blickstein, J. I. B.; Florentin, J. A.; Deely, A. E.; Spillar, K. V.

    2017-12-01

    Today, Bir Tarfawi, Kharga and Dakhleh Oases all sit in Egypt's hyperarid Western Desert. A dearth of naturally occurring surface water coupled with ≤ 0.1 mm/y of precipitation, and evaporation rates > 2 m/y make Bir Tarfawi uninhabitable today, while Dakhleh and Kharga depend on borehole water to support human inhabitation. Yet in scattered locations dotting the Quaternary surfaces and deposits near each oasis, Paleolithic artefacts, fossil ungulate teeth, and snails record times when surface water did exist in wetlands, small ponds, and even large lakes. At Bir Tarfawi in Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5, 7, and 13, wetlands or small lakes supported freshwater snails, large herbivores, and hominins. Dakhleh Oasis hosted a large lake in MIS 6 that provided a deep reliable water supply for many millennia subsequently. ESR dates on fossils and tufa dates show thriving lacustrine and terrestrial ecosystems at Dakhleh during MIS 5, 7, 9, 11, and 17, and in shorter episodes in MIS 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12. At Kharga Oasis, springs discharged along the Libyan Escarpment edge, but the water was ponded in small basins dammed within tufa deposits. These dated deposits and fossils attest that water existed there in MIS 2-11, and one spot dating to ∼ 2.3 Ma. This proxy evidence suggest that, thanks to higher rainfall and/or groundwater tables, sufficient water persisted for much of the Pleistocene, supporting food resources, like large herbivores and molluscs, to thrive and enabling hominin habitation. and activity in the Western Desert.

  14. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J; Caraguel, Charles G B; Hick, Paul; Moody, Nicholas J G; Corbeil, Serge; Garver, Kyle A.; Warg, Janet V.; Arzul, Isabelle; Purcell, Maureen; St. J. Crane, Mark; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Olesen, Niels J; Lagno, Alicia Gallardo

    2016-01-01

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons of diagnostic test performance. Based on deficiencies in the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines identified in a prior finfish study (Gardner et al. 2014), we adapted the Standards for Reporting of Animal Diagnostic Accuracy Studies—paratuberculosis (STRADAS-paraTB) checklist of 25 reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines for experimental challenge studies, and the designation of some items as relevant only to experimental studies and ante-mortem tests. We believe that adoption of these guidelines will improve reporting of primary studies of test accuracy for aquatic animal diseases and facilitate assessment of their fitness-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species.

  15. Terrestrial mollusc records from Xifeng and Luochuan L9 loess strata and their implications for paleoclimatic evolution in the Chinese Loess Plateau during marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 24-22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine Isotope Stages 24-22 is a key period of the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, however, its climate variability is still unclear. The coarse-grained loess unit L9, one of the most prominent units in the Chinese loess stratigraphy, yields a high potential terrestrial record of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes during this period. In this study, two high-resolution terrestrial mollusc records of L9 loess strata from the Xifeng and Luochuan sequences in the Chinese Loess Plateau were analysed. Our mollusc results show that the MIS 24, the early and late parts of MIS 22 were dominated by cold and dry climate. Relatively mild-humid climate occurred in MIS 23 and the middle part of MIS 22. The climatic conditions at Xifeng region were cooler and more unstable compared to Luochuan region. A comparison of mollusc species composition and other proxies of L9 strata (MIS 24-22 with those of L1 loess units (MIS 4-2 indicates that the L9 loess was not deposited under the most severe glacial conditions in Quaternary climate history as suggested in previous studies. Our study shows that climatic conditions in the Loess Plateau during the L9 loess forming period were similar to that of gentle glacials (MIS 24 and MIS 22 and interglacial (MIS 23, as suggested by the marine δ18O record. Three cooling fluctuations occurred at ~930 ka, 900 ka and 880 ka, which might hint to the global "900 ka cooling event". The "900-ka event" in the Loess Plateau does not seem to be a simple long glaciation, but rather several complex climatic fluctuations superposed on a general cooling trend. The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the general cooling experienced by the Earth during this period may have resulted in abundant dust sources and increased dust transport capability, as indicated by increased grain size and the mass accumulation rate of L9 loess.

  16. Selection and validation of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in the brain of the Cephalopod Mollusc Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biffali Elio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is valuable for studying the molecular events underlying physiological and behavioral phenomena. Normalization of real-time PCR data is critical for a reliable mRNA quantification. Here we identify reference genes to be utilized in RT-qPCR experiments to normalize and monitor the expression of target genes in the brain of the cephalopod mollusc Octopus vulgaris, an invertebrate. Such an approach is novel for this taxon and of advantage in future experiments given the complexity of the behavioral repertoire of this species when compared with its relatively simple neural organization. Results We chose 16S, and 18S rRNA, actB, EEF1A, tubA and ubi as candidate reference genes (housekeeping genes, HKG. The expression of 16S and 18S was highly variable and did not meet the requirements of candidate HKG. The expression of the other genes was almost stable and uniform among samples. We analyzed the expression of HKG into two different set of animals using tissues taken from the central nervous system (brain parts and mantle (here considered as control tissue by BestKeeper, geNorm and NormFinder. We found that HKG expressions differed considerably with respect to brain area and octopus samples in an HKG-specific manner. However, when the mantle is treated as control tissue and the entire central nervous system is considered, NormFinder revealed tubA and ubi as the most suitable HKG pair. These two genes were utilized to evaluate the relative expression of the genes FoxP, creb, dat and TH in O. vulgaris. Conclusion We analyzed the expression profiles of some genes here identified for O. vulgaris by applying RT-qPCR analysis for the first time in cephalopods. We validated candidate reference genes and found the expression of ubi and tubA to be the most appropriate to evaluate the expression of target genes in the brain of different octopuses. Our results also underline the

  17. Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in molluscs in the municipality of São Gonçalo, a metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: role of the invasive species Achatina fulica in parasite transmission dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana PM Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the infection dynamics ofAngiostrongylus cantonensisin its possible intermediate hosts over two years in an urban area in the state of Rio de Janeiro where the presence ofA. cantonensis had been previously recorded in molluscs. Four of the seven mollusc species found in the study were exotic.Bradybaena similariswas the most abundant, followed byAchatina fulica, Streptaxissp., Subulina octona, Bulimulus tenuissimus, Sarasinula linguaeformisand Leptinaria unilamellata. Only A. fulicaand B. similariswere parasitised by A. cantonensis and both presented co-infection with other helminths. The prevalence of A. cantonensisin A. fulicawas more than 50% throughout the study. There was an inverse correlation between the population size ofA. fulicaand the prevalence of A. cantonensisand abundance of the latter was negatively related to rainfall. The overall prevalence of A. cantonensisin B. similariswas 24.6%. A. fulicawas the most important intermediary host of A. cantonensisin the studied area andB. similariswas secondary in importance for A. cantonensistransmission dynamics.

  18. Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in molluscs in the municipality of São Gonçalo, a metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: role of the invasive species Achatina fulica in parasite transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana P M; Gentile, Rosana; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Lopes Torres, Eduardo J; Thiengo, Silvana C

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the infection dynamics of Angiostrongylus cantonensisin its possible intermediate hosts over two years in an urban area in the state of Rio de Janeiro where the presence ofA. cantonensis had been previously recorded in molluscs. Four of the seven mollusc species found in the study were exotic.Bradybaena similaris was the most abundant, followed by Achatina fulica, Streptaxis sp., Subulina octona, Bulimulus tenuissimus, Sarasinula linguaeformis and Leptinaria unilamellata. Only A. fulica and B. similaris were parasitised by A. cantonensis and both presented co-infection with other helminths. The prevalence of A. cantonensis in A. fulica was more than 50% throughout the study. There was an inverse correlation between the population size ofA. fulica and the prevalence of A. cantonensis and abundance of the latter was negatively related to rainfall. The overall prevalence of A. cantonensis in B. similaris was 24.6%. A. fulica was the most important intermediary host of A. cantonensis in the studied area and B. similaris was secondary in importance for A. cantonensis transmission dynamics.

  19. The evolution of mollusc shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Carmel; Degnan, Bernard M

    2018-05-01

    Molluscan shells are externally fabricated by specialized epithelial cells on the dorsal mantle. Although a conserved set of regulatory genes appears to underlie specification of mantle progenitor cells, the genes that contribute to the formation of the mature shell are incredibly diverse. Recent comparative analyses of mantle transcriptomes and shell proteomes of gastropods and bivalves are consistent with shell diversity being underpinned by a rapidly evolving mantle secretome (suite of genes expressed in the mantle that encode secreted proteins) that is the product of (a) high rates of gene co-option into and loss from the mantle gene regulatory network, and (b) the rapid evolution of coding sequences, particular those encoding repetitive low complexity domains. Outside a few conserved genes, such as carbonic anhydrase, a so-called "biomineralization toolkit" has yet to be discovered. Despite this, a common suite of protein domains, which are often associated with the extracellular matrix and immunity, appear to have been independently and often uniquely co-opted into the mantle secretomes of different species. The evolvability of the mantle secretome provides a molecular explanation for the evolution and diversity of molluscan shells. These genomic processes are likely to underlie the evolution of other animal biominerals, including coral and echinoderm skeletons. This article is categorized under: Comparative Development and Evolution > Regulation of Organ Diversity Comparative Development and Evolution > Evolutionary Novelties. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Similitud morfológica de espermatozoides de Donax marincovichi y Donax obesulus (Bivalvia: Donacidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carstensen, Daniel; Herrmann, Marko; Laudien, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    La familia Donacidae se distribuye en playas arenosas de todo el mundo, excepto en regiones Polares. Con un número total de 64, muchas de las especies de esta familia son una fuente valiosa para la pesca artesanal D. marincovichi y D. obesulus habitan playas del norte de Chile hasta el norte de Ecuador, donde desarrollan densas poblaciones. La taxonomía de estas especies es fuente de polémica. La morfología de los espermatozoides es frecuentemente útil para la determinación taxonómica de molu...

  1. Optimization and transformation of Arundo donax L. using particle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... Contamination of soils by toxic heavy metal accumulation such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickle. (Ni), phosphorous (P) and ... remediation is an environmentally friendly, cost-effective technology that makes use ...

  2. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE STUDY OF MOLLUSCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Bayne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of conditions and media for the in vitro culture of molluscan cells have yielded advances such that primary cultures can now be maintained for weeks or months. With one exception, molluscan cells have proven refractory to the establishment of continous cell lines. Knowledge derived from these studies has helped investigators maintain and grow intramolluscan parasites in vitro.Recent advances in cell fusion, cell cloning and transfection of oncogenes have yet to be applied in molluscan cell culture. Once established, future cell lines will permit a great variety of studies including the control of gene expression, post-transcriptional processing including glycosylation, and the produc­tion in quantity of molluscan factors such as lectins, hormoned, immunogenic macromolecules and others of interest. In addition these lines will also facilitate screening for molluscan viruses and other cellular pathogens, and the propagation of these putative agents of biological control. Such cell lines would also permit the study of molecular mechanisms of drug and hormone actions, and the rational design of drugs.Molecular genetic protocols have been restricted so far to studies of evolution and systematics within molluscan taxa. Both RNA and DNA probes are being developed from ribosomal, mitochondrial and nuclear compartments. Both direct sequencing and restriction length polymorphisms detected using endonucleases are yielding useful data.

  3. Travel report Mauritania bivalve Molluscs october 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.

    2008-01-01

    During the last four years Mauritania has been working on the completion of a Food Safety Program of Bivalve Mollusks, in order to obtain an export approval by the Europe Union. During the preparations for an inspection by the FVO (Food and Veterinary Office) no fisheries or production activities

  4. Early development of the aplacophoran mollusc Chaetoderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    The early development of the trochophore larva of the aplacophoran Chaetoderma nitidulum (Mollusca: Caudofoveata = Chaetodermomorpha) is described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and using fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy of the muscle system...

  5. Příspěvek k poznání vodních měkkýšů evropsky významné lokality Bystřice se zaměřením na populaci velevruba tupého (Unio crassus A contribution to the knowledge of aquatic molluscs of the Bystřice SCI focused on the population of Unio crassus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Beran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings results of a malacological survey of the Bystřice River on the territory of the Site of Community Importance (SCI Bystřice (Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic. The research was focused on the population of endangered bivalve Unio crassus which is the main object of conservation of this SCI. Twenty one species of aquatic molluscs (11 gastropods, 10 bivalves were found in 2010. Most of the molluscs belong to common and widespread species. Altogether 26 species have been found during research in the Bystřice River since 2000. Expansion of non-native species Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Physella acuta is the most visible change in comparison with the previous research. The research in 2010 confirmed existence of the occurrence of Unio crassus all over the SCI and also upstream of this site. The population density documented in 2010 was higher than that found during the previous research. In the upper part of the SCI, the density of U. crassus population was at least 1 ind./1 m of the river stream while in the lower part it did not exceed 1 ind. per 10 m of the river. The reason was the canalisation of the river and the absence of suitable sediments. The occurrence of the bivalve was not recorded downstream of the SCI.

  6. First records of freshwater molluscs from the ecological reserve El Edén, Quintana Roo, México Primeros registros de moluscos dulceacuícolas de la Reserva Ecológica El Edén, Quintana Roo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cózatl-Manzano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of the freshwater molluscs at El Edén was unknown. This is the first treatment of them, allowing us to compare spatial and temporal species distribution. Eleven species of freshwater molluscs were found in 2 surveys carried in March (dry season and September (rainy season 1998 at the reserve El Edén. A total of 266 individuals were collected; 8 pulmonates, Mayabina spiculata, Mexinauta impluviatus, Physa sp., Biomphalaria havanensis, Drepanotrema lucidum, Drepanotrema kermatoides, Planorbella (Pierosoma trivolvis, and Planorbula armigera; 2 prosobranchs, Pyrgophorus sp. and Pomacea flagellata; and one bivalve, Musculium transversum. Pulmonata dominate over Prosobranchia species in diversity. No significant differences were observed in diversity between dry and rainy seasons. However, species abundance recorded in both seasons was very low, probably due to a combination of inadequate food resources and disadvantageous climate (periodic conditions of drought and flooding. Further studies using a combination of different sampling methods and more frequent samplings are needed to confirm or identify these factors. We suggest that future studies should focus on cultivation of species with economic potential such as the apple snail Pomacea flagellata.La diversidad de moluscos dulceacuícolas de la Reserva Ecológica El Edén se desconocía; este estudio constituye su primer registro. Asimismo, esta investigación permite comparar la distribución espacial y temporal de las especies registradas. Las recolectas se efectuaron en marzo (temporada de sequía y septiembre (lluvia de 1998. Se registran 11 especies (266 individuos en total, 8 pulmonados: Mayabina spiculata, Mexinauta impluviatus, Physa sp., Biomphalaria havanensis, Drepanotrema lucidum, Drepanotrema kermatoides, Planorbella (Pierosoma trivolvis y Planorbula armigera; dos prosobranquios: Pyrgophorus sp. y Pomacea flagellata, y un bivalvo: Musculium transversum. Los pulmonados

  7. Pb and Sr isotopes and trace metals in molluscs: constraints on metal sources and water fluxes in a coastal lagoon (Thau, France); Isotope du Pb, du Sr et metaux traces dans les mollusques: contraintes sur les sources de metaux et les mouvements d'eaux dans une lagune cotiere (Thau, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labonne, M

    1998-07-01

    Because of its unique ability to characterize the origins and quantify the fluxes of waters and their loads, isotopic geochemistry is being increasingly used in environmental problems. On the other hand, molluscs are known to concentrate metals in a very strong manner and equilibrate relatively rapidly with their environment. They are used in many programs of coastal survey (Mussel Watch, RNO,...). The originality of our work is to apply isotopic systems (Pb, Sr) to living organisms, in order to: 1- identify the metal sources; 2- determine their proportions in the lagoon and 3- to trace the water movements. The Thau lagoon (Herault, S. France) presents various potential sources of metals inputs: heavy traffic road, Sete harbour, various industries (cement factory, fertilizers...), agriculture, camping areas and leisure ports, not to mention natural (rock) sources. Our study deals with the metal and alkali, alkali-earth concentrations, Pb and Sr isotopes determined on both mussels implanted in the lagoon and wild mussels. We also compare our mussel results with those determined on clams which live at the water/sediments interface. A first study deals with the metal accumulation in laboratory experiments using mono-isotopic tracers 'spike'. It shows that the new metal is being superimposed to the metals initially present in the organisms; this effect is seen within a few days, although variable depending on elements (Zn, Cd, Pb). We have sampled the introduced mussels 4 times a year and we see that the concentration fluctuations are principally related to animal weight variations. The flesh isotopic compositions usually define nice alignments depending on season, indicative of a progressive mixing between two main components: one natural, one anthropogenic. Depending on winds,two influences of seawater entries orlocal water treatment plants effluents can be shown. We have compared past and present metal levels and origins in the area by analysing also

  8. Diversity patterns and freshwater molluscs similarities in small water reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Čejka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The survey presents the molluscan fauna from six impoundment systems of two sides (NW and SE of the Small Carpathians. Altogether 25 species (15 gastropod and 10 bivalve species were identified in reservoirs and their subsystems (inflows and outlets. The number of species per site ranged from 2 to 12, the mean number of species per site was 7. The mean number of individuals per site ranged from 15 to 905 (mean 174 ind/m2. Radix auricularia, R. ovata, Gyraulus albus, Gyraulus parvus/laevis, Hippeutis complanatus and Pisidium casertanum were present in more than 50% of reservoirs. The most abundant and frequent species in the entire area and all subsystems were Pisidium casertanum, Pisidium subtruncatum and Gyraulus parvus/laevis. Faunistic similarity indices indicate moderate degree of beta diversity i.e., differentiation among the sites; good separation of sites by cluster analysis indicates a different composition among inflows/outlets and littoral molluscan faunas of reservoirs.

  9. A bird's eye survey of Central American planorbid molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraense, W Lobato

    2003-01-01

    In the course of two trips to Central America (June 1967 and JulyAugust 1976) I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of Planorbis nicaraguanus Morelet, 1849, anatomically defined in this paper, and of P. yzabalensis Crosse & Fischer, 1879, the identity of the latter with Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835) is confirmed. The following planorbid species were also found: Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817) in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Belize; H. duryi (Wetherby, 1879) in Costa Rica; Biomphalaria helophila (Orbigny, 1835) in Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and El Salvador; B. kuhniana (Clessin, 1883) in Panama; B. obstructa (Morelet,1849) in Guatemala, Belize and El Salvador; B. straminea (Dunker, 1848) in Costa Rica; B. subprona (Martens, 1899) in Guatemala; D. anatinum (Orbigny,1835) in Belize, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Costa Rica; D. depressissimum (Moricand,1839) in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama; D. lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839) in Guatemala, Belize and Nicaragua; D. surinamense (Clessin, 1884) in Costa Rica and Panama; and Gyraulus percarinatus sp. n. in Panama. The occurrence of B. kuhniana and D. surinamense is first recorded in Central America, and Gyraulus percarinatus is the first representative of the genus provenly occurring in the American continent south of the United States. The following synonymy is proposed: Planorbis declivis Tate, 1870 = Biomphalaria helophila (Orbigny, 1835); Planorbis isthmicus Pilsbry, 1920 = Biomphalaria kuhniana (Clessin, 1883); Planorbis cannarum Morelet, 1849 and Segmentina donbilli Tristram, 1861 = Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849); and Planorbis yzabalensis Crosse & Fischer, 1879 = Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835), confirming Aguayo (1933).

  10. Toxicity of tributyltin in the marine mollusc Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Josephine A; Depledge, Michael H; Galloway, Tamara S

    2005-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that tributyltin (TBT) is genotoxic to the early life stages of marine mussels and worms. Here, the toxicity of TBT to adult organisms was determined using a suite of biomarkers designed to detect cytotoxic, immunotoxic and genotoxic effects. Exposure of adult mussels, Mytilus edulis, to environmentally realistic concentrations of TBTO for 7 days resulted in a statistically significant decrease in cell viability at concentrations of 0.5 microg/l and above. TBT had no effect on phagocytic activity or antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay). There was a statistically significant increase in DNA damage detected using the comet and micronucleus assays between the controls and 0.5, 1 and 5 microg/l of TBTO (P > 0.0005). Furthermore there was a strong correlation between DNA strand breaks (comet assay) and formation of micronuclei (P = 0.0005; R2 = 61.5%). Possible mechanisms by which TBT could damage DNA either directly or indirectly are discussed including the possibility that TBT is genotoxic due to its ability to disrupt calcium homeostasis.

  11. A comparison of mollusc diversity between the relatively pristine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-02

    Wittmann, ...... of suitable biotopes and possible negative impacts from the .... BROWN DS (1994) Freshwater Snails of Africa and their Medical. Importance .... Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria. TAYLOR ...

  12. Isotopic and elemental proxies in mollusc and brachiopod calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    composition of the oceans have changed. These changes of environmental conditions and seawater composition are primarily caused by plate tectonic processes, the cyclic variations of the Earth’s orbital parameters and living organisms, actively causing, and passively adapting to shifting conditions...

  13. Growth and reproduction of two molluscs from an exposed sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    greater size on Maitland River beach than on any other beach in the ... tions suggests that large quantities of available food in the form of carrion ... was done in preference to treating shells with hydrochloric acid and ...... numerous birds and fishes the only defmite predators to date are the ... Low predation is therefore the.

  14. Caribbean land molluscs: Bulimulidae II. Plekocheilus and Naesiotus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, A.S.H.

    1975-01-01

    The second part of this series on the Bulimulidae deals with the genera Plekocheilus Guilding and Naesiotus Albers, two and six species of which are recognized respectively. The following new synonymy is proposed: Bulimulus chrysaloides Pilsbry = Naesiotus chrysalis (Pfeiffer). Bulimulus

  15. Reconstructing diet composition on the basis of faeces in a mollusc-eating wader, the Knot Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekinga, A.; Piersma, T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods are described to assess the molluscan diet of Knots feeding on intertidal flats in western Europe from their faecal output. The size distributions of two common bivalve prey, Macoma balthica and Cerastoderma edule, can be estimated from the heights of shell hinges retrieved from droppings.

  16. Chemical pretreatment of Arundo donax L. for second-generation ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva Lemões

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Alkaline pretreatment was essential for obtaining high concentrations of glucose and xylose. The application of an alkaline pretreatment alone resulted in high glucose and xylose concentrations. This result is very significant as it allows a cost reduction by eliminating one step.

  17. The wedge clam Donax serra, popularly known as the white sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    this stock as a potential luxury food resource, which ... and ecological attributes of the beach system, such external effects were identified and ... export market (to Hong Kong) for R24.70 kg-1 and negative NPVs for ... fishing, plentiful bait supplies and numerous other ..... management strategies to minimize the above im-.

  18. Potential of giant reed (Arundo donax L. for second generation ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fernanda Lemons e Silva

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The fermentability of the pretreated biomass was performed successfully through the conception of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation resulting in approximately 75 L of ethanol per ton of cellulose.

  19. Effects of hydrothermal pre-treatments on Giant reed (Arundo donax) methane yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Girolamo, Giuseppe; Grigatti, Marco; Barbanti, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    /20min, 180°C/10min and 180°C/20min. Conversely, the eight pre-treatments with H2SO4 catalyst incurred a methanogenic inhibition in association with high SO42- concentration in the hydrolysate, known to enhance sulphate reducing bacteria. Furfurals were also detected in the hydrolysate of five strong...

  20. Growth Hanley and production of Donax sordidus on an open sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1973; Trueman 1971). On South African shores only the large species, D. serra ... November 1975 a size range of animals was collected for determination of a ..... predation uneconomical. There does ... Behavioural adaptations of intertidal ...

  1. Mapping giant reed (Arundo donax) infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested...

  2. Allocation pattern, ion partitioning, and chlorophyll a fluorescence in Arundo donax L. in responses to salinity stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pompeiano, Antonio; Landi, M.; Meloni, G.; Vita, F.; Guglielminetti, L.; Guidi, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 4 (2017), s. 613-622 ISSN 1126-3504 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : biomass allocation * giant reed * photoinhibition * proline * salt stress Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.390, year: 2016

  3. CASA in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Gerhard; Bennett, Monique; Bishop, John D D

    2018-04-09

    Sperm movement has been described in several phyla of invertebrates. Yet, sperm motility has only been quantified using computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA-Mot) in externally fertilising species (broadcast spawners) of two phyla, molluscs and echinoderms. In the present study we quantified in detail the nature of the sperm tracks, percentage motility groupings and detailed kinematics of rapid-, medium- and slow-swimming spermatozoa in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and four species never previously studied by CASA-Mot, namely the molluscs Choromytilus meridionalis, Donax serra and Haliotis midae and the echinoderm Parechinus angulosus. A feature common to all these species are the helical tracks, the diameter of which seems to be species specific. Using CASA-Mot, the behaviour of spermatozoa was also studied over time and in the presence of egg water and Ca2+ modulators such as caffeine and procaine hydrochloride. For the first time, we show that hyperactivation can be induced in all species in the presence of egg water (sea water that was mixed with mature eggs and then centrifuged) and/or caffeine, and these hyperactivated sperm tracks were characterised using CASA-Mot. We relate the different patterns of sperm motility and behaviour to reproductive strategies such as broadcast spawning and spermcasting, and briefly review studies using CASA-Mot on other invertebrates.

  4. Freshwater molluscs from volcanic areas as model organisms to assess adaptation to metal chronic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaldibar, Benat; Rodrigues, Armindo; Lopes, Marco; Amaral, Andre; Marigomez, Ionan; Soto, Manu

    2006-01-01

    Cellular biomarkers of exposure and biological effects were measured in digestive gland of snails (Physa acuta) sampled in sites with and without active volcanism in Sao Miguel Island (Azores). Metal content in digestive cell lysosomes was determined by image analysis after autometallography (AMG) as volume density of autometallographed black silver deposits (Vv BSD ). Lysosomal structural changes (lysosomal volume, surface and numerical densities - Vv LYS, Sv LYS and Nv LYS- , and surface-to-volume ratio - S/V LYS -) were quantified by image analysis, after demonstration of β-glucuronidase activity, on digestive gland cryotome sections. Additional chemical analyses (atomic absorption spectrophotometry) were done in the digestive gland of snails. The highest metal concentrations were found in snails from the active volcanic site, which agreed with high intralysomal Vv BSD . Digestive cell lysosomes in snails inhabiting sites with active volcanism resembled a typical stress situation (enlarged and less numerous lysosomes). In conclusion, the biomarkers used in this work can be applied to detect changes in metal bioavailability due to chronic exposure to metals (volcanism), in combination with chemical analyses

  5. Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis in Vampyroteuthis infernalis Chun — a relict cephalopod mollusc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, John M.

    1990-03-01

    Spermiogenesis in the relict deep-sea cephalopod Vampyroteuthis infernalis Chun is examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the results compared with available data on other cephalopods. Early spermatids of Vampyroteuthis exhibit an ovoid nucleus (with dense irregular patches), numerous mitochondria and a pair of triplet substructure centrioles (arranged parallel to each other). Subsequently, the following morphological changes take place: (1) nuclear contents condense into a fibrous reticulum, then into thick fibres; (2) the acrosomal vesicle (presumably Golgi-derived) positions itself in a shallow depression at the nuclear apex; (3) the flagellum forms from one of the two centrioles; (4) mitochondria cluster around the flagellum at the base of the nucleus; (5) a dense, fibrous plug forms within the basal invagination of the nucleus. Microtubules surround the acrosome and condensing nucleus of spermatids. The dense plug is of special systematic importance since it also occurs in spermatids and spermatozoa of Octopus spp., but not in any investigated species of the Sepiida, Sepiolida or Teuthida. Late spermatids and mature spermatozoa of Vampyroteuthis strongly resemble developing spermatids of Octopus, suggesting a close phylogenetic relationship between Vampyroteuthis (and the Vampyromorpha) and octopods.

  6. Hg concentrations and related risk assessment in coral reef crustaceans, molluscs and fish from New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Warnau, Michel; Churlaud, Carine; Bustamante, Paco

    2009-01-01

    There is a dramatic lack of data on Hg levels in marine organisms from tropical areas, and in particular from New Caledonia. For the first time, this study reports the total Hg concentrations in the tissues of several marine taxa from the New Caledonian lagoon. Seafood from both wild and farmed populations was considered. Hg concentrations varied over three orders of magnitudes according to factors including species, age (size/weight), trophic level, lifestyle and geographical origin. Taking into account the edible tissues, estimations of the amount of flesh that should be consumed by a 60-kg person to reach the Hg Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) reveal acceptable risk for Human health in general. However, a risk was clearly identified in one site of the lagoon (i.e. Grande Rade) where high Hg concentrations were measured. These concentrations were higher than values reported in the current literature.

  7. Hg concentrations and related risk assessment in coral reef crustaceans, molluscs and fish from New Caledonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Warnau, Michel; Churlaud, Carine; Bustamante, Paco

    2009-01-01

    There is a dramatic lack of data on Hg levels in marine organisms from tropical areas, and in particular from New Caledonia. For the first time, this study reports the total Hg concentrations in the tissues of several marine taxa from the New Caledonian lagoon. Seafood from both wild and farmed populations was considered. Hg concentrations varied over three orders of magnitudes according to factors including species, age (size/weight), trophic level, lifestyle and geographical origin. Taking into account the edible tissues, estimations of the amount of flesh that should be consumed by a 60-kg person to reach the Hg Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) reveal acceptable risk for Human health in general. However, a risk was clearly identified in one site of the lagoon (i.e. Grande Rade) where high Hg concentrations were measured. These concentrations were higher than values reported in the current literature. - This work reports the first assessment of Hg levels in edible organisms from the New Caledonian lagoon and the associated risk linked to their consumption by Human

  8. Macrobenthic molluscs from a marine - lagoonal environmental transition in Lesvos Island (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evagelopoulos, Athanasios; Koutsoubas, Drosos; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Katsiaras, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an occurence dataset, also including numerical abundance and biomass data, pertaining to the macrobenthic molluscan assemblages from a marine - lagoonal environmental transition. The study system was the soft-substrate benthoscape of the area of the Kalloni solar saltworks (Lesvos Island, Greece). Specifically, the study area extended from the infralittoral zone of the inner Kalloni Gulf (marine habitat) to the bottoms of the first two evaporation ponds of the Kalloni solar saltworks (lagoonal habitat). Bottom sediment samples (3 replicates) were collected with a Van Veen grab sampler (0.1 m 2 ) at four sampling sites, along a 1.5 km long line transect that spanned the marine - lagoonal environmental transition. A total of four surveys were carried out seasonally in 2004.  A total of 39,345 molluscan individuals were sorted out of the sediment samples and were identified to 71 species, belonging to the Gastropoda (36), Bivalvia (34) and Scaphopoda (1) classes. Numerical abundance and wet biomass (with shells) data are included in the dataset. The dataset described in the present paper partially fills a significant gap in the scientific literature: Because ecological research of coastal lagoons has seldom explicitly considered the marine - lagoonal habitats interface, there are no openly accessible datasets pertaining to the particular structural component of the transitional waters benthoscapes of the Mediterranean Sea. Such datasets could prove valuable in the research of the structure and functioning of transitional waters benthoscapes. The present dataset is available as a supplementary file (Suppl. material 1) and can also be accessed at http://ipt.medobis.eu/resource?r=kalloni_saltworks_phd.

  9. Plant indicator values as a tool for land mollusc autecology assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horsák, M.; Hájek, Michal; Tichý, L.; Juřičková, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2007), s. 161-171 ISSN 1146-609X Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB601630501 Program:KJ Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Ellenberg indicator values * animal autecology assessment * species response curve Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.306, year: 2007

  10. Vibrio tapetis Displays an Original Type IV Secretion System in Strains Pathogenic for Bivalve Molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela M. Dias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Brown Ring Disease (BRD caused high mortality rates since 1986 in the Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum introduced and cultured in Western Europe from the 1970s. The causative agent of BRD is a Gram-Negative bacterium, Vibrio tapetis, which is also pathogenic to fish. Here we report the first assembly of the complete genome of V. tapetis CECT4600T, together with the genome sequences of 16 additional strains isolated across a broad host and geographic range. Our extensive genome dataset allowed us to describe the pathogen pan- and core genomes and to identify putative virulence factors. The V. tapetis core genome consists of 3,352 genes, including multiple potential virulence factors represented by haemolysins, transcriptional regulators, Type I restriction modification system, GGDEF domain proteins, several conjugative plasmids, and a Type IV secretion system. Future research on the coevolutionary arms race between V. tapetis virulence factors and host resistance mechanisms will improve our understanding of how pathogenicity develops in this emerging pathogen.

  11. Bonamia parasites: a rapidly changing perspective on a genus of important mollusc pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, M.Y.; Culloty, S.C.; Lynch, S.A.; Arzul, I.; Carnegie, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Organisms of the genus Bonamia are intracellular protistan parasites of oysters. To date, 4 species have been described (B. ostreae, B. exitiosa, B. perspora and B. roughleyi), although the status of B. roughleyi is controversial. Introduction especially of B. ostreae and B. exitiosa to naïve host

  12. Zoology: Molluscs All Beneath the Sun, One Shell, Two Shells, More, or None.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigwart, Julia D

    2017-07-24

    One great remaining problem in evolutionary biology is to understand which common ancestor could have given rise to descendants as different as giant squid and microscopic pea clams. Two new papers provide important insights into molluscan body plan disparity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, B.C., E-mail: Ben.Jaeschke@gmail.com [Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Lind, O.C. [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Bradshaw, C. [Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Salbu, B. [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway)

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gy h{sup −1}) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the “no-effect dose” are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment, for example potential recycling within a population, or trophic transfer in the food chain. - Highlights: • Highly radioactive particles were experimentally introduced into blue mussels. • Over one third of particles introduced were retained, potentially permanently. • Physiological and toxicological effects were observed in tissues and haemolymph.

  14. Comparison between EDXRF and FAAS for Zn determination in terrestrial molluscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Julyanne T.B.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Santos, Katarine M.B.; Franca, Elvis J., E-mail: julyanne.melo@ufpe.br, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com, E-mail: katarine.mizan@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2015-07-01

    Even with the most advanced analytical techniques, achieving the true values of a given analyte in a sample cannot be an easy task. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) have been widely used for analysis of the chemical composition of biological matrices in environmental studies. However, depending on the sample matrix, a combination of techniques could be needed for the correct determination of the analyte. Zinc distribution in Littoraria angulifera and Melampus coffea is quite dependent on the environment, so that, diverse methods could be necessary to evaluate the chemical composition of these mollusks. This study aimed at the comparison between EDXRF and FAAS techniques for determining Zn in the soft tissues of terrestrial mollusks. The animals were collected in three mangroves in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. After shell removal, tissues were lyophilized and milled in a mortar. Test portions of 500 mg were analyzed by EDXRF, followed by chemical treatment for FAAS analysis. For the quality of the analytical procedure, the standard reference material SRM 2976 Mussel Tissue was analyzed together with the samples. The results for the analysis of the certified reference material SRM 2976 indicated the quality of the analytical procedure for both techniques. Adjusted-R{sup 2} between EDXRF and FAAS results was 0.95, indicating a good equivalence of Zn determination by both techniques. However, some improvement of EDXRF determination could be necessary because of the tendency of lower results compared to FAAS, probably related to spectral interferences during the analysis. (author)

  15. Comparison between EDXRF and FAAS for Zn determination in terrestrial molluscs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Julyanne T.B.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Santos, Katarine M.B.; Franca, Elvis J.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Even with the most advanced analytical techniques, achieving the true values of a given analyte in a sample cannot be an easy task. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) have been widely used for analysis of the chemical composition of biological matrices in environmental studies. However, depending on the sample matrix, a combination of techniques could be needed for the correct determination of the analyte. Zinc distribution in Littoraria angulifera and Melampus coffea is quite dependent on the environment, so that, diverse methods could be necessary to evaluate the chemical composition of these mollusks. This study aimed at the comparison between EDXRF and FAAS techniques for determining Zn in the soft tissues of terrestrial mollusks. The animals were collected in three mangroves in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. After shell removal, tissues were lyophilized and milled in a mortar. Test portions of 500 mg were analyzed by EDXRF, followed by chemical treatment for FAAS analysis. For the quality of the analytical procedure, the standard reference material SRM 2976 Mussel Tissue was analyzed together with the samples. The results for the analysis of the certified reference material SRM 2976 indicated the quality of the analytical procedure for both techniques. Adjusted-R 2 between EDXRF and FAAS results was 0.95, indicating a good equivalence of Zn determination by both techniques. However, some improvement of EDXRF determination could be necessary because of the tendency of lower results compared to FAAS, probably related to spectral interferences during the analysis. (author)

  16. Heavy metal concentrations in marine molluscs from the Moroccan coastal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maanan, Mohamed [Geolittomer, UMR 6554 LETG - CNRS, Universite de Nantes, BP 81227, 44312 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: mohamed.maanan@univ-nantes.fr

    2008-05-15

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), clams (Venerupis decussatus) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were sampled seasonally during 2004-2005, from different coastal environments of Morocco in order to measure their accumulated heavy metal concentrations. The concentrations of Hg and Pb were determined by AFS and ICP-MS methods, respectively, whilst the remaining metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn and Ni) were quantified by AAS. The soft tissue concentrations of the mussels were on average 7.2 mg kg{sup -1} (Cd), 9.6 mg kg{sup -1} (Pb), 0.6 mg kg{sup -1} (Hg), 26.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Cu), 8.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Cr), 292 mg kg{sup -1} (Zn), 20.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Mn) and 32.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Ni). The highest tissue heavy metal concentrations were recorded in the south from the industrial area of Jorf Lasfar. The relationships between metal concentration and season in each species showed very similar annual profiles with a peak observed around spring-summer. Statistical analysis indicated that different species showed different bioaccumulation of metals depending on study site and season. - The accumulated metal concentrations in bivalves from the clean stations may be considered as useful Atlantic coast reference background levels for future comparison.

  17. Biodepuration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from a bivalve mollusc, Mercenaria mercenaria L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanacredl, J.T.; Cardenas, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Mercenaria mercenaria, exposed in vitro for 48 h to nine parent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in waste crankcase oil (WCCO) and analyzed by multiparametric analysis over a 45-day depuration period in an activated carbon filtration aquaria system, did not depurate PAHs, but rather maintained them at detectable levels. Uptake of PAHs was shown to be directly related to clam weight. A cluster analysis of empirical results reaffirmed a biostabilization in PAH groupings in clam tissue over a 45-day depuration period and exhibited no evidence of a decreasing trend in total PAHs when subjected to ANOVA. Due to the commercial importance of hard-shell clams, the practices of clam depuration and clam relaying are reviewed in light of potential long-terms public health exposures to low-level xenobiotics and the implications for human consumers

  18. Gynogenetic induction in marine bivalve molluscs for improvement of stocks: Standardization of some important factors

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.

    Experiments conducted for standardizing sperm density for artificial insemination of Chlamys mobilis prior to inducing gynogenesis by ultra-violet rays irradiated sperms showed that 10:1 ratio of sperms to eggs should be maintained for getting...

  19. Yessotoxin detection in bivalve molluscs: A case study from coastal mussel farms (Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Graziano Mudadu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first communication relating to the presence of yessotoxins in Mytilus galloprovincialis from coastal mussel farms (Sardinia, western Mediterranean detected during 2008 and 2013 through a monitoring programme. The paper emphasizes how the changes both in yessotoxin permitted limits and used methods, established by legislation, have influenced the interpretation of the obtained results. Consequently, the samples that resulted negative during 2008 would have been positive until August 2013 and negative from September 2013 up to now, and the samples that were positive in 2013 would have been positive in 2008 and negative nowadays, according to Regulation currently in force. Regular monitoring of biotoxins demonstrated that, although yessotoxins have been rarely present in the past in Sardinia, they may cause toxicity in shellfish. So, it’s important to keep up on legislation’s changing and laboratory methods.

  20. Phenoloxidase activity in larval and juvenile homogenates and adult plasma and haemocytes of bivalve molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-González, Antonio; Maeda-Martínez, Alfonso N; Vargas-Albores, Francisco; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Robles-Mungaray, Miguel

    2003-10-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) activity was studied in larval and juvenile homogenates and in the plasma and haemocytes of adult Crassostrea gigas, Argopecten ventricosus, Nodipecten subnodosus, and Atrina maura. Samples were tested for the presence of PO activity by incubation with the substrate L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine using trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, laminarin, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to elicit activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) system. PO activity was not detected in larval homogenate. In juvenile homogenate, PO activity was found only in C. gigas and N. subnodosus. PO activity was present in adult samples and was enhanced by elicitors in the plasma of all species tested, but in haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS) of only N. subnodosus. Activation of proPO by laminarin was suppressed by a protease inhibitor cocktail (P-2714) in plasma and HLS of all species tested.

  1. The evolution of developmental programs : a case study in the gastropod mollusc Patella vulgata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederbragt, Alexander Johan

    2002-01-01

    At the interface between evolutionary biology and developmental biology is the so-called field of evolutionary developmental biology (‘evo-devo’ in short). This field asks how different adult animals (species) came into being by heritable changes during their embryonic development. One way to study

  2. Survival of egg-laying controlling neuroendocrine cells during reproductive senescence of a mollusc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, C.

    2004-01-01

    During brain aging neuronal degradation occurs. In some neurons this may result in degeneration and cell death, still other neurons may survive and maintain their basic properties. The present study deals with survival of the egg-laying controlling neuroendocrine caudodorsal cells (CDCs) during

  3. Monitoring the presence of domoic acid in the production areas of bivalve molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachele Rossi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Algal biotoxins, chemical compounds produced by some microscopic algae, constitute the phytoplankton. The mussels, feeding on phytoplankton, can accumulate these compounds to become themselves toxic. There have been several cases of food poisoning by consumption of contaminated shellfish. Such food poisoning have pushed our health care system to provide monitoring of shellfish in the framework of the monitoring plans carried out by AASSLL. In this paper we report the results obtained monitoring the presence of amnesic shellfish poisoning biotoxins, like domoic acid and its isomers, produced by Pseudonitzschia algae. The analyses were carried out by using both the high-performance liquid chromatography- ultraviolet official method and an experimental method performed with a time-offlight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOF. The 100% of samples analysed by the official method have always been below the limits of sensitivity (except one sample, and the 65% of samples analysed by ESI-TOF showed the presence of domoic acid.

  4. Latent effects of Iranian crude oil and a chemical oil dispersant on red sea molluscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, R

    1973-01-01

    Predation rate of the gastropod drill, Drupa granulata, on the mussel, Mytilus variabilis, was measured over a period of 28 days after adults from both species had been immersed for 168 h in seawater solutions containing high sublethal concentrations (10 ml/liter) of Iranian crude oil. Predation rate was three times higher in controls than in the group where both predator and prey had been exposed initially; intermediate values were determined among groups where only one species had been treated initially. Fecundity of drills, as evidenced by number of egg cases deposited, was directly related to mussel consumption. In a similar study with a chemical oil dispersant, exposure to high (0.003 ml/liter) sublethal levels for 168 h did not affect markedly the rate at which mussels were destroyed and consumed during post-treatment. However, the fecundity of untreated drills feeding on untreated mussels (controls) was 3 to 10 times greater than among groups in which one or bothsc species had been exposed initially to dispersant. Except for mussels consumed by drills, there were no deaths during the post-treatment period in either study, and all organisms appeared normal.

  5. Biodiversity of trematodes in their intermediate mollusc and fish hosts in the freshwater ecosystems of Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Sures, B.; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 3 (2016), s. 283-293 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diplostomum * life cycle * cryptic diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016

  6. Chemical diversity in opisthobranch molluscs from scarcely investigated Indo-Pacific areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Guo, Y.-W.; Fakhr, I.M.I.; Mollo, E.

    on Nudibranchs Nudibranchs are exclusively carnivorous with a broad range of alimentary habits. They appear to have the ability to sequester, accumulate and modify dietary metabolites as well as to synthesize defensive compounds de novo (Cimino and Ghiselin... of the chemical data reviewed in this chapter, taking into account alimentary habits and geographical chemical variations, suggests some interesting generalizations. 8.6.1 Nudibranchs The intra-specific geographic variations observed in the chemical...

  7. Kahalalide F analogues from the mucous secretion of Indian sacoglossan mollusc Elysia ornata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ciavatta, M.L.; PrabhaDevi; Carbone, M.; Mathieu, V.; Kiss, R.; Casapullo, A.; Gavagnin, M.

    , better delivery, or longer half-life. More than 150 analogues were obtained by solid phase peptide synthesis8,9 and more recently a semi-synthetic approach to produce KF analogues starting from natural KF has been also performed.10In parallel...

  8. Mollusc shells as archival indicators of metal contamination in the Australian antarctic marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Although considered by many to be a pristine environment past activities in Antarctica have caused localised contamination. In particular, the practice of disposing of station waste in open tips adjacent to the seashore has caused heavy metals to migrate to the marine environment. Times have changed and these practices are no longer permitted. Under international agreements, such as the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty System, operators are now required to clean-up these sites so long as the act of clean-up does not cause greater environmental harm than leaving them where they are. The Australian Antarctic Division has embarked on a program to develop techniques for clean-up and remediation of disused waste disposal sites and is also developing techniques for monitoring the environment to ensure that clean-up does not cause greater environmental harm. The Antarctic clam, Laternula elliptica, is common in near shore sediments around the entire coast of Antarctica. It is a filter feeder that extracts suspended sediments from the water column and has been suggested as a candidate for mussel watch-type monitoring in Antarctica. Contaminants in waste disposal tips in Antarctica are likely to be mobilised in pulses caused by the seasonal flush of melting snow as it passes through the contaminated material. As a filter feeder Laternula will be exposed to the highest concentrations of contaminants while they remain in suspension. If contaminants are sequestered into the shells of the bivalve and if their levels in the shell can be analysed in relation to the annual growth rings then they may prove to be a useful archive of past environmental contamination. Specimens of Laternula were exposed to known concentrations of copper and cadmium under aquarium conditions in Antarctica to understand accumulation and depuration rates in the soft tissues. This information is used to assist interpretation of concentrations in animals collected from sites subject to run-off from disused tips. The shells from these animals are to be analysed using SIMS to determine whether they store a time-series record of exposure to these metals

  9. Biodiversity census of Lake St Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park (South Africa: Gastropod molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Perissinotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent dry phase experienced by the St Lucia estuarine system has led to unprecedented desiccation and hypersaline conditions through most of its surface area. This has changed only recently, at the end of 2011, with the onset of a new wet phase that has already caused a major shift to oligo- and mesohaline conditions. The estuary mouth, however, remains closed to the ocean, making the weak connection recently established between the St Lucia and the Mfolozi estuaries the only conveyance for marine recruitment. As a result, only 10 indigenous and two alien aquatic gastropod species are currently found living in the St Lucia estuarine lake. This is out of a total of 37 species recorded within the system since the earliest survey undertaken in 1924, half of which have not been reported in the literature before. The tick shell, Nassarius kraussianus, which was consistently found in large abundance prior to the recent dry phase, appears to have temporarily disappeared from the system, probably as a result of the extinction of Zostera marine grasses inside the lake. Population explosions of the bubble shell Haminoea natalensis, with its distinct egg masses, were recorded seasonally until 2009, but the species has subsequently not been observed again. A molecular DNA analysis of the various populations previously reported as belonging to the same assimineid species, variably referred to as Assiminea capensis, A. ovata, or A. bifasciata, has revealed that the St Lucia assemblage actually comprises two very distinct taxa, A. cf. capensis and a species provisionally referred to here as “A.” aff. capensis or simply Assimineidae sp. In the mangroves, the climbing whelk Cerithidea decollata is still found in numbers, while ellobiids such as Cassidula labrella, Melampus semiaratus and M. parvulus are present in low abundances and all previously recorded littorinids have disappeared. A number of alien freshwater species have colonized areas of the system that have remained under low salinity. These include the invasive thiarid Tarebia granifera, which can be found in concentrations exceeding 5000 ind.m-2, the lymnaeid Pseudosuccinea columella and the physid Aplexa marmorata.

  10. Biodiversity census of Lake St Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park (South Africa): Gastropod molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Miranda, Nelson A F; Raw, Jacqueline L; Peer, Nasreen

    2014-01-01

    The recent dry phase experienced by the St Lucia estuarine system has led to unprecedented desiccation and hypersaline conditions through most of its surface area. This has changed only recently, at the end of 2011, with the onset of a new wet phase that has already caused a major shift to oligo- and mesohaline conditions. The estuary mouth, however, remains closed to the ocean, making the weak connection recently established between the St Lucia and the Mfolozi estuaries the only conveyance for marine recruitment. As a result, only 10 indigenous and two alien aquatic gastropod species are currently found living in the St Lucia estuarine lake. This is out of a total of 37 species recorded within the system since the earliest survey undertaken in 1924, half of which have not been reported in the literature before. The tick shell, Nassarius kraussianus, which was consistently found in large abundance prior to the recent dry phase, appears to have temporarily disappeared from the system, probably as a result of the extinction of Zostera marine grasses inside the lake. Population explosions of the bubble shell Haminoea natalensis, with its distinct egg masses, were recorded seasonally until 2009, but the species has subsequently not been observed again. A molecular DNA analysis of the various populations previously reported as belonging to the same assimineid species, variably referred to as Assiminea capensis, A. ovata, or A. bifasciata, has revealed that the St Lucia assemblage actually comprises two very distinct taxa, A. cf. capensis and a species provisionally referred to here as "A." aff. capensis or simply Assimineidae sp. In the mangroves, the climbing whelk Cerithidea decollata is still found in numbers, while ellobiids such as Cassidula labrella, Melampus semiaratus and M. parvulus are present in low abundances and all previously recorded littorinids have disappeared. A number of alien freshwater species have colonized areas of the system that have remained under low salinity. These include the invasive thiarid Tarebia granifera, which can be found in concentrations exceeding 5000 ind.m(-2), the lymnaeid Pseudosuccinea columella and the physid Aplexa marmorata.

  11. Hepatitis A and E Viruses in Wastewaters, in River Waters, and in Bivalve Molluscs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, M; Purpari, G; Della Libera, S; Petricca, S; Guercio, A; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Equestre, M; Fratini, M; Muscillo, M; La Rosa, Giuseppina

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have reported the detection of hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) virus in sewage waters, indicating a possibility of contamination of aquatic environments. The objective of the present study was to assess the occurrence of HAV and HEV in different water environments, following the route of contamination from raw sewage through treated effluent to the surface waters receiving wastewater discharges . Bivalve molluscan shellfish samples were also analyzed, as sentinel of marine pollution. Samples were tested by RT-PCR nested type in the VP1/2A junction for HAV, and in the ORF1 and ORF2 regions for HEV. Hepatitis A RNA was detected in 12 water samples: 7/21 (33.3%) raw sewage samples, 3/21 (14.3%) treated sewage samples, and 2/27 (7.4%) river water samples. Five sequences were classified as genotype IA, while the remaining 7 sequences belonged to genotype IB. In bivalves, HAV was detected in 13/56 samples (23.2%), 12 genotype IB and one genotype IA. Whether the presence of HAV in the matrices tested indicates the potential for waterborne and foodborne transmission is unknown, since infectivity of the virus was not demonstrated. HEV was detected in one raw sewage sample and in one river sample, both belonging to genotype 3. Sequences were similar to sequences detected previously in Italy in patients with autochthonous HEV (no travel history) and in animals (swine). To our knowledge, this is the first detection of HEV in river waters in Italy, suggesting that surface water can be a potential source for exposure .

  12. Larval trematodes in freshwater molluscs from the Elbe to Danube rivers (Southeast Germany): before and today

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Haas, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 5 (2006), s. 572-582 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * cercariae * Mollusca Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2006

  13. Is oxidative stress related to cadmium accumulation in the Mollusc Crassostrea angulata?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Mayorga, Dayanara; Laiz, Irene; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2015-04-01

    The kinetics of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of Crassotrea angulata at three concentrations of cadmium (0.088 μM, 0.44 μM and 2.22 μM) was monitored for 28 days. The relationship between accumulation and toxicity was studied using metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) concentration and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) as biochemical endpoints. The activity of enzymes which form part of the antioxidant defense system, in particular glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as enzymatic endpoints, was also assessed. A first order kinetic model demonstrated that the accumulation process does not take place linearly, as the Cd concentration in gills and digestive gland tended toward a stationary state. Metallothionein-like protein is clearly induced by Cd accumulation; however, at high Cd concentrations the detoxification mechanism of this protein is affected. High Cd concentrations (2.22 μM) lead to a decrease in GSH levels, and also inhibit antioxidant enzyme activities, demonstrating the adverse effect of this metal on the antioxidant balance system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection and quantification of Sapovirus in bivalve molluscs from Galicia (NW Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus L Romalde

    2014-06-01

    SaV was detected in 30 of the 168 samples (17,85%. There was no significant difference between the two Rías in terms of detections, although it was observed a seasonality increment of positive samples from November 2011 until April 2012 in both Rías due to the rainy season and the decrease of seawater temperature. Total quantification ranged between 103 and 105 copies of viral RNA/g of digestive tissue (c/g, being mussels the specie with lower main quantification (3,1 x 104 c/g and clams the species with higher medium rates (2,0 x 105 c/g. This represents the first study out of Japan in which human Sapovirus was detected and quantified into human food intended for consumption.

  15. Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeschke, B.C.; Lind, O.C.; Bradshaw, C.; Salbu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr/ 90 Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gy h −1 ) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the “no-effect dose” are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment, for example potential recycling within a population, or trophic transfer in the food chain. - Highlights: • Highly radioactive particles were experimentally introduced into blue mussels. • Over one third of particles introduced were retained, potentially permanently. • Physiological and toxicological effects were observed in tissues and haemolymph

  16. Statistical refinements for data analysis of mollusc reproduction tests: an example with Lymnaea stagnalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik

    -contribution of each individual to the measured response. Furthermore, the combination of a Gamma-Poisson stochastic part with a Weibull concentration-response model allowed accounting for the inter-replicate variability. Second, we checked for the possibility of optimizing the initial experimental design through...... was twofold. First, we refined the statistical analyses of reproduction data accounting for mortality all along the test period. The variable “number of clutches/eggs produced per individual-day” was used for EC x modelling, as classically done in epidemiology in order to account for the time...

  17. Is oxidative stress related to cadmium accumulation in the Mollusc Crassostrea angulata?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macías-Mayorga, Dayanara, E-mail: dayanara.macias@uleam.edu.ec [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucía (CSIC), Campus Río San Pedro, S/N, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Departamento Central De Investigación (DCI), Universidad Laica Eloy Alfaro de Manabí, Vía San Mateo, Manta (Ecuador); Laiz, Irene [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Río San Pedro, S/N, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucía (CSIC), Campus Río San Pedro, S/N, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The cadmium accumulation in C. angulata tended toward a stationary state. • Metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) is clearly induced by Cd accumulation. • The MTLP detoxification mechanism is affected at high Cd concentrations. • Cadmium toxicity causes GSH levels to decrease and inhibits antioxidant enzymes. - Abstract: The kinetics of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of Crassotrea angulata at three concentrations of cadmium (0.088 μM, 0.44 μM and 2.22 μM) was monitored for 28 days. The relationship between accumulation and toxicity was studied using metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) concentration and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) as biochemical endpoints. The activity of enzymes which form part of the antioxidant defense system, in particular glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as enzymatic endpoints, was also assessed. A first order kinetic model demonstrated that the accumulation process does not take place linearly, as the Cd concentration in gills and digestive gland tended toward a stationary state. Metallothionein-like protein is clearly induced by Cd accumulation; however, at high Cd concentrations the detoxification mechanism of this protein is affected. High Cd concentrations (2.22 μM) lead to a decrease in GSH levels, and also inhibit antioxidant enzyme activities, demonstrating the adverse effect of this metal on the antioxidant balance system.

  18. Hg concentrations and related risk assessment in coral reef crustaceans, molluscs and fish from New Caledonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouvelon, Tiphaine [Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite La Rochelle, 2 Rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Warnau, Michel [International Atomic Energy Agency-Marine Environment Laboratories (IAEA-MEL), 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 (Monaco); Churlaud, Carine [Federation de Recherche en Environnement pour le Developpement Durable (FR-EDD), FR CNRS 3097, Centre Commun d' Analyses, 5 Perspectives de l' Ocean, F-17071 La Rochelle Cedex 9 (France); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite La Rochelle, 2 Rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France)], E-mail: pbustama@univ-lr.fr

    2009-01-15

    There is a dramatic lack of data on Hg levels in marine organisms from tropical areas, and in particular from New Caledonia. For the first time, this study reports the total Hg concentrations in the tissues of several marine taxa from the New Caledonian lagoon. Seafood from both wild and farmed populations was considered. Hg concentrations varied over three orders of magnitudes according to factors including species, age (size/weight), trophic level, lifestyle and geographical origin. Taking into account the edible tissues, estimations of the amount of flesh that should be consumed by a 60-kg person to reach the Hg Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) reveal acceptable risk for Human health in general. However, a risk was clearly identified in one site of the lagoon (i.e. Grande Rade) where high Hg concentrations were measured. These concentrations were higher than values reported in the current literature. - This work reports the first assessment of Hg levels in edible organisms from the New Caledonian lagoon and the associated risk linked to their consumption by Human.

  19. Identification of purple dye from molluscs on an excavated textile by non-destructive analytical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margariti, Christina; Protopapas, Stavros; Allen, Norman

    2013-01-01

    been preserved in association with copper. The techniques applied were Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) analysis, Cathodoluminescence and micro Raman. For the first time Cathodoluminescence from an indigoid compound is reported. Comparison of the analysis results...

  20. Is oxidative stress related to cadmium accumulation in the Mollusc Crassostrea angulata?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macías-Mayorga, Dayanara; Laiz, Irene; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cadmium accumulation in C. angulata tended toward a stationary state. • Metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) is clearly induced by Cd accumulation. • The MTLP detoxification mechanism is affected at high Cd concentrations. • Cadmium toxicity causes GSH levels to decrease and inhibits antioxidant enzymes. - Abstract: The kinetics of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of Crassotrea angulata at three concentrations of cadmium (0.088 μM, 0.44 μM and 2.22 μM) was monitored for 28 days. The relationship between accumulation and toxicity was studied using metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) concentration and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) as biochemical endpoints. The activity of enzymes which form part of the antioxidant defense system, in particular glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), as enzymatic endpoints, was also assessed. A first order kinetic model demonstrated that the accumulation process does not take place linearly, as the Cd concentration in gills and digestive gland tended toward a stationary state. Metallothionein-like protein is clearly induced by Cd accumulation; however, at high Cd concentrations the detoxification mechanism of this protein is affected. High Cd concentrations (2.22 μM) lead to a decrease in GSH levels, and also inhibit antioxidant enzyme activities, demonstrating the adverse effect of this metal on the antioxidant balance system

  1. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Mast, C.A. van der; Zandee, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Mussels have a high capacity to accumulate cadmium and other heavy metals without notable toxic effects. However, they have recently found that cadmium is toxic to M. edulis at a relatively low concentration, as anoxic survival time of the animals was significantly shortened after two weeks of exposure to 50 ppb Cd. Based on this finding, a research was started to study the toxic effects of cadmium at a macromolecular level (proteins, RNA). Mussels were exposed to 250 ppb Cd for short periods. Then excised gills were incubated with 35 s-methionine for 4 hours. In the gill tissue of 7 and 15 days Cd-exposed animals, a significantly decrease in the incorporation rate of the introduced label was found of 30 and 37%, respectively. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill tissue proteins

  2. Sulfur contents and sulfur-isotope compositions of thiotrophic symbioses in bivalve molluscs and vestimentiferan worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, R.D.; Fry, B.

    1998-01-01

    Total sulfur (S(TOT)), elemental sulfur (S??) and sulfur-isotope compositions (??34S) of marine animals were analyzed to determine whether these chemical characteristics could help distinguish animals with a sulfur-based, thiotrophic nutrition from animals whose nutrition is based on methanotrophy or on more normal consumption of phytoplankton-derived organic matter. The presence of S??was almost entirely confined to the symbiont-containing tissues of thiotrophs, but was sometimes undetectable in thiotrophic species where sulfide availability was probably low. When S??contents were subtracted, the remaining tissue-sulfur concentrations were similar for all nutritional groups. ??34S values were typically lower for thiotrophs than for other groups, although there was overlap in methanotroph and thiotroph values at some sites. Field evidence supported the existence of small to moderate (1 to 10???)34S fractionations in the uptake of sulfides and metabolism of thiosulfate. In general, a total sulfur content of >3% dry weight, the presence of elemental sulfur, and ??34S values less than + 5??? can be used to infer a thiotrophic mode of nutrition.

  3. TBT pollution and effects in molluscs at US Virgin Islands, Caribbean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Jørgensen, Anne; Tairova, Zhanna

    2009-01-01

    Thais deltoidea, Thais rustica and Purpura patula all seem to have potential as suitable and sensitive bioindicators for assessing levels and effects of TBT pollution in coastal areas including coral reefs in the Caribbean Sea. However, considerable interspecies differences in especially accumulation...

  4. Facilitative ecological interactions between invasive species: Arundo donax (Poaceae) stands as favorable habitat for cattle ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) along the U.S.-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), is a key vector of protozoa that causes bovine babesiosis. Largely eradicated from most of the U.S., the cattle tick continues to infest the Cattle Fever Tick Quarantine Zone in south Texas. Management areas of the souther...

  5. Fine structure of acrosome biogenesis and of mature sperm in the bivalve molluscs Glycymeris sp. (Pteriomorphia) and Eurhomalea rufa (Heterodonta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Rosa; Sousa, Mário; Torres, Artur; Oliveira, Elsa; Baldaia, Luis

    2003-03-01

    Proacrosomal vesicles form during the pachytene stage, being synthetized by the Golgi complex in Glycymeris sp., and by both the Golgi and the rough endoplasmic reticulum in Eurhomalea rufa. During early spermiogenesis, a single acrosomal vesicle forms and its apex becomes linked to the plasma membrane while it migrates. In Glycymeris sp., the acrosomal vesicle then turns cap-shaped (1.8 μm) and acquires a complex substructure. In E. rufa, proacrosomal vesicles differentiate their contents while still at the premeiotic stage; as the acrosomal vesicle matures and its contents further differentiate, it elongates and becomes longer than the nucleus (3.2 μm), while the subacrosomal space develops a perforatorium. Before condensation, chromatin turns fibrillar in Glycymeris sp., whereas it acquires a cordonal pattern in E. rufa. Accordingly, the sperm nucleus of Glycymeris sp. is conical and elongated (8.3 μm), and that of E. rufa is short and ovoid (1.1 μm). In the midpiece (Glycymeris sp.: 1.1 μm; E. rufa: 0.8 μm), both species have four mitochondria encircling two linked orthogonal (Glycymeris sp.) or orthogonal and tilted (30-40°; E. rufa) centrioles. In comparison with other Arcoida species, sperm of Glycymeris sp. appear distinct due to the presence of an elongated nucleus, a highly differentiated acrosome, and four instead of five mitochondria. The same occurs with E. rufa regarding other Veneracea species, with the acrosome of the mature sperm strongly resembling that of the recent Mytilinae.

  6. Polymorphism of CaCO{sub 3} and microstructure of the shell of a Brazilian invasive Mollusc (Limnoperna fortunei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura Filho, Arnaldo; Almeida, Arthur Correa de; Riera, Hernan Espinoza; Cardoso, Antonio Valadao, E-mail: nakamuraaf@gmail.com [Rede Tematica em Engenharia de Materiais (REDEMAT), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Araujo, Joao Locke Ferreira de [Centro de Bioengenharia de Especies Invasoras de Hidreletricas(CBEIH), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gouveia, Vitor Jose Pinto [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais (CETEC), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Carvalho, Marcela David de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Applying the theories of Materials Science and Engineering to describe the composition and hierarchy of microstructures that comprise biological systems could help the search for new materials and results in a deeper insight into evolutionary processes. The layered microstructure that makes up the freshwater bivalve Limnoperna fortunei shell, an invasive specie in Brazil, was investigated utilizing SEM and AFM for the determination of the morphology and organization of the layers; and XRD was used to determine the crystalline phases of the calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) present in the shell. The presence of the polymorphs calcite and aragonite were confirmed and the calcite is present only on the external side of the shell. The shell of L. fortunei is composed of two layers of aragonite with distinct microstructures (the aragonite prismatic layer and the aragonite sheet nacreous layer) and the periostracum (a protein layer that covers and protects the ceramic part of the shell). A new morphology of the calcite layer was found, below the periostracum, without defined form, albeit crystal (author)

  7. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The old and the new plankton: ecological replacement of associations of mollusc plankton and giant filter feeders after the Cretaceous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amane Tajika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their great diversity and abundance, ammonites and belemnites represented key elements in Mesozoic food webs. Because of their extreme ontogenetic size increase by up to three orders of magnitude, their position in the food webs likely changed during ontogeny. Here, we reconstruct the number of eggs laid by large adult females of these cephalopods and discuss developmental shifts in their ecologic roles. Based on similarities in conch morphology, size, habitat and abundance, we suggest that similar niches occupied in the Cretaceous by juvenile ammonites and belemnites were vacated during the extinction and later partially filled by holoplanktonic gastropods. As primary consumers, these extinct cephalopod groups were important constituents of the plankton and a principal food source for planktivorous organisms. As victims or, respectively, profiteers of this case of ecological replacement, filter feeding chondrichthyans and cetaceans likely filled the niches formerly occupied by large pachycormid fishes during the Jurassic and Cretaceous.

  9. Molluscs and Echinoderms from Palaeolithic deposits in the Rock Shelter of Ksâr'akil, Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren, van C.O.

    1962-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The palaeolithic deposits of the rock shelter of Ksâr'Akil in the Antelias valley have been excavated by a group of American Jesuits in the years 1937-1938 and 1947-1948. Recently the fossil bones from these deposits were reported upon by my colleague Hooijer (1961). When he received

  10. On the question of stratigraphic detail Konkian deposits Borysthenian Bay (southern Ukraine on the fauna of molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staryn D.A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of study marine bivalve and gastropod from konkian-sarmatian deposits of the Southern Ukraine are gave. Their lateral and vertical distribution is studied. Local stratigraphic schemes for the Northern Black Sea region, Plane Crimea and Kerch peninsula are built. It is confirmed the Konkian regional stage divisible into three parts: the Kartvel (Ervilia and Pholada, Sartagan and Veselyanka layers. The lower part (Kartvel layers is characterized by monomorphic fauna of Ervilia and / or Pholada; other shellfish are virtually absent. The middle part (Sartagan layers contains polihalin shellfish such as Turritella, Chlamys et al., but their findings are rare. In this common transit fauna, which can cause significant difficulties in the stratification of the regional stage. The upper part (Veselyanka layers by the absence of (or single polihalin elements and extensive development of some types of Cardiidae. The individual seams with Ervilia and Barnea met throughout the section tram and fauna differ from the Kartvel layers joint finding other taxa Konkian shellfish and usually less power. The possibility of fractional stratification Sarmatian regional stage in different structural-facial areas of the Southern Ukraine. Change shellfish communities on the border of the lower and middle Sarmatian occurs gradually in clay sediments and more clearly in the coastal sandy and sandy-clay rocks. Separation of Vasilyevsky and Dnepropetrovsk layers of middle Sarmatian malacofauna problematic in areas of strong recrystallized limestone. For the detail section is necessary to study rocks in thin sections.

  11. Change of hemoagglutinin and hemolysin titers in hemolymph of gastropod molluscs in response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskakov, AV; Polevshchikov, AV; Harazova, AD; Krasnodembskii, EG

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with analysis of changes of the levels of hemoagglutinins (HA) and hemolysins (HL) in hemolymph of three gastropod species, Planorbius corneus, Lymnea stagnalis, and Achatina fulica, in response to immunization with sheep erythrocytes (ShE). The levels of HA and HL were determined

  12. LOWER TO MIDDLE MIOCENE MOLLUSC ASSEMBLAGES FROM THE TORINO HILLS (NW ITALY: SYNTHESIS OF NEW DATA AND CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHICAL ARRANGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTA ZUNINO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to correlate in chronostratigraphic order the fossil assemblages of selected, historical Lower and Middle Miocene localities of the Torino Hills. More than 18,000 specimens have been classified and assigned to 798 taxa (cf. Tab. I. The compositional analyses mainly concern the 672 listed gastropods, most of which were already described in classical monographies. The critical evaluation of the morphological and architectural shell parameters let to a significant reduction of the species that could be realistically maintained in comparison to those cited in literature from the Torino Hills Miocene. Six localities have been analyzed: Valle Ceppi (VC and Val Sanfrà (VS referred to the middle part of the Burdigalian stage (N7a Biozone, Villa Bertini at the topmost Burdigalian, Villa Allason (VA and Villa Forzano (VF at the early Langhian (N8 Biozone and Monte dei Cappuccini (MC at the late Langhian (N9 Biozone. On the whole, the fossil assemblages show a taxonomic variation of both biochronologic and palaeobiogeographic meaning. Actually, the similarity in specific biodiversity of VC, VS, VB, VA and VS reflects homogeneity among late Burdigalian to early Langhian palaeocommunities. As to MC, its deep difference on VC is correlatable with the eastern closing between the Mediterranean areas and the Tethyan Realm, at the boundary Burdigalian-Langhian, that brought to disjoint evolutions of the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific palaeocommunities, the former being influenced by oceanic current changes and related climatic variations. 

  13. Identification of Genes Related to Learning and Memory in the Brain Transcriptome of the Mollusc, "Hermissenda Crassicornis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamvacakis, Arianna N.; Senatore, Adriano; Katz, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    The sea slug "Hermissenda crassicornis" (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) has been studied extensively in associative learning paradigms. However, lack of genetic information previously hindered molecular-level investigations. Here, the "Hermissenda" brain transcriptome was sequenced and assembled de novo, producing 165,743…

  14. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on locomotion and the repeatability of lateralization in a keystone marine mollusc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenici, Paolo; Torres, Rodrigo; Manríquez, Patricio H

    2017-02-15

    Recent work has shown that the behaviour of marine organisms can be affected by elevated P CO 2 , although little is known about the effect of multiple stressors. We therefore investigated the effect of elevated P CO 2  and temperature on locomotion and behaviour during prey searching in the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas , a predator characteristic of the southeastern Pacific coast. Movement duration, decision time, route finding and lateralization were measured using a T-maze tank with a prey positioned behind a barrier. Four treatments, representing present day and near-future scenarios of ocean acidification and warming were used in rearing the individuals for 6 months. Regardless of the treatment, no significant differences were found in relative and absolute lateralization before and after exposure for 6 months. However, relative lateralization was not repeatable for animals tested after 6 months at elevated P CO 2  at both experimental temperatures, whereas it was repeatable in individuals kept at the present day level of P CO 2 We suggest that these effects may be related to a behavioural malfunction caused by elevated P CO 2 Movement duration, decision time and route finding were not repeatable. However, movement duration and decision time increased and route finding decreased in elevated P CO 2  (at 15°C), suggesting that elevated P CO 2  has negative effects on the locomotor and sensory performance of C. concholepas in the presence of a prey odour, thereby decreasing their ability to forage efficiently. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Involvement of a Serpin serine protease inhibitor (OoSerpin) from mollusc Octopus ocellatus in antibacterial response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiumei; Xu, Jie; Yang, Jianmin; Liu, Xiangquan; Zhang, Ranran; Wang, Weijun; Yang, Jialong

    2015-01-01

    Serpin is an important member of serine protease inhibitors (SPIs), which is capable of regulating proteolytic events and involving in a variety of physiological processes. In present study, a Serpin homolog was identified from Octopus ocellatus (designated as OoSerpin). Full-length cDNA of OoSerpin was of 1735 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region of 214 bp, a 3' UTR of 282 bp, and an open reading frame of 1239 bp. The open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 412 amino acids which has a predicted molecular weight of 46.5 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.52. The OoSerpin protein shares 37% sequence identity with other Serpins from Mus musculus (NP_941373) and Ixodes scapularis (XP_002407493). The existence of a conserved SERPIN domain strongly suggested that OoSerpin was a member of the Serpin subfamily. Expression patterns of OoSerpin, both in tissues and towards bacterial stimulation, were then characterized. The mRNA of OoSerpin was constitutively expressed at different levels in all tested tissues of untreated O. ocellatus, including mantle (lowest), muscle, renal sac, gill, hemocyte, gonad, systemic heart, and hepatopancreas (highest). The transcriptional level of OoSerpin was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) in O. ocellatus upon bacterial challenges with Vibrio anguillarum and Micrococcus luteus, indicating its involvement in the antibacterial immune response. Furthermore, rOoSerpin, the recombinant protein of OoSerpin, exhibited strong abilities to inhibit proteinase activities of trypsin and chymotrypsin as well as the growth of Escherichia coli. Our results demonstrate that OoSerpin is a potential antibacterial factor involved in the immune response of O. ocellatus against bacterial infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. South America-Africa missing links revealed by the taxonomy of deep-sea molluscs: Examples from prochaetodermatid aplacophorans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Paulo Vinicius Ferraz; Miranda, Marcel Sabino; Passos, Flávio Dias

    2018-02-01

    Prochaetodermatidae (Mollusca, Aplacophora, Caudofoveata), typical inhabitants of the deep sea, occur mainly along the continental slope, sometimes in high abundance. Their diversity in some regions, such as the South Atlantic Ocean, is little studied. The genus Claviderma is so far composed of one Pacific Ocean, two Indian Ocean and seven Atlantic Ocean species. Collections of the southeastern Brazilian coast contained three species of this genus. One, C. virium sp. nov., is new to science, and the other two, C. crassum and C. amplum, are new occurrences, extending their distributions southward into the western Atlantic. The external morphology and details of their radula and sclerites are described. The new species is distinguished by its long trunk and comparatively narrow, short posterium, and its trunk sclerites bearing numerous evident transverse growth lines. In the Atlantic Ocean, species with similar body forms and with sclerites of the same shape occur off the western and eastern coasts: the South American C. compactum is similar externally to the African C. brevicaudatum, and the Brazilian C. virium sp. nov. is comparable to the eastern Atlantic C. gladiatum. This suggests that these pairs of species are sister-groups, sharing the same morphological traits as a result of common ancestry. In the western and eastern Atlantic, most species of Claviderma that live over a wider range of depths are more widely distributed.

  17. How nervous systems evolve in relation to their embodiment: what we can learn from octopuses and other molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochner, Binyamin

    2013-01-01

    Cephalopods such as the octopus show the most advanced behavior among invertebrates, which they accomplish with an exceptionally flexible body plan. In this review I propose that the embodied organization approach, developed by roboticists to design efficient autonomous robots, is useful for understanding the evolution and development of the efficient adaptive interaction of animals with their environment, using the octopus as the leading example. The embodied organization approach explains adaptive behavior as emerging from the continuous dynamical and reciprocal physical and informational interactions between four elements: the controller, the mechanical and the sensory systems and the environment. In contrast to hierarchical organization, in embodied organization, self-organization processes can take part in the emergence of the adaptive properties. I first discuss how the embodiment concept explains covariation of body form, nervous system organization, and level of behavioral complexity using the Mollusca as an example. This is an ideal phylum to test such a qualitative correlation between body/brain/behavior, because they show the greatest variations of body plan within a single phylum. In some cases the covariation of nervous system and body structure seems to arise independently of close phylogenetic relationships. Next, I dwell on the octopus as an ideal model to test the embodiment concept within a single biological system. Here, the unusual body morphology of the octopus exposes the uniqueness of the four components comprising the octopus' embodiment. Considering together the results from behavioral, physiological, anatomical, and motor control research suggests that these four elements mutually influence each other. It is this mutual interactions and self-organization which have led to their unique evolution and development to create the unique and highly efficient octopus embodiment. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Effects of water-soluble oil fractions on the heart of marine molluscs. [Strombus gigus, Bursatella leachi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdysheva, L; Perez, R; Valle, R

    1986-01-01

    The effects of water-soluble oil fractions (WSFs) have been studied on the isolated heart of gastropods Strombus gigas and Bursatella leachi, in particular their effects on the myocardium and on its interaction with neuro transmitters: acetylcholine (ACh) and serotonin (5-HT). The WSFs were shown to be effective even when very diluted. The stock solution (10/sup -3/) was obtained by dissolving 1 ml of crude oil in 1 liter of sea water. The WSFs at concentrations of 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -7/ and 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup -3/ increased the amplitude and frequency of heart contractions but at concentrations of 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ induced the cardiac arrest. These concentrations correspond to those occurring when the oil is dumped into the sea. The Ach effect was partially or completely blocked against the background of the stimulating effect of the WSFs and the inotropic effect of 5-HT was blocked at higher concentrations of the WSFs (up to 10/sup -3/). The higher the heart sensitivity to the transmitters, the stronger is the damaging effect of the WSFs. The data obtained suggest that oil, even when very diluted, affects the activity of the cardiac muscle and its nervous regulation.

  19. Influence of the nontarget mollusc Marisa cornuarietis on the hourly cercarial production of Schistosoma mansoni from Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, J R; Pointier, J P; Théron, A; Moné, H

    1991-10-01

    A comparative study of hourly cercarial productivities of Schistosoma mansoni from infected Biomphalaria glabrata was carried out in the presence of either healthy B. glabrata (control) or healthy Marisa cornuarietis (experimental). The results showed that, with M. cornuarietis, almost all the hourly cercarial productivities increased by a factor varying from 1.3 to 2.5 without modification of the shedding period.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of Concholepas concholepas inferred by 454 pyrosequencing and mtDNA expression in two mollusc populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Aguilar-Espinoza, Andrea; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2013-03-01

    Despite the great relevance of mitochondrial genome analysis in evolutionary studies, there is scarce information on how the transcripts associated with the mitogenome are expressed and their role in the genetic structuring of populations. This work reports the complete mitochondrial genome of the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas, obtained by 454 pryosequencing, and an analysis of mitochondrial transcripts of two populations 1000 km apart along the Chilean coast. The mitochondrion of C. concholepas is 15,495 base pairs (bp) in size and contains the 37 subunits characteristic of metazoans, as well as a non-coding region of 330 bp. In silico analysis of mitochondrial gene variability showed significant differences among populations. In terms of levels of relative abundance of transcripts associated with mitochondrion in the two populations (assessed by qPCR), the genes associated with complexes III and IV of the mitochondrial genome had the highest levels of expression in the northern population while transcripts associated with the ATP synthase complex had the highest levels of expression in the southern population. Moreover, fifteen polymorphic SNPs were identified in silico between the mitogenomes of the two populations. Four of these markers implied different amino acid substitutions (non-synonymous SNPs). This work contributes novel information regarding the mitochondrial genome structure and mRNA expression levels of C. concholepas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The inventory of mollusc species and its potent on seagrass bed in Kei Kecil Islands, Southeast Moluccas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUS KUSNADI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Inventory of mollusk species and its potential on sea grass bed in Kei Kecil islands, Southeast Moluccas have been conducted by using quadrate-transect line method. The study was carried out in February-August 2007. There were 103 species of mollusk observed, 80 species belong to gastropods and 23 belong to bivalves. From the total species, 72 of them were reported as the potential species and the others still unknown. Most of potential group was used as food resources (55 species and other species were potential as decoration, souvenir, ornament, and accessories (31 species. Some species were potential for building material, knife tool, barter tool and bioactive compounds. The top shells (Trochus niloticus, the giant clams (Tridacna spp. and Hippopus hippopus and the abalone (Haliotis spp. were the major trading commodities for shellfish fisheries.

  2. Effect of X-rays on germination of some wild papilionaceous seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaghtai, S.A.; Khan, S.S.; Sultan, Suman

    1978-01-01

    Dry seeds of Aeschynomene indica Linn., Alysicarpus rugosus, Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC., three species of Indigofera Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers. and Zorniagibbosa were irradiated with 1500r dose of X-rays for breaking their dormancy. Whereas none of the seeds of Alysicarpus rugosus, Indigo fera enneaphylla, I.linifolia and Zornia gibbosa could germinate. 23%, 10%, 3% and 2% germination was recorded for the seeds of Indigofera hirsuta sansu Baker, Tephrosia purpurea Aeschynomene indica and Desmodium gangeticum respectively. (author)

  3. Giant Reed Distribution - Northern California [ds333

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from several sources, including Arundo...

  4. Sonoma Ecology Center Northern California Arundo Distribution Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from numerous sources, including Arundo...

  5. Food web consequences of an evolutionary arms race: Molluscs subject to crab predation on intertidal mudflats in Oman are unavailable to shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, R.A.; de Fouw, J; Klaassen, R.H.G.; Piersma, T.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Ens, B.J.; Oudman, T.; van Gils, J.A.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Molluscivorous shorebirds supposedly developed their present wintering distribution after the last ice age. Currently, molluscivorous shorebirds are abundant on almost all shores of the world, except for those in the Indo-West Pacific (IWP). Long before shorebirds arrived on the scene,

  6. Food web consequences of an evolutionary arms race : Molluscs subject to crab predation on intertidal mudflats in Oman are unavailable to shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, Roeland A.; de Fouw, Jimmy; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Piersma, Theunis; Lavaleye, Marc S.S.; Ens, Bruno J.; Oudman, Thomas; van Gils, Jan A.

    Aim: Molluscivorous shorebirds supposedly developed their present wintering distribution after the last ice age. Currently, molluscivorous shorebirds are abundant on almost all shores of the world, except for those in the Indo-West Pacific (IWP). Long before shorebirds arrived on the scene,

  7. Distribution of cobalt 60 in a mollusc, a crustacean and a freshwater teleost: variations as a function of the source of pollution and during elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard, J.C.; Amiard-Triquet, C.

    1979-01-01

    57 Co, 58 Co and 60 Co are present in nuclear test debris as well as in effluents of the non-military nuclear industry. The stable isotope, which is a constituent of vitamin B 12 , has very important biological functions. For each species, three experiments were carried out: (1) starved animals were immersed in 60 Co-contaminated water; (2) animals were immersed in contaminated water and received radioactive food and (3) animals were placed in fresh water without any pollutant but received contaminated food. Radiation doses were calculated for contamination via both food and water. When 60 Co is taken up directly from water, the most contaminated organs are external ones, especially the shell of the snail Lymnaea palustris and the exoskeleton and feeding appendages of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus. Contamination via food is responsible for a relatively greater accumulation of radiocobalt in internal organs. The cobalt content of muscles - that is to say the edible parts of crayfish and common carp Cyprinus carpio -is very low. The highest concentrations recorded are in the visceral mass of the snail, the digestive gland of the crayfish and the kidneys of the carp. Internal doses for these organs are considerably higher than those for entire animals. Therefore, as a result of 60 Co distribution, they are critical organs for the freshwater species. Except for the carp, external radiation is very weak compared with internal radiation. A strong retention of 60 Co is observed for the shell of L. palustris while the desorption of radiocobalt from the exoskeleton of A. leptodactylus is easier. In carp, the 60 Co taken up by the gut from food, as well as from water, is rapidly eliminated. (author)

  8. Uptake and bioconcentration of copper and zinc by the molluscs Saccostrea cucullata (Born) and Cerithium rubus (Desh) from the coastal waters of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V.R.

    , India, high levels of Zn (av 4522 mu g.g/1 dry wt) and Cu (av 420 mu g.g/1 dry wt) were observed. The concentrations of these metals in the snails were low (av 216 and 126 mu g.g/1 dry wt respectively)...

  9. Glochidial infestation by the endangered mollusc Unio crassus in rivers of north-eastern France: Phoxinus phoxinus and Cottus gobio as primary fish hosts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lamand, F.; Roche, Kevin Francis; Beisel, J.-N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2016), s. 445-455 ISSN 1052-7613 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : unionid conservation * glochidia * threatened species * Eurasian minnow * bullhead * parasitic host Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.130, year: 2016

  10. Biomonitoring role of some cellular markers during heat stress-induced changes in highly representative fresh water mollusc, Bellamya bengalensis: Implication in climate change and biological adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sangita Maiti; Mustafi, Soumyajit Banerjee; Raha, Sanghamitra; Chakraborty, Susanta Kumar

    2018-08-15

    Owing to increasing concern of global climate-change, temperature rise is of great interest which can be primarily evaluated from the seasonal variations in some organisms. Aquatic environment can be extremely stressful to its inhabitants because most of them are poikilothermous. In the present study, attempt was made to evaluate the biological effects of oxidative-stress and adaptive/antioxidant capacities during temperature variations (36-40 °C for 24hrs to 72hrs) in Bellamya bengalensis both in environmental and laboratory conditions by testing some biomarkers like HSP70, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR). The biomarker potency of the molecules and the anti-oxidative metabolic-network was postulated and extrapolated to find its resemblance to the climate-change associated organismal variations. In a natural and eco-restored environment in the Eastern part of India, 10-20 fold increases in CAT, SOD and HSP70 protein expressions (Western blot results) were noticed in Bellamya paralleling to their increased enzymatic activities (gel zymogram studies) due to the seasonal (summer versus winter) temperature variation. It is evident from the consecutive three years' study that this variation resulted in the unfavorable physico-chemical changes of water quality parameters like dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, alkalinity and consequently decreased the animal density in summer. And that was revived due to their higher reproduction-rate in post rainy/winter season when temperature normalizes resulting in a restoration of favorable environment. In laboratory condition, the reduced GR and increased GPx indicated the oxidative damage as evident by higher tissue MDA level following to higher mortality. Changes in SOD and CAT activities suggest activation of physiological mechanism to scavenge the ROS produced during heat stress. However, when mortality increased at different time points (36 °C - 72 h and 38 °C - 72 h), these enzyme activities also decreased as they failed to save the tissues from ROS. The results suggest that temperature variation does alter the active oxygen metabolism by modulating antioxidant enzyme activities, which can be used as biomarker to detect sub-lethal effects of climate change-associated pollution. The parity in environmental and laboratory experimental results may justify this laboratory experiment as model heat-stress experiment and indicate temperature as a universal stressor which alone or in combination with other water parameters initiates a consistent adapting behavior. The Bellamya bengalensis being the highest faunal representative in its habitat may serve as a good bioindicator species. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Cost-benefit analysis of mollusc eating in a shorebird I : Foraging and processing costs estimated by the doubly labelled water method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; van Gils, JA; Achterkamp, B; Visser, GH

    2003-01-01

    Although the energy costs of foraging and food processing in vertebrates may be considerable, they have rarely been quantified separately. Here we present estimates for both cost factors based on a series of trials with a shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus, fed natural and artificial prey

  12. The role of environmental change in the expansion of early modern humans in the Levant - what can we learn from mollusc shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prendergast, Amy; Bosch, Marjolein D.; Mannino, Marcello

    and Manot Cave in Israel. These highly resolved environmental records, coupled with well dated archaeological sequences provide a framework for assessing the complex interplay between early modern humans and their local environments. We found evidence for fluctuating temperature, rainfall and seasonality...... regimes, indicating that modern human populations were somewhat resilient to the resource uncertainty that would have accompanied these changing temperature and seasonality regimes. These paired cultural-environmental records have enabled an examination of hominin-environment interactions during critical...

  13. Molluscs of an intertidal soft-sediment area in China: Does overfishing explain a high density but low diversity community that benefits staging shorebirds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H-Y; Chen, B.; Piersma, T.; Zhang, Z.; Ding, C.

    2016-01-01

    The YellowSea is a key staging ground for shorebirds that migrate fromAustralasia to the Arctic each spring. A lotof attention has been paid to the impact of habitat loss due to land reclamation on shorebird survival, but any effectsof overfishing of coastal resources are unclear. In this study, the

  14. Molluscs of an intertidal soft-sediment area in China: Does overfishing explain a high density but low diversity community that benefits staging shorebirds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bing; Piersma, Theunis; Zhang, Zhengwang; Ding, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    The Yellow Sea is a key staging ground for shorebirds that migrate from Australasia to the Arctic each spring. A lot of attention has been paid to the impact of habitat loss due to land reclamation on shorebird survival, but any effects of overfishing of coastal resources are unclear. In this study,

  15. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Ian A.; Whittington, Richard J.; Caraguel, Charles G. B.

    2016-01-01

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons...... studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines......-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species....

  16. Food web consequences of an evolutionary arms race: Molluscs subject to crab predation on intertidal mudflats in Oman are unavailable to shorebirds

    OpenAIRE

    Bom, R.A.; de Fouw, J; Klaassen, R.H.G.; Piersma, T.; Lavaleye, M.S.S.; Ens, B.J.; Oudman, T.; van Gils, J.A.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Molluscivorous shorebirds supposedly developed their present wintering distribution after the last ice age. Currently, molluscivorous shorebirds are abundant on almost all shores of the world, except for those in the Indo-West Pacific (IWP). Long before shorebirds arrived on the scene, molluscan prey in the IWP evolved strong anti-predation traits in a prolonged evolutionary arms race with durophagous predators including brachyuran crabs. Here, we investigate whether the absence of mollu...

  17. The accumulation of radionuclides by Dreissena polymorpha molluscs - The Accumulation of Radionuclides from Water and Food in the Dreissena polymorpha Mollusks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefanova, O.; Marciulioniene, D. [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos str. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lietuva (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    The specific activity of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 90}Sr was measured in mollusks Dreissena polymorpha samples from lake Drukshiai that is the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP. Item the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 106}Ru in the mollusks from water and from phytoplankton which is a part of their diet was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The data of long-term (1991-2009) studies conducted at six monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai show that in 1991 {sup 137}Cs in mollusks Dreissena polymorpha was found only in that lake's area which was influenced by the effluent that got into lake from the industrial drainage channel of Ignalina NPP. In later periods of the investigation the {sup 137}Cs specific activity was detected in mollusks samples which had been collected at other monitoring stations (the aquatory of lake Drukshiai). Meanwhile {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn in Dreissena polymorpha were detected only in that lake's area which was impacted by the industrial drainage channel. The data of long-term investigation show that the major amount of radionuclides has come into lake Drukshiai through the industrial drainage system of Ignalina NPP. Albeit {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 106}Ru get into the mollusks through a large amount of the water rather than from the food (phytoplankton), therefore the food can also be the main source of radionuclides in the organism of these mollusks in aquatic environment when there are low levels of specific activities of these radionuclides. (authors)

  18. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in edible molluscs from near the Cape of Good Hope: sources of variability in polonium-210 concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyraud, M.; Cherry, R.D.; Oschadleus, H.-D.; Cherry, M.I.; Sealy, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of the natural radionuclides 210 Po and 210 Pb in mussels, squid and oysters from near the Cape of Good Hope are reported and compared with previously published 210 Po and 210 Pb data from Northern Hemisphere organisms in the same taxa. Emphasis is laid on discussing the causes of variability in the concentrations of 210 Po in marine organisms. No systematic evidence is found for a 'latitude' effect, but allometric effects, intertaxon differences, change of diet with animal size and regional effects are all significant for 210 Po. The consequences for human radiation dose calculations of variability of 210 Po levels in seafoods are discussed briefly; particular reference is made to the case of a Stone Age mussel-eating community in South Africa. (author)

  19. Mollusc trace fossils Ptychoplasma Fenton and Fenton, 1937 and Oravaichnium Plička and Uhrová, 1990: Their type material and ichnospecies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uchman, A.; Mikuláš, Radek; Rindsberg, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2011), s. 387-397 ISSN 0016-6995 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : locomotion trace fossils * Bivalves * flysch * Carboniferous * Cretaceous * Paleogene Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.010, year: 2011

  20. Cadmium-handling strategies in two chronically exposed indigenous freshwater organisms-the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and the floater mollusc (Pyganodon grandis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Peter G.C.; Giguere, Anik; Bonneris, Emmanuelle; Hare, Landis

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on a variety of aquatic organisms suggest that metallothionein-like proteins (MT) play an important role in the regulation of essential metals, and in the sequestration and detoxification of non-essential metals (e.g., Cd). However, the importance of metallothionein production relative to alternative strategies of metal detoxification, and its effectiveness in metal detoxification, remain largely unexplored in field situations. In the present study we explored metal-handling strategies in an adult benthic bivalve (Pyganodon grandis) and in juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens), exposed to Cd in their natural habitat. The two biomonitor species were collected from lakes located along a Cd concentration gradient. Ambient dissolved Cd concentrations were determined by in situ dialysis as a measure of metal exposure. Sub-cellular Cd partitioning was determined in target tissues (bivalve gills and digestive gland; perch liver) by differential centrifugation, and metallothionein was measured independently by a mercury-saturation assay in the bivalve tissues. Malondialdehyde concentrations were measured as a potential indicator of oxidative stress. Ambient dissolved Cd concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 0.57 nM in the nine lakes from which bivalves were collected, and from max /[Cd] min ratios for the various tissues decreased in the order: bivalve gill Cd (28) > bivalve digestive gland Cd (18) > perch hepatic Cd (14). In the two lakes that were common to both the bivalve and perch studies, i.e. lakes Opasatica and Vaudray, accumulated Cd concentrations were consistently higher in the bivalve than in the perch. Cadmium-handling strategies were similar in the bivalve digestive gland and perch liver, in that Cd was mainly associated with the heat-stable protein (HSP) fraction. Furthermore, in these organs the contributions from the 'mitochondria' and 'lysosomes + microsomes' fractions were consistently higher than in the gill tissue. In the bivalve gill, the HSP fraction could only account for a small proportion (10 ± 3%) of the total Cd burden, and the metal was instead largely sequestered in calcium concretions (58 ± 13%). Along the Cd-exposure gradient, Cd detoxification appeared to be reasonably effective in the bivalve gill and digestive gland, as judged from the protection of the heat-denaturable protein (HDP) fraction. However, in both organs Cd concentrations did increase in potentially metal-sensitive organelles (mitochondria), and malondialdehyde concentrations increased along the exposure gradient in the gills (but not in the digestive gland). Cadmium detoxification seemed less effective in juvenile yellow perch. As total hepatic Cd increased, Cd concentrations increased in all sub-cellular fractions, including the HDP fraction that was well protected in the bivalve. The relative proportions of Cd in the various fractions did not vary appreciably along the exposure gradient and there was no evidence of a threshold exposure concentration below which sensitive metal pools were protected

  1. Influence of the mode of uptake on the elimination of cobalt 60 by a phanerogam, a mollusc, a crustacean and a freshwater teleost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, C.

    1979-01-01

    60 Co enters the environment with radioactive wastes from nuclear power reactors and fuel reprocessing plants as well as a component of fallout from nuclear tests. A study of 60 Co in freshwater organisms has been carried out in order to compare the influence of different modes of uptake (immersion in contaminated water, ingestion of radioactive food, contamination by both food and water) upon the subsequent elimination. The loss of 60 Co by Canadian pondweed Elodea canadensis is monophasic. For animal species, this phenomenon is biphasic, independently of the mode of uptake. On the other hand, the biological half-life changes in relation to the vector of contamination. The same result is observed for the relative importance of the different compartments. This is easily explained because the mode of uptake determines the distribution of 60 Co in the organisms. The turnover of 60 Co in the organisms is slow and the physical half-life of this radionuclide is relatively important (Tsub(p) = 5.27 years). Thus, the possible consequences of the release of this pollutant on freshwater life must not be neglected. (author)

  2. Revision and biogeography of the Neotropical dung beetle genus Scybalophagus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Revisión y Biogeografía del género neotropical de escarabajos estercoleros Scybalophagus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Carlos Ocampo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American genus Scybalophagus Martínez is comprehensively revised. The genus now includes five species, distributed in Argentina, Chile, Bolivia and Peru. All species are redescribed and diagnostic characters are provided along with illustrations of each species. Lectotypes are designated for Canthon lacordairei Laporte, 1840 (now Scybalophagus lacordairei and Canthon rugosus Blanchard, 1845 (now Scybalophagus rugosus. Scybalophagus zumpti (Frey, 1963 (=Epirinus zumpti Frey is now considered a junior synonym of S. rugosus (Blanchard. The biogeography of the genus and of each species is discussed and predictive distributions, based on environmental niche modeling, are provided for all species. Information on the biology and natural history of Scybalophagus species is discussed.El género suramericano Scybalophagus Martínez es revisado exhaustivamente. El género ahora incluye cinco especies distribuidas en Argentina, Chile, Bolivia y Perú. Se redescriben todas las especies y se proveen caracteres diagnósticos junto con ilustraciones para cada especie. Se designan lectotipos para Canthon lacordairei Laporte, 1840 (ahora Scybalophagus lacordairei y Canthon rugosus Blanchard, 1845 (ahora S. rugosus. Scybalophagus zumpti (Frey 1963 (=Epirinus zumpti Frey es ahora considerado un sinónimo junior de S. rugosus (Blanchard. La Biogeografía del género y cada especie es discutida y se presentan distribuciones potenciales, basadas en modelos de nicho ecológico, para todas las especies. Se discute la información sobre la biología e historia natural de las especies de Scybalophagus.

  3. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    beetles were low (Carabidae: max. 7.6%, Staphylinidae: max. 7.0%). in comparison, prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi in carabid larvae was high (19-50%). At one study site an epizootic of Beauveria bassiana was observed, infecting 67% of staphylinid Anotylus rugosus and 37% of the staphylinid Gyrohypnus...... angustatus. Beauveria bassiana was the predominant fungus isolated from ground beetles and rove beetles from all studied sites. Other fungal species included the hyphomycetes Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces farinosus and Verticillium lecanii as well as Zoophthora radicans and Zoophthora philonthi...... (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales). Two individuals of Anotylus rugosus were found to have a dual infection of Zoophthora philonthi and Beauveria bassiana...

  4. Effects of temporally persistent ant nests of soil protozoan communities and the abundance of morphological types of amoeba

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared soil protozoan communities near ant nests with soil protozoans in reference soils 5m from the edge of any mounds. We sampled three species of Chihuahuan Desert ants that construct nests that persist for more than a decade: a seed harvester, Pogonomymex rugosus, a liquid feeding honey-po...

  5. African Journal of Marine Science - Vol 23 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the Benguela upwelling system and Angola-Benguela front using an artificial ... Reproduction and recruitment patterns of the surf clam Donax serra (Bivalvia, ... Variable spatial structure of schooling pelagic fish off Namibia: implications ...

  6. Ecology and culturing of edible bivalves in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Nair, S.A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Harkantra, S.N.; Chatterji, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Roy, J.M.

    Environmental characteristics, growth rate, total production and technically feasible methods for the mass cultivation of Meretrix casta, Paphia malabarica, Villorita cyprinoides, Donax incarnatus, Perna viridis, Modiolus metcalfei and Crassostrea...

  7. The diets of fish in three south-western Cape estuarine systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-09-26

    Sep 26, 1988 ... Blaber 1978a; Coetzee 1981, 1982a; Coetzee & Pool. 1985), taxonomic ...... mainly the swimming prawn Macropetasma africana, bivalves (Donax spp.) ..... higher energy value of zooplankton relative to other organisms of ...

  8. Feeding behaviour and food selection in the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A; Mishra, J.K.; Parulekar, A

    The Indian horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas, is a benthic feeder which subsists mainly on molluscs, decayed organic matter and polychaetes, in order of prevalence. A strong and positive preference was recorded for molluscs over other food organisms...

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    importance of intertidal molluscs, Kaullysing et al. document the density and diversity of the benthic molluscs ... Natural hormonal compounds or artificial chemicals. Abstract ... lagoon area when compared with that in the reef and beach areas.

  10. The effects of repeated applications of the molluscicide metaldehyde and the biocontrol nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita on molluscs, earthworms, nematodes, acarids and collembolans: a two-year study in north-west Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Javier; Castillejo, José; Castro, Ramón

    2003-11-01

    Over two years, six consecutive field experiments were done in which the chemical molluscicide metaldehyde and the nematode biocontrol agent Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Schneider) were applied at the standard field rates to replicated mini-plots successively planted with lettuce, Brussels sprouts, leaf beet and cabbage, to compare the effectiveness of different treatments in reducing slug damage to the crops. Soil samples from each plot were taken prior to the start of the experiments, and then monthly, to assess the populations of slugs, snails, earthworms, nematodes, acarids and collembolans. The experiments were done on the same site and each plot received the same treatment in the six experiments. The six treatments were: (1) untreated controls, (2) metaldehyde pellets, (3 and 4) nematodes applied to the planted area 3 days prior to planting without or with previous application of cow manure slurry, (5) nematodes applied to the area surrounding the planted area 3 days prior to planting, and (6) nematodes applied to the planted area once (only in the first of the six consecutive experiments). Only the metaldehyde treatment and the nematodes applied to the planted area at the beginning of each experiment without previous application of manure significantly reduced slug damage to the plants, and only metaldehyde reduced the number of slugs contaminating the harvested plants. The numbers of slugs, snails and earthworms in soil samples were compared among the six treatments tested: with respect to the untreated controls, the numbers of Deroceras reticulatum (Müller) were significantly affected only in the metaldehyde plots, and the numbers of Arion ater L only in the plots treated with nematodes applied to the planted area 3 days prior to planting without previous application of manure; numbers of snails (Ponentina ponentina (Morelet) and Oxychilus helveticus (Blum)) were not affected by the treatment. The total numbers of all earthworm species and of Lumbricus spp were unaffected by the treatment, but Dendrobaena spp increased significantly in the plots treated with manure. The numbers of nematodes, acarids and collembolans in soil samples were compared between the untreated controls and the treatments with nematodes applied 3 days prior to planting to the planted area or to the surrounding area, without previous application of manure: the treatment had a significant effect on the number of nematodes in soil samples, but acarids and collembolans were unaffected.

  11. Cytogenetic and morphophysiological differences in snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) from reservoirs of the Chernobyl NPP resettling zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koneva, A.Yu.; Afonin, V.Yu.; Dramashka, S.Ya.; Golubew, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    A cytogenetic analysis of the molluscs obtained from animals of two populations of the Chernobyl NPP zone was carried out. Preservation of the raised number of cells with micronuclei in hemolymph of the molluscs obtained from animals lived under conditions with the highest level of radiation contamination was noted. Interpopulational distinctions in a number of biological parameters were revealed. Away of fertilization which is used for animal production under laboratory conditions affects sensitivity of molluscs to additional acute irradiation was established. (authors)

  12. Using aerial photography for mapping giant reed infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and...

  13. Using aerial photography and image analysis to measure changes in giant reed populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted along the Rio Grande in southwest Texas to evaluate color-infrared aerial photography combined with supervised image analysis to quantify changes in giant reed (Arundo donax L.) populations over a 6-year period. Aerial photographs from 2002 and 2008 of the same seven study site...

  14. Jarman and C

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Reproduction and recruitment of the surf clam Donax serra on two Namibian beaches were ..... Sea Fish. Brch S. Afr. 102: 33 pp. DIAZ, R. L. and R. ROSENBERG 1995 — Marine ... (Crassostrea gigas) larvae fed on semi-defined artificial diets.

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 14, No 4 (1979) - Articles Studies on the littoral seaweed epifauna of St. Croix Island. I. Physical and biological features of the littoral zone. Abstract PDF · Vol 14, No 4 (1979) - Articles Aspects of the biology, ecology and seasonal fluctuations in biochemical conlposition of Donax serra in 'the East Cape

  16. 75 FR 37358 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Arroyo Toad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ...-0069] [92210-0-0009-B4] RIN 1018-AV89 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical...; (2) revegetation of riparian areas; (3) removal of invasive plants such as arundo (Arundo donax) and tamarisk (Tamarix sp.); (4) protecting wetlands from urban runoff by establishing a revegetated upland...

  17. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 87 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential of a polyculture of Arundo donax and Typha latifolia for growth and phytotreatment of wastewater pollution · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Soulwène Kouki, Neila Saidi, Asma Ben Rajeb, Fadhel M'hiri, 15341-15352 ...

  18. Parasite communities: patterns and processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esch, Gerald W; Bush, Albert O; Aho, John M

    1990-01-01

    .... Taking examples from many hosts including molluscs, marine and freshwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, this book shows how parasitic communities are influenced by a multitude...

  19. Příspěvek k poznání vodních měkkýšů severní části CHKO Orlické hory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Beran

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings a review of a malacological survey of the northern part of the Orlické Hory Protected Landscape Area, situated in northwestern part of Bohemia (Czech Republic near boundary between the Czech Republic and Poland. Altogether, only 12 common species of aquatic molluscs (8 gastropods, 4 bivalves were found. Galba truncatula, Radix peregra, Ancylus fluviatilis, Pisidium personatum, and P. casertanum belong to the most frequent molluscs found during this research. Occurrence of vulnerable or endangered molluscs as well as non-native molluscs was not documented in this area.

  20. Ocorrência de formigas Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865, em alguns municípios do Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1322 Occurrence of ants Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 in some cities of Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1322

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Forti

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865, foram coletadas em vários municípios do Brasil, nos seguintes estados: de Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, Amapá, e também no Paraguai e no Uruguai, visando atualizar a ocorrência das mesmas. Os exemplares coletados nas viagens foram identificados no laboratório da Fca/Unesp/Botucatu-SP. Foram registradas, pela primeira vez, as ocorrências de A. rugosus rugosus (F. Smith, 1858 no Paraná, em Rondônia e em Santa Catarina; de A. subterraneus subterraneus (Forel, 1893 no Amapá e na Bahia; de A. diasi (Gonçalves, 1982 no Rio Grande do Sul e no Paraná; de A. coronatus (Fabricius, 1804 no Paraná; de A. balzani (Emery, 1890 no Amapá e de A. subterraneus brunneus (Forel, 1911 em GoiásIt were collected species of Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 in many brazilian cities from Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Rondônia and Amapá states and in Paraguay and Uruguay, with the purpose to bring up-to-date their occurrence. Specimens collected on trips were identified at laboratory of Fca/Unesp/Botucatu-SP. It were recorded, for the first time, the occurrence of A. rugosus rugosus (F. Smith, 1858 in Paraná, Rondônia and Santa Catarina states; A. subterraneus subterraneus (Forel, 1893 in Amapá and Bahia; A. diasi Gonçalves, 1982 in Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná states; A. coronatus (Fabricius, 1804 in Paraná; A. balzani (Emery, 1890 in Amapá and A. subterraneus brunneus (Forel, 1911 in Goiás

  1. Saproxylic beetles of the Po plain woodlands, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Stefanelli

    2014-07-01

    Although we didn’t find species listed in the Annexes of the EU Habitat Directive, some of the species found are locally threatened because of their rarity, local distribution, and strong linkage to old forests. Among these species there are the Bothrideridae Bothrideres bipunctatus, the Cerambycidae Prionus coriarius and Xylotrechus rusticus, the Dryophthoridae Dryophthorus corticalis, the Eucnemidae Nematodes filum (with only 1 individual captured in Alnus unmanged forest, the Histeridae Aeletes atomarius and Paromalus flavicornis, the Laemophloeidae Cryptolestes duplicatus, the Latridiidae Enicmus rugosus and Latridius hirtus, the Mycetophagidae Mycetophagus piceus, and the Zopheridae Colydium elongatum and Pycnomerus terebrans.

  2. Culinary ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshkin, A.

    1996-01-01

    Effect of petroleum, petroleum products, heavy metals and other pollutants on sea organisms and on molluscs in particular is considered. It is shown that molluscs represent the original biological indicators of seawater pollution by petroleum products: the character of pollutions can be determined according to their behaviour, state and number

  3. Mesure de l'uranium dans un ensemble d'échantillons de formations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analyses were carried out on some of natural deposits samples such as the corals, the fossil shells molluscs, the phosphates, the travertines, the lichens and of the impure carbonate deposits. Measurements were realized by spectrometry alpha for fossil shell molluscs, corals, travertines and impure carbonates, ...

  4. [Proceedings of the symposium 'Molluscan Palaeontology' : 11th International Malacological Congress, Siena (Italy) 30th August - 5th September 1992 / A.W. Janssen and R. Janssen (editors)]: Trace fossils on molluscs from the Molluscan Clay (Late Oligocene, Egerian) — a comparison between two localities (Wind Brickyard, Eger, and Nyárjas Hill, Novaj, NE Hungary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Årpád, Dàvid

    1992-01-01

    Trace fossils, found on shells of gastropods, bivalves and scaphopods from Molluscan Clay exposures (Oligocene, Egerian) at Eger (Wind brickyard) and Novaj (Nyárjas Hill) (NE Hungary), were studied. The relative abundance of different types of borings, traces of bioerosion and palaeopathological

  5. Vascular plant flora in the Cytadela cemeteries in Poznań (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Czarna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the spontaneous vascular flora and the flora originating from old or contemporary plantations found in all six currently existing cemeteries located in immediate vicinity on the slopes of the Cytadela Park in Poznań. These studies were carried out in the years 2011–2014. Over this period, 255 species of vascular plants were found. The most interesting species include: Chionodoxa luciliae, Rumex rugosus, Aegopodium podagraria ‘Variegatum’, Ficaria verna f. plenifolia, Galanthus nivalis f. pleniflora, Ornithogalum boucheanum, Ranunculus repens ‘Plena’, and hybrids: Dactylis ×intercedens, Gagea ×pomeranica, Ornithogalum boucheanum × O. nutans, Viola cyanea × V. odorata. A great number of spring geophytes, namely 31 species, was also found. Among species occurring spontaneously outside the graves, some were new for Poland, e.g., Chionodoxa luciliae, Ornithogalum boucheanum × O. nutans, Viola cyanea × V. odorata, while others were new for the Wielkopolska region: Rumex rugosus, Dactylis ×intercedens, Gagea ×pomeranica, as well as new for Poznań: Erigeron ramosus, Lilium bulbiferum, Muscari armeniacus, M. neglectum, Pimpinella nigra, Poa subcaerulea, and Veronica hederifolia s. s.

  6. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Considered a noxious weed, it produces 5–10 kg-biomass/m2-yr (similar to macroalgae ), a source of pyrolysis fuels with beneficial water treatment International...donax) pro- duce 23–50 ton/acre. It tolerates some salinity and brackish waters and also overwhelms native vegetation. Seaweed, a macroalgae , has...halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and “weeds” using wastelands, waste water , and seawater— have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for

  7. Hilly grasses and leaves: a promising unconventional feed resource for livestock.

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain M.E.; Karim M.H.; Ahmed M.I.; Sultana S.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different hilly grasses and leaves available in Bandarban areas of Bangladesh. Total 10 different hilly grasses and leaves such as Bottle gourd leaf (Lagenaria siceraria), Castor bean leaf (Ricinus communis), Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica), Dhol kolmi (Ipomoea carnea), Giant reed leaf (Arundo donax), Hilly grass (Cynodon dactylon), Pithraj leaf (Aphanamixis polystachya), Sal leaf (Shorea robusta), Shegun leaf (Tectona grandis...

  8. Valutazione di colture lignocellulosiche in ambiente mediterraneo ai fini della produzione di bioetanolo di seconda generazione

    OpenAIRE

    Daparo, Loredana

    2011-01-01

    In the last years there has been a growing interest in energy biomass crops especially in the industrialized countries, in relationship to the pressing demands to exploit new energetic sources. The new technologies that can make fuel from lignocellulosic biomass, open up interesting prospects for some species that have proved particularly promising for the characteristics of perenniality and productivity: Arundo donax, Cynara cardunculus Miscantus spp and even if they have, however, still ...

  9. Carbon Turnover during Effluent Application to the Land: A Potential Role for Vegetation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of plant species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis vs. Arundo donax on carbon (C turnover during wastewater application to the land. The study was carried out in 40-liter pots under field conditions and plant species were treated either with pre-treated municipal wastewater or freshwater. Plant species had a strong effect on soil organic matter with pots planted with E. camaldulensis showing greater values than pots planted with A. donax. In accordance, greater respiration rates were measured in E. camaldulensis pots compared to those planted with A. donax. The respiration rate followed a decreasing trend with the progress of the season for both species. These findings suggest differences in soil microbial community composition and/or activity in the rhizosphere of plant species. Minor effects of plant species or effluent were observed in dissolved organic carbon, protein, and hexoses content. In conclusion, the results of the present study reveal an important role of plant species on C cycling in terrestrial environments with potential implications on the sequestration of C and release of nutrients and pollutants.

  10. Long-term Cu stabilization and biomass yields of Giant reed and poplar after adding a biochar, alone or with iron grit, into a contaminated soil from a wood preservation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oustriere, Nadège; Marchand, Lilian; Lottier, Nathalie; Motelica, Mikael; Mench, Michel

    2017-02-01

    A 2-year pot experiment was carried out to examine the aging effect of biochar (B), alone or combined with iron grit (Z), on Cu stabilization and plant growth in a contaminated soil (964mg Cu kg -1 ) from a wood preservation site. The experiment consisted in 3 soil treatments, either planted with Arundo donax L. (Ad) or Populus nigra L. (Pn): (1) untreated Cu-contaminated soil (Ad, Pn); (2) Unt+1% (w/w) B (AdB, PnB), and (3) Unt+1% B+1% Z (AdBZ, PnBZ). After 22months, the soil pore water (SPW) was sampled and roots and shoots were harvested. The SPW compositions at 3 and 22months were compared, showing that the SPW Cu 2+ concentration increased again in the PnB and PnBZ soils. Cultivation of A. donax enhanced the dissolved organic matter concentration in the SPW, which decreased its Cu 2+ concentration but promoted its total Cu concentration in the Ad and AdB soils. Adding Z with B reduced both SPW Cu 2+ and Cu concentrations in the pots cultivated by A. donax and P. nigra as compared to B alone. The B and BZ treatments did not enhance root and shoot yields of both plant species as compared to the Unt soil but their shoot Cu concentrations were in the range of common values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas; Vue, Zer; Voolstra, Christian R.; Medina, Mó nica; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2010-01-01

    developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms

  12. The presence of APGWamide in Octopus vulgaris: a possible role in the reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Cristo, C.; van Minnen, J.; Di Cosmo, A.

    2005-01-01

    The concerted action of many neuropeptides has been implicated in the nervous control of specific behaviors in many molluscs. In the present study, the presence of amidated tetrapeptide Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH

  13. Characteristics of nearshore waters in Binge Bay, Karwar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    was observed. Levels of soluble Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn were on the lower side of the range observed for the Arabian Sea. Concentrations of some trace metals in marine algae, fishes, crustaceans and molluscs are also reported and discussed...

  14. Soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Rajapur Bay, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Thirtyfour species of soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates were recorded in Rajapur Bay at the proposed effluent discharge location of nuclear power plant. The fauna mainly composed of polychaetes (42.52%), molluscs (39.03%), crustaceans (7...

  15. Zooplankton biomass and composition in the western Bay of Bengal during late sw monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Madhupratap, M.; Nair, V.R.; Nair, S.R.S.; Rao, T.S.S.

    and neritic regions of the southwestern Bay of Bengal. Other groups like chaetognaths, ostracods, amphipods, euphausiids, fish eggs, fish larvae, polychaetes, cladocerans, planktonic molluscs, etc. contributed to a lesser percentage of the general composition...

  16. A preliminary report on the distribution and relative abundance of Euthecosomata with a note on the seasonal variation of Limacina species in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sakthivel, M.

    Euthecosomata (holoplanktonic opisthobranch molluscs) sorted out from the collections of the International Indian Ocean Expedition are now being studied and the present communication is a first report based on an examination of material from 395...

  17. A documentation on burrows in hard substrates of ferromanganese crusts and associated soft sediments from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R

    , which are extensively bioturbated. Both the ferromanganese-coated and uncoated relict burrows have been collected from the same locality. Mobile epibenthic megafauna, e.g. molluscs, echinoderms, etc. seem to be main bioturbating organisms. The adjacent...

  18. Carbonate mineralogy and faunal relationship in tropical shallow water marine sediments: Cape Comorin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.; Kidwai, R.M.; Rao, V.P.

    molluscs exceed other components, as on the eastern shelf between 10 and 40 m, the most abundant mineral is aragonite. Low-magnesium calcite does not appear to be related to depth or carbonate components...

  19. Studies on the diet of various lobster species have shown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    However, the proportion of the population feeding showed marked seasonal trends at both sites, tracking the commercial ..... The general diet of crustaceans, molluscs and echino- .... habits of polychelid lobsters in the Western Mediterranean.

  20. Validation of the OECD reproduction test guideline with the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum using trenbolone and prochloraz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiss, Cornelia; Ruppert, Katharina; Askem, Clare

    2017-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) provides several standard test methods for the environmental hazard assessment of chemicals, mainly based on primary producers, arthropods, and fish. In April 2016, two new test guidelines with two mollusc species representing...

  1. Analysis of the scallop microbiota by means of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Mira; Jesus L Romalde

    2014-01-01

    Bivalve molluscs, due to its filter-feeding mechanism, have an abundant associated bacterial microbiota composed of a large number of species of different genera. The knowledge about the composition of the microbiota associated with bivalve molluscs is based, mostly, on techniques of cultivation of microorganisms, but also on DGGE methods. However, it is estimated that less than 1% of the bacteria are culturable with current methods, which lead to an underestimation of the microbial diversity...

  2. Antimicrobial peptides in marine invertebrate health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Schmitt, Paulina; Barreto, Cairé; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Mitta, Guillaume; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture contributes more than one-third of the animal protein from marine sources worldwide. A significant proportion of aquaculture products are derived from marine protostomes that are commonly referred to as ‘marine invertebrates’. Among them, penaeid shrimp (Ecdysozosoa, Arthropoda) and bivalve molluscs (Lophotrochozoa, Mollusca) are economically important. Mass rearing of arthropods and molluscs causes problems with pathogens in aquatic ecosystems that are exploited by humans. Remark...

  3. La formación de anillos de crecimiento en Fissurella crassa en el norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Bretos

    1980-01-01

    Growth discontinuity in molluscs result in the formation of rings on their shells. Two kind of rings may be formed: disturbance and growth rings. Growth rings can be used to determine the age of molluscs with long life span. For this, it is necessary to know how many growth rings are formed per year. It has been demonstrated experimentally, using marked specimens, that F. crassa forms two growth rings per year at Huayquique, Northern Chile. They are formed during winter and summer. Disturbanc...

  4. La formacion de anillos de crecimiento en Fissurella crassa en el norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Bretos, Marta

    1980-01-01

    Growth discontinuity in molluscs result in the formation of rings on their shells. Two kind of rings may be formed: disturbance and growth rings. Growth rings can be used to determine the age of molluscs with long life span. For this, it is necessary to know how many growth rings are formed per year. It has been demonstrated experimentally, using marked specimens, that F. crassa forms two growth rings per year at Huayquique, Northern Chile. They are formed during winter and summer. Disturbanc...

  5. No substantial changes in estrogen receptor and estrogen-related receptor orthologue gene transcription in Marisa cornuarietis exposed to estrogenic chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Beresford, N; Granger, DW; Pounds, NA; Rand-Weaver, M; White, R; Jobling, S; Routledge, EJ

    2013-01-01

    This article is made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative Works License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Estrogen receptor orthologues in molluscs may be targets for endocrine disruptors, although mechanistic evidence is lacking. Molluscs ...

  6. Can molluscan assemblages give insights into Holocene environmental changes other than sea level rise? A case study from a macrotidal bay (Marennes-Oleron, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Poirier, Clement; Sauriau, Pierre-guy; Chaumillon, Eric; Allard, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    During the Late Holocene, the rate of sea level rise decreased and climate changes, hydrodynamic processes or anthropogenic impacts became predominant parameters governing the sedimentary infill of estuarine environments. The aim of this study is to describe the response of past benthic mollusc communities to these forcing factors. Mollusc skeletal remains were sampled from three 8000, 5500 and 2600 year-long sedimentary records in the Marennes-Oleron Bay (Atlantic Coast, France), where envir...

  7. Relação entre a patogenicidade do Schistoma mansoni em camundongos e a susceptibilidade do molusco vetor: II. Número de ovos nas fezes e número e tamanho dos granulomas nas vísceras Relationship between the pathogenicity of Schistoma mansoni in mice and the susceptibility of the vector mollusc: II. Number of eggs in the feces and number and size of granulomas in the visceras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Zanotti-Magalhães

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência da susceptibilidade de moluscos vetores do S. mansoni no desenvolvimento da patogenicidade do trematódeo no hospedeiro definitivo. Foram utilizadas progênies de moluscos Biomphalaria tenagophila e Biomphalaria glabrata selecionadas para o caráter susceptibilidade ao S. mansoni das linhagens SJ e BH, respectivamente. Cercárias oriundas das gerações P, F1 F2, F3 e F4 foram usadas para a infecção de camundongos Swiss, que foram sacrificados oito semanas após a exposição às larvas. Por esta ocasião verificou-se o número de ovos nas fezes e o número de granulomas no fígado, baço e intestino. Avaliou-se também o tamanho das reações granulomatosas nestas vísceras. Concluiu-se que a maior susceptibilidade de B. tenagophila induziu a uma maior eliminação de ovos do parasita nas fezes. Verificou-se maior número de granulomas por área de tecido hepático em roedores infectados com cercárias oriundas de moluscos mais susceptíveis. Nos mesmos roedores, constatou-se relação inversa entre a área dos granulomas esplênicos, hepáticos e intestinais e a taxa de infecção dos moluscos que forneceram as cercárias para a infecção dos camundongos.The influence of the susceptibility of the vector snails of S. mansoni on the development of the pathogenicity of the worm to the host was studied. Off-spring of snails Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila were used, selected with regard to the susceptibility to S. mansoni of the strains BH and SJ trait, respectively. Parenteral, F1,F2, F3 and F4 generation cercariae were used for the infection of Swiss mice, which were killed eight weeks after infection. The number of eggs in the feces and the number of granulomas in the liver, spleen and intestines were counted. The size of the granulomatous reactions was evaluated. The results led to the conclusion that greater susceptibility of B. tenagophila was associated with a larger egg production in the feces and a higher density of granulomas in the liver. There is a clear inverse relationship between the area of hepatic, spleenic and intestinal granulomas and the rate of infection of the snails which served as intermediate hosts for the S. mansoni.

  8. Pseudobunocephalus, a new genus of banjo catfish with the description of a new species from the Orinoco River system of Colombia and Venezuela (Siluriformes: Aspredinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Friel

    Full Text Available Pseudobunocephalus, a new genus of small banjo catfishes (< 80 mm SL, is distinguished from all other aspredinid genera by the following unique features: mandibular teeth restricted to a patch near symphysis of lower jaw; no contact between the metapterygoid and quadrate; autopalatine posteriorly forked with two separate cartilages; absence of the fourth pharyngobranchial; absence of gill rakers on all branchial arches; and lack of bifid hemal spines on vertebrae that articulate with anal-fin pterygiophores. As defined Pseudobunocephalus contain a new species, P. lundbergi from the Orinoco River basin, along with five other species previously assigned to the genus Bunocephalus: P. amazonicus, P. bifidus, P. iheringii, P. quadriradiatus, and P. rugosus.

  9. Antimicrobial effects of 14 Medicinal plant speices of Dashti in Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Shirkani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants are used in treating diseases as low-risk, available and inexpensive natural materials with higher consumption by people comparing to synthetic antimicrobial drugs. Excessive use of antimicrobial drugs led to medicinal resistance against different antibiotics in most bacteria. Material and Methods: In this empirical experimental study, the antimicrobial effects of methanolic extracts of 14 medicinal plants species were examined comparing to conventional therapeutic antibiotics against standard bacterial strains. The plant species were collected from dashti of Bushehr province.The methanolic extract of the cultivations broths were prepared in different concentrations (0/25%, 0/5%, 1%, 2% and 4% dissolved in DMSO/ Methanolic solution and their antibacterial potency respected on the inhibition zone using the disc diffusion assay. Results: The maximum effects on Escherichia coli belonged to Arundo donax and the least effects belonged to Calotropis procera. The maximum effects on Staphylococcus aureus belonged to Lawsonia inermis and the least effects belonged to Calotropis procera. The maximum effects on Micrococcus luteus belonged to Phoeniex doctylifera and the least effects belonged to Oligomeris baccatus. The maximum effects on Klebsiella pneumonia belonged to mnocarpos decander and the least effects belonged Oligomeris baccatus. The maximum effects on pseudomonas aeroginosa belonged to Arundo donax. The maximum effects on Bacillus subtilis belonged to Astragalus arbusculinus. Conclusion: The antimicrobial effects of 4% methanolic extracts of Arundo donax were comparable to Cephalotin (30mcg, Piperacilin (30mcg and Amikacin (30mcg against Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeroginosa. The antimicrobial effects of %4 extracts of Lawsonia inermis were similar to Amikacin (30mcg and Chloramphenicol (30mcg against Klebsiella penumoniae.

  10. Energy from biomass: Results of two-years trials on annual and perennial Herba ceous species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, L.; Ceccarini, L.; Oggiano, N.; Bonari, E.

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of the PRisCa Project (Alternative Crops Research Project) a number of germ plasm collections were set up at the Department of Agronomy of the University of Pisa in order to identify annual and perennial herbaceous species utilizable for electric energy production. The first results deriving from trials carried out in 1992-93 are reported. The following species were used: 1) Annual: Sorghum bicolor, Hibiscus cannabinus, Pennisetum americanum, Kochia scoparia. 2) Perennial: Cynara cardunculus, Helianthus tuberosus, Miscantus sinensis, Arundo donax. Almost all species tested were represented by several genotypes. The total amount of species and genotype tested was 16. On all species, main phenological, biometric and productive determinations were performed. The hypothesized final use was intended to be electric power production by direct combustion and/or gasification. In addition, specific calorific value was also determined by adiabatic calorimeter as well as chemical composition of dry matter and ash composition. Species showing high yield potential, both from the quantitative and qualitative point of view, were Sorghum bicolor and Kochia scoparia (among annuals), as well as Miscanthus sinensis and Arundo donax (among perennials). Total dry matter yield ranged from about 23 tha -1 in the annual species to about 56 tha -1 in the perennials. The highest total calorific power obtainable from dry epigeic biomass was measured in Sorghum bicolor and Arundo donax - 4023 Kcal Kg -1 and 4166 Kcal Kg -1 respectively. The preliminary results suggest that vegetable biomass is environmentally-friendly and could contribute significantly to the world energy needs. (author)

  11. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio; Giudice, Rosa Lo; Pavone, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax

  12. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe, E-mail: bonanno.giuseppe@unict.it [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy); Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio [Department of Agri-Food and Environmental Systems Management, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 100, 95123, Catania (Italy); Giudice, Rosa Lo; Pavone, Pietro [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax.

  13. Sediment core fossils in ancient Lake Ohrid: testing for faunal change since the Last Interglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Albrecht

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ancient Lake Ohrid is probably of early Pleistocene or Pliocene origin and amongst the few lakes in the world harbouring an outstanding degree of endemic biodiversity. Although there is a long history of evolutionary research in Lake Ohrid, particularly on molluscs, a mollusc fossil record has been missing up to date. For the first time, gastropod and bivalve fossils are reported from the basal, calcareous part of a 2.6 m long sediment succession (core Co1200 from the north-eastern part of Lake Ohrid. Electron spin resonance (ESR dating of mollusc shells from the same stratigraphic level yielded an age of 130 ± 28 ka. Lithofacies III sediments, i.e. a stratigraphic subdivision comprising the basal succession of core Co1200 between 181.5–263 cm, appeared solid, greyish-white, and consisted almost entirely of silt-sized endogenic calcite (CaCO3>70% and intact and broken mollusc shells. Here we compare the faunal composition of the thanatocoenosis with recent mollusc associations in Lake Ohrid. A total of 13 mollusc species (9 gastropod and 4 bivalve species could be identified within Lithofacies III sediments. The value of sediment core fossils for reconstructing palaeoenvironmental settings was evaluated and the agreement between sediment and palaeontological proxies was tested.

    The study also aims at investigating major faunal changes since the Last Interglacial and searching for signs of extinction events.

    The combined findings of the ecological study and the sediment characteristics suggest deposition in a shallow water environment during the Last Interglacial. The fossil fauna exclusively included species also found in the present fauna, i.e. no extinction events are evident for this site since the Last Interglacial. The thanatocoenosis showed the highest similarity with recent Intermediate Layer (5–25 m water depth mollusc assemblages. The demonstrated existence of a mollusc fossil record in Lake Ohrid

  14. Vyhodnotenie malakofauny z náplavov Neresnice (stredné Slovensko Interpretation of molluscan fauna from the Neresnica River flood deposits (Central Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Čiliak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sampling of flood debris deposits can be useful method in insufficiently surveyed areas. This sampling method also allows us to detect the presence of rare and endangered species in the study area. We studied flood debris along the Neresnica River to gather data on mollusc fauna of the Pliešovská Kotlina basin and the Javorie Mts. (Central Slovakia. In spring 2010, samples of flood debris were taken at three sites along the river. Molluscan thanatocoenoses were composed of 68 species (56 terrestrial and 12 aquatic ones. The most notable records were two subterranean species – Lucilla scintilla and L. singleyana, and also the species of nature conservation interest – Vertigo angustior. We found representatives of all ecological groups of molluscs, which provide the evidence of ecosystem diversity in various habitats along the river. We documented that the land use of the studied drainage basin was only partially reflected by the structure of mollusc assemblages from flood deposits.

  15. Step process for selecting and testing surrogates and indicators of afrotemperate forest invertebrate diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Uys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diversity and complexity of invertebrate communities usually result in their exclusion from conservation activities. Here we provide a step process for assessing predominantly ground-dwelling Afrotemperate forest invertebrates' (earthworms, centipedes, millipedes, ants, molluscs potential as surrogates for conservation and indicators for monitoring. We also evaluated sampling methods (soil and litter samples, pitfall traps, active searching quadrats and tree beating and temporal (seasonal effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lack of congruence of species richness across taxa indicated poor surrogacy potential for any of the focus taxa. Based on abundance and richness, seasonal stability, and ease of sampling, molluscs were the most appropriate taxon for use in monitoring of disturbance impacts. Mollusc richness was highest in March (Antipodal late summer wet season. The most effective and efficient methods were active searching quadrats and searching litter samples. We tested the effectiveness of molluscs as indicators for monitoring by contrasting species richness and community structure in burned relative to unburned forests. Both species richness and community structure changed significantly with burning. Some mollusc species (e.g. Macroptychia africana showed marked negative responses to burning, and these species have potential for use as indicators. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite habitat type (i.e., Afrotemperate forest being constant, species richness and community structure varied across forest patches. Therefore, in conservation planning, setting targets for coarse filter features (e.g., habitat type requires fine filter features (e.g., localities for individual species. This is especially true for limited mobility taxa such as those studied here. Molluscs have high potential for indicators for monitoring, and this requires broader study.

  16. Influence of Different Lignocellulose Sources on Endo-1,4-β-Glucanase Gene Expression and Enzymatic Activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B31C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Di Pasqua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of cellulose into fermentable sugars for ethanol production is currently performed by enzymatic hydrolysis catalyzed by cellulases. The cellulases are produced by a wide variety of microorganisms, playing a major role in the recycling of biomass. The endo-1,4-β-glucanase (CelB31C from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B31C, isolated from compost and previously selected on the basis of highest cellulase activity levels among Bacillus isolated, was characterized as being a potential candidate for a biocatalyst in lignocellulose conversion for second-generation bioethanol production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in production of enzymatic activity of the endo-1,4-β-glucanase (CelB31C and the expression of its gene (bglC using a carboxymethylcellulase activity assay and qRT-PCR analysis, respectively, during growth of B. amyloliquefaciens B31C on different cellulose sources: carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, pure cellulose from Arundo donax, pretreated Arundo donax biomass (Chemtex, and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel. The results showed that both the expression of bglC gene and the enzymatic activity production are related to the type of cellulose source. The strain showed a high enzymatic activity on lignocellulosic biomass and on microcrystalline cellulose. Furthermore, the highest gene expression occurred during the exponential phase of growth, except in the presence of Avicel.

  17. Are Pericentric Inversions Reorganizing Wedge Shell Genomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García-Souto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wedge shells belonging to the Donacidae family are the dominant bivalves in exposed beaches in almost all areas of the world. Typically, two or more sympatric species of wedge shells differentially occupy intertidal, sublittoral, and offshore coastal waters in any given locality. A molecular cytogenetic analysis of two sympatric and closely related wedge shell species, Donax trunculus and Donax vittatus, was performed. Results showed that the karyotypes of these two species were both strikingly different and closely alike; whilst metacentric and submetacentric chromosome pairs were the main components of the karyotype of D. trunculus, 10–11 of the 19 chromosome pairs were telocentric in D. vittatus, most likely as a result of different pericentric inversions. GC-rich heterochromatic bands were present in both species. Furthermore, they showed coincidental 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA, 5S rRNA and H3 histone gene clusters at conserved chromosomal locations, although D. trunculus had an additional 45S rDNA cluster. Intraspecific pericentric inversions were also detected in both D. trunculus and D. vittatus. The close genetic similarity of these two species together with the high degree of conservation of the 45S rRNA, 5S rRNA and H3 histone gene clusters, and GC-rich heterochromatic bands indicate that pericentric inversions contribute to the karyotype divergence in wedge shells.

  18. Influence of microbial community diversity and function on pollutant removal in ecological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yaohui; Huo, Yang; Liao, Kailingli; Qu, Jiuhui

    2017-10-01

    Traditional wastewater treatments based on activated sludge often encounter the problems of bulking and foaming, as well as malodor. To solve these problems, new treatment technologies have emerged in recent decades, including the ecological wastewater treatment process, which introduces selected local plants into the treatment system. With a focus on the underlying mechanisms of the ecological treatment process, we explored the microbial community biomass, composition, and function in the treatment system to understand the microbial growth in this system and its role in pollutant removal. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that ecological treatment significantly decreased influent bacterial quantity, with around 80% removal. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the ecological treatment also altered the bacterial community structure of the wastewater, leading to a significant change in Comamonadaceae in the effluent. In the internal ecological system, because most of microbes aggregate in the plant rhizosphere and the sludge under plant roots, we selected two plant species (Nerium oleander and Arundo donax) to study the characteristics of rhizosphere and sludge microbes. Metagenomic results showed that the microbial community composition and function differed between the two species, and the microbial communities of A. donax were more sensitive to seasonal effects. Combined with their greater biomass and abundance of metabolic genes, microbes associated with N. oleander showed a greater contribution to pollutant removal. Further, the biodegradation pathways of some micropollutants, e.g., atrazine, were estimated.

  19. Energetic evaluation of indigenous tree and shrub species in Basilicata, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todaro L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of energetic characteristics such as high calorific value (on ash-free dry weight basis, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and moisture content of 12 indigenous tree and shrub species of Southern Italy (Basilicata Region was carried out. The studied species are the most abundant in this area: Quercus cerris L., Quercus pubescens Willd., Fraxinus ornus L., Populus canescens (Aiton Smith, Salix alba L., Alnus cordata L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Olea europaea L., Spartium junceum L., Rubus hirtus W., Onopordum illirium L., Arundo donax L. For Q. cerris, Q. pubescens and O. europaea L., the energetic characteristics were measured by separating the wood components from the leaves. Q. cerris leaves contained the greatest high calorific value. F. ornus leaves had a greater ash content than the other samples while the lowest values were measured for S. junceum, Q. pubescens and R. pseudoacacia. The highest content of Carbon was in O. europaea leaves. A. donax and O. illirium had the lower level of high calorific value and Carbon than all the other species. The highest Nitrogen content was measured in Q. cerris leaves and the lowest one in F. ornus wood components.

  20. Laboratory experiments on the transfer dynamics of plutonium from marine sediments to sea water and to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, T.; Lowman, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    The leachability of 239 240 Pu from a fine contaminated calcareous sediment to aerated open sea water and to anoxic sea water was measured. The distribution coefficient for 239 240 Pu from sediment to sea water was 6.1 x 10 -5 for aerated water and 2.6 x 10 -6 for anoxic water. Experiments on the uptake of 239 240 Pu by the clams Donax denticulatus, and Lucina pectinata, were done in aquaria containing kilogram quantities of sediment from the Bravo Crater at Bikini Atoll. The concentration factor for 239 240 Pu by the soft parts of these clams was about 200. All the plutonium taken up in the soft parts was associated with the gill, mantle and siphon. No plutonium was detected in the adductor muscles or hepatopancreas. The smooth surfaces of the shells of the Donax did not show any detectable plutonium, but the rough shell surfaces of the Lucina concentrated plutonium by a factor of 1.10 x 10 4 over that in the sea water. Marine periphyton cultured on glass plates in an aquarium concentrated 239 240 Pu by a factor of about 7 x 10 3 over that in the sea water. (U.S.)

  1. Last interglacial marine environments in the White Sea region, northern Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøsfjeld, Kari; Funder, Svend; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

    2006-01-01

    Marine sediments from river sections in the Mezen River drainage, northwest Russia, have been analysed for dinoflagellate cysts, foraminifers and molluscs. The sediments were dated by pollen analysis and by reference to the local sea-level history, and are Late Saalian to late Eemian (c. 133 to 119...... water was stronger and probably penetrated further eastwards than at present. The molluscs, dinoflagellate cysts and foraminifers reflect the warmer than present conditions and that the optimum temperature occurred at the time of the early Eemian global sea-level rise. Around 128 kyr BP, the eustatic...

  2. Spatial distribution, inter-annual variability and influence of abiotic factors on molluscan assemblages collected with otter trawl in the northen Alborán Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ciércoles, C. (Cristina); García-Ruiz, C. (Cristina); González-Aguilar, M. (María); López-González, N. (Nieves); Tuite, P. (Patrick); Ortiz-de-Urbina-Gutiérrez, J.M. (José María); Rueda, J.L. (José Luis)

    2016-01-01

    Molluscs constitute one of the most diverse and best represented invertebrate groups in the marine environment. In the northern sectors of the Alborán Sea and Gulf of Cádiz 1200 spp. of the 1800 spp. occurring in the Mediterranean Sea, have been found so far highlighting the importance of this area for the european molluscan fauna (Gofas et al., 2011). Molluscs are also the second group in abundance and biomass in demersal fisheries and an important component of soft-bottom benthic communitie...

  3. Concentration of PSP (Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning) Toxin On Shellfish From Inner Ambon Bay and Kao Bay North Halmahera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pello, F. S.; Haumahu, S.; Huliselan, N. V.; Tuapattinaja, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    The Inner Ambon Bay and Kao Bay have potential on fisheries resources which one of them is molluscs. Molluscs especially for class bivalve have economical values and are consumed by coastal community. The research had been done to analyze saxitoxin (STX) concentration on bivalves from Kao Bay and Inner Ambon Bay. The Saxitoxin Elisa Test Kit Protocol was used to determine saxitoxin concentration. The measurement showed that the highest concentration of saxitoxin (392.42 µg STXeq/100g shellfish meat) was Gafrarium tumidum from Ambon Bay, whereas concentration of saxitoxin (321.83 µg STXeq/100g shellfish meat) was Mactra mera from Kao Bay

  4. Deep-ocean disposal of high-activity nuclear wastes: a conservative assessment of the seafood critical pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, M.S.; Economides, B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper applies conventional 'worst-case' assumptions to modelling the effects of possible future disposal of high-activity wastes in the oceans. It otherwise uses previously published and generally accepted data to assess the possible intakes of the waste nuclides via consumption of seaweeds, molluscs, crustaceans, plankton and fish. Model-predicted intakes for critical groups generally exceed ICRP-recommended limits, with 244 Cm, 241 Am and 137 Cs being the most potentially hazardous nuclides. The various seafood consumption pathways are found to rank, in decreasing order of potential hazard, as seaweeds > molluscs > plankton > fish > crustaceans. (Auth.)

  5. Strontium-90 in the western Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payton, P.H.; Hild, S.B.; Oertti, C.U.; Suttle, A.D. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The results of measurements of 90 Sr in water, coral, hermit crabs and molluscs from the western Gulf of Mexico and in fresh water molluscs from Canyon Lake, Texas are reported. Preparation of samples for measurement in the anticoincidence mode in a lead shielded flow proportional counter is described. The measured value of 0.095 +- 0.003 pCi/litre for Gulf water is in accord with literature values. Concentration factors for 90 Sr are apparently 1 for coral. The activity incorporated into shells normalized to calcium content, decreases from Galveston to Campeche Bay. (U.K.)

  6. MOLLUSKS IN RADIOECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. Гудков

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Species-specificity and dynamics of 90Sr, 137Cs and some transuraniс elements accumulation in bivalveand gastropod freshwater molluscs of the Chernobyl exclusion zone during 1998–2010 was analyzed. Theresults of radiation dose as well as chromosome aberration rate estimation and analysis of hemolymphcomposition of molluscs was produced. The radiation absorbed dose rate was registered in the range of 0.3–85.0 μGy h–1. In closed water bodies the heightened chromosome aberration rate (up to 27 % in embryotissues, and also change of haematological indexes for the adult individuals of snails was registered

  7. A faunistic survey of digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp have been reported in Tanzania as vectors of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium respectively. Thus most schistosomiasis control efforts have focussed on elimination of these molluscs in freshwater systems or deworming infected persons. In addition almost there is limited ...

  8. Biological geography of the European seas: results from the MacroBen database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arvanitidis, C.; Somerfield, P.J.; Rumohr, H.; Faulwetter, S.; Valavanis, V.; Vasileiadou, A.; Chatzigeorgiou, G.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Labrune, C.; Grémare, A.; Zettler, M.L.; Kedra, M.; Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, M.; Aleffi, I.F.; Amouroux, J.M.; Anisimova, N.; Bachelet, G.; Büntzow, M.; Cochrane, S.J.; Costello, M.J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Dahle, S.; Degraer, S.; Denisenko, S.; Dounas, C.; Duineveld, G.; Emblow, C.; Escavarage, V.; Fabri, M.C.; Fleischer, D.; Gray, J.S.; Heip, C.H.R.; Herrmann, M.; Hummel, H.; Janas, U.; Karakassis, I.; Kendall, M.A.; Kingston, P.; Kotwicki, L.; Laudien, J.; Mackie, A.S.Y.; Nevrova, E.L.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Oliver, P.G.; Olsgard, F.; Palerud, R.; Petrov, A.; Rachor, E.; Revkov, N.K.; Rose, A.; Sardá, R.; Sistermans, W.C.H.; Speybroeck, J.; Van Hoey, G.; Vincx, M.; Whomersley, P.; Willems, W.; Zenetos, A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether or not biogeographical and/or managerial divisions across the European seas can be validated using soft-bottom macrobenthic community data. The faunal groups used were: all macrobenthos groups, polychaetes, molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms, sipunculans and the last 5

  9. De weekdieren van de Nederlandse brakwatergebieden (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The molluscs of the brackish waters in the Netherlands (Mollusca) The Netherlands is a river delta rich in brackish waters. The organisms in these waters need to be adapted to extreme conditions, especially large fluctuations in chlorinity. However, several species occur optimally in this habitat.

  10. On the identities of the molluscan names described in A Short Zoology of Tahiti in the Society Islands by Anthony Curtiss in 1938 (Mollusca: Cephalopoda, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Martyn E Y; Tan, Siong Kiat

    2014-02-11

    Anthony Curtiss described two species of cephalopod and nine species of gastropod molluscs from Tahiti. Herein, we discuss and determine the identities of these eleven names. Ten of these names are considered to be junior subjective synonyms of well-known taxa, and one an unavailable name.

  11. Preliminary gut content and dentition analysis reveal subtle resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    been hypothesized to have contributed to the evolution and adaptive .... nets with stretched mesh sizes (25.4 to 203.2 mm) during both day and night hours .... Embryos, Eggs. Unicuspid (Deeply embended). 3. Hypotrophic. Sucking. A. alluaudi. Molluscs. Subequally – Unequally bicuspid. 3. Hypertrophic. Crushing. A. nubila.

  12. Isozyme Variation in Two Samples of Babylonia areolata from Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T. X. T.; Nugranad, J.; Simonsen, V.

    2001-01-01

    Hylleberg, J. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 11th International Congress & Workshop of the Tropical Marine Mollusc Programme (TMMP), Kodaikanal, Rameswaram and Tuticorin Tamilnadu, India, 28th September- 8th October 2000. Part 1. Tuticorin, India: Sugnthi Devadason Marine Research Institute (SDMRI...

  13. Vodní měkkýši bývalého lomu Chabařovice v severních Čechách

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Beran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper completes the knowledge of aquatic molluscs of a former coal quarry Chabařovice near Ústí nad Labem in Northern Bohemia. This quarry was opened in 1977 and 20 years later the mining was finished. A part of the coal quarry was flooded and new water reservoir Milada originated in the area of 250 ha with max. depth 24,7 m and this water reservoir is the biggest aquatic habitat in this area. Other four smaller water reservoirs, numerous drainage canals and small wetlands were built and aquatic molluscs of these sites were studied in 2010. Altogether, 16 species of aquatic molluscs (12 gastropods, 4 bivalves were found at 41 sites. Drainage canals, new brooks and small new wetlands are inhabited by poor aquatic malacofauna which contains often only one or two widespread species – Galba truncatula and Radix auricularia. Bivalve Pisidium casertanum was found only at three sites. Similar situation is in the case of water reservoirs Rabenov and Roudníky. Only artifical water reservoir Milada and smaller water reservoir close to this lake are inhabited by rich aquatic malacofauna containing 14 respectively 6 species. Molluscs were studied also in the past before opening the quarry and the actual malacofauna is richer probably due to the existence of more aquatic habitats. Three non-native species were found and the occurrence of other non native species is expected in the future as well as changes in autochtonous malacofauna.

  14. The gastropod menace: slugs on Brassica plants affect caterpillar survival through consumption and interference with parasitoid attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrestrial molluscs and insect herbivores play a major role as plant consumers in a number of ecosystems, but their direct and indirect interactions have hardly been explored. The omnivorous nature of slugs makes them potential disrupters of predator-prey relationships, as a direct threat to small ...

  15. Lanthanides, thorium, iodine in terrestrail invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhulidov, A.V.; Pokarzhevskij, A.D.; Katargin, N.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that among examined terrestrial invertebrates the highest levels on lanthanide and thorium concentration are typical for animals, feeding on plant tissues - earthworms, molluscs, diploid. It is shown that there are no reasons to hope, that regularities of migration of transuranium elements and lanthanides in tropic chains are identical

  16. Neuropeptides predicted from the transcriptome analysis of the gray garden slug Deroceras reticulatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Gastropoda: Pulmonata), is one of the most common terrestrial molluscs. Studies on D. reticulatum have mainly focused on ecology and biology due to severe damages on a wide range of vegetables and field crops. However, little is known about hormonal signa...

  17. Transfer factors of trace elements and radionuclides in the marine environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, M.V.M.; Pulhani, Vandana; Padmanabhan, Hemalatha

    1998-11-01

    The document presents the data base on Bioaccumulation Factor, B p and Distribution Coefficient, K d values generated in the eastern and western coastal marine waters of India with a view to develop site-specific or species-specific values. Comparison with the IAEA default values from Safety Series No. 57 and Technical Report Series No. 247 values is made. Generally, the B p values for trace elements do not vary by more than a factor of 3 except for some specific cases like Fe in molluscs, crustaceans and fish, Ni in molluscs and Zn in sea weeds and molluscs. The same is true for the B p values of fission nuclides viz., 137 Cs and 90 Sr in molluscs, crustaceans and sea weeds except for the B p of 137 Cs in fish which is significantly lower in the Indian context. The fission nuclide 144 Ce shows distinctly higher accumulation factors in all organisms. The B p values of natural radionuclides such as 210 Pb , 210 Po, Ra and U are close to the IAEA default values except for the high value of U in fish. Similarly, B p values of Pu in fish and crustaceans are significantly higher than that of the IAEA default values. The report presents B p values for Cu and Cd in different marine organisms and K d values in marine sediments. K d values for suspended particles are also presented. B p values for plankton and porifera are also given. (author)

  18. Molluscan Population Of An African Arid Zone Lake | Idowu | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species composition, abundance and distribution of molluscs population together with some physico-chemical variables from five different stations in the littoral region of lake Alau, MaiduguriBorno state, were studied from October 2001 to September 2002. Three patterns of seasonal abundance were found, maximal ...

  19. A name is a name is a name: some thoughts and personal opinions about molluscan scientific names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dance, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1758, with the publication of Systema Naturae by Linnaeus, thousands of scientific names have been proposed for molluscs. The derivation and uses of many of them are here examined from various viewpoints, beginning with names based on appearance, size, vertical distribution, and location.

  20. Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Part I. Spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2010-11-01

    Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 76 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.

  1. Benthic life on the tropical sandy shore: Miramar beach a case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.

    of shore-dwelling bivalve molluscs. The foot of intertidal and subtidal clams such as Mactra violacea and Meretrix spp. is relatively large and powerful. It can pull the shell below the sand surface very quickly symbolising the burrowing life style. Other...

  2. The stratigraphy and regional structure of Miocene deposits in western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), with implications for late Neogene landscape evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Hoorn, M.C.; Guerrero, J.; Räsänen, M.E.; Romero Pittmann, L.; Salo, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A biozonation based on molluscs is proposed for Miocene deposits of western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), commonly referred to as the Pebas Formation. The new zonation refines existing pollen zonations and provides a key for the quick assessment of the stratigraphic position of Neogene

  3. On the role of water and forage in penetration of some radionuclides into the Limnaea organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchyulenene, D.P.; Polikarpov, G.G.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Sevastopol. Inst. Biologii Yuzhnykh Morej)

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study under laboratory conditions the significance of elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich.) and aqueous medium in accumulation of strontium-90, cesium-137, cerium-144 and ruthenium-106 by limnetic gastropods (Limnaea Stagnalis L.). The study revealed that only 2 and 5% of strontium-90 and cerium-144 respectively were accumulated in molluscs shell from radioactive food, and 4 and 26% - in the body. The authors believed that higher accumulation levels of cerium-144 and ruthenium-106 in mollusca body when the molluscs are fed with radioactive elodea were caused by high accumulation coefficients (AC) of radionuclides in food, i.e. elodea, and their accumulation in the gastrointestinal tracts of molluscs. To appreciates the significance of elodea and water as sources of radionuclide accumulation by mollusca, strontium-90 and cerium-144 AC in molluscs were estimated in relation to water and elodea. The results obtained indicated that AC of these radionuclides in mollusca was much lower in relation to food than to water

  4. Dr C. Beets (1916-1995) and the 'Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler Prins, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    Dr Cornelis Beets, internationally renowned specialist of Indonesian Cainozoic molluscs, died on the 28th of July 1995. Born April 25, 1916, he read geology at Leiden University and obtained his PhD in 1941 on a geological study of the Turin Hills (Italy). When working on his PhD, he had already

  5. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of refined petroleum products against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Static and static-renewal evaluation of the acute toxicity of three refined petroleum products — petrol, kerosene and diesel — against two freshwater animals, the mollusc Pila ovata and the fish Poecilia reticulata, was conducted in the laboratory. Petrol, kerosene and diesel were found to be moderately toxic to the test ...

  6. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna

  7. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in a molluscan egg: Evidence for an animal/vegetal polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S.W. de; Speksnijder, J.E.; Dohmen, M.R.; Zoelen, E. van; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Bluemink, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lateral diffusion of the lipid analog C₁₄-diI (3', 3'-dihexadecylindocarbocyanine iodide) was measured in the plasma membrane of early embryos of the mollusc Nassarius reticulatus using the FPR-(Fluorescence Photobleaching Recovery) method. At almost all stages measured (from

  8. New caulerpenyne-derived metabolites of an Elysia Sacoglossan from the south Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ciavatta, M.L.; Gresa, M.P.L.; Gavagnin, M.; Manzo, E.; Mollo, E.; DeSouza, L.; Cimino, G.

    and Caulerpa has also been demonstrated by chemical studies [6], while there is a lack of chemical information about the Indo-Pacific species that seems to have similar alimentary habits. The ability of Caulerpa-feeder molluscs to transform dietary...

  9. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    After a doctorate in Paleontology (1967) at Columbia University, S J Gould went to Harvard where he spent the rest of his career, becoming the Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology in 1982. As a paleontologist, he was a specialist of gastropod molluscs from West Indies. But he soon became involved in broader and ...

  10. Thirty-ninth annual report of the director, January-December 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Fishing Research Institute did investigations on canned fish, canned pet food, crustacea, molluscs, salted-, dried-, smoked-, fresh-, and frozen fish, as well as silage, fish meals and fish oils. Gamma radiation as a method of heat treatment for the sterilisation of salt II, was also discussed

  11. Regional differences in the lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in a molluscan embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, J.E.; Dohmen, M.R.; Tertoolen, L.G.J.; Laat, S.W. de

    1985-01-01

    Regional and temporal differences in plasma membrane lipid mobility have been analyzed during the first three cleavage cycles of the embryo of the polar-lobe-forming mollusc Nassarius reticulatus by the fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) method, using 1,1′-ditetradecyl

  12. The impact of small benthic passive suspension feeders in shallow marine ecosystems: the hydroids as an example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gili, J.-M.; Alvà, V.; Coma, R.; Orejas, C.; Pagès, F.; Ribes, M.; Zabala, M.; Arntz, W.; Bouillon, J.; Boero, F.; Hughes, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    Benthic suspension feeders are abundant in littoral and shallow sub-littoral ecosystems, where they feed on the plankton and on organic matter suspended in the water column. Recent studies indicate that active suspension feeders with powerful water filtration mechanisms (e.g., bivalve molluscs) may

  13. Learning and memory in Octopus vulgaris: a case of biological plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrella, Ilaria; Ponte, Giovanna; Baldascino, Elena; Fiorito, Graziano

    2015-12-01

    Here we concisely summarize major aspects of the learning capabilities of the cephalopod mollusc Octopus vulgaris, a solitary living marine invertebrate. We aim to provide a backdrop against which neurobiology of these animals can be further interpreted and thus soliciting further interest for one of the most advanced members of invertebrate animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recognizing cephalopod boreholes in shells and the northward spread of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 (Cephalopoda, Octopodoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Auke-Florian

    2015-01-01

    Octopuses prey on molluscs by boring through their shell. Among the regular naticid borings, traces of cephalopod predation should be found soon on Dutch beaches. Bottom trawling has declined, and by the effects of global warming Octopus will find its way back to the North Sea where it lived before.

  15. Fine structure of the creeping larva of Loxosomella murmanica: additional evidence for a clade of Kamptozoa (Entoprocta) and Mollusca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    . The prototroch consists of two ciliary rings; a downstream collecting system is not present. Although there is a one-way gut with a lumen throughout, the larva obviously does not feed. A single pair of protonephridia is present. The foot sole shares distinct similarities with basic molluscs, particularly...

  16. Heavy metals in seafood of Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.; Lima, N.R.W.; Lacerda, L.D. de

    Metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn and Pb, were measured in seafood items from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, The results showed that the highest concentrations are presented by filter-feeding molluscs, probably due to their relationship with the bay's suspended particulate matter. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Holocene stratigraphy and vegetation history in the Scoresby Sund area, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1978-01-01

    The Holocene stratigraphy in Scoresby Sund is based on climatic change as reflected by fluctuations in fjord and valley glaciers, immigration and extinction of marine molluscs, and the vegetation history recorded in pollen diagrams from five lakes. The histories are dated by C-14, and indirectly...

  18. Control of climate and Tethyan legacy on distribution of Paleocene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    11

    planktotrophic larvae of these benthic molluscs could not cross the deep ocean barrier that lay between the .... temporal data and consideration of the whole epoch in a single time frame, it was still able to ..... Shallow benthic gastropod faunas, hence, flourished in a big ... They also thought that the current was from east to.

  19. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 6,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-30

    During the past year the Depart- molluscs, echinoderms, salps , and doli- ment of Documentation and Publications olids. produced three issues of...of keeping the weary travelers awake. the food of these fish was completed It was reminiscent of the record storm as well. that passed over the same

  20. Nutrient Discharge from aquaculture operations in function of system design and production enviorment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    In aquaculture, nutrient loading is defined as the difference between nutrients supplied with fertilizers and feed and nutrients harvested in the form of finfish, crustaceans, molluscs and seaweeds. On average, the production of finfish and crustaceans results in a net nutrient loading, while for

  1. A new genus and species of Aclididae (Gastropoda) from off Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Warén, A.

    1987-01-01

    Dr. Manuel Carrillo Pèrez (Universidad de la Laguna) has sent some dredge-samples to the first author. This material contained many interesting molluscs, not mentioned by Nordsieck & Talavera (1979). Amongst them was a very peculiar gastropod species, which was difficult to identify. Based on some

  2. Overwinteringsgedrag van de nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveld, A.

    2005-01-01

    Overwintering habits of the land snail Vertigo angustior (Mollusca) During a mollusc survey in 2004 en 2005 in the province of Zuid-Holland special attention was paid to Vertigo angustior. The species was observed overwintering in large groups, up to hundreds of specimens together, between mosses

  3. Prevalance and consequences of the most frequently observed alien molluse in US wadeable stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alien molluscs are widely distributed in U.S. streams. While some raise economic concerns on the order of billions of dollars, documentation of widespread ecological effects has, in some instances, been more elusive. A probability survey of wadeable streams of the coterminous U.S...

  4. Primary structure of the oligosaccharide moiety of hemocyanin from the scorpion Androctonus australis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Debeire, P.; Montreuil, J.; Goyffon, M.; Kuik, J.A. van; Halbeek, H. van

    1986-01-01

    Hemocyanin, the copper-containing glycoprotein that serves as an oxygen carrier in the hemolymph of some arthropods and molluscs, was obtained from the blood of the scorpion Androctonus australis. Sugar analysis of the glycoprotein revealed that its carbohydrate moiety is of the N-glycosylic type.

  5. Errata to the Review Article (Medit. Mar. Sci. 11/2, 2010, 381-493: "Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Part I. Spatial distribution"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2011-12-01

    Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 76 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.

  6. A Genetic Analysis of Crystal Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Stanley; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Johnson, E.

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of crystal morphology by proteins is often observed in biology. It is a central feature in the formation of hard tissues such as bones, teeth and mollusc shells. We have developed a genetic system in the bacterium Escherichia coli to study the protein-mediated control of crystal...

  7. Bibliographie der Flussperlmuschel Margaritifera Margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbluth, J.H.; Coomans, H.E.; Grohs, H.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography of the freshwater Pearlmussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda] The freshwater pearlmussel, described by Linnaeus as Mya margaritifera is one of the most important molluscs existing. It belongs with only a few congeneric fossil and recent species to the

  8. Type specimens of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) described by Ignaz von Born (1778 - 1780)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Born described in two publications (1778, 1780) the molluscs in the collection of Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780), now in the Natural History Museum at Vienna. In this paper the Pectinidae type material is described. Ten new species were introduced of which Argopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) and

  9. Type specimens of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) described by Ignaz von Born

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Born described in two publications (1778, 1780) the molluscs in the collection of Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780), now in the Natural History Museum at Vienna. In this paper the Pectinidae type material is described. Ten new species were introduced of which Argopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) and

  10. 1851-IJBCS-Article-Cyril Roméo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    attack rates during the different harvests. This was done in version 12.4 of SPSS software. RESULTS ... rolling up and shrivelled plants. They also cause indirect damages on the young plants by infecting them with .... fruits) by the other bio attackers (birds, molluscs and burns). Contrary to the hot red pepper (Figure 6), the ...

  11. Effects of Seawater Acidification on the Liffe Cycle and Fitness of Opossum Shrimp Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of the current concern about ecological effects of ocean acidification focuses on molluscs and coccolithophores because of their importance in the global calcium cycle. However, many other marine organisms are likely to be affected by acidification because of their known se...

  12. Effects of Seawater Acidification on the Life Cycle and fitness of Opossum Shrimp Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of the current concern about ecological effects of ocean acidification focuses on molluscs and coccolithophores because of their importance in the global calcium cycle. However, many other marine organisms are likely to be affected by acidification because of their known ph...

  13. Biomonitoring: Guide for the Use of Biological Endpoints in Monitoring Species, Habitats, and Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    et al ., 1991; Welsh and Ollivier 1998), behavior (Daly et al ., 1995; Maltby et al ., 2002 ...include changes in species diversity and community structure (Karr 1981; Bramblett and Fausch 1991; Barbour et al ., 1999; Zweig and Rabeni 2001; Martin et ...programs in aquatic habitats; these programs typically employ benthic invertebrates such as molluscs (Maltby et al ., 2002 ; Applied Biomonitoring

  14. Moringa, marinade, bacteria, fungi, catfish, smoke-dried

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-16

    Jan 16, 2013 ... spoilage thus limiting economic loss and possible heath risk to consumers ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 No.1 2013. 1Department of Animal Production, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, ..... Molluscs by Major Fishing Areas. ... Microbiological quality of smoke-dried mangrove.

  15. Study of dinosaur's egg shell by EPR method; Issledovaniya metodom EhPR skorlupy yaits dinozavrov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tleuberdina, R A; Nasirov, R N

    1998-07-01

    Two varieties of calcium carbonate are defined on base of ESR spectra radiation-inducted signals containing in mollusc shell and dinosaur and ostrich egg shell; their spectral characters are studied by infrared-spectroscopy methods and X-ray analysis. Possibility of correlation between ESR signals intensity of CO{sub 2}-radical of investigated object and geological age is determined. (author)

  16. Reproductive characterization of three species of Giant African land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... wild lay eggs about two to three times per season. (Cobbinah et al., 2008). ... courtship and copulatory duration of three (3) species of. Giant African land ... digital stop watch and the snails were observed from 6.00 pm to. 7.00 am daily ..... trail following in apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata. J. Mollusc stud.

  17. An early 'handwritten' shell exchange catalogue of the Leiden Museum, with notes on the collectors Rethaan Macaré and Tischbein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    2013-01-01

    A ‘handwritten’ (lithographed) shell exchange catalogue of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden (The Netherlands), dated 1850 and containing 864 nominal taxa (861 molluscs and 3 brachiopods), is discussed in the context of the history of the museum. This catalogue must have been

  18. Detection of hepatitis A virus in shellfish by nested reverse transcription-PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croci, L.; Medici, de D.; Morace, G.; Fiore, A.; Scalfaro, C.; Beneduce, F.; Toti, L.

    1999-01-01

    A method for the detection of HAV in shellfish, based on the use of guanidinium isothiocyanate-contg. soln. for RNA extn. and purifn. steps, followed by nested PCR, is hereby proposed. Tests were carried out on mollusc samples spiked with HAV strain FG. Results showed that in samples subjected only

  19. Study of dinosaur's egg shell by EPR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tleuberdina, R.A.; Nasirov, R.N.

    1998-01-01

    Two varieties of calcium carbonate are defined on base of ESR spectra radiation-inducted signals containing in mollusc shell and dinosaur and ostrich egg shell; their spectral characters are studied by infrared-spectroscopy methods and X-ray analysis. Possibility of correlation between ESR signals intensity of CO 2 -radical of investigated object and geological age is determined. (author)

  20. Effect factors for marine eutrophication in LCIA based on species sensitivity to hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    -observed-effect-concentrations (LOEC), were compiled from literature for 91 demersal species of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, annelids, and cnidarians, and converted to temperature-specific benthic (100 m depth) LOEC values. Species distribution and LOEC values were combined using a species sensitivity distribution (SSD...

  1. Survival under stress: molecular mechanisms of metabolic rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in my laboratory are analysing the molecular mechanisms and regulatory events that underlie transitions to and from hypometabolic states In systems including anoxia-tolerant turtles and molluscs, estivating snails and toads, hibernating small mammals, and freeze tolerant frogs and insects. Our newest research ...

  2. Molluscan radiations and landscape evolution in Miocene Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    This PhD study aims to exploit the rich archive provided by the Miocene mollusc fauna of the Pebas Formation and other inland Miocene Amazonian formations to reconstruct landscape evolution and biotic development in lowland Amazonia during the Neogene. Over 160 samples from more than 70 Pebas

  3. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas

    2010-12-06

    Genome-wide transcriptional changes in development provide important insight into mechanisms underlying growth, differentiation, and patterning. However, such large-scale developmental studies have been limited to a few representatives of Ecdysozoans and Chordates. Here, we characterize transcriptomes of embryonic, larval, and metamorphic development in the marine mollusc Aplysia californica and reveal novel molecular components associated with life history transitions. Specifically, we identify more than 20 signal peptides, putative hormones, and transcription factors in association with early development and metamorphic stages-many of which seem to be evolutionarily conserved elements of signal transduction pathways. We also characterize genes related to biomineralization-a critical process of molluscan development. In summary, our experiment provides the first large-scale survey of gene expression in mollusc development, and complements previous studies on the regulatory mechanisms underlying body plan patterning and the formation of larval and juvenile structures. This study serves as a resource for further functional annotation of transcripts and genes in Aplysia, specifically and molluscs in general. A comparison of the Aplysia developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms that are likely a consequence of the different developmental modes of these organisms. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  4. Lignocellulose-Adapted Endo-Cellulase Producing Streptomyces Strains for Bioconversion of Cellulose-Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Ionata, Elena; Birolo, Leila; Montella, Salvatore; Marcolongo, Loredana; de Chiaro, Addolorata; Espresso, Francesco; Faraco, Vincenza; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four Actinobacteria strains, isolated from Arundo donax, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Populus nigra biomass during natural biodegradation and with potential enzymatic activities specific for the degradation of lignocellulosic materials, were identified by a polyphasic approach. All strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces ( S .) and in particular, the most highly represented species was Streptomyces argenteolus representing 50% of strains, while 8 strains were identified as Streptomyces flavogriseus (synonym S. flavovirens ) and Streptomyces fimicarius (synonyms Streptomyces acrimycini, Streptomyces baarnensis, Streptomyces caviscabies , and Streptomyces flavofuscus ), and the other four strains belonged to the species Streptomyces drozdowiczii, Streptomyces rubrogriseus, Streptomyces albolongus , and Streptomyces ambofaciens . Moreover, all Streptomyces strains, tested for endo and exo-cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase, ligninase, peroxidase, and laccase activities using qualitative and semi-quantitative methods on solid growth medium, exhibited multiple enzymatic activities (from three to six). The 24 strains were further screened for endo-cellulase activity in liquid growth medium and the four best endo-cellulase producers ( S. argenteolus AE58P, S. argenteolus AE710A, S. argenteolus AE82P, and S. argenteolus AP51A) were subjected to partial characterization and their enzymatic crude extracts adopted to perform saccharification experiments on A. donax pretreated biomass. The degree of cellulose and xylan hydrolysis was evaluated by determining the kinetics of glucose and xylose release during 72 h incubation at 50°C from the pretreated biomass in the presence of cellulose degrading enzymes (cellulase and β-glucosidase) and xylan related activities (xylanase and β-xylosidase). The experiments were carried out utilizing the endo-cellulase activities from the selected S. argenteolus strains supplemented with commercial β-gucosidase and

  5. An evaluation of intertidal feeding habitats from a shorebird perspective: Towards relevant comparisons between temperate and tropical mudflats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Theunis; de Goeij, Petra; Tulp, Ingrid

    Macrozoobenthic communities of intertidal soft sediments are reviewed worldwide from the perspective of a mollusc-eating shorebird species. Based on 19 sites, total biomass figures varied between 5 and 80 g AFDM per m 2 (average 24 g AFDM per m 2); no latitudinal trends are apparent. The contribution made by bivalves and gastropods varies between 1% and 99%, north-temperate intertidal flats having relatively more molluscs than tropical flats. Intertidal flats in the tropics contain a greater variety of taxa, with brachiopods in Indonesia and echinoderms in northwest Australia contributing significantly to biomass only there. Limits to the occurrence of avian predators of intertidal benthos are set by the harvestable fraction of the biomass on offer and the costs of living at a particular site. No systematic differences in the harvestable fraction of the total mollusc-biomass for a worldwide occurring shorebird species specializing on molluscs (knots Calidris canutus) were apparent between temperate and tropical intertidal areas, in spite of large differences in maintenance metabolism incurred by these birds. The harvestable fractions of bivalves in the two West African areas (Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau) tended to be high (23-84% of total biomass in six species), they were relatively low (2-52% in five species) in the temperate Wadden Sea and the tropical northwest Australian site. Harvestable biomass determines the intake rate of shorebirds, as illustrated by functional-response curves of knots feeding on two bivalves species. We argue that the collection of information on size-depth relationships along with faunal and biomass surveys at a range of sites is bound to greatly increase our understanding of both the biology of tidal-flat invertebrates and the resource base underpinning the spectacular seasonal migrations of shorebirds.

  6. Carrion Beetles Visiting Pig Carcasses during Early Spring in Urban, Forest and Agricultural Biotopes of Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric; Brostaux, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Carrion beetles are important in terrestrial ecosystems, consuming dead mammals and promoting the recycling of organic matter into ecosystems. Most forensic studies are focused on succession of Diptera while neglecting Coleoptera. So far, little information is available on carrion beetles postmortem colonization and decomposition process in temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles are however part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need databases concerning the distribution, ecology and phenology of necrophagous insects, including silphids. Forensic entomology uses pig carcasses to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate entomofaunal succession. However, few studies have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. The work reported here monitored the presence of the carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) on decaying pig carcasses in three selected biotopes (forest, crop field, urban site) at the beginning of spring. Seven species of Silphidae were recorded: Nicrophorus humator (Gleditsch), Nicrophorus vespillo (L.), Nicrophorus vespilloides (Herbst), Necrodes littoralis L., Oiceoptoma thoracica L., Thanatophilus sinuatus (Fabricius), Thanatophilus rugosus (L.). All of these species were caught in the forest biotope, and all but O. thoracica were caught in the agricultural biotope. No silphids were caught in the urban site. PMID:21867439

  7. Do terrestrial hermit crabs sniff? Air flow and odorant capture by flicking antennules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Koehl, M A R

    2016-01-01

    Capture of odorant molecules by olfactory organs from the surrounding fluid is the first step of smelling. Sniffing intermittently moves fluid across sensory surfaces, increasing delivery rates of molecules to chemosensory receptors and providing discrete odour samples. Aquatic malacostracan crustaceans sniff by flicking olfactory antennules bearing arrays of chemosensory hairs (aesthetascs), capturing water in the arrays during downstroke and holding the sample during return stroke. Terrestrial malacostracans also flick antennules, but how their flicking affects odour capture from air is not understood. The terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita rugosus, uses antennules bearing shingle-shaped aesthetascs to capture odours. We used particle image velocimetry to measure fine-scale fluid flow relative to a dynamically scaled physical model of a flicking antennule, and computational simulations to calculate diffusion to aesthetascs by odorant molecules carried in that flow. Air does not flow into the aesthetasc array during flick downstrokes or recovery strokes. Odorants are captured from air flowing around the outside of the array during flick downstrokes, when aesthetascs face upstream and molecule capture rates are 21% higher than for stationary antennules. Bursts of flicking followed by pauses deliver discrete odour samples to olfactory sensors, causing intermittency in odour capture by a different mechanism than aquatic crustaceans use. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Phylogeny of Celastrus L. (Celastraceae) inferred from two nuclear and three plastid markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xian-Yun; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang

    2012-09-01

    This is the first comprehensive molecular investigation of the genus Celastrus L. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus were assessed based on sequences of two nuclear (ETS, ITS) and three plastid (psbA-trnH, rpl16 and trnL-F) regions using the Bayesian inference and the maximum parsimony methods. Our results show that Celastrus, together with Tripterygium, formed a maximal supported clade. Within the cluster, Celastrus is composed of a basal clade and a core Celastrus clade, and the latter is consisted of six subclades. Relationships among species are more influenced by latitude than continental distribution patterns. The cauline cyme and lunate seeds are distinct characters to one of the maximal supported subclades. Their close relationship, similar geographical pattern and habitat imply that C. flagellaris may be a potential invasive species threatening C. scandens in North America. Celastrus leiocarpus, C. oblanceifolius and C. rugosus are confirmed as synonyms of C. punctatus, C. aculeatus and C. glaucophyllus, respectively. Discordance between the molecular data and previous morphology-based subgeneric classifications are noted. More works are needed to clarify the relationship between Celastrus and Tripterygium and the species within Celastrus.

  9. Comparative study on effects of four energy plants growth on chemical fractions of heavy metals and activity of soil enzymes in copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Shiyong; Yang, Hongfei; Huang, Yongjie; Zheng, Liming; Yuan, Jing; Zhou, Shoubiao

    2018-05-12

    Four gramineous energy plants, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, M. floridulus, Phragmites australis, and Arundo donax were grown on copper tailings in the field for four years. Their phytoremediation potential was examined in terms of their effects on the fractions of heavy metals and soil enzyme activities. Results showed that plantation of these four gramineous plants has improved the proportion of organic material (OM)-binding fraction of heavy metals in copper tailings as a whole, and reduced the proportion of exchangeable and residual fractions. In particular, M. sacchariflorus growth improved significantly the proportion of the OM-binding fractions of Cu (1.73 times), Cd (1.71 times), Zn (1.18 times), and Pb (3.14 times) (P tailings to some extent. In particular, the activity of soil phosphatase and urease in planted tailings differed significantly from that of control (P tailings.

  10. Utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Groet, S.S.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if development is successful.

  11. Enerji bitkisi olarak farklı kamış türlerinin briketlenmesi üzerine bir araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    BİLGİN, Sefai; ERTEKİN, Can; KÜRKLÜ, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, enerji bitkisi olarak dev kamış (Arundo donax) ve sazlık kamış (Phragmites australis) bitkilerinin briketlenmesi ve briketlerin fiziksel özelliklerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Materyallerin briketlenmesi için 15 kW gücünde konik kalıplı ve kalıp ısıtmalı konik helezon tip briketleme makinesi kullanılmıştır. Briketlerin fiziksel özellikleri ile ilgili olarak yoğunluk, dayanıklılık direnci, kırılma direnci, su alma direnci, nem içeriği ve eşdeğer nem içeriği değerleri belirl...

  12. Multi-farm economic analysis of perennial energy crops in Central Greece, taking into account the CAP reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lychnaras, Vassilis; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses farm level economic impacts of biomass production from perennial crops including Arundo donax L. (arundo), Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) and Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon). Regional biomass supply curves are estimated with a dynamic, multi-farm, mathematical programming model. Micro-economic data for the model are generated from farm surveys covering 52 farms containing a total of 400 parcels, in Central Greece. The study also examines the potential effects of the Common Agricultural Policy reform in 2003 on regional biomass supply. Simulations show that the policy reform toward decoupled subsidies lowers the cost of biomass between 15 and 25 euro per tonne. Switchgrass appears to be the most attractive option, followed by cardoon and miscanthus. Due to high specific machinery cost, arundo is never preferred. Relative to the agricultural policy setting of Agenda 2000, the biomass potential increases more for farms of small economic size and farms with a higher share of cotton. (author)

  13. Multi-farm economic analysis of perennial energy crops in Central Greece, taking into account the CAP reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychnaras, Vassilis [Centre for Planning and Economic Research, 11, Amerikis str., 106 72 Athens (Greece); Schneider, Uwe A. [Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, University of Hamburg, KlimaCampus Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 55, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    This study analyses farm level economic impacts of biomass production from perennial crops including Arundo donax L. (arundo), Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) and Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon). Regional biomass supply curves are estimated with a dynamic, multi-farm, mathematical programming model. Micro-economic data for the model are generated from farm surveys covering 52 farms containing a total of 400 parcels, in Central Greece. The study also examines the potential effects of the Common Agricultural Policy reform in 2003 on regional biomass supply. Simulations show that the policy reform toward decoupled subsidies lowers the cost of biomass between 15 and 25 euro per tonne. Switchgrass appears to be the most attractive option, followed by cardoon and miscanthus. Due to high specific machinery cost, arundo is never preferred. Relative to the agricultural policy setting of Agenda 2000, the biomass potential increases more for farms of small economic size and farms with a higher share of cotton. (author)

  14. KETAHANAN HIDUP BEBERAPA JENIS TUMBUHAN DI KAWASAN VOID BEKAS TAMBANG BATUBARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissinger Kissinger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The selection of plant species for phytoremediation activities is very important in the conservation of soil, water, plant, and animal life to create a conducive environment within a community or ecosystem. Plant survival is one indication for the selection of phytoremediation plants. This study aims to determine the survival of some plants in void areas of coal mining. Types of plants used are surface water plants species and the edge of void plant species. The plants of surface water area consisting of Kiambang (Salvinia sp., Enceng gondok (Eichornia crassipes, Genjer (Limnocharis flava, and Kangkung (Ipomoea aquatica. The plants which planted on edge of void were purun tikus (Eleocharis dulcis and Bamban (Donax canniformis. Time of observation time was 6 months. Data were analyzed using a tabular matrix that contained the percentage of plant life/period time. The growth of the plant is specifically defined according to the color visibility and the development of plant form. The results of the study found that the highest surface survival species were Kiambang (Salvinia sp. and Kangkung (Ipomoea aquatica. Both of them still survive for 6 months of observation. The growth percentage of these two plants at the end of the observations are 36% and 20% respectively. Enceng gondok (Eichhornia crassipes has a survival for 4 months. Whole water plant growth was depressed by indications of death, tendencies to yellowish-brownish or blackish, and smaller body parts. Purun tikus (Eleocharis dulcis and Bamban (Donax canniformis grown on the edge of voids have a high survival. Both of them showed ≥95% survival at the end of observation time.

  15. Identification of a phenoloxidase- and melanin-dependent defence mechanism in Achatina fulica infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coaglio, Aytube Lucas; Ferreira, Mônica Alves Neves Diniz; Dos Santos Lima, Walter; de Jesus Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida

    2018-02-27

    Angiostrongylus vasorum has different freshwater aquatic and terrestrial gastropod molluscs as an intermediate host, e.g. Arion spp. The mollusc Achatina fulica is a danger to public health, given the large diversity of nematodes utilizing it as an intermediate host, such as the parasites of the genus Angiostrongylus, of importance in human and veterinary medicine. Achatina fulica has been shown to have an excellent capacity for maintaining outbreaks and natural infections with A. cantonensis in Asia. Within the mollusc, the nematode parasites activate haemocytes and/or haemolymph factors and in some invertebrates, phenoloxidase (PO), that induces the release of toxic elements and eliminates the parasites. Despite the importance of A. fulica in the life-cycle of nematodes, little is known regarding the defence mechanisms involving PO in molluscs infected with nematodes. Here, the presence of PO and nitric oxide (NO) in the haemolymph and haemocytes of A. fulica infected with first-stage (L1) larvae of Angiostrongylus vasorum was evaluated, together with the presence of melanin in the cephalopod mollusc tissue. An increase in PO at one day post infection (dpi), in comparison with the control using the substrates L-tyrosine (F (4,90)  = 6.73, P = 0.00006), L-DOPA (F (4,90)  = 22.67, P = 0.02) and p-phenylenediamine (PPD) (F (4,90)  = 27.58, P = 0.0019), was observed. PO increase coincided with the presence of melanin in the cephalopodal tissue. At 8 dpi, PO activity, compared to L-DOPA (F (4,90)  = 22.67, P = 0.00002) and PPD (F (4,90)  = 27.58, P = 0.079) decreased, while melanin increased. At 13 dpi, PO decreased with PPD (F (4,90)  = 27.58, P = 0.000015) and also the amount of melanin observed in histology. At 30 dpi, PO increased along with the substrates L-DOPA and PPD, while melanin decreased. NO levels increased until 8 dpi, and decreased after 13 dpi. To our knowledge, this is the first study that

  16. Middle to Late Ordovician faunal studies from central Australia and Tasmania during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube

    A profound transformation of the marine biosphere took place during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), recognized as the longest interval of sustained biodiversification in the history of life. Successions through the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone of the Amadeus Basin......, but the diversity is generally relatively low. The bivalves are the most dominant and diverse group in the central Australian fauna, whereas the brachiopods are the most dominant and diverse group in the Tasmanian fauna. Thirteen trilobite, five brachiopod, four conodont and 22 mollusc taxa have been documented......, but the preservation and low number of specimens prevent formal definition of additional new taxa. Although highly endemic at species level, the investigated brachiopod, trilobite and mollusc faunas display a high degree of overall similarity at generic level with Middle Ordovician faunas from North China. Other...

  17. Deep-sea disposal: Protecting fish and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, A.

    1988-01-01

    The definition of radioactive waste unsuitable for dumping at sea is based on the protection of man. See IAEA Safety Series No. 78. The development of criteria for assessing the impact on deep sea marine organisms at the population level has been attempted in a report recently published by the IAEA. See IAEA Technical Reports Series, No. 228 (1988). The report indicates that certain radionuclides may give rise to high dose rates to marine organisms if dumping is carried out with the assumptions of instantaneous release at the sea floor and dumping over long periods of time. In the report, a hypothetical dose rate to molluscs from zinc-65, which poses no significant harm to man, has the potential for giving high doses to bottom-dwelling molluscs

  18. About application of method of atomic and absorption spectroscopy for investigation of large di cuspid mollusks as test-object of environmental conditions in Zaragshan pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzatulaev, Z.I.

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of water ecosystems evolution laws requires for thorough investigations of chemical and elementary composition of aquatic organisms and the environment, which is of a great importance for the regions affected by technical factors influence. Therefore, we started investigating the large di cuspid molluscs as water bio filters for the first time.The investigations were conducted using different species of mollusks of Unionid and Korbikulid tribes.Contents of lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, magnesium, iron, chrome and mercury in the molluscs were determined using atomic and absorption spectrophotometer. High content of microelements in soft tissues and shell limestone is explained by the fact that they are directly absorbed in the food chain.The investigations data are not final. The investigations will be conducted in the future

  19. Baseline growth and reproductive parameters in Lymnaea stagnalis for OECD test guideline development: optimization of diets and culturing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Tom

    laboratories in Denmark, Germany and the UK for the OECD pre-validation work to date. Laboratory cultures of L. stagnalis are traditionally fed fresh (preferably organic) lettuce; however, interrupted supplies of fresh lettuce in some countries in 2011 highlighted a potential problem for the draft OECD test...... of a mollusc reproduction test guideline. An ad hoc mollusc expert group has been formed in Europe to validate methods that can meet this need. Currently, a key species for use in this context is the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis. An important aspect of this work is to first develop a specific...... pathogen free defined strain of L. stagnalis and second to establish a historical database of growth and reproductive rates under defined culturing conditions. A mass culture of the RENILYS® strain of L. stagnalis have been established at INRA (France) since 2002 and has been distributed to research...

  20. THE BAFFIN BAY REGION DURING THE LAST INTERGLACIATION: EVIDENCE FROM NORTHWEST GREENLAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1989-01-01

    Coastal sections in the Thule area, northwest Greenland, provide a recordof last interglacial glacial and oceanographic events on the northern perimeter of Baffin Bay. The record is dated by a combination of thermoluminescence and 14C dating; local and regional correlation is provided by amino acid...... for the last nterglacial/glacial cycle was attained during Middle Sangamonian times, and a smaller advance took place in the Late Wisconsinan. In beween ice coverage was similar to the present, or smaller. The record provides a link between events in Arctic Canada and northern Greenland, and shows...... analyses of mollusc shells, and periods of penetration by warm subarctic water have been identified by their foraminifera and mollusc faunas. Subarclic water reached the area on three occasions: during the Holocene, and in the Early and Late Sangamonian. Maximum, although restricted, ice coverage...

  1. Biokinetic behavior of Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of /sup 95m/Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments on other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalone exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of /sup 95m/Tc by the abalone following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis pyrifera, is high (approx. 45%) and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater

  2. Uptake and metabolism of 14C-chloropyrifos by marine bivalves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, C.G.; Chen, S.; Zhao, X.; Shi, J.; Carvalho, F.P.

    1999-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of 14 C-chlorpyrifos by two marine bivalves, Paphia undulata and Sinonovacula constricta, were studied in a simulated ecosystem. The experiments were carried out in two 30 L glass tanks containing each 20 L of filtered sea water, contaminated with 14 C-chlorpyrifos 1.85x10 4 Bq.L -1 (16.7 μg.L -1 ) at the beginning of the exposure period. At different time intervals, three specimens of each species were sampled for analysis of the pesticide in the molluscs tissues. The 14 C-chlorpyrifos residues were extracted from the digestive gland of the molluscs and analyzed by co-chromatography with pesticide standards by TLC methods described before

  3. Assessment and rehabilitation of wildlife affected by an oil spill in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    On 7 January 1994, the barge Morris J. Berman spilled approximately 3.6 million liters of oil off Punta Escambron in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This resulted in the contamination of extensive areas, impacting on natural resources along more than 48 km of Puerto Rico's north shore. Thousands of dead and alive oiled organisms washed ashore. Dead wildlife were collected opportunistically, and examined for the presence of oil and identified. Live wildlife was cleaned and treated at a temporary triage facility. A total of 5687 organisms of over 152 species were collected, including cnidarians, annelids, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, fishes, birds and sea turtles. Molluscs and echinoderms were noticeably more affected than other species. Four species classified as endangered or threatened were also affected. A significant impact was observed on the live specimens presented for medical treatment, including shore crabs, birds and sea turtles. Only 63% of these were successfully rehabilitated. (author)

  4. Intake of 90Sr, 137Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru by fresh water organisms with food and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciulioniene, D.P.; Dusauskiene-Duz, R.F.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations of the water basins of various areas of Lithuania were carried out in 1973-1975. The investigations were performed to determine the role of food and water in accumulation of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 106 --Ru under experimental conditions by fresh water organisms (molluscs, larvae, insects, fishes) as well as 90 Sr in mollusc and fish organisms under natural conditions. It was found that the intake of the above radionuclides in fresh water organisms with radioactive food was less active and in smaller quantities than that with water. The accumulation levels of the radionuclides in fresh water organisms resulted from the radioactive food, depended on the physical and chemical state of the radionuclides and on the concentration of isotopic and nonisotopic carriers in water, food and in the very organism. Dependence of the accumulation coefficient (AC) of different radionuclides in fresh water organisms on the AC value in food as well as on the diet type was not determined

  5. Assessment and rehabilitation of wildlife affected by an oil spill in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. [University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Caribbean Stranding Network

    1999-10-01

    On 7 January 1994, the barge Morris J. Berman spilled approximately 3.6 million liters of oil off Punta Escambron in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This resulted in the contamination of extensive areas, impacting on natural resources along more than 48 km of Puerto Rico`s north shore. Thousands of dead and alive oiled organisms washed ashore. Dead wildlife were collected opportunistically, and examined for the presence of oil and identified. Live wildlife was cleaned and treated at a temporary triage facility. A total of 5687 organisms of over 152 species were collected, including cnidarians, annelids, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, fishes, birds and sea turtles. Molluscs and echinoderms were noticeably more affected than other species. Four species classified as endangered or threatened were also affected. A significant impact was observed on the live specimens presented for medical treatment, including shore crabs, birds and sea turtles. Only 63% of these were successfully rehabilitated. (author)

  6. Assessment and rehabilitation of wildlife affected by an oil spill in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A. [University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico). Caribbean Stranding Network

    1999-07-01

    On 7 January 1994, the barge Morris J. Berman spilled approximately 3.6 million liters of oil off Punta Escambron in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This resulted in the contamination of extensive areas, impacting on natural resources along more than 48 km of Puerto Rico's north shore. Thousands of dead and alive oiled organisms washed ashore. Dead wildlife were collected opportunistically, and examined for the presence of oil and identified. Live wildlife was cleaned and treated at a temporary triage facility. A total of 5687 organisms of over 152 species were collected, including cnidarians, annelids, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, fishes, birds and sea turtles. Molluscs and echinoderms were noticeably more affected than other species. Four species classified as endangered or threatened were also affected. A significant impact was observed on the live specimens presented for medical treatment, including shore crabs, birds and sea turtles. Only 63% of these were successfully rehabilitated. (author)

  7. La formación de anillos de crecimiento en Fissurella crassa en el norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bretos

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth discontinuity in molluscs result in the formation of rings on their shells. Two kind of rings may be formed: disturbance and growth rings. Growth rings can be used to determine the age of molluscs with long life span. For this, it is necessary to know how many growth rings are formed per year. It has been demonstrated experimentally, using marked specimens, that F. crassa forms two growth rings per year at Huayquique, Northern Chile. They are formed during winter and summer. Disturbance ring formation has also been observed as a result of sawing marks on their shells. A growth curve for this species is proposed on the basis of Walford's line.

  8. The anatomy of the serotonergic nervous system of an entoproct creeping-type larva and its phylogenetic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg; Fuchs, Judith; Haszprunar, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    the anatomy of the serotonergic nervous system of the creeping-type larva of Loxosomella murmanica. The apical organ is very complex and comprises six to eight centrally positioned flask cells and eight bipolar peripheral cells. In addition, a prototroch nerve ring, an anterior nerve loop, a paired buccal...... molluscs and may be diagnostic for a mollusc-entoproct clade. In addition, the larva of Loxosomella expresses a mosaic of certain neural features that are also found in other larval or adult Spiralia, e.g., a prototroch nerve ring, an anterior nerve loop, and a buccal nervous system....... ones, are found along the anterior-posterior axis. The combination of a complex larval serotonergic apical organ and (adult) tetraneury, comprising one pair of ventral and one pair of more dorsally situated lateral longitudinal nerve cords without ganglia, has so far only been reported for basal...

  9. Diagenetic changes in Concholepas concholepas shells (Gastropoda, Muricidae) in the hyper-arid conditions of Northern Chile - implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, N.; Dauphin, Y.; Cuif, J. P.; Denis, A.; Ortlieb, L.

    2009-02-01

    Variations in the chemical composition of fossil biogenic carbonates, and in particular of mollusc shells, have been used in a range of palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. It is of primary importance, therefore, to detect and understand the diagenetic processes that may modify the original chemical signature. This microstructural and biogeochemical study focuses on modern and fossil (Holocene and Pleistocene) shells of a littoral gastropod of Northern Chile, and on the characterization of mineral component transformations at the nanometric scale and concomitant intracrystalline organic compound modifications. The inner aragonite layer of the shell exhibits more complex deteriorations than the calcite layer. This preliminary study confirms that physical and chemical alterations of various components of mollusc shell biocrystals are complex and might manifest in different ways even within a single individual. The single criterion of determining the mineralogical composition to verify the conservation state of shell samples is insufficient.

  10. Toxic trace elements in Chilean seafoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Gregori, I.; Delgado, D.; Pinochet, H.; Gras, N.; Thieck, M.; Munoz, L.; Bruhn, C.; Navarrete, G.

    1992-01-01

    Chile is a well known producer and exporter of shell fish. These seafoods, like other specimens of marine origin, are susceptible to environmental and other contaminations like trace elements, including toxicants. Therefore adequate analytical quality assurance is mandatory before accepting analytical results. In this context, use of at least 2 independent methods of determination and validation with certified reference materials (CRM) provides acceptable criteria for judging the reliability of the data. This paper describes sample treatments and analytical procedures for Cd, Cu and Hg determinations in mollusc samples. Three independent analytical techniques, namely differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry, were used. CRM standards of the IAEA, NIST and BCR were analyzed to evaluate quality assurance. Following the quality control phase, the concentrations of cadmium, copper, and mercury in fresh and canned mollusc samples Tagelus dombeii and Semelle solida (Navajuelas and Almejas chilenas respectively) from different locations were determined. (author). 32 refs.; 4 figs.; 7 tabs

  11. Feeding habits of Barbul de piedra (ariopsis sp.) in the Sinu River, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaya Nieto, Charles W; Arellano Padilla, John J; Martinez Gonzalez, Angel L

    2012-01-01

    The feeding habits of Barbul de piedra in the Sinu River were studied. the stomach content was analyzed using the proportion of empty stomachs, grade of digestion, frequency of occurrence, numerical frequency, gravimetry, relative importance index and the gut length total length relationship. Only 18.8% of stomachs were empty, most of preys were half digested and five food groups were identified: crustaceans, fishes, vegetable rests, molluscs and others. Crustaceans were the most frequent, abundant and greater weight composition group. The relative importance index indicated that crustaceans and fishes were secondary relative importance groups and vegetable rests, molluscs and others were occasional or circumstantial groups. The results achieved in this work indicate that Barbul de piedra is a fish that keeps your feeding habits as they grow and along the hydrological cycle, although shows carnivorous preference, especially by crustaceans.

  12. Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda of Mussel Beds and Macroalgae on the Rocky Substrates in the North-Western Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portianko V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of harpacticoid copepods in total abundance, biomass and species diversity of meiobenthos on rocky substrates is described. Th e fauna of harpacticoid copepods consists of 19 species in algal beds, 23 species in mussel beds and 24 species in mixed aggregation of molluscs and macrophytes. In the macrophyte aggregation, the maximal abundance was registered in Cladophora vagabunda - 88 750 ind. × m-2, while minimal was on Laurensia paniculata - 8250 ind. × m-2. According to the frequency of occurrence, the habitat preferred by copepods was Ceramium elegans, but according to their percentage in total meiobenthos among macrophytes it was Ulva intestinalis, 56.6 %. The percentage of copepods in the pure mussel beds was higher comparing to mixed aggregation of molluscs and macrophytes.

  13. Diagenetic changes in Concholepas concholepas shells (Gastropoda, Muricidae in the hyper-arid conditions of Northern Chile – implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ortlieb

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the chemical composition of fossil biogenic carbonates, and in particular of mollusc shells, have been used in a range of palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. It is of primary importance, therefore, to detect and understand the diagenetic processes that may modify the original chemical signature. This microstructural and biogeochemical study focuses on modern and fossil (Holocene and Pleistocene shells of a littoral gastropod of Northern Chile, and on the characterization of mineral component transformations at the nanometric scale and concomitant intracrystalline organic compound modifications. The inner aragonite layer of the shell exhibits more complex deteriorations than the calcite layer. This preliminary study confirms that physical and chemical alterations of various components of mollusc shell biocrystals are complex and might manifest in different ways even within a single individual. The single criterion of determining the mineralogical composition to verify the conservation state of shell samples is insufficient.

  14. Zvyšky bratislavských lužných lesov – významné refúgium podunajskej malakofauny Remnants of alluvial woodland in a urbanised area – important refuge for Middle-Danubian land gastropods (Bratislava City, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čačaný

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings a review of a long-term malacological survey of fragmented urban alluvial woodland, an important refuge of Middle-Danubian terrestrial molluscan fauna. In the area of Bratislava agglomeration we surveyed two softwood and 26 hardwood alluvial forests. Altogether, 52 mollusc species have been recorded during the last 20 years (representing 79% of the total terrestrial mollusc fauna living in the Slovak section of the Danube floodplain. The most frequent species (more than 75% sites were Aegopinella nitens, Helix pomatia, Monachoides incarnatus (every three species at 27 sites, i.e. 96%, Cochlodina laminata (26 sites, 93%, Petasina unidentata (25 sites, Urticicola umbrosus (24 sites, Alinda biplicata (23 sites, and Clausilia pumila (21 sites. The main ecological groups were forest species in general (45%, mainly eurytopic and slightly hygrophilous, hygrophilous species in general (26%, hygrophilous and riparian, euryecious species (16%, semi-steppe (8% and open-country species (5%.

  15. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J. (Oregon State Univ., Newport (USA). Marine Science Center)

    1982-10-01

    The biokinetic behavior of sup(95m)Tc in the red abalone, haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of sup(95m)Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, approximately equal to 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater.

  16. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1982-10-01

    The biokinetic behavior of /sup 95m/Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labelled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of /sup 95m/Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, is approximately 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater.

  17. Biokinetic behavior of technetium in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a re-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of sup(95m)Tc in the red abalone, haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments with other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalones exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics in the abalone cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of sup(95m)Tc by abalones following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis luetkeana, approximately equal to 45% and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater. (author)

  18. Enterococcus spp. Resistant to Multiple Antimicrobial Drugs and Determination of Fecal Contamination Levels in Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubião, Cynthia Annes; Franco, Robson Maia; Mesquita, Eliana de Fátima Marques de; Miguel, Marco Antonio Lemos; Cabral, Claudius Couto; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine and compare the Most Probable Number (MPN) of Total Coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. and to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolated from oysters collected in the Barra de Guaratiba Mangrove, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The enumeration of E. coli has been used to indicate fecal contamination and hygienic-sanitary conditions of bivalve molluscs. Enterococci are capable to transfer several ...

  19. Acoustical Scattering, Propagation, and Attenuation Caused by Two Abundant Pacific Schooling Species: Humboldt Squid and Hake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    an area important for acoustical testing and tactical exercises, the most abundant species by biomass is Pacific hake, Merluccius productus, a fish...scattering characteristics of the animal especially if the animal has eaten hard- shelled mollusc prey. Figure 7. A dorsal scan (similar to an x-ray) of a...kHz echogram. 11 In order to generate abundance and biomass estimates for organisms using active acoustics, one assumption that can be made is

  20. Hatchery-scale trials using cryopreserved spermatozoa of black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Belinda; Vonau, Vincent; Moriceau, Jacques; Tetumu, Roger; Vanaa, Vincent; Demoy-schneider, Marina; Suquet, Marc; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreservation is a valuable tool for genetic improvement programs. Several bivalve mollusc species have already been the subject of such programs and the Tahitian black pearl oyster industry is now planning the development of selective breeding for desirable traits in Pinctada margaritifera. The ability to cryopreserve spermatozoa would, therefore, offer significant benefits to the cultured black pearl industry. Spermatozoa were cryopreserved with CPA 0.7 M trehalose in 0.8 M Me2SO and...

  1. A Guide to the Principal Marine Fouling Organisms, with Particular Reference to Cockburn Sound, W.A.,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    and crowned with long, feathery tentacles ( branchial filaments) which are used to draw food and oxygen from the water. The end of one filament is... branchial filaments. Tubes can reach 50 mm long and 0.5 mm diameter. Filograna can reproduce asexually with new individuals budded off parent worms and...the branchial crown of feeding tentacles seen in serpulids. Bivalves are the most significant of the fouling molluscs. The animal is laterally

  2. Intertidal oysters reach their physiological limit in a future high-CO2 world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanes, Elliot; Parker, Laura M; O'Connor, Wayne A; Stapp, Laura S; Ross, Pauline M

    2017-03-01

    Sessile marine molluscs living in the intertidal zone experience periods of internal acidosis when exposed to air (emersion) during low tide. Relative to other marine organisms, molluscs have been identified as vulnerable to future ocean acidification; however, paradoxically it has also been shown that molluscs exposed to high CO 2 environments are more resilient compared with those molluscs naive to CO 2 exposure. Two competing hypotheses were tested using a novel experimental design incorporating tidal simulations to predict the future intertidal limit of oysters in a high-CO 2 world; either high-shore oysters will be more tolerant of elevated P CO 2 because of their regular acidosis, or elevated P CO 2  will cause high-shore oysters to reach their limit. Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata , were collected from the high-intertidal and subtidal areas of the shore and exposed in an orthogonal design to either an intertidal or a subtidal treatment at ambient or elevated P CO 2 , and physiological variables were measured. The combined treatment of tidal emersion and elevated P CO 2  interacted synergistically to reduce the haemolymph pH (pH e ) of oysters, and increase the P CO 2  in the haemolymph ( P e,CO 2 ) and standard metabolic rate. Oysters in the intertidal treatment also had lower condition and growth. Oysters showed a high degree of plasticity, and little evidence was found that intertidal oysters were more resilient than subtidal oysters. It is concluded that in a high-CO 2 world the upper vertical limit of oyster distribution on the shore may be reduced. These results suggest that previous studies on intertidal organisms that lacked tidal simulations may have underestimated the effects of elevated P CO 2 . © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Evolution of the AKH/corazonin/ACP/GnRH receptor superfamily and their ligands in the Protostomia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis

    2014-01-01

    In this review we trace the evolutionary connections between GnRH receptors from vertebrates and the receptors for adipokinetic hormone (AKH), AKH/corazonin-related peptide (ACP), and corazonin from arthropods. We conclude that these G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are closely related and hav......QLTFSSDWSGamide), and the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (pQIFFSKGWRGamide). This is the first report, showing that AKH signaling is widespread in molluscs....

  4. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II)

    OpenAIRE

    Alunno-bruscia, Marianne; Van Der Veer, Henk; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

    2011-01-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007–2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5 years’ project, present context for the papers in this volume and discuss future directions. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB were (i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs ...

  5. Sleep researchers need to bring Darwin on board: elucidating functions of sleep via adaptedness and natural selection

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanau, Julian L.

    2004-01-01

    The development of neural multifunctionality – given brain regions carrying out more than one function – conferred great efficiency on brain function at early stages of evolution. This applied to animals that led relatively simple lives with few needs for long-term memories, such as many lower invertebrates – many molluscs, echinoderms, worms, etc. As more complex lifestyles and detailed focal vision evolved, needs for self-initiated and reflexive activities increased in frequency, and recogn...

  6. Concentration of 137Cs by certain species of fresh water invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilov, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    Results of experimental studies on 137 Cs accumulation by fresh-water invertebrates of various taxonomic groups are given. The invertebrate 137 Cs accumulative ability depends on the species belonging, age and sex of the animal. Radionuclide deposition by Cladocera depends on water temperature. Mollusc embryons need different quantities of cerium for their development. An appreciable role in 137 Cs extraction from fresh water is attributed to fry, adult Gammarus and Daphnia

  7. Impairing DNA methylation obstructs memory enhancement for at least 24?hours in Lymnaea

    OpenAIRE

    Rothwell, Cailin M.; Lukowiak, Ken D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stressor-induced memory enhancement has previously been shown to involve DNA methylation in the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis. Specifically, injection of the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-AZA one hour before exposure to a memory-enhancing stressor obstructs memory augmentation. However, the duration of the influence of 5-AZA on this memory enhancement has not yet been examined. In this study, 2 memory-enhancing stressors (a thermal stress and exposure to the scent of a predator) were used ...

  8. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Porsbo, Lone Jannok; Boysen, Louise

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2014 in 32 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and four non-MS). Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly re......, molluscs and products thereof’. The report further summarises trends and sources along the food chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile virus and tularaemia....

  9. Acute and chronic exposure in mussel (aulacomya ater) and clam (semelle solida) with Cs137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringas, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two of the most common Peruvian benthonic molluscs, have been shown to be effective concentrators of Cesium-137 and have also proven useful as indicators of that radionuclide in their natural environment, according with results in this paper. However the clam is a better indicator, when determining environmental acute release of Cesium-137 due to reactor accidents, nuclear tests, accidents in nuclear ships, submarines and radioactive material transport, and the mussel for a continuous monitoring of environmental radio contaminant levels. (author). 11 refs

  10. Měkkýši navrhované PR Údolí Vrchlice u Kutné Hory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Juřičková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings the first malacological research of the proposal nature reserve Vrchlice Valley (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic after hundred years. Altogether, 44 mollusc species have been recorded in a very diverse mosaic of floodplain forests, cliffs and meadows. Rare or locally important species Vertigo pusilla, Semilimax semilimax, Daudebardia rufa, Isognomostoma isognomostomos, Oxyloma elegans, Vitrea crystallina and Laciniaria plicata were recorded in the area of the reserve.

  11. Facies and age of the Oso Ridge Member (new), Abo Formation, Zuni Mountains, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A.K.; Stamm, R.G.; Kottlowski, F.E.; Mamet, B.L.; Dutro, J.T.; Weary, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Oso Ridge Member (new), at the base of the Abo Formation, nonconformably overlies Proterozoic rocks. The member consists of some 9m of conglomerate and arkose composed principally of fragments of the underlying Proterozoic metamorphic rocks; thin, fossiliferous limestone lenses are interbedded with the arkose. Biota from the lenses include a phylloid alga, foraminifers, conodonts, brachiopods, and molluscs. The age of the Oso Ridge Member is Virgilian Late Pennsylvanian) to Wolfcampian (Early Permian). -from Authors

  12. Cephalopods as Predators: A Short Journey among Behavioral Flexibilities, Adaptions, and Feeding Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Roger; Perricone, Valentina; Fiorito, Graziano

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of cephalopod species and the differences in morphology and the habitats in which they live, illustrates the ability of this class of molluscs to adapt to all marine environments, demonstrating a wide spectrum of patterns to search, detect, select, capture, handle, and kill prey. Photo-, mechano-, and chemoreceptors provide tools for the acquisition of information about their potential preys. The use of vision to detect prey and high attack speed seem to be a predominant pattern...

  13. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men *

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and mollusc...

  14. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and environment. SIMS as applied to the detection of stable and radioactive isotopes in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassard-Bouchaud, C.; Escaig, F.; Hallegot, P.

    1984-01-01

    Several marine species of economical interest, Crustacea (crabs and prawns) and Molluscs (common mussels and oysters) were collected from coastal waters of France: English Channel, Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and of Japan. Microanalyses which were performed at the tissue and cell levels, using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, revealed many contaminants; stable isotopes as well as radioactive actinids such as uranium were detected. Uptake, storage and excretion target organs were identified [fr

  15. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of the Azores (NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic, and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  16. Local phylogenetic divergence and global evolutionary convergence of skull function in reef fishes of the family Labridae

    OpenAIRE

    Westneat, Mark W; Alfaro, Michael E; Wainwright, Peter C; Bellwood, David R; Grubich, Justin R; Fessler, Jennifer L; Clements, Kendall D; Smith, Lydia L

    2005-01-01

    The Labridae is one of the most structurally and functionally diversified fish families on coral and rocky reefs around the world, providing a compelling system for examination of evolutionary patterns of functional change. Labrid fishes have evolved a diverse array of skull forms for feeding on prey ranging from molluscs, crustaceans, plankton, detritus, algae, coral and other fishes. The species richness and diversity of feeding ecology in the Labridae make this group a marine analogue to t...

  17. Enewetak Marine Biological Laboratory 1973--1974 annual report. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Brief summaries are presented of ecological studies carried out at Enewetak from July 1973 through June 30, 1974. Data are included on the content of 90 Sr in the skeleton of coral. Other studies included measurements of the chemical composition of 60 marine animals; and the growth rate, interactions of prey populations, food supply, food chains, and population dynamics of communities of crustaceans, molluscs, corals, sponges, algae, reef fishes, and shore birds. (U.S.)

  18. The Role of the Cephalopod Digestive Gland in the Storage and Detoxification of Marine Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of cephalopods for fisheries and even aquaculture, is raising concerns on the relationship between these molluscs and environmental stressors, from climate change to pollution. However, how these organisms cope with environmental toxicants is far less understood than for other molluscs, especially bivalves, which are frontline models in aquatic toxicology. Although, sharing the same basic body plan, cephalopods hold distinct adaptations, often unique, as they are active predators with high growth and metabolic rates. Most studies on the digestive gland, the analog to the vertebrate liver, focused on metal bioaccumulation and its relation to environmental concentrations, with indication for the involvement of special cellular structures (like spherulae and proteins. Although the functioning of phase I and II enzymes of detoxification in molluscs is controversial, there is evidence for CYP-mediated bioactivation, albeit with lower activity than vertebrates, but this issue needs yet much research. Through novel molecular tools, toxicology-relevant genes and proteins are being unraveled, from metallothioneins to heat-shock proteins and phase II conjugation enzymes, which highlights the importance of increasing genomic annotation as paramount to understand toxicant-specific pathways. However, little is known on how organic toxicants are stored, metabolized and eliminated, albeit some evidence from biomarker approaches, particularly those related to oxidative stress, suggesting that these molluscs' digestive gland is indeed responsive to chemical aggression. Additionally, cause-effect relationships between pollutants and toxicopathic effects are little understood, thus compromising, if not the deployment of these organisms for biomonitoring, at least understanding how they are affected by anthropogenically-induced global change.

  19. Some structures of marine natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer-Moore, J.S.

    1979-07-01

    Applications of x-ray crystallographic methods to marine chemistry are discussed. Results of research on a biosynthetic problem: diterpenes from Dictyotaceae are discussed under the following section headings: history of the problem; dictyoxepin; dictyodial; and dictyolactone. Studies on marine ecology are reported under the following headings: symbiosis and antibiosis; metabolites from opisthobranch molluscs, including, dolabelladiene, 9-isocyanopupukeanane and 2-isocyanopupukeanane, and crispatone; metabolites of goronians and soft corals, including zooxanthellae and the metabolism of coelenterates, ophirin, sinularene, and erectene. (JGB)

  20. Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Gianluca; Bertapelle, Carla; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory system in any animal is the primary sensory system that responds to chemical stimuli emanating from a distant source. In aquatic animals "Odours" are molecules in solution that guide them to locate food, partners, nesting sites, and dangers to avoid. Fish, crustaceans and aquatic molluscs possess sensory systems that have anatomical similarities to the olfactory systems of land-based animals. Molluscs are a large group of aquatic and terrestrial animals that rely heavily on chemical communication with a generally dispersed sense of touch and chemical sensitivity. Cephalopods, the smallest class among extant marine molluscs, are predators with high visual capability and well developed vestibular, auditory, and tactile systems. Nevertheless they possess a well developed olfactory organ, but to date almost nothing is known about the mechanisms, functions and modulation of this chemosensory structure in octopods. Cephalopod brains are the largest of all invertebrate brains and across molluscs show the highest degree of centralization. The reproductive behaviour of Octopus vulgaris is under the control of a complex set of signal molecules such as neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and sex steroids that guide the behaviour from the level of individuals in evaluating mates, to stimulating or deterring copulation, to sperm-egg chemical signalling that promotes fertilization. These signals are intercepted by the olfactory organs and integrated in the olfactory lobes in the central nervous system. In this context we propose a model in which the olfactory organ and the olfactory lobe of O. vulgaris could represent the on-off switch between food intake and reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.