WorldWideScience

Sample records for molecular keys unlock

  1. Design as Key to Unlock the Wicked Problem of Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Ræbild, Ulla; Hasling, Karen Marie

    2017-01-01

    How might we as researchers within the design community reach out and create new knowledge and value in close collaboration with a company, and at the same time contribute to a sustainable development? In this paper, we address the question of How and with whom do we re-do, by proposing multiple...... case on which the paper builds and account for the applied multiple perspectives research design. Lastly, we discuss how the construct has supported a less compartmentalised understanding of sustainability within the company, and furthered insights on how design can be a driver for sustainability...... perspectives research as a way to unlock the potential of design thinking as a fundamentally integrative discipline. Hence, the aim of the paper is to show and discuss the ways in which a research design constructed by several perspectives can enable an actual impact. We will present the company collaboration...

  2. Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forging New Cocoa Keys: The Impact of Unlocking the Cocoa Bean’s Genome on Pre-harvest Food Safety David N. Kuhn, USDA ARS SHRS, Miami FL Sometimes it's hard to see the value and application of genomics to real world problems. How will sequencing the cacao genome affect West African farmers? Thi...

  3. Unlocking the Mystery of Social Deficits in Autism: Theory of Mind as Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is key to the development of one's social skills. Without ToM, children (or adults) cannot understand or infer the thoughts, feelings, or intentions of others. A lack of ToM skills is considered by some to be a core deficit in autism. ToM affects all interpersonal interactions as well as academics, daily living, following…

  4. Keys to the House: Unlocking Residential Savings With Program Models for Home Energy Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevatt, Jim [Energy Futures Group (United States); Hoffman, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoffmeyer, Dale [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-07-05

    After more than 40 years of effort, energy efficiency program administrators and associated contractors still find it challenging to penetrate the home retrofit market, especially at levels commensurate with state and federal goals for energy savings and emissions reductions. Residential retrofit programs further have not coalesced around a reliably successful model. They still vary in design, implementation and performance, and they remain among the more difficult and costly options for acquiring savings in the residential sector. If programs are to contribute fully to meeting resource and policy objectives, administrators need to understand what program elements are key to acquiring residential savings as cost effectively as possible. To that end, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a comprehensive review and analysis of home energy upgrade programs with proven track records, focusing on those with robustly verified savings and constituting good examples for replication. The study team reviewed evaluations for the period 2010 to 2014 for 134 programs that are funded by customers of investor-owned utilities. All are programs that promote multi-measure retrofits or major system upgrades. We paid particular attention to useful design and implementation features, costs, and savings for nearly 30 programs with rigorous evaluations of performance. This meta-analysis describes program models and implementation strategies for (1) direct install retrofits; (2) heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) replacement and early retirement; and (3) comprehensive, whole-home retrofits. We analyze costs and impacts of these program models, in terms of both energy savings and emissions avoided. These program models can be useful guides as states consider expanding their strategies for acquiring energy savings as a resource and for emissions reductions. We also discuss the challenges of using evaluations to create program models that can be confidently applied in

  5. Unlocking CO Depletion in Protoplanetary Disks. I. The Warm Molecular Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Kamber R.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Zhang, Ke; Öberg, Karin I.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Anderson, Dana

    2018-03-01

    CO is commonly used as a tracer of the total gas mass in both the interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks. Recently, there has been much debate about the utility of CO as a mass tracer in disks. Observations of CO in protoplanetary disks reveal a range of CO abundances, with measurements of low CO to dust mass ratios in numerous systems. One possibility is that carbon is removed from CO via chemistry. However, the full range of physical conditions conducive to this chemical reprocessing is not well understood. We perform a systematic survey of the time dependent chemistry in protoplanetary disks for 198 models with a range of physical conditions. We vary dust grain size distribution, temperature, comic-ray and X-ray ionization rates, disk mass, and initial water abundance, detailing what physical conditions are necessary to activate the various CO depletion mechanisms in the warm molecular layer. We focus our analysis on the warm molecular layer in two regions: the outer disk (100 au) well outside the CO snowline and the inner disk (19 au) just inside the midplane CO snowline. After 1 Myr, we find that the majority of models have a CO abundance relative to H2 less than 10‑4 in the outer disk, while an abundance less than 10‑5 requires the presence of cosmic-rays. Inside the CO snowline, significant depletion of CO only occurs in models with a high cosmic-ray rate. If cosmic-rays are not present in young disks, it is difficult to chemically remove carbon from CO. Additionally, removing water prior to CO depletion impedes the chemical processing of CO. Chemical processing alone cannot explain current observations of low CO abundances. Other mechanisms must also be involved.

  6. Unlock Your Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    Unlock Your Personalization is based on a unique and novel technique, C5, which can improve your quality of life. C5 offers five basic key parameters for strengthening your body and mind: “Concentration”, “Calmness”, “Confidence”, “Contentment” and “Creativity”, to which the book gives a detailed...... introduction. The book presents life’s five stages, namely “Innocence”, “Intelligence”, “Innovativeness”, “Involvement”, and “Infinity”. Life is short, and its limits are given. Living should bring happiness and pleasure, but most people have to cope with enormous problems stemming from heavy workloads, stress...... of life through unlocking your personalization. The C5 concept looks on creativity as the foundation on which to build a successful life with no stress or tension, allowing you to enjoy nights of deep, peaceful sleep. This is what a good quality of life is really all about. Practicing C5 is the simplest...

  7. Molecular beam epitaxy applications to key materials

    CERN Document Server

    Farrow, Robin F C

    1995-01-01

    In this volume, the editor and contributors describe the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for a range of key materials systems that are of interest for both technological and fundamental reasons. Prior books on MBE have provided an introduction to the basic concepts and techniques of MBE and emphasize growth and characterization of GaAs-based structures. The aim in this book is somewhat different; it is to demonstrate the versatility of the technique by showing how it can be utilized to prepare and explore a range of distinct and diverse materials. For each of these materials systems MBE has played a key role both in their development and application to devices.

  8. A quencher-free molecular beacon design based on pyrene excimer fluorescence using pyrene-labeled UNA (unlocked nucleic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kasper Kannegård; Okholm, Anders Hauge; Kjems, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    A quencher-free molecular beacon capable of generating pyrene excimer fluorescence has been constructed using strategically positioned pyrene-UNA monomers. Hybridization of a fully complementary RNA target was accompanied by a pyrene excimer emission increase of more than 900%, and detection of RNA...

  9. Opioid Epidemic: Cellular & Molecular Anesthesia as a Key Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabbagh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Opioids are one of the most important arsenals armamentarium of physicians for fighting against pain. During the decades, opioids have been used in a wide range of indications; both for treatment of acute and chronic pain; as natural and synthetic compounds and in a variety of delivery forms from intravenous infusion to intrathecal adjuvants of local anesthetics or as transdermal patches. There is no doubt that we are in an opioid misuse epidemic status; whether in the US or other countries; but if we want to resolve this miserable multilateral complication, there is no doubt that Cellular and Molecular aspects of Anesthesia has a key role in resolving the problem; through creating an opioid free pain management era.

  10. Waste as resource: Unlocking opportunities for Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available -use, recycling and recovery of materials. This chapter focuses on understanding the economic and social opportunities in waste that could potentially be unlocked in Africa, and how these opportunities can be used as lever to overcome the challenges in solid waste...

  11. Could affordable daycare be the key to unlocking women's earning ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Balancing childcare and income generation is a problem faced by mothers around the ... couldn't find enough time to take care of the infant and keep pace at work. ... there are few safety nets, and the loss of an income can easily push a family ...

  12. KDiamend: a package for detecting key drivers in a molecular ecological network of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Mengxuan; Chen, Jiaxing; Jiang, Yiqi; Dong, Wei; Fang, Zhou; Li, Shuaicheng

    2018-04-11

    Microbial abundance profiles are applied widely to understand diseases from the aspect of microbial communities. By investigating the abundance associations of species or genes, we can construct molecular ecological networks (MENs). The MENs are often constructed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) between genes. In this work, we also applied multimodal mutual information (MMI) to construct MENs. The members which drive the concerned MENs are referred to as key drivers. We proposed a novel method to detect the key drivers. First, we partitioned the MEN into subnetworks. Then we identified the most pertinent subnetworks to the disease by measuring the correlation between the abundance pattern and the delegated phenotype-the variable representing the disease phenotypes. Last, for each identified subnetwork, we detected the key driver by PageRank. We developed a package named KDiamend and applied it to the gut and oral microbial data to detect key drivers for Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). We detected six T2D-relevant subnetworks and three key drivers of them are related to the carbohydrate metabolic process. In addition, we detected nine subnetworks related to RA, a disease caused by compromised immune systems. The extracted subnetworks include InterPro matches (IPRs) concerned with immunoglobulin, Sporulation, biofilm, Flaviviruses, bacteriophage, etc., while the development of biofilms is regarded as one of the drivers of persistent infections. KDiamend is feasible to detect key drivers and offers insights to uncover the development of diseases. The package is freely available at http://www.deepomics.org/pipelines/3DCD6955FEF2E64A/ .

  13. Connecting metabolism and reproduction: roles of central energy sensors and key molecular mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Juan; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that pubertal activation of the reproductive axis and maintenance of fertility are critically dependent on the magnitude of body energy reserves and the metabolic state of the organism. Hence, conditions of impaired energy homeostasis often result in deregulation of puberty and reproduction, whereas gonadal dysfunction can be associated with the worsening of the metabolic profile and, eventually, changes in body weight. While much progress has taken place in our knowledge about the neuroendocrine mechanisms linking metabolism and reproduction, our understanding of how such dynamic interplay happens is still incomplete. As paradigmatic example, much has been learned in the last two decades on the reproductive roles of key metabolic hormones (such as leptin, insulin and ghrelin), their brain targets and the major transmitters and neuropeptides involved. Yet, the molecular mechanisms whereby metabolic information is translated and engages into the reproductive circuits remain largely unsolved. In this work, we will summarize recent developments in the characterization of the putative central roles of key cellular energy sensors, such as mTOR, in this phenomenon, and will relate these with other molecular mechanisms likely contributing to the brain coupling of energy balance and fertility. In doing so, we aim to provide an updated view of an area that, despite still underdeveloped, may be critically important to fully understand how reproduction and metabolism are tightly connected in health and disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A mouse model of alcoholic liver fibrosis-associated acute kidney injury identifies key molecular pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Shinji; Chappell, Grace A.; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Takeki; Kato, Yuki; Kono, Hiroshi; Bataller, Ramon; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data strongly indicate that acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication in alcoholic hepatitis, an acute-on-chronic form of liver failure in patients with advanced alcoholic fibrosis. Development of targeted therapies for AKI in this setting is hampered by the lack of an animal model. To enable research into molecular drivers and novel therapies for fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI, we aimed to combine carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced fibrosis with chronic intra-gastric alcohol feeding. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered a low dose of CCl 4 (0.2 ml/kg 2 × week/6 weeks) followed by alcohol intragastrically (up to 25 g/kg/day for 3 weeks) and with continued CCl 4 . We observed that combined treatment with CCl 4 and alcohol resulted in severe liver injury, more pronounced than using each treatment alone. Importantly, severe kidney injury was evident only in the combined treatment group. This mouse model reproduced distinct pathological features consistent with AKI in human alcoholic hepatitis. Transcriptomic analysis of kidneys revealed profound effects in the combined treatment group, with enrichment for damage-associated pathways, such as apoptosis, inflammation, immune-response and hypoxia. Interestingly, Havcr1 and Lcn2, biomarkers of AKI, were markedly up-regulated. Overall, this study established a novel mouse model of fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI and identified key mechanistic pathways. - Highlights: • Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication in alcoholic hepatitis • We developed a novel mouse model of fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI • This model reproduces key molecular and pathological features of human AKI • This animal model can help identify new targeted therapies for alcoholic hepatitis

  15. A mouse model of alcoholic liver fibrosis-associated acute kidney injury identifies key molecular pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Shinji; Chappell, Grace A.; Iwata, Yasuhiro [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States); Uehara, Takeki; Kato, Yuki [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka (Japan); Kono, Hiroshi [First Department of Surgery, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi (Japan); Bataller, Ramon [Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Rusyn, Ivan, E-mail: irusyn@tamu.edu [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Clinical data strongly indicate that acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication in alcoholic hepatitis, an acute-on-chronic form of liver failure in patients with advanced alcoholic fibrosis. Development of targeted therapies for AKI in this setting is hampered by the lack of an animal model. To enable research into molecular drivers and novel therapies for fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI, we aimed to combine carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced fibrosis with chronic intra-gastric alcohol feeding. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered a low dose of CCl{sub 4} (0.2 ml/kg 2 × week/6 weeks) followed by alcohol intragastrically (up to 25 g/kg/day for 3 weeks) and with continued CCl{sub 4}. We observed that combined treatment with CCl{sub 4} and alcohol resulted in severe liver injury, more pronounced than using each treatment alone. Importantly, severe kidney injury was evident only in the combined treatment group. This mouse model reproduced distinct pathological features consistent with AKI in human alcoholic hepatitis. Transcriptomic analysis of kidneys revealed profound effects in the combined treatment group, with enrichment for damage-associated pathways, such as apoptosis, inflammation, immune-response and hypoxia. Interestingly, Havcr1 and Lcn2, biomarkers of AKI, were markedly up-regulated. Overall, this study established a novel mouse model of fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI and identified key mechanistic pathways. - Highlights: • Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication in alcoholic hepatitis • We developed a novel mouse model of fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI • This model reproduces key molecular and pathological features of human AKI • This animal model can help identify new targeted therapies for alcoholic hepatitis.

  16. Unlocking the Poverty Penalty and Upscaling the Respect for Rights ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Kenya's population is becoming increasingly urban. ... web of power and governance, where landlords and criminal organizations thrive, often ... financial and planning models that provide a first approach on how to unlock the poverty penalty.

  17. Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues From the Director: Stem Cell Research: Unlocking the Mystery of Disease Past Issues / ... Zerhouni, NIH Director, described the need for expanding stem cell research. Recently, he spoke about stem cell research ...

  18. Unlocking the black box: line managers and HRM performance in a call centre context

    OpenAIRE

    Harney, Brian; Jordan, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show the way to unlock the black box of HRM and performance linkages by exploring one of the key variables that mediates the link, namely whether line managers can stimulate improvements in firm performance by eliciting appropriate employee outcomes in a call centre context. Design/methodology/approach – The research draws on Purcell's "People-Performance Model" as a sensitising framework to inform an in-depth case study of a call centre. This pro...

  19. Unlocking the potential of translation for FLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes unlocking the potential of translation for foreign language teaching (FLT by seeking to create synergies with the related discipline of translation science (TS. This aim is in keeping with the guidelines for language teaching provided in the Common European Framework of Languages, which introduced a model of communicative competences including communicative language competences as those which enable a person to act by drawing on specific linguistic means. First, an overview of the changing status of translation in FLT is presented – from its being considered a fundamental teaching method and basic skill in the Grammar-Translation Method, to its being all but outlawed in more recent communicative and task-based approaches, to its final rehabilitation in recent decades. It is then shown that, in the development of FLT, the parallel evolution of TS somehow failed to be acknowledged and, consequently, the opportunity to create valuable synergies between the two disciplines was missed. Following the stance of authors who have advocated the use of translation in FLT, it is argued that translation can effectively supplement the development of the four traditional language skills and, moreover, that some of the insights developed by TS can effectively be integrated into FLT as strategies aimed at enhancing leaners’ cross-cultural communicative competences. To this purpose, selected insights from TS (e.g. the functional approach and the skopos theory, the cultureme model, the theory of memes are discussed and their potential for creating synergies with FLT are explored. Finally, the paper discusses the omnipresence of different forms of translation and interpreting in contemporary societies and shows that this naturally and logically calls for a systematic inclusion of translation in FLT.

  20. Probing molecular mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone: biophysical modeling identifies key regulators of functional dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Dixit

    Full Text Available Deciphering functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery is an important objective in cancer biology aiming to facilitate discovery of targeted anti-cancer therapies. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, organizing molecular principles that control the relationship between conformational diversity and functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 activity lack a sufficient quantitative characterization. We combined molecular dynamics simulations, principal component analysis, the energy landscape model and structure-functional analysis of Hsp90 regulatory interactions to systematically investigate functional dynamics of the molecular chaperone. This approach has identified a network of conserved regions common to the Hsp90 chaperones that could play a universal role in coordinating functional dynamics, principal collective motions and allosteric signaling of Hsp90. We have found that these functional motifs may be utilized by the molecular chaperone machinery to act collectively as central regulators of Hsp90 dynamics and activity, including the inter-domain communications, control of ATP hydrolysis, and protein client binding. These findings have provided support to a long-standing assertion that allosteric regulation and catalysis may have emerged via common evolutionary routes. The interaction networks regulating functional motions of Hsp90 may be determined by the inherent structural architecture of the molecular chaperone. At the same time, the thermodynamics-based "conformational selection" of functional states is likely to be activated based on the nature of the binding partner. This mechanistic model of Hsp90 dynamics and function is consistent with the notion that allosteric networks orchestrating cooperative protein motions can be formed by evolutionary conserved and sparsely connected residue clusters. Hence, allosteric signaling through a small network of distantly connected

  1. Mixed matrix formulations with MOF molecular sieving for key energy-intensive separations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Gongping

    2018-02-09

    Membrane-based separations can improve energy efficiency and reduce the environmental impacts associated with traditional approaches. Nevertheless, many challenges must be overcome to design membranes that can replace conventional gas separation processes. Here, we report on the incorporation of engineered submicrometre-sized metal–organic framework (MOF) crystals into polymers to form hybrid materials that successfully translate the excellent molecular sieving properties of face-centred cubic (fcu)-MOFs into the resultant membranes. We demonstrate, simultaneously, exceptionally enhanced separation performance in hybrid membranes for two challenging and economically important applications: the removal of CO2 and H2S from natural gas and the separation of butane isomers. Notably, the membrane molecular sieving properties demonstrate that the deliberately regulated and contracted MOF pore-aperture size can discriminate between molecular pairs. The improved performance results from precise control of the linkers delimiting the triangular window, which is the sole entrance to the fcu-MOF pore. This rational-design hybrid approach provides a general toolbox for enhancing the transport properties of advanced membranes bearing molecular sieve fillers with sub-nanometre-sized pore-apertures.

  2. Mixed matrix formulations with MOF molecular sieving for key energy-intensive separations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Gongping; Chernikova, Valeriya; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Kuang; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Zhang, Chen; Yi, Shouliang; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Koros, William J.

    2018-01-01

    Membrane-based separations can improve energy efficiency and reduce the environmental impacts associated with traditional approaches. Nevertheless, many challenges must be overcome to design membranes that can replace conventional gas separation processes. Here, we report on the incorporation of engineered submicrometre-sized metal–organic framework (MOF) crystals into polymers to form hybrid materials that successfully translate the excellent molecular sieving properties of face-centred cubic (fcu)-MOFs into the resultant membranes. We demonstrate, simultaneously, exceptionally enhanced separation performance in hybrid membranes for two challenging and economically important applications: the removal of CO2 and H2S from natural gas and the separation of butane isomers. Notably, the membrane molecular sieving properties demonstrate that the deliberately regulated and contracted MOF pore-aperture size can discriminate between molecular pairs. The improved performance results from precise control of the linkers delimiting the triangular window, which is the sole entrance to the fcu-MOF pore. This rational-design hybrid approach provides a general toolbox for enhancing the transport properties of advanced membranes bearing molecular sieve fillers with sub-nanometre-sized pore-apertures.

  3. Mixed matrix formulations with MOF molecular sieving for key energy-intensive separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gongping; Chernikova, Valeriya; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Kuang; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Zhang, Chen; Yi, Shouliang; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Koros, William J.

    2018-03-01

    Membrane-based separations can improve energy efficiency and reduce the environmental impacts associated with traditional approaches. Nevertheless, many challenges must be overcome to design membranes that can replace conventional gas separation processes. Here, we report on the incorporation of engineered submicrometre-sized metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals into polymers to form hybrid materials that successfully translate the excellent molecular sieving properties of face-centred cubic (fcu)-MOFs into the resultant membranes. We demonstrate, simultaneously, exceptionally enhanced separation performance in hybrid membranes for two challenging and economically important applications: the removal of CO2 and H2S from natural gas and the separation of butane isomers. Notably, the membrane molecular sieving properties demonstrate that the deliberately regulated and contracted MOF pore-aperture size can discriminate between molecular pairs. The improved performance results from precise control of the linkers delimiting the triangular window, which is the sole entrance to the fcu-MOF pore. This rational-design hybrid approach provides a general toolbox for enhancing the transport properties of advanced membranes bearing molecular sieve fillers with sub-nanometre-sized pore-apertures.

  4. Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding of unlocked nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Niels; Wengel, Jesper; Pasternak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We herein describe the synthesis of two new unlocked nucleic acid building blocks containing hypoxanthine and 2,6-diaminopurine as nucleobase moieties and their incorporation into oligonucleotides. The modified oligonucleotides were used to examine the thermodynamic properties of UNA against unmo...... unmodified oligonucleotides and the resulting thermodynamic data support that the hydrogen bonding face of UNA is Watson-Crick like....

  5. Unlocking the potential of Africa's young entrepreneurs | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The report, Africa's Young Entrepreneurs: Unlocking the Potential for a Brighter Future, is the first to focus on Africa's young entrepreneurs and is the culmination of a 3-year project carried out by GEM with financial support from IDRC. It draws on data collected from nine countries (Angola, Botswana, Ghana, Malawi, Namibia ...

  6. Identification of key genes and molecular mechanisms associated with dedifferentiated liposarcoma based on bioinformatic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu H

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hongliang Yu,1 Dong Pei,2 Longyun Chen,2 Xiaoxiang Zhou,2 Haiwen Zhu2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Yancheng Third People’s Hospital, Yancheng, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Background: Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS is one of the most deadly types of soft tissue sarcoma. To date, there have been few studies dedicated to elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind the disease; therefore, the molecular mechanisms behind this malignancy remain largely unknown.Materials and methods: Microarray profiles of 46 DDLPS samples and nine normal fat controls were extracted from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO. Quality control for these microarray profiles was performed before analysis. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis were used to distinguish the general differences in gene expression between DDLPS samples and the normal fat controls. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified using the Limma package in R. Next, the enriched Gene Ontology (GO terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways were obtained using the online tool DAVID (http://david.abcc.ncifcrf.gov/. A protein–protein interaction (PPI network was constructed using the STRING database and Cytoscape software. Furthermore, the hub genes within the PPI network were identified.Results: All 55 microarray profiles were confirmed to be of high quality. The gene expression pattern of DDLPS samples was significantly different from that of normal fat controls. In total, 700 DEGs were identified, and 83 enriched GO terms and three KEGG pathways were obtained. Specifically, within the DEGs of DDLPS samples, several pathways were identified as being significantly enriched, including the PPAR signaling pathway, cell cycle pathway, and pyruvate metabolism pathway

  7. Key molecular requirements for raft formation in lipid/cholesterol membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davit Hakobyan

    Full Text Available The lipid mixture of DPPC (saturated lipid/DUPC (unsaturated lipid/CHOL (cholesterol is studied with respect to its ability to form liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases. We employ coarse-grained simulations with MARTINI force field. All three components are systematically modified in order to explore the relevant molecular properties, leading to phase separation. Specifically, we show that the DPPC/DUPC/CHOL system unmixes due to enthalpic DPPC-DPPC and DPPC-CHOL interactions. The phase separation remains unchanged, except for the formation of a gel phase at long times after decreasing the conformational degrees of freedom of the unsaturated DUPC. In contrast, the phase separation can be suppressed by softening the DPPC chains. In an attempt to mimic the ordering and unmixing effect of CHOL the latter is replaced by a stiff and shortened DPPC-like lipid. One still observes phase separation, suggesting that it is mainly the rigid and planar structure of CHOL which is important for raft formation. Addition of an extra bead to the head of CHOL has no notable impact on the phase separation of the system, supporting the irrelevance of the Umbrella model for the phase separation. Reduction of the conformational entropy of CHOL by stiffening its last bead results in a significant increase of the order of the DPPC/CHOL domain. This suggests that the conformational entropy of CHOL is important to prohibit the gelation process. The interleaflet interactions as mediated by the terminal molecular groups seem to have a strong impact on the possibility of a subsequent gelation process after phase separation.

  8. Identification of key molecular components of the resistance of cherry tomato against Phytophthora infestans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Kleine, Liliana; Smart, Christine D; Fry, William E; Restrepo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme CV matt's wild cherry is a very resistant cultivar to most Phytophthora infestans isolates. Two isolates were identified, us 940480 and us 970001 that cause an incompatible and a compatible interaction respectively. Us 970001 is one of the few isolates producing a compatible interaction with this cultivar. To identify genes with a differential gene expression between compatible and incompatible interactions, gene expression patterns were analyzed with tomato CDNA microarrays including 12,899 independent tomato CDNA clones at different time points after inoculation. A diverse set of statistical tools were used to identify key components of the plant response to the pathogen. Forty-three genes were up-regulated during the incompatible reaction at time point 36 hours, 15 globally at all-time points and twelve were found both in globally and at 36 hours. Northern blots analysis was performed to confirm differential expression showed by microarray analysis and to study the differential expression of more plant resistance genes (PR) genes between compatible and incompatible interactions for this interaction.

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF KEY MOLECULAR COMPONENTS OF THE RESISTANCE OF CHERRY TOMATO AGAINST Phytophthora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA LÓPEZ KLEINE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme cv Matt’s wild cherry is a very resistant cultivar to most Phytophthora infestans isolates. Two isolates were identified, US940480 and US970001 that cause an incompatible and a compatible interaction respectively. US970001 is one of the few isolates producing a compatible interaction with this cultivar. To identify genes with a differential gene expression between compatible and incompatible interactions, gene expression patterns were analyzed with tomato cDNA microarrays including 12,899 independent tomato cDNA clones at different time points after inoculation. A diverse set of statistical tools were used to identify key components of the plant response to the pathogen. Forty-three genes were up-regulated during the incompatible reaction at time point 36 hours, 15 globally at all time points and twelve were found both in globally and at 36 hours. Northern blots analysis was performed to confirm differential expression showed by microarray analysis and to study the differential expression of more PR genes between compatible and incompatible interactions for this interaction.

  10. Unlocking the condoms: The effect on sales and theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwood D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Community pharmacies may place condoms in locked displays or behind glass, thereby reducing access and consequent use.Objective: Quantify sales and theft of condoms when condoms were unlocked and removed from behind glass in grocery pharmaciesMethods: Design. In this pilot study, condom displays were unlocked in selected pharmacies for three months. Participants. Eight grocery pharmacies in central Iowa agreed to participate. Intervention. Stores provided inventory at baseline, sales/theft thereafter in three monthly reports and sales for the same period one-year earlier. Outcome measures. Descriptive statistics quantified condom theft and sales. Number of pharmacies leaving condoms unlocked after the intervention was determined.Results: Theft varied by pharmacy and ranged from an average of 1.33 boxes (units per month to 27.33 per month. All stores experienced some increase in sales during the intervention. Two locations decided to re-lock their displays, only one indicated theft as the reason.Conclusion: After removing condoms from locked displays, more condoms were purchased and stolen from the study pharmacies. Sales outweighed theft in all pharmacies.

  11. Unlocking the condoms: The effect on sales and theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Daniel; Farris, Karen B; Campo, Shelly; Aquilino, Mary L; Losch, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Community pharmacies may place condoms in locked displays or behind glass, thereby reducing access and consequent use. Quantify sales and theft of condoms when condoms were unlocked and removed from behind glass in grocery pharmacies. Design. In this pilot study, condom displays were unlocked in selected pharmacies for three months. Participants. Eight grocery pharmacies in central Iowa agreed to participate. Intervention. Stores provided inventory at baseline, sales/theft thereafter in three monthly reports and sales for the same period one-year earlier. Outcome measures. Descriptive statistics quantified condom theft and sales. Number of pharmacies leaving condoms unlocked after the intervention was determined. Theft varied by pharmacy and ranged from an average of 1.33 boxes (units) per month to 27.33 per month. All stores experienced some increase in sales during the intervention. Two locations decided to re-lock their displays, only one indicated theft as the reason. After removing condoms from locked displays, more condoms were purchased and stolen from the study pharmacies. Sales outweighed theft in all pharmacies.

  12. Two key temporally distinguishable molecular and cellular components of white adipose tissue browning during cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Aleksandra; Golic, Igor; Markelic, Milica; Stancic, Ana; Otasevic, Vesna; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Aleksandra; Korac, Bato

    2015-08-01

    White to brown adipose tissue conversion and thermogenesis can be ignited by different conditions or agents and its sustainability over the long term is still unclear. Browning of rat retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rpWAT) during cold acclimation involves two temporally apparent components: (1) a predominant non-selective browning of most adipocytes and an initial sharp but transient induction of uncoupling protein 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1α, PPARγ and PPARα expression, and (2) the subsistence of relatively few thermogenically competent adipocytes after 45 days of cold acclimation. The different behaviours of two rpWAT beige/brown adipocyte subsets control temporal aspects of the browning process, and thus regulation of both components may influence body weight and the potential successfulness of anti-obesity therapies. Conversion of white into brown adipose tissue may have important implications in obesity resistance and treatment. Several browning agents or conditions ignite thermogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT). To reveal the capacity of WAT to function in a brownish/burning mode over the long term, we investigated the progression of the rat retroperitoneal WAT (rpWAT) browning during 45 days of cold acclimation. During the early stages of cold acclimation, the majority of rpWAT adipocytes underwent multilocularization and thermogenic-profile induction, as demonstrated by the presence of a multitude of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-immunopositive paucilocular adipocytes containing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) in their nuclei. After 45 days, all adipocytes remained PRDM16 immunopositive, but only a few multilocular adipocytes rich in mitochondria remained UCP1/PGC-1α immunopositive. Molecular evidence showed that thermogenic recruitment of rpWAT occurred following cold exposure, but returned to starting levels after cold

  13. Point Climat no. 27 'Unlocking private investments in energy efficiency through carbon finance'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishlov, Igor; Bellassen, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: According to the latest IEA World Energy Outlook, energy efficiency is a 'key option' in transition to a low-carbon economy. A decade of experience with the CDM and JI demonstrates that carbon finance can be used as an effective tool to unlock private investments in energy efficiency. Capital investments in offset projects may significantly exceed the expected carbon revenues resulting in an average weighted leverage ratio of 4:1 and 9:1 for the CDM and JI respectively, which is comparable to other international financial instruments. So far carbon finance has been used mostly for large-scale industrial energy efficiency projects in advanced developing countries and economies in transition, although it is increasingly suited to tap into scattered household energy efficiency projects

  14. Glutamate excitoxicity is the key molecular mechanism which is influenced by body temperature during the acute phase of brain stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Francisco; Pérez-Mato, María; Agulla, Jesús; Blanco, Miguel; Barral, David; Almeida, Angeles; Brea, David; Waeber, Christian; Castillo, José; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate excitotoxicity, metabolic rate and inflammatory response have been associated to the deleterious effects of temperature during the acute phase of stroke. So far, the association of temperature with these mechanisms has been studied individually. However, the simultaneous study of the influence of temperature on these mechanisms is necessary to clarify their contributions to temperature-mediated ischemic damage. We used non-invasive Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to simultaneously measure temperature, glutamate excitotoxicity and metabolic rate in the brain in animal models of ischemia. The immune response to ischemia was measured through molecular serum markers in peripheral blood. We submitted groups of animals to different experimental conditions (hypothermia at 33°C, normothermia at 37°C and hyperthermia at 39°C), and combined these conditions with pharmacological modulation of glutamate levels in the brain through systemic injections of glutamate and oxaloacetate. We show that pharmacological modulation of glutamate levels can neutralize the deleterious effects of hyperthermia and the beneficial effects of hypothermia, however the analysis of the inflammatory response and metabolic rate, demonstrated that their effects on ischemic damage are less critical than glutamate excitotoxity. We conclude that glutamate excitotoxicity is the key molecular mechanism which is influenced by body temperature during the acute phase of brain stroke.

  15. A chemical perspective on transcriptional fidelity dominant contributions of sugar integrity revealed by unlocked nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Liang; Plouffe, Steven W; Chong, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Transcription unlocked: A synthetic chemical biology approach involving unlocked nucleic acids was used to dissect the contribution of sugar backbone integrity to the RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) transcription process. An unexpected dominant role for sugar-ring integrity in Pol II transcriptional...

  16. Striking Plasticity of CRISPR-Cas9 and Key Role of Non-target DNA, as Revealed by Molecular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Giulia; Miao, Yinglong; Walker, Ross C; Jinek, Martin; McCammon, J Andrew

    2016-10-26

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 system recently emerged as a transformative genome-editing technology that is innovating basic bioscience and applied medicine and biotechnology. The endonuclease Cas9 associates with a guide RNA to match and cleave complementary sequences in double stranded DNA, forming an RNA:DNA hybrid and a displaced non-target DNA strand. Although extensive structural studies are ongoing, the conformational dynamics of Cas9 and its interplay with the nucleic acids during association and DNA cleavage are largely unclear. Here, by employing multi-microsecond time scale molecular dynamics, we reveal the conformational plasticity of Cas9 and identify key determinants that allow its large-scale conformational changes during nucleic acid binding and processing. We show how the "closure" of the protein, which accompanies nucleic acid binding, fundamentally relies on highly coupled and specific motions of the protein domains, collectively initiating the prominent conformational changes needed for nucleic acid association. We further reveal a key role of the non-target DNA during the process of activation of the nuclease HNH domain, showing how the nontarget DNA positioning triggers local conformational changes that favor the formation of a catalytically competent Cas9. Finally, a remarkable conformational plasticity is identified as an intrinsic property of the HNH domain, constituting a necessary element that allows for the HNH repositioning. These novel findings constitute a reference for future experimental studies aimed at a full characterization of the dynamic features of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, and-more importantly-call for novel structure engineering efforts that are of fundamental importance for the rational design of new genome-engineering applications.

  17. Molecular evidence for historical presence of knock-down resistance in Anopheles albimanus, a key malaria vector in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lol, Juan C; Castellanos, María E; Liebman, Kelly A; Lenhart, Audrey; Pennington, Pamela M; Padilla, Norma R

    2013-09-18

    Anopheles albimanus is a key malaria vector in the northern neotropics. Current vector control measures in the region are based on mass distributions of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and focal indoor residual spraying (IRS) with pyrethroids. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides can be mediated by increased esterase and/or multi-function oxidase activity and/or mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. The aim of this work was to characterize the homologous kdr region of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene in An. albimanus and to conduct a preliminary retrospective analysis of field samples collected in the 1990's, coinciding with a time of intense pyrethroid application related to agricultural and public health insect control in the region. Degenerate primers were designed to amplify the homologous kdr region in a pyrethroid-susceptible laboratory strain (Sanarate) of An. albimanus. Subsequently, a more specific primer pair was used to amplify and sequence the region that contains the 1014 codon associated with pyrethroid resistance in other Anopheles spp. (L1014F, L1014S or L1014C). Direct sequencing of the PCR products confirmed the presence of the susceptible kdr allele in the Sanarate strain (L1014) and the presence of homozygous-resistant kdr alleles in field-collected individuals from Mexico (L1014F), Nicaragua (L1014C) and Costa Rica (L1014C). For the first time, the kdr region in An. albimanus is described. Furthermore, molecular evidence suggests the presence of kdr-type resistance in field-collected An. albimanus in Mesoamerica in the 1990s. Further research is needed to conclusively determine an association between the genotypes and resistant phenotypes, and to what extent they may compromise current vector control efforts.

  18. Combining molecular and immunohistochemical analyses of key drivers in primary melanomas: interplay between germline and somatic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, William; Martinuzzi, Claudia; Dalmasso, Bruna; Andreotti, Virginia; Pastorino, Lorenza; Cabiddu, Francesco; Gualco, Marina; Spagnolo, Francesco; Ballestrero, Alberto; Queirolo, Paola; Grillo, Federica; Mastracci, Luca; Ghiorzo, Paola

    2018-01-19

    Due to the high mutational somatic burden of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma (CMM) a thorough profiling of the driver mutations and their interplay is necessary to explain the timing of tumorigenesis or for the identification of actionable genetic events. The aim of this study was to establish the mutation rate of some of the key drivers in melanoma tumorigenesis combining molecular analyses and/or immunohistochemistry in 93 primary CMMs from an Italian cohort also characterized for germline status, and to investigate an interplay between germline and somatic variants. BRAF mutations were present in 68% of cases, while CDKN2A germline mutations were found in 16 % and p16 loss in tissue was found in 63%. TERT promoter somatic mutations were detected in 38% of cases while the TERT -245T>C polymorphism was found in 51% of cases. NRAS mutations were found in 39% of BRAF negative or undetermined cases. NF1 was expressed in all cases analysed. MC1R variations were both considered as a dichotomous variable or scored. While a positive, although not significant association between CDKN2A germline mutations, but not MC1R variants, and BRAF somatic mutation was found, we did not observe other associations between germline and somatic events. A yet undescribed inverse correlation between TERT -245T>C polymorphism and the presence of BRAF mutation was found. It is possible to hypothesize that -245T>C polymorphism could be included in those genotypes which may influence the occurrence of BRAF mutations. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of -245T>C polymorphism as a germline predictor of BRAF somatic mutation status.

  19. Herschel Observations of Protostellar and Young Stellar Objects in Nearby Molecular Clouds: The DIGIT Open Time Key Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; DIGIT OTKP Team

    2010-01-01

    The DIGIT (Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time) Open Time Key Project utilizes the PACS spectrometer (57-210 um) onboard the Herschel Space Observatory to study the colder regions of young stellar objects and protostellar cores, complementary to recent observations from Spitzer and ground-based observatories. DIGIT focuses on 30 embedded sources and 64 disk sources, and includes supporting photometry from PACS and SPIRE, as well as spectroscopy from HIFI, selected from nearby molecular clouds. For the embedded sources, PACS spectroscopy will allow us to address the origin of [CI] and high-J CO lines observed with ISO-LWS. Our observations are sensitive to the presence of cold crystalline water ice, diopside, and carbonates. Additionally, PACS scans are 5x5 maps of the embedded sources and their outflows. Observations of more evolved disk sources will sample low and intermediate mass objects as well as a variety of spectral types from A to M. Many of these sources are extremely rich in mid-IR crystalline dust features, enabling us to test whether similar features can be detected at larger radii, via colder dust emission at longer wavelengths. If processed grains are present only in the inner disk (in the case of full disks) or from the emitting wall surface which marks the outer edge of the gap (in the case of transitional disks), there must be short timescales for dust processing; if processed grains are detected in the outer disk, radial transport must be rapid and efficient. Weak bands of forsterite and clino- and ortho-enstatite in the 60-75 um range provide information about the conditions under which these materials were formed. For the Science Demonstration Phase we are observing an embedded protostar (DK Cha) and a Herbig Ae/Be star (HD 100546), exemplars of the kind of science that DIGIT will achieve over the full program.

  20. ECM microenvironment unlocks brown adipogenic potential of adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle H; Goralczyk, Anna G; Kriszt, Rókus; Ang, Xiu Min; Badowski, Cedric; Li, Ying; Summers, Scott A; Toh, Sue-Anne; Yassin, M Shabeer; Shabbir, Asim; Sheppard, Allan; Raghunath, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Key to realizing the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of human brown/brite adipocytes is the identification of a renewable, easily accessible and safe tissue source of progenitor cells, and an efficacious in vitro differentiation protocol. We show that macromolecular crowding (MMC) facilitates brown adipocyte differentiation in adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs), as evidenced by substantially upregulating uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and uncoupled respiration. Moreover, MMC also induced 'browning' in bmMSC-derived white adipocytes. Mechanistically, MMC creates a 3D extracellular matrix architecture enshrouding maturing adipocytes in a collagen IV cocoon that is engaged by paxillin-positive focal adhesions also at the apical side of cells, without contact to the stiff support structure. This leads to an enhanced matrix-cell signaling, reflected by increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a key transcription factor in UCP1 regulation. Thus, tuning the dimensionality of the microenvironment in vitro can unlock a strong brown potential dormant in bone marrow.

  1. Unlocking Lock-in Conditions for Social Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria J.

    stream of innovation in sharing space for bicycling of the four cities. The case of Copenhagen demonstrates effectively the unlocking force toward social change that can be in great part linked to the forceful narratives and claims presented by actors or generated in the actors’ interplay. It also...... to deepen the analysis taking departure from this empirical work contributing to the discussion of how these practices of social innovation to share space succeed (or failed) in introducing new societal values and norms and creating ‘new imaginaries’ for progressive social and environmental change; also how...... to analyze to what extent these social innovative practices could be seen as extending (or not) ‘coping mechanisms’ for socio-economic exclusion in times of austerity, demographic changes and environmental crisis of the late capitalistic societies....

  2. MOLECULAR MODELLING OF HUMAN ALDEHYDE OXIDASE AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE KEY INTERACTIONS IN THE ENZYME-SUBSTRATE COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavoush Dastmalchi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde oxidase (EC 1.2.3.1, a cytosolic enzyme containing FAD, molybdenum and iron-sulphur cluster, is a member of non-cytochrome P-450 enzymes called molybdenum hydroxylases which is involved in the metabolism of a wide range of endogenous compounds and many drug substances. Drug metabolism is one of the important characteristics which influences many aspects of a therapeutic agent such as routes of administration, drug interaction and toxicity and therefore, characterisation of the key interactions between enzymes and substrates is very important from drug development point of view. The aim of this study was to generate a three-dimensional model of human aldehyde oxidase (AO in order to assist us to identify the mode of interaction between enzyme and a set of phethalazine/quinazoline derivatives. Both sequence-based (BLAST and inverse protein fold recognition methods (THREADER were used to identify the crystal structure of bovine xanthine dehydrogenase (pdb code of 1FO4 as the suitable template for comparative modelling of human AO. Model structure was generated by aligning and then threading the sequence of human AO onto the template structure, incorporating the associated cofactors, and molecular dynamics simulations and energy minimization using GROMACS program. Different criteria which were measured by the PROCHECK, QPACK, VERIFY-3D were indicative of a proper fold for the predicted structural model of human AO. For example, 97.9 percentages of phi and psi angles were in the favoured and most favoured regions in the ramachandran plot, and all residues in the model are assigned environmentally positive compatibility scores. Further evaluation on the model quality was performed by investigation of AO-mediated oxidation of a set of phthalazine/quinazoline derivatives to develop QSAR model capable of describing the extent of the oxidation. Substrates were aligned by docking onto the active site of the enzyme using GOLD technology and then

  3. Tablet computers and eBooks. Unlocking the potential for personal learning environments?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2012, 9 May). Tablet computers and eBooks. Unlocking the potential for personal learning environments? Invited presentation during the annual conference of the European Association for Distance Learning (EADL), Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands.

  4. The locking and unlocking thresholds for tearing modes in a cylindrical tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wenlong [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhu, Ping, E-mail: pzhu@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The locking and unlocking thresholds for tearing modes are in general different. In this work, the physics origin for this difference is illustrated from theory analysis, and a numerical procedure is developed to find both locking and unlocking thresholds. In particular, a new scaling law for the unlocking threshold that is valid in both weak and strong rotation regimes has been derived from the lowest amplitude of the RMP (resonant magnetic perturbation) allowed for the locked-mode solution. Above the unlocking threshold, the criterion for the phase-flip instability is extended to identify the entire locked-mode states. Two different regimes of the RMP amplitude in terms of the accessibility of the locked-mode states have been found. In the first regime, the locked-mode state may or may not be accessible depending on the initial conditions of an evolving island. In the second regime, the locked-mode state can always be reached regardless of the initial conditions of the tearing mode. The lowest RMP amplitude for the second regime is determined to be the mode-locking threshold. The different characteristics of the two regimes above the unlocking threshold reveal the underlying physics for the gap between the locking and unlocking thresholds and provide an explanation for the closely related and widely observed hysteresis phenomena in island evolution during the sweeping process of the RMP amplitude up and down across that threshold gap.

  5. Self-regulation : women's key to unlocking the resources in the self-domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbelt, L.; Demerouti, E.; Rispens, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examined in organizational contexts in which women have a minority position whether women's daily in-role performance benefits from spent time on personal interests that provide motivation, energy, and intention necessary to remain motivated and productive at work (i.e., self-work

  6. Gaining momentum : advanced multilateral technology touted as key to unlocking Manville CBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.

    2006-01-01

    A new technology developed by a Louisiana-based company called Gardes Energy Services Inc. may be used to develop Canada's Manville coalbed methane (CBM) play. Two Canadian companies have recently agreed to test the patented technology in the Manville play, which has a permeability of only 3 to 4 millidarcies in shallower Manville targets and less than 1 millidarcy in deeper targets. The technology entails the drilling of multiple, radial wells with lateral branches. The 2-string dual injection drilling technique allows non-damaging underbalanced drilling of multiple lateral branches in each seam when combined with the patented Upstock process. The Upstock is then lowered to the lowest seam on a carrier string to redirect the drilling assembly into the first coal seam. Drilling fluid is pumped down the drillstring, activating the drilling assembly's mud motor and guidance system. Injection rates are adjusted according to downhole measurement-while drilling pressure sensors to maintain underbalanced drilling. Continuous circulation through the concentric casing system eliminates the potentially damaging surging that occurs in conventional drilling. By reorienting the bent housing on the drilling motor, branch laterals are added in each coal seam. Once completed, the drilling assembly is pulled, the Upstock is lifted on the carrier string to the next seam of interest, and the process is repeated. The dual annulus process lowers the equivalent circulating density below that of the formation pressure, preventing drilling fluid from invading and damaging the formation. Formation water is typically used as the drilling fluid. Once drilling is completed, an electric submersible pump (ESP) is lowered on tubing to the sump area and water is pumped to surface, allowing the methane to desorb and be produced through perforations into and up the inner annulus. The technique reduces the environmental impact of drilling, as 1 area can be used to drain an area the equivalent of 16 locations. It was concluded that the company is now looking to supply the technology and capital to develop CBM properties with other partners. 3 figs

  7. The obesity epidemic: is glycemic index the key to unlocking a hidden addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Simon; McRobbie, Hayden; Eyles, Helen; Walker, Natalie; Simmons, Greg

    2008-11-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is an important cause of a range of diseases and is estimated to be the seventh leading cause of death globally. In this paper we discuss evidence that food consumption shows similarities to features of other addictive behaviours, such as automaticity and loss of control. Glycemic index is hypothesised to be the element of food that predicts its addictive potential. Although we do not have substantive evidence of a withdrawal syndrome from high glycemic food abstinence, anecdotal reports exist. Empirical scientific and clinical studies support an addictive component of eating behaviour, with similar neurotransmitters and neural pathways triggered by food consumption, as with other drugs of addiction. The public health implications of such a theory are discussed, with reference to tobacco control. Subtle changes in the preparation and manufacturing of commonly consumed food items, reducing glycemic index through regulatory channels, may break such a cycle of addiction and draw large public health benefits.

  8. Turning the Key: Unlocking Human Potential in the Family in the Family-Friendly Federal Workplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gore, Al

    1997-01-01

    .... Your signature on the Family and Medical Leave Act not only provided federal employees with additional flexibility in meeting their life needs but was a powerful signal of your determination to help...

  9. Turning the Key: Unlocking Human Potential in the Family in the Family-Friendly Federal Workplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gore, Al

    1997-01-01

    .... Your 1994 and 1996 directives to agency heads on the family-friendly federal workplace led agencies to review and improve their efforts to help employees balance and integrate work and family demands...

  10. Unlocking the Power of Remittances in Mexico: Keys to a Government Strategy for Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    owned development bank, Bansefi (Banco del Ahorro Nacional y Servicios Financieros), which offers no-fee, interest bearing checking...provider, revealed that the actual rate charged to the borrower is 129% per year, while the rate marketed to clients is a mere 4% per month.45...Lending,” Journal of Business Ethics, Vol 88 (2009): 297-298. 54 Cited in Caskey et. al ., 3. 55 Gerardo Esquivel and Alejandra Huerta-Pineda

  11. Are fingernails a key to unlocking the puzzle of mammalian limb regeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, Jessica A

    2017-06-01

    Some mammalian digit tips, including those of mice and human children, can regenerate following amputation, whereas mammalian limb regeneration does not occur. One major difference between the digit tip and the rest of the limb is the presence of the nail, which is necessary for this type of regeneration. This couples well with the finding that canonical Wnt signalling and Lgr6, an agonist of Wnt signalling that marks nail stem cells, are necessary for digit tip regeneration. This viewpoint essay discusses the role of the nail in digit tip regeneration and explores whether nail stem cells and their presumptive niche can be solely accountable for why regeneration is possible in the digit tip, but not the rest of the limb. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Oxidative Copper-Enzymes are the Key for Unlocking Recalcitrant Biopolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Katja Salomon

    as the electron donating cofactor for the enzyme. The discovery of LPMOs and the understanding that they constitute the “first wave of attack” by microbial organisms on the most recalcitrant natural polysaccharides, highlights the need to reflect on the specific roles of LPMOs in biology. Many good and relevant...

  13. Dynamically Coupled Residues within the SH2 Domain of FYN Are Key to Unlocking Its Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huculeci, Radu; Cilia, Elisa; Lyczek, Agatha; Buts, Lieven; Houben, Klaartje; Seeliger, Markus A; van Nuland, Nico; Lenaerts, Tom

    2016-11-01

    Src kinase activity is controlled by various mechanisms involving a coordinated movement of kinase and regulatory domains. Notwithstanding the extensive knowledge related to the backbone dynamics, little is known about the more subtle side-chain dynamics within the regulatory domains and their role in the activation process. Here, we show through experimental methyl dynamic results and predicted changes in side-chain conformational couplings that the SH2 structure of Fyn contains a dynamic network capable of propagating binding information. We reveal that binding the phosphorylated tail of Fyn perturbs a residue cluster near the linker connecting the SH2 and SH3 domains of Fyn, which is known to be relevant in the regulation of the activity of Fyn. Biochemical perturbation experiments validate that those residues are essential for inhibition of Fyn, leading to a gain of function upon mutation. These findings reveal how side-chain dynamics may facilitate the allosteric regulation of the different members of the Src kinase family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamically Coupled Residues within the SH2 Domain of FYN Are Key to Unlocking Its Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huculeci, Radu; Cilia, Elisa; Lyczek, Agatha; Buts, Lieven; Houben, Klaartje; Seeliger, Markus A; van Nuland, Nico; Lenaerts, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Src kinase activity is controlled by various mechanisms involving a coordinated movement of kinase and regulatory domains. Notwithstanding the extensive knowledge related to the backbone dynamics, little is known about the more subtle side-chain dynamics within the regulatory domains and their role

  15. Unlocking investment in cities: ELENA-EIB technical assistance facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicmanova, Jana; Garabetian, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Energy Cities prepared a review of projects undertaken in the cities of Paris, Malmoe (in association with Lund and Helsingborg), Barcelona, Bristol and Brussels-Capital that received support from the ELENA-EIB facility. The aim of this study is to identify the ways in which technical assistance programs such as ELENA-EIB can help unlock investment in cities. The projects we reviewed (developed by Energy Cities' members) cover a wide array of sectors, from public building refurbishment to public transport or renewable energy production. These five projects illustrate how cities can focus on developing capacity in a long-term perspective, looking at the expected benefits of an investment or a support mechanism beyond that of the project itself. Overall, we found that project development assistance mechanisms such as ELENA can be beneficial to trigger investment for climate action in cities. Cities maximise the benefits of such a program by looking at how their climate-protection actions can generate benefits for the citizens, or how to systematically integrate climate action in other investment projects. Project development assistance (PDA) affects cities by allowing them to develop a new vision of the way they prepare an investment program. The search of synergies and the override of silo mentalities were a core element in the projects we reviewed. Indeed, the support provided by the European Union through ELENA-EIB is used by the local authorities to develop a transversal approach to climate action. The grant provided for PDA and the requirements of the ELENA-EIB facility represent an opportunity for local authorities to set up a new strategy regarding energy efficiency and renewable energy actions. It can be the necessary push for cities and local authorities to change the way they plan their investments, and develop projects to achieve their climate objectives. Besides, the grant is used for building long-term capacity in the development of investment programs

  16. Additive Manufacturing: Unlocking the Evolution of Energy Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakeyev, Adilet; Wang, Panfeng; Zhang, Li; Shu, Wenmiao; Wang, Huizhi; Xuan, Jin

    2017-10-01

    The global energy infrastructure is undergoing a drastic transformation towards renewable energy, posing huge challenges on the energy materials research, development and manufacturing. Additive manufacturing has shown its promise to change the way how future energy system can be designed and delivered. It offers capability in manufacturing complex 3D structures, with near-complete design freedom and high sustainability due to minimal use of materials and toxic chemicals. Recent literatures have reported that additive manufacturing could unlock the evolution of energy materials and chemistries with unprecedented performance in the way that could never be achieved by conventional manufacturing techniques. This comprehensive review will fill the gap in communicating on recent breakthroughs in additive manufacturing for energy material and device applications. It will underpin the discoveries on what 3D functional energy structures can be created without design constraints, which bespoke energy materials could be additively manufactured with customised solutions, and how the additively manufactured devices could be integrated into energy systems. This review will also highlight emerging and important applications in energy additive manufacturing, including fuel cells, batteries, hydrogen, solar cell as well as carbon capture and storage.

  17. Unlocking color and flavor in superconducting strange quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Berges, Juergen; Rajagopal, Krishna

    1999-01-01

    We explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter with massless u and d quarks as a function of the strange quark mass m s and the chemical potential μ for baryon number. Neglecting electromagnetism, we describe the different baryonic and quark matter phases at zero temperature. For quark matter, we support our model-independent arguments with a quantitative analysis of a model which uses a four-fermion interaction abstracted from single-gluon exchange. For any finite m s , at sufficiently large μ we find quark matter in a color-flavor-locked state which leaves a global vector-like SU(2) color+L+R symmetry unbroken. As a consequence, chiral symmetry is always broken in sufficiently dense quark matter. As the density is reduced, for sufficiently large m s we observe a first-order transition from the color-flavor-locked phase to color superconducting phase analogous to that in two-flavor QCD. At this unlocking transition chiral symmetry is restored. For realistic values of m s our analysis indicates that chiral symmetry breaking may be present for all densities down to those characteristic of baryonic matter. This supports the idea that quark matter and baryonic matter may be continuously connected in nature. We map the gaps at the quark Fermi surfaces in the high density color-flavor-locked phase onto gaps at the baryon Fermi surfaces at low densities

  18. The influence of kaolin application on key metabolic pathways associated with grape berry quality: a molecular and biochemical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, Diana Margarida Alpoim de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biologia Molecular, Biotecnologia e Bioempreendedorismo em Plantas Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a perennial woody plant with huge importance in national and global economy, widely grown in areas with typical Mediterranean climates, such as the Douro Demarcated Region (Denomination of Origin Douro/Porto). This region is usually affected by extended dry and hot summers that lead to productivity issues and are thus a main concern to viticulturists. The exogenous...

  19. RNA sequencing of Populus x canadensis roots identifies key molecular mechanisms underlying physiological adaption to excess zinc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariani

    Full Text Available Populus x canadensis clone I-214 exhibits a general indicator phenotype in response to excess Zn, and a higher metal uptake in roots than in shoots with a reduced translocation to aerial parts under hydroponic conditions. This physiological adaptation seems mainly regulated by roots, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are still poorly understood. Here, differential expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology was used to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to excess Zn in root. In order to maximize specificity of detection of differentially expressed (DE genes, we consider the intersection of genes identified by three distinct statistical approaches (61 up- and 19 down-regulated and validate them by RT-qPCR, yielding an agreement of 93% between the two experimental techniques. Gene Ontology (GO terms related to oxidation-reduction processes, transport and cellular iron ion homeostasis were enriched among DE genes, highlighting the importance of metal homeostasis in adaptation to excess Zn by P. x canadensis clone I-214. We identified the up-regulation of two Populus metal transporters (ZIP2 and NRAMP1 probably involved in metal uptake, and the down-regulation of a NAS4 gene involved in metal translocation. We identified also four Fe-homeostasis transcription factors (two bHLH38 genes, FIT and BTS that were differentially expressed, probably for reducing Zn-induced Fe-deficiency. In particular, we suggest that the down-regulation of FIT transcription factor could be a mechanism to cope with Zn-induced Fe-deficiency in Populus. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in adaption to excess Zn in Populus spp., but could also constitute a starting point for the identification and characterization of molecular markers or biotechnological targets for possible improvement of phytoremediation performances of poplar trees.

  20. Privacy Leakage in Mobile Sensing: Your Unlock Passwords Can Be Leaked through Wireless Hotspot Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile sensing has become a new style of applications and most of the smart devices are equipped with varieties of sensors or functionalities to enhance sensing capabilities. Current sensing systems concentrate on how to enhance sensing capabilities; however, the sensors or functionalities may lead to the leakage of users’ privacy. In this paper, we present WiPass, a way to leverage the wireless hotspot functionality on the smart devices to snoop the unlock passwords/patterns without the support of additional hardware. The attacker can “see” your unlock passwords/patterns even one meter away. WiPass leverages the impacts of finger motions on the wireless signals during the unlocking period to analyze the passwords/patterns. To practically implement WiPass, we are facing the difficult feature extraction and complex unlock passwords matching, making the analysis of the finger motions challenging. To conquer the challenges, we use DCASW to extract feature and hierarchical DTW to do unlock passwords matching. Besides, the combination of amplitude and phase information is used to accurately recognize the passwords/patterns. We implement a prototype of WiPass and evaluate its performance under various environments. The experimental results show that WiPass achieves the detection accuracy of 85.6% and 74.7% for passwords/patterns detection in LOS and in NLOS scenarios, respectively.

  1. A new species of Cacatuocotyle (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) parasitizing Astyanax spp. (Characiformes, Characidae) from Brazil, including molecular data and a key to species identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Aline Cristina; Franceschini, Lidiane; Müller, Maria Isabel; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2018-06-26

    The present study describes Cacatuocotyle papilionis n. sp. (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the skin of the characid fishes Astyanax lacustris (Lütken, 1875) (=Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000) and Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) (Characiformes, Characidae) from the Southeast of Brazil, supported by morphological and molecular data. The new species differs from all congeners, mainly due to the morphology of the ventral bar (resembling a butterfly), accessory piece, and the number of rings of the male copulatory organ (MCO), comprising a coiled tube with 4.5-5.5 counterclockwise rings. The first molecular data for this monogenean genus is provided in this study, using the partial sequences of the ribosomal gene (28S), as well as providing an identification key to the species.

  2. Examining Unlock Journaling with Diaries and Reminders for In Situ Self-Report in Health and Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyi; Pina, Laura R; Fogarty, James

    2016-05-07

    In situ self-report is widely used in human-computer interaction, ubiquitous computing, and for assessment and intervention in health and wellness. Unfortunately, it remains limited by high burdens. We examine unlock journaling as an alternative. Specifically, we build upon recent work to introduce single-slide unlock journaling gestures appropriate for health and wellness measures. We then present the first field study comparing unlock journaling with traditional diaries and notification-based reminders in self-report of health and wellness measures. We find unlock journaling is less intrusive than reminders, dramatically improves frequency of journaling, and can provide equal or better timeliness . Where appropriate to broader design needs, unlock journaling is thus an overall promising method for in situ self-report.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Fibroblasts Reveals a Disease Extracellular Matrix Signature and Key Molecular Regulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Paco

    Full Text Available Collagen VI related myopathies encompass a range of phenotypes with involvement of skeletal muscle, skin and other connective tissues. They represent a severe and relatively common form of congenital disease for which there is no treatment. Collagen VI in skeletal muscle and skin is produced by fibroblasts.In order to gain insight into the consequences of collagen VI mutations and identify key disease pathways we performed global gene expression analysis of dermal fibroblasts from patients with Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy with and without vitamin C treatment. The expression data were integrated using a range of systems biology tools. Results were validated by real-time PCR, western blotting and functional assays.We found significant changes in the expression levels of almost 600 genes between collagen VI deficient and control fibroblasts. Highly regulated genes included extracellular matrix components and surface receptors, including integrins, indicating a shift in the interaction between the cell and its environment. This was accompanied by a significant increase in fibroblasts adhesion to laminin. The observed changes in gene expression profiling may be under the control of two miRNAs, miR-30c and miR-181a, which we found elevated in tissue and serum from patients and which could represent novel biomarkers for muscular dystrophy. Finally, the response to vitamin C of collagen VI mutated fibroblasts significantly differed from healthy fibroblasts. Vitamin C treatment was able to revert the expression of some key genes to levels found in control cells raising the possibility of a beneficial effect of vitamin C as a modulator of some of the pathological aspects of collagen VI related diseases.

  4. Research on Pin Tumbler Locks and the Characteristics of Surface Traces Formed by Unlocking Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gao; Yifeng, Jin; Yanping, Bai; Hongcheng, Mei; Zhen, Xu

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, taking the structure of the pin tumbler locks and the principle of opening and closing locks as breakthrough point, we have studied the machining traces of pin tumbler components and trace characters of pin surface during normal operating. At the same time, taking the unlocking gun as an example, the paper analyzes the unlocking technology and the formation of traces, and summarizes the changing rules of the surface traces of elastic bead locks by comparing the positions and the characteristics of the traces, which provides technical support for the future study of traces of pin tumbler locks.

  5. A molecular phylogenetic reappraisal of the Hysteriaceae, Mytilinidiaceae and Gloniaceae (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes) with keys to world species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, E.W.A.; Mugambi, G.K.; Miller, A.N.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Marincowitz, S.; Spatafora, J.W.; Schoch, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    A reappraisal of the phylogenetic integrity of bitunicate ascomycete fungi belonging to or previously affiliated with the Hysteriaceae, Mytilinidiaceae, Gloniaceae and Patellariaceae is presented, based on an analysis of 121 isolates and four nuclear genes, the ribosomal large and small subunits, transcription elongation factor 1 and the second largest RNA polymerase II subunit. A geographically diverse and high density taxon sampling strategy was employed, including multiple isolates/species from the following genera: Anteaglonium (6/4), Encephalographa (1/1), Farlowiella (3/1), Gloniopsis (8/4), Glonium (4/2), Hysterium (12/5), Hysterobrevium (14/3), Hysterographium (2/1), Hysteropatella (2/2), Lophium (4/2), Mytilinidion (13/10), Oedohysterium (5/3), Ostreichnion (2/2), Patellaria (1/1), Psiloglonium (11/3), Quasiconcha (1/1), Rhytidhysteron (8/3), and 24 outgroup taxa. Sequence data indicate that although the Hysteriales are closely related to the Pleosporales, sufficient branch support exists for their separation into separate orders within the Pleosporomycetidae. The Mytilinidiales are more distantly related within the subclass and show a close association with the Gloniaceae. Although there are examples of concordance between morphological and molecular data, these are few. Molecular data instead support the premise of a large number of convergent evolutionary lineages, which do not correspond to previously held assumptions of synapomorphy relating to spore morphology. Thus, within the Hysteriaceae, the genera Gloniopsis, Glonium, Hysterium and Hysterographium are highly polyphyletic. This necessitated the transfer of two species of Hysterium to Oedohysterium gen. nov. (Od. insidens comb. nov. and Od. sinense comb. nov.), the description of a new species, Hysterium barrianum sp. nov., and the transfer of two species of Gloniopsis to Hysterobrevium gen. nov. (Hb. smilacis comb. nov. and Hb. constrictum comb. nov.). While Hysterographium, with the type Hg

  6. A molecular key for building hyphae aggregates: the role of the newly identified Streptomyces protein HyaS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebsch, Ilona; Overbeck, Jens; Piepmeyer, Sophie; Meschke, Holger; Schrempf, Hildgund

    2009-05-01

    Streptomycetes produce many metabolites with medical and biotechnological applications. During fermentations, their hyphae build aggregates, a process in which the newly identified protein HyaS plays an important role. The corresponding hyaS gene is present within all investigated Streptomyces species. Reporter fusions indicate that transcription of hyaS occurs within substrate hyphae of the Streptomyces lividans wild type (WT). The HyaS protein is dominantly associated with the substrate hyphae. The WT strain forms cylindrically shaped clumps of densely packed substrate hyphae, often fusing to higher aggregates (pellets), which remain stably associated during shaking. Investigations by electron microscopy suggest that HyaS induces tight fusion-like contacts among substrate hyphae. In contrast, the pellets of the designed hyaS disruption mutant ΔH are irregular in shape, contain frequently outgrowing bunches of hyphae, and fuse less frequently. ΔH complemented with a plasmid carrying hyaS resembles the WT phenotype. Biochemical studies indicate that the C-terminal region of HyaS has amine oxidase activity. Investigations of ΔH transformants, each carrying a specifically mutated gene, lead to the conclusion that the in situ oxidase activity correlates with the pellet-inducing role of HyaS, and depends on the presence of certain histidine residues. Furthermore, the level of undecylprodigiosin, a red pigment with antibiotic activity, is influenced by the engineered hyaS subtype within a strain. These data present the first molecular basis for future manipulation of pellets, and concomitant production of secondary metabolites during biotechnological processes. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Molecular characterization of adenosine 5'-monophosphate deaminase--the key enzyme responsible for the umami taste of nori (Porphyra yezoensis Ueda, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Seiko; Sato, Minoru; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Iwamoto, Koji

    2011-12-01

    The enzyme adenosine 5'-monophosphate deaminase (AMPD, EC 3.5.4.6) catalyzes the conversion of adenosine 5'-monophosphate to inosine 5'-mononucleotide (IMP). IMP is generally known as the compound responsible for the umami taste of the edible red alga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda that is known in Japan as nori. Therefore, we suspect that AMPD plays a key role in providing a favorable nori taste. In this study, we undertake the molecular characterization of nori-derived AMPD. The nori AMPD protein has a molecular mass of 55 kDa as estimated from both gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The calculated molecular mass from the amino acid sequence deduced from cDNA is 57.1 kDa. The isoelectric point is 5.71. The coding region of AMPD consists of 1,566 bp encoding 522 amino acids and possesses a transmembrane domain and two N-glycosylation sites. The sequence identity of nori AMPD in human and yeast AMPDs was found to be less than 50% and 20% in DNA and amino acid sequences, respectively. Proline in the conserved motif of [SA]-[LIVM]-[NGS]-[STA]-D-D-P was found to be converted to glutamate. These results indicate that nori AMPD is a novel type of AMPD.

  8. The folding mechanism and key metastable state identification of the PrP127-147 monomer studied by molecular dynamics simulations and Markov state model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangyan; Wang, Qianqian; Wang, Yuwei; Yao, Xiaojun; Han, Wei; Liu, Huanxiang

    2017-05-10

    The structural transition of prion proteins from a native α-helix (PrP C ) to a misfolded β-sheet-rich conformation (PrP Sc ) is believed to be the main cause of a number of prion diseases in humans and animals. Understanding the molecular basis of misfolding and aggregation of prion proteins will be valuable for unveiling the etiology of prion diseases. However, due to the limitation of conventional experimental techniques and the heterogeneous property of oligomers, little is known about the molecular architecture of misfolded PrP Sc and the mechanism of structural transition from PrP C to PrP Sc . The prion fragment 127-147 (PrP127-147) has been reported to be a critical region for PrP Sc formation in Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome and thus has been used as a model for the study of prion aggregation. In the present study, we employ molecular dynamics (MD) simulation techniques to study the conformational change of this fragment that could be relevant to the PrP C -PrP Sc transition. Employing extensive replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) and conventional MD simulations, we sample a huge number of conformations of PrP127-147. Using the Markov state model (MSM), we identify the metastable conformational states of this fragment and the kinetic network of transitions between the states. The resulting MSM reveals that disordered random-coiled conformations are the dominant structures. A key metastable folded state with typical extended β-sheet structures is identified with Pro137 being located in a turn region, consistent with a previous experimental report. Conformational analysis reveals that intrapeptide hydrophobic interaction and two key residue interactions, including Arg136-His140 and Pro137-His140, contribute a lot to the formation of ordered extended β-sheet states. However, network pathway analysis from the most populated disordered state indicates that the formation of extended β-sheet states is quite slow (at the millisecond

  9. Unlocking the Constraints of Cyanobacterial Productivity: Acclimations Enabling Ultrafast Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; McClure, Ryan S.; Hill, Eric A.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Chrisler, William B.; Romine, Margie F.; McDermott, Jason E.; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Bryant, Donald A.; Konopka, Allan E.; Fredrickson, James K.; Beliaev, Alexander S.

    2016-07-26

    ABSTRACT

    Harnessing the metabolic potential of photosynthetic microbes for next-generation biotechnology objectives requires detailed scientific understanding of the physiological constraints and regulatory controls affecting carbon partitioning between biomass, metabolite storage pools, and bioproduct synthesis. We dissected the cellular mechanisms underlying the remarkable physiological robustness of the euryhaline unicellular cyanobacteriumSynechococcussp. strain PCC 7002 (Synechococcus7002) and identify key mechanisms that allow cyanobacteria to achieve unprecedented photoautotrophic productivities (~2.5-h doubling time). Ultrafast growth ofSynechococcus7002 was supported by high rates of photosynthetic electron transfer and linked to significantly elevated transcription of precursor biosynthesis and protein translation machinery. Notably, no growth or photosynthesis inhibition signatures were observed under any of the tested experimental conditions. Finally, the ultrafast growth inSynechococcus7002 was also linked to a 300% expansion of average cell volume. We hypothesize that this cellular adaptation is required at high irradiances to support higher cell division rates and reduce deleterious effects, corresponding to high light, through increased carbon and reductant sequestration.

    IMPORTANCEEfficient coupling between photosynthesis and productivity is central to the development of biotechnology based on solar energy. Therefore, understanding the factors constraining maximum rates of carbon processing is necessary to identify regulatory mechanisms and devise strategies to overcome productivity constraints. Here, we interrogate the molecular mechanisms that operate at a systems level to allow cyanobacteria to achieve ultrafast growth. This was done by considering growth and photosynthetic kinetics with global transcription patterns. We have delineated

  10. Bis-Pyrene-Modified Unlocked Nucleic Acids: Synthesis, Hybridization Studies, and Fluorescent Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perlíková, Pavla; Ejlersen, M.; Langkjaer, N.; Wengel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2014), s. 2120-2127 ISSN 1860-7179 Grant - others:European Research Council(XE) FP7-268776 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fluorescence * nucleic acid hybridization * oligonucleotides * pyrenes * unlocked nucleic acids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.968, year: 2014

  11. Unlocking Land Values to Finance Urban Infrastructure : Land-Based Financing Options for Cities

    OpenAIRE

    George E. Peterson

    2008-01-01

    Raising capital to finance urban infrastructure is a challenge. One solution is to 'unlock' urban land values - such as by selling public lands to capture the gains in value created by investment in infrastructure projects. Land-based financing techniques are playing an increasingly important role in financing urban infrastructure in developing countries. They complement other capital fina...

  12. Unlocking Hospitality Managers Career Transitions through Applying Schein's Career Anchors Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, David; Polla, Giovana; Heidl, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to unlock the career transitions of hospitality managers through applying Schein's career anchors theory. It seeks to understand how Schein's Career Anchors help explain the career transitions of managers in the Scottish hospitality industry. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts a non-sequential multi-method…

  13. Modulation of i-motif thermodynamic stability by the introduction of UNA (unlocked nucleic acid) monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternak, Anna; Wengel, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The influence of acyclic RNA derivatives, UNA (unlocked nucleic acid) monomers, on i-DNA thermodynamic stability has been investigated. The 22 nt human telomeric fragment was chosen as the model sequence for stability studies. UNA monomers modulate i-motif stability in a position-depending manner...

  14. Collaborative learning to unlock investments for functional ecological infrastructure: Bridging barriers in social-ecological systems in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Angelstam, P

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available . Based on expert knowledge at three scales, we analysed South Africa's opportunity to active adaptive management and to unlock investments that enhance functional ecological infrastructure. Barriers included lack of trust among actors, limited...

  15. Molecular Identification of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus, Scombridae Larvae and Development of a DNA Character-Based Identification Key for Mediterranean Scombrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Neils Puncher

    Full Text Available The Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, is a commercially important species that has been severely over-exploited in the recent past. Although the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean stock is now showing signs of recovery, its current status remains very uncertain and as a consequence their recovery is dependent upon severe management informed by rigorous scientific research. Monitoring of early life history stages can inform decision makers about the health of the species based upon recruitment and survival rates. Misidentification of fish larvae and eggs can lead to inaccurate estimates of stock biomass and productivity which can trigger demands for increased quotas and unsound management conclusions. Herein we used a molecular approach employing mitochondrial and nuclear genes (CO1 and ITS1, respectively to identify larvae (n = 188 collected from three spawning areas in the Mediterranean Sea by different institutions working with a regional fisheries management organization. Several techniques were used to analyze the genetic sequences (sequence alignments using search algorithms, neighbour joining trees, and a genetic character-based identification key and an extensive comparison of the results is presented. During this process various inaccuracies in related publications and online databases were uncovered. Our results reveal important differences in the accuracy of the taxonomic identifications carried out by different ichthyoplanktologists following morphology-based methods. While less than half of larvae provided were bluefin tuna, other dominant taxa were bullet tuna (Auxis rochei, albacore (Thunnus alalunga and little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus. We advocate an expansion of expertise for a new generation of morphology-based taxonomists, increased dialogue between morphology-based and molecular taxonomists and increased scrutiny of public sequence databases.

  16. Characterizing and sourcing ambient PM2.5 over key emission regions in China II: Organic molecular markers and CMB modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiabin; Xiong, Ying; Xing, Zhenyu; Deng, Junjun; Du, Ke

    2017-08-01

    From November 2012 to July 2013, a sampling campaign was completed for comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 over four key emission regions in China: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), Yangzi River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), and Sichuan Basin (SB). A multi-method approach, adopting different analytical and receptor modeling methods, was employed to determine the relative abundances of region-specific air pollution constituents and contributions of emission sources. This paper is focused on organic molecular marker based source apportionment using chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor modeling. Analyses of the organic molecular markers revealed that vehicle emission, coal combustion, biomass burning, meat cooking and natural gas combustion were the major contributors to organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5. The vehicle emission dominated the sources contributing to OC in spring at four sampling sites. During wintertime, the coal combustion had highest contribution to OC at BTH site, while the major source contributing to OC at YRD and PRD sites was vehicle emission. In addition, the relative contributions of different emission sources to PM2.5 mass at a specific location site and in a specific season revealed seasonal and spatial variations across all four sampling locations. The largest contributor to PM2.5 mass was secondary sulfate (14-17%) in winter at the four sites. The vehicle emission was found to be the major source (14-21%) for PM2.5 mass at PRD site. The secondary ammonium has minor variation (4-5%) across the sites, confirming the influences of regional emission sources on these sites. The distinct patterns of seasonal and spatial variations of source apportionment observed in this study were consistent with the findings in our previous paper based upon water-soluble ions and carbonaceous fractions. This makes it essential for the local government to make season- and region-specific mitigation strategies for abating PM2.5 pollution in China.

  17. Unlocking the Origin of Superior Performance of a Si-Ge Core-Shell Nanowire Quantum Dot Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Kamal B; Jaishi, Meghnath; Pati, Ranjit

    2016-07-13

    The sustained advancement in semiconducting core-shell nanowire technology has unlocked a tantalizing route for making next generation field effect transistor (FET). Understanding how to control carrier mobility of these nanowire channels by applying a gate field is the key to developing a high performance FET. Herein, we have identified the switching mechanism responsible for the superior performance of a Si-Ge core-shell nanowire quantum dot FET over its homogeneous Si counterpart. A quantum transport approach is used to investigate the gate-field modulated switching behavior in electronic current for ultranarrow Si and Si-Ge core-shell nanowire quantum dot FETs. Our calculations reveal that for the ON state, the gate-field induced transverse localization of the wave function restricts the carrier transport to the outer (shell) layer with the pz orbitals providing the pathway for tunneling of electrons in the channels. The higher ON state current in the Si-Ge core-shell nanowire FET is attributed to the pz orbitals that are distributed over the entire channel; in the case of Si nanowire, the participating pz orbital is restricted to a few Si atoms in the channel resulting in a smaller tunneling current. Within the gate bias range considered here, the transconductance is found to be substantially higher in the case of a Si-Ge core-shell nanowire FET than in a Si nanowire FET, which suggests a much higher mobility in the Si-Ge nanowire device.

  18. How Does Storytelling Unlock the Potentialities of Communities; The Design-Client Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, David

    2017-01-01

    When looking at research that explores approaches to designing, it is apparent that some people believe adopting a storytelling perspective can be fruitful in garnering new knowledge. This paper adopts a storytelling perspective when analysing design pitches, with the intent of understanding how an approach to storytelling can unlock potentialities in the audience. More specifically, these potentialities include: an appreciation of the concept’s value; an ability to discuss a concept critical...

  19. Baseline Measurements of Shoulder Surfing Analysis and Comparability for Smartphone Unlock Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In this research, we explore a novel approach to measuring the susceptibility of smarthphone unlock authentication to shoulder surfing attacks. We...have created a series of video recordings where researchers enter authentication sequences into mobile devices (e.g. PINs, graphical patterns with...and played the role of attackers, viewing video-recorded footage of PIN and graphical pattern authentication input with various camera angles, hand

  20. Unlocking the Barley Genome by Chromosomal and Comparative Genomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, K. F. X.; Martis, M.; Hedley, P. E.; Šimková, Hana; Liu, H.; Morris, J. A.; Steuernagel, B.; Taudien, S.; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav; Stein, N.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2011), s. 1249-1263 ISSN 1040-4651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : PSEUDO-RESPONSE-REGULATOR * ACETYL-COA CARBOXYLASE * TRITICUM-AESTIVUM L. Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.987, year: 2011

  1. Towards a molecular taxonomic key of the Aurantioideae subfamily using chloroplastic SNP diagnostic markers of the main clades genotyped by competitive allele-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Amel; Ollitrault, Frederique; Baraket, Ghada; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2016-08-18

    Chloroplast DNA is a primary source of molecular variations for phylogenetic analysis of photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, the sequencing and analysis of multiple chloroplastic regions is difficult to apply to large collections or large samples of natural populations. The objective of our work was to demonstrate that a molecular taxonomic key based on easy, scalable and low-cost genotyping method should be developed from a set of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) diagnostic of well-established clades. It was applied to the Aurantioideae subfamily, the largest group of the Rutaceae family that includes the cultivated citrus species. The publicly available nucleotide sequences of eight plastid genomic regions were compared for 79 accessions of the Aurantioideae subfamily to search for SNPs revealing taxonomic differentiation at the inter-tribe, inter-subtribe, inter-genus and interspecific levels. Diagnostic SNPs (DSNPs) were found for 46 of the 54 clade levels analysed. Forty DSNPs were selected to develop KASPar markers and their taxonomic value was tested by genotyping 108 accessions of the Aurantioideae subfamily. Twenty-seven markers diagnostic of 24 clades were validated and they displayed a very high rate of transferability in the Aurantioideae subfamily (only 1.2 % of missing data on average). The UPGMA from the validated markers produced a cladistic organisation that was highly coherent with the previous phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence data of the eight plasmid regions. In particular, the monophyletic origin of the "true citrus" genera plus Oxanthera was validated. However, some clarification remains necessary regarding the organisation of the other wild species of the Citreae tribe. We validated the concept that with well-established clades, DSNPs can be selected and efficiently transformed into competitive allele-specific PCR markers (KASPar method) allowing cost-effective highly efficient cladistic analysis in large collections at

  2. Unlocking the potential of smart grid technologies with behavioral science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eSintov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distributed storage and generation options. Although end users are key players in these systems, they tend to be overlooked. Behavioral science is therefore key to engaging end-users and maximizing the impact of smart grid technologies. In this paper, we highlight several ways in which behavioral science can be applied to better understand and engage customers in smart grid systems.

  3. Integrated RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq Analysis Identifies Chilling and Freezing Responsive Key Molecular Players and Pathways in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yu; Shen, Jiazhi; Zhang, Yinfei; Jia, Sisi; Li, Yusheng; Ding, Zhaotang

    2015-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze, Theaceae] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that limit tea plants’ growth, survival and geographical distribution. However, the genetic regulatory network and signaling pathways involved in cold stress responses in tea plants remain unearthed. Using RNA-Seq, DGE and sRNA-Seq technologies, we performed an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling and their regulatory network of tea plants under chilling (4℃) and freezing (-5℃) stress. Differentially expressed (DE) miRNA and mRNA profiles were obtained based on fold change analysis, miRNAs and target mRNAs were found to show both coherent and incoherent relationships in the regulatory network. Furthermore, we compared several key pathways (e.g., ‘Photosynthesis’), GO terms (e.g., ‘response to karrikin’) and transcriptional factors (TFs, e.g., DREB1b/CBF1) which were identified as involved in the early chilling and/or freezing response of tea plants. Intriguingly, we found that karrikins, a new group of plant growth regulators, and β-primeverosidase (BPR), a key enzyme functionally relevant with the formation of tea aroma might play an important role in both early chilling and freezing response of tea plants. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq analysis. This is the first study to simultaneously profile the expression patterns of both miRNAs and mRNAs on a genome-wide scale to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of early responses of tea plants to cold stress. In addition to gaining a deeper insight into the cold resistant characteristics of tea plants, we provide a good case study to analyse mRNA/miRNA expression and profiling of non-model plant species using next-generation sequencing technology. PMID:25901577

  4. Beyond transparency: unlocking the full potential of green bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishlov, Igor; Morel, Romain; Cochran, Ian

    2016-06-01

    This report presents the latest study on the green bond market written by I4CE - Institute for Climate Economics with support by Credit Agricole CIB, EDF and Mirova. 'Green' or 'climate' bonds are a new asset class that has received increasing attention over the past few years as a financial instrument that may help overcome the low-carbon investment challenge. This report explores the current and potential contribution of green bonds to the low-carbon transition and different ways to enhance it. The analysis begins by taking stock of the current status of the green bond market, identifying key roles that the market plays for different stakeholders and pin-pointing two key challenges to be addressed. The first challenge - namely the question of environmental integrity of green bonds - explores the stakes related to definitions and procedures and identifies possible approaches to deal with it. The second challenge focuses on how, beyond increasing transparency, both market-driven and public support measures may help increase the tangible financial contribution of green bonds to the low-carbon transition. The report then concludes with a number of possible steps for policy-makers and financial stakeholders to overcome the current limitations of green bonds

  5. On Cuteness: Unlocking the Parental Brain and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringelbach, Morten L; Stark, Eloise A; Alexander, Catherine; Bornstein, Marc H; Stein, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Cuteness in offspring is a potent protective mechanism that ensures survival for otherwise completely dependent infants. Previous research has linked cuteness to early ethological ideas of a 'Kindchenschema' (infant schema) where infant facial features serve as 'innate releasing mechanisms' for instinctual caregiving behaviours. We propose extending the concept of cuteness beyond visual features to include positive infant sounds and smells. Evidence from behavioural and neuroimaging studies links this extended concept of cuteness to simple 'instinctual' behaviours and to caregiving, protection, and complex emotions. We review how cuteness supports key parental capacities by igniting fast privileged neural activity followed by slower processing in large brain networks also involved in play, empathy, and perhaps even higher-order moral emotions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. External field threshold for the unlocking of magnetic islands in the presence of resistive Wall effects and toroidal mode coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, R.; Lazzaro, E.

    2000-01-01

    The unlocking of static resistive tearing modes by rotating external magnetic perturbations such as those which may arise from the natural tokamak error-field is discussed. For a single mode the balance between the accelerating torque imparted by the error-field and the braking torque due to the interaction of the mode with the wall sets a threshold for the error-field current [H. P. Furth et al. Phys. Fluids 6, 459 (1963)], below which the mode frequency will not lock to the error-field frequency. If the mode resonant with the error-field is coupled to another mode with a rational surface located elsewhere in the plasma, the unlocking process is more elaborated and substantial modifications to the current threshold are expected. The present analysis may contribute to the explanation of some mode unlocking events in tokamak discharges with a non negligible error-field. (orig.)

  7. Building synthetic sterols computationally – unlocking the secrets of evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz eRog

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is vital in regulating the physical properties of animal cell membranes. While it remains unclear what renders cholesterol so unique, it is known that other sterols are less capable in modulating membrane properties, and there are membrane proteins whose function is dependent on cholesterol. Practical applications of cholesterol include e.g. its use in liposomes in drug delivery and cosmetics, cholesterol-based detergents in membrane protein crystallography, and its fluorescent analogs in studies of cholesterol transport in cells and tissues. Clearly, in spite of their difficult synthesis, producing the synthetic analogs of cholesterol is of great commercial and scientific interest. In this article, we discuss how synthetic sterols nonexistent in nature can be used to elucidate the roles of cholesterol's structural elements. To this end, we discuss recent atomistic molecular dynamics simulation studies that have predicted new synthetic sterols with properties comparable to those of cholesterol. We also discuss more recent experimental studies that have vindicated these predictions. The paper highlights the strength of computational simulations in making predictions for synthetic biology, thereby guiding experiments.

  8. Human neonatal cardiovascular progenitors: unlocking the secret to regenerative ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania I Fuentes

    Full Text Available Although clinical benefit can be achieved after cardiac transplantation of adult c-kit+ or cardiosphere-derived cells for myocardial repair, these stem cells lack the regenerative capacity unique to neonatal cardiovascular stem cells. Unraveling the molecular basis for this age-related discrepancy in function could potentially transform cardiovascular stem cell transplantation. In this report, clonal populations of human neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitor cells were isolated and characterized, revealing the existence of a novel subpopulation of endogenous cardiovascular stem cells that persist throughout life and co-express both c-kit and isl1. Epigenetic profiling identified 41 microRNAs whose expression was significantly altered with age in phenotypically-matched clones. These differences were correlated with reduced proliferation and a limited capacity to invade in response to growth factor stimulation, despite high levels of growth factor receptor on progenitors isolated from adults. Further understanding of these differences may provide novel therapeutic targets to enhance cardiovascular regenerative capacity.

  9. Bis-pyrene-modified unlocked nucleic acids: synthesis, hybridization studies, and fluorescent properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perlíková, Pavla; Ejlersen, Maria; Langkjaer, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a building block for the incorporation of a bis-pyrene-modified unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) into oligonucleotides (DNA*) was developed. The presence of bis-pyrene-modified UNA within a duplex leads to duplex destabilization that is more profound in DNA*/RNA and less distinc......)uracil:pyrene exciplex emission in the single-stranded form. Such fluorescent properties enable the application of bis-pyrene-modified UNA in the development of fluorescence probes for DNA/RNA detection and for detection of deletions at specific positions....

  10. Unlocking Value Creation Using an Agritourism Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Broccardo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agritourism has achieved a greater importance in the last decade, but despite this relevance, the definition is not aligned everywhere, depending on the contingency variables of the context in which agritourism is located. This paper aims at analyzing the business model’s key success factors of Italian agritourism by studying their structural, social and economic features, integrated with a sustainability approach. The empirical analysis is based on a sample of agritourism, located in an Italian region. The empirical results show relevant and useful elements to support the sustainable development of agritourism business models in Italy, linking theory, policy and practices. Indeed, these results, together with others related to the economic dimension of the farms, their specialization, and the characteristics of the farmers make it possible to argue that there are common elements, which offer potential for agritourism. In addition, it was possible to identify two different models of agritourism. Agritourism can open new horizons in rural sustainable development, with possible beneficial effects on the environment, society, agricultural heritage and economic growth. In particular, regional policy developers should take into consideration these elements in order to direct correctly efforts. The research shows also some interesting theoretical implications as it contributes to enrich the literature on this particular kind of business model. At the same time, it helps family owners to increase the overall understanding of their agritourism, in order to finalize adequate planning and communication.

  11. The key to unlocking the virtual body: virtual reality in the treatment of obesity and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2011-03-01

    Obesity and eating disorders are usually considered unrelated problems with different causes. However, various studies identify unhealthful weight-control behaviors (fasting, vomiting, or laxative abuse), induced by a negative experience of the body, as the common antecedents of both obesity and eating disorders. But how might negative body image--common to most adolescents, not only to medical patients--be behind the development of obesity and eating disorders? In this paper, I review the "allocentric lock theory" of negative body image as the possible antecedent of both obesity and eating disorders. Evidence from psychology and neuroscience indicates that our bodily experience involves the integration of different sensory inputs within two different reference frames: egocentric (first-person experience) and allocentric (third-person experience). Even though functional relations between these two frames are usually limited, they influence each other during the interaction between long- and short-term memory processes in spatial cognition. If this process is impaired either through exogenous (e.g., stress) or endogenous causes, the egocentric sensory inputs are unable to update the contents of the stored allocentric representation of the body. In other words, these patients are locked in an allocentric (observer view) negative image of their body, which their sensory inputs are no longer able to update even after a demanding diet and a significant weight loss. This article discusses the possible role of virtual reality in addressing this problem within an integrated treatment approach based on the allocentric lock theory. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Do breath gas measurements hold the key to unlocking the genetics of feed efficiency in dairy cows?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Difford, Gareth; de Haas, Yvette; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    Recording dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows is the precursor to determining feed efficiency, a highly profitable and desirable selection trait. However records on large numbers of animals are expensive and prohibitive under commercial conditions. Usually small research herds are recorded...... for DMI and then used to predict breeding values for DMI along using other highly correlated traits like milk yield, body weight and chest width. Recent interest in greenhouse gases, such as methane (CH4), has seen the development of tools for measuring gas concentrations in the breath of the cow during...... milking in automated milking stations. This makes it possible to obtain records on large numbers of animals under commercial conditions. Since CH4 production is a conditional by-product of DMI, it is not surprising that DMI is the single best predictor of CH4 production. Traditionally, this relationship...

  13. Unlocking Index Animalium: From paper slips to bytes and bits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilsk, Suzanne C; Kalfatovic, Martin R; Richard, Joel M

    2016-01-01

    In 1996 Smithsonian Libraries (SIL) embarked on the digitization of its collections. By 1999, a full-scale digitization center was in place and rare volumes from the natural history collections, often of high illustrative value, were the focus for the first years of the program. The resulting beautiful books made available for online display were successful to a certain extent, but it soon became clear that the data locked within the texts needed to be converted to more usable and re-purposable form via digitization methods that went beyond simple page imaging and included text conversion elements. Library staff met with researchers from the taxonomic community to understand their path to the literature and identified tools (indexes and bibliographies) used to connect to the library holdings. The traditional library metadata describing the titles, which made them easily retrievable from the shelves of libraries, was not meeting the needs of the researcher looking for more detailed and granular data within the texts. The result was to identify proper print tools that could potential assist researchers in digital form. This paper outlines the project undertaken to convert Charles Davies Sherborn's Index Animalium into a tool to connect researchers to the library holdings: from a print index to a database to eventually a dataset. Sherborn's microcitation of a species name and his bibliographies help bridge the gap between taxonomist and literature holdings of libraries. In 2004, SIL received funding from the Smithsonian's Atherton Seidell Endowment to create an online version of Sherborn's Index Animalium. The initial project was to digitize the page images and re-key the data into a simple data structure. As the project evolved, a more complex database was developed which enabled quality field searching to retrieve species names and to search the bibliography. Problems with inconsistent abbreviations and styling of his bibliographies made the parsing of the data

  14. The tearing mode locking-unlocking mechanism to an external resonant field in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Fridström, R.; Menmuir, S.; Brunsell, P. R.

    2014-10-01

    The tearing mode (TM) locking and unlocking process due to an external resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) is experimentally studied in EXTRAP T2R. The RMP produces a reduction of the natural TM velocity and ultimately the TM locking if a threshold in the RMP amplitude is exceeded. During the braking process, the TM slows down via a mechanism composed of deceleration and acceleration phases. During the acceleration phases, the TM can reach velocities higher than the natural velocity. Once the TM locking occurs, the RMP must be reduced to a small amplitude to obtain the TM unlocking, showing that the unlocking threshold is significantly smaller than the locking threshold and that the process is characterized by hysteresis. Experimental results are in qualitative agreement with a model that describes the locking-unlocking process via the balance of the electromagnetic torque produced by the RMP that acts to brake the TM and the viscous torque that tends to re-establish the unperturbed velocity.

  15. The tearing mode locking–unlocking mechanism to an external resonant field in EXTRAP T2R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frassinetti, L; Fridström, R; Menmuir, S; Brunsell, P R

    2014-01-01

    The tearing mode (TM) locking and unlocking process due to an external resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) is experimentally studied in EXTRAP T2R. The RMP produces a reduction of the natural TM velocity and ultimately the TM locking if a threshold in the RMP amplitude is exceeded. During the braking process, the TM slows down via a mechanism composed of deceleration and acceleration phases. During the acceleration phases, the TM can reach velocities higher than the natural velocity. Once the TM locking occurs, the RMP must be reduced to a small amplitude to obtain the TM unlocking, showing that the unlocking threshold is significantly smaller than the locking threshold and that the process is characterized by hysteresis. Experimental results are in qualitative agreement with a model that describes the locking–unlocking process via the balance of the electromagnetic torque produced by the RMP that acts to brake the TM and the viscous torque that tends to re-establish the unperturbed velocity. (paper)

  16. Unlocked Nucleic Acids with a Pyrene-Modified Uracil: Synthesis, Hybridization Studies, Fluorescent Properties and i-Motif Stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perlíková, Pavla; Karlsen, K. K.; Pedersen, E. B.; Wengel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2014), s. 146-156 ISSN 1439-4227 Grant - others:European Research Council(XE) FP7-268776 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fluorescence * i-motifs * nucleic acid hybridization * oligonucleotides * unlocked nucleic acids Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.088, year: 2014

  17. Steric effects in release of amides from linkers in solid-phase synthesis. Molecular mechanics modeling of key step in peptide and combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrby, Per-Ola; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Acidolytic release of an amide from a solid support by C-N bond cleavage is all ubiquitous and crucial step in many solid-phase syntheses. We have used molecular modeling of a pseudo-equilibrium to explore substituent and steric effects in the release of peptides. The high acid-lability of the ba......Acidolytic release of an amide from a solid support by C-N bond cleavage is all ubiquitous and crucial step in many solid-phase syntheses. We have used molecular modeling of a pseudo-equilibrium to explore substituent and steric effects in the release of peptides. The high acid......-lability of the backbone amide linkage (BAL), which releases sec. amides, compared to C-terminal amide anchoring, which releases primary amides, was rationalized by steric relief upon cleavage. Thus, the relative stability of the carbenium ion formed from the linker in the acidolytic release is an insufficient measure...

  18. Locked vs. unlocked nucleic acids (LNA vs. UNA): contrasting structures work towards common therapeutic goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Meghan A; Wengel, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Oligonucleotide chemistry has been developed greatly over the past three decades, with many advances in increasing nuclease resistance, enhancing duplex stability and assisting with cellular uptake. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a structurally rigid modification that increases the binding affinity...... of a modified-oligonucleotide. In contrast, unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) is a highly flexible modification, which can be used to modulate duplex characteristics. In this tutorial review, we will compare the synthetic routes to both of these modifications, contrast the structural features, examine...... the hybridization properties of LNA and UNA modified duplexes, and discuss how they have been applied within biotechnology and drug research. LNA has found widespread use in antisense oligonucleotide technology, where it can stabilize interactions with target RNA and protect from cellular nucleases. The newly...

  19. Improved thrombin binding aptamer by incorporation of a single unlocked nucleic acid monomer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternak, Anna; Hernandez, Frank J; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt

    2011-01-01

    A 15-mer DNA aptamer (named TBA) adopts a G-quadruplex structure that strongly inhibits fibrin-clot formation by binding to thrombin. We have performed thermodynamic analysis, binding affinity and biological activity studies of TBA variants modified by unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) monomers. UNA...... that a UNA monomer is allowed in many positions of the aptamer without significantly changing the thrombin-binding properties. The biological effect of a selection of the modified aptamers was tested by a thrombin time assay and showed that most of the UNA-modified TBAs possess anticoagulant properties......, and that the construct with a UNA-U monomer in position 7 is a highly potent inhibitor of fibrin-clot formation....

  20. Unlocking the talus by eversion limits medial ankle injury risk during external rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Keith D; Wei, Feng; Haut, Roger C

    2015-10-15

    Eversion prior to excessive external foot rotation has been shown to predispose the anterior tibiofibular ligament (ATiFL) to failure, yet protect the anterior deltoid ligament (ADL) from failure despite high levels of foot rotation. The purpose of the current study was to measure the rotations of both the subtalar and talocrural joints during foot external rotation at sub-failure levels in either a neutral or a pre-everted position as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms of injury in previous studies. Fourteen (seven pairs) cadaver lower extremities were externally rotated 20° in either a pre-everted or neutral configuration, without producing injury. Motion capture was performed to track the tibia, talus, and calcaneus motions, and a joint coordinate system was used to analyze motions of the two joints. While talocrural joint rotation was greater in the neutral ankle (13.3±2.0° versus 10.5±2.7°, p=0.006), subtalar joint rotation was greater in the pre-everted ankle (2.4±1.9° versus 1.1±1.0°, p=0.014). Overall, the talocrural joint rotated more than the subtalar joint (11.9±2.8° versus 1.8±1.6°, p<0.001). It was proposed that the calcaneus and talus 'lock' in a neutral position, but 'unlock' when the ankle is everted prior to rotation. This locking/unlocking mechanism could be responsible for an increased subtalar rotation, but decreased talocrural rotation when the ankle is pre-everted, protecting the ADL from failure. This study may provide information valuable to the study of external rotation kinematics and injury risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The transcriptome of Trichuris suis--first molecular insights into a parasite with curative properties for key immune diseases of humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Cantacessi

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic infection of humans with Trichuris suis (a parasitic nematode of swine is being evaluated or promoted as a biological, curative treatment of immune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and ulcerative colitis, in humans. Although it is understood that short-term T. suis infection in people with such diseases usually induces a modified Th2-immune response, nothing is known about the molecules in the parasite that induce this response.As a first step toward filling the gaps in our knowledge of the molecular biology of T. suis, we characterised the transcriptome of the adult stage of this nematode employing next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic techniques. A total of ∼65,000,000 reads were generated and assembled into ∼20,000 contiguous sequences ( = contigs; ∼17,000 peptides were predicted and classified based on homology searches, protein motifs and gene ontology and biological pathway mapping.These analyses provided interesting insights into a number of molecular groups, particularly predicted excreted/secreted molecules (n = 1,288, likely to be involved in the parasite-host interactions, and also various molecules (n = 120 linked to chemokine, T-cell receptor and TGF-β signalling as well as leukocyte transendothelial migration and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which are likely to be immuno-regulatory or -modulatory in the infected host. This information provides a conceptual framework within which to test the immunobiological basis for the curative effect of T. suis infection in humans against some immune diseases. Importantly, the T. suis transcriptome characterised herein provides a curated resource for detailed studies of the immuno-molecular biology of this parasite, and will underpin future genomic and proteomic explorations.

  2. Key role of water in proton transfer at the Q(o)-site of the cytochrome bc(1) complex predicted by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postila, P. A.; Kaszuba, K.; Sarewicz, M.

    2013-01-01

    of the cyt bc(1) function have remained unclear especially regarding the substrate binding at the Q(o)-site. In this work we address this issue by performing extensive atomistic molecular dynamics simulations with the cyt bc(1) complex of Rhodobacter capsulatus embedded in a lipid bilayer. Based...... on the simulations we are able to show the atom-level binding modes of two substrate forms: quinol (QH(2)) and quinone (Q). The QH(2) binding at the Q(o)-site involves a coordinated water arrangement that produces an exceptionally close and stable interaction between the cyt b and iron sulfur protein subunits...

  3. Combined analysis of mRNA and miRNA identifies dehydration and salinity responsive key molecular players in citrus roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rangjin; Zhang, Jin; Ma, Yanyan; Pan, Xiaoting; Dong, Cuicui; Pang, Shaoping; He, Shaolan; Deng, Lie; Yi, Shilai; Zheng, Yongqiang; Lv, Qiang

    2017-02-06

    Citrus is one of the most economically important fruit crops around world. Drought and salinity stresses adversely affected its productivity and fruit quality. However, the genetic regulatory networks and signaling pathways involved in drought and salinity remain to be elucidated. With RNA-seq and sRNA-seq, an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling and their regulatory networks were conducted using citrus roots subjected to dehydration and salt treatment. Differentially expressed (DE) mRNA and miRNA profiles were obtained according to fold change analysis and the relationships between miRNAs and target mRNAs were found to be coherent and incoherent in the regulatory networks. GO enrichment analysis revealed that some crucial biological processes related to signal transduction (e.g. 'MAPK cascade'), hormone-mediated signaling pathways (e.g. abscisic acid- activated signaling pathway'), reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolic process (e.g. 'hydrogen peroxide catabolic process') and transcription factors (e.g., 'MYB, ZFP and bZIP') were involved in dehydration and/or salt treatment. The molecular players in response to dehydration and salt treatment were partially overlapping. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-seq and sRNA-seq analysis. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms how citrus roots respond to dehydration and salt treatment.

  4. Study of Outflow and Molecular Lines from the Observations of BHR71 by The Herschel Key Program,``Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time" (DIGIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Lun; Green, Joel D.

    2014-07-01

    The infall and outflow processes initiated by the collapse a dense core are widely observed in Class 0 protostars, and significantly change the density and temperature structure of the prestellar core as well as the following disk and envelope evolution. Since the Class 0 protostars are usually embedded in the cold molecular envelope preventing them from being observed at visible or near-IR wavelengths, the spectral analyses of the far-IR spectra provide us a window to look through the envelope and constrain the physical properties of the envelope and the core. BHR71, a Class 0 embedded protostar, is located in an isolated neighborhood with a collimated bipolar outflow and shows a rich far-IR spectrum as observed in the DIGIT program (PI: Neal Evans) with Herschel. It has numerous molecular and atomic features that can constrain its physical properties and the density structure well. In this research, we developed a robust data reduction (Green et al. 2013a, b) and automatic line fitting package that ensures all of the molecular and atomic lines are extracted to the same standard and it can be easily used for any other protostars observed by Herschel as well. We found 44 and 28 emission lines in the central spaxel in the PACS and the SPIRE bands respectively, including CO, 13CO, OH, and H2O. The extended feature observed at low-J CO and several H2O lines are consistent to the outflow direction but less collimated and a heterogeneous environment is concluded from the rotational diagram analysis. A dust Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation using RADMC-3D will reveal the embedded structure with a dust density profile of a flared disk and a spherical envelope with bipolar outflow cavity. We will use a line radiative transfer simulation for multiple species to constrain the chemical abundance distributions and their temperature profiles.With high sensitivity spatial resolved spectra and simulated internal structure analysis of BHR71 will provide a good test of

  5. Ising-type magnetic anisotropy in a cobalt(II) nitronyl nitroxide compound: a key to understanding the formation of molecular magnetic nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneschi, A; Gatteschi, Dante; Lalioti, N; Sessoli, R; Sorace, L; Tangoulis, V; Vindigni, A

    2002-01-04

    The compound [Co(hfac)2-(NITPhOMe)2] (2) (hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate, NITPhOMe = 4'-methoxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide) crystallizes in the triclinic P1 space group, a= 10.870(5), b = 11.520(5), c = 19.749(5) A, alpha = 78.05(5), beta = 84.20(5), gamma = 64.51(5) degrees, Z = 2. It can be considered a model system for studying the nature of the magnetic anisotropy of [Co(hfac)2(NITPhOMe)] (1), which was recently reported to behave as a molecular magnetic wire. The magnetic anisotropy of 2 was investigated by EPR spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometry both in the polycrystalline powder and in a single crystal. The experimental magnetic anisotropy was related to the anisotropy of the central ion and to the exchange interaction between the cobalt(II) ion and the radicals.

  6. Hysteresis in the tearing mode locking/unlocking due to resonant magnetic perturbations in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridström, R.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.

    2015-10-01

    The physical mechanisms behind the hysteresis in the tearing mode locking and unlocking to a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) are experimentally studied in EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch. The experiments show that the electromagnetic and the viscous torque increase with increasing perturbation amplitude until the mode locks to the wall. At the wall-locking, the plasma velocity reduction profile is peaked at the radius where the RMP is resonant. Thereafter, the viscous torque drops due to the relaxation of the velocity in the central plasma. This is the main reason for the hysteresis in the RMP locking and unlocking amplitude. The increased amplitude of the locked tearing mode produces further deepening of the hysteresis. Both experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the model in Fitzpatrick et al (2001 Phys. Plasmas 8 4489)

  7. Impact of adding a second-layer to a single unlocked closure of Cesarean uterine incision: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, Martin; Bennich, G; Wilken-Jensen, C

    2016-01-01

    the criteria and accepted participation. Thirty-eight women were assigned to single-layer and 38 to double-layer unlocked closure technique. Groups were comparable regarding gestational age at delivery, duration of surgery and peroperative blood loss. RMT was without difference between the two groups, both......The purpose of the present study was to investigate short- and long term effects on residual myometrial thickness (RMT) by adding a second-layer to a single unlocked closure of caesarean uterine incision. METHOD: he study was a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Healthy nulliparous scheduled...... for first-time elective Caesarean delivery were operated using a modified version of the Misgav-Ladach surgical technique. The women were examined by abdominal ultrasound before discharge from the maternity ward and by hysterosonography five months post partum. RESULTS: Seventy-six nulliparous met...

  8. A molecular mechanism for the origin of a key evolutionary innovation, the bird beak and palate, revealed by an integrative approach to major transitions in vertebrate history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Morris, Zachary S; Sefton, Elizabeth M; Tok, Atalay; Tokita, Masayoshi; Namkoong, Bumjin; Camacho, Jasmin; Burnham, David A; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2015-07-01

    The avian beak is a key evolutionary innovation whose flexibility has permitted birds to diversify into a range of disparate ecological niches. We approached the problem of the mechanism behind this innovation using an approach bridging paleontology, comparative anatomy, and experimental developmental biology. First, we used fossil and extant data to show the beak is distinctive in consisting of fused premaxillae that are geometrically distinct from those of ancestral archosaurs. To elucidate underlying developmental mechanisms, we examined candidate gene expression domains in the embryonic face: the earlier frontonasal ectodermal zone (FEZ) and the later midfacial WNT-responsive region, in birds and several reptiles. This permitted the identification of an autapomorphic median gene expression region in Aves. To test the mechanism, we used inhibitors of both pathways to replicate in chicken the ancestral amniote expression. Altering the FEZ altered later WNT responsiveness to the ancestral pattern. Skeletal phenotypes from both types of experiments had premaxillae that clustered geometrically with ancestral fossil forms instead of beaked birds. The palatal region was also altered to a more ancestral phenotype. This is consistent with the fossil record and with the tight functional association of avian premaxillae and palate in forming a kinetic beak. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Morphological and molecular differentiation of two new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus Petrochenko, 1958 (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from amphibians and reptiles in the Philippines, with identification key for the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Vasyl V; Lisitsyna, Olga I; Crossley, Janna L; Binh, Tran Thi; Bush, Sarah E

    2013-05-01

    The genus Pseudoacanthocephalus Petrochenko, 1958 currently includes 14 species of acanthocephalans parasitic in amphibians and reptiles worldwide. This work describes two new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus from amphibians and reptiles collected in several localities on Luzon Island, Philippines. Pseudoacanthocephalus nickoli n. sp. was found in two species of frogs, Rana luzonensis Boulenger and Rana similis (Günther), and Pseudoacanthocephalus smalesi n. sp. was found in a scincid lizard, Sphenomorphus abdictus Brown & Alcala. Differential diagnoses of the two new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus from their congeners are provided. Comparative analysis of nuclear ribosomal rRNA sequences encompassing the 3' end of 18S nuclear rDNA gene, internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1+5.8S+ITS2), and 5' end of the 28S gene strongly corroborated the morphological evidence and demonstrated significant differences between the two new species as well as between these species and closely related species from continental China and Vietnam. No intraspecific sequence variability was detected among different individuals representing each of the examined species. This is the first report of Pseudoacanthocephalus in the Philippines. A key to known species of Pseudoacanthocephalus is provided.

  10. Revision of torrent mites (Parasitengona, Torrenticolidae, Torrenticola of the United States and Canada: 90 descriptions, molecular phylogenetics, and a key to species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ray Fisher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The descriptive biology of torrent mites (Parasitengona: Torrenticolidae: Torrenticola of North America (north of Mexico is investigated using integrative methods. Material examined includes approximately 2,300 specimens from nearly 500 localities across the United States and Canada, and a few collections in Mexico and Central America. Species hypotheses are derived from a phylogenetic analysis of the barcoding region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI for 476 specimens and supported with morphology and biogeography. Relationships between species are examined with a combined analysis of COI and two expansion regions (D2–3 of the large ribosomal subunit (28S rDNA for 57 specimens. All previously described species from the US and Canada are examined. Our results indicate the need to synonymize four species: T. mercedensis (Marshall, 1943 is a junior synonym of T. sierrensis (Marshall, 1943; T. rectiforma Habeeb, 1974 is a junior synonym of T. ellipsoidalis (Marshall, 1943; T. neoconnexa Habeeb, 1957 is a junior synonym of T. magnexa Habeeb, 1955; and T. esbelta Cramer, 1992 is a junior synonym of T. boettgeri KO Viets, 1977. We describe 66 new species and re-describe all previously described regional species. Our findings indicate that total diversity of Torrenticola in the United States and Canada comprises 90 species, 57 known from the east and 33 from the west. We organize these species into four species complexes that include 13 identification groups. An additional 13 species do not fit within an identification group. The southern Appalachians are suspected to contain the highest concentration of remaining undescribed diversity. A key is provided to all known species in the US and Canada.

  11. Methylmercury production in soil in the water-level-fluctuating zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: The key role of low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Deliang; Wang, Yongmin; Jiang, Tao; Qin, Caiqing; Xiang, Yuping; Chen, Qiuyu; Xue, Jinping; Wang, Dingyong

    2018-04-01

    As important parts of dissolved organic matter, low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) typically play important roles in desorbing Hg(II) from the soil solid-phase, which may directly or indirectly impact methylmercury (MeHg) production. However, the mechanism of these processes remains unclear. To better understand the effects of LMWOAs on Hg methylation in the soil, a field study was conducted to investigate the distribution of LMWOAs and their relationship with soil MeHg in a seasonally inundated area in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. Meanwhile, laboratory simulation experiments were performed to determine the potential mechanism of LMWOAs in Hg methylation. The field investigation detected considerable amounts of LMWOAs in soil, among which tartaric acid and oxalic acid were dominant components. Among which, tartaric acid and oxalic acid were dominant components. Also, a seasonally and spatially heterogeneous distribution of LMWOAs in soil was observed. Notably, a significant positive relationship was found between MeHg concentrations and LMWOA pools in soil (r = 0.969, p < .01), implying that LMWOAs could promote soil MeHg production. The simulation experiments confirmed that the MeHg levels in soil were largely elevated with the addition of LMWOAs, which occurred mainly in oxygen-deficient environment and was mediated by biotic factors. The soluble Hg-LMWOA complexes, which were formed by the enhanced desorption of Hg(II) from solid-phase, were mostly responsible for the elevated MeHg production in soil. Moreover, those LMWOAs with more carboxylic groups were believed to enhance the net production of MeHg. The generated MeHg in sediment could diffuse into the overlying water, which thus poses a potential threat to the aquatic food web. Therefore, the enhanced Hg methylation caused by LMWOAs should be given more attention, especially in a seasonally inundated ecosystem, where the MeHg exposure is usually related to fishery activities

  12. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  13. Challenges facing procurement professionals in developing economies: Unlocking value through professional international purchasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Tukuta

    2015-04-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article was to examine the critical role played by the procurement function in business and to reveal the challenges faced by procurement professionals in developing economies as well as to suggest solutions to these challenges. Method: A sequential literary analysis was used, complemented by cross-country qualitative data gathered from one hundred diverse procurement practitioners from Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe. These were primarily participants in a series of procurement workshops run by the researchers from January to June 2014. Results: Findings suggested that limited recognition, increasing unethical behaviour, poor supplier service delivery, poor regulatory environment, varying supplier standards and poor corporate governance are the main challenges faced by the procurement profession in these countries. Conclusion: The study’s findings imply that there is limited understanding regarding the role procurement plays in both government and non-government institutions in developing economies. The article suggests solutions which procurement professionals and organisations can implement in order to unlock the potential value in the procurement function.

  14. Unlocked nucleic acids with a pyrene-modified uracil: Synthesis, hybridization studies, fluorescent properties and i-motif stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perlíková, P.; Karlsen, K.K.; Pedersen, E.B.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of two new phosphoramidite building blocks for the incorporation of 5-(pyren-1-yl)uracilyl unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) monomers into oligonucleotides has been developed. Monomers containing a pyrene-modified nucleobase component were found to destabilize an i-motif structure at pH 5...... intensities upon hybridization to DNA or RNA. Efficient quenching of fluorescence of pyrene-modified UNA monomers was observed after formation of i-motif structures at pH 5.2. The stabilizing/destabilizing effect of pyrene-modified nucleic acids might be useful for designing antisense oligonucleotides...

  15. Locking-to-unlocking system is an efficient strategy to design DNA/silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) probe for human miRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Pratik; Choi, Suk Won; Kim, Ho-jin

    2016-01-01

    to the great sequence diversity of miRNAs in humans and other organisms, a uniform strategy for miRNA detection is attractive. The concept presented is an oligonucleotide-based locking-to-unlocking system that can be endowed with miRNA complementarity while maintaining the same secondary structure. The locking......-dependent manner. Here, the exact composition of the fold-back anchor for the locking-to-unlocking system has been systematically optimized, balancing propensity for loop-structure formation, encapsulation of emissive AgNCs and target sensitivity. It is demonstrated that the applied strategy successfully can...

  16. Molecular basis of cannabinoid CB1 receptor coupling to the G protein heterotrimer Gαiβγ: identification of key CB1 contacts with the C-terminal helix α5 of Gαi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Joong-Youn; Ahn, Kwang H; Kendall, Debra A

    2013-11-08

    The cannabinoid (CB1) receptor is a member of the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The human CB1 receptor, which is among the most expressed receptors in the brain, has been implicated in several disease states, including drug addiction, anxiety, depression, obesity, and chronic pain. Different classes of CB1 agonists evoke signaling pathways through the activation of specific subtypes of G proteins. The molecular basis of CB1 receptor coupling to its cognate G protein is unknown. As a first step toward understanding CB1 receptor-mediated G protein signaling, we have constructed a ternary complex structural model of the CB1 receptor and Gi heterotrimer (CB1-Gi), guided by the x-ray structure of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) in complex with Gs (β2AR-Gs), through 824-ns duration molecular dynamics simulations in a fully hydrated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayer environment. We identified a group of residues at the juxtamembrane regions of the intracellular loops 2 and 3 (IC2 and IC3) of the CB1 receptor, including Ile-218(3.54), Tyr-224(IC2), Asp-338(6.30), Arg-340(6.32), Leu-341(6.33), and Thr-344(6.36), as potential key contacts with the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gαi. Ala mutations of these residues at the receptor-Gi interface resulted in little G protein coupling activity, consistent with the present model of the CB1-Gi complex, which suggests tight interactions between CB1 and the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gαi. The model also suggests that unique conformational changes in the extreme C-terminal helix α5 of Gα play a crucial role in the receptor-mediated G protein activation.

  17. HERSCHEL KEY PROGRAM, ''DUST, ICE, AND GAS IN TIME'' (DIGIT): THE ORIGIN OF MOLECULAR AND ATOMIC EMISSION IN LOW-MASS PROTOSTARS IN TAURUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Seokho [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-shi, Kyungki-do 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jinhee [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Evans II, Neal J.; Green, Joel D., E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Six low-mass embedded sources (L1489, L1551-IRS5, TMR1, TMC1-A, L1527, and TMC1) in Taurus have been observed with Herschel-PACS to cover the full spectrum from 50 to 210 μm as part of the Herschel key program, ''Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time''. The relatively low intensity of the interstellar radiation field surrounding Taurus minimizes contamination of the [C II] emission associated with the sources by diffuse emission from the cloud surface, allowing study of the [C II] emission from the source. In several sources, the [C II] emission is distributed along the outflow, as is the [O I] emission. The atomic line luminosities correlate well with each other, as do the molecular lines, but the atomic and molecular lines correlate poorly. The relative contribution of CO to the total gas cooling is constant at ∼30%, while the cooling fraction by H{sub 2}O varies from source to source, suggesting different shock properties resulting in different photodissociation levels of H{sub 2}O. The gas with a power-law temperature distribution with a moderately high density can reproduce the observed CO fluxes, indicative of CO close to LTE. However, H{sub 2}O is mostly subthermally excited. L1551-IRS5 is the most luminous source (Ł{sub bol} = 24.5 L {sub ☉}) and the [O I] 63.1 μm line accounts for more than 70% of its FIR line luminosity, suggesting complete photodissociation of H{sub 2}O by a J shock. In L1551-IRS5, the central velocity shifts of the [O I] line, which exceed the wavelength calibration uncertainty (∼70 km s{sup –1}) of PACS, are consistent with the known redshifted and blueshifted outflow direction.

  18. Exploiting Data Intensive Applications on High Performance Computers to Unlock Australia's Landsat Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purss, Matthew; Lewis, Adam; Edberg, Roger; Ip, Alex; Sixsmith, Joshua; Frankish, Glenn; Chan, Tai; Evans, Ben; Hurst, Lachlan

    2013-04-01

    Australia's Earth Observation Program has downlinked and archived satellite data acquired under the NASA Landsat mission for the Australian Government since the establishment of the Australian Landsat Station in 1979. Geoscience Australia maintains this archive and produces image products to aid the delivery of government policy objectives. Due to the labor intensive nature of processing of this data there have been few national-scale datasets created to date. To compile any Earth Observation product the historical approach has been to select the required subset of data and process "scene by scene" on an as-needed basis. As data volumes have increased over time, and the demand for the processed data has also grown, it has become increasingly difficult to rapidly produce these products and achieve satisfactory policy outcomes using these historic processing methods. The result is that we have been "drowning in a sea of uncalibrated data" and scientists, policy makers and the public have not been able to realize the full potential of the Australian Landsat Archive and its value is therefore significantly diminished. To overcome this critical issue, the Australian Space Research Program has funded the "Unlocking the Landsat Archive" (ULA) Project from April 2011 to June 2013 to improve the access and utilization of Australia's archive of Landsat data. The ULA Project is a public-private consortium led by Lockheed Martin Australia (LMA) and involving Geoscience Australia (GA), the Victorian Partnership for Advanced Computing (VPAC), the National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) at the Australian National University (ANU) and the Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information (CRC-SI). The outputs from the ULA project will become a fundamental component of Australia's eResearch infrastructure, with the Australian Landsat Archive hosted on the NCI and made openly available under a creative commons license. NCI provides access to researchers through significant HPC

  19. Tree Ring Analyses Unlock a Century of Hydroclimatic Variability Across the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunello, C. F.; Andermann, C.; Helle, G.; Comiti, F.; Tonon, G.; Hovius, N.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change has altered precipitation patterns and impacted the spatio-temporal distribution and availability of water in high mountain environments. For example, intensification of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) increases the potential for moisture laden air to breach the Himalayan orographic barrier and penetrate into the arid, elevated southern Tibetan Plateau, with geomorphological and hydrological consequences. Such trends should be considered against a solid background, but a consistent record of centennial monsoon dynamics in the trans-Himalayan region has never been developed. Instrumental data are sparse and only cover a limited time period as well as remotely sensed information. Meanwhile, models have major systematic bias and substantial uncertainty in reproducing ISM interannual variability. In this context, hydro-climatic proxies, such as oxygen stable isotope ratios in cellulose of tree rings, are a valuable source of data, especially because isotope mass spectroscopy can unlock yearly resolved information by tracing the isotopic signature (18O) stored within each growth ring. Here we present three centennial records of monsoon dynamics, along a latitudinal transect, spanning a pronounced precipitation gradient across the Himalayan orogen. Three sites were selected along the Kali Gandaki valley in the central Himalayas (Nepal), this valley connects the wet, monsoon dominated Gangetic plain with the arid Tibetan Plateau. Our transect covers the sensitive northern end of the precipitation gradient, located in the upper part of the catchment. Our results show that inter-annual variation of monsoon strength can be reconstructed by tree ring δ18O. The inferred monsoon dynamics are compared against independent constraints on precipitation, snow cover and river discharge. Different water sources contribute disproportionally at the three sites, reflecting spatial and temporal shifts of the westerlies and the Indian summer monsoon. These two dominant

  20. Phenol compounds in the borehole 5G, Vostok station, after the unlocking of the subglacial lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Alekhina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main results after the first unlocking into the subglacial Lake Vostok were as follows: the Lake had been opened and not polluted; the water pressure within the lake was not balanced by a column of the drilling liquid that resulted in unplanned rise of water in the borehole up to 340 m. The main problem during the drilling in the lake ice was to prevent a pollution of water by the drilling fluid, which filled the borehole, and thus, to avoid a compression of the fluid which could be the main source of chemical and biological pollution of not only the Lake itself, but also the Lake water samples and ice cores. The article presents results of analysis of causes for the occurrence of phenolic compounds in the central channel in the core of secondary ice, being formed by the lake water that rose into the well after the first penetration (the range of depths was 3426–3450 m. It was found that the process, running within the borehole during the drilling, can be described as the fractionation of phenolic compounds, being contained in the filling liquid, to the water phase with its subsequent freezing. We have developed methods for the determination of concentrations of phenolic compounds in the original aviation kerosene and Freon HCFC-141b: 6. mg·l−1 and 0.032 mg·l−1, respectively. To analyze the composition of phenolic compounds in the extract of real filling liquid, located at the bottom of the borehole, the method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used. The corresponding peaks were quite well resolved and identified as phenol and its derivatives. The main components of the extract were phenol (20%, 2.5-dimethyl phenol (23,8%, 2,4,6-trimethylphenol, and other congeners of phenol. In our case, the Lake Vostok was not polluted during both, the first and second penetrations, however, the problem of human impact on these pristine and unique subglacial reservoirs remains extremely relevant. This impact includes not only

  1. Molecular characterization and mRNA expression of two key enzymes of hypoxia-sensing pathways in eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin): Hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-α) and HIF-prolyl hydroxylase (PHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontkivska, Helen; Chung, J. Sook; Ivanina, Anna V.; Sokolov, Eugene P.; Techa, Sirinart; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen homeostasis is crucial for development, survival and normal function of all metazoans. A family of transcription factors called hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) is critical in mediating the adaptive responses to reduced oxygen availability. The HIF transcription factor consists of a constitutively expressed β subunit and an oxygen-dependent α subunit; the abundance of the latter determines the activity of HIF and is regulated by a family of O2- and Fe2+-dependent enzymes prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). Currently very little is known about the function of this important pathway and the molecular structure of its key players in hypoxia-tolerant intertidal mollusks including oysters, which are among the animal champions of anoxic and hypoxic tolerance and thus can serve as excellent models to study the role of HIF cascade in adaptations to oxygen deficiency. We have isolated transcripts of two key components of the oxygen sensing pathway - the oxygen-regulated HIF-α subunit and PHD - from an intertidal mollusk, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, and determined the transcriptional responses of these two genes to anoxia, hypoxia and cadmium (Cd) stress. HIF-α and PHD homologs from eastern oysters C. virginica show significant sequence similarity and share key functional domains with the earlier described isoforms from vertebrates and invertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows that genetic diversification of HIF and PHD isoforms occurred within the vertebrate lineage indicating functional diversification and specialization of the oxygen-sensing pathways in this group, which parallels situation observed for many other important genes. HIF-α and PHD homologs are broadly expressed at the mRNA level in different oyster tissues and show transcriptional responses to prolonged hypoxia in the gills consistent with their putative role in oxygen sensing and the adaptive response to hypoxia. Similarity in amino acid sequence, domain structure and transcriptional

  2. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , for instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at (http://keypathwayminer.compbio.sdu.dk) implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set......We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  3. Fostering the exchange of real world data across different countries to answer primary care research questions: an UNLOCK study from the IPCRG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, Liza; Williams, Siân; van der Molen, Thys; Thomas, Mike; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Chavannes, Niels H

    2018-03-08

    There is growing awareness amongst healthcare planners, providers and researchers of the need to make better use of routinely collected health data by translating it into actionable information that improves efficiency of healthcare and patient outcomes. There is also increased acceptance of the importance of real world research that recruits patients representative of primary care populations and evaluates interventions realistically delivered by primary care professionals. The UNLOCK Group is an international collaboration of primary care researchers and practitioners from 15 countries. It has coordinated and shared datasets of diagnostic and prognostic variables for COPD and asthma to answer research questions meaningful to professionals working in primary care over a 6-year period. Over this time the UNLOCK Group has undertaken several studies using data from unselected primary care populations from diverse contexts to evaluate the burden of disease, multiple morbidities, treatment and follow-up. However, practical and structural constraints have hampered the UNLOCK Group's ability to translate research ideas into studies. This study explored the constraints, challenges and successes experienced by the UNLOCK Group and its participants' learning as researchers and primary care practitioners collaborating to answer primary care research questions. The study identified lessons for future studies and collaborations that require data sharing across borders. It also explored specific challenges to fostering the exchange of primary care data in comparison to other datasets such as public health, prescribing or hospital data and mechanisms that may be used to overcome these.

  4. Unlock The Genıus Within:NEUROBIOLOGICAL TRAUMA, TEACHING, AND TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tojde

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, Daniel S. Janik, MD, PhD, argues replacing education and teaching with non-traumatic, curiosity-based, discovery-driven, and mentor-assisted transformational learning. Unlock the Genius Within is an easy read that explains-in conversational manner-the newest ideas on neurobiological and transformational learning beginning with what's wrong with education and ending with a call for reader participation in developing an applying neurobiological learning and transformational learning theory and methodology. Janik draws extensively from his own experiences first as a physician working with psychological recovery from trauma, and then as an educator and linguist in applying neurobiological-based transformational learning in clinics, classrooms, and tutoring. Features:· Descriptions of classical and contemporary research alongside allusions to popular movies and television programs· Suggested further readings· Neurobiological learning web resourcesThroughout this book, the author incorporates humor, wisdom, and anecdotes to draw readers into traditionally incomprehensible concepts and information that demonstrates transformational learning. It will be of interest to teachers (postsecondary, secondary, and ESL, administrators, counselors, parents, students, and medical researchers. http://www.rowmaneducation.com/ISBN/1578862914 Throughout this book, the author incorporates humor, wisdom, and anecdotes to draw readers into traditionally incomprehensible concepts and information that demonstrates transformational learning. It will be of interest to teachers (postsecondary, secondary, and ESL, administrators, counselors, parents, students, and medical researchers. About The Author Dr. Daniel S. Janik is a physician and University Studies Coordinator at Intercultural Communications College, a private English second language and college preparation school in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Reviews for Unlock the Genius Within: Neurobiological Trauma

  5. Multicomponent reactions provide key molecules for secret communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukis, Andreas C; Reiter, Kevin; Frölich, Maximiliane; Hofheinz, Dennis; Meier, Michael A R

    2018-04-12

    A convenient and inherently more secure communication channel for encoding messages via specifically designed molecular keys is introduced by combining advanced encryption standard cryptography with molecular steganography. The necessary molecular keys require large structural diversity, thus suggesting the application of multicomponent reactions. Herein, the Ugi four-component reaction of perfluorinated acids is utilized to establish an exemplary database consisting of 130 commercially available components. Considering all permutations, this combinatorial approach can unambiguously provide 500,000 molecular keys in only one synthetic procedure per key. The molecular keys are transferred nondigitally and concealed by either adsorption onto paper, coffee, tea or sugar as well as by dissolution in a perfume or in blood. Re-isolation and purification from these disguises is simplified by the perfluorinated sidechains of the molecular keys. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry can unequivocally determine the molecular structure and thus the identity of the key for a subsequent decryption of an encoded message.

  6. Quantum-locked key distribution at nearly the classical capacity rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth

    2014-10-17

    Quantum data locking is a protocol that allows for a small secret key to (un)lock an exponentially larger amount of information, hence yielding the strongest violation of the classical one-time pad encryption in the quantum setting. This violation mirrors a large gap existing between two security criteria for quantum cryptography quantified by two entropic quantities: the Holevo information and the accessible information. We show that the latter becomes a sensible security criterion if an upper bound on the coherence time of the eavesdropper's quantum memory is known. Under this condition, we introduce a protocol for secret key generation through a memoryless qudit channel. For channels with enough symmetry, such as the d-dimensional erasure and depolarizing channels, this protocol allows secret key generation at an asymptotic rate as high as the classical capacity minus one bit.

  7. Entropy-as-a-Service: Unlocking the Full Potential of Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Apostol; Staples, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Securing the Internet requires strong cryptography, which depends on the availability of good entropy for generating unpredictable keys and accurate clocks. Attacks abusing weak keys or old inputs portend challenges for the Internet. EaaS is a novel architecture providing entropy and timestamps from a decentralized root of trust, scaling gracefully across diverse geopolitical locales and remaining trustworthy unless much of the collective is compromised.

  8. Control system for the feed of pressurized fluid in a hydraulic circuit as a function of the state of the locking or unlocking of two mechanical organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Y.; Perichon, C.

    1985-01-01

    The control system comprises two hydraulic cylinders of which rods are integral with the mechanical organs. The piston of the first cylinder separates the chamber of this one in two parts. The piston of the second cylinder separates its chamber in three parts. The inlet chamber of the two cylinders are connected to pressurized fluid feed pipes, and the outlet chambers to a depressurization pipe. According to the position of the piston depending itself on the state of locking or unlocking of the rods, an interconnection pipe and a feed pipe of the pressurized fluid hydraulic circuit communicate with a chamber or another one. The feed of the hydraulic circuit is possible only the two rods are unlocked. The invention applies more particularly to the feed of the control circuit of an emergency seal of the primary pump of a pressurized water nuclear reactor [fr

  9. Unlocking Human Dignity: A Plan to Transform the US Immigrant Detention System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migration and Refugee Services/ United States Conference of Catholic Bishops

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Unlocking Human Dignity: A Plan to Transform the US Immigrant Detention System addresses one of the most troubled features of the US immigration system and highlights the need for fundamental changes to it. The report comes six years since the inception of the Obama administration’s detention reform initiative. In the interim, the number of immigrant detainees per year has risen to more than 400,000, the administration has opened immense new family detention centers, and the overwhelming majority of persons in the custody of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS have remained in prisons, jails and other secure facilities where they are subject to standards designed for criminal defendants and, in many ways, treated more harshly than criminals.The report’s overarching recommendation is that the US immigrant detention system be dismantled and replaced with a network of supervised release, case management, and community support programs, designed to ensure court appearances. It recognizes that detention may be necessary for short periods and in certain cases, but it rejects detention as a central immigrant “management” tool, and argues that detention should only be used as a last resort if less harmful strategies and programs—viewed on a continuum beginning with the least restrictive and moving to release programs with different levels of supervision, monitoring, and support—cannot reasonably ensure court appearances or (in rare cases protect the public. It opposes the detention of pregnant and nursing women, bona fide asylum seekers, the very ill, the disabled, the elderly, and other vulnerable persons. It calls for the substantial contraction of detention facilities and “bed space.”As the first step in this process, the report urges Congress to commission a comprehensive study on the benefits, challenges, cost, and time frame for creating a civil immigration detention system. It also proposes that the administration create a

  10. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  11. Photoacoustically Measured Speeds of Sound of Liquid HBO2: On Unlocking the Fuel Potential of Boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S; Crowhurst, J; Armstrong, M; ., N T

    2010-03-24

    Elucidation of geodynamic, geochemical, and shock induced processes is often limited by challenges to accurately determine molecular fluid equations of state (EOS). High pressure liquid state reactions of carbon species underlie physiochemical mechanisms such as differentiation of planetary interiors, deep carbon sequestration, propellant deflagration, and shock chemistry. Here we introduce a versatile photoacoustic technique developed to measure accurate and precise speeds of sound (SoS) of high pressure molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. SoS of an intermediate boron oxide, HBO{sub 2} are measured up to 0.5 GPa along the 277 C isotherm. A polarized Exponential-6 interatomic potential form, parameterized using our SoS data, enables EOS determinations and corresponding semi-empirical evaluations of > 2000 C thermodynamic states including energy release from bororganic formulations. Our thermochemical model propitiously predicts boronated hydrocarbon shock Hugoniot results.

  12. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  13. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  14. Molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Garrett M; Lim-Wilby, Marguerita

    2008-01-01

    Molecular docking is a key tool in structural molecular biology and computer-assisted drug design. The goal of ligand-protein docking is to predict the predominant binding mode(s) of a ligand with a protein of known three-dimensional structure. Successful docking methods search high-dimensional spaces effectively and use a scoring function that correctly ranks candidate dockings. Docking can be used to perform virtual screening on large libraries of compounds, rank the results, and propose structural hypotheses of how the ligands inhibit the target, which is invaluable in lead optimization. The setting up of the input structures for the docking is just as important as the docking itself, and analyzing the results of stochastic search methods can sometimes be unclear. This chapter discusses the background and theory of molecular docking software, and covers the usage of some of the most-cited docking software.

  15. Biometry, the safe key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fraile-Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biometry is the next step in authentication, why do not we take this stepforward in our communication security systems? Keys are the main disadvantage in the cryptography, what if we were our own key?

  16. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  17. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  18. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  19. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  20. Enforced neutrality and color-flavor unlocking in the three-flavor Polyakov-loop Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuki, H.; Ciminale, M.; Nardulli, G.; Ruggieri, M.; Gatto, R.

    2008-01-01

    We study how the charge neutrality affects the phase structure of the three-flavor Polyakov-loop Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. We point out that, within the conventional PNJL model at finite density, the color neutrality is missing because the Wilson line serves as an external colored field coupled to dynamical quarks. In this paper we heuristically assume that the model may still be applicable. To get color neutrality, one has then to allow nonvanishing color chemical potentials. We study how the quark matter phase diagram in (T,m s 2 /μ)-plane is affected by imposing neutrality and by including the Polyakov-loop dynamics. Although these two effects are correlated in a nonlinear way, the impact of the Polyakov loop turns out to be significant in the T direction, while imposing neutrality brings a remarkable effect in the m s 2 /μ direction. In particular, we find a novel unlocking transition, when the temperature is increased, even in the chiral SU(3) limit. We clarify how and why this is possible once the dynamics of the colored Polyakov loop is taken into account. Also we succeed in giving an analytic expression for T c for the transition from two-flavor pairing (2SC) to unpaired quark matter in the presence of the Polyakov loop.

  1. Games-to-teach or games-to-learn unlocking the power of digital game-based learning through performance

    CERN Document Server

    Chee, Yam San

    2016-01-01

    The book presents a critical evaluation of current approaches related to the use of digital games in education. The author identifies two competing paradigms: that of games-to-teach and games-to-learn. Arguing in favor of the latter, the author advances the case for approaching game-based learning through the theoretical lens of performance, rooted in play and dialog, to unlock the power of digital games for 21st century learning. Drawing upon the author’s research, three concrete exemplars of game-based learning curricula are described and discussed. The challenge of advancing game-based learning in education is addressed in the context of school reform. Finally, future prospects of and educational opportunities for game-based learning are articulated. Readers of the book will find the explication of performance theory applied to game-based learning especially interesting. This work constitutes the author’s original theorization. Readers will derive four main benefits: (1) an explication of the differenc...

  2. A new molecular phylogeny of the Laurencia complex (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae) and a review of key morphological characters result in a new genus, Coronaphycus, and a description of C. novus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metti, Yola; Millar, Alan J K; Steinberg, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Within the Laurencia complex (Rhodophyta, Rhodomelaceae), six genera have been recognized based on both molecular analyses and morphology: Laurencia, Osmundea, Chondrophycus, Palisada, Yuzurua, and Laurenciella. Recently, new material from Australia has been collected and included in the current molecular phylogeny, resulting in a new clade. This study examined the generic delineations using a combination of morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast (rbcL) nucleotide sequence. The molecular phylogeny recovered eight (rather than six) clades; Yuzurua, Laurenciella, Palisada, and Chondrophycus showed as monophyletic clades each with strong support. However, the genera Osmundea and Laurencia were polyphyletic. Consequently, the new genus Coronaphycus is proposed, resulting in the new combination Coronaphycus elatus and a description of the new species C. novus. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Unlocking User-Centered Design Methods for Building Cyber Security Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-03

    3, 10, 24, 25, 30]. Personas are doc- uments meant to foster communication within a design team as archetypes of users, their behaviors, and their...to evaluation, these two user archetypes became the key motivation to justify and balance all our decisions as a design team. Outcomes We present the...domain-specific task for each archetypal user and visually illustrated the user’s cyber knowl- edge and situational awareness (SA) focus. We also

  4. Unlocking the potential of franchising partnerships to improve water service compliance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available existing roleplayers to focus on their other responsibili ties, and/or • could offer a range of other advantages (including greater local economic development). There is an alternative institutional model that is suited more for the ongoing operation... firstly correlates and systematises the business, and then facil itates the setting up of the business, and supports and disciplines it thereafter. The key is the incentive, to franchisor and franchisee alike, to improve efficiency, and to provide...

  5. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  6. Unlocking the transcriptomes of two carcinogenic parasites, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D Young

    Full Text Available The two parasitic trematodes, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini, have a major impact on the health of tens of millions of humans throughout Asia. The greatest impact is through the malignant cancer ( = cholangiocarcinoma that these parasites induce in chronically infected people. Therefore, both C. sinensis and O. viverrini have been classified by the World Health Organization (WHO as Group 1 carcinogens. Despite their impact, little is known about these parasites and their interplay with the host at the molecular level. Recent advances in genomics and bioinformatics provide unique opportunities to gain improved insights into the biology of parasites as well as their relationships with their hosts at the molecular level. The present study elucidates the transcriptomes of C. sinensis and O. viverrini using a platform based on next-generation (high throughput sequencing and advanced in silico analyses. From 500,000 sequences, >50,000 sequences were assembled for each species and categorized as biologically relevant based on homology searches, gene ontology and/or pathway mapping. The results of the present study could assist in defining molecules that are essential for the development, reproduction and survival of liver flukes and/or that are linked to the development of cholangiocarcinoma. This study also lays a foundation for future genomic and proteomic research of C. sinensis and O. viverrini and the cancers that they are known to induce, as well as novel intervention strategies.

  7. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  8. Enhancing genetic gain in the era of molecular breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbi; Li, Ping; Zou, Cheng; Lu, Yanli; Xie, Chuanxiao; Zhang, Xuecai; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Olsen, Michael S

    2017-05-17

    As one of the important concepts in conventional quantitative genetics and breeding, genetic gain can be defined as the amount of increase in performance that is achieved annually through artificial selection. To develop pro ducts that meet the increasing demand of mankind, especially for food and feed, in addition to various industrial uses, breeders are challenged to enhance the potential of genetic gain continuously, at ever higher rates, while they close the gaps that remain between the yield potential in breeders' demonstration trials and the actual yield in farmers' fields. Factors affecting genetic gain include genetic variation available in breeding materials, heritability for traits of interest, selection intensity, and the time required to complete a breeding cycle. Genetic gain can be improved through enhancing the potential and closing the gaps, which has been evolving and complemented with modern breeding techniques and platforms, mainly driven by molecular and genomic tools, combined with improved agronomic practice. Several key strategies are reviewed in this article. Favorable genetic variation can be unlocked and created through molecular and genomic approaches including mutation, gene mapping and discovery, and transgene and genome editing. Estimation of heritability can be improved by refining field experiments through well-controlled and precisely assayed environmental factors or envirotyping, particularly for understanding and controlling spatial heterogeneity at the field level. Selection intensity can be significantly heightened through improvements in the scale and precision of genotyping and phenotyping. The breeding cycle time can be shortened by accelerating breeding procedures through integrated breeding approaches such as marker-assisted selection and doubled haploid development. All the strategies can be integrated with other widely used conventional approaches in breeding programs to enhance genetic gain. More transdisciplinary

  9. Honour and shame as key concepts in Chrysostom’s exegesis of the Gospel of John

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.F. Stander

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, studies have illustrated that honour and shame were core values in the Mediterranean world in general and in the Bible too. These studies usually resort to classical sources to support the claims being made. Modern scholars, who take the historical-critical approach seriously, have come to realize the importance of reading the Bible according to its appropriate cultural context, which of necessity includes an appreciation of honour and shame as social core values. However, the article shows that patristic sources have been neglected by many scholars who study the social values of the ancient world. This article illustrates the importance of these values for patristic authors. John Chrysostom’s homilies on the Gospel of John are used as an example to prove how he employed values such as honour and shame as exegetical keys to unlock the meaning of John’s gospel.

  10. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  11. Key improvements to XTR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Verheul, E.R.; Okamoto, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes improved methods for XTR key representation and parameter generation (cf. [4]). If the field characteristic is properly chosen, the size of the XTR public key for signature applications can be reduced by a factor of three at the cost of a small one time computation for the

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations of Hsp40 J-domain mutants identifies disruption of the critical HPD-motif as the key factor for impaired curing in vivo of the yeast prion [URE3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, You-Lin; Wang, Hao; Riedy, Michael; Roberts, Brittany-Lee; Sun, Yuna; Song, Yong-Bo; Jones, Gary W; Masison, Daniel C; Song, Youtao

    2018-05-01

    Genetic screens using Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified an array of Hsp40 (Ydj1p) J-domain mutants that are impaired in the ability to cure the yeast [URE3] prion through disrupting functional interactions with Hsp70. However, biochemical analysis of some of these Hsp40 J-domain mutants has so far failed to provide major insight into the specific functional changes in Hsp40-Hsp70 interactions. To explore the detailed structural and dynamic properties of the Hsp40 J-domain, 20 ns molecular dynamic simulations of 4 mutants (D9A, D36A, A30T, and F45S) and wild-type J-domain were performed, followed by Hsp70 docking simulations. Results demonstrated that although the Hsp70 interaction mechanism of the mutants may vary, the major structural change was targeted to the critical HPD motif of the J-domain. Our computational analysis fits well with previous yeast genetics studies regarding highlighting the importance of J-domain function in prion propagation. During the molecular dynamics simulations several important residues were identified and predicted to play an essential role in J-domain structure. Among these residues, Y26 and F45 were confirmed, using both in silico and in vivo methods, as being critical for Ydj1p function.

  13. European chemistry for growth. Unlocking a competitive, low carbon and energy efficient future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The long term role of the chemical industry as Europe progresses to an energy efficient and low GHG emission future, and the sector's potential to assist Europe in meeting its decarbonisation targets is investigated. The timeline for deploying existing and new technologies from 2020 to 2050 and their potential impact on energy efficiency and GHG emission levels, as well as the competitive position of the European chemical industry is assessed. Cefic commissioned Ecofys to perform analyses and bring forward key conclusions and recommendations from their independent viewpoint, in close collaboration with the sector. As a strategic orientation for this industry and a high level priority for Cefic's Board, this Roadmap meets the need for the European chemical industry to develop a new, longer term strategic approach to energy and climate policy and contributes to the debate on the post-2020 policy framework. This Roadmap has three main objectives: (1) Provide quantitative and more qualitative evidence on the options available to the European chemical industry to contribute to the EU's long term GHG emissions reduction goals. These options apply to technologies and product development for the sector itself and for other sectors of the EU economy; (2) Based on this evidence, define a long term vision for the European chemical industry within a European Union that progresses to a low GHG emission future by defining a number of plausible scenarios in the context of global market developments; (3) Formulate recommendations externally to policy makers and internally to the European chemical industry based on the scenarios studied. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the European chemical industry, while Chapter 3 describes the current policy landscape for the European chemical industry. Chapter 4 focuses on the European chemical industry as an enabler of energy efficiency and emissions reduction for sectors across the economy. In Chapter 5, the energy efficiency

  14. Key Facts about Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Key Facts About Tularemia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This fact ... and Prevention (CDC) Tularemia Web site . What is Tularemia? Tularemia is a potentially serious illness that occurs ...

  15. Key technologies book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In this book can be found all the useful information on the French industry key technologies of the years 2000-2005. 136 technologies at the junction of the science advances and of the markets expectations are divided into 9 sectors. Among them, only 4 are interesting here: the environment, the transports, the materials and the energy. In 1995, the secretary's office of State for industry has published a first synthesis book on these key technologies. This 1997 new key technologies book extends and completes the initial study. For each key technology, an encyclopedic sheet is given. Each sheet combines thus some exact and practical information on: advance state of the technology, market characteristics, development forecasts, occupation and involved sectors, technology acquisition cost, research programs but also contacts of the main concerned efficiency poles. (O.M.)

  16. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glattes, G.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of project financing for the share of the Canadian subsidiary of Uranerzbergbau-GmbH, Bonn, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, by a Canadian bank syndicate. (orig.) [de

  17. Comparison is key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mark H; Stenner, A Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Several concepts from Georg Rasch's last papers are discussed. The key one is comparison because Rasch considered the method of comparison fundamental to science. From the role of comparison stems scientific inference made operational by a properly developed frame of reference producing specific objectivity. The exact specifications Rasch outlined for making comparisons are explicated from quotes, and the role of causality derived from making comparisons is also examined. Understanding causality has implications for what can and cannot be produced via Rasch measurement. His simple examples were instructive, but the implications are far reaching upon first establishing the key role of comparison.

  18. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  19. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  20. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  1. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  2. Key numbers: Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The key numbers of energy give statistical data related to production, consumption, and to foreign trade of each energy in the World and in France. A chapter is dedicated to environment and brings quantitative elements on pollutant emissions connected to energy uses

  3. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  4. Locks and Keys Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Ducastel

    The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333

  5. Assessing molecular initiating events (MIEs), key events (KEs) and modulating factors (MFs) for styrene responses in mouse lungs using whole genome gene expression profiling following 1-day and multi-week exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Melvin E; Cruzan, George; Black, Michael B; Pendse, Salil N; Dodd, Darol; Bus, James S; Sarang, Satinder S; Banton, Marcy I; Waites, Robbie; McMullen, Patrick D

    2017-11-15

    Styrene increased lung tumors in mice at chronic inhalation exposures of 20ppm and greater. MIEs, KEs and MFs were examined using gene expression in three strains of male mice (the parental C57BL/6 strain, a CYP2F2(-/-) knock out and a CYP2F2(-/-) transgenic containing human CYP2F1, 2A13 and 2B6). Exposures were for 1-day and 1, 4 and 26weeks. After 1-day exposures at 1, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 120ppm significant increases in differentially expressed genes (DEGs) occurred only in parental strain lungs where there was already an increase in DEGs at 5ppm and then many thousands of DEGs by 120ppm. Enrichment for 1-day and 1-week exposures included cell cycle, mitotic M-M/G1 phases, DNA-synthesis and metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins pathways. The numbers of DEGs decreased steadily over time with no DEGs meeting both statistical significance and fold-change criteria at 26weeks. At 4 and 26weeks, some key transcription factors (TFs) - Nr1d1, Nr1d2, Dbp, Tef, Hlf, Per3, Per2 and Bhlhe40 - were upregulated (|FC|>1.5), while others - Npas, Arntl, Nfil3, Nr4a1, Nr4a2, and Nr4a3 - were down-regulated. At all times, consistent changes in gene expression only occurred in the parental strain. Our results support a MIE for styrene of direct mitogenicity from mouse-specific CYP2F2-mediated metabolites activating Nr4a signaling. Longer-term MFs include down-regulation of Nr4a genes and shifts in both circadian clock TFs and other TFs, linking circadian clock to cellular metabolism. We found no gene expression changes indicative of cytotoxicity or activation of p53-mediated DNA-damage pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Semantic Keys and Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev bar-Lev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.

  7. Ancel Keys: a tribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanItallie Theodore B

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recognized to be a classic – continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.

  8. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  9. Banyule unlocks local water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Banyule Council, Victoria has launched one of Melbourne's biggest stormwater harvesting schemes. After the Millenium Drought in the early 2000s, ratepayers and the community alike prompted the council to undertake a detailed water management study to improve water options for the many reserves and parklands. They launched three projects, with differing technical site issues, using such designs as gross pollutant traps, sediment ponds, bio-filtration, wetlands, and underground storage using waterproof geomembrane liners.

  10. Unlocking radio broadcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette; Lykke, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This poster reports the preliminary results of a user study uncovering the information seeking behaviour of humanities scholars dedicated to radio research. The study is part of an interdisciplinary research project on radio culture and auditory resources. The purpose of the study is to inform...... the design of information architecture and interaction design of a research infrastructure that will enable future radio and audio based research. Results from a questionnaire survey on humanities scholars‟ research interest and information needs, preferred access points, and indexing levels are reported....... Finally, a flexible metadata schema is suggested, that includes both general metadata and highly media and research project specific metadata....

  11. Unlocking the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenge possible? New advances in computer science, math, nanotechnology, imaging, and data visualization are empowering us to ... so lies at the intersection of nanoscience, imaging, engineering, informatics, and other rapidly emerging areas of science. ...

  12. Unlock your Compound Management

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Eller

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry faces the increased demand for innovative medicines against various diseases. In this regard, the compound library in pharmaceutical industry is the most valuable asset. However, the compound distribution from the library into the screening plates is often still done manually and binds highly qualified resources to very time-consuming, tedious and error-prone tasks. To overcome these challenges, Chemspeed launched the first automated true one-to-one gravimetric "pi...

  13. Unlocking Academic Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    How can we teach science to English language learners (ELLs) when even our native English speakers have trouble reading the textbook? To help science teachers meet this challenge, this article presents six text-comprehension strategies used by English for Speakers of other Languages (ESOL) teachers: metalinguistic awareness development,…

  14. Parasiteware: Unlocking Personal Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Garrie

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Spyware presents a threat of privacy infringement to unassuming internet users irrespective of their country of citizenship. European legislation attempts to protect end-users from unethical processing of their personal data. Spyware technologies, however, skirts these laws and often break them in their entirety. Outlawing the spyware and strengthening the legal consent requirement to mine data are statutory solutions that can prevent spyware users from skirting the law. An internationally standardized technology education system for the judiciaries in Europe and the U.S. can help ensure that when spyware users do break the law, they cannot hide by escaping from one nation to another without being held accountable. Transnational improvements are necessary to remedy the global spyware epidemic.

  15. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  16. Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK) ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ... No Abstract. Keywords: MANET; key management scheme; simulation environment ...

  17. Unlocking the secrets of the kaon–nucleon/nuclei interactions at low-energies: The SIDDHARTA(-2) and the AMADEUS experiments at the DAΦNE collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curceanu, C.; Bazzi, M.; Beer, G.; Berucci, C.; Bombelli, L.; Bragadireanu, A.M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; D'Uffizi, A.; Fiorini, C.; Frizzi, T.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R.S.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Kienle, P.; Levi Sandri, P.; Longoni, A.

    2013-01-01

    The DAΦNE electron–positron collider at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of INFN has made available a unique quality low-energy negative kaons “beam”, which is being used to unlock the secrets of the kaon–nucleon/nuclei interactions at low energies by the SIDDHARTA(-2) and the AMADEUS experiments. SIDDHARTA has already performed unprecedented precision measurements of kaonic atoms, and is being presently upgraded, as SIDDHARTA-2, to approach new frontiers. The AMADEUS experiment already started a data taking with a dedicated carbon target, plans to perform in the coming years precision measurements on kaon–nuclei interactions at low-energies, in particular to study the possible formation of kaonic nuclei and the Λ(1405). The two experiments are briefly presented in this paper

  18. Key aspects congenital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all  pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.

  19. Key figures. Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2006. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  20. Key figures. Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2005. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  1. Molecular sensors and molecular logic gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, N.; Bojinov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The rapid grow of nanotechnology field extended the concept of a macroscopic device to the molecular level. Because of this reason the design and synthesis of (supra)-molecular species capable of mimicking the functions of macroscopic devices are currently of great interest. Molecular devices operate via electronic and/or nuclear rearrangements and, like macroscopic devices, need energy to operate and communicate between their elements. The energy needed to make a device work can be supplied as chemical energy, electrical energy, or light. Luminescence is one of the most useful techniques to monitor the operation of molecular-level devices. This fact determinates the synthesis of novel fluorescence compounds as a considerable and inseparable part of nanoscience development. Further miniaturization of semiconductors in electronic field reaches their limit. Therefore the design and construction of molecular systems capable of performing complex logic functions is of great scientific interest now. In semiconductor devices the logic gates work using binary logic, where the signals are encoded as 0 and 1 (low and high current). This process is executable on molecular level by several ways, but the most common are based on the optical properties of the molecule switches encoding the low and high concentrations of the input guest molecules and the output fluorescent intensities with binary 0 and 1 respectively. The first proposal to execute logic operations at the molecular level was made in 1988, but the field developed only five years later when the analogy between molecular switches and logic gates was experimentally demonstrated by de Silva. There are seven basic logic gates: AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NAND, NOR and XNOR and all of them were achieved by molecules, the fluorescence switching as well. key words: fluorescence, molecular sensors, molecular logic gates

  2. Smooth Phase Interpolated Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.

    2007-01-01

    Smooth phase interpolated keying (SPIK) is an improved method of computing smooth phase-modulation waveforms for radio communication systems that convey digital information. SPIK is applicable to a variety of phase-shift-keying (PSK) modulation schemes, including quaternary PSK (QPSK), octonary PSK (8PSK), and 16PSK. In comparison with a related prior method, SPIK offers advantages of better performance and less complexity of implementation. In a PSK scheme, the underlying information waveform that one seeks to convey consists of discrete rectangular steps, but the spectral width of such a waveform is excessive for practical radio communication. Therefore, the problem is to smooth the step phase waveform in such a manner as to maintain power and bandwidth efficiency without incurring an unacceptably large error rate and without introducing undesired variations in the amplitude of the affected radio signal. Although the ideal constellation of PSK phasor points does not cause amplitude variations, filtering of the modulation waveform (in which, typically, a rectangular pulse is converted to a square-root raised cosine pulse) causes amplitude fluctuations. If a power-efficient nonlinear amplifier is used in the radio communication system, the fluctuating-amplitude signal can undergo significant spectral regrowth, thus compromising the bandwidth efficiency of the system. In the related prior method, one seeks to solve the problem in a procedure that comprises two major steps: phase-value generation and phase interpolation. SPIK follows the two-step approach of the related prior method, but the details of the steps are different. In the phase-value-generation step, the phase values of symbols in the PSK constellation are determined by a phase function that is said to be maximally smooth and that is chosen to minimize the spectral spread of the modulated signal. In this step, the constellation is divided into two groups by assigning, to information symbols, phase values

  3. The challenge of spin–orbit-tuned ground states in iridates: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Schlottmann, Pedro

    2018-04-01

    Effects of spin–orbit interactions in condensed matter are an important and rapidly evolving topic. Strong competition between spin–orbit, on-site Coulomb and crystalline electric field interactions in iridates drives exotic quantum states that are unique to this group of materials. In particular, the ‘J eff  =  ½’ Mott state served as an early signal that the combined effect of strong spin–orbit and Coulomb interactions in iridates has unique, intriguing consequences. In this Key Issues Review, we survey some current experimental studies of iridates. In essence, these materials tend to defy conventional wisdom: absence of conventional correlations between magnetic and insulating states, avoidance of metallization at high pressures, ‘S-shaped’ I–V characteristic, emergence of an odd-parity hidden order, etc. It is particularly intriguing that there exist conspicuous discrepancies between current experimental results and theoretical proposals that address superconducting, topological and quantum spin liquid phases. This class of materials, in which the lattice degrees of freedom play a critical role seldom seen in other materials, evidently presents some profound intellectual challenges that call for more investigations both experimentally and theoretically. Physical properties unique to these materials may help unlock a world of possibilities for functional materials and devices. We emphasize that, given the rapidly developing nature of this field, this Key Issues Review is by no means an exhaustive report of the current state of experimental studies of iridates.

  4. Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key dimensions. ... to explore and describe the problems that the South African Clothing Industry currently ... A postal survey was conducted among South African apparel and footwear ...

  5. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Water Resources Development and Management, Indian Institute ... on the hydrodynamic performance near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW). ... nature of flows is clearly understood with the help of advanced instrumentation.

  6. Dramatically Bringing down the Cost of Education with OER: How Open Education Resources Unlock the Door to Free Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, David; Green, Cable; Soares, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The nation is in the midst of a revolution in education. For the first time in human history, tools to enable everyone to attain all the education they desire are available. And best of all this education is available at almost no cost. The key to this sea of change in learning is open education resources, or OER. OER are educational materials…

  7. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Fernandez, Alexandra; Kouwer, Paul H J

    2016-05-16

    Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a molecular perspective. What are the important molecular parameters that determine the phase behavior? How should they be introduced into the molecules? Finally, which other tools does one have to realize specific properties in the material?

  8. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Alvarez Fernandez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a molecular perspective. What are the important molecular parameters that determine the phase behavior? How should they be introduced into the molecules? Finally, which other tools does one have to realize specific properties in the material?

  9. Magnetismo Molecular (Molecular Magentism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The new synthesis processes in chemistry open a new world of research, new and surprising materials never before found in nature can now be synthesized and, as a wonderful result, observed a series of physical phenomena never before imagined. Among these are many new materials the molecular magnets, the subject of this book and magnetic properties that are often reflections of the quantum behavior of these materials. Aside from the wonderful experience of exploring something new, the theoretical models that describe the behavior these magnetic materials are, in most cases, soluble analytically, which allows us to know in detail the physical mechanisms governing these materials. Still, the academic interest in parallel this subject, these materials have a number of properties that are promising to be used in technological devices, such as in computers quantum magnetic recording, magnetocaloric effect, spintronics and many other devices. This volume will journey through the world of molecular magnets, from the structural description of these materials to state of the art research.

  10. Water dynamics clue to key residues in protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Meng; Zhu, Huaiqiu; Yao, Xin-Qiu; She, Zhen-Su

    2010-01-01

    A computational method independent of experimental protein structure information is proposed to recognize key residues in protein folding, from the study of hydration water dynamics. Based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, two key residues are recognized with distinct water dynamical behavior in a folding process of the Trp-cage protein. The identified key residues are shown to play an essential role in both 3D structure and hydrophobic-induced collapse. With observations on hydration water dynamics around key residues, a dynamical pathway of folding can be interpreted.

  11. Molecular hematology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Provan, Drew; Gribben, John

    2010-01-01

    ... The molecular basis of hemophilia, 219 Paul LF Giangrande 4 The genetics of acute myeloid leukemias, 42 Carolyn J Owen & Jude Fitzgibbon 19 The molecular basis of von Willebrand disease, 233 Luciano Baronc...

  12. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  13. Security for Key Management Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kremer , Steve; Steel , Graham; Warinschi , Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We propose a much-needed formal definition of security for cryptographic key management APIs. The advantages of our definition are that it is general, intuitive, and applicable to security proofs in both symbolic and computational models of cryptography. Our definition relies on an idealized API which allows only the most essential functions for generating, exporting and importing keys, and takes into account dynamic corruption of keys. Based on this we can define the ...

  14. Model plant Key Measurement Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For IAEA safeguards a Key Measurement Point is defined as the location where nuclear material appears in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory. This presentation describes in an introductory manner the key measurement points and associated measurements for the model plant used in this training course

  15. Breaking chaotic shift key communication via adaptive key identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Haipeng; Han Chongzhao; Liu Ding

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive parameter identification method for breaking chaotic shift key communication from the transmitted signal in public channel. The sensitive dependence property of chaos on parameter mismatch is used for chaos adaptive synchronization and parameter identification. An index function about the synchronization error is defined and conjugate gradient method is used to minimize the index function and to search the transmitter's parameter (key). By using proposed method, secure key is recovered from transmitted signal generated by low dimensional chaos and hyper chaos switching communication. Multi-parameters can also be identified from the transmitted signal with noise

  16. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging strives to visualize processes in living subjects at the molecular level. Monitoring biochemical processes at this level will allow us to directly track biological processes and signaling events that lead to pathophysiological abnormalities, and help make personalized medicine a reality by allowing evaluation of therapeutic efficacies on an individual basis. Although most molecular imaging techniques emerged from the field of oncology, they have now gradually gained acceptance by the cardiovascular community. Hence, the availability of dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems and specific targeting imaging probes is now enhancing our understanding of cardiovascular diseases and expediting the development of newer therapies. Examples include imaging approaches to evaluate and track the progress of recent genetic and cellular therapies for treatment of myocardial ischemia. Other areas include in vivo monitoring of such key molecular processes as angiogenesis and apoptosis. Cardiovascular molecular imaging is already an important research tool in preclinical experiments. The challenge that lies ahead is to implement these techniques into the clinics so that they may help fulfill the promise of molecular therapies and personalized medicine, as well as to resolve disappointments and controversies surrounding the field

  17. A Distributed Shared Key Generation Procedure Using Fractional Keys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poovendran, Radha; Corson, M. S; Baras, J. S

    1998-01-01

    We present a new class of distributed key generation and recovery algorithms suitable for group communication systems where the group membership is either static or slowly time-varying, and must be tightly controlled...

  18. Key parameters controlling radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    For radiology departments and outstanding practises control and optimization of processes demand an efficient management based on key data. Systems of key data deliver indicators for control of medical quality, service quality and economics. For practices effectiveness (productivity), for hospitals effectiveness and efficiency are in the focus of economical optimization strategies. Task of daily key data is continuous monitoring of activities and workflow, task of weekly/monthly key data is control of data quality, process quality and achievement of objectives, task of yearly key data is determination of long term strategies (marketing) and comparison with competitors (benchmarking). Key parameters have to be defined clearly and have to be available directly. For generation, evaluation and control of key parameters suitable forms of organization and processes are necessary. Strategies for the future will be directed more to the total processes of treatment. To think in total processes and to steer and optimize with suitable parameters is the challenge for participants in the healthcare market of the future. (orig.)

  19. Molecular imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2013-02-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  20. Molecular imaging in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  1. Key economic sectors and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Tol, Richard S.J.; Faust, Eberhard; Hella, Joseph P.; Kumar, Surender; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Tóth, Ferenc L.; Yan, Denghua; Abdulla, Amjad; Kheshgi, Haroon; Xu, He; Ngeh, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Context This chapter discusses the implications of climate change on key economic sectors and services, for example, economic activity. Other chapters discuss impacts from a physical, chemical, biological, or social perspective. Economic impacts cannot be isolated; therefore, there

  2. Algorithms for Lightweight Key Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Santonja, Juan; Zamora, Antonio

    2017-06-27

    Public-key cryptography is too slow for general purpose encryption, with most applications limiting its use as much as possible. Some secure protocols, especially those that enable forward secrecy, make a much heavier use of public-key cryptography, increasing the demand for lightweight cryptosystems that can be implemented in low powered or mobile devices. This performance requirements are even more significant in critical infrastructure and emergency scenarios where peer-to-peer networks are deployed for increased availability and resiliency. We benchmark several public-key key-exchange algorithms, determining those that are better for the requirements of critical infrastructure and emergency applications and propose a security framework based on these algorithms and study its application to decentralized node or sensor networks.

  3. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  4. Molecular Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid...

  5. Molecular genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.R.; Krontiris, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the authors review new findings concerning the molecular genetics of malignant melanoma in the context of other information obtained from clinical, epidemiologic, and cytogenetic studies in this malignancy. These new molecular approaches promise to provide a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of melanoma, thereby suggesting new methods for its treatment and prevention

  6. Molecular Modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. Molecular Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Drug Design and Molecular Docking. Rama Rao Nadendla. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Adequate Consultation And Dialogue With Local Community Unlocking The Untapped Potential For Peace And Development Evidences From South Omo Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yimer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that adequate consultation and public wide dialogues at the grass root level are the two potential entry points in times of development interventions. This will foster peace among the nearby people and led a foundation for the subsequent development. The study was undertaken to examine whether the agro-pastoral communities of South Omo zone were jeopardized as a result of the Omo Kuraz Sugar development project or not. It also targeted whether there was adequate consultation with the local people at the earliest days of the project. Adopting Ethnographic design the study accompanied by primary data collected through participant observation focus group discussion and key informant interview indicated that there were attempts to consult the indigenous people though not adequate. It also indicated that despite the absence of compensation for the local displaced people due to their mobile life the people were not endangered as a result of the project. This project as a development project that is established at the communal land of the agro-pastoralists is providing training for the nearby people to hire them in its various offices. Far from the claims of the various oversees institutions propounded as if the agro-pastoral communities were miserably suffered from such a project the people consider it as if it is their own project. The study implied that South Omo zone is a counter example of how local level consultation and a wide range of dialogue are indispensable preconditions to foster peace and development in many pastoral and agro-pastoral areas of the country.

  8. DNA based random key generation and management for OTP encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Xin; Sun, Manhui

    2017-09-01

    One-time pad (OTP) is a principle of key generation applied to the stream ciphering method which offers total privacy. The OTP encryption scheme has proved to be unbreakable in theory, but difficult to realize in practical applications. Because OTP encryption specially requires the absolute randomness of the key, its development has suffered from dense constraints. DNA cryptography is a new and promising technology in the field of information security. DNA chromosomes storing capabilities can be used as one-time pad structures with pseudo-random number generation and indexing in order to encrypt the plaintext messages. In this paper, we present a feasible solution to the OTP symmetric key generation and transmission problem with DNA at the molecular level. Through recombinant DNA technology, by using only sender-receiver known restriction enzymes to combine the secure key represented by DNA sequence and the T vector, we generate the DNA bio-hiding secure key and then place the recombinant plasmid in implanted bacteria for secure key transmission. The designed bio experiments and simulation results show that the security of the transmission of the key is further improved and the environmental requirements of key transmission are reduced. Analysis has demonstrated that the proposed DNA-based random key generation and management solutions are marked by high security and usability. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Secret key rates in quantum key distribution using Renyi entropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abruzzo, Silvestre; Kampermann, Hermann; Mertz, Markus; Bratzik, Sylvia; Bruss, Dagmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The secret key rate r of a quantum key distribution protocol depends on the involved number of signals and the accepted ''failure probability''. We reconsider a method to calculate r focusing on the analysis of the privacy amplification given by R. Renner and R. Koenig (2005). This approach involves an optimization problem with an objective function depending on the Renyi entropy of the density operator describing the classical outcomes and the eavesdropper system. This problem is analyzed for a generic class of QKD protocols and the current research status is presented.

  10. Three state quantum key distribution for small keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batuwantudawe, J.; Boileau, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols allow two parties, Alice and Bob, to establish secure keys. The most well-known protocol is BB84, using four distinct states. Recently, Phoenix et al. proposed a three state protocol. We explain the protocol and discuss its security proof. The three state protocol also has an interesting structure that allows for errors estimation from the inconclusive results (i.e.. where Alice and Bob choose different bases). This eliminates the need for sampling, potentially useful when qubits are limited. We discuss the effectiveness of this approach compared to BB84 for the case where a good error estimate is required. (author)

  11. Molecular dewetting on insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, S A; Topple, J M; Gruetter, P

    2009-01-01

    Recent attention given to the growth and morphology of organic thin films with regard to organic electronics has led to the observation of dewetting (a transition from layer(s) to islands) of molecular deposits in many of these systems. Dewetting is a much studied phenomenon in the formation of polymer and liquid films, but its observation in thin films of the 'small' molecules typical of organic electronics requires additional consideration of the structure of the interface between the molecular film and the substrate. This review covers some key concepts related to dewetting and molecular film growth. In particular, the origins of different growth modes and the thickness dependent interactions which give rise to dewetting are discussed in terms of surface energies and the disjoining pressure. Characteristics of molecular systems which may lead to these conditions, including the formation of metastable interface structures and commensurate-incommensurate phase transitions, are also discussed. Brief descriptions of some experimental techniques which have been used to study molecular dewetting are given as well. Examples of molecule-on-insulator systems which undergo dewetting are described in some detail, specifically perylene derivatives on alkali halides, C 60 on alkali halides, and the technologically important system of pentacene on SiO 2 . These examples point to some possible predicting factors for the occurrence of dewetting, most importantly the formation of an interface layer which differs from the bulk crystal structure. (topical review)

  12. Molecular dewetting on insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, S A; Topple, J M; Grütter, P

    2009-10-21

    Recent attention given to the growth and morphology of organic thin films with regard to organic electronics has led to the observation of dewetting (a transition from layer(s) to islands) of molecular deposits in many of these systems. Dewetting is a much studied phenomenon in the formation of polymer and liquid films, but its observation in thin films of the 'small' molecules typical of organic electronics requires additional consideration of the structure of the interface between the molecular film and the substrate. This review covers some key concepts related to dewetting and molecular film growth. In particular, the origins of different growth modes and the thickness dependent interactions which give rise to dewetting are discussed in terms of surface energies and the disjoining pressure. Characteristics of molecular systems which may lead to these conditions, including the formation of metastable interface structures and commensurate-incommensurate phase transitions, are also discussed. Brief descriptions of some experimental techniques which have been used to study molecular dewetting are given as well. Examples of molecule-on-insulator systems which undergo dewetting are described in some detail, specifically perylene derivatives on alkali halides, C(60) on alkali halides, and the technologically important system of pentacene on SiO(2). These examples point to some possible predicting factors for the occurrence of dewetting, most importantly the formation of an interface layer which differs from the bulk crystal structure.

  13. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  14. Key distillation in quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Boris Aron

    1998-11-01

    Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

  15. Molecular digital pathology: progress and potential of exchanging molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somak; Pfeifer, John D; LaFramboise, William A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-09-01

    Many of the demands to perform next generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical laboratory can be resolved using the principles of telepathology. Molecular telepathology can allow facilities to outsource all or a portion of their NGS operation such as cloud computing, bioinformatics pipelines, variant data management, and knowledge curation. Clinical pathology laboratories can electronically share diverse types of molecular data with reference laboratories, technology service providers, and/or regulatory agencies. Exchange of electronic molecular data allows laboratories to perform validation of rare diseases using foreign data, check the accuracy of their test results against benchmarks, and leverage in silico proficiency testing. This review covers the emerging subject of molecular telepathology, describes clinical use cases for the appropriate exchange of molecular data, and highlights key issues such as data integrity, interoperable formats for massive genomic datasets, security, malpractice and emerging regulations involved with this novel practice.

  16. Molecular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rodger, Alison

    1995-01-01

    Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans

  17. Light and redox switchable molecular components for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Wesley R; Feringa, Ben L

    2010-01-01

    The field of molecular and organic electronics has seen rapid progress in recent years, developing from concept and design to actual demonstration devices in which both single molecules and self-assembled monolayers are employed as light-responsive components. Research in this field has seen numerous unexpected challenges that have slowed progress and the initial promise of complex molecular-based computers has not yet been realised. Primarily this has been due to the realisation at an early stage that molecular-based nano-electronics brings with it the interface between the hard (semiconductor) and soft (molecular) worlds and the challenges which accompany working in such an environment. Issues such as addressability, cross-talk, molecular stability and perturbation of molecular properties (e.g., inhibition of photochemistry) have nevertheless driven development in molecular design and synthesis as well as our ability to interface molecular components with bulk metal contacts to a very high level of sophistication. Numerous groups have played key roles in progressing this field not least teams such as those led by Whitesides, Aviram, Ratner, Stoddart and Heath. In this short review we will however focus on the contributions from our own group and those of our collaborators, in employing diarylethene based molecular components.

  18. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  19. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  20. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  1. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  2. Mystery of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-free Turbomachinery Unlocked: Load Capacity Rule-of-thumb Allows Simple Estimation of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

    2002-01-01

    The Oil-Free Turbomachinery team at the NASA Glenn Research Center has unlocked one of the mysteries surrounding foil air bearing performance. Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings that use ambient air, or any fluid, as their lubricant. In operation, the motion of the shaft's surface drags fluid into the bearing by viscous action, creating a pressurized lubricant film. This lubricating film separates the stationary foil bearing surface from the moving shaft and supports load. Foil bearings have been around for decades and are widely employed in the air cycle machines used for cabin pressurization and cooling aboard commercial jetliners. The Oil-Free Turbomachinery team is fostering the maturation of this technology for integration into advanced Oil-Free aircraft engines. Elimination of the engine oil system can significantly reduce weight and cost and could enable revolutionary new engine designs. Foil bearings, however, have complex elastic support structures (spring packs) that make the prediction of bearing performance, such as load capacity, difficult if not impossible. Researchers at Glenn recently found a link between foil bearing design and load capacity performance. The results have led to a simple rule-of-thumb that relates a bearing's size, speed, and design to its load capacity. Early simple designs (Generation I) had simple elastic (spring) support elements, and performance was limited. More advanced bearings (Generation III) with elastic supports, in which the stiffness is varied locally to optimize gas film pressures, exhibit load capacities that are more than double those of the best previous designs. This is shown graphically in the figure. These more advanced bearings have enabled industry to introduce commercial Oil-Free gas-turbine-based electrical generators and are allowing the aeropropulsion industry to incorporate the technology into aircraft engines. The rule-of-thumb enables engine and bearing designers to easily size and

  3. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  4. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  5. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so that dif...... that different structural problems can be reproduced successfully....

  6. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  7. Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area

  8. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  9. [Key informers. When and How?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín González, R

    2009-03-01

    When information obtained through duly designed and developed studies is not available, the solution to certain problems that affect the population or that respond to certain questions may be approached by using the information and experience provided by the so-called key informer. The key informer is defined as a person who is in contact with the community or with the problem to be studied, who is considered to have good knowledge of the situation and therefore who is considered an expert. The search for consensus is the basis to obtain information through the key informers. The techniques used have different characteristics based on whether the experts chosen meet together or not, whether they are guided or not, whether they interact with each other or not. These techniques include the survey, the Delphi technique, the nominal group technique, brainwriting, brainstorming, the Phillips 66 technique, the 6-3-5 technique, the community forum and the community impressions technique. Information provided by key informers through the search for consensus is relevant when this is not available or cannot be obtained by other methods. It has permitted the analysis of the existing neurological care model, elaboration of recommendations on visit times for the out-patient neurological care, and the elaboration of guidelines and recommendations for the management of prevalent neurological problems.

  10. The Key to School Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotle, Dan

    1993-01-01

    In addition to legislative accessibility requirements, other security issues facing school administrators who select a security system include the following: access control; user friendliness; durability or serviceability; life safety precautions; possibility of vandalism, theft, and tampering; and key control. Offers steps to take in considering…

  11. Molecular characters and recombinant expression of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-07

    Mar 7, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Molecular characters ... 1State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of .... Characterization and model building of the 3-D.

  12. Molecular fountain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2009-09-01

    A molecular fountain directs slowly moving molecules against gravity to further slow them to translational energies that they can be trapped and studied. If the molecules are initially slow enough they will return some time later to the position from which they were launched. Because this round trip time can be on the order of a second a single molecule can be observed for times sufficient to perform Hz level spectroscopy. The goal of this LDRD proposal was to construct a novel Molecular Fountain apparatus capable of producing dilute samples of molecules at near zero temperatures in well-defined user-selectable, quantum states. The slowly moving molecules used in this research are produced by the previously developed Kinematic Cooling technique, which uses a crossed atomic and molecular beam apparatus to generate single rotational level molecular samples moving slowly in the laboratory reference frame. The Kinematic Cooling technique produces cold molecules from a supersonic molecular beam via single collisions with a supersonic atomic beam. A single collision of an atom with a molecule occurring at the correct energy and relative velocity can cause a small fraction of the molecules to move very slowly vertically against gravity in the laboratory. These slowly moving molecules are captured by an electrostatic hexapole guiding field that both orients and focuses the molecules. The molecules are focused into the ionization region of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and are ionized by laser radiation. The new molecular fountain apparatus was built utilizing a new design for molecular beam apparatus that has allowed us to miniaturize the apparatus. This new design minimizes the volumes and surface area of the machine allowing smaller pumps to maintain the necessary background pressures needed for these experiments.

  13. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  14. Key papers in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Simon; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Patel, Hitendra R H; Arya, Manit

    2014-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death in men. The evidence base for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is continually changing. We aim to review and discuss past and contemporary papers on these topics to provoke debate and highlight key dilemmas faced by the urological community. We review key papers on prostate-specific antigen screening, radical prostatectomy versus surveillance strategies, targeted therapies, timing of radiotherapy and alternative anti-androgen therapeutics. Previously, the majority of patients, irrespective of risk, underwent radical open surgical procedures associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Evidence is emerging that not all prostate cancers are alike and that low-grade disease can be safely managed by surveillance strategies and localized treatment to the prostate. The question remains as to how to accurately stage the disease and ultimately choose which treatment pathway to follow.

  15. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  16. Key issues for passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ''review paper'' as such and only record the highlights. (author)

  17. Human Resources Key Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabčanová Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings out a proposed strategy map and respective key performance indicators (KPIs in human resources (HR. The article provides an overview of how HR activities are supported in order to reach the partial goals of HR as defined in the strategic map. Overall the aim of the paper is to show the possibilities of using the modern Balanced Scorecard method in human capital.

  18. Key issues for passive safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayns, M R [AEA Technology, Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom). European Institutions; Hicken, E F [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ``review paper`` as such and only record the highlights. (author).

  19. Low carbon development. Key issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Frauke; Nordensvaard, Johan (eds.)

    2013-03-07

    This comprehensive textbook addresses the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world. It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of low carbon development and takes an international and interdisciplinary approach to the subject by drawing on insights from across the natural sciences and social sciences whilst embedding the discussion in a global context. The first part explores the concept of low carbon development and explains the need for low carbon development in a carbon constrained world. The book then discusses the key issues of socio-economic, political and technological nature for low carbon development, exploring topics such as the political economy, social justice, financing and carbon markets, and technologies and innovation for low carbon development. This is followed by key issues for low carbon development in policy and practice, which is presented based on cross-cutting issues such as low carbon energy, forestry, agriculture and transportation. Afterwards, practical case studies are discussed from low carbon development in low income countries in Africa, middle income countries in Asia and Latin America and high income countries in Europe and North America.

  20. Detector decoy quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Curty, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  1. Key Concepts in Microbial Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Achilles, K.; Walker, G.; Weersing, K.; Team, A

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) is a multi-institution Science and Technology Center, established by the National Science Foundation in 2006. C-MORE's research mission is to facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the diverse assemblages of microorganisms in the sea, ranging from the genetic basis of marine microbial biogeochemistry including the metabolic regulation and environmental controls of gene expression, to the processes that underpin the fluxes of carbon, related bioelements, and energy in the marine environment. The C-MORE education and outreach program is focused on increasing scientific literacy in microbial oceanography among students, educators, and the general public. A first step toward this goal is defining the key concepts that constitute microbial oceanography. After lengthy discussions with scientists and educators, both within and outside C-MORE, we have arrived at six key concepts: 1) Marine microbes are very small and have been around for a long time; 2) Life on Earth could not exist without microbes; 3) Most marine microbes are beneficial; 4) Microbes are everywhere: they are extremely abundant and diverse; 5) Microbes significantly impact our global climate; and 6) There are new discoveries every day in the field of microbial oceanography. A C-MORE-produced brochure on these six key concepts will be distributed at the meeting. Advanced copies may be requested by email or downloaded from the C-MORE web site(http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/downloads/MO_key_concepts_hi-res.pdf). This brochure also includes information on career pathways in microbial oceanography, with the aim of broadening participation in the field. C-MORE is eager to work in partnership to incorporate these key concepts into other science literacy publications, particularly those involving ocean and climate literacy. We thank the following contributors and reviewers: P Chisholm, A Dolberry, and A Thompson (MIT); N Lawrence

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Tammy; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2015-08-20

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by new onset hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk of gestation. It is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exciting discoveries in the last decade have contributed to a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease. Epidemiological, experimental, and therapeutic studies from several laboratories have provided compelling evidence that an antiangiogenic state owing to alterations in circulating angiogenic factors leads to preeclampsia. In this review, we highlight the role of key circulating antiangiogenic factors as pathogenic biomarkers and in the development of novel therapies for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Molecular water oxidation catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Llobet, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising strategy for capturing energy from the sun by coupling light harvesting and the oxidation of water, in order to create clean hydrogen fuel. Thus a deep knowledge of the water oxidation catalysis field is essential to be able to come up with useful energy conversion devices based on sunlight and water splitting. Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysis: A Key Topic for New Sustainable Energy Conversion Schemes presents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of water oxidation catalysis in homogeneous phase, describing in detail the most importan

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Tammy; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Karumanchi, S. Ananth

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by new onset hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk of gestation. It is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exciting discoveries in the last decade have contributed to a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease. Epidemiological, experimental, and therapeutic studies from several laboratories have provided compelling evidence that an antiangiogenic state owing to alterations in circulating angiogenic factors leads to preeclampsia. In this review, we highlight the role of key circulating antiangiogenic factors as pathogenic biomarkers and in the development of novel therapies for preeclampsia. PMID:26292986

  5. Molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  6. Neutron Scattering studies of magnetic molecular magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboussant, G.

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with inelastic neutron scattering studies of magnetic molecular magnets and focuses on their magnetic properties at low temperature and low energies. Several molecular magnets (Mn 12 , V 15 , Ni 12 , Mn 4 , etc.) are reviewed. Inelastic neutron scattering is shown to be a perfectly suited spectroscopy tool to -a) probe magnetic energy levels in such systems and -b) provide key information to understand the quantum tunnel effect of the magnetization in molecular spin clusters. (author)

  7. History of the molecular biology of cytomegaloviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinski, Mark F

    2014-01-01

    The history of the molecular biology of cytomegaloviruses from the purification of the virus and the viral DNA to the cloning and expression of the viral genes is reviewed. A key genetic element of cytomegalovirus (the CMV promoter) contributed to our understanding of eukaryotic cell molecular biology and to the development of lifesaving therapeutic proteins. The study of the molecular biology of cytomegaloviruses also contributed to the development of antivirals to control the viral infection.

  8. Key acceptability attributes of orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Mariagiovanna; Paudel, Amrit; Kloprogge, Frank; Hsiao, Wen Kai; Bresciani, Massimo; Gaisford, Simon; Orlu, Mine

    2018-04-01

    The features rendering orodispersible films (ODFs) patient-centric formulations are widely discussed in the scientific literature. However there is a lack of research studies exploring ODF characteristics with a potential impact on end-user acceptability. The aim of this study was to identify the key ODF characteristics affecting end-user acceptability by developing in vitro test methods for the prediction of ODFs acceptability and correlate these formulation characteristics with the data obtained from a human panel study. Four drug-free single-polymer films were prepared by solvent casting. Solutions of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVOH) 39 KDa (P1), PVOH 197 KDa (P2), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) 395 KDa (C1), and CMC 725 KDa (C2) were prepared. Texture analysis and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) were used to assess film tack. Petri dish and drop methods were used to assess disintegration time. A human panel of 24 healthy young adults was employed to identify end-user acceptability criteria of the four study film samples. Texture analysis data of ODF tack were not found to be in agreement with the in vivo perceived stickiness in the mouth. However, measurement of the area under the adhesive force curve obtained by DMA correlated with in vivo perceived stickiness data for all samples. The disintegration times obtained by drop method were more comparable to human panel data than the petri dish method. Hence DMA and drop methods proved to be promising methodologies for the prediction of the end-user acceptability. The type and molecular weight of the film-forming polymer had a strong influence on stickiness perception, whereas only polymeric molecular weight influenced perceived disintegration time. The human panel study showed that Participant Reported Outcomes (PROs) for the perceived stickiness in the mouth and disintegration time of test films received significantly different scores between samples, and thus were identified as the key attributes with the

  9. Unlocking the Power of Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karen L.; Martin, Dean M.; Faszewski, Ellen E.

    2006-01-01

    The dawn of a new school year is the perfect time to reflect on last year's successes while setting even higher expectations for the upcoming year. For several years, many new-school-year resolutions have revolved around a common theme: improving the introduction of inquiry skills to young (kindergarten through second grade) learners, particularly…

  10. Technology unlocks tar sands energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C

    1967-09-25

    Tar sand processing technology has been developed primarily in the categories of extraction techniques and in-situ processing. In October, a $235 million venture into tar sand processing will be inspected by visitors from many points on the globe. A synthetic crude of premium quality will be flowing through a 16-in. pipeline from the Tar Island plant site of Great Canadian Oil Sands to Edmonton. This processing plant uses an extractive mining technique. The tar sand pay zone in this area averages approximately 150 ft in thickness with a 50-ft overburden. It has been estimated that the tar sands cannot be exploited when the formation thickness is less than 100 ft and overburden exceeds the same amount. This indicates that extraction techniques can only be used to recover approximately 15% of the tar sand deposits. An in-situ recovery technique developed by Shell of Canada is discussed in detail. In essence it is selective hydraulic fracturing, followed by the injection of emulsifying chemicals and steam.

  11. Data visualization unlocks improvement opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remple, G.A.; Galbraith, M.

    2010-01-01

    The modern uranium mill generates a vast amount of raw data from various sources including control systems, operator logsheets, assay results and environmental monitoring, which is frequently stored in separate databases. Implementation of software at the McClean Lake mill that includes an integrated, web-based view of these multiple and disparate data sources has provided better tools in the effort to manage this 'data load', and extract the information required to enhance process understanding and support the continuous improvement and decision making processes. This paper outlines the opportunities, challenges, and milestones of this software project. (author)

  12. Social and physical disorder unlocked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonneke van Noije; Karin Wittebrood

    2009-01-01

    Original title: Overlast en verloedering ontsleuteld. At the start of 2008 the Dutch government presented its 'Public Nuisance and Urban Decay Action Plan' (Actieplan overlast en verloedering). Its objective: to reduce public nuisance and physical decay by a quarter in 2010 compared with

  13. Molecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokh, Eh.; Zonntag, B.

    1981-01-01

    The latest investigation results on molecular spectroscopy with application of synchrotron radiation in the region of vacuum ultraviolet are generalized. Some results on investigation of excited, superexcited and ionized molecule states with the use of adsorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, by fluorescent and mass-spectrometric methods are considered [ru

  14. Molecular Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    . New Study Indicates Greater Capacity for Carbon Storage in the Earth's Subsurface A team of Foundry minerals which make up the dominant clays in the Earth's deep subsurface. Doubling Down on Energy Storage identify molecular components within small volumes of biological samples, such as blood or urine. Industry

  15. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the

  16. Molecular gastronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    For centuries, cooks have been applying recipes without looking for the mechanisms of the culinary transformations. A scientific discipline that explores these changes from raw ingredients to eating the final dish, is developing into its own field, termed molecular gastronomy. Here, one of the founders of the discipline discusses its aims and importance.

  17. Molecular Star

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In molecular self-assembly, molecules put themselves together in a predefined way ... work has been already published in Chemistry- A European Jour- nal in the September ... prevalent in matter ranging from atoms to molecules to biomolecules; it is also ... erate chemical forces are reversible and dynamic in nature mean-.

  18. Molecular ferromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    This past year has been one of substantial advancement in both the physics and chemistry of molecular and polymeric ferromagnets. The specific heat studies of (DMeFc)(TCNE) have revealed a cusp at the three-dimensional ferromagnetic transition temperature with a crossover to primarily 1-D behavior at higher temperatures. This paper discusses these studies

  19. [Key morphofunctional transformations in the evolution of chiropterans (Bats, Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, I M

    2014-01-01

    Study on the morphology and morphogenesis of wing membranes in Bats has revealed some peculiarities in their structure and development. Understanding the embryogenesis of these animals, as well as attraction of data obtained on their molecular genetics and paleontology, allows one to single out some factors that could have initiated evolutionary modifications in development programs. A scenario of the key morphofunctional transformations in the forelimbs during the evolution of chiropterans is given.

  20. Fibre Optic Communication Key Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of the key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. In particular, the book covers devices such as semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters, and detectors but the relevant properties of optical fibres as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, the technologies used for the realization of the different devices, typical performance characteristics and limitations, and development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. Thus the scope of the book spans relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, the status of current research and expected future components.

  1. Symmetric autocompensating quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Levitin, Lev B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2004-08-01

    We present quantum key distribution schemes which are autocompensating (require no alignment) and symmetric (Alice and Bob receive photons from a central source) for both polarization and time-bin qubits. The primary benefit of the symmetric configuration is that both Alice and Bob may have passive setups (neither Alice nor Bob is required to make active changes for each run of the protocol). We show that both the polarization and the time-bin schemes may be implemented with existing technology. The new schemes are related to previously described schemes by the concept of advanced waves.

  2. Key energy technologies for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    This report on key energy technologies is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. Senior Scientist BirteHolst Jørgensen, Risø National Laboratory...... contributed by Scientific Officer Edgar Thielmann, DG TREN, Head of Department Hans Larsen, RisøNational Laboratory, Senior Asset Manager Aksel Hauge Pedersen, DONG VE, Consultant Timon Wehnert, IZT-Berlin, and Senior Scientist Martine Uyterlinde, ECN...

  3. Key concepts in social pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Lotte Junker

    2011-01-01

    and activities around key social pedagogical concepts, such as the Common Third, the 3 P’s, the Zone of Proximal Development and the Learning Zone model. In the article we explore how a joint activity, for example playing soccer, can be seen as a pedagogical activity and with what intentions it is undertaken......“Now I can actually play soccer with the young people without fearing that my colleagues think I am escaping the paper work.” These were the words from a participant in a social pedagogy training course in England a few years ago. This understanding emerged through in-depth discussions...

  4. Public/private key certification authority and key distribution. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.P.; Christensen, M.J.; Sturtevant, A.P.; Johnston, W.E.

    1995-09-25

    Traditional encryption, which protects messages from prying eyes, has been used for many decades. The present concepts of encryption are built from that heritage. Utilization of modern software-based encryption techniques implies much more than simply converting files to an unreadable form. Ubiquitous use of computers and advances in encryption technology coupled with the use of wide-area networking completely changed the reasons for utilizing encryption technology. The technology demands a new and extensive infrastructure to support these functions. Full understanding of these functions, their utility and value, and the need for an infrastructure, takes extensive exposure to the new paradigm. This paper addresses issues surrounding the establishment and operation of a key management system (i.e., certification authority) that is essential to the successful implementation and wide-spread use of encryption.

  5. Three key affordances for serendipity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneborn, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Serendipity is an interesting phenomenon to study in information science as it plays a fundamental – but perhaps underestimated – role in how we discover, explore, and learn in all fields of life. The purpose of this paper is to operationalize the concept of serendipity by providing termi...... terminological “building blocks” for understanding connections between environmental and personal factors in serendipitous encounters. Understanding these connections is essential when designing affordances in physical and digital environments that can facilitate serendipity. Design....../methodology/approach In this paper, serendipity is defined as what happens when we, in unplanned ways, encounter resources (information, things, people, etc.) that we find interesting. In the outlined framework, serendipity is understood as an affordance, i.e., a usage potential when environmental and personal factors correspond...... the three key affordances and three key personal serendipity factors: curiosity, mobility, and sensitivity. Ten sub-affordances for serendipity and ten coupled personal sub-factors are also briefly outlined. Related research is compared with and mapped into the framework aiming at a theoretical validation...

  6. Key energy technologies for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  7. Key to Language Learning Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktavian Mantiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the important elements of language learning and teaching i.e. the role of teachers as well as the attitude and motivation of learners. Teachers undoubtedly play crucial roles in students’ language learning outcome which could ignite or diminish students’ motivation. Positive attitudes and motivation – instrumental or integrative and intrinsic or extrinsic – are key to successful learning. Therefore it is paramount for language teachers as well as learners to know these roles and nurture the best possible ways where language teaching and learning will thrive. This paper also suggested that both stake-holders should be open to holistic approach of language learning and that other factors such as the environment could play an important part in language teaching and learning success.

  8. Cogeneration: Key feasibility analysis parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coslovi, S.; Zulian, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first reviews the essential requirements, in terms of scope, objectives and methods, of technical/economic feasibility analyses applied to cogeneration systems proposed for industrial plants in Italy. Attention is given to the influence on overall feasibility of the following factors: electric power and fuel costs, equipment coefficients of performance, operating schedules, maintenance costs, Italian Government taxes and financial and legal incentives. Through an examination of several feasibility studies that were done on cogeneration proposals relative to different industrial sectors, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of varying the weights of different cost benefit analysis parameters. With the use of statistical analyses, standard deviations are then determined for key analysis parameters, and guidelines are suggested for analysis simplifications

  9. Fibre optic communication key devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. Devices treated include semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters and other passives, detectors, all-optical switches, but relevant properties of optical fibres and network aspects are included as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, technologies used for their realization, typical performance characteristics and limitations, but development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. This new edition of a successful book was expanded and updated extensively. The new edition covers among others lasers for optical communication, optical switches, hybrid integration, monolithic integration and silicon photonics. The main focus is on Indium phosphide-based structures but silicon photonics is included as well. The book covers relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, status of curren...

  10. Molecular Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important
    tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and
    the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to tailored to
    decrease harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques
    employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modelling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported from
    the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  11. Key energy technologies for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  12. Molecular scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher H. Childers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript demonstrates the molecular scale cure rate dependence of di-functional epoxide based thermoset polymers cured with amines. A series of cure heating ramp rates were used to determine the influence of ramp rate on the glass transition temperature (Tg and sub-Tg transitions and the average free volume hole size in these systems. The networks were comprised of 3,3′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (33DDS and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF and were cured at ramp rates ranging from 0.5 to 20 °C/min. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and NIR spectroscopy were used to explore the cure ramp rate dependence of the polymer network growth, whereas broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS and free volume hole size measurements were used to interrogate networks’ molecular level structural variations upon curing at variable heating ramp rates. It was found that although the Tg of the polymer matrices was similar, the NIR and DSC measurements revealed a strong correlation for how these networks grow in relation to the cure heating ramp rate. The free volume analysis and BDS results for the cured samples suggest differences in the molecular architecture of the matrix polymers due to cure heating rate dependence.

  13. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Spintronics: The molecular way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornia, Andrea; Seneor, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    Molecular spintronics is an interdisciplinary field at the interface between organic spintronics, molecular magnetism, molecular electronics and quantum computing, which is advancing fast and promises large technological payoffs.

  15. 25 CFR 502.14 - Key employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Key employee. 502.14 Section 502.14 Indians NATIONAL....14 Key employee. Key employee means: (a) A person who performs one or more of the following functions... gaming operation. (d) Any other person designated by the tribe as a key employee. [57 FR 12392, Apr. 9...

  16. VICKEY: Mining Conditional Keys on Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symeonidou, Danai; Prado, Luis Antonio Galarraga Del; Pernelle, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    A conditional key is a key constraint that is valid in only a part of the data. In this paper, we show how such keys can be mined automatically on large knowledge bases (KBs). For this, we combine techniques from key mining with techniques from rule mining. We show that our method can scale to KBs...

  17. Reversible optical transcription of supramolecular chirality into molecular chirality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Jaap J.D. de; Lucas, Linda N.; Kellogg, Richard M.; Esch, Jan H. van; Feringa, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    In nature, key molecular processes such as communication, replication, and enzyme catalysis all rely on a delicate balance between molecular and supramolecular chirality. Here we report the design, synthesis, and operation of a reversible, photoresponsive, self-assembling molecular system in which

  18. Guidelines on the use of molecular genetics in reintroduction programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Schwartz

    2005-01-01

    The use of molecular genetics can play a key role in reintroduction efforts. Prior to the introduction of any individuals, molecular genetics can be used to identify the most appropriate source population for the reintroduction, ensure that no relic populations exist in the reintroduction area, and guide captive breeding programs. The use of molecular genetics post-...

  19. Quantum key distribution and cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleaume, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Originally proposed by classical cryptographers, the ideas behind Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) have attracted considerable interest among the quantum optics community, which has significantly helped bring these ideas to reality. Experimental realizations have quickly evolved from early lab demonstrations to QKD systems that are now deployed in real conditions and targeting commercial applications. Although QKD can be theoretically proven to rely on 'unconditional security proofs' and should thus be able to provide security levels unachievable through computationally-based cryptographic techniques, the debate on the cryptographic applications of QKD remains somehow controversial. It seems that a consensus on that matter cannot be reached without a careful analysis of assumptions and definitions related to security models used in classical or in quantum cryptography. In this talk, we will try to present a comprehensive synthesis on this topic. We have initiated this work as a contribution to the European IP SECOQC project, confronting views and knowledge among experimental and theoretical quantum physicists, as well as classical cryptographers. (author)

  20. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-04-01

    Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus.

  1. The Genus Cerion (Gastropoda: Cerionidae in the Florida Keys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesha Shrestha

    Full Text Available The systematic relationships and phylogeography of Cerion incanum, the only species of Cerion native to the Florida Keys, are reviewed based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes derived from 18 populations spanning the range of this species and including the type localities of all four described subspecies. Our samples included specimens of Cerion casablancae, a species introduced to Indian Key in 1912, and a population of C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrids descended from a population of C. casablancae introduced onto Bahia Honda Key in the same year. Molecular data did not support the partition of C. incanum into subspecies, nor could populations be apportioned reliably into subspecies based on morphological features used to define the subspecies. Phylogenetic analyses affirmed the derived relationship of C. incanum relative to other cerionids, and indicated a Bahamian origin for the Cerion fauna of southern Florida. Relationships among the populations throughout the Keys indicate that the northernmost populations, closest to the Tomeu paleoislands that had been inhabited by Cerion petuchi during the Calabrian Pleistocene, are the oldest. The range of Cerion incanum expanded as the archipelago that is the Florida Keys was formed since the lower Tarantian Pleistocene by extension from the northeast to the southwest, with new islands populated as they were formed. The faunas of the High Coral Keys in the northeast and the Oölite Keys in the southwest, both with large islands that host multiple discontinuous populations of Cerion, are each composed of well supported clades that are characterized by distinctive haplotypes. In contrast, the fauna of the intervening Low Coral Keys consist of a heterogeneous series of populations, some with haplotypes derived from the High Coral Keys, others from the Oölite Keys. Individuals from the C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrid population inhabiting the southeastern coast of Bahia

  2. Molecular nanomagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Gatteschi, Dante; Villain, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Nanomagnetism is a rapidly expanding area of research which appears to be able to provide novel applications. Magnetic molecules are at the very bottom of the possible size of nanomagnets and they provide a unique opportunity to observe the coexistence of classical and quantum properties. The discovery in the early 90's that a cluster comprising twelve manganese ions shows hysteresis of molecular origin, and later proved evidence of quantum effects, opened a new research area whichis still flourishing through the collaboration of chemists and physicists. This book is the first attempt to cover

  3. Molecular plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Adopting a novel approach, this book provides a unique ""molecular perspective"" on plasmonics, concisely presenting the fundamentals and applications in a way suitable for beginners entering this hot field as well as for experienced researchers and practitioners. It begins by introducing readers to the optical effects that occur at the nanoscale and particularly their modification in the presence of biomolecules, followed by a concise yet thorough overview of the different methods for the actual fabrication of nanooptical materials. Further chapters address the relevant nanooptics, as well as

  4. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  5. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  6. Key issues in transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-02-24

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations.

  7. Structuring Tensions and Key Relations of Montreal Seasonal Food Markets in the Sustainability Transition of the Agri-Food Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Audet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In cities across the world, local food networks aim to make food systems more sustainable and secure for all. As part of that effort, some of these networks also seek to introduce social innovation in the mode of selling food, namely as a way to initiate a broader transition of the sector. Based on two years of action research conducted together with promoters of Montreal’s seasonal markets, this article offers an account of the co-constructed narrative of a transition of the agri-food sector. On the one hand, transition theory anticipates that the transition to sustainability of the agri-food sector would depend on the protection and empowerment of innovative ‘niches’ that are facing the locked-in structure of the agri-food ‘sociotechnical regime’. Yet, on the other hand, the seasonal markets do not fit well in this portrait: they are shown to evolve at the intersection of the sociotechnical regime and innovative niches. For this reason, they are subject to regime rules and become difficult to protect as an entity. As such, seasonal markets face ‘structuring tensions’ that generate both practical dilemmas and innovative solutions in their modes of organization. These solutions, however, rely on webs of resources and supports that constitute ‘key relations’ for unlocking the agri-food regime rules. It is through managing these tensions and relations that the seasonal markets end up reconfiguring social and material relations and providing solutions for food security and a more sustainable food system. Therefore, we argue that the structuring tension and key relation concepts are useful for understanding the dynamics of social innovation in the transition to sustainability in food systems.

  8. Key Distribution and Changing Key Cryptosystem Based on Phase Retrieval Algorithm and RSA Public-Key Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieyu Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical image encryption has attracted more and more researchers’ attention, and the various encryption schemes have been proposed. In existing optical cryptosystem, the phase functions or images are usually used as the encryption keys, and it is difficult that the traditional public-key algorithm (such as RSA, ECC, etc. is used to complete large numerical key transfer. In this paper, we propose a key distribution scheme based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the RSA public-key algorithm, which solves the problem for the key distribution in optical image encryption system. Furthermore, we also propose a novel image encryption system based on the key distribution principle. In the system, the different keys can be used in every encryption process, which greatly improves the security of the system.

  9. Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia ? The Molecular Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Nessa, Azizun; Rahman, Sofia A.; Hussain, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Under normal physiological conditions, pancreatic β-cells secrete insulin to maintain fasting blood glucose levels in the range 3.5–5.5 mmol/L. In hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH), this precise regulation of insulin secretion is perturbed so that insulin continues to be secreted in the presence of hypoglycemia. HH may be due to genetic causes (congenital) or secondary to certain risk factors. The molecular mechanisms leading to HH involve defects in the key genes regulating insulin secretio...

  10. Quantum key distribution network for multiple applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, A.; Kondoh, T.; Ochi, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Yoshino, K.; Iizuka, H.; Sakamoto, T.; Tomita, A.; Shimamura, E.; Asami, S.; Sasaki, M.

    2017-09-01

    The fundamental architecture and functions of secure key management in a quantum key distribution (QKD) network with enhanced universal interfaces for smooth key sharing between arbitrary two nodes and enabling multiple secure communication applications are proposed. The proposed architecture consists of three layers: a quantum layer, key management layer and key supply layer. We explain the functions of each layer, the key formats in each layer and the key lifecycle for enabling a practical QKD network. A quantum key distribution-advanced encryption standard (QKD-AES) hybrid system and an encrypted smartphone system were developed as secure communication applications on our QKD network. The validity and usefulness of these systems were demonstrated on the Tokyo QKD Network testbed.

  11. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  12. A 4-gigabase physical map unlocks the structure and evolution of the complex genome of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luo, M.C.; Gu, Y.Q.; You, F.M.; Deal, K.R.; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Anderson, O.D.; Dvorak, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 19 (2013), s. 7940-7945 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : single nucleotide polymorphism * synteny * gene density Subject RIV: EB - Genetic s ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.809, year: 2013

  13. Progress on molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Quan; Zhang Yongxue

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a new era of medical imaging,which can non-invasively monitor biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo, including molecular imaging of nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance molecular imaging, ultrasound molecular imaging,optical molecular imaging and molecular imaging with X-ray. Recently, with the development of multi-subjects amalgamation, multimodal molecular imaging technology has been applied in clinical imaging, such as PET-CT and PET-MRI. We believe that with development of molecular probe and multi-modal imaging, more and more molecular imaging techniques will be applied in clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  14. Quantum key distribution via quantum encryption

    CERN Document Server

    Yong Sheng Zhang; Guang Can Guo

    2001-01-01

    A quantum key distribution protocol based on quantum encryption is presented in this Brief Report. In this protocol, the previously shared Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs act as the quantum key to encode and decode the classical cryptography key. The quantum key is reusable and the eavesdropper cannot elicit any information from the particle Alice sends to Bob. The concept of quantum encryption is also discussed. (21 refs).

  15. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  16. Improved Anonymity for Key-trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.; Beye, M.

    2013-01-01

    Randomized hash-lock protocols for Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags offer forward untraceability, but incur heavy search on the server. Key trees have been proposed as a way to reduce search times, but because partial keys in such trees are shared, key compromise affects several tags.

  17. Harry Potter and the Dichotomous Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, David T.

    2003-01-01

    In this lesson, students use Bertie Bott's Every Flavor Beans--a "wild" candy written about in the Harry Potter books and now available in stores--to learn about classification and dichotomous keys. In these activities, students sort jelly beans according to a key and then construct a key for a "new" flavor of beans. Students then build on their…

  18. VICKEY: Mining Conditional Keys on Knowledge Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Symeonidou , Danai; Galárraga , Luis; Pernelle , Nathalie; Saïs , Fatiha; Suchanek , Fabian

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A conditional key is a key constraint that is valid in only a part of the data. In this paper, we show how such keys can be mined automatically on large knowledge bases (KBs). For this, we combine techniques from key mining with techniques from rule mining. We show that our method can scale to KBs of millions of facts. We also show that the conditional keys we mine can improve the quality of entity linking by up to 47 percentage points.

  19. Molecular catalysts structure and functional design

    CERN Document Server

    Gade, Lutz H

    2014-01-01

    Highlighting the key aspects and latest advances in the rapidly developing field of molecular catalysis, this book covers new strategies to investigate reaction mechanisms, the enhancement of the catalysts' selectivity and efficiency, as well as the rational design of well-defined molecular catalysts. The interdisciplinary author team with an excellent reputation within the community discusses experimental and theoretical studies, along with examples of improved catalysts, and their application in organic synthesis, biocatalysis, and supported organometallic catalysis. As a result, readers wil

  20. On Atomistic Models for Molecular Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javanainen, Matti; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Monticelli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) is key to all life on earth, as it is constantly cycled via photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Substantial scientific effort has been devoted to understanding every part of this cycle. Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to study some of the key...... processes involved in cellular respiration: O2 permeation through alveolar monolayers and cellular membranes, its binding to hemoglobin during transport in the bloodstream, as well as its transport along optimal pathways toward its reduction sites in proteins. Moreover, MD simulations can help interpret...

  1. Molecular Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Benjamin H.; Powell, Simon N.

    2012-01-01

    The Rad52 protein was largely ignored in humans and other mammals when the mouse knockout revealed a largely “no-effect” phenotype. However, using synthetic lethal approaches to investigate context dependent function, new studies have shown that Rad52 plays a key survival role in cells lacking the function of the BRCA1-BRCA2 pathway of homologous recombination. Biochemical studies also showed significant differences between yeast and human Rad52, in which yeast Rad52 can promote strand invasion of RPA-coated single-stranded DNA in the presence of Rad51, but human Rad52 cannot. This results in the paradox of how is human Rad52 providing Rad51 function: presumably there is something missing in the biochemical assays that exists in-vivo, but the nature of this missing factor is currently unknown. Recent studies have suggested that Rad52 provides back-up Rad51 function for all members of the BRCA1-BRCA2 pathway, suggesting that Rad52 may be a target for therapy in BRCA pathway deficient cancers. Screening for ways to inhibit Rad52 would potentially provide a complementary strategy for targeting BRCA-deficient cancers in addition to PARP inhibitors. PMID:23071261

  2. Molecular Electronic Terms and Molecular Orbital Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazo, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the molecular electronic terms which can arise from a given electronic configuration. Considered are simple cases, molecular states, direct products, closed shells, and open shells. Two examples are provided. (CW)

  3. Doping-free white organic light-emitting diodes without blue molecular emitter: An unexplored approach to achieve high performance via exciplex emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dongxiang; Xiao, Ye; Hao, Mingming; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Yibin; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Baiquan

    2017-02-01

    Doping-free white organic light-emitting diodes (DF-WOLEDs) are promising for the low-cost commercialization because of their simplified device structures. However, DF-WOLEDs reported thus far in the literature are based on the use of blue single molecular emitters, whose processing can represent a crucial point in device manufacture. Herein, DF-WOLEDs without the blue single molecular emitter have been demonstrated by managing a blue exciplex system. For the single-molecular-emitter (orange or yellow emitter) DF-WOLEDs, (i) a color rendering index (CRI) of 81 at 1000 cd/m2 can be obtained, which is one of the highest for the single-molecular-emitter WOLEDs, or (ii) a high efficiency of 35.4 lm/W can be yielded. For the dual-molecular-emitter (yellow/red emitters) DF-WOLED, a high CRI of 85 and low correlated color temperature of 2376 K at 1000 cd/m2 have been simultaneously achieved, which has not been reported by previous DF-WOLEDs. Such presented findings may unlock an alternative avenue to the simplified but high-performance WOLEDs.

  4. Secret-key expansion from covert communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Amiri, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Covert communication allows the transmission of messages in such a way that it is not possible for adversaries to detect that the communication is occurring. This provides protection in situations where knowledge that two parties are talking to each other may be incriminating to them. In this work, we study how covert communication can be used for a different purpose: secret key expansion. First, we show that any message transmitted in a secure covert protocol is also secret and therefore unknown to an adversary. We then propose a covert communication protocol where the amount of key consumed in the protocol is smaller than the transmitted key, thus leading to secure secret key expansion. We derive precise conditions for secret key expansion to occur, showing that it is possible when there are sufficiently low levels of noise for a given security level. We conclude by examining how secret key expansion from covert communication can be performed in a computational security model.

  5. An ab initio molecular

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanisms of two molecular crystals: An ab initio molecular dynamics ... for Computation in Molecular and Materials Science and Department of Chemistry, School of ..... NSAF Foundation of National Natural Science Foun- ... Matter 14 2717.

  6. Establishing Key Performance Indicators : Case company X

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jatinder

    2015-01-01

    The key performance indicators serve as the navigational tools for a business organization to monitor its performance. They enable the management team to take real time decisions to keep organization’s resources aligned to its business strategy to accomplish its strategic objec-tives. This research was conducted to analyse the process of establishing successful key per-formance indicators for a business organization. The research was conducted to recommend key performance indicators developme...

  7. Competency Assessment Using Key Performance Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Alexandra Toader; Laura Brad

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a method for computing the scores of the key performance indicators resulted in the competency assessment process. The key performance indicators are estimated considering four performance levels that an IT professional can obtain at the end of the assessment process. We suggest as the best approach for estimating the performance key indicators an online questionnaire filled by 60 employees that work in IT Romanian companies. The results provide evidence that the difference...

  8. Enciphered Data Steganography Using Secret Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BANGALORE G.Tilak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to maintain thesecrecy of data by enciphering and embedding using asecret key. There is no restriction on the length of thekey used to encipher and embed the data. Since the keyis not stored for validation, it prevents unauthorizedaccess to the key, even if decoding procedure is known.The correct message can be recovered only with thespecific key used in encipherment and embedding. Thismethod can also be used for multiple levelsteganography.

  9. FPGA BASED HARDWARE KEY FOR TEMPORAL ENCRYPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lakshmi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel encryption scheme with time based key technique on an FPGA is presented. Time based key technique ensures right key to be entered at right time and hence, vulnerability of encryption through brute force attack is eliminated. Presently available encryption systems, suffer from Brute force attack and in such a case, the time taken for breaking a code depends on the system used for cryptanalysis. The proposed scheme provides an effective method in which the time is taken as the second dimension of the key so that the same system can defend against brute force attack more vigorously. In the proposed scheme, the key is rotated continuously and four bits are drawn from the key with their concatenated value representing the delay the system has to wait. This forms the time based key concept. Also the key based function selection from a pool of functions enhances the confusion and diffusion to defend against linear and differential attacks while the time factor inclusion makes the brute force attack nearly impossible. In the proposed scheme, the key scheduler is implemented on FPGA that generates the right key at right time intervals which is then connected to a NIOS – II processor (a virtual microcontroller which is brought out from Altera FPGA that communicates with the keys to the personal computer through JTAG (Joint Test Action Group communication and the computer is used to perform encryption (or decryption. In this case the FPGA serves as hardware key (dongle for data encryption (or decryption.

  10. Finite key analysis in quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, T.

    2007-01-01

    In view of experimental realization of quantum key distribution schemes, the study of their efficiency becomes as important as the proof of their security. The latter is the subject of most of the theoretical work about quantum key distribution, and many important results such as the proof of unconditional security have been obtained. The efficiency and also the robustness of quantum key distribution protocols against noise can be measured by figures of merit such as the secret key rate (the fraction of input signals that make it into the key) and the threshold quantum bit error rate (the maximal error rate such that one can still create a secret key). It is important to determine these quantities because they tell us whether a certain quantum key distribution scheme can be used at all in a given situation and if so, how many secret key bits it can generate in a given time. However, these figures of merit are usually derived under the ''infinite key limit'' assumption, that is, one assumes that an infinite number of quantum states are send and that all sub-protocols of the scheme (in particular privacy amplification) are carried out on these infinitely large blocks. Such an assumption usually eases the analysis, but also leads to (potentially) too optimistic values for the quantities in question. In this thesis, we are explicitly avoiding the infinite key limit for the analysis of the privacy amplification step, which plays the most important role in a quantum key distribution scheme. We still assume that an optimal error correction code is applied and we do not take into account any statistical errors that might occur in the parameter estimation step. Renner and coworkers derived an explicit formula for the obtainable key rate in terms of Renyi entropies of the quantum states describing Alice's, Bob's, and Eve's systems. This results serves as a starting point for our analysis, and we derive an algorithm that efficiently computes the obtainable key rate for any

  11. EPA Monthly Key Performance Indicator Dashboards 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each month, the Web Analytics Program posts updated Key Performance Indicator (KPI) dashboards that correspond to three Web performance goals: content consumption, content discovery, and audience engagement.

  12. Nickel exposure from keys: a Brazilian issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Keys are a significant source of exposure to metal allergens and can be a relevant problem for nickel-allergic individuals. This study aimed to perform nickel and cobalt spot testing among the 5 most common Brazilian brands of keys. Among the tested keys, 100% showed positive result to nickel spot test, 83,3% presented strong positive reaction. 50% exhibited cobalt release as well. Nickel release from keys is very common in our country and may cause a negative impact on sensitized individual's quality of life. Study's results highlight the importance of establishing directives to regulate nickel release in Brazil.

  13. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice... section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No...

  14. Key management of the double random-phase-encoding method using public-key encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2010-03-01

    Public-key encryption has been used to encode the key of the encryption process. In the proposed technique, an input image has been encrypted by using the double random-phase-encoding method using extended fractional Fourier transform. The key of the encryption process have been encoded by using the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. The encoded key has then been transmitted to the receiver side along with the encrypted image. In the decryption process, first the encoded key has been decrypted using the secret key and then the encrypted image has been decrypted by using the retrieved key parameters. The proposed technique has advantage over double random-phase-encoding method because the problem associated with the transmission of the key has been eliminated by using public-key encryption. Computer simulation has been carried out to validate the proposed technique.

  15. Robust Public Key Cryptography — A New Cryptosystem Surviving Private Key Compromise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Cheman

    A weakness of the present-day public key cryptosystems is that these cryptosystems do not survive private-key compromise attacks resulting from an internal breach of trust. In a competitive business environment, private key compromise is a common incident that voids the strength of public key cryptosystems such as RSA and ECC. Bribing corporate employees to disclose their secret keys and inadvertently disclosing secret information are among a plethora of practical attacks that occur at the implementation level. Once a breach of trust takes place and subsequently the private key is revealed, any public key cryptosystem fails to secure electronic data in Internet communications. The revealed key may be used by an attacker to decipher the intercepted data at an intermediary router. This weakness of public key cryptography calls for an additional security measure that enables encryptions to survive private key compromise attacks.

  16. Key-value store with internal key-value storage interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Ting, Dennis P. J.; Tzelnic, Percy; Gupta, Uday; Grider, Gary; Bonnie, David J.

    2018-01-16

    A key-value store is provided having one or more key-value storage interfaces. A key-value store on at least one compute node comprises a memory for storing a plurality of key-value pairs; and an abstract storage interface comprising a software interface module that communicates with at least one persistent storage device providing a key-value interface for persistent storage of one or more of the plurality of key-value pairs, wherein the software interface module provides the one or more key-value pairs to the at least one persistent storage device in a key-value format. The abstract storage interface optionally processes one or more batch operations on the plurality of key-value pairs. A distributed embodiment for a partitioned key-value store is also provided.

  17. Charge Transport Processes in Molecular Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher Eugene

    Molecular electronics (ME) has evolved into a rich area of exploration that combines the fields of chemistry, materials, electronic engineering and computational modeling to explore the physics behind electronic conduction at the molecular level. Through studying charge transport properties of single molecules and nanoscale molecular materials the field has gained the potential to bring about new avenues for the miniaturization of electrical components where quantum phenomena are utilized to achieve solid state molecular device functionality. Molecular junctions are platforms that enable these studies and consist of a single molecule or a small group of molecules directly connected to electrodes. The work presented in this thesis has built upon the current understanding of the mechanisms of charge transport in ordered junctions using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecular thin films. Donor and acceptor compounds were synthesized and incorporated into SAMs grown on metal substrates then the transport properties were measured with conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). In addition to experimentally measured current-voltage (I-V) curves, the transport properties were addressed computationally and modeled theoretically. The key objectives of this project were to 1) investigate the impact of molecular structure on hole and electron charge transport, 2) understand the nature of the charge carriers and their structure-transport properties through long (chemically gated to modulate the transport. These results help advance our understanding of transport behavior in semiconducting molecular thin films, and open opportunities to engineer improved electronic functionality into molecular devices.

  18. Securing information using optically generated biometric keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique to obtain biometric keys by using the fingerprint of a person for an optical image encryption system. The key generation scheme uses the fingerprint biometric information in terms of the amplitude mask (AM) and the phase mask (PM) of the reconstructed fingerprint image that is implemented using the digital holographic technique. Statistical tests have been conducted to check the randomness of the fingerprint PM key that enables its usage as an image encryption key. To explore the utility of the generated biometric keys, an optical image encryption system has been further demonstrated based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the double random phase encoding scheme in which keys for the encryption are used as the AM and the PM key. The advantage associated with the proposed scheme is that the biometric keys’ retrieval requires the simultaneous presence of the fingerprint hologram and the correct knowledge of the reconstruction parameters at the decryption stage, which not only verifies the authenticity of the person but also protects the valuable fingerprint biometric features of the keys. Numerical results are carried out to prove the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed encryption system.

  19. Eight Key Facets of Small Business Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James Calvert

    1980-01-01

    Identifies eight key facets of small business management and suggests activities that may be used to assist in their development. The key facets are (1) product or service, (2) competition, (3) marketing strategies, (4) personnel needs, (5) equipment and facility needs, (6) finances, (7) planning, and (8) entrepreneurship. (JOW)

  20. Quantum key distribution using three basis states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 54; Issue 5. Quantum key distribution using three ... This note presents a method of public key distribution using quantum communication of photons that simultaneously provides a high probability that the bits have not been tampered. It is a variant of the quantum ...

  1. Optimizing Key Updates in Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Sensor networks offer the advantages of simple and low–resource communication. Nevertheless, security is of particular importance in many cases such as when sensitive data is communicated or tamper-resistance is required. Updating the security keys is one of the key points in security, which...

  2. Locks & keys service moves to building 55

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Please note that as of July 12 Locks & keys service will be at building 55 second floor. The opening hours are as follows: 08:30 am to 12:30 pm - 1:30 pm to 5:30 pm. The procedures and rules relating to applications for key and cylinder have not changed. GI-IS Group

  3. Strategy Keys as Tools for Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold-Blasius, Raja

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving is one of the main competences we seek to teach students at school for use in their future lives. However, when dealing with mathematical problems, teachers encounter a wide variety of difficulties. To foster students' problem-solving skills, the authors developed "strategy keys." Strategy keys can serve as material to…

  4. Secure key distribution by swapping quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Daegene

    2004-01-01

    We report two key distribution schemes achieved by swapping quantum entanglement. Using two Bell states, two bits of secret key can be shared between two distant parties that play symmetric and equal roles. We also address eavesdropping attacks against the schemes

  5. A survey on exploring key performance indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Badawy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Performance Indicators (KPIs allows gathering knowledge and exploring the best way to achieve organization goals. Many researchers have provided different ideas for determining KPI's either manually, and semi-automatic, or automatic which is applied in different fields. This work concentrates on providing a survey of different approaches for exploring and predicting key performance indicators (KPIs.

  6. The LOFAR Transients Key Science Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, B.; Fender, R.; Wijers, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Transients Key Science Project (TKP) is one of six Key Science Projects of the next generation radio telescope LOFAR. Its aim is the study of transient and variable low-frequency radio sources with an extremely broad science case ranging from relativistic jet sources to pulsars, exoplanets,

  7. Optimal grazing management strategies: evaluating key concepts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, overstocking will override key management initiatives, such as effective recovery periods, leading to rangeland degradation. Thus, in variable climates, stocking rate should be set conservatively to allow easier adaptation of animal numbers to rainfall variability from year to year. We suggest several key concepts that ...

  8. Multiparty quantum key agreement with single particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei; Huang, Wei; Wen, Qiao-yan

    2013-04-01

    Two conditions must be satisfied in a secure quantum key agreement (QKA) protocol: (1) outside eavesdroppers cannot gain the generated key without introducing any error; (2) the generated key cannot be determined by any non-trivial subset of the participants. That is, a secure QKA protocol can not only prevent the outside attackers from stealing the key, but also resist the attack from inside participants, i.e. some dishonest participants determine the key alone by illegal means. How to resist participant attack is an aporia in the design of QKA protocols, especially the multi-party ones. In this paper we present the first secure multiparty QKA protocol against both outside and participant attacks. Further more, we have proved its security in detail.

  9. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.

  10. Fundamental study on the size and inter-key spacing of numeric keys for touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, H; Katsuura, T; Kikuchi, Y

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the optimum size and inter-key spacing of numeric square keys for touch screens. Six male students (22-25 years old) and three female students (21-24 years old) volunteered as subjects for this experiment. Each subject took part in data entry tasks using numeric square keys of touch devices. The sizes of keys were 6, 12, 21, 30 and 39 mm and each the inter-key spacing was 0, 3, 6, 12 and 21 mm. Response times with key sizes of 6 and 12 mm were significantly slower than with key sizes of 21 and 30 mm (p touch screens should be more than 21 mm and optimum inter-key spacing should be from 3 to 6 mm. Optimum key size, however, must be selected with regard to the limitation of screen size.

  11. Molecular and biological interactions in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heer, Pieter de

    2007-01-01

    The current thesis discusses the use of molecular and biological tumor markers to predict clinical outcome. By studying several key processes in the develepment of cancer as regulation of cell motility (non-receptor protein tyrosin adesion kinases, FAK, Src and paxillin, Apoptosis (caspase-3

  12. New weak keys in simplified IDEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafman, Sari Agustini; Muhafidzah, Arini

    2016-02-01

    Simplified IDEA (S-IDEA) is simplified version of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) and useful teaching tool to help students to understand IDEA. In 2012, Muryanto and Hafman have found a weak key class in the S-IDEA by used differential characteristics in one-round (0, ν, 0, ν) → (0,0, ν, ν) on the first round to produce input difference (0,0, ν, ν) on the fifth round. Because Muryanto and Hafman only use three differential characteristics in one-round, we conducted a research to find new differential characteristics in one-round and used it to produce new weak key classes of S-IDEA. To find new differential characteristics in one-round of S-IDEA, we applied a multiplication mod 216+1 on input difference and combination of active sub key Z1, Z4, Z5, Z6. New classes of weak keys are obtained by combining all of these characteristics and use them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA with or without the 4th round sub key. In this research, we found six new differential characteristics in one round and combined them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used and the 4th round sub key required, we obtain 2 new classes of weak keys, 213 and 28. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used, yet the 4th round sub key is not required, the weak key class of 213 will be 221 and 28 will be 210. Membership test can not be applied to recover the key bits in those weak key classes. The recovery of those unknown key bits can only be done by using brute force attack. The simulation result indicates that the bit of the key can be recovered by the longest computation time of 0,031 ms.

  13. Cancer Stratification by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus Weber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of specificity of traditional cytotoxic drugs has triggered the development of anticancer agents that selectively address specific molecular targets. An intrinsic property of these specialized drugs is their limited applicability for specific patient subgroups. Consequently, the generation of information about tumor characteristics is the key to exploit the potential of these drugs. Currently, cancer stratification relies on three approaches: Gene expression analysis and cancer proteomics, immunohistochemistry and molecular imaging. In order to enable the precise localization of functionally expressed targets, molecular imaging combines highly selective biomarkers and intense signal sources. Thus, cancer stratification and localization are performed simultaneously. Many cancer types are characterized by altered receptor expression, such as somatostatin receptors, folate receptors or Her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Similar correlations are also known for a multitude of transporters, such as glucose transporters, amino acid transporters or hNIS (human sodium iodide symporter, as well as cell specific proteins, such as the prostate specific membrane antigen, integrins, and CD20. This review provides a comprehensive description of the methods, targets and agents used in molecular imaging, to outline their application for cancer stratification. Emphasis is placed on radiotracers which are used to identify altered expression patterns of cancer associated markers.

  14. Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.

  15. Molecular HIV screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlet, Thomas; Memmi, Meriam; Saoudin, Henia; Pozzetto, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear acid testing is more and more used for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. This paper focuses on the use of molecular tools for HIV screening. The term 'screening' will be used under the meaning of first-line HIV molecular techniques performed on a routine basis, which excludes HIV molecular tests designed to confirm or infirm a newly discovered HIV-seropositive patient or other molecular tests performed for the follow-up of HIV-infected patients. The following items are developed successively: i) presentation of the variety of molecular tools used for molecular HIV screening, ii) use of HIV molecular tools for the screening of blood products, iii) use of HIV molecular tools for the screening of organs and tissue from human origin, iv) use of HIV molecular tools in medically assisted procreation and v) use of HIV molecular tools in neonates from HIV-infected mothers.

  16. Subcarrier multiplexing optical quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortigosa-Blanch, A.; Capmany, J.

    2006-01-01

    We present the physical principles of a quantum key distribution system that opens the possibility of parallel quantum key distribution and, therefore, of a substantial improvement in the bit rate of such systems. Quantum mechanics allows for multiple measurements at different frequencies and thus we exploit this concept by extending the concept of frequency coding to the case where more than one radio-frequency subcarrier is used for independently encoding the bits onto an optical carrier. Taking advantage of subcarrier multiplexing techniques we demonstrate that the bit rate can be greatly improved as parallel key distribution is enabled

  17. Molecular pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Bøje

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an orphan cancer of the hepatobiliary tract, the incidence of which has increased in the past decade. The molecular pathogenesis of this treatment-refractory disease is poorly understood. Desmoplasia is a key causal feature of CCA; however, a majority of tumors develop...... and individualization for precision therapies. Many questions persevere as to the evolutionary process and cellular origin of the initial transforming event, the context of intratumoral plasticity and the causal driver action. Next-generation sequencing has begun to underline the persistent alterations, which may...

  18. RxnFinder: biochemical reaction search engines using molecular structures, molecular fragments and reaction similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qian-Nan; Deng, Zhe; Hu, Huanan; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2011-09-01

    Biochemical reactions play a key role to help sustain life and allow cells to grow. RxnFinder was developed to search biochemical reactions from KEGG reaction database using three search criteria: molecular structures, molecular fragments and reaction similarity. RxnFinder is helpful to get reference reactions for biosynthesis and xenobiotics metabolism. RxnFinder is freely available via: http://sdd.whu.edu.cn/rxnfinder. qnhu@whu.edu.cn.

  19. Understanding molecular structure from molecular mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinger, Norman L

    2011-04-01

    Molecular mechanics gives us a well known model of molecular structure. It is less widely recognized that valence bond theory gives us structures which offer a direct interpretation of molecular mechanics formulations and parameters. The electronic effects well-known in physical organic chemistry can be directly interpreted in terms of valence bond structures, and hence quantitatively calculated and understood. The basic theory is outlined in this paper, and examples of the effects, and their interpretation in illustrative examples is presented.

  20. Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on science at J-PARC. Unlocking the mysteries of life, matter and the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-09-01

    It is really our pleasure to be able to issue the proceeding of the symposium with numerous high quality scientific papers encompassing areas of high intensity accelerators, particle and nuclear physics, materials and life sciences, in particular, with neutron and muon, and accelerator driven nuclear transmutation technology. I think this special paper assembly is a showcase of J-PARC as a multipurpose facility, which is a key demonstration of characteristics of J-PARC as the multipurpose facility. During the three-day discussion, we had an opportunity to focus on all these important issues in depth and consider the scientific outlook toward J-PARC for the subsequent decades and beyond, which will benefit all stakeholders and contribute to scientific evolution worldwide. This issue is the collection of 402 papers presented at the entitled meeting. The 215 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  1. Amphibian molecular ecology and how it has informed conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney-Melstad, Evan; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2015-10-01

    Molecular ecology has become one of the key tools in the modern conservationist's kit. Here we review three areas where molecular ecology has been applied to amphibian conservation: genes on landscapes, within-population processes, and genes that matter. We summarize relevant analytical methods, recent important studies from the amphibian literature, and conservation implications for each section. Finally, we include five in-depth examples of how molecular ecology has been successfully applied to specific amphibian systems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... the flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the ...

  3. China demonstrates intercontinental quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2017-11-01

    A quantum cryptography key has been shared between Beijing and Vienna using a satellite - allowing the presidents of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Austrian Academy of Sciences to communicate via a secure video link.

  4. Key Principles of Superfund Remedy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance on the primary considerations of remedy selection which are universally applicable at Superfund sites. Key guidance here include: Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection and Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment.

  5. Key Royale bridge five year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report describes the design, construction, instrumentation, and five-year evaluation of the Key Royale Bridge substructure. The primary focus was the evaluation of the implementation of highly reactive supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) ...

  6. Keys to Successful EPIQ Business Demonstrator Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoikova, Elena; Denishev, Vladislav

    2009-01-01

    Shoikova, E., & Denishev, V. (2009). Keys to Successful EPIQ Business Demonstrator Implementation. Paper presented at the 'Open workshop of TENCompetence - Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty-event'. November, 19, 2009, Manchester, United Kingdom: TENCompetence.

  7. Secure image retrieval with multiple keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Haihua; Zhang, Xinpeng; Wei, Qiuhan; Cheng, Hang

    2018-03-01

    This article proposes a secure image retrieval scheme under a multiuser scenario. In this scheme, the owner first encrypts and uploads images and their corresponding features to the cloud; then, the user submits the encrypted feature of the query image to the cloud; next, the cloud compares the encrypted features and returns encrypted images with similar content to the user. To find the nearest neighbor in the encrypted features, an encryption with multiple keys is proposed, in which the query feature of each user is encrypted by his/her own key. To improve the key security and space utilization, global optimization and Gaussian distribution are, respectively, employed to generate multiple keys. The experiments show that the proposed encryption can provide effective and secure image retrieval for each user and ensure confidentiality of the query feature of each user.

  8. Coherent one-way quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Damien; Fasel, Sylvain; Gisin, Nicolas; Thoma, Yann; Zbinden, Hugo

    2007-05-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) consists in the exchange of a secrete key between two distant points [1]. Even if quantum key distribution systems exist and commercial systems are reaching the market [2], there are still improvements to be made: simplify the construction of the system; increase the secret key rate. To this end, we present a new protocol for QKD tailored to work with weak coherent pulses and at high bit rates [3]. The advantages of this system are that the setup is experimentally simple and it is tolerant to reduced interference visibility and to photon number splitting attacks, thus resulting in a high efficiency in terms of distilled secret bits per qubit. After having successfully tested the feasibility of the system [3], we are currently developing a fully integrated and automated prototype within the SECOQC project [4]. We present the latest results using the prototype. We also discuss the issue of the photon detection, which still remains the bottleneck for QKD.

  9. Finite key analysis in quantum cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T.

    2007-10-31

    In view of experimental realization of quantum key distribution schemes, the study of their efficiency becomes as important as the proof of their security. The latter is the subject of most of the theoretical work about quantum key distribution, and many important results such as the proof of unconditional security have been obtained. The efficiency and also the robustness of quantum key distribution protocols against noise can be measured by figures of merit such as the secret key rate (the fraction of input signals that make it into the key) and the threshold quantum bit error rate (the maximal error rate such that one can still create a secret key). It is important to determine these quantities because they tell us whether a certain quantum key distribution scheme can be used at all in a given situation and if so, how many secret key bits it can generate in a given time. However, these figures of merit are usually derived under the ''infinite key limit'' assumption, that is, one assumes that an infinite number of quantum states are send and that all sub-protocols of the scheme (in particular privacy amplification) are carried out on these infinitely large blocks. Such an assumption usually eases the analysis, but also leads to (potentially) too optimistic values for the quantities in question. In this thesis, we are explicitly avoiding the infinite key limit for the analysis of the privacy amplification step, which plays the most important role in a quantum key distribution scheme. We still assume that an optimal error correction code is applied and we do not take into account any statistical errors that might occur in the parameter estimation step. Renner and coworkers derived an explicit formula for the obtainable key rate in terms of Renyi entropies of the quantum states describing Alice's, Bob's, and Eve's systems. This results serves as a starting point for our analysis, and we derive an algorithm that efficiently computes

  10. Renyi information gain on quantum key

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Howard E

    2007-01-01

    The concept of maximum Renyi information gain from quantum key is important in eavesdropping and security analyses of quantum key distribution. It is particularly useful in the design optimization of eavesdropping probes. The present work reviews the quantitative measure of Renyi information gain, its optimization, and application to the design of eavesdropping probes in which single-photon probe states become optimally entangled with the signal states on their way between the legitimate transmitter and receiver

  11. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  12. Mathematical Background of Public Key Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Gerhard; Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material.......The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material....

  13. Soil fauna: key to new carbon models

    OpenAIRE

    Filser, Juliane; Faber, Jack H.; Tiunov, Alexei V.; Brussaard, Lijbert; Frouz, Jan; Deyn, Gerlinde; Uvarov, Alexei V.; Berg, Matty P.; Lavelle, Patrick; Loreau, Michel; Wall, Diana H.; Querner, Pascal; Eijsackers, Herman; Jiménez, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is key to maintaining soil fertility, mitigating climate change, combatting land degradation, and conserving above- and below-ground biodiversity and associated soil processes and ecosystem services. In order to derive management options for maintaining these essential services provided by soils, policy makers depend on robust, predictive models identifying key drivers of SOM dynamics. Existing SOM models and suggested guidelines for future SOM modelling are defined ...

  14. A Key to the Art of Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    2008-01-01

    The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English...... that Lane is the first to use English as the basis for writing universal grammar, as part of his strategy to promote English as a universal code for learning and science...

  15. Is the Green Key standard the golden key for sustainability measurement in the hospitality sector?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.G.; Van Rheede, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Green Key is an eco-rating program that aims at promoting sustainable business practices in the hospitality sector. The Green Key assesses amongst others the sustainable management of energy, water and waste within hotels and other hospitality firms. The Green Key standard awards points if

  16. Fundamental quantitative security in quantum key generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the fundamental security significance of the quantitative criteria on the final generated key K in quantum key generation including the quantum criterion d, the attacker's mutual information on K, and the statistical distance between her distribution on K and the uniform distribution. For operational significance a criterion has to produce a guarantee on the attacker's probability of correctly estimating some portions of K from her measurement, in particular her maximum probability of identifying the whole K. We distinguish between the raw security of K when the attacker just gets at K before it is used in a cryptographic context and its composition security when the attacker may gain further information during its actual use to help get at K. We compare both of these securities of K to those obtainable from conventional key expansion with a symmetric key cipher. It is pointed out that a common belief in the superior security of a quantum generated K is based on an incorrect interpretation of d which cannot be true, and the security significance of d is uncertain. Generally, the quantum key distribution key K has no composition security guarantee and its raw security guarantee from concrete protocols is worse than that of conventional ciphers. Furthermore, for both raw and composition security there is an exponential catch-up problem that would make it difficult to quantitatively improve the security of K in a realistic protocol. Some possible ways to deal with the situation are suggested.

  17. Key handling in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y; Newe, T

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid growth of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many advanced application areas have received significant attention. However, security will be an important factor for their full adoption. Wireless sensor nodes pose unique challenges and as such traditional security protocols, used in traditional networks cannot be applied directly. Some new protocols have been published recently with the goal of providing both privacy of data and authentication of sensor nodes for WSNs. Such protocols can employ private-key and/or public key cryptographic algorithms. Public key algorithms hold the promise of simplifying the network infrastructure required to provide security services such as: privacy, authentication and non-repudiation, while symmetric algorithms require less processing power on the lower power wireless node. In this paper a selection of key establishment/agreement protocols are reviewed and they are broadly divided into two categories: group key agreement protocols and pair-wise key establishment protocols. A summary of the capabilities and security related services provided by each protocol is provided

  18. Key handling in wireless sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y; Newe, T [Optical Fibre Sensors Research Centre, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

    2007-07-15

    With the rapid growth of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many advanced application areas have received significant attention. However, security will be an important factor for their full adoption. Wireless sensor nodes pose unique challenges and as such traditional security protocols, used in traditional networks cannot be applied directly. Some new protocols have been published recently with the goal of providing both privacy of data and authentication of sensor nodes for WSNs. Such protocols can employ private-key and/or public key cryptographic algorithms. Public key algorithms hold the promise of simplifying the network infrastructure required to provide security services such as: privacy, authentication and non-repudiation, while symmetric algorithms require less processing power on the lower power wireless node. In this paper a selection of key establishment/agreement protocols are reviewed and they are broadly divided into two categories: group key agreement protocols and pair-wise key establishment protocols. A summary of the capabilities and security related services provided by each protocol is provided.

  19. Key-Phenomenon and Religious Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomuscio Vincenzo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I develop a phenomenology of religious experience through the notion of keyphenomenon. My analysis moves from a general phenomenology of situation, in which we have to relate different phenomena according to a sense. What does “according to a sense” mean? My suggestion is that we should look for a relationship among these data when we find a key-phenomenon (among a series of phenomena that would enlighten all the others. This key-phenomenon would show a non-phenomenal meaning which would make all the others understandable. Each other datum, therefore, becomes the witness of invisible meaning through a key-witness. The key-phenomenon we choose determines the role (i.e., the truth of each datum within its situation. This phenomenological relationship belongs to both the sense of day-life situations, and that one of possible religious situations. If the religious interpretation of a situation depends on our choice of key-phenomenon, or key-witness, we have to define what kind of keyphenomenon constitutes a religious intuition.

  20. Key Frame Extraction in the Summary Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelong; Zhao, Bin; Lu, Xiaoqiang; Xuelong Li; Bin Zhao; Xiaoqiang Lu; Lu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuelong; Zhao, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Key frame extraction is an efficient way to create the video summary which helps users obtain a quick comprehension of the video content. Generally, the key frames should be representative of the video content, meanwhile, diverse to reduce the redundancy. Based on the assumption that the video data are near a subspace of a high-dimensional space, a new approach, named as key frame extraction in the summary space, is proposed for key frame extraction in this paper. The proposed approach aims to find the representative frames of the video and filter out similar frames from the representative frame set. First of all, the video data are mapped to a high-dimensional space, named as summary space. Then, a new representation is learned for each frame by analyzing the intrinsic structure of the summary space. Specifically, the learned representation can reflect the representativeness of the frame, and is utilized to select representative frames. Next, the perceptual hash algorithm is employed to measure the similarity of representative frames. As a result, the key frame set is obtained after filtering out similar frames from the representative frame set. Finally, the video summary is constructed by assigning the key frames in temporal order. Additionally, the ground truth, created by filtering out similar frames from human-created summaries, is utilized to evaluate the quality of the video summary. Compared with several traditional approaches, the experimental results on 80 videos from two datasets indicate the superior performance of our approach.

  1. Unlocking the Karyological and Cytogenetic Diversity of Iris from Lebanon: Oncocyclus Section Shows a Distinctive Profile and Relative Stasis during Its Continental Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Samad, Nour; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; Hidalgo, Oriane; El Zein, Rana; Douaihy, Bouchra; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an important target of conservation concern and horticultural interest, Lebanese irises yet have a confusing taxonomic history and species' delimitation is often considered problematic, more especially among royal irises (Iris section Oncocyclus). Indeed, these irises of exceptionally large and spectacular flowers have radiated across Caucasus and eastern Mediterranean giving rise to a number of strict endemic taxa, many of them being considered under threat. Whilst efforts have mostly focused on clarifying the evolutionary relationships in the group based on morphological and molecular data, karyological and cytogenetic characters have been comparatively overlooked. In this study, we established for the first time the physical mapping of 35S rDNA loci and heterochromatin, and obtained karyo-morphological data for ten Lebanese Iris species belonging to four sections (Iris, Limniris, Oncocyclus and Scorpiris). Our results evidenced distinctive genomic profiles for each one of the sections, where Oncocyclus irises, while having the lowest chromosome numbers, exhibit both the highest number of 35S loci and CMA3+ sites. The continental radiation of royal irises has been accompanied by a relative karyological and cytogenetic stasis, even though some changes were observed regarding karyotype formula and asymmetry indexes. In addition to that, our results enabled taxonomic differentiation between I. germanica and I. mesopotamica-two taxa currently considered as synonyms-and highlighted the need for further studies on populations of I. persica and I. wallasiae in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

  2. Isolation of key retinoid signalling and metabolic modules in invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana André

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids are a class of molecules related to vitamin A (Retinol that are required for regulation of critical chordate ndocrine-mediated process, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and vision. To maintain such physiological process, chordates have a complex mechanism to regulate the spatial and temporal distribution of retinoids that includes metabolic and signalling modules. Initially, retinoid modules were seen as a chordate novelty. However, emerging biochemical and genomic evidences have challenged this view, clearly pointing to a more basal ancestry than previously thought. However, for the majority of non-chordate invertebrate lineages a clearly characterization of the main enzymatic/molecular players is still missing. Despite limited, the available evidence supports the presence of biologically active retinoid pathways in invertebrates. In order to enhance our insights on retinoid biology, evolution, and its putative disruption by environmental chemicals, the isolation and functional characterization of key retinoid metabolic players in marine invertebrates has been carried out.

  3. Unlocking mechanisms in interleukin-1β-induced changes in hippocampal neurogenesis--a role for GSK-3β and TLX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H F; Nolan, Y M

    2012-11-20

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and the orphan nuclear receptor tailless homolog (TLX) are key regulators of hippocampal neurogenesis, which has been reported to be dysregulated in both neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Inflammation is also implicated in the neuropathology of these disorders because of increased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the brain. At elevated levels, IL-1β signaling through the IL-1 receptor type 1 has been shown to be detrimental to hippocampal neurogenesis. TLX is required to maintain neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in an undifferentiated state and is involved in NSPC fate determination, while GSK-3β negatively regulates Wnt signaling, a vital pathway promoting neurogenesis. This study shows that GSK-3β inhibition using a small-molecule inhibitor and the mood stabilizer lithium restores the IL-1β-induced decrease in NSPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation of embryonic rat hippocampal NSPCs to control levels. The IL-1β-induced effect on NSPCs is paralleled by a decrease in TLX expression that can be prevented by GSK-3β inhibition. The present results suggest that GSK-3β ameliorates the anti-proliferative and pro-gliogenic effects of IL-1β, and that TLX is vulnerable to inflammatory insult. Strategies to reduce GSK-3β activity or to increase TLX expression may facilitate the restoration of hippocampal neurogenesis in neuroinflammatory conditions where neurogenesis is impaired.

  4. Unlocking mechanisms in interleukin-1β-induced changes in hippocampal neurogenesis—a role for GSK-3β and TLX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H F; Nolan, Y M

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and the orphan nuclear receptor tailless homolog (TLX) are key regulators of hippocampal neurogenesis, which has been reported to be dysregulated in both neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Inflammation is also implicated in the neuropathology of these disorders because of increased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the brain. At elevated levels, IL-1β signaling through the IL-1 receptor type 1 has been shown to be detrimental to hippocampal neurogenesis. TLX is required to maintain neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in an undifferentiated state and is involved in NSPC fate determination, while GSK-3β negatively regulates Wnt signaling, a vital pathway promoting neurogenesis. This study shows that GSK-3β inhibition using a small-molecule inhibitor and the mood stabilizer lithium restores the IL-1β-induced decrease in NSPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation of embryonic rat hippocampal NSPCs to control levels. The IL-1β-induced effect on NSPCs is paralleled by a decrease in TLX expression that can be prevented by GSK-3β inhibition. The present results suggest that GSK-3β ameliorates the anti-proliferative and pro-gliogenic effects of IL-1β, and that TLX is vulnerable to inflammatory insult. Strategies to reduce GSK-3β activity or to increase TLX expression may facilitate the restoration of hippocampal neurogenesis in neuroinflammatory conditions where neurogenesis is impaired. PMID:23168994

  5. Image encryption using fingerprint as key based on phase retrieval algorithm and public key cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a novel image encryption system with fingerprint used as a secret key is proposed based on the phase retrieval algorithm and RSA public key algorithm. In the system, the encryption keys include the fingerprint and the public key of RSA algorithm, while the decryption keys are the fingerprint and the private key of RSA algorithm. If the users share the fingerprint, then the system will meet the basic agreement of asymmetric cryptography. The system is also applicable for the information authentication. The fingerprint as secret key is used in both the encryption and decryption processes so that the receiver can identify the authenticity of the ciphertext by using the fingerprint in decryption process. Finally, the simulation results show the validity of the encryption scheme and the high robustness against attacks based on the phase retrieval technique.

  6. A fast and versatile quantum key distribution system with hardware key distillation and wavelength multiplexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walenta, N; Gisin, N; Guinnard, O; Houlmann, R; Korzh, B; Lim, C W; Lunghi, T; Portmann, C; Thew, R T; Burg, A; Constantin, J; Caselunghe, D; Kulesza, N; Legré, M; Monat, L; Soucarros, M; Trinkler, P; Junod, P; Trolliet, G; Vannel, F

    2014-01-01

    We present a compactly integrated, 625 MHz clocked coherent one-way quantum key distribution system which continuously distributes secret keys over an optical fibre link. To support high secret key rates, we implemented a fast hardware key distillation engine which allows for key distillation rates up to 4 Mbps in real time. The system employs wavelength multiplexing in order to run over only a single optical fibre. Using fast gated InGaAs single photon detectors, we reliably distribute secret keys with a rate above 21 kbps over 25 km of optical fibre. We optimized the system considering a security analysis that respects finite-key-size effects, authentication costs and system errors for a security parameter of ε QKD  = 4 × 10 −9 . (paper)

  7. Setting objectives for managing Key deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Wagner, Tyler; Stauffer, Glenn E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is responsible for the protection and management of Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) because the species is listed as Endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The purpose of the ESA is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. There are a host of actions that could possibly be undertaken to recover the Key deer population, but without a clearly defined problem and stated objectives it can be difficult to compare and evaluate alternative actions. In addition, management goals and the acceptability of alternative management actions are inherently linked to stakeholders, who should be engaged throughout the process of developing a decision framework. The purpose of this project was to engage a representative group of stakeholders to develop a problem statement that captured the management problem the FWS must address with Key deer and identify objectives that, if met, would help solve the problem. In addition, the objectives were organized in a hierarchical manner (i.e., an objectives network) to show how they are linked, and measurable attributes were identified for each objective. We organized a group of people who represented stakeholders interested in and potentially affected by the management of Key deer. These stakeholders included individuals who represented local, state, and federal governments, non-governmental organizations, the general public, and local businesses. This stakeholder group met five full days over the course of an eight-week period to identify objectives that would address the following problem:“As recovery and removal from the Endangered Species list is the purpose of the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service needs a management approach that will ensure a sustainable, viable, and healthy Key deer population. Urbanization has affected the behavior and population dynamics of the Key deer and the amount and characteristics

  8. Fully device-independent conference key agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jérémy; Murta, Gláucia; Wehner, Stephanie

    2018-02-01

    We present a security analysis of conference key agreement (CKA) in the most adversarial model of device independence (DI). Our protocol can be implemented by any experimental setup that is capable of performing Bell tests [specifically, the Mermin-Ardehali-Belinskii-Klyshko (MABK) inequality], and security can in principle be obtained for any violation of the MABK inequality that detects genuine multipartite entanglement among the N parties involved in the protocol. As our main tool, we derive a direct physical connection between the N -partite MABK inequality and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, showing that certain violations of the MABK inequality correspond to a violation of the CHSH inequality between one of the parties and the other N -1 . We compare the asymptotic key rate for device-independent conference key agreement (DICKA) to the case where the parties use N -1 device-independent quantum key distribution protocols in order to generate a common key. We show that for some regime of noise the DICKA protocol leads to better rates.

  9. Synchronization in Quantum Key Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Pljonkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the description of quantum key distribution systems, much attention is paid to the operation of quantum cryptography protocols. The main problem is the insufficient study of the synchronization process of quantum key distribution systems. This paper contains a general description of quantum cryptography principles. A two-line fiber-optic quantum key distribution system with phase coding of photon states in transceiver and coding station synchronization mode was examined. A quantum key distribution system was built on the basis of the scheme with automatic compensation of polarization mode distortions. Single-photon avalanche diodes were used as optical radiation detecting devices. It was estimated how the parameters used in quantum key distribution systems of optical detectors affect the detection of the time frame with attenuated optical pulse in synchronization mode with respect to its probabilistic and time-domain characteristics. A design method was given for the process that detects the time frame that includes an optical pulse during synchronization. This paper describes the main quantum communication channel attack methods by removing a portion of optical emission. This paper describes the developed synchronization algorithm that takes into account the time required to restore the photodetector’s operation state after the photon has been registered during synchronization. The computer simulation results of the developed synchronization algorithm were analyzed. The efficiency of the developed algorithm with respect to synchronization process protection from unauthorized gathering of optical emission is demonstrated herein.

  10. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Bunandar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss. Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  11. A Novel Method for Generating Encryption Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dascalescu Ana Cristina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the informational society, which has led to an impressive growth of the information volume circulating in the computer networks, has accelerated the evolution and especially the use of modern cryptography instruments. Today, the commercial products use standard cryptographic libraries that implement certified and tested cryptographic algorithms. Instead, the fragility ofencryption algorithms is given by compositional operations like key handling or key generation. In this sense, the article proposes an innovative method to generate pseudorandom numbers which can be used for the construction of secure stream encryption keys. The proposed method is based on the mathematical complements based on the algebra of the finite fields and uses a particularized structure of the linear feedback shift registers.

  12. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunandar, Darius; Lentine, Anthony; Lee, Catherine; Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M.; Boynton, Nicholas; Martinez, Nicholas; DeRose, Christopher; Chen, Changchen; Grein, Matthew; Trotter, Douglas; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott; Wong, Franco N. C.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul; Urayama, Junji; Englund, Dirk

    2018-04-01

    Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD) encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB) and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss). Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  13. Molecular Cancer Prevention: Current Status & Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresso, Karen Colbert; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Brown, Powel H.; Szabo, Eva; Lippman, Scott; Hawk, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity and complexity of advanced cancers strongly supports the rationale for an enhanced focus on molecular prevention as a priority strategy to reduce the burden of cancer. Molecular prevention encompasses traditional chemopreventive agents as well as vaccinations and therapeutic approaches to cancer-predisposing conditions. Despite challenges to the field, we now have refined insights into cancer etiology and early pathogenesis; successful risk assessment and new risk models; agents with broad preventive efficacy (e.g., aspirin) in common chronic diseases, including cancer; and a successful track record of more than 10 agents approved by the FDA for the treatment of precancerous lesions or cancer risk reduction. The development of molecular preventive agents does not differ significantly from the development of therapies for advanced cancers, yet has unique challenges and special considerations given that it most often involves healthy or asymptomatic individuals. Agents, biomarkers, cohorts, overall design, and endpoints are key determinants of molecular preventive trials, as with therapeutic trials, although distinctions exist for each within the preventive setting. Progress in the development and evolution of molecular preventive agents has been steadier in some organ systems, such as breast and skin, than in others. In order for molecular prevention to be fully realized as an effective strategy, a number of challenges to the field must be addressed. Here we provide a brief overview of the context for and special considerations of molecular prevention along with a discussion of the results of major randomized controlled trials. PMID:26284997

  14. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  15. The molecular basis of speciation: from patterns to processes, rules ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    male; large X-effect; meiotic drive; genomic conflict. Abstract. The empirical study of speciation has brought us closer to unlocking the origins of life's vast diversity. By examining recently formed species, a number of general patterns, or rules, ...

  16. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  17. KeyPathwayMiner 4.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcaraz, Nicolas; Pauling, Josch; Batra, Richa

    2014-01-01

    release of KeyPathwayMiner (version 4.0) that is not limited to analyses of single omics data sets, e.g. gene expression, but is able to directly combine several different omics data types. Version 4.0 can further integrate existing knowledge by adding a search bias towards sub-networks that contain...... (avoid) genes provided in a positive (negative) list. Finally the new release now also provides a set of novel visualization features and has been implemented as an app for the standard bioinformatics network analysis tool: Cytoscape. CONCLUSION: With KeyPathwayMiner 4.0, we publish a Cytoscape app...

  18. Key Recovery Attacks on Recent Authenticated Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Dobraunig, Christoph; Eichlseder, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we cryptanalyze three authenticated ciphers: AVALANCHE, Calico, and RBS. While the former two are contestants in the ongoing international CAESAR competition for authenticated encryption schemes, the latter has recently been proposed for lightweight applications such as RFID systems...... and wireless networks. All these schemes use well-established and secure components such as the AES, Grain-like NFSRs, ChaCha and SipHash as their building blocks. However, we discover key recovery attacks for all three designs, featuring square-root complexities. Using a key collision technique, we can...

  19. Molecular biology of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoral, Miroslav; Minarikova, Petra; Zavada, Filip; Salek, Cyril; Minarik, Marek

    2011-06-28

    In spite of continuous research efforts directed at early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer, the outlook for patients affected by the disease remains dismal. With most cases still being diagnosed at advanced stages, no improvement in survival prognosis is achieved with current diagnostic imaging approaches. In the absence of a dominant precancerous condition, several risk factors have been identified including family history, chronic pancreatitis, smoking, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain genetic disorders such as hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma, and Peutz-Jeghers and Lynch syndromes. Most pancreatic carcinomas, however, remain sporadic. Current progress in experimental molecular techniques has enabled detailed understanding of the molecular processes of pancreatic cancer development. According to the latest information, malignant pancreatic transformation involves multiple oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that are involved in a variety of signaling pathways. The most characteristic aberrations (somatic point mutations and allelic losses) affect oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes within RAS, AKT and Wnt signaling, and have a key role in transcription and proliferation, as well as systems that regulate the cell cycle (SMAD/DPC, CDKN2A/p16) and apoptosis (TP53). Understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms should promote development of new methodology for early diagnosis and facilitate improvement in current approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment.

  20. Digitotalar dysmorphism: Molecular elucidation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    obtained for molecular studies. Since the distal arthrogryposes (DAs) are genetically heterogeneous, an unbiased approach to mutation ... Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa, with an interest in molecular genetics of connective ...

  1. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  2. From molecular structure to macromolecular organization : keys to design supramolecular biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutin, M.C.; Burakowska-Meise, E.A.; Appel, W.P.J.; Dankers, P.Y.W.; Meijer, E.W.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, significant progress has been made in the field of biomaterials, for potential applications in tissue engineering or drug delivery. We have recently developed a new class of thermoplastic elastomers, based on ureidopyrimidinone (UPy) quadruple hydrogen bonding motifs. These

  3. Molecular locks and keys: the role of small molecules in phytohormone research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eFonseca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant adaptation, growth and development rely on the integration of many environmental and endogenous signals that collectively determine the overall plant phenotypic plasticity. Plant signalling molecules, also known as phytohormones, are fundamental to this process. These molecules act at low concentrations and regulate multiple aspects of plant fitness and development via complex signalling networks. By its nature, phytohormone research lies at the interface between chemistry and biology. Classically, the scientific community has always used synthetic phytohormones and analogs to study hormone functions and responses. However, recent advances in synthetic and combinational chemistry, have allowed a new field, plant chemical biology, to emerge and this has provided a powerful tool with which to study phytohormone function.Plant chemical biology is helping to address some of the most enduring questions in phytohormone research such as: Are there still undiscovered plant hormones? How can we identify novel signalling molecules? How can plants activate specific hormone responses in a tissue-specific manner? How can we modulate hormone responses in one developmental context without inducing detrimental effects on other processes? The chemical genomics approaches rely on the identification of small molecules modulating different biological processes and have recently identified active forms of plant hormones and molecules regulating many aspects of hormone synthesis, transport and response. We envision that the field of chemical genomics will continue to provide novel molecules able to elucidate specific aspects of hormone-mediated responses. In addition, compounds blocking specific responses could uncover how complex biological responses are regulated. As we gain information about such compounds we can design small alterations to the chemical structure to further alter specificity, enhance affinity or modulate the activity of these compounds.

  4. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in soy sauce using approaches of molecular sensory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Petra; Schieberle, Peter

    2007-07-25

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to the volatiles isolated from a commercial Japanese soy sauce revealed 30 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-4096, among which 2-phenylethanol showed the highest FD factor of 4096, followed by 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional), the tautomers 4-hydroxy-5-ethyl-2-methyl- and 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDF), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolone), all showing FD factors of 1024. Thirteen odorants were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of their concentrations and odor thresholds in water. Among them, 3-methylbutanal (malty), sotolone (seasoning-like), 4-HEMF (caramel-like), 2-methylbutanal (malty), methional (cooked potato), ethanol (alcoholic), and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity) showed the highest OAVs (>200). An aqueous model aroma mixture containing 13 odorants, which had been identified with the highest OAVs, in concentrations that occur in the soy sauce showed a good similarity with the overall aroma of the soy sauce itself. Heat treatment of the soy sauce resulted in a clear change of the overall aroma. Quantitation of selected odorants revealed a significant decrease in sotolone and, in particular, increases in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-HDMF, and 4-HEMF induced by heating.

  5. Mesothelioma: Identification of the Key Molecular Events Triggered by BAP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    germline BAP1 heterozygous mice is associated with deregulated inflammatory response and increased risk of mesothelioma. Oncogene. 2015 Jun 29. (Epub...Tommaso Campanella Cancer Center. 2015, September. Catanzaro, Italy. 5. 7th International Symposium DAMPS and HMGB. 2015, September. Bonn, Germany . 6...with deregulated inflammatory response and increased risk of mesothelioma A Napolitano1,2, L Pellegrini1, A Dey3, D Larson1, M Tanji1, EG Flores1, B

  6. Rapid Identification of Key Pathogens in Wound Infection by Molecular Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    3 3 5 4 7 T I NT NT NT NT - - - Prevotella denticola ATCC 33185 1 NT NT NT NT - - - Prevotella intermedia ATCC 2561 IT I NT NT NT NT - - Prevotella...TaqMan and SYBR Green for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia , tetQ gene and total bacteria...detection of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. J. Clin.Microbiol. 41, 863-866. (2003). 20. Higgins ,D. et al. CLUSTAL W

  7. B-Raf mutation: a key player in molecular biology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M A; Salajegheh, A; Smith, R A; Lam, A K-Y

    2013-12-01

    B-Raf is one of the more commonly mutated proto-oncogenes implicated in the development of cancers. In this review, we consider the mechanisms and clinical impacts of B-Raf mutations in cancer and discuss the implications for the patient in melanoma, thyroid cancer and colorectal cancer, where B-Raf mutations are particularly common. © 2013.

  8. Unlocking community capabilities for improving maternal and newborn health: participatory action research to improve birth preparedness, health facility access, and newborn care in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community capacities and resources must be harnessed to complement supply side initiatives addressing high maternal and neonatal mortality rates in Uganda. This paper reflects on gains, challenges and lessons learnt from working with communities to improve maternal and newborn health in rural Uganda. Methods A participatory action research project was supported from 2012 to 2015 in three eastern districts. This project involved working with households, saving groups, sub county and district leaders, transporters and village health teams in diagnosing causes of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, developing action plans to address these issues, taking action and learning from action in a cyclical manner. This paper draws from project experience and documentation, as well as thematic analysis of 20 interviews with community and district stakeholders and 12 focus group discussions with women who had recently delivered and men whose wives had recently delivered. Results Women and men reported increased awareness about birth preparedness, improved newborn care practices and more male involvement in maternal and newborn health. However, additional direct communication strategies were required to reach more men beyond the minority who attended community dialogues and home visits. Saving groups and other saving modalities were strengthened, with money saved used to meet transport costs, purchase other items needed for birth and other routine household needs. However saving groups required significant support to improve income generation, management and trust among members. Linkages between savings groups and transport providers improved women’s access to health facilities at reduced cost. Although village health teams were a key resource for providing information, their efforts were constrained by low levels of education, inadequate financial compensation and transportation challenges. Ensuring that the village health

  9. The emotional importance of key: do Beatles songs written in different keys convey different emotional tones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissel, R; Whissel, C

    2000-12-01

    Lyrics from 155 songs written by the Lennon-McCartney team were scored using the Dictionary of Affect in Language. Resultant scores (pleasantness, activation, and imagery of words) were compared across key signatures using one way analyses of variance. Words from songs written in minor keys were less pleasant and less active than those from songs written in major keys. Words from songs written in the key of F scored extremely low on all three measures. Lyrics from the keys of C, D, and G were relatively active in tone. Results from Dictionary scoring were compared with assignments of character to keys made more than one century ago and with current musicians' opinions.

  10. Designing key-dependent chaotic S-box with larger key space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Ruming; Yuan Jian; Wang Jian; Shan Xiuming; Wang Xiqin

    2009-01-01

    The construction of cryptographically strong substitution boxes (S-boxes) is an important concern in designing secure cryptosystems. The key-dependent S-boxes designed using chaotic maps have received increasing attention in recent years. However, the key space of such S-boxes does not seem to be sufficiently large due to the limited parameter range of discretized chaotic maps. In this paper, we propose a new key-dependent S-box based on the iteration of continuous chaotic maps. We explore the continuous-valued state space of chaotic systems, and devise the discrete mapping between the input and the output of the S-box. A key-dependent S-box is constructed with the logistic map in this paper. We show that its key space could be much larger than the current key-dependent chaotic S-boxes.

  11. Molecular computing origins and promises

    CERN Document Server

    Rambidi, Nicholas G

    2014-01-01

    Molecular Computing explores whether molecular primitives can prove to be real alternatives to contemporary semiconductor means. The text discusses molecular primitives and circuitry for information processing devices.

  12. Quantum key distribution with finite resources: Secret key rates via Renyi entropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abruzzo, Silvestre; Kampermann, Hermann; Mertz, Markus; Bruss, Dagmar [Institute for Theoretical Physics III, Heinrich-Heine-universitaet Duesseldorf, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    A realistic quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol necessarily deals with finite resources, such as the number of signals exchanged by the two parties. We derive a bound on the secret key rate which is expressed as an optimization problem over Renyi entropies. Under the assumption of collective attacks by an eavesdropper, a computable estimate of our bound for the six-state protocol is provided. This bound leads to improved key rates in comparison to previous results.

  13. Quantum key distribution with finite resources: Secret key rates via Renyi entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abruzzo, Silvestre; Kampermann, Hermann; Mertz, Markus; Bruss, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    A realistic quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol necessarily deals with finite resources, such as the number of signals exchanged by the two parties. We derive a bound on the secret key rate which is expressed as an optimization problem over Renyi entropies. Under the assumption of collective attacks by an eavesdropper, a computable estimate of our bound for the six-state protocol is provided. This bound leads to improved key rates in comparison to previous results.

  14. Structural Bioinformatics and Protein Docking Analysis of the Molecular Chaperone-Kinase Interactions: Towards Allosteric Inhibition of Protein Kinases by Targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 Chaperone Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Verkhivker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental role of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone system in mediating maturation of protein kinase clients and supporting kinase functional activity is essential for the integrity and viability of signaling pathways involved in cell cycle control and organism development. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, the molecular mechanisms and guiding principles of kinase recruitment to the chaperone system are lacking quantitative characterization. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with protein kinase clients by modern experimental techniques is highly challenging, owing to a transient nature of chaperone-mediated interactions. In this work, we used experimentally-guided protein docking to probe the allosteric nature of the Hsp90-Cdc37 binding with the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4 kinase clients. The results of docking simulations suggest that the kinase recognition and recruitment to the chaperone system may be primarily determined by Cdc37 targeting of the N-terminal kinase lobe. The interactions of Hsp90 with the C-terminal kinase lobe may provide additional “molecular brakes” that can lock (or unlock kinase from the system during client loading (release stages. The results of this study support a central role of the Cdc37 chaperone in recognition and recruitment of the kinase clients. Structural analysis may have useful implications in developing strategies for allosteric inhibition of protein kinases by targeting the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone machinery.

  15. Key characteristics of different management styles

    OpenAIRE

    AGADZHANYAN A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals main management styles practiсed by managers all over the world. The author considers key characteristics of management styles, conditions of their using. The paper analyzes cultural differences in management styles in the West and in the East.

  16. Election 2000: The Keys Point to Gore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Allan J.

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that Vice President Al Gore will be elected in 2000 based on the performance of the Clinton administration. Utilizes the key to the White House, 13 true-or-false diagnostic questions stated as propositions. If five or less are false then the party in power wins. (CMK)

  17. Radiology Aide. Instructor Key [and] Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwein, Jon; Dunham, John

    This manual can be used independently by students in secondary health occupations programs or by persons receiving on-the-job training in a radiology department. The manual includes an instructor's key that provides answers to the activity sheets and unit evaluations. The manual consists of the following five units: (1) orientation to radiology;…

  18. Key Competences in vocational education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Dibbern; Kruse, Katrine

    This article presents and discusses how key competences in the school based learning are embedded in the VET curricula during the last five years. It gives an overview of how their role has developed in light of the comprehensive Danish VET reform agreed in 2014 and implemented since August 2015....

  19. Memory for melody and key in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Glenn Schellenberg

    Full Text Available After only two exposures to previously unfamiliar melodies, adults remember the tunes for over a week and the key for over a day. Here, we examined the development of long-term memory for melody and key. Listeners in three age groups (7- to 8-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and adults heard two presentations of each of 12 unfamiliar melodies. After a 10-min delay, they heard the same 12 old melodies intermixed with 12 new melodies. Half of the old melodies were transposed up or down by six semitones from initial exposure. Listeners rated how well they recognized the melodies from the exposure phase. Recognition was better for old than for new melodies, for adults compared to children, and for older compared to younger children. Recognition ratings were also higher for old melodies presented in the same key at test as exposure, and the detrimental effect of the transposition affected all age groups similarly. Although memory for melody improves with age and exposure to music, implicit memory for key appears to be adult-like by 7 years of age.

  20. Secure Hybrid Encryption from Weakened Key Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hofheinz (Dennis); E. Kiltz (Eike); A. Menezes

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe put forward a new paradigm for building hybrid encryption schemes from constrained chosen-ciphertext secure (CCCA) key-encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) plus authenticated symmetric encryption. Constrained chosen-ciphertext security is a new security notion for KEMs that we propose. It

  1. Public-key encryption with chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocarev, Ljupco; Sterjev, Marjan; Fekete, Attila; Vattay, Gabor

    2004-12-01

    We propose public-key encryption algorithms based on chaotic maps, which are generalization of well-known and commercially used algorithms: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA), ElGamal, and Rabin. For the case of generalized RSA algorithm we discuss in detail its software implementation and properties. We show that our algorithm is as secure as RSA algorithm.

  2. Quantum key distribution on Hannover Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhme, Joerg; Franz, Torsten; Werner, Reinhard F. [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, AG Quanteninformation (Germany); Haendchen, Vitus; Eberle, Tobias; Schnabel, Roman [Albert Einstein Institut, Quantum Interferometry (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We report on the progress of the implementation of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution on Hannover campus using squeezed gaussian states (continuous variables). This poster focuses on the theoretical aspects of the project. Experimental data has been compared with the theoretical simulation of the experimental setup. We especially discuss effects of the homodyne detection and postprocessing in use on the measurement outcome.

  3. Memory for melody and key in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Poon, Jaimie; Weiss, Michael W

    2017-01-01

    After only two exposures to previously unfamiliar melodies, adults remember the tunes for over a week and the key for over a day. Here, we examined the development of long-term memory for melody and key. Listeners in three age groups (7- to 8-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and adults) heard two presentations of each of 12 unfamiliar melodies. After a 10-min delay, they heard the same 12 old melodies intermixed with 12 new melodies. Half of the old melodies were transposed up or down by six semitones from initial exposure. Listeners rated how well they recognized the melodies from the exposure phase. Recognition was better for old than for new melodies, for adults compared to children, and for older compared to younger children. Recognition ratings were also higher for old melodies presented in the same key at test as exposure, and the detrimental effect of the transposition affected all age groups similarly. Although memory for melody improves with age and exposure to music, implicit memory for key appears to be adult-like by 7 years of age.

  4. Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation,

  5. Five Keys for Teaching Mental Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, James R.

    2015-01-01

    After studying the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and brain-based learning research, James Olsen believes mental math instruction in secondary school mathematics (grades 7-12) and in teacher education programs needs increased attention. The purpose of this article is to share some keys for teaching mental math. Olsen also…

  6. Number Theory and Public-Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefton, Phyllis

    1991-01-01

    Described are activities in the study of techniques used to conceal the meanings of messages and data. Some background information and two BASIC programs that illustrate the algorithms used in a new cryptographic system called "public-key cryptography" are included. (CW)

  7. Student Engagement: Key to Personalized Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlazzo, Larry

    2017-01-01

    Personalized learning has the potential to greatly improve student achievement--but realistic teachers know that any instructional strategy will only be effective if students are willing to do the work. That is why Larry Ferlazzo emphasizes the importance of weaving intrinsic motivation into every personalized learning classroom. Four key elements…

  8. Time to refine key climate policy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Alexander R.

    2018-05-01

    Ambition regarding climate change at the national level is critical but is often calibrated with the projected costs — as estimated by a small suite of energy-economic models. Weaknesses in several key areas in these models will continue to distort policy design unless collectively addressed by a diversity of researchers.

  9. The LOFAR Magnetism Key Science Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, James; Beck, Rainer; Bell, Michael; de Bruyn, Ger; Chyzy, Krzysztof; Eislöffel, Jochen; Enßlin, Torsten; Fletcher, Andrew; Haverkorn, Marijke; Heald, George; Horneffer, Andreas; Noutsos, Aris; Reich, Wolfgang; Scaife, Anna; the LOFAR collaboration, [No Value

    2012-01-01

    Measuring radio waves at low frequencies offers a new window to study cosmic magnetism, and LOFAR is the ideal radio telescope to open this window widely. The LOFAR Magnetism Key Science Project (MKSP) draws together expertise from multiple fields of magnetism science and intends to use LOFAR to

  10. Memory for melody and key in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Jaimie; Weiss, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    After only two exposures to previously unfamiliar melodies, adults remember the tunes for over a week and the key for over a day. Here, we examined the development of long-term memory for melody and key. Listeners in three age groups (7- to 8-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and adults) heard two presentations of each of 12 unfamiliar melodies. After a 10-min delay, they heard the same 12 old melodies intermixed with 12 new melodies. Half of the old melodies were transposed up or down by six semitones from initial exposure. Listeners rated how well they recognized the melodies from the exposure phase. Recognition was better for old than for new melodies, for adults compared to children, and for older compared to younger children. Recognition ratings were also higher for old melodies presented in the same key at test as exposure, and the detrimental effect of the transposition affected all age groups similarly. Although memory for melody improves with age and exposure to music, implicit memory for key appears to be adult-like by 7 years of age. PMID:29077726

  11. Soil fauna: key to new carbon models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filser, Juliane; Faber, J.H.; Tiunov, Alexei V.; Brussaard, L.; Frouz, J.; Deyn, de G.B.; Uvarov, Alexei V.; Berg, Matty P.; Lavelle, Patrick; Loreau, M.; Wall, D.H.; Querner, Pascal; Eijsackers, Herman; Jimenez, Juan Jose

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is key to maintaining soil fertility, mitigating climate change, combatting land degradation, and conserving above- and below-ground biodiversity and associated soil processes and ecosystem services. In order to derive management options for maintaining these essential

  12. Using USB Keys to Promote Mobile Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyne Rosselle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available M-learning (i.e. mobile learning is a field of e-learning that provides learners learning environments using mobile technology. In this context, learning can take place anywhere and anytime, in open and distance learning. Depending on the type of technology it may be done through software called nomadic (i.e. prepared to mobility. Among these technologies, there are those composed of digital interfaces and with autonomy of treatment: Smartphone, PDA, calculator and even mp3 key. In this article we propose to take into account storage devices as mobile technologies. Our focus was on the USB key. We present a procedure to test whether a learning environment embarked on a USB key can be described as nomadic or not. This procedure has been tested on a sample of three ILE (Interactive Learning Environment. This approach has allowed us to define criteria of nomadism, criteria which were then included in the design of a synchronous Weblog on USB key.

  13. Key Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are a challenging field of research when it comes to security issues. Using low cost sensor nodes with limited resources makes it difficult for cryptographic algorithms to function without impacting energy consumption and latency. In this paper, we focus on key management issues in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. These networks are easy to attack due to the open nature of the wireless medium. Intruders could try to penetrate the network, capture nodes or take control over particular nodes. In this context, it is important to revoke and renew keys that might be learned by malicious nodes. We propose several secure protocols for key revocation and key renewal based on symmetric encryption and elliptic curve cryptography. All protocols are secure, but have different security levels. Each proposed protocol is formally proven and analyzed using Scyther, an automatic verification tool for cryptographic protocols. For efficiency comparison sake, we implemented all protocols on real testbeds using TelosB motes and discussed their performances.

  14. Expectations as a key element in trusting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo; Hansen, Uffe Kjærgaard; Conradsen, Maria Bosse

    Considering the need for a tangible focus for qualitative research on trusting, we propose that expectations to the behavior of others can provide that. By focusing on expectations, researchers can produce narrative descriptions that explains how trusting develops and changes. Then the key theore...

  15. Key Performance Indicators for Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Steve

    Focusing mostly on their application for primary schools, this document describes the educational key performance indicators (KPI) employed by the Wendsworth, England, Local Educational Authority (LEA). Indicators are divided into 3 areas, educational context, resource development, and outcomes. Contextual indicators include pupil mobility, home…

  16. Observing invisible machines with invisible light: The mechanics of molecular machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panman, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few decades, chemists have designed and constructed a large variety of artificial molecular machines. Understanding of the fundamental principles behind motion at the molecular scale is key to the development of such devices. Motion at the molecular level is very different from that

  17. Two-Dimensional Key Table-Based Group Key Distribution in Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Go

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart grid provides two-way communication by using the information and communication technology. In order to establish two-way communication, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI is used in the smart grid as the core infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of smart meters, data collection units, maintenance data management systems, and so on. However, potential security problems of the AMI increase owing to the application of the public network. This is because the transmitted information is electricity consumption data for charging. Thus, in order to establish a secure connection to transmit electricity consumption data, encryption is necessary, for which key distribution is required. Further, a group key is more efficient than a pairwise key in the hierarchical structure of the AMI. Therefore, we propose a group key distribution scheme using a two-dimensional key table through the analysis result of the sensor network group key distribution scheme. The proposed scheme has three phases: group key predistribution, selection of group key generation element, and generation of group key.

  18. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  19. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones. The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and discover new

  20. Nonmarket economic user values of the Florida Keys/Key West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon R. Leeworthy; J. Michael Bowker

    1997-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the nonmarket economic user values for recreating visitors to the Florida Keys/Key West that participated in natural resource-based activities. Results from estimated travel cost models are presented, including visitor’s responses to prices and estimated per person-trip user values. Annual user values are also calculated and presented...

  1. Key Exchange Trust Evaluation in Peer-to-Peer Sensor Networks With Unconditionally Secure Key Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elias; Kish, Laszlo B.

    2016-03-01

    As the utilization of sensor networks continue to increase, the importance of security becomes more profound. Many industries depend on sensor networks for critical tasks, and a malicious entity can potentially cause catastrophic damage. We propose a new key exchange trust evaluation for peer-to-peer sensor networks, where part of the network has unconditionally secure key exchange. For a given sensor, the higher the portion of channels with unconditionally secure key exchange the higher the trust value. We give a brief introduction to unconditionally secured key exchange concepts and mention current trust measures in sensor networks. We demonstrate the new key exchange trust measure on a hypothetical sensor network using both wired and wireless communication channels.

  2. GLOBAL TRADE. THE KEY TO TRANSATLANTIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Laura CUCIURIANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Global trade has an important characteristic in terms of open global markets by means of eliminating barriers to trade and investment. The United States and the European Union, two major international actors and competitors in the economic field, have both the opportunity to change the global trade by concluding the negotiations of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. For this reason, this paper tries to find the connections between global trade and transatlantic competitiveness in the way that the global trade can be considered a key to transatlantic competitiveness. The United States and the European Union are global actors and competitors in the global economy and the play field is the global trade. In order to be aware of the importance ofglobal trade in the transatlantic competitiveness, this paper includes also an analysis of the concrete actions that both economic powers are taking in key-sectors of the transatlantic economy.

  3. Quantum key distribution without alternative measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A

    2000-01-01

    Entanglement swapping between Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs can be used to generate the same sequence of random bits in two remote places. A quantum key distribution protocol based on this idea is described. The scheme exhibits the following features. (a) It does not require that Alice and Bob choose between alternative measurements, therefore improving the rate of generated bits by transmitted qubit. (b) It allows Alice and Bob to generate a key of arbitrary length using a single quantum system (three EPR pairs), instead of a long sequence of them. (c) Detecting Eve requires the comparison of fewer bits. (d) Entanglement is an essential ingredient. The scheme assumes reliable measurements of the Bell operator. (20 refs).

  4. Secure quantum key distribution using squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottesman, Daniel; Preskill, John

    2001-01-01

    We prove the security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on transmission of squeezed quantum states of a harmonic oscillator. Our proof employs quantum error-correcting codes that encode a finite-dimensional quantum system in the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of an oscillator, and protect against errors that shift the canonical variables p and q. If the noise in the quantum channel is weak, squeezing signal states by 2.51 dB (a squeeze factor e r =1.34) is sufficient in principle to ensure the security of a protocol that is suitably enhanced by classical error correction and privacy amplification. Secure key distribution can be achieved over distances comparable to the attenuation length of the quantum channel

  5. Anonymity-Preserving Public-Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlweiss, Markulf; Maurer, Ueli; Onete, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    security properties have been proposed. We investigate constructions as well as limitations for preserving receiver anonymity when using public-key encryption (PKE). We use the constructive cryptography approach by Maurer and Renner and interpret cryptographic schemes as constructions of a certain ideal...... literature (IND-CCA, key-privacy, weak robustness). We also show that a desirable stronger variant, preventing the adversary from selective ”trial-deliveries” of messages, is unfortunately unachievable by any PKE scheme, no matter how strong. The constructive approach makes the guarantees achieved...... by applying a cryptographic scheme explicit in the constructed (ideal) resource; this specifies the exact requirements for the applicability of a cryptographic scheme in a given context. It also allows to decide which of the existing security properties of such a cryptographic scheme are adequate...

  6. Key parameters analysis of hybrid HEMP simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Congguang; Zhou Hui

    2009-01-01

    According to the new standards on the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) developed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the target parameter requirements of the key structure of the hybrid HEMP simulator are decomposed. Firstly, the influences of the different excitation sources and biconical structures to the key parameters of the radiated electric field wave shape are investigated and analyzed. Then based on the influence curves the target parameter requirements of the pulse generator are proposed. Finally the appropriate parameters of the biconical structure and the excitation sources are chosen, and the computational result of the electric field in free space is presented. The results are of great value for the design of the hybrid HEMP simulator. (authors)

  7. A ''master key'' to chemical separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, Ch.; Hill, C.

    2002-01-01

    One of the keys to sorting nuclear waste is extracting minor actinides - the most troublesome long-lived elements - from the flow of waste by separating them from lanthanides, which have very similar chemical properties to actinides, for possible transmutation into shorter-lived elements. Thanks to a European initiative coordinated by CEA, this key is now available: its name is Sanex. There now remains to develop tough, straightforward industrial processes to integrate it into a new nuclear waste management approach by 2005. Sanex joins the Diamex process, used for the combined separation of lanthanides and minor actinides from fission products. A third process, Sesame, designed to separate americium, completes the list of available separation processes. (authors)

  8. Privacy amplification for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yodai

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines classical privacy amplification using a universal family of hash functions. In quantum key distribution, the adversary's measurement can wait until the choice of hash functions is announced, and so the adversary's information may depend on the choice. Therefore the existing result on classical privacy amplification, which assumes the independence of the choice from the other random variables, is not applicable to this case. This paper provides a security proof of privacy amplification which is valid even when the adversary's information may depend on the choice of hash functions. The compression rate of the proposed privacy amplification can be taken to be the same as that of the existing one with an exponentially small loss in secrecy of a final key. (fast track communication)

  9. Short Review on Quantum Key Distribution Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampouris, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Cryptographic protocols and mechanisms are widely investigated under the notion of quantum computing. Quantum cryptography offers particular advantages over classical ones, whereas in some cases established protocols have to be revisited in order to maintain their functionality. The purpose of this paper is to provide the basic definitions and review the most important theoretical advancements concerning the BB84 and E91 protocols. It also aims to offer a summary on some key developments on the field of quantum key distribution, closely related with the two aforementioned protocols. The main goal of this study is to provide the necessary background information along with a thorough review on the theoretical aspects of QKD, concentrating on specific protocols. The BB84 and E91 protocols have been chosen because most other protocols are similar to these, a fact that makes them important for the general understanding of how the QKD mechanism functions.

  10. Key Success Factors in Medical Tourism Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Sheng Yang

    2013-01-01

    The planners in tourism businesses and medical institutes, the evaluation criteria and dimensions for Medical Tourism Marketing are determined by experts through expert interviews. The weights and correlations among the dimensions and criteria are determined by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to construct an evaluating indicator model suitable for Medical Tourism Marketing. By organizing the overall weight of the key success factors in Medical Tourism Marketing, the top five indicators conta...

  11. PROVIDING QUALITY – A KEY TO SUCCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Staiculescu; Angel-Cristian Staiculescu

    2012-01-01

    Providing a high quality products and services is a key to business success. That is because high quality promotes customer satisfaction and customer satisfaction has a direct link to business revenue. Clients want quality products and services in order to feel they are getting value for money, especially in these hard economic times. Although it is well known that advertising may win new customers, quality can be the reason to keep them. A good manager is aware that the costs of winning mark...

  12. Cryptographic key generation using handwritten signature

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Manuel R.; Fiérrez, Julián; Ortega-García, Javier

    2006-01-01

    M. Freire-Santos ; J. Fierrez-Aguilar ; J. Ortega-Garcia; "Cryptographic key generation using handwritten signature", Biometric Technology for Human Identification III, Proc. SPIE 6202 (April 17, 2006); doi:10.1117/12.665875. Copyright 2006 Society of Photo‑Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of...

  13. Key factors of teenagers' mobile advertising acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Parreño, José; Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Aldás Manzano, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse key drivers of teenagers’ attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on teenagers’ mobile advertising acceptance. Design/methodology/approach – A proposed model of affective (irritation and entertainment) and cognitive (perceived usefulness) antecedents of attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on mobile advertising acceptance is analysed. The sample consisted of 355 Spanish teenagers. The model was tested us...

  14. Key performance indicators for successful simulation projects

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangirian, M; Taylor, SJE; Young, T; Robinson, S

    2016-01-01

    There are many factors that may contribute to the successful delivery of a simulation project. To provide a structured approach to assessing the impact various factors have on project success, we propose a top-down framework whereby 15 Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are developed that represent the level of successfulness of simulation projects from various perspectives. They are linked to a set of Critical Success Factors (CSF) as reported in the simulation literature. A single measure cal...

  15. Some Key Principles for Developing Grammar Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威

    2008-01-01

    Grammar is sometimes defined aft"the way words are put together to make correct sentences"(Ur,2004,P.75).The aim of teaching grammar is to raise the rates of the correctness of language use and help the students transfer the isolated language points to apply language.In this essay,the author introduces two kinds of Conlnlon methods in English grammar class. And there are some key principles in grammar teaching.

  16. George's secret key to the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Galfard, Christophe; Parsons, Gary

    2007-01-01

    In their bestselling book for young readers, noted physicist Stephen Hawking and his daughter, Lucy, provide a grand and funny adventure that explains fascinating information about our universe, including Dr. Hawking's latest ideas about black holes. It's the story of George, who's taken through the vastness of space by a scientist, his daughter, and their super-computer named Cosmos. George's Secret Key to the Universe was a New York Times bestseller and a selection of Al's Book Club on the Today show.

  17. Parallel Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rahul; Miller, Carl A.; Shi, Yaoyun

    2017-01-01

    A prominent application of quantum cryptography is the distribution of cryptographic keys with unconditional security. Recently, such security was extended by Vazirani and Vidick (Physical Review Letters, 113, 140501, 2014) to the device-independent (DI) scenario, where the users do not need to trust the integrity of the underlying quantum devices. The protocols analyzed by them and by subsequent authors all require a sequential execution of N multiplayer games, where N is the security parame...

  18. Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Bonato, Cristian; Tomaello, Andrea; Da Deppo, Vania; Naletto, Giampiero; Villoresi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel analysis of the feasibility of quantum key distribution between a LEO satellite and a ground station. First of all, we study signal propagation through a turbulent atmosphere for uplinks and downlinks, discussing the contribution of beam spreading and beam wandering. Then we introduce a model for the background noise of the channel during night-time and day-time, calculating the signal-to-noise ratio for different configurations. We also discuss the expected e...

  19. Interactive simulations for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohnle, Antje; Rizzoli, Aluna

    2017-01-01

    Secure communication protocols are becoming increasingly important, e.g. for internet-based communication. Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties, commonly called Alice and Bob, to generate a secret sequence of 0s and 1s called a key that is only known to themselves. Classically, Alice and Bob could never be certain that their communication was not compromised by a malicious eavesdropper. Quantum mechanics however makes secure communication possible. The fundamental principle of quantum mechanics that taking a measurement perturbs the system (unless the measurement is compatible with the quantum state) also applies to an eavesdropper. Using appropriate protocols to create the key, Alice and Bob can detect the presence of an eavesdropper by errors in their measurements. As part of the QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualisation Project, we have developed a suite of four interactive simulations that demonstrate the basic principles of three different QKD protocols. The simulations use either polarised photons or spin 1/2 particles as physical realisations. The simulations and accompanying activities are freely available for use online or download, and run on a wide range of devices including tablets and PCs. Evaluation with students over three years was used to refine the simulations and activities. Preliminary studies show that the refined simulations and activities help students learn the basic principles of QKD at both the introductory and advanced undergraduate levels. (paper)

  20. Interactive simulations for quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnle, Antje; Rizzoli, Aluna

    2017-05-01

    Secure communication protocols are becoming increasingly important, e.g. for internet-based communication. Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties, commonly called Alice and Bob, to generate a secret sequence of 0s and 1s called a key that is only known to themselves. Classically, Alice and Bob could never be certain that their communication was not compromised by a malicious eavesdropper. Quantum mechanics however makes secure communication possible. The fundamental principle of quantum mechanics that taking a measurement perturbs the system (unless the measurement is compatible with the quantum state) also applies to an eavesdropper. Using appropriate protocols to create the key, Alice and Bob can detect the presence of an eavesdropper by errors in their measurements. As part of the QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualisation Project, we have developed a suite of four interactive simulations that demonstrate the basic principles of three different QKD protocols. The simulations use either polarised photons or spin 1/2 particles as physical realisations. The simulations and accompanying activities are freely available for use online or download, and run on a wide range of devices including tablets and PCs. Evaluation with students over three years was used to refine the simulations and activities. Preliminary studies show that the refined simulations and activities help students learn the basic principles of QKD at both the introductory and advanced undergraduate levels.

  1. Ancestors protocol for scalable key management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Gollmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Group key management is an important functional building block for secure multicast architecture. Thereby, it has been extensively studied in the literature. The main proposed protocol is Adaptive Clustering for Scalable Group Key Management (ASGK. According to ASGK protocol, the multicast group is divided into clusters, where each cluster consists of areas of members. Each cluster uses its own Traffic Encryption Key (TEK. These clusters are updated periodically depending on the dynamism of the members during the secure session. The modified protocol has been proposed based on ASGK with some modifications to balance the number of affected members and the encryption/decryption overhead with any number of the areas when a member joins or leaves the group. This modified protocol is called Ancestors protocol. According to Ancestors protocol, every area receives the dynamism of the members from its parents. The main objective of the modified protocol is to reduce the number of affected members during the leaving and joining members, then 1 affects n overhead would be reduced. A comparative study has been done between ASGK protocol and the modified protocol. According to the comparative results, it found that the modified protocol is always outperforming the ASGK protocol.

  2. Triple symmetric key cryptosystem for data security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzail, C. Md; Norman, Jasmine; Mangayarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    As the technology is getting spreads in the macro seconds of speed and in which the trend changing era from human to robotics the security issue is also getting increased. By means of using machine attacks it is very easy to break the cryptosystems in very less amount of time. Cryptosystem is a process which provides the security in all sorts of processes, communications and transactions to be done securely with the help of electronical mechanisms. Data is one such thing with the expanded implication and possible scraps over the collection of data to secure predominance and achievement, Information Security is the process where the information is protected from invalid and unverified accessibilities and data from mishandling. So the idea of Information Security has risen. Symmetric key which is also known as private key.Whereas the private key is mostly used to attain the confidentiality of data. It is a dynamic topic which can be implemented over different applications like android, wireless censor networks, etc. In this paper, a new mathematical manipulation algorithm along with Tea cryptosystem has been implemented and it can be used for the purpose of cryptography. The algorithm which we proposed is straightforward and more powerful and it will authenticate in harder way and also it will be very difficult to break by someone without knowing in depth about its internal mechanisms.

  3. Key Research Issues in Clostridium difficile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zhanel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is an emerging pathogen that causes C difficile-associated diarrhea, an important nosocomial infection. Control of this infection remains a challenge, and much needs to be determined about the antimicrobial resistance of the organism, antibiotic stewardship, contamination of the patient environment, and various host factors that determine susceptibility or resistance to infection. A national symposium focusing on C difficile infections, the Clostridium difficile Symposium on Emerging Issues and Research, was hosted on November 23, 2004, by the Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, in partnership with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. This symposium, which aimed to summarize key research issues regarding C difficile infections in Canada, had the following objectives: to provide a forum for learning and discussion about C difficile and its impact on the health of Canadians; to identify the key research issues that should be addressed; and to explore potential research funding opportunities and collaboration. The present report summarizes key research issues identified for C difficile infections in Canada by addressing four major themes: diagnosis and surveillance, infection prevention and control, antibiotic stewardship, and clinical management.

  4. Commitment is the key to these accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yborra, S.

    1996-01-01

    Key accounts--A.G.A.'s name for regional and national multi-unit accounts--affect gas load and market share in several ways. Many make their equipment and energy policies and decisions at the corporate or regional level, making gas company sales and marketing efforts to them critical, since multiple installations will likely emanate from a single decision. To survive, chains often mimic each other; a money-saving idea implemented by one chain can lead to others in that market sector copying it. A successful equipment field trial with one of these accounts can lead to others following suit. Chains also can play a critical role in launching a new or emerging technology. It a gas equipment test demonstrate meets the chain's energy goals, it can lead to a significant number of orders, accelerating a product's market penetration, improving manufacturing economies of scale, lowering prices and speeding up delivery times. A.G.A.'s key-accounts program's marketing activities fall into three basic categories: assisting chain clients, either directly or through members; enhancing members' key-account program development through training and networking; and increasing chains' awareness of the benefits of gas energy, equipment and services through national forums such as trade expos, seminars, conferences and press exposure

  5. Benchmarking Organisational Capability using The 20 Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Petrarolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisations have over the years implemented many improvement initiatives, many of which were applied individually with no real, lasting improvement. Approaches such as quality control, team activities, setup reduction and many more seldom changed the fundamental constitution or capability of an organisation. Leading companies in the world have come to realise that an integrated approach is required which focuses on improving more than one factor at the same time - by recognising the importance of synergy between different improvement efforts and the need for commitment at all levels of the company to achieve total system-wide improvement.

    The 20 Keys approach offers a way to look at the strenqth of organisations and to systemically improve it, one step at a time by focusing on 20 different but interrelated aspects. One feature of the approach is the benchmarking system which forms the main focus of this paper. The benchmarking system is introduced as an important part of the 20 Keys philosophy in measuring organisational strength. Benchmarking results from selected South African companies are provided, as well as one company's results achieved through the adoption of the 20 Keys philosophy.

  6. Star formation in evolving molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völschow, M.; Banerjee, R.; Körtgen, B.

    2017-09-01

    Molecular clouds are the principle stellar nurseries of our universe; they thus remain a focus of both observational and theoretical studies. From observations, some of the key properties of molecular clouds are well known but many questions regarding their evolution and star formation activity remain open. While numerical simulations feature a large number and complexity of involved physical processes, this plethora of effects may hide the fundamentals that determine the evolution of molecular clouds and enable the formation of stars. Purely analytical models, on the other hand, tend to suffer from rough approximations or a lack of completeness, limiting their predictive power. In this paper, we present a model that incorporates central concepts of astrophysics as well as reliable results from recent simulations of molecular clouds and their evolutionary paths. Based on that, we construct a self-consistent semi-analytical framework that describes the formation, evolution, and star formation activity of molecular clouds, including a number of feedback effects to account for the complex processes inside those objects. The final equation system is solved numerically but at much lower computational expense than, for example, hydrodynamical descriptions of comparable systems. The model presented in this paper agrees well with a broad range of observational results, showing that molecular cloud evolution can be understood as an interplay between accretion, global collapse, star formation, and stellar feedback.

  7. Progress on RNAi-based molecular medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jing; Xie, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Jing Chen, Jianping XieInstitute of Modern Biopharmaceuticals, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Ministry of Education Eco-Environment of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, ChinaAbstract: RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising strategy to suppress the expression of disease-relevant genes and induce post-transcriptional gene silencing. Their simplicity and stability endow RNAi with great advantages in molecular medicine. Several RNA...

  8. Frontiers of NMR in Molecular Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-25

    NMR spectroscopy is expanding the horizons of structural biology by determining the structures and describing the dynamics of blobular proteins in aqueous solution, as well as other classes of proteins including membrane proteins and the polypeptides that form the aggregates diagnostic of prion and amyloid diseases. Significant results are also emerging on DNA and RNA oligomers and their complexes with proteins. This meeting focused attention on key structural questions emanating from molecular biology and how NMR spectroscopy can be used to answer them.

  9. Ribosomal RNA: a key to phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    As molecular phylogeny increasingly shapes our understanding of organismal relationships, no molecule has been applied to more questions than have ribosomal RNAs. We review this role of the rRNAs and some of the insights that have been gained from them. We also offer some of the practical considerations in extracting the phylogenetic information from the sequences. Finally, we stress the importance of comparing results from multiple molecules, both as a method for testing the overall reliability of the organismal phylogeny and as a method for more broadly exploring the history of the genome.

  10. Analysis of the differential-phase-shift-keying protocol in the quantum-key-distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong-Zhen, Jiao; Chen-Xu, Feng; Hai-Qiang, Ma

    2009-01-01

    The analysis is based on the error rate and the secure communication rate as functions of distance for three quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols: the Bennett–Brassard 1984, the Bennett–Brassard–Mermin 1992, and the coherent differential-phase-shift keying (DPSK) protocols. We consider the secure communication rate of the DPSK protocol against an arbitrary individual attack, including the most commonly considered intercept-resend and photon-number splitting attacks, and concluded that the simple and efficient differential-phase-shift-keying protocol allows for more than 200 km of secure communication distance with high communication rates. (general)

  11. Molecular biology of human muscle disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, P.W.; Epstein, H.F. (Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The molecular revolution that is transforming the entire biomedical field has had far-reaching impact in its application to inherited human muscle disease. The gene for Duchenne muscular dystrophy was one of the first cloned without knowledge of the defective protein product. This success was based upon the availability of key chromosomal aberrations that provided molecular landmarks for the disease locus. Subsequent discoveries regarding the mode of expression for this gene, the structure and localization of its protein product dystrophin, and molecular diagnosis of affected and carrier individuals constitute a paradigm for investigation of human genetics. Finding the gene for myotonic muscular dystrophy is requiring the brute force approach of cloning several million bases of DNA, identifying expressed sequences, and characterizing candidate genes. The gene that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been found serendipitously to be one of the genetic markers on chromosome 14, the {beta} myosin heavy chain.

  12. Molecular machines with bio-inspired mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Marcos, Vanesa; Leigh, David A

    2018-02-26

    The widespread use of molecular-level motion in key natural processes suggests that great rewards could come from bridging the gap between the present generation of synthetic molecular machines-which by and large function as switches-and the machines of the macroscopic world, which utilize the synchronized behavior of integrated components to perform more sophisticated tasks than is possible with any individual switch. Should we try to make molecular machines of greater complexity by trying to mimic machines from the macroscopic world or instead apply unfamiliar (and no doubt have to discover or invent currently unknown) mechanisms utilized by biological machines? Here we try to answer that question by exploring some of the advances made to date using bio-inspired machine mechanisms.

  13. Cellular and Molecular Basis of Cerebellar Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eMartinez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cerebellar development were investigated through structural descriptions and studying spontaneous mutations in animal models and humans. Advances in experimental embryology, genetic engineering and neuroimaging techniques render today the possibility to approach the analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying histogenesis and morphogenesis of the cerebellum by experimental designs. Several genes and molecules were identified to be involved in the cerebellar plate regionalization, specification and differentiation of cerebellar neurons, as well as the establishment of cellular migratory routes and the subsequent neuronal connectivity. Indeed, pattern formation of the cerebellum requires the adequate orchestration of both key morphogenetic signals, arising from distinct brain regions, and local expression of specific transcription factors. Thus, the present review wants to revisit and discuss these morphogenetic and molecular mechanisms taking place during cerebellar development in order to understand causal processes regulating cerebellar cytoarchitecture, its highly topographically ordered circuitry and its role in brain function.

  14. Molecular photoionization dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    This program seeks to develop both physical insight and quantitative characterization of molecular photoionization processes. Progress is briefly described, and some publications resulting from the research are listed

  15. Polymer friction Molecular Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and b) polymer sliding on polymer. In the first setup the shear stresses are relatively...... independent of molecular length. For polymer sliding on polymer the friction is significantly larger, and dependent on the molecular chain length. In both cases, the shear stresses are proportional to the squeezing pressure and finite at zero load, indicating an adhesional contribution to the friction force....

  16. Treatment Algorithms Based on Tumor Molecular Profiling: The Essence of Precision Medicine Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tourneau, Christophe; Kamal, Maud; Tsimberidou, Apostolia-Maria; Bedard, Philippe; Pierron, Gaëlle; Callens, Céline; Rouleau, Etienne; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Servant, Nicolas; Alt, Marie; Rouzier, Roman; Paoletti, Xavier; Delattre, Olivier; Bièche, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    With the advent of high-throughput molecular technologies, several precision medicine (PM) studies are currently ongoing that include molecular screening programs and PM clinical trials. Molecular profiling programs establish the molecular profile of patients' tumors with the aim to guide therapy based on identified molecular alterations. The aim of prospective PM clinical trials is to assess the clinical utility of tumor molecular profiling and to determine whether treatment selection based on molecular alterations produces superior outcomes compared with unselected treatment. These trials use treatment algorithms to assign patients to specific targeted therapies based on tumor molecular alterations. These algorithms should be governed by fixed rules to ensure standardization and reproducibility. Here, we summarize key molecular, biological, and technical criteria that, in our view, should be addressed when establishing treatment algorithms based on tumor molecular profiling for PM trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Soil fauna: key to new carbon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filser, Juliane; Faber, Jack H.; Tiunov, Alexei V.; Brussaard, Lijbert; Frouz, Jan; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Uvarov, Alexei V.; Berg, Matty P.; Lavelle, Patrick; Loreau, Michel; Wall, Diana H.; Querner, Pascal; Eijsackers, Herman; José Jiménez, Juan

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is key to maintaining soil fertility, mitigating climate change, combatting land degradation, and conserving above- and below-ground biodiversity and associated soil processes and ecosystem services. In order to derive management options for maintaining these essential services provided by soils, policy makers depend on robust, predictive models identifying key drivers of SOM dynamics. Existing SOM models and suggested guidelines for future SOM modelling are defined mostly in terms of plant residue quality and input and microbial decomposition, overlooking the significant regulation provided by soil fauna. The fauna controls almost any aspect of organic matter turnover, foremost by regulating the activity and functional composition of soil microorganisms and their physical-chemical connectivity with soil organic matter. We demonstrate a very strong impact of soil animals on carbon turnover, increasing or decreasing it by several dozen percent, sometimes even turning C sinks into C sources or vice versa. This is demonstrated not only for earthworms and other larger invertebrates but also for smaller fauna such as Collembola. We suggest that inclusion of soil animal activities (plant residue consumption and bioturbation altering the formation, depth, hydraulic properties and physical heterogeneity of soils) can fundamentally affect the predictive outcome of SOM models. Understanding direct and indirect impacts of soil fauna on nutrient availability, carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions and plant growth is key to the understanding of SOM dynamics in the context of global carbon cycling models. We argue that explicit consideration of soil fauna is essential to make realistic modelling predictions on SOM dynamics and to detect expected non-linear responses of SOM dynamics to global change. We present a decision framework, to be further developed through the activities of KEYSOM, a European COST Action, for when mechanistic SOM models

  18. Quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiongfeng; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Lo, H.-K.

    2007-01-01

    A parametric down-conversion (PDC) source can be used as either a triggered single-photon source or an entangled-photon source in quantum key distribution (QKD). The triggering PDC QKD has already been studied in the literature. On the other hand, a model and a post-processing protocol for the entanglement PDC QKD are still missing. We fill in this important gap by proposing such a model and a post-processing protocol for the entanglement PDC QKD. Although the PDC model is proposed to study the entanglement-based QKD, we emphasize that our generic model may also be useful for other non-QKD experiments involving a PDC source. Since an entangled PDC source is a basis-independent source, we apply Koashi and Preskill's security analysis to the entanglement PDC QKD. We also investigate the entanglement PDC QKD with two-way classical communications. We find that the recurrence scheme increases the key rate and the Gottesman-Lo protocol helps tolerate higher channel losses. By simulating a recent 144-km open-air PDC experiment, we compare three implementations: entanglement PDC QKD, triggering PDC QKD, and coherent-state QKD. The simulation result suggests that the entanglement PDC QKD can tolerate higher channel losses than the coherent-state QKD. The coherent-state QKD with decoy states is able to achieve highest key rate in the low- and medium-loss regions. By applying the Gottesman-Lo two-way post-processing protocol, the entanglement PDC QKD can tolerate up to 70 dB combined channel losses (35 dB for each channel) provided that the PDC source is placed in between Alice and Bob. After considering statistical fluctuations, the PDC setup can tolerate up to 53 dB channel losses

  19. Thioredoxin plays a key role in retinal neuropathy prior to endothelial damage in diabetic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Xiang; Li, Chen; Liu, Junli; Zhang, Chenghong; Fu, Yuzhen; Wang, Nina; Ma, Haiying; Lu, Heyuan; Kong, Hui; Kong, Li

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic metabolic syndrome that results in changes in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. With diabetes for a long time, it increases the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and long-term morbidity and mortality. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that neuron damage occurs earlier than microvascular complications in DR patients, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated diabetes-induced retinal neuropathy and elucidated key molecular events to identify new...

  20. Key-data of energy (June 2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The energy actors and the economical context of energy are changing: the world exchanges and the deregulation of markets impose to dispose of reliable and relevant indicators to understand the French energy choices and stakes and to compare them with the European and worldwide data. This 2001 edition of the key energy data of France aims at shading light on the French energy policy which is based on: an imperative of supply security, an abatement of CO 2 emissions and a respect of environment, a growth of the economic competitiveness, a maintenance of the public utility missions, and on employment. Graphs, curves, charts and appendixes illustrate and complete this document. (J.S.)

  1. Data key to quest for quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Florence S; Nielsen, Jon; Macias, Charles

    2013-11-01

    Late-binding data warehousing reduces the time it takes to obtain data needed to make crucial decisions. Late binding refers to when and how tightly data from the source applications are bound to the rules and vocabularies that make it useful. In some cases, data can be seen in real time. In historically paper-driven environments where data-driven decisions may be a new concept, buy-in from clinicians, physicians, and hospital leaders is key to success in using data to improve outcomes.

  2. Stahlschüssel key to steel

    CERN Document Server

    Wegst, W S

    2016-01-01

    The Key to Steel (Stahlschlüssel/Stahlschluessel) cross reference book will help you to decode / decipher steel designations and find equivalent materials worldwide. The 2016 edition includes more than 70,000 standard designations and trade names from approximately 300 steelmakers and suppliers. Presentation is trilingual: English, French, and German. Materials covered include structural steels, tool steels, valve steels, high temperature steels and alloys, stainless and heat-resisting steels, and more. Standards and designations from 25 countries are cross-referenced.

  3. Noiseless Steganography The Key to Covert Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Desoky, Abdelrahman

    2012-01-01

    Among the features that make Noiseless Steganography: The Key to Covert Communications a first of its kind: The first to comprehensively cover Linguistic Steganography The first to comprehensively cover Graph Steganography The first to comprehensively cover Game Steganography Although the goal of steganography is to prevent adversaries from suspecting the existence of covert communications, most books on the subject present outdated steganography approaches that are detectable by human and/or machine examinations. These approaches often fail because they camouflage data as a detectable noise b

  4. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, A.A.; Kouwer, P.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a...

  5. NCAP projection displays: key issues for commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Akira; Jones, Philip J.

    1992-06-01

    Recently there has been much interest in a new polymer nematic dispersion technology, often called as NCAP, PDLC, PNLC, LCPC, etc., since projection displays using this technology have been shown to produce much brighter display images than projectors using conventional twisted nematic (TN) lightvalves. For commercializing projection displays based on this polymer nematic dispersion technology, the new materials must not only meet various electro- optic requirements, e.g., operational voltage, `off-state'' scattering angle, voltage holding ratio and hysteresis, but must also be stable over the lifetime of the product. This paper reports recent progress in the development of NCAP based projection displays and discusses some of the key commercialization issues.

  6. Public key cryptography from weaker assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zottarel, Angela

    This dissertation is focused on the construction of public key cryptographic primitives and on the relative security analysis in a meaningful theoretic model. This work takes two orthogonal directions. In the first part, we study cryptographic constructions preserving their security properties also...... in the case the adversary is granted access to partial information about the secret state of the primitive. To do so, we work in an extension of the standard black-box model, a new framework where possible leakage from the secret state is taken into account. In particular, we give the first construction...

  7. Ocean energy: key legal issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Glen; Rochette, Julien; O'Hagan, Anne Marie; De Groot, Jiska; Leroy, Yannick; Soininen, Niko; Salcido, Rachael; Castelos, Montserrat Abad; Jude, Simon; Kerr, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Ocean energy is a novel renewable energy resource being developed as part of the push towards a 'Blue Economy'. The literature on ocean energy has focused on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. In this Issue Brief, we set out some key legal challenges for the development of ocean energy technologies, structured around the following core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources. (authors)

  8. 5 keys to business analytics program success

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, John; Green, Brian; Harris, Tracy; Van De Vanter, Kay

    2012-01-01

    With business analytics is becoming increasingly strategic to all types of organizations and with many companies struggling to create a meaningful impact with this emerging technology, this work-based on the combined experience of 10 organizations that display excellence and expertise on the subject-shares the best practices, discusses the management aspects and sociology that drives success, and uncovers the five key aspects behind the success of some of the top business analytics programs in the industry. Readers will learn about numerous topics, including how to create and manage a changing

  9. Local innovation: The key to globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivardhini K. Jha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The round table discussion draws the panellists to weigh in on how multinational enterprises from developed countries are innovating in and for emerging markets, the challenges faced, and lessons learnt. The key takeaways are that MNEs are increasingly innovating for the Indian market, alongside their contribution to global products. They are doing so by developing close relationships with field facing organisations, co-creating with customers, empowering engineers, and taking a clean slate approach to product development. This approach has given them dividends not only in the local market but also in the global market.

  10. Cryptographic Key Management and Critical Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CSEDS) industry led program (DE-FOA-0000359) entitled "Innovation for Increasing CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (12CSEDS)," awarded a contract to Sypris Electronics LLC to develop a Cryptographic Key Management System for the smart grid (Scalable Key Management Solutions for Critical Infrastructure Protection). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sypris Electronics, LLC as a result of that award entered into a CRADA (NFE-11-03562) between ORNL and Sypris Electronics, LLC. ORNL provided its Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) as a tool to be modified and used as a metric to address risks and vulnerabilities in the management of cryptographic keys within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) domain of the electric sector. ORNL concentrated our analysis on the AMI domain of which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) Working Group 1 (WG1) has documented 29 failure scenarios. The computational infrastructure of this metric involves system stakeholders, security requirements, system components and security threats. To compute this metric, we estimated the stakes that each stakeholder associates with each security requirement, as well as stochastic matrices that represent the probability of a threat to cause a component failure and the probability of a component failure to cause a security requirement violation. We applied this model to estimate the security of the AMI, by leveraging the recently established National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628 guidelines for smart grid security and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 63351, Part 9 to identify the life cycle for cryptographic key management, resulting in a vector that assigned to each stakeholder an estimate of their average loss in terms of dollars per day of system

  11. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...... the fracture conditions of the various clay tills. Tests performed at the Danish Geotechnical Institute with large undisturbed columns of clay till show that there is a relation between the strength of the clay till and the hydraulic conductivity. Geotechnical methods may therefore be the key to determine...

  12. Identification of Key Residues for Enzymatic Carboxylate Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Stolterfoht

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylate reductases (CARs, E.C. 1.2.1.30 generate aldehydes from their corresponding carboxylic acid with high selectivity. Little is known about the structure of CARs and their catalytically important amino acid residues. The identification of key residues for carboxylate reduction provides a starting point to gain deeper understanding of enzymatic carboxylate reduction. A multiple sequence alignment of CARs with confirmed activity recently identified in our lab and from the literature revealed a fingerprint of conserved amino acids. We studied the function of conserved residues by multiple sequence alignments and mutational replacements of these residues. In this study, single-site alanine variants of Neurospora crassa CAR were investigated to determine the contribution of conserved residues to the function, expressability or stability of the enzyme. The effect of amino acid replacements was investigated by analyzing enzymatic activity of the variants in vivo and in vitro. Supported by molecular modeling, we interpreted that five of these residues are essential for catalytic activity, or substrate and co-substrate binding. We identified amino acid residues having significant impact on CAR activity. Replacement of His 237, Glu 433, Ser 595, Tyr 844, and Lys 848 by Ala abolish CAR activity, indicating their key role in acid reduction. These results may assist in the functional annotation of CAR coding genes in genomic databases. While some other conserved residues decreased activity or had no significant impact, four residues increased the specific activity of NcCAR variants when replaced by alanine. Finally, we showed that NcCAR wild-type and mutants efficiently reduce aliphatic acids.

  13. User-Centric Key Entropy: Study of Biometric Key Derivation Subject to Spoofing Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela Dinca

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometric data can be used as input for PKI key pair generation. The concept of not saving the private key is very appealing, but the implementation of such a system shouldn’t be rushed because it might prove less secure then current PKI infrastructure. One biometric characteristic can be easily spoofed, so it was believed that multi-modal biometrics would offer more security, because spoofing two or more biometrics would be very hard. This notion, of increased security of multi-modal biometric systems, was disproved for authentication and matching, studies showing that not only multi-modal biometric systems are not more secure, but they introduce additional vulnerabilities. This paper is a study on the implications of spoofing biometric data for retrieving the derived key. We demonstrate that spoofed biometrics can yield the same key, which in turn will lead an attacker to obtain the private key. A practical implementation is proposed using fingerprint and iris as biometrics and the fuzzy extractor for biometric key extraction. Our experiments show what happens when the biometric data is spoofed for both uni-modal systems and multi-modal. In case of multi-modal system tests were performed when spoofing one biometric or both. We provide detailed analysis of every scenario in regard to successful tests and overall key entropy. Our paper defines a biometric PKI scenario and an in depth security analysis for it. The analysis can be viewed as a blueprint for implementations of future similar systems, because it highlights the main security vulnerabilities for bioPKI. The analysis is not constrained to the biometric part of the system, but covers CA security, sensor security, communication interception, RSA encryption vulnerabilities regarding key entropy, and much more.

  14. Key rate of quantum key distribution with hashed two-way classical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shun; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Uyematsu, Tomohiko; Kawano, Yasuhito

    2007-01-01

    We propose an information reconciliation protocol that uses two-way classical communication. The key rates of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that use our protocol are higher than those using previously known protocols for a wide range of error rates for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 and six-state protocols. We also clarify the relation between the proposed and known QKD protocols, and the relation between the proposed protocol and entanglement distillation protocols

  15. Il governo della performance dei processi di business : dai Key Performance Indicators ai Key Risk Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Beretta; Saverio Bozzolan

    2013-01-01

    The recent paper issued by COSO ["Developing Key Risk Indicators to Strengthen Enterprise Risk Management" (Coso, 2010)] is the starting point of this article whose aim is to discuss the relevance of the business process dimension in the design and implementation of Key Risk Indicators. The Authors analyze the reasons of the systematic underestimation of the business process dimension in the COSO papers and debate the implications that the explicit consideration of the business process dimens...

  16. Probing flexible conformations in molecular junctions by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Mingsen [Department of Physics, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025 (China); Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Institute of Applied Physics, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang, 550018 (China); Ye, Gui; Jiang, Jun, E-mail: jiangj1@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Chemical Physics, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Cai, Shaohong, E-mail: caish@mail.gufe.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025 (China); Guizhou Key Laboratory of Economic System Simulation, Guizhou University of Finance and Economics, Guiyang, 550004 (China); Sun, Guangyu [Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Institute of Applied Physics, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang, 550018 (China)

    2015-01-15

    The probe of flexible molecular conformation is crucial for the electric application of molecular systems. We have developed a theoretical procedure to analyze the couplings of molecular local vibrations with the electron transportation process, which enables us to evaluate the structural fingerprints of some vibrational modes in the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). Based on a model molecule of Bis-(4-mercaptophenyl)-ether with a flexible center angle, we have revealed and validated a simple mathematical relationship between IETS signals and molecular angles. Our results might open a route to quantitatively measure key geometrical parameters of molecular junctions, which helps to achieve precise control of molecular devices.

  17. Finite-key analysis for quantum key distribution with weak coherent pulses based on Bernoulli sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shun; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Koashi, Masato

    2017-07-01

    An essential step in quantum key distribution is the estimation of parameters related to the leaked amount of information, which is usually done by sampling of the communication data. When the data size is finite, the final key rate depends on how the estimation process handles statistical fluctuations. Many of the present security analyses are based on the method with simple random sampling, where hypergeometric distribution or its known bounds are used for the estimation. Here we propose a concise method based on Bernoulli sampling, which is related to binomial distribution. Our method is suitable for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with weak coherent pulses [C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, New York, 1984), Vol. 175], reducing the number of estimated parameters to achieve a higher key generation rate compared to the method with simple random sampling. We also apply the method to prove the security of the differential-quadrature-phase-shift (DQPS) protocol in the finite-key regime. The result indicates that the advantage of the DQPS protocol over the phase-encoding BB84 protocol in terms of the key rate, which was previously confirmed in the asymptotic regime, persists in the finite-key regime.

  18. Careful assessment key in managing prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujadhur, Rahul; Aning, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Prostatitis is a common condition estimated to affect up to 30% of men in their lifetime, it is most prevalent in men aged between 35 and 50. Prostatitis is subclassified into: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic pelvic pain and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. Acute bacterial prostatitis presents with acute onset pelvic pain which may or may not be related to voiding, lower urinary tract symptoms, sometimes haematuria or haematospermia and systemic symptoms such as fever and rigors. A documented history of recurrent urinary tract infections is the key feature of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Duration of symptoms > 3 months defines chronicity. The key symptom of chronic pelvic pain syndrome is pain. Patients may describe pain during or after ejaculation as their predominant symptom. Clinical assessment includes a thorough history and examination. A digital rectal examination should be performed after a midstream urine (MSU) sample has been collected for urine dipstick, microscopy and culture. The prostate should be checked for nodules. In acute bacterial prostatitis the MSU is the only laboratory investigation required. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome may be multifactorial and part of a more generalised pain disorder. Pelvic floor muscle abnormalities, altered neuroendocrine pathways, chemically induced inflammation, bacterial infection, autoimmune processes, dysfunctional voiding as well intraprostatic ductal reflux mechanisms have all been identified in men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

  19. Fully Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirani, Umesh; Vidick, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Quantum cryptography promises levels of security that are impossible to replicate in a classical world. Can this security be guaranteed even when the quantum devices on which the protocol relies are untrusted? This central question dates back to the early 1990s when the challenge of achieving device-independent quantum key distribution was first formulated. We answer this challenge by rigorously proving the device-independent security of a slight variant of Ekert's original entanglement-based protocol against the most general (coherent) attacks. The resulting protocol is robust: While assuming only that the devices can be modeled by the laws of quantum mechanics and are spatially isolated from each other and from any adversary's laboratory, it achieves a linear key rate and tolerates a constant noise rate in the devices. In particular, the devices may have quantum memory and share arbitrary quantum correlations with the eavesdropper. The proof of security is based on a new quantitative understanding of the monogamous nature of quantum correlations in the context of a multiparty protocol.

  20. SARS: Key factors in crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsin-Chao; Chen, Thai-Form; Chou, Shieu-Ming

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted at a single hospital selected in Taipei during the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak from March to July, 2003 in Taiwan. During this period of time, 104 SARS patients were admitted to the hospital. There were no negative reports related to the selected hospital despite its being located right in the center of an area struck by the epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors enabling the hospital to survive SARS unscathed. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with the nursing directors and nursing managers of the SARS units, along with a review of relevant hospital documents. The five key elements identified as survival factors during this SARS crisis are as follows: 1. good control of timing for crisis management, 2. careful decision-making, 3. thorough implementation, 4. effective communication, and 5. trust between management and employees. The results of this study reconfirmed the selected hospital as a model for good crisis management during the SARS epidemic.

  1. KEY FACTORS IN MARKETING FOCUSED SERVICES BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Yohanna Martínez Castrillón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the key success factors in the marketing area and describe them as managerial allies for companies that wish to position themselves in the market under a good sustainable performance , for it has been consulted theoretical references of Marketing as a management partner with collection and integration of data. Methodologically, it is located within the type of descriptive research field, with a design of transactional non-experimental, with an intentional non-probabilistic stratified sample of four reporting units. The findings established fifteen (15 points of influence called "key success factors (FCE in the area of marketing, and managerial allies of service companies in the security, surveillance and protection sector in industrial, commercial and residential sectors. Finally, it is intended that the actions of marketing service companies should focus to the welfare of both the organization, such as users, both in the environment, and economic, social and technological, characterized by ethics, sustainable development and transparency to respond appropriately.

  2. A Recommended Set of Key Arctic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Druckenmiller, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Gerst, M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kenney, M. A.; Meier, W.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is an interconnected and environmentally sensitive system of ice, ocean, land, atmosphere, ecosystems, and people. From local to pan-Arctic scales, the area has already undergone major changes in physical and societal systems and will continue at a pace that is greater than twice the global average. Key Arctic indicators can quantify these changes. Indicators serve as the bridge between complex information and policy makers, stakeholders, and the general public, revealing trends and information people need to make important socioeconomic decisions. This presentation evaluates and compiles more than 70 physical, biological, societal and economic indicators into an approachable summary that defines the changing Arctic. We divided indicators into "existing," "in development," "possible," and "aspirational". In preparing a paper on Arctic Indicators for a special issue of the journal Climatic Change, our group established a set of selection criteria to identify indicators to specifically guide decision-makers in their responses to climate change. A goal of the analysis is to select a manageable composite list of recommended indicators based on sustained, reliable data sources with known user communities. The selected list is also based on the development of a conceptual model that identifies components and processes critical to our understanding of the Arctic region. This list of key indicators is designed to inform the plans and priorities of multiple groups such as the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), and the Arctic Council.

  3. Keys of educational change in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín De la Herrán Gascón

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the educational system in Ecuador. The Ecuadorian education system arouses international interest, especially in Latin America. In this essay we will try to answer these questions: What might be the relevant keys from the public education in Ecuador? Why has it reached its present level of development, particularly in inclusive education? What fundaments and policies are behind the results of the goals from Education for All (EFA 2000-2015 From the Dakar framework for Action? (World Education Forum, 2000. In light of these issues, the goal is to understand key factors and reasons that have contributed to the development of the Ecuadorian public education. In terms of methodology, the approach is qualitative, dialectical, documentary and descriptive (Mc Millan and Schumacher, 2005. The research is proposed as a case study, where the choice of the case is justified by its novelty, its degree of development and its emphasis on inclusion and equity in all educational levels. With this aim, it is made a descriptive analysis of the rules underlying the changes in the educational system in Ecuador in the last three decades and it is carried out, particularly since 2008, following the last Constitution (Constituent Assembly, 2008. Tables as an analytical contribution of the authors are offered. Also data endorsed by authors and agencies of maximum national and international prestige are detailed and they realize the effectiveness of policies and such changes.

  4. Key attributes of expert NRL referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.

  5. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Sequeira, Ana M.M.; Meekan, Mark G.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W. Don; Caley, M. Julian; Costa, Daniel P.; Eguí luz, Victor M.; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S.; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C.; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L.; Lowe, Christopher G.; Madsen, Peter T.; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A.; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Sims, David W.; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N.; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N.; Thums, Michele

    2016-01-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Charge transport through molecular switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan van der Molen, Sense; Liljeroth, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We review the fascinating research on charge transport through switchable molecules. In the past decade, detailed investigations have been performed on a great variety of molecular switches, including mechanically interlocked switches (rotaxanes and catenanes), redox-active molecules and photochromic switches (e.g. azobenzenes and diarylethenes). To probe these molecules, both individually and in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), a broad set of methods have been developed. These range from low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) via two-terminal break junctions to larger scale SAM-based devices. It is generally found that the electronic coupling between molecules and electrodes has a profound influence on the properties of such molecular junctions. For example, an intrinsically switchable molecule may lose its functionality after it is contacted. Vice versa, switchable two-terminal devices may be created using passive molecules ('extrinsic switching'). Developing a detailed understanding of the relation between coupling and switchability will be of key importance for both future research and technology. (topical review)

  8. Charge transport through molecular switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan van der Molen, Sense [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Liljeroth, Peter, E-mail: molen@physics.leidenuniv.n [Condensed Matter and Interfaces, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, University of Utrecht, PO Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-04-07

    We review the fascinating research on charge transport through switchable molecules. In the past decade, detailed investigations have been performed on a great variety of molecular switches, including mechanically interlocked switches (rotaxanes and catenanes), redox-active molecules and photochromic switches (e.g. azobenzenes and diarylethenes). To probe these molecules, both individually and in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), a broad set of methods have been developed. These range from low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) via two-terminal break junctions to larger scale SAM-based devices. It is generally found that the electronic coupling between molecules and electrodes has a profound influence on the properties of such molecular junctions. For example, an intrinsically switchable molecule may lose its functionality after it is contacted. Vice versa, switchable two-terminal devices may be created using passive molecules ('extrinsic switching'). Developing a detailed understanding of the relation between coupling and switchability will be of key importance for both future research and technology. (topical review)

  9. Molecular dynamics for dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Chiba, Satoshi; Watanabe, Gentaro

    2012-01-01

    We review a molecular dynamics method for nucleon many-body systems called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), and our studies using this method. These studies address the structure and the dynamics of nuclear matter relevant to neutron star crusts, supernova cores, and heavy-ion collisions. A key advantage of QMD is that we can study dynamical processes of nucleon many-body systems without any assumptions about the nuclear structure. First, we focus on the inhomogeneous structures of low-density nuclear matter consisting not only of spherical nuclei but also of nuclear “pasta”, i.e., rod-like and slab-like nuclei. We show that pasta phases can appear in the ground and equilibrium states of nuclear matter without assuming nuclear shape. Next, we show our simulation of compression of nuclear matter which corresponds to the collapsing stage of supernovae. With the increase in density, a crystalline solid of spherical nuclei changes to a triangular lattice of rods by connecting neighboring nuclei. Finally, we discuss fragment formation in expanding nuclear matter. Our results suggest that a generally accepted scenario based on the liquid–gas phase transition is not plausible at lower temperatures. (author)

  10. Molecular dynamics for dense matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Watanabe, Gentaro; Chiba, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    We review a molecular dynamics method for nucleon many-body systems called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), and our studies using this method. These studies address the structure and the dynamics of nuclear matter relevant to neutron star crusts, supernova cores, and heavy-ion collisions. A key advantage of QMD is that we can study dynamical processes of nucleon many-body systems without any assumptions about the nuclear structure. First, we focus on the inhomogeneous structures of low-density nuclear matter consisting not only of spherical nuclei but also of nuclear "pasta", i.e., rod-like and slab-like nuclei. We show that pasta phases can appear in the ground and equilibrium states of nuclear matter without assuming nuclear shape. Next, we show our simulation of compression of nuclear matter which corresponds to the collapsing stage of supernovae. With the increase in density, a crystalline solid of spherical nuclei changes to a triangular lattice of rods by connecting neighboring nuclei. Finally, we discuss fragment formation in expanding nuclear matter. Our results suggest that a generally accepted scenario based on the liquid-gas phase transition is not plausible at lower temperatures.

  11. Molecular Components of Catalytic Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-07-02

    Selectivity, that is, to produce one molecule out of many other thermodynamically feasible product molecules, is the key concept to develop 'clean manufacturing' processes that do not produce byproducts (green chemistry). Small differences in potential energy barriers for elementary reaction steps control which reaction channel is more likely to yield the desired product molecule (selectivity), instead of the overall activation energy for the reaction that controls turnover rates (activity). Recent studies have demonstrated the atomic- or molecular-level tailoring of parameters such as the surface structures of active sites that give rise to nanoparticle size and shape dependence of turnover rates and reaction selectivities. Here, we highlight seven molecular components that influence reaction selectivities. These include: surface structure, adsorbate-induced restructuring, adsorbate mobility, reaction intermediates, surface composition, charge transport, and oxidation states for model metal single crystal and colloid nanoparticle catalysts. We show examples of their functioning and describe in-situ instruments that permit us to investigate their roles in surface reactions.

  12. Making molecular machines work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2006-01-01

    In this review we chart recent advances in what is at once an old and very new field of endeavour the achievement of control of motion at the molecular level including solid-state and surface-mounted rotors, and its natural progression to the development of synthetic molecular machines. Besides a

  13. Veterinary Molecular Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Weesendorp, E.; Bossers, A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    In veterinary molecular diagnostics, samples originating from animals are tested. Developments in the farm animals sector and in our societal attitude towards pet animals have resulted in an increased demand for fast and reliable diagnostic techniques. Molecular diagnostics perfectly matches this

  14. Molecular Beacons in Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, Sanjay; Kramer, Fred Russell

    2012-01-01

    Recent technical advances have begun to realize the potential of molecular beacons to test for diverse infections in clinical diagnostic laboratories. These include the ability to test for, and quantify, multiple pathogens in the same clinical sample, and to detect antibiotic resistant strains within hours. The design principles of molecular beacons have also spawned a variety of allied technologies.

  15. Molecular microbial ecology manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Bruijn, de F.J.; Head, I.M.; Akkermans, A.D.L.

    2004-01-01

    The field of microbial ecology has been revolutionized in the past two decades by the introduction of molecular methods into the toolbox of the microbial ecologist. This molecular arsenal has helped to unveil the enormity of microbial diversity across the breadth of the earth's ecosystems, and has

  16. Principles of molecular oncology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bronchud, Miguel H

    2008-01-01

    ...-threatening diseases. Many new molecularly targeted diagnostics and therapeutics described in this text, developed based on the rapid growth in our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer, already substantially improve survival of patients with previously lethal malignancies, and also improve quality of life because of fewer toxicities. Clearly re...

  17. Molecular Typing and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, general background and bench protocols are provided for a number of molecular typing techniques in common use today. Methods for the molecular typing and differentiation of microorganisms began to be widely adopted following the development of the polymerase chai...

  18. Principles of molecular oncology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bronchud, Miguel H; Thomas, E. Donnall; Weatherall, D. J; Crowther, D. G

    2004-01-01

    ...-threatening diseases. Many new molecularly targeted diagnostics and therapeutics described in this text, developed based on the rapid growth in our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer, already substantially improve survival of patients with previously lethal malignancies, and also improve quality of life because of fewer toxicities. Clearly re...

  19. Ionic and Molecular Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    applications of RTILs in combination with molecular liquids, concentrating on three significant areas: (1) the use of molecular liquids to decrease the viscosity of RTILs; (2) the role of RTIL micelle formation in water and organic solvents; and (3) the ability of RTILs to adsorb pollutant gases. Current...

  20. Molecular Stirrers in Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jiawen; Kistemaker, Jos C. M.; Robertus, Jort; Feringa, Ben L.

    2014-01-01

    A series of first-generation light-driven molecular motors with rigid substituents of varying length was synthesized to act as "molecular stirrers". Their rotary motion was studied by H-1 NMR and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy in a variety of solvents with different polarity and viscosity.