WorldWideScience

Sample records for molecular imaging evaluation

  1. Progress on molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Quan; Zhang Yongxue

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a new era of medical imaging,which can non-invasively monitor biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo, including molecular imaging of nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance molecular imaging, ultrasound molecular imaging,optical molecular imaging and molecular imaging with X-ray. Recently, with the development of multi-subjects amalgamation, multimodal molecular imaging technology has been applied in clinical imaging, such as PET-CT and PET-MRI. We believe that with development of molecular probe and multi-modal imaging, more and more molecular imaging techniques will be applied in clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  2. Molecular Imaging Probes for Diagnosis and Therapy Evaluation of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer death in women where early detection and accurate assessment of therapy response can improve clinical outcomes. Molecular imaging, which includes PET, SPECT, MRI, and optical modalities, provides noninvasive means of detecting biological processes and molecular events in vivo. Molecular imaging has the potential to enhance our understanding of breast cancer biology and effects of drug action during both preclinical and clinical phases of drug development. This has led to the identification of many molecular imaging probes for key processes in breast cancer. Hormone receptors, growth factor receptor, and angiogenic factors, such as ER, PR, HER2, and VEGFR, have been adopted as imaging targets to detect and stage the breast cancer and to monitor the treatment efficacy. Receptor imaging probes are usually composed of targeting moiety attached to a signaling component such as a radionuclide that can be detected using dedicated instruments. Current molecular imaging probes involved in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy evaluation are reviewed, and future of molecular imaging for the preclinical and clinical is explained.

  3. Molecular imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2013-02-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  4. Molecular imaging in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  5. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging strives to visualize processes in living subjects at the molecular level. Monitoring biochemical processes at this level will allow us to directly track biological processes and signaling events that lead to pathophysiological abnormalities, and help make personalized medicine a reality by allowing evaluation of therapeutic efficacies on an individual basis. Although most molecular imaging techniques emerged from the field of oncology, they have now gradually gained acceptance by the cardiovascular community. Hence, the availability of dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems and specific targeting imaging probes is now enhancing our understanding of cardiovascular diseases and expediting the development of newer therapies. Examples include imaging approaches to evaluate and track the progress of recent genetic and cellular therapies for treatment of myocardial ischemia. Other areas include in vivo monitoring of such key molecular processes as angiogenesis and apoptosis. Cardiovascular molecular imaging is already an important research tool in preclinical experiments. The challenge that lies ahead is to implement these techniques into the clinics so that they may help fulfill the promise of molecular therapies and personalized medicine, as well as to resolve disappointments and controversies surrounding the field

  6. Molecular MR Imaging Probes

    OpenAIRE

    MAHMOOD, UMAR; JOSEPHSON, LEE

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been successfully applied to many of the applications of molecular imaging. This review discusses by example some of the advances in areas such as multimodality MR-optical agents, receptor imaging, apoptosis imaging, angiogenesis imaging, noninvasive cell tracking, and imaging of MR marker genes.

  7. Targeted molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. Edmund

    2003-01-01

    Molecular imaging aims to visualize the cellular and molecular processes occurring in living tissues, and for the imaging of specific molecules in vivo, the development of reporter probes and dedicated imaging equipment is most important. Reporter genes can be used to monitor the delivery and magnitude of therapeutic gene transfer, and the time variation involved. Imaging technologies such as micro-PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, as well as optical imaging systems, are able to non-invasively detect, measure, and report the simultaneous expression of multiple meaningful genes. It is believed that recent advances in reporter probes, imaging technologies and gene transfer strategies will enhance the effectiveness of gene therapy trials

  8. Cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M.; Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L.; Narula, J.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  9. Cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M. [Maastricht University, Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L. [Maastricht University, Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Narula, J. [University of California Irvine, Department of Cardiology, Irvine (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  10. EDITORIAL: Molecular Imaging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Keisuke; Okamoto, Koji

    2006-06-01

    'Molecular Imaging Technology' focuses on image-based techniques using nanoscale molecules as sensor probes to measure spatial variations of various species (molecular oxygen, singlet oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric monoxide, etc) and physical properties (pressure, temperature, skin friction, velocity, mechanical stress, etc). This special feature, starting on page 1237, contains selected papers from The International Workshop on Molecular Imaging for Interdisciplinary Research, sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in Japan, which was held at the Sendai Mediatheque, Sendai, Japan, on 8 9 November 2004. The workshop was held as a sequel to the MOSAIC International Workshop that was held in Tokyo in 2003, to summarize the outcome of the 'MOSAIC Project', a five-year interdisciplinary project supported by Techno-Infrastructure Program, the Special Coordination Fund for Promotion of Science Technology to develop molecular sensor technology for aero-thermodynamic research. The workshop focused on molecular imaging technology and its applications to interdisciplinary research areas. More than 110 people attended this workshop from various research fields such as aerospace engineering, automotive engineering, radiotechnology, fluid dynamics, bio-science/engineering and medical engineering. The purpose of this workshop is to stimulate intermixing of these interdisciplinary fields for further development of molecular sensor and imaging technology. It is our pleasure to publish the seven papers selected from our workshop as a special feature in Measurement and Science Technology. We will be happy if this issue inspires people to explore the future direction of molecular imaging technology for interdisciplinary research.

  11. Nanoplatform-based molecular imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    "Nanoplathform-Based Molecular Imaging provides rationale for using nanoparticle-based probes for molecular imaging, then discusses general strategies for this underutilized, yet promising, technology...

  12. Molecular cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, M.

    2007-01-01

    Although huge and long-lasting research efforts have been spent on the development of new diagnostic techniques investigating cardiovascular diseases, still fundamental challenges exist; the main challenge being the diagnosis of a suspected or known coronary artery disease or its consequences (myocardial infarction, heart failure etc.). Beside morphological techniques, functional imaging modalities are available in clinical diagnostic algorithms, whereas molecular cardiovascular imaging techniques are still under development. This review summarizes clinical-diagnostical challenges of modern cardiovascular medicine as well as the potential of new molecular imaging techniques to face these. (orig.)

  13. Radiopharmacological evaluation of 18F-labeled phosphatidylserine-binding peptides for molecular imaging of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, Melinda; Perreault, Amanda; Kapty, Janice; Richter, Susan; Foerster, Christian; Bergman, Cody; Way, Jenilee; Mercer, John; Wuest, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Radiolabeled phosphatidylserine (PS)-binding peptides represent an innovative strategy for molecular imaging of apoptosis with positron emission tomography (PET). The goal of this study was the radiopharmacological evaluation of radiolabeled peptides for their binding to PS on apoptotic cancer cells, involving metabolic stability, cellular uptake, biodistribution, and dynamic PET imaging experiments. Methods: Binding of peptides LIKKPF, PGDLSR, FBz-LIKKPF, FBz-PGDLSR, FBAM-CLIKKPF and FBAM-CPGDLSR to PS was analyzed in a newly developed radiometric binding assay using 64 Cu-labeled wild-type annexin-V as radiotracer. Radiolabeling of most potent peptides with fluorine-18 was carried out with thiol-selective prosthetic group [ 18 F]FBAM to give [ 18 F]FBAM-CLIKKPF and [ 18 F]FBAM-CPGDLSR. [ 18 F]FBAM-labeled peptides were studied in camptothecin-induced apoptotic human T lymphocyte Jurkat cells, and in a murine EL4 tumor model of apoptosis using dynamic PET imaging and biodistribution. Results: Peptides LIKKPF and PGDLSR inhibited binding of 64 Cu-labeled annexin-V to immobilized PS in the millimolar range (IC 50 10–15 mM) compared to annexin-V (45 nM). Introduction of FBAM prosthetic group slightly increased inhibitory potencies (FBAM-CLIKKPF: IC 50 = 1 mM; FBAM-CPGDLSR: IC 50 = 6 mM). Radiolabeling succeeded in good radiochemical yields of 50–54% using a chemoselective alkylation reaction of peptides CLIKKPF and CPGDLSR with [ 18 F]FBAM. In vivo metabolic stability studies in mice revealed 40–60% of intact peptides at 5 min p.i. decreasing to 25% for [ 18 F]FBAM-CLIKKPF and less than 5% for [ 18 F]FBAM-CPGDLSR at 15 min p.i.. Cell binding of [ 18 F]FBAM-CLIKKPF in drug-treated Jurkat cells was significantly higher compared to untreated cells, but this was not observed for [ 18 F]FBAM-CPGDLSR. Dynamic PET imaging experiments showed that baseline uptake of [ 18 F]FBAM-CLIKKPF in EL4 tumors was higher (SUV 5min 0.46, SUV 60min 0.13) compared to

  14. Molecular imaging in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging is generally defined as noninvasive and quantitative imaging of targeted macromolecules and biological processes in living organisms. A characteristic of molecular imaging is the ability to perform repeated studies and assess changes in biological processes over time. Thus molecular imaging lends itself well for monitoring the effectiveness of tumor therapy. In animal models a variety of techniques can be used for molecular imaging. These include optical imaging (bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine techniques. In the clinical setting, however, nuclear medicine techniques predominate, because so far only radioactive tracers provide the necessary sensitivity to study expression and function of macromolecules non-invasively in patients. Nuclear medicine techniques allows to study a variety of biological processes in patients. These include the expression of various receptors (estrogen, androgen, somatostatin receptors and integrins). In addition, tracers are available to study tumor cell proliferation and hypoxia. The by far most commonly used molecular imaging technique in oncology is, however, positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analog [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET). FDG-PET permits non-invasive quantitative assessment of the accelerated exogenous glucose use of malignant tumors. Numerous studies have now shown that reduction of tumor FDG-uptake during therapy allows early prediction of tumor response and patient survival. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine whether FDG-PET can be used to individualize tumor therapy by signaling early in the course of therapy the need for therapeutic adjustments in patients with likely non-responding tumors. (orig.)

  15. Molecular MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleige, G.; Hamm, B.

    2000-01-01

    Basic medicobiological research in recent years has made rapid advances in the functional understanding of normal and pathological processes down to the molecular level. At the same time, various imaging modalities have developed from the depiction of organs to approaching the depiction of the cellular level and are about to make the visualization of molecular processes an established procedure. Besides other modalities like PET and near-infrared fluorescence, MR imaging offers some promising options for molecular imaging as well as some applications that have already been tested such as the visualization of enzyme activity, the depiction of the expression of certain genes, the visualization of surface receptors, or the specific demonstration of cells involved in the body's immune response. A major advantage of molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) over other more sensitive modalities is its high spatial resolution. However, the establishment of mMRI crucially relies on further improvements in resolution and the development of molecular markers for improving its sensitivity and specificity. The state of the art of mMRI is presented by giving a survey of the literature on experimental studies and reporting the results our study group obtained during investigation on gliomas. (orig.) [de

  16. Molecular photoacoustic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frogh Jafarian Dehkordi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hybrid imaging modalities which simultaneously benefit from capabilities of combined modalities provides an opportunity to modify quality of the images which can be obtained by each of the combined imaging systems. One of the imaging modalities, emerged in medical research area as a hybrid of ultrasound imaging and optical imaging, is photoacoustic imaging which apply ultrasound wave generated by tissue, after receiving laser pulse, to produce medical images. Materials and Methods: In this review, using keywords such as photoacoustic, optoacoustic, laser-ultrasound, thermoacoustic at databases such as PubMed and ISI, studies performed in the field of photoacoustic and related findings were evaluated. Results: Photoacoustic imaging, acquiring images with high contrast and desired resolution, provides an opportunity to perform physiologic and anatomic studies. Because this technique does not use ionizing radiation, it is not restricted by the limitation of the ionizing-based imaging systems therefore it can be used noninvasively to make images from cell, vessels, whole body imaging of the animal and distinguish tumor from normal tissue. Conclusion: Photoacoustic imaging is a new method in preclinical researches which can be used in various physiologic and anatomic studies. This method, because of application of non-ionizing radiation, may resolve limitation of radiation based method in diagnostic assessments.

  17. Molecular imaging II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmler, Wolfhard; Schwaiger, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this textbook of molecular imaging is to provide an up to date review of this rapidly growing field and to discuss basic methodological aspects necessary for the interpretation of experimental and clinical results. Emphasis is placed on the interplay of imaging technology and probe development, since the physical properties of the imaging approach need to be closely linked with the biologic application of the probe (i.e. nanoparticles and microbubbles). Various chemical strategies are discussed and related to the biologic applications. Reporter-gene imaging is being addressed not only in experimental protocols, but also first clinical applications are discussed. Finally, strategies of imaging to characterize apoptosis and angiogenesis are described and discussed in the context of possible clinical translation. (orig.)

  18. Molecular Imaging Approaches to the Evaluation of Infectious Diseases- A Prospective Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-25

    perspective. The focus of the paper will be on the alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and the filovirus, Ebola virus, and on what molecular...damage is often associated with altered permeability and in the brain an altered blood brain barrier. With albumin being a major constituent of...blood, radiolabeling of albumin with PET or SPECT isotopes may be a useful tool to evaluate vascular permeability. Kilbourn and colleagues in 1987

  19. Computational methods for molecular imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Kuangyu; Li, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains original submissions on the development and application of molecular imaging computing. The editors invited authors to submit high-quality contributions on a wide range of topics including, but not limited to: • Image Synthesis & Reconstruction of Emission Tomography (PET, SPECT) and other Molecular Imaging Modalities • Molecular Imaging Enhancement • Data Analysis of Clinical & Pre-clinical Molecular Imaging • Multi-Modal Image Processing (PET/CT, PET/MR, SPECT/CT, etc.) • Machine Learning and Data Mining in Molecular Imaging. Molecular imaging is an evolving clinical and research discipline enabling the visualization, characterization and quantification of biological processes taking place at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living subjects. Computational methods play an important role in the development of molecular imaging, from image synthesis to data analysis and from clinical diagnosis to therapy individualization. This work will bring readers fro...

  20. Molecular imaging in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botnar, R.M.; Ebersberger, H.; Noerenberg, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. In clinical practice, the in-vivo identification of atherosclerotic lesions, which can lead to complications such as heart attack or stroke, remains difficult. Imaging techniques provide the reference standard for the detection of clinically significant atherosclerotic changes in the coronary and carotid arteries. The assessment of the luminal narrowing is feasible, while the differentiation of stable and potentially unstable or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is currently not possible using non-invasive imaging. With high spatial resolution and high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable method for the evaluation of the thin arterial wall. In clinical practice, native MRI of the vessel wall already allows the differentiation and characterization of components of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and the aorta. Additional diagnostic information can be gained by the use of non-specific MRI contrast agents. With the development of targeted molecular probes, that highlight specific molecules or cells, pathological processes can be visualized at a molecular level with high spatial resolution. In this review article, the development of pathophysiological changes leading to the development of the arterial wall are introduced and discussed. Additionally, principles of contrast enhanced imaging with non-specific contrast agents and molecular probes will be discussed and latest developments in the field of molecular imaging of the vascular wall will be introduced.

  1. Optimization and performance evaluation of a conical mirror based fluorescence molecular tomography imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Li, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    We performed numerical simulations and phantom experiments with a conical mirror based fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) imaging system to optimize its performance. With phantom experiments, we have compared three measurement modes in FMT: the whole surface measurement mode, the transmission mode, and the reflection mode. Our results indicated that the whole surface measurement mode performed the best. Then, we applied two different neutral density (ND) filters to improve the measurement's dynamic range. The benefits from ND filters are not as much as predicted. Finally, with numerical simulations, we have compared two laser excitation patterns: line and point. With the same excitation position number, we found that the line laser excitation had slightly better FMT reconstruction results than the point laser excitation. In the future, we will implement Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations to calculate multiple reflection photons, and create a look-up table accordingly for calibration.

  2. Introduction to basic molecular biologic techniques for molecular imaging researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a rapidly growing field due to the advances in molecular biology and imaging technologies. With the introduction of imaging reporter genes into the cell, diverse cellular processes can be monitored, quantified and imaged non-invasively in vivo. These processes include the gene expression, protein-protein interactions, signal transduction pathways, and monitoring of cells such as cancer cells, immune cells, and stem cells. In the near future, molecular imaging analysis will allow us to observe the incipience and progression of the disease. These will make us easier to give a diagnosis in the early stage of intractable diseases such as cancer, neuro-degenerative disease, and immunological disorders. Additionally, molecular imaging method will be a valuable tool for the real-time evaluation of cells in molecular biology and the basic biological studies. As newer and more powerful molecular imaging tools become available, it will be necessary to corporate clinicians, molecular biologists and biochemists for the planning, interpretation, and application of these techniques to their fullest potential. In order for such a multidisciplinary team to be effective, it is essential that a common understanding of basic biochemical and molecular biologic techniques is achieved. Basic molecular techniques for molecular imaging methods are presented in this paper

  3. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  4. Nuclear medicine imaging instrumentations for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Song, Tae Yong; Choi, Yong

    2004-01-01

    Small animal models are extensively utilized in the study of biomedical sciences. Current animal experiments and analysis are largely restricted to in vitro measurements and need to sacrifice animals to perform tissue or molecular analysis. This prevents researchers from observing in vivo the natural evolution of the process under study. Imaging techniques can provide repeatedly in vivo anatomic and molecular information noninvasively. Small animal imaging systems have been developed to assess biological process in experimental animals and increasingly employed in the field of molecular imaging studies. This review outlines the current developments in nuclear medicine imaging instrumentations including fused multi-modality imaging systems for small animal imaging

  5. Tracking accuracy evaluation of a PET-enabled glove for molecular image-guided surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruionu, L.G.; Wilson, E.; Cleary, K.; Wong, K.H.; Weinberg, I.N.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a new type of PET scanner with a flexible geometry that can provide in situ functional imaging in environments where conventional full-body PET scanning would be difficult or impossible. Because PET reconstruction depends on localizing emissions from the radiotracer inside the patient, our system must have a means of continuously monitoring the detectors' position and orientation. We therefore evaluated the accuracy of using electromagnetic tracking for this task by comparing position measurements from the electromagnetic tracking system to a reference optical tracking system. The mean error in localization was 2.1 mm. (orig.)

  6. Tracking accuracy evaluation of a PET-enabled glove for molecular image-guided surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruionu, L.G. [Computer Aided Interventions and Medical Robotics (CAIMR), Imaging Science and Information Systems (ISIS) Center, Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Faculty of Engineering and Management of Technological Systems, Univ. of Craiova, Craiova (Romania); Wilson, E.; Cleary, K.; Wong, K.H. [Computer Aided Interventions and Medical Robotics (CAIMR), Imaging Science and Information Systems (ISIS) Center, Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Weinberg, I.N. [Fast Imaging Co., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We are developing a new type of PET scanner with a flexible geometry that can provide in situ functional imaging in environments where conventional full-body PET scanning would be difficult or impossible. Because PET reconstruction depends on localizing emissions from the radiotracer inside the patient, our system must have a means of continuously monitoring the detectors' position and orientation. We therefore evaluated the accuracy of using electromagnetic tracking for this task by comparing position measurements from the electromagnetic tracking system to a reference optical tracking system. The mean error in localization was 2.1 mm. (orig.)

  7. Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Paeng, Jin Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging has included Tc-99m Annexin imaging to visualize myocardial apoptosis, but is now usually associated with gene therapy and cell-based therapy. Cardiac gene therapy was not successful so far but cardiac reporter gene imaging was made possible using HSV-TK (herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) and F-18 FHBG (fluoro-hydroxymethylbutyl guanine) or I-124 FIAU (fluoro-deoxyiodo-arabino-furanosyluracil). Gene delivery was performed by needle injection with or without catheter guidance. TK expression did not last longer than 2 weeks in myocardium. Cell-based therapy of ischemic heart or failing heart looks promising, but biodistribution and differentiation of transplanted cells are not known. Reporter genes can be transfected to the stem/progenitor cells and cells containing these genes can be transplanted to the recipients using catheter-based purging or injection. Repeated imaging should be available and if promoter are varied to let express reporter transgenes, cellular (trans)differentiation can be studied. NIS (sodium iodide symporter) or D2R receptor genes are promising in this aspect.

  8. Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Paeng, Jin Chul

    2004-01-01

    Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging has included Tc-99m Annexin imaging to visualize myocardial apoptosis, but is now usually associated with gene therapy and cell-based therapy. Cardiac gene therapy was not successful so far but cardiac reporter gene imaging was made possible using HSV-TK (herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) and F-18 FHBG (fluoro-hydroxymethylbutyl guanine) or I-124 FIAU (fluoro-deoxyiodo-arabino-furanosyluracil). Gene delivery was performed by needle injection with or without catheter guidance. TK expression did not last longer than 2 weeks in myocardium. Cell-based therapy of ischemic heart or failing heart looks promising, but biodistribution and differentiation of transplanted cells are not known. Reporter genes can be transfected to the stem/progenitor cells and cells containing these genes can be transplanted to the recipients using catheter-based purging or injection. Repeated imaging should be available and if promoter are varied to let express reporter transgenes, cellular (trans)differentiation can be studied. NIS (sodium iodide symporter) or D2R receptor genes are promising in this aspect

  9. Molecular evaluation of thrombosis using X-ray phase contrast imaging with microbubbles targeted to P-selectin in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rongbiao; Chai, Wei-Min; Yan, Fuhua; Chen, Ke-Min; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) provides excellent image contrast by utilizing the phase shift. The introduction of microbubbles into tissues can cause a phase shift to make microbubbles visibly identified on PCI. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of targeted microbubble-based PCI for the detection of thrombosis. The absorption and phase contrast images of P-selectin-targeted microbubbles (MB P ) were obtained and compared in vitro. MB P , control IgG-targeted microbubbles (MB C ), and unbound microbubbles (MB U ) were tested for binding specificity on thrombi expressing P-selectin. MB P were used as molecular PCI probes to evaluate P-selectin expression in a mouse model of arteriovenous shunt thrombosis that was created using PE tubes in the bypass outside of the mouse body. PCI clearly showed the microbubbles not viewable via absorption contrast imaging (ACI). In vitro attachment of MB P (91.60 ± 11.63) to thrombi was significantly higher than attachment of MB C (17.80 ± 4.02, P < 0.001) or MB U (9.80 ± 2.59, P < 0.001). In the mouse model of arteriovenous shunt thrombosis, the binding affinity of MB P (15.50 ± 6.25) was significantly greater than that of MB C (0.50 ± 0.84, P < 0.001) or MB U (0.33 ± 0.52, P < 0.001). Our results indicate that molecular PCI may be considered as a novel and promising imaging modality for the investigation of thrombosis. (orig.)

  10. Current state of molecular imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, J.; Wunder, A.

    2005-01-01

    The recent years have seen significant advances in both molecular biology, allowing the identification of genes and pathways related to disease, and imaging technologies that allow for improved spatial and temporal resolution, enhanced sensitivity, better depth penetration, improved image processing, and beneficial combinations of different imaging modalities. These advances have led to a paradigm shift in the scope of diagnostic imaging. The traditional role of radiological diagnostic imaging is to define gross anatomy and structure in order to detect pathological abnormalities. Available contrast agents are mostly non-specific and can be used to image physiological processes such as changes in blood volume, flow, and perfusion but not to demonstrate pathological alterations at molecular levels. However, alterations at the anatomical-morphological level are relatively late manifestations of underlying molecular changes. Using molecular probes or markers that bind specifically to molecular targets allows for the non-invasive visualization and quantitation of biological processes such as gene expression, apoptosis, or angiogenesis at the molecular level within intact living organisms. This rapidly evolving, multidisciplinary approach, referred to as molecular imaging, promises to enable early diagnosis, can provide improved classification of stage and severity of disease, an objective assessment of treatment efficacy, and a reliable prognosis. Furthermore, molecular imaging is an important tool for the evaluation of physiological and pathophysiological processes, and for the development of new therapies. This article comprises a review of current technologies of molecular imaging, describes the development of contrast agents and various imaging modalities, new applications in specific disease models, and potential future developments. (orig.)

  11. Prostate Cancer Molecular Imaging Standardized Evaluation (PROMISE): Proposed miTNM Classification for the Interpretation of PSMA-Ligand PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, Matthias; Herrmann, Ken; Calais, Jeremie; Hadaschik, Boris; Giesel, Frederik L; Hartenbach, Markus; Hope, Thomas; Reiter, Robert; Maurer, Tobias; Weber, Wolfgang A; Fendler, Wolfgang P

    2018-03-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-ligand PET imaging provides unprecedented accuracy for whole-body staging of prostate cancer. As PSMA-ligand PET/CT is increasingly adopted in clinical trials and routine practice worldwide, a unified language for image reporting is urgently needed. We propose a molecular imaging TNM system (miTNM, version 1.0) as a standardized reporting framework for PSMA-ligand PET/CT or PET/MRI. miTNM is designed to organize findings in comprehensible categories to promote the exchange of information among physicians and institutions. Additionally, flowcharts integrating findings of PSMA-ligand PET and morphologic imaging have been designed to guide image interpretation. Specific applications, such as assessment of prognosis or impact on management, should be evaluated in future trials. miTNM is a living framework that evolves with clinical experience and scientific data. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  12. Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.

  13. General perspectives for molecular nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Key

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging provides a visualization of normal as well as abnormal cellular processes at a molecular or genetic level rather than at an anatomical level. Conventional medical imaging methods utilize the imaging signals produced by nonspecific physico-chemical interaction. However, molecular imaging methods utilize the imaging signals derived from specific cellular or molecular events. Because molecular and genetic changes precede anatomical change in the course of disease development, molecular imaging can detect early events in disease progression. In the near future, through molecular imaging we can understand basic mechanisms of disease, and diagnose earlier and, subsequently, treat earlier intractable disease such as cancer, neuro-degenerative diseases, and immunologic disorders. In beginning period, nuclear medicine started as a molecular imaging, and has had a leading role in the field of molecular imaging. But recently molecular imaging has been rapidly developed. Besides nuclear imaging, molecular imaging methods such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging are emerging. Each imaging modalities have their advantages and weaknesses. The opportunities from molecular imaging look bright. We should try nuclear medicine continues to have a leading role in molecular imaging

  14. Molecular imaging by cardiovascular MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Tillmann; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2007-01-01

    Do molecularly-targeted contrast agents have what it takes to usher in a paradigm shift as to how we will image cardiovascular disease in the near future? Moreover, are non-invasive vulnerable plaque detection and preemptive treatments with these novel nanoparticulate agents within reach for clinical applications? In this article, we attempt to make a compelling case for how the advent of molecularly-targeted nanoparticle technology may change the way we detect atherosclerotic lesions, determine their clinical significance and even provide non-invasive treatments. Focusing on imaging with cardiovascular MR, an overview of the latest developments in this rapidly evolving field of so-called "intelligent" contrast agents that are able to interrogate the vascular wall and various complementary advanced imaging technologies are presented.

  15. Molecular imaging in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHAN, Sairah R.; ROCKALL, Andrea G.; BARWICK, Tara D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of screening and of a vaccine, cervix cancer is a major cause of cancer death in young women worldwide. A third of women treated for the disease will recur, almost inevitably leading to death. Functional imaging has the potential to stratify patients at higher risk of poor response or relapse by improved delineation of disease extent and tumor characteristics. A number of molecular imaging biomarkers have been shown to predict outcome at baseline and/or early during therapy in cervical cancer. In future this could help tailor the treatment plan which could include selection of patients for close follow up, adjuvant therapy or trial entry for novel agents or adaptive clinical trials. The use of molecular imaging techniques, FDG PET/CT and functional MRI, in staging and response assessment of cervical cancer is reviewed.

  16. 3D molecular imaging SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillen, Greg [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States)]. E-mail: Greg.gillen@nist.gov; Fahey, Albert [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States); Wagner, Matt [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States); Mahoney, Christine [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States)

    2006-07-30

    Thin monolayer and bilayer films of spin cast poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and PLA doped with several pharmaceuticals have been analyzed by dynamic SIMS using SF{sub 5} {sup +} polyatomic primary ion bombardment. Each of these systems exhibited minimal primary beam-induced degradation under cluster ion bombardment allowing molecular depth profiles to be obtained through the film. By combing secondary ion imaging with depth profiling, three-dimensional molecular image depth profiles have been obtained from these systems. In another approach, bevel cross-sections are cut in the samples with the SF{sub 5} {sup +} primary ion beam to produce a laterally magnified cross-section of the sample that does not contain the beam-induced damage that would be induced by conventional focussed ion beam (FIB) cross-sectioning. The bevel surface can then be examined using cluster SIMS imaging or other appropriate microanalysis technique.

  17. Molecular Imaging Challenges With PET

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2010-01-01

    The future trends in molecular imaging and associated challenges for in-vivo functional imaging are illustrated on the basis of a few examples, such as atherosclerosis vulnerable plaques imaging or stem cells tracking. A set of parameters are derived to define the specifications of a new generation of in-vivo imaging devices in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. The limitations of strategies used in present PET scanners are discussed and new approaches are proposed taking advantage of recent progress on materials, photodetectors and readout electronics. A special focus is put on metamaterials, as a new approach to bring more functionality to detection devices. It is shown that the route is now open towards a fully digital detector head with very high photon counting capability over a large energy range, excellent timing precision and possibility of imaging the energy deposition process.

  18. Development and Evaluation of an Open-Source Software Package “CGITA” for Quantifying Tumor Heterogeneity with Molecular Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Dean Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The quantification of tumor heterogeneity with molecular images, by analyzing the local or global variation in the spatial arrangements of pixel intensity with texture analysis, possesses a great clinical potential for treatment planning and prognosis. To address the lack of available software for computing the tumor heterogeneity on the public domain, we develop a software package, namely, Chang-Gung Image Texture Analysis (CGITA toolbox, and provide it to the research community as a free, open-source project. Methods. With a user-friendly graphical interface, CGITA provides users with an easy way to compute more than seventy heterogeneity indices. To test and demonstrate the usefulness of CGITA, we used a small cohort of eighteen locally advanced oral cavity (ORC cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapies. Results. In our case study of ORC data, we found that more than ten of the current implemented heterogeneity indices outperformed SUVmean for outcome prediction in the ROC analysis with a higher area under curve (AUC. Heterogeneity indices provide a better area under the curve up to 0.9 than the SUVmean and TLG (0.6 and 0.52, resp.. Conclusions. CGITA is a free and open-source software package to quantify tumor heterogeneity from molecular images. CGITA is available for free for academic use at http://code.google.com/p/cgita.

  19. Cancer Stratification by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus Weber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of specificity of traditional cytotoxic drugs has triggered the development of anticancer agents that selectively address specific molecular targets. An intrinsic property of these specialized drugs is their limited applicability for specific patient subgroups. Consequently, the generation of information about tumor characteristics is the key to exploit the potential of these drugs. Currently, cancer stratification relies on three approaches: Gene expression analysis and cancer proteomics, immunohistochemistry and molecular imaging. In order to enable the precise localization of functionally expressed targets, molecular imaging combines highly selective biomarkers and intense signal sources. Thus, cancer stratification and localization are performed simultaneously. Many cancer types are characterized by altered receptor expression, such as somatostatin receptors, folate receptors or Her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Similar correlations are also known for a multitude of transporters, such as glucose transporters, amino acid transporters or hNIS (human sodium iodide symporter, as well as cell specific proteins, such as the prostate specific membrane antigen, integrins, and CD20. This review provides a comprehensive description of the methods, targets and agents used in molecular imaging, to outline their application for cancer stratification. Emphasis is placed on radiotracers which are used to identify altered expression patterns of cancer associated markers.

  20. Molecular imaging in neurology and neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberger, M.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging in neurology and neuroscience is a suspenseful and fast developing tool in order to quantitatively image genomics and proteomics by means of direct and indirect markers. Because of its high-sensitive tracer principle, nuclear medicine imaging has the pioneering task for the methodical progression of molecular imaging. The current development of molecular imaging in neurology changes from the use of indirect markers of gene and protein expression to the direct imaging of the molecular mechanisms. It is the aim of this article to give a short review on the status quo of molecular imaging in neurology with emphasis on clinically relevant aspects. (orig.)

  1. Molecular imaging in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannathan, N.R.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging (MI) is a diverse technology that revolutionized preclinical, clinical and drug-discovery research. It integrates biology and medicine, and the technique presents a unique opportunity to examine living systems in vivo as a dynamic biological system. It is a hybrid technology that combines PET, SPECT, ultrasound, optical imaging and MR. Several MI methodologies are developed to examine the integrative functions of molecules, cells, organ systems and whole organisms. MI is superior to conventional diagnostic techniques in allowing better staging as well as to monitor the response of cancer/tumour to treatment. In addition, it helps visualization of specific molecular targets or pathways and cells in living systems and ultimately in the clinic. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of a VEGFR2-blocking antibody using sodium-iodide symporter molecular imaging in a tumor xenograft model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Su-Jin; Lee, Chang-Moon; Kim, Eun-Mi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Cyclotron Research Center, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Uhm, Tai-Boong [Faculty of Biological Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju-si, jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hwan-Jeong, E-mail: jayjeong@chonbuk.ac.k [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Cyclotron Research Center, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Wook; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Cyclotron Research Center, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju-si, Jeonbuk 561-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-blocking antibody (DC101) has inhibitory effects on tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. The human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene has been shown to be a useful molecular imaging reporter gene. Here, we investigated the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy by molecular imaging in reporter gene transfected tumor xenografts using a gamma imaging system. Methods: The hNIS gene was transfected into MDA-MB-231 cells using Lipofectamine. The correlation between the number of MDA-MB-231-hNIS cells and the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate or {sup 125}I was investigated in vitro by gamma imaging and counting. MDA-MB-231-hNIS cells were injected subcutaneously into mice. When the tumor volume reached 180-200 mm{sup 3}, we randomly assigned five animals to each of three groups representing different tumor therapies; no DC101 (control), 100 {mu}g, or 150 {mu}g DC101/mouse. One week and 2 weeks after the first injection of DC101, gamma imaging was performed. Mice were sacrificed 2 weeks after the first injection of DC101. The tumor tissues were used for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and CD31 staining. Results: Uptake of {sup 125}I and {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate into MDA-MB-231-hNIS cells in vitro showed correlation with the number of cells. In DC101 treatment groups, the mean tumor volume was smaller than that of the control mice. Furthermore, tumor uptake of {sup 125}I was lower than in the controls. The CD31 staining and RT-PCR assay results showed that vessel formation and expression of the hNIS gene were significantly reduced in the tumor tissues of treatment groups. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the power of molecular imaging using a gamma imaging system for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of an antitumor treatment. Molecular imaging systems may be useful in evaluation and development of effective diagnostic and/or therapeutic antibodies for specific target molecules.

  3. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    in living mice optically, observing the increase in Alexa750 fluorescence, and photoacoustically, using a dual wavelength imaging method. Results Active forms of both MMP2 and MMP-9 enzymes were found in FTC133 tumor homogenates, with MMP-9 detected in greater amounts. The molecular imaging agent......Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers...... for malignant thyroid lesions, in FTC133 thyroid tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice. The imaging agent used to visualize tumors was MMP activatable photoacoustic probe, Alexa750-CXeeeeXPLGLAGrrrrrXK-BHQ3. Cleavage of the MMP activatable agent was imaged after intratumoral and intravenous injections...

  4. Molecular Imaging and Therapy of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylergil, Volkan, E-mail: beylergv@mskcc.org [Molecular and Imaging Therapy Service, Department of Radiology Box 77, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Carrasquillo, Jorge A. [Molecular and Imaging Therapy Service, Department of Radiology Box 77, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-04-29

    Several molecular imaging modalities have been evaluated in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare and aggressive tumor with a high tendency to metastasize. Continuous progress in the field of molecular imaging might improve management in these patients. The authors review the current modalities and their impact on MCC in this brief review article.

  5. Molecular Imaging and Therapy of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Beylergil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several molecular imaging modalities have been evaluated in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, a rare and aggressive tumor with a high tendency to metastasize. Continuous progress in the field of molecular imaging might improve management in these patients. The authors review the current modalities and their impact on MCC in this brief review article.

  6. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pysz, M.A.; Gambhir, S.S.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques: current imaging strategies and molecular imaging probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Mani, Venkatesh; Hyafil, Fabien; Amirbekian, Vardan; Aguinaldo, Juan Gilberto S.; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2007-01-01

    The vulnerability or destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques has been directly linked to plaque composition. Imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, that allow for evaluation of plaque composition at a cellular and molecular level, could further improve the detection of

  8. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Francesco; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to discuss about the role of new probes for molecular imaging in the evaluation of prostate cancer (PCa). This review focuses particularly on the role of new promising radiotracers for the molecular imaging with PET/computed tomography in the detection of PCa recurrence. The role of these new imaging techniques to guide lesion-target therapies and the potential application of these molecular probes as theranostics agents is discussed. Finally, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to castration in PCa and the maintenance of active androgen receptor are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular imaging of transcriptional regulation during inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsen Harald

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular imaging enables non-invasive visualization of the dynamics of molecular processes within living organisms in vivo. Different imaging modalities as MRI, SPECT, PET and optic imaging are used together with molecular probes specific for the biological process of interest. Molecular imaging of transcription factor activity is done in animal models and mostly in transgenic reporter mice, where the transgene essentially consists of a promoter that regulates a reporter gene. During inflammation, the transcription factor NF-κB is widely involved in orchestration and regulation of the immune system and almost all imaging studies in this field has revolved around the role and regulation of NF-κB. We here present a brief introduction to experimental use and design of transgenic reporter mice and a more extensive review of the various studies where molecular imaging of transcriptional regulation has been applied during inflammation.

  10. Molecular imaging promotes progress in orthopedic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Boskey, Adele L

    2006-11-01

    Modern orthopedic research is directed towards the understanding of molecular mechanisms that determine development, maintenance and health of musculoskeletal tissues. In recent years, many genetic and proteomic discoveries have been made which necessitate investigation under physiological conditions in intact, living tissues. Molecular imaging can meet this demand and is, in fact, the only strategy currently available for noninvasive, quantitative, real-time biology studies in living subjects. In this review, techniques of molecular imaging are summarized, and applications to bone and joint biology are presented. The imaging modality most frequently used in the past was optical imaging, particularly bioluminescence and near-infrared fluorescence imaging. Alternate technologies including nuclear and magnetic resonance imaging were also employed. Orthopedic researchers have applied molecular imaging to murine models including transgenic mice to monitor gene expression, protein degradation, cell migration and cell death. Within the bone compartment, osteoblasts and their stem cells have been investigated, and the organic and mineral bone phases have been assessed. These studies addressed malignancy and injury as well as repair, including fracture healing and cell/gene therapy for skeletal defects. In the joints, molecular imaging has focused on the inflammatory and tissue destructive processes that cause arthritis. As described in this review, the feasibility of applying molecular imaging to numerous areas of orthopedic research has been demonstrated and will likely result in an increase in research dedicated to this powerful strategy. Molecular imaging holds great promise in the future for preclinical orthopedic research as well as next-generation clinical musculoskeletal diagnostics.

  11. A Preclinical Evaluation of Antrodia camphorata Alcohol Extracts in the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Non-Invasive Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Feng Chiou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to provide a platform for the pre-clinical evaluation of anti-cancer properties of a unique CAM (complementary and alternative medicine agent, Antrodia camphorata alcohol extract (ACAE, in a mouse model with the advantageous non-invasive in vivo bioluminescence molecular imaging technology. In vitro analyses on the proliferation, migration/invasion, cell cycle and apoptosis were performed on ACAE-treated non-small cell lung cancer cells, H441GL and control CGL1 cells. In vivo, immune-deficient mice were inoculated subcutaneously with H441GL followed by oral gavages of ACAE. The effect of ACAE on tumor progression was monitored by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. The proliferation and migration/invasion of H441GL cells were inhibited by ACAE in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ACAE induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis in H441GL cells as shown by flow cytometric analysis, Annexin-V immunoflourescence and DNA fragmentation. In vivo bioluminescence imaging revealed that tumorigenesis was significantly retarded by oral treatment of ACAE in a dose-dependent fashion. Based on our experimental data, ACAE contains anti-cancer properties and could be considered as a potential CAM agent in future clinical evaluation.

  12. Molecular imaging of mental disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques have made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in living human brain. PET can be used to investigate various brain functions such as receptors, transporters, enzymes and various biochemical pathways; therefore, it could be a powerful tool for molecular imaging of mental disorders. Since the pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been discussed with a functional alteration of dopaminergic transmission in the brain, we have focused the dopaminergic components for the research target of schizophrenia using PET. Using high affinity ligand [ 11 C]FLB 457, we found reduced D 2 receptor binding in the anterior cingulate cortex of patients with schizophrenia, and a significant negative correlation was observed between D 2 receptor binding and the positive symptom score. Subregions of interest were defined on the thalamus using individual magnetic resonance images. D 2 receptor binding was also lower in the central medial and posterior subregions of the thalamus in patients with schizophrenia. Alterations in D 2 receptor function in the extrastriatal region may underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. On the other hand D 1 receptor binding was found to be lower in the prefrontal cortex and a significant negative correlation was observed between D 1 receptor binding and the negative symptom score. Abnormality of D 1 receptor function would be at the bottom of the negative symptoms and cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. Regarding the effect of antipsychotics on dopamine D 2 receptor, occupancy and it's time-course have been measured in a living body using PET. This approach can provide in vivo pharmacological evidences of antipsychotics and establish the rational therapeutic strategy. PET is a powerful tool not only in the field of brain research but also drug discovery. (author)

  13. Molecular imaging of oncolytic viral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Haddad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses have made their mark on the cancer world as a potential therapeutic option, with the possible advantages of reduced side effects and strengthened treatment efficacy due to higher tumor selectivity. Results have been so promising, that oncolytic viral treatments have now been approved for clinical trials in several countries. However, clinical studies may benefit from the ability to noninvasively and serially identify sites of viral targeting via molecular imaging in order to provide safety, efficacy, and toxicity information. Furthermore, molecular imaging of oncolytic viral therapy may provide a more sensitive and specific diagnostic technique to detect tumor origin and, more importantly, presence of metastases. Several strategies have been investigated for molecular imaging of viral replication broadly categorized into optical and deep tissue imaging, utilizing several reporter genes encoding for fluorescence proteins, conditional enzymes, and membrane protein and transporters. Various imaging methods facilitate molecular imaging, including computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission CT, gamma-scintigraphy, and photoacoustic imaging. In addition, several molecular probes are used for medical imaging, which act as targeting moieties or signaling agents. This review will explore the preclinical and clinical use of in vivo molecular imaging of replication-competent oncolytic viral therapy.

  14. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  15. Molecular imaging of alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase: further evaluation of radioiodinated derivatives of O {sup 6}-benzylguanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, Sriram [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Zalutsky, Michael R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Friedman, Henry [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Vaidyanathan, Ganesan [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)]. E-mail: ganesan.v@duke.edu

    2006-04-15

    Purpose: An inverse correlation has been established between tumor levels of the DNA repair protein alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) and a positive outcome after alkylator chemotherapy. Quantitative imaging of AGT could provide important information for patient-specific cancer treatment. Several radiolabeled analogues of O {sup 6}-benzylguanine (BG), a potent AGT inactivator, have been developed and shown to be capable of labeling pure AGT protein. Herein, two of these analogues - O {sup 6}-3-[*I]iodobenzylguanine ([*I]IBG) and O {sup 6}-3-[*I]iodobenzyl-2'-deoxyguanosine ([*I]IBdG) - were further evaluated in two murine xenograft models. (AcO){sub 2}-[{sup 131}I]IBdG, a peracetylated derivative of IBdG, also was investigated as an alternative agent. Methods: Several biodistribution studies of radioiodinated IBG and IBdG were performed in TE-671 human rhabdomyosarcoma and DAOY human medulloblastoma murine xenograft models. Mice were treated with BG or its nucleoside analogue dBG to deplete the tumor AGT content. The effect of unlabeled IBG and that of 7,8-benzoflavone (BF), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 isozyme CYP1A2, on the tumor uptake of the tracers was determined. The uptake of (AcO){sub 2}-[{sup 131}I]IBdG along with that of [{sup 125}I]IBdG in DAOY cells in vitro was determined in the presence and absence of a nucleoside transporter inhibitor, dipyridamole. Results: Pretreatment of mice either with BG or dBG failed to reduce tumor levels of [*I]IBG or [*I]IBdG even though such treatments completely depleted tumor AGT content. Treatment of mice with BF increased tumor uptake of [{sup 125}I]IBG by 56%; however, differentiation of tumors with and without AGT still was not possible. (AcO){sub 2}-[{sup 131}I]IBdG, a peracetylated derivative of IBdG, had a higher uptake in vitro in DAOY tumor cells. However, its uptake, like that of [{sup 125}I]IBdG, was blocked by dipyridamole. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that labeled

  16. Nuclear Molecular Imaging Strategies in Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Kasper F; Hendel, Helle W; Langer, Seppo W

    2017-01-01

    this, new response criteria for evaluating these patients with morphologic imaging have been proposed. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the current evidence for the use of molecular imaging, e.g., PET/CT (Positron Emission Tomography/Computer Tomography) with18F-Fluorodeoxyglucoes (FDG...

  17. Evaluating imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollo, F.D.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of any imaging device depends on two principal factors inherent to the device, namely, plane sensitivity and spatial resolution. These factors may be defined as follows: plane sensitivity is the counts per second recorded by the imaging device for each disintegration per second per square centimeter occurring within a plane sheet of radioactivity. Spatial resolution may be defined as the fidelity with which the imaging device reproduces the activity distribution of an object in the image plane. In all imaging devices, a trade-off exists between these two parameters; that is, as sensitivity improves, spatial resolution is degraded, and vice versa. Therefore, to fully evaluate an imaging system a technique should be selected that measures both parameters and reflects the trade-off between the two. In addition, the method should approximate the clinical problem, namely, the detection of a focal lesion within an activity distribution. Several methods have been described to evaluate nuclear imaging devices. The more common techniques include the use of organ phantoms, bar phantoms, line-spread functions, modulation transfer functions, contrast efficiency functions, and performance index functions. Each of these techniques is briefly described in this chapter, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. In addition, a phantom that can be used to simply and completely measure overall imaging system performance is described

  18. Molecular imaging of σ receptors: synthesis and evaluation of the potent σ1 selective radioligand [18F]fluspidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Steffen; Hiller, Achim; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Scheunemann, Matthias; Steinbach, Joerg; Brust, Peter; Wiese, Christian; Grosse Maestrup, Eva; Schepmann, Dirk; Wuensch, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging of σ 1 receptors in the human brain has been proposed for the investigation of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. However, there is a lack of suitable 18 F-labelled PET radioligands for that purpose. The selective σ 1 receptor ligand [ 18 F]fluspidine (1'-benzyl-3-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethyl)-3H-spiro[[2]benzofuran-1,4'-piperidine]) was synthesized by nucleophilic 18 F - substitution of the tosyl precursor. In vitro receptor binding affinity and selectivity were assessed by radioligand competition in tissue homogenate and autoradiographic approaches. In female CD-1 mice, in vivo properties of [ 18 F]fluspidine were evaluated by ex vivo brain section imaging and organ distribution of intravenously administered radiotracer. Target specificity was validated by organ distribution of [ 18 F]fluspidine after treatment with 1 mg/kg i.p. of the σ receptor antagonist haloperidol or the emopamil binding protein (EBP) inhibitor tamoxifen. In vitro metabolic stability and in vivo metabolism were investigated by LC-MS n and radio-HPLC analysis. [ 18 F]Fluspidine was obtained with a radiochemical yield of 35-45%, a radiochemical purity of ≥ 99.6% and a specific activity of 150-350 GBq/μmol (n = 6) within a total synthesis time of 90-120 min. In vitro, fluspidine bound specifically and with high affinity to σ 1 receptors (K i = 0.59 nM). In mice, [ 18 F]fluspidine rapidly accumulated in brain with uptake values of 3.9 and 4.7%ID/g and brain to blood ratios of 7 and 13 at 5 and 30 min after intravenous application of the radiotracer, respectively. By ex vivo autoradiography of brain slices, resemblance between binding site occupancy of [ 18 F]fluspidine and the expression of σ 1 receptors was shown. The radiotracer uptake in the brain as well as in peripheral σ 1 receptor expressing organs was significantly inhibited by haloperidol but not by tamoxifen. Incubation with rat liver microsomes led to a fast biotransformation of

  19. PET-based molecular imaging in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.H.; Heiss, W.D.; Li, H.; Knoess, C.; Schaller, B.; Kracht, L.; Monfared, P.; Vollmar, S.; Bauer, B.; Wagner, R.; Graf, R.; Wienhard, K.; Winkeler, A.; Rueger, A.; Klein, M.; Hilker, R.; Galldiks, N.; Herholz, K.; Sobesky, J.

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows non-invasive assessment of physiological, metabolic and molecular processes in humans and animals in vivo. Advances in detector technology have led to a considerable improvement in the spatial resolution of PET (1-2 mm), enabling for the first time investigations in small experimental animals such as mice. With the developments in radiochemistry and tracer technology, a variety of endogenously expressed and exogenously introduced genes can be analysed by PET. This opens up the exciting and rapidly evolving field of molecular imaging, aiming at the non-invasive localisation of a biological process of interest in normal and diseased cells in animal models and humans in vivo. The main and most intriguing advantage of molecular imaging is the kinetic analysis of a given molecular event in the same experimental subject over time. This will allow non-invasive characterisation and ''phenotyping'' of animal models of human disease at various disease stages, under certain pathophysiological stimuli and after therapeutic intervention. The potential broad applications of imaging molecular events in vivo lie in the study of cell biology, biochemistry, gene/protein function and regulation, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and characterisation of transgenic animals. Most importantly, molecular imaging will have great implications for the identification of potential molecular therapeutic targets, in the development of new treatment strategies, and in their successful implementation into clinical application. Here, the potential impact of molecular imaging by PET in applications in neuroscience research with a special focus on neurodegeneration and neuro-oncology is reviewed. (orig.)

  20. Nanobody: the "magic bullet" for molecular imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging involves the non-invasive investigation of biological processes in vivo at the cellular and molecular level, which can play diverse roles in better understanding and treatment of various diseases. Recently, single domain antigen-binding fragments known as 'nanobodies' were bioengineered and tested for molecular imaging applications. Small molecular size (~15 kDa) and suitable configuration of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of nanobodies offer many desirable features suitable for imaging applications, such as rapid targeting and fast blood clearance, high solubility, high stability, easy cloning, modular nature, and the capability of binding to cavities and difficult-to-access antigens. Using nanobody-based probes, several imaging techniques such as radionuclide-based, optical and ultrasound have been employed for visualization of target expression in various disease models. This review summarizes the recent developments in the use of nanobody-based probes for molecular imaging applications. The preclinical data reported to date are quite promising, and it is expected that nanobody-based molecular imaging agents will play an important role in the diagnosis and management of various diseases.

  1. Fluorescence based molecular in vivo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Molecular imaging represents a modern research area that allows the in vivo study of molecular biological process kinetics using appropriate probes and visualization methods. This methodology may be defined- apart from the contrast media injection - as non-abrasive. In order to reach an in vivo molecular process imaging as accurate as possible the effects of the used probes on the biological should not be too large. The contrast media as important part of the molecular imaging can significantly contribute to the understanding of molecular processes and to the development of tailored diagnostics and therapy. Since more than 15 years PTB is developing optic imaging systems that may be used for fluorescence based visualization of tissue phantoms, small animal models and the localization of tumors and their predecessors, and for the early recognition of inflammatory processes in clinical trials. Cellular changes occur during many diseases, thus the molecular imaging might be of importance for the early diagnosis of chronic inflammatory diseases. Fluorescent dyes can be used as unspecific or also as specific contrast media, which allow enhanced detection sensitivity

  2. Molecular and parametric imaging with iron oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszewski, L.; Bremer, C.; Tombach, B.; Heindel, W.

    2007-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agents, clinically established for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of reticuloendothelial system containing anatomical structures, can additionally be exploited for the non-invasive characterization and quantification of pathology down to the molecular level. In this context, SPIOs can be applied for non-invasive cell tracking, quantification of tissue perfusion and target specific imaging, as well as for the detection of gene expression. This article provides an overview of new applications for clinically approved iron oxides as well of new, modified SPIO contrast agents for parametric and molecular imaging. (orig.) [de

  3. Molecular Imaging of Inflammation in Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgruber, Moritz; Swirski, Filip K.; Zernecke, Alma

    2013-01-01

    Acute rupture of vulnerable plaques frequently leads to myocardial infarction and stroke. Within the last decades, several cellular and molecular players have been identified that promote atherosclerotic lesion formation, maturation and plaque rupture. It is now widely recognized that inflammation of the vessel wall and distinct leukocyte subsets are involved throughout all phases of atherosclerotic lesion development. The mechanisms that render a stable plaque unstable and prone to rupture, however, remain unknown and the identification of the vulnerable plaque remains a major challenge in cardiovascular medicine. Imaging technologies used in the clinic offer minimal information about the underlying biology and potential risk for rupture. New imaging technologies are therefore being developed, and in the preclinical setting have enabled new and dynamic insights into the vessel wall for a better understanding of this complex disease. Molecular imaging has the potential to track biological processes, such as the activity of cellular and molecular biomarkers in vivo and over time. Similarly, novel imaging technologies specifically detect effects of therapies that aim to stabilize vulnerable plaques and silence vascular inflammation. Here we will review the potential of established and new molecular imaging technologies in the setting of atherosclerosis, and discuss the cumbersome steps required for translating molecular imaging approaches into the clinic. PMID:24312156

  4. Evaluation of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) as a target for molecular imaging and therapy of glioblastoma in an experimental rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awde, Ali Reda

    2012-01-01

    In France alone, there are 3000 new cases of glioblastoma multiform (GBM) per year and therefore GBM is the most common and aggressive form of the primary tumor in the central nervous system (CNS). The clinical prognosis for glioblastoma patients is extremely poor with a median survival period that rarely exceeds 15 months post-diagnosis. Since the study performed by Stupp and colleagues in 2005, the standard treatment for newly diagnosed glioblastoma consists of surgical removal of the tumor, followed by radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy with temozolomide. The 18 kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) is a mitochondrial membrane protein known to be implicated in cholesterol transport, protein import, transport of porphyrin, cell proliferation and apoptosis through its interaction with VDAC (Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel) in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTPM). Previous studies have reported overexpression of TSPO in brain tumors, suggesting that this protein may represent a molecular target for the therapy of GBM. In particular, Erucyl-phospho-homo-choline (ErPC3, erufosine), an alkyl-phosphocholine, seems to be a promising agent in the treatment of glioblastoma. Previous studies have reported its ability to induce apoptosis in otherwise highly apoptosis resistant glioma cell lines and ErPC3 induced apoptosis seems to require the presence TSPO. [ 18 F]DPA-714, a new TSPO radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, was developed at the CEA and validated in different models of neuro-inflammation. The hypotheses underlying this thesis are: 1) that the overexpression of TSPO in GBM can be detected by PET imaging using [ 18 F]DPA-714 and 2) that the targeting of TSPO, via specific ligands or via ErPC3, can induce apoptosis in GBM. The objectives of the thesis were: 1) to evaluate the expression of TSPO in a panel of rodent and human glioma cell lines and 2) to

  5. Molecular Imaging Probe Development using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Phung, Duy Linh; Girgis, Mark D.; Wu, Anna M.; Tomlinson, James S.; Shen, Clifton K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we review the latest advancement of microfluidics in molecular imaging probe development. Due to increasing needs for medical imaging, high demand for many types of molecular imaging probes will have to be met by exploiting novel chemistry/radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of suitable probes. The microfluidic-based probe synthesis is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional systems. Numerous chemical reactions have been successfully performed in micro-reactors and the results convincingly demonstrate with great benefits to aid synthetic procedures, such as purer products, higher yields, shorter reaction times compared to the corresponding batch/macroscale reactions, and more benign reaction conditions. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples of molecular imaging probe syntheses using microfluidics, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and their potential limitations are discussed here. PMID:22977436

  6. High sensitivity optical molecular imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yu; Yuan, Gao; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Shixin; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Optical Molecular Imaging (OMI) has the advantages of high sensitivity, low cost and ease of use. By labeling the regions of interest with fluorescent or bioluminescence probes, OMI can noninvasively obtain the distribution of the probes in vivo, which play the key role in cancer research, pharmacokinetics and other biological studies. In preclinical and clinical application, the image depth, resolution and sensitivity are the key factors for researchers to use OMI. In this paper, we report a high sensitivity optical molecular imaging system developed by our group, which can improve the imaging depth in phantom to nearly 5cm, high resolution at 2cm depth, and high image sensitivity. To validate the performance of the system, special designed phantom experiments and weak light detection experiment were implemented. The results shows that cooperated with high performance electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, precision design of light path system and high efficient image techniques, our OMI system can simultaneously collect the light-emitted signals generated by fluorescence molecular imaging, bioluminescence imaging, Cherenkov luminance and other optical imaging modality, and observe the internal distribution of light-emitting agents fast and accurately.

  7. Development and biological evaluation of 99mTc-tocilizumab as molecular imaging agent in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, M.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (M M) is a neoplasm characterized by infiltration of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, and is associated with high levels of monoclonal protein component or M. One of the key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of M M is the interleukin I L-6. This is a polypeptide belonging to the class of cytokines helical, having antiinflammatory activity and pro inflammatory and is secreted by a wide variety of cells. It has been found that high levels of I L-6 are directly related to the growth and survival of M M cell proliferation therefore I L antagonists may be of potential use therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. The Tocilizumab (Act emr To®) is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the receptor, both soluble and membrane I L-6 blocking cell signaling mediated by this. The possibility of combining Tocilizumab a gamma emitting isotope would determine l to topography where an increased expression of I L, with the consequent possibility that this associated with an infectious or neoplastic process is observed. In this way it could be used as a diagnostic method. Based on the above, the present work aims to develop the marking and evaluation of 99m Tc Tocilizumab, which could be used as diagnostic radiopharmaceutical to determine the location of the lesion and its extension, both debut in monitoring patients with multiple myeloma

  8. Has molecular imaging delivered to drug development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Philip S.; Patel, Neel; McCarthy, Timothy J.

    2017-10-01

    Pharmaceutical research and development requires a systematic interrogation of a candidate molecule through clinical studies. To ensure resources are spent on only the most promising molecules, early clinical studies must understand fundamental attributes of the drug candidate, including exposure at the target site, target binding and pharmacological response in disease. Molecular imaging has the potential to quantitatively characterize these properties in small, efficient clinical studies. Specific benefits of molecular imaging in this setting (compared to blood and tissue sampling) include non-invasiveness and the ability to survey the whole body temporally. These methods have been adopted primarily for neuroscience drug development, catalysed by the inability to access the brain compartment by other means. If we believe molecular imaging is a technology platform able to underpin clinical drug development, why is it not adopted further to enable earlier decisions? This article considers current drug development needs, progress towards integration of molecular imaging into studies, current impediments and proposed models to broaden use and increase impact. This article is part of the themed issue 'Challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging'.

  9. Molecular nuclear imaging for targeting and trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive molecular targeting in living subjects is highly demanded for better understanding of such diverse topics as the efficient delivery of drugs, genes, or radionuclides for the diagnosis or treatment of diseases. Progress in molecular biology, genetic engineering and polymer chemistry provides various tools to target molecules and cells in vivo. We used chitosan as a polymer, and 99m Tc as a radionuclide. We developed 99m Tc-galactosylated chitosan to target asialoglycoprotein receptors for nuclear imaging. We also developed 99m Tc-HYNIC-chitosan-transferrin to target inflammatory cells, which was more effective than 67 Ga-citrate for imaging inflammatory lesions. For an effective delivery of molecules, a longer circulation time is needed. We found that around 10% PEGylation was most effective to prolong the circulation time of liposomes for nuclear imaging of 99m Tc-HMPAO-labeled liposomes in rats. Using various characteristics of molecules, we can deliver drugs into targets more effectively. We found that 99m Tc-labeled biodegradable pullulan-derivatives are retained in tumor tissue in response to extracellular ion-strength. For the trafficking of various cells or bacteria in an intact animal, we used optical imaging techniques or radiolabeled cells. We monitored tumor-targeting bacteria by bioluminescent imaging techniques, dentritic cells by radiolabeling and neuronal stem cells by sodium-iodide symporter reporter gene imaging. In summary, we introduced recent achievements of molecular nuclear imaging technologies in targeting receptors for hepatocyte or inflammatory cells and in trafficking bacterial, immune and stem cells using molecular nuclear imaging techniques

  10. A review of molecular imaging studies reaching the clinical stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Franklin C.; Kim, E. Edmund

    2009-01-01

    The practice of molecular imaging in the clinics is examined across various imaging modalities to assess the current status of clinical molecular imaging. The various physiologic and scientific bases of clinical molecular imaging are surveyed to assess the possibilities and opportunities for the deployment of the different imaging modalities in the near future. The requisites for successful candidate(s) of clinical molecular imaging are reviewed for future development.

  11. In Vivo Imaging of Molecularly Targeted Phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Kelly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification of in vivo affinity ligands would have far-reaching applications for imaging specific molecular targets, in vivo systems imaging, and medical use. We have developed a high-throughput method for identifying and optimizing ligands to map and image biologic targets of interest in vivo. We directly labeled viable phage clones with far-red fluorochromes and comparatively imaged them in vivo by multichannel fluorescence ratio imaging. Using Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (osteonectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as model targets, we show that: 1 fluorescently labeled phage retains target specificity on labeling; 2 in vivo distribution can be quantitated (detection thresholds of ~ 300 phage/mm3 tissue throughout the entire depth of the tumor using fluorescent tomographic imaging; and 3 fluorescently labeled phage itself can serve as a replenishable molecular imaging agent. The described method should find widespread application in the rapid in vivo discovery and validation of affinity ligands and, importantly, in the use of fluorochrome-labeled phage clones as in vivo imaging agents.

  12. Molecular Imaging in Nanotechnology and Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Chrysafis; Pal, Suchetan; Rotter, Lara; Yang, Jiang; Kircher, Moritz F

    2017-06-01

    The fields of biomedical nanotechnology and theranostics have enjoyed exponential growth in recent years. The "Molecular Imaging in Nanotechnology and Theranostics" (MINT) Interest Group of the World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS) was created in order to provide a more organized and focused forum on these topics within the WMIS and at the World Molecular Imaging Conference (WMIC). The interest group was founded in 2015 and was officially inaugurated during the 2016 WMIC. The overarching goal of MINT is to bring together the many scientists who work on molecular imaging approaches using nanotechnology and those that work on theranostic agents. MINT therefore represents scientists, labs, and institutes that are very diverse in their scientific backgrounds and areas of expertise, reflecting the wide array of materials and approaches that drive these fields. In this short review, we attempt to provide a condensed overview over some of the key areas covered by MINT. Given the breadth of the fields and the given space constraints, we have limited the coverage to the realm of nanoconstructs, although theranostics is certainly not limited to this domain. We will also focus only on the most recent developments of the last 3-5 years, in order to provide the reader with an intuition of what is "in the pipeline" and has potential for clinical translation in the near future.

  13. Towards molecular imaging by means of MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norek, M.

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in the thesis is focused on the design of highly efficient contrast agents for molecular imaging by means of MRI based on the detailed physical characterization of the given material. Specifically, attention is paid on the development of contrast agents for magnetic fields higher

  14. Molecular Imaging in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, H.C.; Doorduin, J.; van Berckel, B.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we aim to shed light on the schizophrenia spectrum disorders using molecular imaging. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders consist primarily of the disorders with full-blown psychosis in their course and are grouped in the DSM-IV category of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

  15. Multimodality molecular imaging - from target description to clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Rahbar, K.; Riemann, B.

    2009-01-01

    This highlight lecture was presented at the closing session of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) in Munich on 15 October 2008. The Congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,597 abstracts were submitted. Of these, 1,387 were accepted for oral or poster presentation, with a rejection rate of 14%. In this article a choice was made from 100 of the 500 lectures which received the highest scores by the scientific review panel. This article outlines the major findings and trends at the EANM 2008, and is only a brief summary of the large number of outstanding abstracts presented. Among the great number of oral and poster presentations covering nearly all fields of nuclear medicine some headlines have to be defined highlighting the development of nuclear medicine in the 21st century. This review focuses on the increasing impact of molecular and multimodality imaging in the field of nuclear medicine. In addition, the question may be asked as to whether the whole spectrum of nuclear medicine is nothing other than molecular imaging and therapy. Furthermore, molecular imaging will and has to go ahead to multimodality imaging. In view of this background the review was structured according to the single steps of molecular imaging, i.e. from target description to clinical studies. The following topics are addressed: targets, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy, devices and computer science, animals and preclinical evaluations, and patients and clinical evaluations. (orig.)

  16. Connotation and category of functional-molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianran; Tian Jiahe

    2007-01-01

    Function and molecular lmaging represent medical imaging' s direction. The review article introduce function and molecular's concept and category and its characteristic. Comparing with traditionary classics radiology, function and molecular imaging have many features, such as micro-mount and specificity and quantitative. There are many technology about function and molecular imaging. Function and molecular imaging is important ingredient of modern medical and play a considerable role. (authors)

  17. Molecular imaging of {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: design and evaluation of the potent radioligand [{sup 18}F]NS10743

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Fischer, Steffen; Hiller, Achim; Brust, Peter [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany); Oestergaard Nielsen, Elsebet; Brunicardi Timmermann, Daniel; Peters, Dan [NeuroSearch A/S, Ballerup (Denmark); Steinbach, Joerg [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmacy, Dresden (Germany); Sabri, Osama [Universitaet Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The outstanding diversity of cellular properties mediated by neuronal and nonneuronal {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ({alpha}7 nAChR) points to the diagnostic potential of quantitative nuclear molecular imaging of {alpha}7 nAChR in neurology and oncology. It was our goal to radiolabel the {alpha}7 nAChR agonist 4-[5-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-[1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-yl]-1,4-diaza-bicyclo[3.2.2]nonane (NS10743) and to assess the selectivity of [{sup 18}F]NS10743 binding site occupancy in animal experiments. [{sup 18}F]NS10743 was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of the nitro precursor. In vitro receptor affinity and selectivity were assessed by radioligand competition and autoradiography. The radiotracer properties were evaluated in female CD-1 mice by brain autoradiography and organ distribution. Target specificity was validated after treatment with SSR180711 (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and metabolic stability was investigated using radio-HPLC. The specific activity of [{sup 18}F]NS10743 exceeded 150 GBq/{mu}mol at a radiochemical purity >99%. In vitro, NS10743 and [{sup 18}F]NS10743 showed high affinity and specificity towards {alpha}7 nAChR. The brain permeation of [{sup 18}F]NS10743 was fast and sufficient with values of 4.83 and 1.60% injected dose per gram and brain to plasma ratios of 3.83 and 2.05 at 5 and 60 min after radiotracer administration. Brain autoradiography and organ distribution showed target-specific accumulation of [{sup 18}F]NS10743 in brain substructures and various {alpha}7 nAChR-expressing organs. The radiotracer showed a high metabolic stability in vivo with a single polar radiometabolite, which did not cross the blood-brain barrier. The good in vitro and in vivo features of [{sup 18}F]NS10743 make this radioligand a promising candidate for quantitative in vivo imaging of {alpha}7 nAChR expression and encourage further investigations. (orig.)

  18. Molecular Imaging and nuclear medicine: expectations and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollo, F.D.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular Imaging with Nuclear Medicine offers earlier, more accurate and more specific diagnosis, as well as targeted molecular therapy, providing significant improvements in clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  19. [Microdose clinical trial--impact of PET molecular imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2010-10-01

    Microdose (MD) clinical trial and exploratory IND study including sub-therapeutic dose and therapeutic dose which are higher than microdoses are expected to bring about innovations in drug development. The outlines of guidances for microdose clinical trial and ICH-M3 (R2) issued by the MHLW in June, 2008, and February, 2010, are first explained, respectively, and some examples of their application to clinical developments of therapeutic drugs in the infection and cancer fields are introduced. Especially, thanks to the progress of molecular imaging research, a new field of drug development is explored by using imaging biomarkers for efficacy or safety evaluation which visualize biomarkers by PET imaging agents. Finally, the roadmap for drug development in infection and cancer fields utilizing PET molecular imaging is discussed.

  20. Ethical and regulatory problems of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jae Min

    2004-01-01

    As a molecular imaging is the most up-to-date technology in nuclear medicine, it has complicate ethical and regulatory problems. For animal experiment, we have to follow institutional animal care committee. For clinical experiment, we have to get approval of Institutional Review Board according to Helsinki declaration. In addition, approval from Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is essential for manufacturing and commercialization. However, too much regulation would suppress development of new technology, which would result in the loss of national competitive power. In addition, most new radioactive ligands for molecular imaging are administered to human at sub-pharmacological and sub-toxicological level. In conclusion, a balanced regulation is essential for the safety of clinical application and development of new technology

  1. Molecular Imaging in Synthetic Biology, and Synthetic Biology in Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Assaf A; Shapiro, Mikhail G

    2017-06-01

    Biomedical synthetic biology is an emerging field in which cells are engineered at the genetic level to carry out novel functions with relevance to biomedical and industrial applications. This approach promises new treatments, imaging tools, and diagnostics for diseases ranging from gastrointestinal inflammatory syndromes to cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. As these cellular technologies undergo pre-clinical and clinical development, it is becoming essential to monitor their location and function in vivo, necessitating appropriate molecular imaging strategies, and therefore, we have created an interest group within the World Molecular Imaging Society focusing on synthetic biology and reporter gene technologies. Here, we highlight recent advances in biomedical synthetic biology, including bacterial therapy, immunotherapy, and regenerative medicine. We then discuss emerging molecular imaging approaches to facilitate in vivo applications, focusing on reporter genes for noninvasive modalities such as magnetic resonance, ultrasound, photoacoustic imaging, bioluminescence, and radionuclear imaging. Because reporter genes can be incorporated directly into engineered genetic circuits, they are particularly well suited to imaging synthetic biological constructs, and developing them provides opportunities for creative molecular and genetic engineering.

  2. PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiachuan; Zhang, Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University, Medical PET Center, Hangzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China); Tian, Mei [University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis are caused by loss of different types of neurons and glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. At present, there are no effective therapies against these disorders. Discovery of the therapeutic potential of stem cells offers new strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. Direct assessment of stem cells' survival, interaction with the host and impact on neuronal functions after transplantation requires advanced in vivo imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potential molecular imaging modality to evaluate the viability and function of transplanted tissue or stem cells in the nervous system. This review focuses on PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases. (orig.)

  3. TH-C-17A-06: A Hardware Implementation and Evaluation of Robotic SPECT: Toward Molecular Imaging Onboard Radiation Therapy Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, S; Touch, M; Bowsher, J; Yin, F; Cheng, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To construct a robotic SPECT system and demonstrate its capability to image a thorax phantom on a radiation therapy flat-top couch. The system has potential for on-board functional and molecular imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: A robotic SPECT imaging system was developed utilizing a Digirad 2020tc detector and a KUKA KR150-L110 robot. An imaging study was performed with the PET CT Phantom, which includes 5 spheres: 10, 13, 17, 22 and 28 mm in diameter. Sphere-tobackground concentration ratio was 6:1 of Tc99m. The phantom was placed on a flat-top couch. SPECT projections were acquired with a parallel-hole collimator and a single pinhole collimator. The robotic system navigated the detector tracing the flat-top table to maintain the closest possible proximity to the phantom. For image reconstruction, detector trajectories were described by six parameters: radius-of-rotation, x and z detector shifts, and detector rotation θ, tilt ϕ and twist γ. These six parameters were obtained from the robotic system by calibrating the robot base and tool coordinates. Results: The robotic SPECT system was able to maneuver parallel-hole and pinhole collimated SPECT detectors in close proximity to the phantom, minimizing impact of the flat-top couch on detector-to-COR (center-ofrotation) distance. In acquisitions with background at 1/6th sphere activity concentration, photopeak contamination was heavy, yet the 17, 22, and 28 mm diameter spheres were readily observed with the parallel hole imaging, and the single, targeted sphere (28 mm diameter) was readily observed in the pinhole region-of-interest (ROI) imaging. Conclusion: Onboard SPECT could be achieved by a robot maneuvering a SPECT detector about patients in position for radiation therapy on a flat-top couch. The robot inherent coordinate frame could be an effective means to estimate detector pose for use in SPECT image reconstruction. PHS/NIH/NCI grant R21-CA156390-01A1

  4. Molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilki, Derya; Seitz, Michael; Singer, Bernhard B; Irmak, Ster; Stief, Christian G; Reich, Oliver; Ergün, Süleyman

    2009-05-01

    In the past three decades many efforts have been undertaken to understand the mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis. The introduction of anti-angiogenic drugs in tumor therapy during the last few years necessitates the establishment of new techniques enabling molecular imaging of tumor vascular remodelling. The determination of tumor size as commonly used is not appropriate since the extended necrosis under anti-angiogenic therapy does not necessarily result in the reduction of tumor diameter. The basis for the molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels is the remodelling of the tumor vessels under anti-angiogenic therapy which obviously occurs at an early stage and seems to be a convincing parameter. Beside the enormous progress in this field during the last few years the resolution is still not high enough to evaluate the remodelling of the micro tumor vessels. New imaging approaches combining specific molecular markers for tumor vessels with the different imaging techniques are needed to overcome this issue as exemplarily discussed for prostate cancer in this review. Molecular contrast agents targeting the vasculature will allow clinicians the visualization of vascular remodelling processes taking place under anti-angiogenic therapy and improve tumor diagnosis and follow-up.

  5. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauwens, Matthias; Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn; Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter; Bucerius, Jan; Mottaghy, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, 18 F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to 18 F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99m Tc-sestamibi, 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 18 F-fluorodopa and 18 F-14(R,S)-[ 18 F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  6. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauwens, Matthias [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, Research School NUTRIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bucerius, Jan [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University, Research School CARIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to {sup 18}F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), {sup 18}F-fluorodopa and {sup 18}F-14(R,S)-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  7. Sacroiliitis: imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montandon, Cristiano; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio

    2007-01-01

    Sacroiliitis is a non-infectious inflammatory process involving the sacroiliac joint, and is a diagnostic criterion for seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Imaging methods are of great value for confirming the diagnosis of this condition. The present study is a review of cases included in didactic files and in the literature to illustrate the anatomy, techniques, and main imaging findings in x-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for determining the diagnosis of sacroiliitis, also approaching main differential diagnoses. (author)

  8. MRI Reporter Genes for Noninvasive Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is one of the most important imaging technologies used in clinical diagnosis. Reporter genes for MRI can be applied to accurately track the delivery of cell in cell therapy, evaluate the therapy effect of gene delivery, and monitor tissue/cell-specific microenvironments. Commonly used reporter genes for MRI usually include genes encoding the enzyme (e.g., tyrosinase and β-galactosidase, the receptor on the cells (e.g., transferrin receptor, and endogenous reporter genes (e.g., ferritin reporter gene. However, low sensitivity limits the application of MRI and reporter gene-based multimodal imaging strategies are common including optical imaging and radionuclide imaging. These can significantly improve diagnostic efficiency and accelerate the development of new therapies.

  9. Evaluation Of Medical Fluoroscopy Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartana, Budi; Santoso

    2000-01-01

    It has been done to evaluate image system of medical fluoroscopic machine by Leeds Test Object (LTO). Two x-ray potentials of 70 kV and 40-60 kV were used to evaluate image by LTO on monitor and oscilloscope. Performance of imaging system decreased for some parameters of video signal, linearity of television scan, contras threshold of 4.5%, distortion integral of 65.1%, and focus uniformity decrease to edge image. Comparison of field diameter of television image to intensifier field vertically and horizontally were respectively 221:230 and 205:230, symmetrically vignetting, spatial resolution limit is 1.26 lp/mm

  10. Current Molecular Imaging Positron Emitting Radiotracers in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Aizhi; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imaging is one of the fastest growing areas of medical imaging. Positron emission tomography has been widely used in the clinical management of patients with cancer. Nuclear imaging provides biological information at the cellular, subcellular, and molecular level in living subjects with noninvasive procedures. In particular, PET imaging takes advantage of traditional diagnostic imaging techniques and introduces positron emitting probes to determine the expression of indicative molecular targets at different stages of cancer. 18F fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18F FDG), the only FDA approved oncological PET tracer, has been widely utilized in cancer diagnosis, staging, restaging, and even monitoring response to therapy; however, 18F FDG is not a tumor specific PET tracer. Over the last decade, many promising tumor specific PET tracer. Over the last decade, many promising tumor specific PET tracers have been developed and evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. This review provides an overview of the current non 18F FDG PET tracers in oncology that have been developed based on tumor characteristics such as increased metabolism, hyperproliferation, angiogenesis, hypoxia, apoptosis, and tumor specific antigens and surface receptors

  11. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging for the Detection of Neural Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Kevin R.

    Molecular imaging is a form of nanotechnology that enables the noninvasive examination of biological processes in vivo. Radiopharmaceutical agents are used to selectively target biochemical markers, which permits their detection and evaluation. Early visualization of molecular variations indicative of pathophysiological processes can aid in patient diagnoses and management decisions. Molecular imaging is performed by introducing molecular probes into the body. Molecular probes are often contrast agents that have been nanoengineered to selectively target and tether to molecules, enabling their radiologic identification. Ultrasound contrast agents have been demonstrated as an effective method of detecting perfusion at the tissue level. Through a nanoengineering process, ultrasound contrast agents can be targeted to specific molecules, thereby extending ultrasound's capabilities from the tissue to molecular level. Molecular ultrasound, or targeted contrast enhanced ultrasound (TCEUS), has recently emerged as a popular molecular imaging technique due to its ability to provide real-time anatomical and functional information in the absence of ionizing radiation. However, molecular ultrasound represents a novel form of molecular imaging, and consequently remains largely preclinical. A review of the TCEUS literature revealed multiple preclinical studies demonstrating its success in detecting inflammation in a variety of tissues. Although, a gap was identified in the existing evidence, as TCEUS effectiveness for detection of neural inflammation in the spinal cord was unable to be uncovered. This gap in knowledge, coupled with the profound impacts that this TCEUS application could have clinically, provided rationale for its exploration, and use as contributory evidence for the molecular ultrasound body of literature. An animal model that underwent a contusive spinal cord injury was used to establish preclinical evidence of TCEUS to detect neural inflammation. Imaging was

  12. Molecular Imaging with Activatable Reporter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is a newly emerged multiple disciplinary field that aims to visualize, characterize and quantitatively measure biological processes at cellular and molecular levels in humans and other living systems. A reporter gene is a piece of DNA encoding reporter protein, which presents as a readily measurable phenotype that can be distinguished easily from the background of endogenous protein. After being transferred into cells of organ systems (transgenes, the reporter gene can be utilized to visualize transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, protein-protein interactions, or trafficking of proteins or cells in living subjects. Herein, we review previous classification of reporter genes and regroup the reporter gene based imaging as basic, inducible and activatable, based on the regulation of reporter gene transcription and post-translational modification of reporter proteins. We then focus on activatable reporters, in which the signal can be activated at the posttranslational level for visualizing protein-protein interactions, protein phosphorylation or tertiary structure changes. The applications of several types of activatable reporters will also be summarized. We conclude that activatable reporter imaging can benefit both basic biomedical research and drug development.

  13. Neutron imaging for inertial confinement fusion and molecular optic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, O.

    2010-01-01

    Scientific domains that require imaging of micrometric/nano-metric objects are dramatically increasing (Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, Biotechnology, Earth Sciences...). Difficulties encountered in imaging smaller and smaller objects make this research area more and more challenging and in constant evolution. The two scientific domains, through which this study has been led, are the neutron imaging in the context of the inertial confinement fusion and the fluorescence molecular imaging. Work presented in this thesis has two main objectives. The first one is to describe the instrumentation characteristics that require such imagery and, relatively to the scientific domains considered, identify parameters likely to optimize the imaging system accuracy. The second one is to present the developed data analysis and reconstruction methods able to provide spatial resolution adapted to the size of the observed object. Similarities of numerical algorithms used in these two scientific domains, which goals are quiet different, show how micrometric/nano-metric object imaging is a research area at the border of a large number of scientific disciplines. (author)

  14. Molecular imaging with targeted contrast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Mark; Allroggen, Achim; Lindner, Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging with contrast-enhanced ultrasound uses targeted microbubbles that are retained in diseased tissue. The resonant properties of these microbubbles produce acoustic signals in an ultrasound field. The microbubbles are targeted to diseased tissue by using certain chemical constituents in the microbubble shell or by attaching disease-specific ligands such as antibodies to the microbubble. In this review, we discuss the applications of this technique to pathological states in the cerebrovascular system including atherosclerosis, tumor angiogenesis, ischemia, intravascular thrombus, and inflammation. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Molecular imaging in Libman-Sacks endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Schaadt, Bente K; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric

    2015-01-01

    cardiothoracic surgery and pathologic examinations showed characteristic morphology of Libman-Sacks vegetations. All microbiological examinations including blood cultures, microscopy, culture and 16s PCR of the valve were negative and the diagnosis of Libman-Sacks endocarditis was convincing. It is difficult...... to distinguish Libman-Sacks endocarditis from culture-negative infective endocarditis (IE). Molecular imaging techniques are being used increasingly in cases of suspected IE but no studies have previously reported the use in patients with Libman-Sacks endocarditis. In the present case, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT clearly...

  16. Molecular imaging of apoptosis in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakumaeki, Juhana M.; Liimatainen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in cancer. Mechanisms hindering its action are implicated in a number of malignancies. Also, the induction of apoptosis plays a pivotal role in non-surgical cancer treatment regimes such as irradiation, chemotherapy, or hormones. Recent advanced in imaging science have made it now possible for us to detect and visualize previously inaccessible and even unrecognized biological phenomena in cells and tissue undergoing apoptosis in vivo. Not only are these imaging techniques painting an intriguing picture of the spatiotemporal characteristics and metabolic and biophysical of apoptosis in situ, but they are expected to have an ever increasing impact in preclinical testing and design of new anticancer agents as well. Rapid and accurate visualization of apoptotic response in the clinical settings can also be of significant diagnostic and prognostic worth. With the advent of molecular medicine and patient-tailored treatment options and therapeutic agents, such monitoring techniques are becoming paramount

  17. Molecular Imaging Probes for Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Imaging of Sentinel Lymph Node and Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhengtao

    Molecular imaging is visualizations and measurements of in vivo biological processes at the molecular or cellular level using specific imaging probes. As an emerging technology, biocompatible macromolecular or nanoparticle based targeted imaging probes have gained increasing popularities. Those complexes consist of a carrier, an imaging reporter, and a targeting ligand. The active targeting ability dramatically increases the specificity. And the multivalency effect may further reduce the dose while providing a decent signal. In this thesis, sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and cancer imaging are two research topics. The focus is to develop molecular imaging probes with high specificity and sensitivity, for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and optical imaging. The objective of this thesis is to explore dextran radiopharmaceuticals and porous silicon nanoparticles based molecular imaging agents. Dextran polymers are excellent carriers to deliver imaging reporters or therapeutic agents due to its well established safety profile and oligosaccharide conjugation chemistry. There is also a wide selection of dextran polymers with different lengths. On the other hand, Silicon nanoparticles represent another class of biodegradable materials for imaging and drug delivery. The success in fluorescence lifetime imaging and enhancements of the immune activation potency was briefly discussed. Chapter 1 begins with an overview on current molecular imaging techniques and imaging probes. Chapter 2 presents a near-IR dye conjugated probe, IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept. Fluorophore density was optimized to generate the maximum brightness. It was labeled with 68Ga and 99mTc and in vivo SLN mapping was successfully performed in different animals, such as mice, rabbits, dogs and pigs. With 99mTc labeled IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept, chapter 3 introduces a two-day imaging protocol with a hand-held imager. Chapter 4 proposed a method to dual radiolabel the IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept with both 68Ga and

  18. 18F-labeling and evaluation of novel MDL 100907 derivatives as potential 5-HT2A antagonists for molecular imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Fabian; Herth, Matthias Manfred; Piel, Markus

    2010-01-01

    ]tracers with a purity >96% and a typical specific activity of 25-35 GBq/mumol. Autoradiographic images of (R)-[(18)F]MH.MZ (5) and [(18)F]DD-1 (4) showed excellent visualization and selectivity of the 5-HT2A receptor for (R)-[(18)F]MH.MZ and less specific binding for [(18)F]DD-1. The binding potential (BP) of (R)-[(18......, equal levels of specific activities were used. High uptake could be demonstrated in cortex regions. CONCLUSION: Labeling of both novel tracers was carried out in high RCY. Autoradiography revealed (R)-[(18)F]MH.MZ as a very selective and affine 5-HT2A tracer (K(i)=0.72 nM), whereas [(18)F]DD-1 showed...... no reasonable distribution pattern on autoradiographic sections. Moreover, results from microPET scans of (R)-[(18)F]MH.MZ hint on improved molecular imaging characteristics compared with those of [(18)F]MH.MZ. Therefore, (R)-[(18)F]MH.MZ appears to be a highly potent and selective serotonergic PET ligand...

  19. Bioresponsive probes for molecular imaging: concepts and in vivo applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, S.M. van; Robillard, M.S.; Langereis, S.; Grull, H.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to visualize and characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo. In most molecular imaging approaches, probes are used to bind to disease-specific biomarkers highlighting disease target sites. In recent years, a new subset of

  20. Bioresponsive probes for molecular imaging : Concepts and in vivo applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijnhoven, S.M.J.; Robillard, M.S.; Langereis, S.; Grüll, H.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to visualize and characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo. In most molecular imaging approaches, probes are used to bind to disease-specific biomarkers highlighting disease target sites. In recent years, a new subset of

  1. [Molecular imaging; current status and future prospects in USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2007-02-01

    The goal of this review is to introduce the definition, current status, and future prospects of the molecular imaging, which has recently been a hot topic in medicine and the biological science in USA. In vivo imaging methods to visualize the molecular events and functions in organs or animals/humans are overviewed and discussed especially in combinations of imaging modalities (machines) and contrast agents(chemicals) used in the molecular imaging. Next, the close relationship between the molecular imaging and the nanotechnology, an important part of nanomedicine, is stressed from the aspect of united multidisciplinary sciences such as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine.

  2. The research progress of nuclear medicine on cardiovascular molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiaohua; Zhang Yongxue

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving discipline and its clinical application is promising. Nuclear medicine is playing a leading role in this field with its special superiority of noninvasive, quantifiability, high sensitivity and specificity. It provides broad opportunities for exploring the pathophysiologic process of cardiovascular diseases and monitoring its gene therapy in the molecular level. In this review, we mainly discuss some basic knowledge on cardiovascular molecular imaging, and then focus on the applied research prospect of nuclear medicine radionuclide imaging. (authors)

  3. Molecular ultrasound imaging: current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.; Needles, A.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionising irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of pre-clinical and clinical ultrasound systems, the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic.

  4. Molecular imaging in the era of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2015-01-01

    Clinical imaging creates visual representations of the body interior for disease assessment. The role of clinical imaging significantly overlaps with that of pathology, and diagnostic workflows largely depend on both fields. The field of clinical imaging is presently undergoing a radical change through the emergence of a new field called molecular imaging. This new technology, which lies at the intersection between imaging and molecular biology, enables noninvasive visualization of biochemical processes at the molecular level within living bodies. Molecular imaging differs from traditional anatomical imaging in that biomarkers known as imaging probes are used to visualize target molecules-of-interest. This ability opens up exciting new possibilities for applications in oncologic, neurological and cardiovascular diseases. Molecular imaging is expected to make major contributions to personalized medicine by allowing earlier diagnosis and predicting treatment response. The technique is also making a huge impact on pharmaceutical development by optimizing preclinical and clinical tests for new drug candidates. This review will describe the basic principles of molecular imaging and will briefly touch on three examples (from an immense list of new techniques) that may contribute to personalized medicine: receptor imaging, angiogenesis imaging, and apoptosis imaging.

  5. Evaluation of glycodendron and synthetically-modified dextran clearing agents for multi-step targeting of radioisotopes for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheal, Sarah M.; Yoo, Barney; Boughdad, Sarah; Punzalan, Blesida; Yang, Guangbin; Dilhas, Anna; Torchon, Geralda; Pu, Jun; Axworthy, Don B.; Zanzonico, Pat; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Larson, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    A series of N-acetylgalactosamine-dendrons (NAG-dendrons) and dextrans bearing biotin moieties were compared for their ability to complex with and sequester circulating bispecific anti-tumor antibody (scFv4) streptavidin (SA) fusion protein (scFv4-SA) in vivo, to improve tumor to normal tissue concentration ratios for targeted radioimmunotherapy and diagnosis. Specifically, a total of five NAG-dendrons employing a common synthetic scaffold structure containing 4, 8, 16, or 32 carbohydrate residues and a single biotin moiety were prepared (NAGB), and for comparative purposes, a biotinylated-dextran with average molecular weight (MW) of 500 kD was synthesized from amino-dextran (DEXB). One of the NAGB compounds, CA16, has been investigated in humans; our aim was to determine if other NAGB analogs (e.g. CA8 or CA4) were bioequivalent to CA16 and/or better suited as MST reagents. In vivo studies included dynamic positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging of 124I-labelled-scFv4-SA clearance and dual-label biodistribution studies following multi-step targeting (MST) directed at subcutaneous (s.c.) human colon adenocarcinoma xenografts in mice. The MST protocol consists of three injections: first, a bispecific antibody specific for an anti-tumor associated glycoprotein (TAG-72) single chain genetically-fused with SA (scFv4-SA); second, CA16 or other clearing agent; and third, radiolabeled biotin. We observed using PET imaging of 124I-labelled-scFv4-SA clearance that the spatial arrangement of ligands conjugated to NAG (i.e. biotin) can impact the binding to antibody in circulation and subsequent liver uptake of the NAG-antibody complex. Also, NAGB CA32-LC or CA16-LC can be utilized during MST to achieve comparable tumor- to-blood ratios and absolute tumor uptake seen previously with CA16. Finally, DEXB was equally effective as NAGB CA32-LC at lowering scFv4-SA in circulation, but at the expense of reducing absolute tumor uptake of radiolabeled biotin. PMID:24219178

  6. Advancing Molecular Therapies through In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton McCaffrey

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective development of therapeutics that target the molecular basis of disease is dependent on testing new therapeutic moieties and delivery strategies in animal models of human disease. Accelerating the analyses of these models and improving their predictive value through whole animal imaging methods, which provide data in real time and are sensitive to the subtle changes, are crucial for rapid advancement of these approaches. Modalities based on optics are rapid, sensitive, and accessible methods for in vivo analyses with relatively low instrumentation costs. In vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI is one of these optically based imaging methods that enable rapid in vivo analyses of a variety of cellular and molecular events with extreme sensitivity. BLI is based on the use of light-emitting enzymes as internal biological light sources that can be detected externally as biological indicators. BLI has been used to test spatio-temporal expression patterns of both target and therapeutic genes in living laboratory animals where the contextual influences of whole biological systems are preserved. BLI has also been used to analyze gene delivery, immune cell therapies, and the in vivo efficacy of inhibitory RNAs. New tools for BLI are being developed that will offer greater flexibility in detection and analyses. BLI can be used to accelerate the evaluation of experimental therapeutic strategies and whole body imaging offers the opportunity of revealing the effects of novel approaches on key steps in disease processes.

  7. Translational research of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, C; Ma, X; Tian, J

    2013-12-01

    In the medical imaging field, molecular imaging is a rapidly developing discipline and forms many imaging modalities, providing us effective tools to visualize, characterize, and measure molecular and cellular mechanisms in complex biological processes of living organisms, which can deepen our understanding of biology and accelerate preclinical research including cancer study and medicine discovery. Among many molecular imaging modalities, although the penetration depth of optical imaging and the approved optical probes used for clinics are limited, it has evolved considerably and has seen spectacular advances in basic biomedical research and new drug development. With the completion of human genome sequencing and the emergence of personalized medicine, the specific drug should be matched to not only the right disease but also to the right person, and optical molecular imaging should serve as a strong adjunct to develop personalized medicine by finding the optimal drug based on an individual's proteome and genome. In this process, the computational methodology and imaging system as well as the biomedical application regarding optical molecular imaging will play a crucial role. This review will focus on recent typical translational studies of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine followed by a concise introduction. Finally, the current challenges and the future development of optical molecular imaging are given according to the understanding of the authors, and the review is then concluded.

  8. The development of epidermal growth factor receptor molecular imaging in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaoliang; Wang Hao; Shi Peiji; Liu Jianfeng; Meng Aimin

    2013-01-01

    In vivo epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted therapy has great potential for cancer diagnosis and the evaluation of curative effects. Enhancement of EGFR-targeted therapy needs a reliable quantitative molecular imaging method which could enable monitoring of receptor drug binding and receptor occupancy in vivo, and identification of the mutation in EGFR. PET or SPECT is the most advanced molecular imaging technology of non-invasively selecting responders, predicting therapeutic outcome and monitoring EGFR-targeted treatment. This review analyzed the present situation and research progress of molecular imaging agents. (authors)

  9. Resonance Energy Transfer Molecular Imaging Application in Biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIE Da-hong1,2;TANG Gang-hua1,3

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resonance energy transfer molecular imaging (RETI can markedly improve signal intensity and tissue penetrating capacity of optical imaging, and have huge potential application in the deep-tissue optical imaging in vivo. Resonance energy transfer (RET is an energy transition from the donor to an acceptor that is in close proximity, including non-radiative resonance energy transfer and radiative resonance energy transfer. RETI is an optical imaging technology that is based on RET. RETI mainly contains fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging (FRETI, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (BRETI, chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (CRETI, and radiative resonance energy transfer imaging (RRETI. RETI is the hot field of molecular imaging research and has been widely used in the fields of biology and medicine. This review mainly focuses on RETI principle and application in biomedicine.

  10. Computational methods in molecular imaging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gunjan, Vinit Kumar; Venkatesh, C; Amarnath, M

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the experimental investigations that have been carried out on magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (MRI & CT) images using state-of-the-art Computational Image processing techniques, and tabulates the statistical values wherever necessary. In a very simple and straightforward way, it explains how image processing methods are used to improve the quality of medical images and facilitate analysis. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, medical doctors and bioinformatics experts alike.

  11. Nanomedicine: Perspective and promises with ligand-directed molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Dipanjan [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail: dipanjan@wustl.edu; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A. [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States); Caruthers, Shelton D. [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States); Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA (United States)], E-mail: scaruthers@cmrl.wustl.edu

    2009-05-15

    Molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery play an important role toward personalized medicine, which is the future of patient management. Of late, nanoparticle-based molecular imaging has emerged as an interdisciplinary area, which shows promises to understand the components, processes, dynamics and therapies of a disease at a molecular level. The unprecedented potential of nanoplatforms for early detection, diagnosis and personalized treatment of diseases, have found application in every biomedical imaging modality. Biological and biophysical barriers are overcome by the integration of targeting ligands, imaging agents and therapeutics into the nanoplatform which allow for theranostic applications. In this article, we have discussed the opportunities and potential of targeted molecular imaging with various modalities putting a particular emphasis on perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion-based platform technology.

  12. Nanomedicine: Perspective and promises with ligand-directed molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Dipanjan; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Caruthers, Shelton D.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery play an important role toward personalized medicine, which is the future of patient management. Of late, nanoparticle-based molecular imaging has emerged as an interdisciplinary area, which shows promises to understand the components, processes, dynamics and therapies of a disease at a molecular level. The unprecedented potential of nanoplatforms for early detection, diagnosis and personalized treatment of diseases, have found application in every biomedical imaging modality. Biological and biophysical barriers are overcome by the integration of targeting ligands, imaging agents and therapeutics into the nanoplatform which allow for theranostic applications. In this article, we have discussed the opportunities and potential of targeted molecular imaging with various modalities putting a particular emphasis on perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion-based platform technology.

  13. Molecular imaging in the framework of personalized cancer medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Dzevad; Belkić, Karen

    2013-11-01

    With our increased understanding of cancer cell biology, molecular imaging offers a strategic bridge to oncology. This complements anatomic imaging, particularly magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which is sensitive but not specific. Among the potential harms of false positive findings is lowered adherence to recommended surveillance post-therapy and by persons at increased cancer risk. Positron emission tomography (PET) plus computerized tomography (CT) is the molecular imaging modality most widely used in oncology. In up to 40% of cases, PET-CT leads to changes in therapeutic management. Newer PET tracers can detect tumor hypoxia, bone metastases in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-expressive tumors. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides insight into several metabolites at the same time. Combined with MRI, this yields magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), which does not entail ionizing radiation and is thus suitable for repeated monitoring. Using advanced signal processing, quantitative information can be gleaned about molecular markers of brain, breast, prostate and other cancers. Radiation oncology has benefited from molecular imaging via PET-CT and MRSI. Advanced mathematical approaches can improve dose planning in stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic body radiotherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy. Molecular imaging will likely impact profoundly on clinical decision making in oncology. Molecular imaging via MR could facilitate early detection especially in persons at high risk for specific cancers.

  14. Molecular MR imaging of cancer gene therapy. Ferritin transgene reporter takes the stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo

    2010-01-01

    Molecular imaging using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been actively investigated and made rapid progress in the past decade. Applied to cancer gene therapy, the technique's high spatial resolution allows evaluation of gene delivery into target tissues. Because noninvasive monitoring of the duration, location, and magnitude of transgene expression in tumor tissues or cells provides useful information for assessing therapeutic efficacy and optimizing protocols, molecular imaging is expected to become a critical step in the success of cancer gene therapy in the near future. We present a brief overview of the current status of molecular MR imaging, especially in vivo reporter gene imaging using ferritin and other reporters, discuss its application to cancer gene therapy, and present our research of MR imaging detection of electroporation-mediated cancer gene therapy using the ferritin reporter gene. (author)

  15. Luminescence imaging using radionuclides: a potential application in molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Il An, Gwang; Park, Se-Il; Oh, Jungmin; Kim, Hong Joo; Su Ha, Yeong; Wang, Eun Kyung; Min Kim, Kyeong; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Jaetae; Welch, Michael J.; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nuclear and optical imaging are complementary in many aspects and there would be many advantages when optical imaging probes are prepared using radionuclides rather than classic fluorophores, and when nuclear and optical dual images are obtained using single imaging probe. Methods: The luminescence intensities of various radionuclides having different decay modes have been assayed using luminescence imaging and in vitro luminometer. Radioiodinated Herceptin was injected into a tumor-bearing mouse, and luminescence and microPET images were obtained. The plant dipped in [ 32 P]phosphate solution was scanned in luminescence mode. Radio-TLC plate was also imaged in the same imaging mode. Results: Radionuclides emitting high energy β + /β - particles showed higher luminescence signals. NIH3T6.7 tumors were detected in both optical and nuclear imaging. The uptake of [ 32 P]phosphate in plant was easily followed by luminescence imaging. Radio-TLC plate was visualized and radiochemical purity was quantified using luminescence imaging. Conclusion: Many radionuclides with high energetic β + or β - particles during decay were found to be imaged in luminescence mode due mainly to Cerenkov radiation. 'Cerenkov imaging' provides a new optical imaging platform and an invaluable bridge between optical and nuclear imaging. New optical imaging probes could be easily prepared using well-established radioiodination methods. Cerenkov imaging will have more applications in the research field of plant science and autoradiography.

  16. Tunable Molecular Logic Gates Designed for Imaging Released Neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockow, Jessica L; Hettie, Kenneth S; Secor, Kristen E; Barman, Dipti N; Glass, Timothy E

    2015-08-03

    Tunable dual-analyte fluorescent molecular logic gates (ExoSensors) were designed for the purpose of imaging select vesicular primary-amine neurotransmitters that are released from secretory vesicles upon exocytosis. ExoSensors are based on the coumarin-3-aldehyde scaffold and rely on both neurotransmitter binding and the change in environmental pH associated with exocytosis to afford a unique turn-on fluorescence output. A pH-functionality was directly integrated into the fluorophore π-system of the scaffold, thereby allowing for an enhanced fluorescence output upon the release of labeled neurotransmitters. By altering the pH-sensitive unit with various electron-donating and -withdrawing sulfonamide substituents, we identified a correlation between the pKa of the pH-sensitive group and the fluorescence output from the activated fluorophore. In doing so, we achieved a twelvefold fluorescence enhancement upon evaluating the ExoSensors under conditions that mimic exocytosis. ExoSensors are aptly suited to serve as molecular imaging tools that allow for the direct visualization of only the neurotransmitters that are released from secretory vesicles upon exocytosis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.; Vera, David

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging is becoming a larger part of imaging research and practice. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy funds a significant number of researchers in this area. The proposal is to partially fund a workshop to inform scientists working in nuclear medicine and nuclear medicine practitioners of the recent advances of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as other imaging modalities. A limited number of topics related to radionuclide therapy will also be discussed. The proposal is to request partial funds for the workshop entitled ''Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy'' to be held prior to the Society of Nuclear Medicine Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada in June 2005. The meeting will be held on June 17-18. This will allow scientists interested in all aspects of nuclear medicine imaging to attend. The chair of the organizing group is Dr. Michael J. Welch. The organizing committee consists of Dr. Welch, Dr. William C. Eckelman and Dr. David Vera. The goal is to invite speakers to discuss the most recent advances of modern molecular imaging and therapy. Speakers will present advances made in in vivo tagging imaging assays, technical aspects of small animal imaging, in vivo imaging and bench to bedside translational study; and the role of a diagnostic scan on therapy selection. This latter topic will include discussions on therapy and new approaches to dosimetry. Several of these topics are those funded by the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research

  18. Molecular imaging of {sigma} receptors: synthesis and evaluation of the potent {sigma}{sub 1} selective radioligand [{sup 18}F]fluspidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Steffen; Hiller, Achim; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Scheunemann, Matthias; Steinbach, Joerg; Brust, Peter [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Research Site Leipzig, Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany); Wiese, Christian; Grosse Maestrup, Eva; Schepmann, Dirk; Wuensch, Bernhard [Institut fuer Pharmazeutische und Medizinische Chemie der Westfaelischen Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Neuroimaging of {sigma}{sub 1} receptors in the human brain has been proposed for the investigation of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. However, there is a lack of suitable {sup 18}F-labelled PET radioligands for that purpose. The selective {sigma}{sub 1} receptor ligand [{sup 18}F]fluspidine (1'-benzyl-3-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-3H-spiro[[2]benzofuran-1,4'-piperidine]) was synthesized by nucleophilic {sup 18}F{sup -} substitution of the tosyl precursor. In vitro receptor binding affinity and selectivity were assessed by radioligand competition in tissue homogenate and autoradiographic approaches. In female CD-1 mice, in vivo properties of [{sup 18}F]fluspidine were evaluated by ex vivo brain section imaging and organ distribution of intravenously administered radiotracer. Target specificity was validated by organ distribution of [{sup 18}F]fluspidine after treatment with 1 mg/kg i.p. of the {sigma} receptor antagonist haloperidol or the emopamil binding protein (EBP) inhibitor tamoxifen. In vitro metabolic stability and in vivo metabolism were investigated by LC-MS{sup n} and radio-HPLC analysis. [{sup 18}F]Fluspidine was obtained with a radiochemical yield of 35-45%, a radiochemical purity of {>=} 99.6% and a specific activity of 150-350 GBq/{mu}mol (n = 6) within a total synthesis time of 90-120 min. In vitro, fluspidine bound specifically and with high affinity to {sigma}{sub 1} receptors (K{sub i} = 0.59 nM). In mice, [{sup 18}F]fluspidine rapidly accumulated in brain with uptake values of 3.9 and 4.7%ID/g and brain to blood ratios of 7 and 13 at 5 and 30 min after intravenous application of the radiotracer, respectively. By ex vivo autoradiography of brain slices, resemblance between binding site occupancy of [{sup 18}F]fluspidine and the expression of {sigma}{sub 1} receptors was shown. The radiotracer uptake in the brain as well as in peripheral {sigma}{sub 1} receptor expressing organs was significantly

  19. Quantitative Methods for Molecular Diagnostic and Therapeutic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    This theme issue provides an overview on the basic quantitative methods, an in-depth discussion on the cutting-edge quantitative analysis approaches as well as their applications for both static and dynamic molecular diagnostic and therapeutic imaging.

  20. Molecular-resolution imaging of pentacene on KCl(001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia L. Neff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of pentacene on KCl(001 at submonolayer coverage was studied by dynamic scanning force microscopy. At coverages below one monolayer pentacene was found to arrange in islands with an upright configuration. The molecular arrangement was resolved in high-resolution images. In these images two different types of patterns were observed, which switch repeatedly. In addition, defects were found, such as a molecular vacancy and domain boundaries.

  1. Nanobody: The “Magic Bullet” for Molecular Imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging involves the non-invasive investigation of biological processes in vivo at the cellular and molecular level, which can play diverse roles in better understanding and treatment of various diseases. Recently, single domain antigen-binding fragments known as 'nanobodies' were bioengineered and tested for molecular imaging applications. Small molecular size (~15 kDa) and suitable configuration of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of nanobodies offer many desirable features suitable for imaging applications, such as rapid targeting and fast blood clearance, high solubility, high stability, easy cloning, modular nature, and the capability of binding to cavities and difficult-to-access antigens. Using nanobody-based probes, several imaging techniques such as radionuclide-based, optical and ultrasound have been employed for visualization of target expression in various disease models. This review summarizes the recent developments in the use of nanobody-based probes for molecular imaging applications. The preclinical data reported to date are quite promising, and it is expected that nanobody-based molecular imaging agents will play an important role in the diagnosis and management of various diseases. PMID:24578722

  2. Potential of luminescence based molecular animal imaging in research areas pertaining to cancer biology and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Hansa D.; Shetake, Neena G.; Balla Murali, M.S.; Kumar, Amit; Pandey, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    Animal imaging is getting tremendous importance in biomedical research areas including drug delivery, radiobiology and cancer research. Even though, imaging techniques like CT, PET, SPECT, MRI are available for experimental animals, luminescence-based molecular imaging is still considered as crucial and common tool for biomedical laboratories due to easy handling/maintenance, cost effectiveness and various strategies available to manipulate the molecules/cells employed for imaging purposes. The Molecular Animal Imaging System available in our laboratory is being utilized for various cancer research activities including measurement of tumor growth kinetics, angiogenesis, therapeutic efficacy evaluation and metastasis studies. Moreover, the imaging system is also been used for radio-luminescence imaging based on Cherenkov radiation of radio-pharmaceuticals. (author)

  3. Molecular imaging of cancer using PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    for molecular imaging of cancer. Especially the possibility of a quick transfer of methods developed in animals to patients (translational research) is an important strength. This article will briefly discuss the newest applications and their importance and perspective in relation to the shift in paradigm......Molecular imaging allows for the study of molecular and cellular events in the living intact organism. The nuclear medicine methodologies of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) posses several advantages, which make them particularly suited...

  4. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Dementia and Movement Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Atul K; Drzezga, Alexander; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine (PM) has been defined as "prevention and treatment strategies that take individual variability into account." Molecular imaging (MI) is an ideally suited tool for PM approaches to neurodegenerative dementia and movement disorders (MD). Here we review PM approaches and discuss how they may be applied to other associated neurodegenerative dementia and MD. With ongoing major therapeutic research initiatives that include the use of molecular imaging, we look forward to established interventions targeted to specific molecular pathophysiology and expect the potential benefit of MI PM approaches in neurodegenerative dementia and MD will only increase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular mass spectrometry imaging in biomedical and life science research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pól, Jaroslav; Strohalm, Martin; Havlíček, Vladimír; Volný, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 5 (2010), s. 423-443 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA ČR GPP206/10/P018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Mass spectrometry * Chemical imaging * Molecular imaging Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.727, year: 2010

  6. Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, ZARF Project, Center for Molecular Imaging Research MBMB, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding < 20%), and with increased apoptosis (annexin V binding > 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

  7. The development of nanobody probes for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Zhiling; Lan Xiaoli; Zhang Yongxue

    2014-01-01

    The nanobody is a novel antibody fragment, which has beneficial biophysical and pharmacokinetic properties, such as the small molecular weight, high affinity and specificity for antigen. Nanobody is ideally suitable for molecular imaging as a targeting probe that could label antigen at nmol level in vitro. In animal models of xenografted tumor, atherosclerotic plaques and brain disorders, the target tissues were specifically and clearly detected and the high tumor-to-blood (T/B) ratios were obtained. Structural or chemical modified nanobodies will have higher affinity and retention to target tissues, and be convenient for the application of molecular imaging. With the development of the related research, nanobody-based molecular imaging will be gradually transformed into the clinical applications, and play an important role in early diagnosis and therapeutic assessment. (authors)

  8. Mechanically magnified imaging of molecular interferograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stibor, A.; Stefanov, A.; Goldfarb, F.; Reiger, E.; Arndt, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Imaging of surface adsorbed molecules is presented as a valuable detection method for matter interferometry with fluorescent particles. A mechanical magnification scheme is implemented to circumvent the optical resolution limit. Mechanically magnified fluorescence imaging turns out to be an excellent tool for recording quantum interference patterns with high visibility. A unique advantage of this technique is its scalability: for certain classes of nanosized objects, the detection sensitivity will even increase significantly with increasing size of the particle. (author)

  9. Cancerology: to see and to treat with molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    By allowing to visualize, beyond the organs and tissues structure, the molecules present inside cells and their action in cell functioning, to the genome level, the molecular imaging opens a new era in biology and medicine and creates the conditions for the perfecting of targeting and personalised treatments of cancers. The E.M.I.L. network is the only European network in molecular imaging for the cancer. It has been initiated and is coordinated by 'the genes expression in vivo imaging group' of the Cea at Orsay. The E.M.I.L network represents 43 organisms of 13 european countries with 6 technological platforms. (N.C.)

  10. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun Ki; Herbst, Roy

    2006-01-01

    .... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...

  11. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun K; Herbst, Roy

    2008-01-01

    .... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...

  12. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun K; Herbst, Roy

    2007-01-01

    .... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...

  13. [Future perspectives for diagnostic imaging in urology: from anatomic and functional to molecular imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macis, Giuseppe; Di Giovanni, Silvia; Di Franco, Davide; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The future approach of diagnostic imaging in urology follows the technological progress, which made the visualization of in vivo molecular processes possible. From anatomo-morphological diagnostic imaging and through functional imaging molecular radiology is reached. Based on molecular probes, imaging is aimed at assessing the in vivo molecular processes, their physiology and function at cellular level. The future imaging will investigate the complex tumor functioning as metabolism, aerobic glycolysis in particular, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, metastatic potential, hypoxia, apoptosis and receptors expressed by neoplastic cells. Methods for performing molecular radiology are CT, MRI, PET-CT, PET-MRI, SPECT and optical imaging. Molecular ultrasound combines technological advancement with targeted contrast media based on microbubbles, this allowing the selective registration of microbubble signal while that of stationary tissues is suppressed. An experimental study was carried out where the ultrasound molecular probe BR55 strictly bound to prostate tumor results in strong enhancement in the early phase after contrast, this contrast being maintained in the late phase. This late enhancement is markedly significant for the detection of prostatic cancer foci and to guide the biopsy sampling. The 124I-cG250 molecular antibody which is strictly linked to cellular carbonic anhydrase IX of clear cell renal carcinoma, allows the acquisition of diagnostic PET images of clear cell renal carcinoma without biopsy. This WG-250 (RENCAREX) antibody was used as a therapy in metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma. Future advancements and applications will result in early cancer diagnosis, personalized therapy that will be specific according to the molecular features of cancer and leading to the development of catheter-based multichannel molecular imaging devices for cystoscopy-based molecular imaging diagnosis and intervention.

  14. Thermoacoustic Molecular Imaging of Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Kruger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We have designed, constructed, and tested a thermoacoustic computed tomography (TCT scanner for imaging optical absorption in small animals in three dimensions. The device utilizes pulsed laser irradiation (680–1064 nm and a unique, 128-element transducer array. We quantified the isotropic spatial resolution of this scanner to be 0.35 mm. We describe a dual-wavelength subtraction technique for isolating optical dyes with TCT. Phantom experiments demonstrate that we can detect 5 fmol of a near-infrared dye (indocyanine green, ICG in a 1-ML volume using dual-wavelength subtraction. Initial TCT imaging in phantoms and in two sacrificed mice suggests that three-dimensional, optical absorption patterns in small animals can be detected with an order of magnitude better spatial resolution and an order of magnitude better low-contrast detectability in small animals when compared to fluorescence imaging or diffusion optical tomography.

  15. Molecular Imaging in Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahuan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a serious disease of the center nervous system (CNS. It is a devastating injury with sudden loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function distal to the level of trauma and produces great personal and societal costs. Currently, there are no remarkable effective therapies for the treatment of SCI. Compared to traditional treatment methods, stem cell transplantation therapy holds potential for repair and functional plasticity after SCI. However, the mechanism of stem cell therapy for SCI remains largely unknown and obscure partly due to the lack of efficient stem cell trafficking methods. Molecular imaging technology including positron emission tomography (PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, optical imaging (i.e., bioluminescence imaging (BLI gives the hope to complete the knowledge concerning basic stem cell biology survival, migration, differentiation, and integration in real time when transplanted into damaged spinal cord. In this paper, we mainly review the molecular imaging technology in stem cell therapy for SCI.

  16. Magnetic nanoparticles as contrast agents for molecular imaging in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    For over twenty years, superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been developed for a number of medical applications ranging from bioseparations, magnetic drug targeting, hyperthermia and imaging. Recent studies have shown that they can be functionalized for in vivo biological targeting, potentially enabling nanoagents for molecular imaging and site-localized drug delivery. Here we review several imaging technologies developed using functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as targeted molecular agents. Several imaging modalities have exploited the large induced magnetic moment of SPIONs to create local mechanical force. Magnetic force microscopy can probe nanoparticle uptake in single cells. For in vivo applications, magnetomotive modulation of primary images in ultrasound (US), photoacoustics (PA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) can help identify very small concentrations of nanoagents while simultaneously suppressing intrinsic background signals from tissue.

  17. Multi-target molecular imaging and its progress in research and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ganghua

    2011-01-01

    Multi-target molecular imaging (MMI) is an important field of research in molecular imaging. It includes multi-tracer multi-target molecular imaging(MTMI), fusion-molecule multi-target imaging (FMMI), coupling-molecule multi-target imaging (CMMI), and multi-target multifunctional molecular imaging(MMMI). In this paper,imaging modes of MMI are reviewed, and potential applications of positron emission tomography MMI in near future are discussed. (author)

  18. Recent Advances in Cardiac Computed Tomography: Dual Energy, Spectral and Molecular CT Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danad, Ibrahim; Fayad, Zahi A.; Willemink, Martin J.; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) evolved into a powerful diagnostic tool and it is impossible to imagine current clinical practice without CT imaging. Due to its widespread availability, ease of clinical application, superb sensitivity for detection of CAD, and non-invasive nature, CT has become a valuable tool within the armamentarium of the cardiologist. In the last few years, numerous technological advances in CT have occurred—including dual energy CT (DECT), spectral CT and CT-based molecular imaging. By harnessing the advances in technology, cardiac CT has advanced beyond the mere evaluation of coronary stenosis to an imaging modality tool that permits accurate plaque characterization, assessment of myocardial perfusion and even probing of molecular processes that are involved in coronary atherosclerosis. Novel innovations in CT contrast agents and pre-clinical spectral CT devices have paved the way for CT-based molecular imaging. PMID:26068288

  19. Molecular imaging: a new approach to nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrucki, L.W.; Sinusas, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has historically played an important role in detection of cardiovascular disease as well as risk statification. With the growth of molecular biology have come new therapeutic interventions and the requirement for new diagnostic imaging approaches. Noninvasive targeted radiotracer based as well as transporter gene imaging strategies are evolving to meet these new needs, but require the development of an interdisciplinary approach which focuses on molecular processes, as well as the pathogenesis and progression of disease. This progress has been made possible with the availability of transgenic animal models along with many technological advances. Future adaptations of the developing experimental procedures and instrumentations will allow for the smooth translation and application to clinical practice. This review is intended as a brief overview on the subject molecular imaging. Basic concepts and historical perspective of molecular imaging will be reviewed first, followed by description of current technology, and concluding with current applications in cardiology. The emphasis will be on the use of both single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers, although other imaging modalities will be also briefly discussed. The specific approaches presented here will include receptor-based and reporter gene imaging of natural and therapeutical angiogenesis

  20. Radiation-Force Assisted Targeting Facilitates Ultrasonic Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukui Zhao

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic molecular imaging employs contrast agents, such as microbubbles, nanoparticles, or liposomes, coated with ligands specific for receptors expressed on cells at sites of angiogenesis, inflammation, or thrombus. Concentration of these highly echogenic contrast agents at a target site enhances the ultrasound signal received from that site, promoting ultrasonic detection and analysis of disease states. In this article, we show that acoustic radiation force can be used to displace targeted contrast agents to a vessel wall, greatly increasing the number of agents binding to available surface receptors. We provide a theoretical evaluation of the magnitude of acoustic radiation force and show that it is possible to displace micron-sized agents physiologically relevant distances. Following this, we show in a series of experiments that acoustic radiation force can enhance the binding of targeted agents: The number of biotinylated microbubbles adherent to a synthetic vessel coated with avidin increases as much as 20-fold when acoustic radiation force is applied; the adhesion of contrast agents targeted to αvβ3 expressed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells increases 27-fold within a mimetic vessel when radiation force is applied; and finally, the image signal-to-noise ratio in a phantom vessel increases up to 25 dB using a combination of radiation force and a targeted contrast agent, over use of a targeted contrast agent alone.

  1. Online molecular image repository and analysis system: A multicenter collaborative open-source infrastructure for molecular imaging research and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahabubur; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Molecular imaging serves as an important tool for researchers and clinicians to visualize and investigate complex biochemical phenomena using specialized instruments; these instruments are either used individually or in combination with targeted imaging agents to obtain images related to specific diseases with high sensitivity, specificity, and signal-to-noise ratios. However, molecular imaging, which is a multidisciplinary research field, faces several challenges, including the integration of imaging informatics with bioinformatics and medical informatics, requirement of reliable and robust image analysis algorithms, effective quality control of imaging facilities, and those related to individualized disease mapping, data sharing, software architecture, and knowledge management. As a cost-effective and open-source approach to address these challenges related to molecular imaging, we develop a flexible, transparent, and secure infrastructure, named MIRA, which stands for Molecular Imaging Repository and Analysis, primarily using the Python programming language, and a MySQL relational database system deployed on a Linux server. MIRA is designed with a centralized image archiving infrastructure and information database so that a multicenter collaborative informatics platform can be built. The capability of dealing with metadata, image file format normalization, and storing and viewing different types of documents and multimedia files make MIRA considerably flexible. With features like logging, auditing, commenting, sharing, and searching, MIRA is useful as an Electronic Laboratory Notebook for effective knowledge management. In addition, the centralized approach for MIRA facilitates on-the-fly access to all its features remotely through any web browser. Furthermore, the open-source approach provides the opportunity for sustainable continued development. MIRA offers an infrastructure that can be used as cross-boundary collaborative MI research platform for the rapid

  2. Molecular Imaging of Ovarian Carcinoma Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    specifically taken up by several benign conditions such as inflammatory disease, pneumonia, brown fat, muscle, bowel uptake, and granulomatous disease...demonstrated in vivo imaging of vascular cell proliferation- associated states, whether focal, as in postangioplasty re- stenosis , or diffuse, as in pulmonary...limitations. The tracer can be nonspecifically taken up by several benign condi- tions such as inflammatory disease, pneumonia, brown fat, muscle

  3. Molecular spectral imaging system for quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of early diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingli; Zhang, Jingfa; Wang, Yiting; Xu, Guoteng

    2009-12-01

    A molecular spectral imaging system has been developed based on microscopy and spectral imaging technology. The system is capable of acquiring molecular spectral images from 400 nm to 800 nm with 2 nm wavelength increments. The basic principles, instrumental systems, and system calibration method as well as its applications for the calculation of the stain-uptake by tissues are introduced. As a case study, the system is used for determining the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and evaluating the therapeutic effects of erythropoietin. Some molecular spectral images of retinal sections of normal, diabetic, and treated rats were collected and analyzed. The typical transmittance curves of positive spots stained for albumin and advanced glycation end products are retrieved from molecular spectral data with the spectral response calibration algorithm. To explore and evaluate the protective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on retinal albumin leakage of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, an algorithm based on Beer-Lambert's law is presented. The algorithm can assess the uptake by histologic retinal sections of stains used in quantitative pathology to label albumin leakage and advanced glycation end products formation. Experimental results show that the system is helpful for the ophthalmologist to reveal the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and explore the protective effect of erythropoietin on retinal cells of diabetic rats. It also highlights the potential of molecular spectral imaging technology to provide more effective and reliable diagnostic criteria in pathology.

  4. Distance measures for image segmentation evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Fernando C.; Campilho, Aurélio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of evaluation measures that enable the quantification of the quality of an image segmentation result. Despite significant advances in image segmentation techniques, evaluation of these techniques thus far has been largely subjective. Typically, the effectiveness of a new algorithm is demonstrated only by the presentation of a few segmented images and is otherwise left to subjective evaluation by the reader. Such an evaluation criterion can be useful for differ...

  5. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eAlcantara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  6. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer: translating molecular biology approaches into the clinical realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Grimm, Jan; F Donati, Olivio; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. • Advanced imaging techniques allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions in prostate cancer. • MRI/PET, optical and Cerenkov imaging facilitate the translation of molecular biology. • Multiple compounds targeting PSMA expression are currently undergoing clinical translation. • Other targets (e.g., PSA, prostate-stem cell antigen, GRPR) are in development.

  7. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noerenberg, Dominik [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); University of Munich - Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Ebersberger, Hans U. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Botnar, Rene M. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Makowski, Marcus R. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. (orig.)

  8. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, Dominik; Ebersberger, Hans U.; Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd; Botnar, Rene M.; Makowski, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. (orig.)

  9. Ultrafast molecular imaging by laser-induced electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, M.; Nguyen-Dang, T. T.; Cornaggia, C.; Saugout, S.; Charron, E.; Keller, A.; Atabek, O.

    2011-01-01

    We address the feasibility of imaging geometric and orbital structures of a polyatomic molecule on an attosecond time scale using the laser-induced electron diffraction (LIED) technique. We present numerical results for the highest molecular orbitals of the CO 2 molecule excited by a near-infrared few-cycle laser pulse. The molecular geometry (bond lengths) is determined within 3% of accuracy from a diffraction pattern which also reflects the nodal properties of the initial molecular orbital. Robustness of the structure determination is discussed with respect to vibrational and rotational motions with a complete interpretation of the laser-induced mechanisms.

  10. Advances in study of molecular imaging reporte gene systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; An Rui

    2010-01-01

    The use of molecular imaging reporter gene systems has allowed gene therapy to move from the laboratory to the clinical application, which provides methodology to monitor the expression of therapeutic gene noninvasively and achieve quantitative outcome in vivo. Recently, the radionuclide reporter gene still is the focus many studies, but MRI and optical reporter gene have gradually played a important part in reporter gene systems. On the basis of combination of multi-subject, for example applied chemistry and molecular biology, more and more new modified reporter genes and molecular probes have spread out. This paper mainly introduces the advantages and disadvantages of reporter gene system and development trends. (authors)

  11. Development of molecular imaging in the European radiological community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Nicolas; Sardanelli, Francesco; Becker, Christoph D.; Walecki, Jerzy; Sebag, Guy; Lomas, David John; Krestin, Gabriel P.

    2009-01-01

    The recent and concomitant advances in molecular biology and imaging for diagnosis and therapy will place in vivo imaging techniques at the centre of their clinical transfer. Before that, a wide range of multidisciplinary preclinical research is already taking place. The involvement of radiologists in this new field of imaging sciences is therefore absolutely mandatory during these two phases of development. Achievement of such objectives requires the refinement of strategy within the European radiological community and the European Society of Radiology (ESR) will have to drive a number of actions to stimulate the younger generation of radiologists and to facilitate their access to knowledge. For that purpose, a molecular imaging (MI) subcommittee of the ESR Research Committee based on a group of involved radiologists will be constituted to develop contacts with other constitutive committees and associated societies to provide proposals to our community. (orig.)

  12. Molecular Imaging with Small Animal PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, T.; El-Ali, H.H.; Skovgaard, D.

    2011-01-01

    is also described. In addition, the non-invasive nature of molecular imaging and the targets of these promising new tracers are attractive for other research areas as well, although these fields are much less explored. We present an example of an interesting research field with the application of small......Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and computer tomography (CT) is an emerging field in pre-clinical imaging. High quality, state-of-the-art instruments are required for full optimization of the translational value of the small animal studies with PET and CT. However...... in this field of small animal molecular imaging with special emphasis on the targets for tissue characterization in tumor biology such as hypoxia, proliferation and cancer specific over-expression of receptors. The added value of applying CT imaging for anatomical localization and tumor volume measurements...

  13. Molecular Imaging: A Promising Tool to Monitor Islet Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of insulin production by pancreatic islet transplantation has great potential as a therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. At present, the lack of an effective approach to islet grafts assessment limits the success of this treatment. The development of molecular imaging techniques has the potential to fulfill the goal of real-time noninvasive monitoring of the functional status and viability of the islet grafts. We review the application of a variety of imaging modalities for detecting endogenous and transplanted beta-cell mass. The review also explores the various molecular imaging strategies for assessing islet delivery, the metabolic effects on the islet grafts as well as detection of immunorejection. Here, we highlight the use of combined imaging and therapeutic interventions in islet transplantation and the in vivo monitoring of stem cells differentiation into insulin-producing cells.

  14. Imaging systems in nuclear medicine and image evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Charleston, D.; Metz, C.

    1980-01-01

    This project deals with imaging systems in nuclear medicine and image evaluation and is presented as four subprojects. The goal of the first subproject is to improve diagnositc image quality by development of a general computer code for optimizing collimator design. The second subproject deals with a secondary emission and fluorescence technique for thyroid scanning while the third subproject emphasizes the need for more sophisticated image processing systems such as coherent optical spatial filtering systems and digital image processing. The fourth subproject presents a new approach for processing image data by taking into account the energy of each detected gamma-ray photon

  15. Simultaneous molecular and anatomical imaging of the mouse in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertzen, Andrew L; Meadors, A Ken; Silverman, Robert W; Cherry, Simon R

    2002-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging technologies are opening up new windows into mouse biology. We have developed a mouse imaging system that integrates positron emission tomography (PET) with x-ray computed tomography (CT), allowing simultaneous anatomic and molecular imaging in vivo with the potential for precise registration of the two image volumes. The x-ray system consists of a compact mini-focal x-ray tube and an amorphous selenium flat panel x-ray detector with a low-noise CMOS readout. The PET system uses planar arrays of lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillator coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. We describe the design of this dual-modality imaging system and show, for the first time, simultaneously acquired PET and CT images in a phantom and in mice

  16. Simultaneous molecular and anatomical imaging of the mouse in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertzen, Andrew L [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Meadors, A Ken [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Silverman, Robert W [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cherry, Simon R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2002-12-21

    Non-invasive imaging technologies are opening up new windows into mouse biology. We have developed a mouse imaging system that integrates positron emission tomography (PET) with x-ray computed tomography (CT), allowing simultaneous anatomic and molecular imaging in vivo with the potential for precise registration of the two image volumes. The x-ray system consists of a compact mini-focal x-ray tube and an amorphous selenium flat panel x-ray detector with a low-noise CMOS readout. The PET system uses planar arrays of lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillator coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. We describe the design of this dual-modality imaging system and show, for the first time, simultaneously acquired PET and CT images in a phantom and in mice.

  17. Molecular imaging of small animals with dedicated PET tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatziioannou, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Biological discovery has moved at an accelerated pace in recent years, with a considerable focus on the transition from in vitro to in vivo models. As a result, there has been a significant increase in the need to adapt clinical imaging methods, as well as for novel imaging technologies for biological research. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a clinical imaging modality that permits the use of positron-labeled molecular imaging probes for non-invasive assays of biochemical processes. The imaging procedure can be repeatedly performed before and after interventions, thereby allowing each animal to be used as its own control. Positron-labeled compounds that target a range of molecular targets have been and continue to be synthesized, with examples of biological processes ranging from receptors and synthesis of transmitters in cell communication, to metabolic processes and gene expression. In animal research, PET has been used extensively in the past for studies of non-human primates and other larger animals. New detector technology has improved spatial resolution, and has made possible PET scanning for the study of the most important modern molecular biology model, the laboratory mouse. This paper presents the challenges facing PET technology as applied to small animal imaging, provides a historical overview of the development of small animal PET systems, and discusses the current state of the art in small animal PET technology. (orig.)

  18. Hypoxia-Targeting Fluorescent Nanobodies for Optical Molecular Imaging of Pre-Invasive Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, Aram S A; Adams, Arthur; Oliveira, Sabrina; Dorresteijn, Bram; El Khattabi, Mohamed; Vermeulen, J. F.; van der Wall, Elsken; Mali, Willem P Th M; Derksen, Patrick W B; van Diest, Paul J; van Bergen En Henegouwen, Paul M P

    PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to develop a CAIX-specific nanobody conjugated to IRDye800CW for molecular imaging of pre-invasive breast cancer. PROCEDURES: CAIX-specific nanobodies were selected using a modified phage display technology, conjugated site-specifically to IRDye800CW and evaluated

  19. Hypoxia-Targeting Fluorescent Nanobodies for Optical Molecular Imaging of Pre-Invasive Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, Aram S A; Adams, Arthur; Oliveira, Sabrina; Dorresteijn, Bram; El Khattabi, Mohamed; Vermeulen, Jeroen F.; van der Wall, Elsken; Mali, W.P.T.M.; Derksen, Patrick W B; van Diest, Paul J.; van Bergen En Henegouwen, Paul M P

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to develop a CAIX-specific nanobody conjugated to IRDye800CW for molecular imaging of pre-invasive breast cancer. Procedures: CAIX-specific nanobodies were selected using a modified phage display technology, conjugated site-specifically to IRDye800CW and evaluated

  20. Translation of New Molecular Imaging Approaches to the Clinical Setting : Bridging the Gap to Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, Suzanne C; Venema, Clasina M; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Elias, Sjoerd G; Boellaard, Ronald; Hospers, Geke A P; Schröder, Carolina P; de Vries, Elisabeth G E

    Molecular imaging with PET is a rapidly emerging technique. In breast cancer patients, more than 45 different PET tracers have been or are presently being tested. With a good rationale, after development of the tracer and proven feasibility, it is of interest to evaluate whether there is a potential

  1. Translation of New Molecular Imaging Approaches to the Clinical Setting : Bridging the Gap to Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, Suzanne C; Venema, Clasina M; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Elias, Sjoerd G; Boellaard, Ronald; Hospers, Geke A.P.; Schröder, Carolina P; de Vries, Elisabeth G E

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging with PET is a rapidly emerging technique. In breast cancer patients, more than 45 different PET tracers have been or are presently being tested. With a good rationale, after development of the tracer and proven feasibility, it is of interest to evaluate whether there is a potential

  2. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis by radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: new imaging strategies to guide molecular therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malviya, G.; Dierckx, R.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Conti, F. [Rheumatology Unit, I Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Chianelli, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Regina apostolorum Hospital, Albano, Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, F. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Sapienza University of Rome, St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Signore, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Nuclear Medicine Department, Sapienza University of Rome, St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    The closing of the last century opened a wide variety of approaches for inflammation imaging and treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The introduction of biological therapies for the management of RA started a revolution in the therapeutic armamentarium with the development of several novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can be murine, chimeric, humanised and fully human antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies specifically bind to their target, which could be adhesion molecules, activation markers, antigens or receptors, to interfere with specific inflammation pathways at the molecular level, leading to immune-modulation of the underlying pathogenic process. These new generation of mAbs can also be radiolabelled by using direct or indirect method, with a variety of nuclides, depending upon the specific diagnostic application. For studying rheumatoid arthritis patients, several monoclonal antibodies and their fragments, including anti-TNF-{alpha}, anti-CD20, anti-CD3, anti-CD4 and anti-E-selectin antibody, have been radiolabelled mainly with {sup 99m}Tc or {sup 111}In. Scintigraphy with these radiolabelled antibodies may offer an exciting possibility for the study of RA patients and holds two types of information: (1) it allows better staging of the disease and diagnosis of the state of activity by early detection of inflamed joints that might be difficult to assess; (2) it might provide a possibility to perform 'evidence-based biological therapy' of arthritis with a view to assessing whether an antibody will localise in an inflamed joint before using the same unlabelled antibody therapeutically. This might prove particularly important for the selection of patients to be treated since biological therapies can be associated with severe side-effects and are considerably expensive. This article reviews the use of radiolabelled mAbs in the study of RA with particular emphasis on the use of different radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies for

  3. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis by radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: new imaging strategies to guide molecular therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malviya, G.; Dierckx, R.A.; Conti, F.; Chianelli, M.; Scopinaro, F.; Signore, A.

    2010-01-01

    The closing of the last century opened a wide variety of approaches for inflammation imaging and treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The introduction of biological therapies for the management of RA started a revolution in the therapeutic armamentarium with the development of several novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can be murine, chimeric, humanised and fully human antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies specifically bind to their target, which could be adhesion molecules, activation markers, antigens or receptors, to interfere with specific inflammation pathways at the molecular level, leading to immune-modulation of the underlying pathogenic process. These new generation of mAbs can also be radiolabelled by using direct or indirect method, with a variety of nuclides, depending upon the specific diagnostic application. For studying rheumatoid arthritis patients, several monoclonal antibodies and their fragments, including anti-TNF-α, anti-CD20, anti-CD3, anti-CD4 and anti-E-selectin antibody, have been radiolabelled mainly with 99m Tc or 111 In. Scintigraphy with these radiolabelled antibodies may offer an exciting possibility for the study of RA patients and holds two types of information: (1) it allows better staging of the disease and diagnosis of the state of activity by early detection of inflamed joints that might be difficult to assess; (2) it might provide a possibility to perform 'evidence-based biological therapy' of arthritis with a view to assessing whether an antibody will localise in an inflamed joint before using the same unlabelled antibody therapeutically. This might prove particularly important for the selection of patients to be treated since biological therapies can be associated with severe side-effects and are considerably expensive. This article reviews the use of radiolabelled mAbs in the study of RA with particular emphasis on the use of different radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies for therapy decision-making and

  4. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Molecular Imaging of Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Chen, Ting; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat a wide variety of neurological disorders including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. However, its mechanism behind the effectiveness remains unclear. Recently, molecular imaging technology has been applied for this purpose, since it can assess the cellular or molecular function in a living subject by using specific imaging probes and/or radioactive tracers, which enable efficient analysis and monitoring the therapeutic response repetitively. This chapter reviews the in vivo functional and metabolic changes after administration of Chinese herbal medicine in various neurological disorders and provides perspectives on the future evaluations of therapeutic response of Chinese herbal medicine. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bench to bedside molecular functional imaging in translational cancer medicine: to image or to imagine?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, A.; Goh, V.; Basu, S.; Vaish, R.; Weeks, A.J.; Thakur, M.H.; Cook, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing research on malignant and normal cell biology has substantially enhanced the understanding of the biology of cancer and carcinogenesis. This has led to the development of methods to image the evolution of cancer, target specific biological molecules, and study the anti-tumour effects of novel therapeutic agents. At the same time, there has been a paradigm shift in the field of oncological imaging from purely structural or functional imaging to combined multimodal structure–function approaches that enable the assessment of malignancy from all aspects (including molecular and functional level) in a single examination. The evolving molecular functional imaging using specific molecular targets (especially with combined positron-emission tomography [PET] computed tomography [CT] using 2- [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [FDG] and other novel PET tracers) has great potential in translational research, giving specific quantitative information with regard to tumour activity, and has been of pivotal importance in diagnoses and therapy tailoring. Furthermore, molecular functional imaging has taken a key place in the present era of translational cancer research, producing an important tool to study and evolve newer receptor-targeted therapies, gene therapies, and in cancer stem cell research, which could form the basis to translate these agents into clinical practice, popularly termed “theranostics”. Targeted molecular imaging needs to be developed in close association with biotechnology, information technology, and basic translational scientists for its best utility. This article reviews the current role of molecular functional imaging as one of the main pillars of translational research. -- Highlights: •Molecular functional imaging (MFI) gives insight into the tumor biology and intratumoral heterogeneity. •It has potential role in identifying radiomic signatures associated with underlying gene-expression. •Radiomics can be used to create a road map

  6. Proceedings of II Molecular Imaging Symposium Cuba - Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In the Central Theater, University Hospital 'General Calixto Garcia' took place the II Symposium on Molecular Imaging Cuba Japan in the framework of the Scientific Convention for the 120th anniversary of the hospital. The event was organized by the hospital itself with the support of the Society of Medical Physics (medical physics section), CEADEN, the Embassy of Japan and the Theragnostic Compounds R&D Center Neuroscience Research Institute Gachon University, Incheon Korea. It was attended by 80 national scientific leaders and with the invaluable presence of Dr. Tatsuo IDO, Emeritus professor of Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) who presented the results of the scientific papers presented this year in national and international events , referring to the new technologies of molecular imaging and the importance of medical physics in its development. During the meeting the importance of the new technologies of molecular imaging, its undisputed diagnosis intake and medical treatment and the value of human capital struggled to deal with the new technologies, the view that these are only used best when it is understood that they are multidisciplinary systems where each specialist and technical personnel plays an indispensable role. The challenge has medical physics to address these new technologies and the need for changes in the theoretical and practical training in the specialty. These analyzes will be given continuity in the next symposia molecular imaging. (author)

  7. PET-MRI: the likely future of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Zhao Jinhua; Zhao Jun

    2008-01-01

    PET-CT is a successful combination of functional and morphologic information, and it has already been shown to have great value both in clinics and in scientific research. MRI is another kind of morphologic imaging method, in contrast to CT, MRI can yield images with higher soft-tissue contrast and better spatial resolution. The combination of PET and MRI for simultaneous data acquisition should have far- reaching consequences for molecular imaging. This review will talk about the problems met in the development of PET-MRI and describe the progress to date and look forward to its potential application. (authors)

  8. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Uterine and Ovarian Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Kim, Chun K

    2017-10-01

    Gynecologic cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases both functionally and morphologically. Today, PET coupled with computed tomography (PET/CT) or PET/MR imaging play a central role in the precision medicine algorithm of patients with gynecologic malignancy. In particular, PET/CT and PET/MR imaging are molecular imaging techniques that not only are useful tools for initial staging and restaging but provide anatomofunctional insight and can serve as predictive and prognostic biomarkers of response in patients with gynecologic malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudgar, Amy V; Mankoff, David A

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine, basing treatment approaches on patient traits and specific molecular features of disease processes, has an important role in the management of patients with breast cancer as targeted therapies continue to improve. PET imaging offers noninvasive information that is complementary to traditional tissue biomarkers, including information about tumor burden, tumor metabolism, receptor status, and proliferation. Several PET agents that image breast cancer receptors can visually demonstrate the extent and heterogeneity of receptor-positive disease and help predict which tumors are likely to respond to targeted treatments. This review presents applications of PET imaging in the targeted treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nariya

    2016-01-01

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics

  11. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariya Cho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  12. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  13. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Bishnu P.; Wang, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular probes that can be labeled for multi-modality imaging is critical to this process. Today, molecular imaging is at a crossroad, and new targeted imaging agents are expected to broadly expand our ability to detect and manage cancer. This integrated imaging strategy will permit clinicians to not only localize lesions within the body but also to manage their therapy by visualizing the expression and activity of specific molecules. This information is expected to have a major impact on drug development and understanding of basic cancer biology. At this time, a number of molecular probes have been developed by conjugating various labels to affinity ligands for targeting in different imaging modalities. This review will describe the current status of exogenous molecular probes for optical, scintigraphic, MRI and ultrasound imaging platforms. Furthermore, we will also shed light on how these techniques can be used synergistically in multi-modal platforms and how these techniques are being employed in current research

  14. Molecular Imaging of Apoptosis: From Micro to Macro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenbin; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Pengfei; Liu, Gang; Eden, Henry S.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is involved in numerous human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer, and is often confused with other types of cell death. Therefore strategies that enable visualized detection of apoptosis would be of enormous benefit in the clinic for diagnosis, patient management, and development of new therapies. In recent years, improved understanding of the apoptotic machinery and progress in imaging modalities have provided opportunities for researchers to formulate microscopic and macroscopic imaging strategies based on well-defined molecular markers and/or physiological features. Correspondingly, a large collection of apoptosis imaging probes and approaches have been documented in preclinical and clinical studies. In this review, we mainly discuss microscopic imaging assays and macroscopic imaging probes, ranging in complexity from simple attachments of reporter moieties to proteins that interact with apoptotic biomarkers, to rationally designed probes that target biochemical changes. Their clinical translation will also be our focus. PMID:25825597

  15. Advances of Molecular Imaging for Monitoring the Anatomical and Functional Architecture of the Olfactory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xintong; Bi, Anyao; Gao, Quansheng; Zhang, Shuai; Huang, Kunzhu; Liu, Zhiguo; Gao, Tang; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-01-20

    The olfactory system of organisms serves as a genetically and anatomically model for studying how sensory input can be translated into behavior output. Some neurologic diseases are considered to be related to olfactory disturbance, especially Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and so forth. However, it is still unclear how the olfactory system affects disease generation processes and olfaction delivery processes. Molecular imaging, a modern multidisciplinary technology, can provide valid tools for the early detection and characterization of diseases, evaluation of treatment, and study of biological processes in living subjects, since molecular imaging applies specific molecular probes as a novel approach to produce special data to study biological processes in cellular and subcellular levels. Recently, molecular imaging plays a key role in studying the activation of olfactory system, thus it could help to prevent or delay some diseases. Herein, we present a comprehensive review on the research progress of the imaging probes for visualizing olfactory system, which is classified on different imaging modalities, including PET, MRI, and optical imaging. Additionally, the probes' design, sensing mechanism, and biological application are discussed. Finally, we provide an outlook for future studies in this field.

  16. In vivo molecular and genomic imaging: new challenges for imaging physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Simon R

    2004-02-07

    The emerging and rapidly growing field of molecular and genomic imaging is providing new opportunities to directly visualize the biology of living organisms. By combining our growing knowledge regarding the role of specific genes and proteins in human health and disease, with novel ways to target these entities in a manner that produces an externally detectable signal, it is becoming increasingly possible to visualize and quantify specific biological processes in a non-invasive manner. All the major imaging modalities are contributing to this new field, each with its unique mechanisms for generating contrast and trade-offs in spatial resolution, temporal resolution and sensitivity with respect to the biological process of interest. Much of the development in molecular imaging is currently being carried out in animal models of disease, but as the field matures and with the development of more individualized medicine and the molecular targeting of new therapeutics, clinical translation is inevitable and will likely forever change our approach to diagnostic imaging. This review provides an introduction to the field of molecular imaging for readers who are not experts in the biological sciences and discusses the opportunities to apply a broad range of imaging technologies to better understand the biology of human health and disease. It also provides a brief review of the imaging technology (particularly for x-ray, nuclear and optical imaging) that is being developed to support this new field.

  17. In vivo molecular and genomic imaging: new challenges for imaging physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Simon R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-02-07

    The emerging and rapidly growing field of molecular and genomic imaging is providing new opportunities to directly visualize the biology of living organisms. By combining our growing knowledge regarding the role of specific genes and proteins in human health and disease, with novel ways to target these entities in a manner that produces an externally detectable signal, it is becoming increasingly possible to visualize and quantify specific biological processes in a non-invasive manner. All the major imaging modalities are contributing to this new field, each with its unique mechanisms for generating contrast and trade-offs in spatial resolution, temporal resolution and sensitivity with respect to the biological process of interest. Much of the development in molecular imaging is currently being carried out in animal models of disease, but as the field matures and with the development of more individualized medicine and the molecular targeting of new therapeutics, clinical translation is inevitable and will likely forever change our approach to diagnostic imaging. This review provides an introduction to the field of molecular imaging for readers who are not experts in the biological sciences and discusses the opportunities to apply a broad range of imaging technologies to better understand the biology of human health and disease. It also provides a brief review of the imaging technology (particularly for x-ray, nuclear and optical imaging) that is being developed to support this new field. (topical review)

  18. In vivo molecular and genomic imaging: new challenges for imaging physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, Simon R

    2004-01-01

    The emerging and rapidly growing field of molecular and genomic imaging is providing new opportunities to directly visualize the biology of living organisms. By combining our growing knowledge regarding the role of specific genes and proteins in human health and disease, with novel ways to target these entities in a manner that produces an externally detectable signal, it is becoming increasingly possible to visualize and quantify specific biological processes in a non-invasive manner. All the major imaging modalities are contributing to this new field, each with its unique mechanisms for generating contrast and trade-offs in spatial resolution, temporal resolution and sensitivity with respect to the biological process of interest. Much of the development in molecular imaging is currently being carried out in animal models of disease, but as the field matures and with the development of more individualized medicine and the molecular targeting of new therapeutics, clinical translation is inevitable and will likely forever change our approach to diagnostic imaging. This review provides an introduction to the field of molecular imaging for readers who are not experts in the biological sciences and discusses the opportunities to apply a broad range of imaging technologies to better understand the biology of human health and disease. It also provides a brief review of the imaging technology (particularly for x-ray, nuclear and optical imaging) that is being developed to support this new field. (topical review)

  19. Multi-modality molecular imaging: pre-clinical laboratory configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanjun; Wellen, Jeremy W.; Sarkar, Susanta K.

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of in vivo molecular imaging applications has rapidly increased. Here we report on the construction of a multi-modality imaging facility in a pharmaceutical setting that is expected to further advance existing capabilities for in vivo imaging of drug distribution and the interaction with their target. The imaging instrumentation in our facility includes a microPET scanner, a four wavelength time-domain optical imaging scanner, a 9.4T/30cm MRI scanner and a SPECT/X-ray CT scanner. An electronics shop and a computer room dedicated to image analysis are additional features of the facility. The layout of the facility was designed with a central animal preparation room surrounded by separate laboratory rooms for each of the major imaging modalities to accommodate the work-flow of simultaneous in vivo imaging experiments. This report will focus on the design of and anticipated applications for our microPET and optical imaging laboratory spaces. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to maximize the daily throughput of animal scans through development of efficient experimental work-flows and the use of multiple animals in a single scanning session.

  20. Active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation (SINDE) camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simova, E.; Rochefort, P.A., E-mail: eli.simova@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    A proof-of-concept video camera for active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation has been demonstrated. An active multispectral imaging technique has been implemented in the visible and near infrared by using light emitting diodes with wavelengths spanning from 400 to 970 nm. This shows how the camera can be used in nondestructive evaluation to inspect surfaces and spectrally identify materials and corrosion. (author)

  1. Progress in Molecular Imaging in Endoscopy and Endomicroscopy for Cancer Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supang Khondee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging is an essential tool for effective cancer management. Endoscopes are important medical instruments for performing in vivo imaging in hollow organs. Early detection of cancer can be achieved with surveillance using endoscopy, and has been shown to reduce mortality and to improve outcomes. Recently, great advancements have been made in endoscopic instruments, including new developments in optical designs, light sources, optical fibers, miniature scanners, and multimodal systems, allowing for improved resolution, greater tissue penetration, and multispectral imaging. In addition, progress has been made in the development of highly-specific optical probes, allowing for improved specificity for molecular targets. Integration of these new endoscopic instruments with molecular probes provides a unique opportunity for significantly improving patient outcomes and has potential to further improve early detection, image guided therapy, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine. This work summarizes current and evolving endoscopic technologies, and provides an overview of various promising optical molecular probes.

  2. Image quality evaluation of full reference algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nannan; Xie, Kai; Li, Tong; Ye, Yushan

    2018-03-01

    Image quality evaluation is a classic research topic, the goal is to design the algorithm, given the subjective feelings consistent with the evaluation value. This paper mainly introduces several typical reference methods of Mean Squared Error(MSE), Peak Signal to Noise Rate(PSNR), Structural Similarity Image Metric(SSIM) and feature similarity(FSIM) of objective evaluation methods. The different evaluation methods are tested by Matlab, and the advantages and disadvantages of these methods are obtained by analyzing and comparing them.MSE and PSNR are simple, but they are not considered to introduce HVS characteristics into image quality evaluation. The evaluation result is not ideal. SSIM has a good correlation and simple calculation ,because it is considered to the human visual effect into image quality evaluation,However the SSIM method is based on a hypothesis,The evaluation result is limited. The FSIM method can be used for test of gray image and color image test, and the result is better. Experimental results show that the new image quality evaluation algorithm based on FSIM is more accurate.

  3. A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yujie; Zhu Banghe; Rasmussen, John C; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M; Shen Haiou; Wang Ge

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence molecular imaging/tomography may play an important future role in preclinical research and clinical diagnostics. Time- and frequency-domain fluorescence imaging can acquire more measurement information than the continuous wave (CW) counterpart, improving the image quality of fluorescence molecular tomography. Although diffusion approximation (DA) theory has been extensively applied in optical molecular imaging, high-order photon migration models need to be further investigated to match quantitation provided by nuclear imaging. In this paper, a frequency-domain parallel adaptive finite element solver is developed with simplified spherical harmonics (SP N ) approximations. To fully evaluate the performance of the SP N approximations, a fast time-resolved tetrahedron-based Monte Carlo fluorescence simulator suitable for complex heterogeneous geometries is developed using a convolution strategy to realize the simulation of the fluorescence excitation and emission. The validation results show that high-order SP N can effectively correct the modeling errors of the diffusion equation, especially when the tissues have high absorption characteristics or when high modulation frequency measurements are used. Furthermore, the parallel adaptive mesh evolution strategy improves the modeling precision and the simulation speed significantly on a realistic digital mouse phantom. This solver is a promising platform for fluorescence molecular tomography using high-order approximations to the radiative transfer equation.

  4. Process perspective on image quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisti, Tuomas; Halonen, Raisa; Kokkonen, Anna; Weckman, Hanna; Mettänen, Marja; Lensu, Lasse; Ritala, Risto; Oittinen, Pirkko; Nyman, Göte

    2008-01-01

    The psychological complexity of multivariate image quality evaluation makes it difficult to develop general image quality metrics. Quality evaluation includes several mental processes and ignoring these processes and the use of a few test images can lead to biased results. By using a qualitative/quantitative (Interpretation Based Quality, IBQ) methodology, we examined the process of pair-wise comparison in a setting, where the quality of the images printed by laser printer on different paper grades was evaluated. Test image consisted of a picture of a table covered with several objects. Three other images were also used, photographs of a woman, cityscape and countryside. In addition to the pair-wise comparisons, observers (N=10) were interviewed about the subjective quality attributes they used in making their quality decisions. An examination of the individual pair-wise comparisons revealed serious inconsistencies in observers' evaluations on the test image content, but not on other contexts. The qualitative analysis showed that this inconsistency was due to the observers' focus of attention. The lack of easily recognizable context in the test image may have contributed to this inconsistency. To obtain reliable knowledge of the effect of image context or attention on subjective image quality, a qualitative methodology is needed.

  5. Evaluation of pulmonary emphysema by the fused image of CT image and ventilation SPECT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Ituko; Maruno, Hiromasa; Mori, Kazuaki; Kohno, Tadashi; Kokubo, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated pulmonary emphysema using a diagnostic device that could obtain a CT image, a ventilation single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image and a lung perfusion SPECT image in one examination. The fused image made from the CT image and SPECT image had very little position gap between images, and the precision was high. From the fused image, we were able to detect the areas in which emphysematous change was the most marked in the CT image, while the accumulation decrease was most remarkable in the ventilation SPECT image. Thus it was possible to obtain an accurate status of pulmonary emphysema, and our method was regarded as a useful technique. (author)

  6. Optimisation in X-ray and Molecular Imaging 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, Magnus; Hoeschen, Christoph; Mattsson, Soeren; Mansson, Lars Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    This issue of Radiation Protection Dosimetry is based on contributions to Optimisation in X-ray and Molecular Imaging 2015 - the 4. Malmoe Conference on Medical Imaging (OXMI 2015). The conference was jointly organised by members of former and current research projects supported by the European Commission EURATOM Radiation Protection Research Programme, in cooperation with the Swedish Society for Radiation Physics. The conference brought together over 150 researchers and other professionals from hospitals, universities and industries with interests in different aspects of the optimisation of medical imaging. More than 100 presentations were given at this international gathering of medical physicists, radiologists, engineers, technicians, nurses and educational researchers. Additionally, invited talks were offered by world-renowned experts on radiation protection, spectral imaging and medical image perception, thus covering several important aspects of the generation and interpretation of medical images. The conference consisted of 13 oral sessions and a poster session, as reflected by the conference title connected by their focus on the optimisation of the use ionising radiation in medical imaging. The conference included technology-specific topics such as computed tomography and tomosynthesis, but also generic issues of interest for the optimisation of all medical imaging, such as image perception and quality assurance. Radiation protection was covered by e.g. sessions on patient dose benchmarking and occupational exposure. Technically-advanced topics such as modelling, Monte Carlo simulation, reconstruction, classification, and segmentation were seen taking advantage of recent developments of hardware and software, showing that the optimisation community is at the forefront of technology and adapts well to new requirements. These peer-reviewed proceedings, representing a continuation of a series of selected reports from meetings in the field of medical imaging

  7. Unsupervised Performance Evaluation of Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabrier Sebastien

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a study of unsupervised evaluation criteria that enable the quantification of the quality of an image segmentation result. These evaluation criteria compute some statistics for each region or class in a segmentation result. Such an evaluation criterion can be useful for different applications: the comparison of segmentation results, the automatic choice of the best fitted parameters of a segmentation method for a given image, or the definition of new segmentation methods by optimization. We first present the state of art of unsupervised evaluation, and then, we compare six unsupervised evaluation criteria. For this comparative study, we use a database composed of 8400 synthetic gray-level images segmented in four different ways. Vinet's measure (correct classification rate is used as an objective criterion to compare the behavior of the different criteria. Finally, we present the experimental results on the segmentation evaluation of a few gray-level natural images.

  8. Molecular imaging and the neuropathologies of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, Paul; Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are linked to degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) fibers, especially those innervating the putamen. This degeneration can be assessed in molecular imaging studies with presynaptic tracers such as [(18)F]-fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA...... with denervation upregulation, but there is an accelerated rate of DA receptor loss as the disease advances. Animal studies and post mortem investigations reveal changes in brain opioid peptide systems, but these are poorly documented in imaging studies of PD. Relatively minor changes in the binding sites for GABA...

  9. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Esther; Thippsandra, Shwetha; Yanamadala, Anusha; Redy, Siddaling; Pattanayak, Puskar; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2017-01-01

    The concept of using tumor genomic profiling information has revolutionized personalized cancer treatment. Head and neck (HN) cancer management is being influenced by recent discoveries of activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor and related targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, targeted therapies for Kristen Rat Sarcoma, and MET proto-oncogenes. Molecular imaging using PET plays an important role in assessing the biologic behavior of HN cancer with the goal of delivering individualized cancer treatment. This review summarizes recent genomic discoveries in HN cancer and their implications for functional PET imaging in assessing response to targeted therapies, and drug resistance mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte M.; Jensen, Peter S.; Erritzoe, David

    2016-01-01

    We here describe a multimodality neuroimaging containing data from healthy volunteers and patients, acquired within the Lundbeck Foundation Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The data is of particular relevance for neurobiological research questions rela...... currently contains blood and in some instances saliva samples from about 500 healthy volunteers and 300 patients with e.g., major depression, dementia, substance abuse, obesity, and impulsive aggression. Data continue to be added to the Cimbi database and biobank....

  11. Molecular imaging of retinal endothelial injury in diabetic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Frimmel

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Results indicate that molecular imaging can be used to detect subtle changes in the diabetic retina prior to the occurrence of irreversible pathology. Thus, ICAM-1 could serve as a diagnostic target in patients with diabetes. This study provides a proof of principle for non-invasive subclinical diagnosis in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Further development of this technology could improve management of diabetic complications.

  12. Intelligent Design of Nano-Scale Molecular Imaging Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeaki Ozawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual representation and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within living subjects are gaining great interest in life science to address frontier issues in pathology and physiology. As intact living subjects do not emit any optical signature, visual representation usually exploits nano-scale imaging agents as the source of image contrast. Many imaging agents have been developed for this purpose, some of which exert nonspecific, passive, and physical interaction with a target. Current research interest in molecular imaging has mainly shifted to fabrication of smartly integrated, specific, and versatile agents that emit fluorescence or luminescence as an optical readout. These agents include luminescent quantum dots (QDs, biofunctional antibodies, and multifunctional nanoparticles. Furthermore, genetically encoded nano-imaging agents embedding fluorescent proteins or luciferases are now gaining popularity. These agents are generated by integrative design of the components, such as luciferase, flexible linker, and receptor to exert a specific on–off switching in the complex context of living subjects. In the present review, we provide an overview of the basic concepts, smart design, and practical contribution of recent nano-scale imaging agents, especially with respect to genetically encoded imaging agents.

  13. Bioresponsive probes for molecular imaging:Concepts and in vivo applications

    OpenAIRE

    Duijnhoven, van, SMJ Sander; Robillard, MS Marc; Langereis, S Sander; Grüll, H Holger

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to visualize and characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo. In most molecular imaging approaches, probes are used to bind to disease-specific biomarkers highlighting disease target sites. In recent years, a new subset of molecular imaging probes, known as bioresponsive molecular probes, has been developed. These probes generally benefit from signal enhancement at the site of interaction with its target. There are mainly ...

  14. Featured Image: A Molecular Cloud Outside Our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-06-01

    What do molecular clouds look like outside of our own galaxy? See for yourself in the images above and below of N55, a molecular cloud located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). In a recent study led by Naslim Neelamkodan (Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taiwan), a team of scientists explore N55 to determine how its cloud properties differ from clouds within the Milky Way. The image above reveals the distribution of infrared-emitting gas and dust observed in three bands by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Overplotted in cyan are observations from the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment tracing the clumpy, warm molecular gas. Below, new observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reveal the sub-parsec-scale molecular clumps in greater detail, showing the correlation of massive clumps with Spitzer-identified young stellar objects (crosses). The study presented here indicates that this cloud in the LMC is the site of massive star formation, with properties similar to equivalent clouds in the Milky Way. To learn more about the authors findings, check out the article linked below.CitationNaslim N. et al 2018 ApJ 853 175. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa5b0

  15. Molecular Imaging of Transporters with Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Hall, Håkan

    Positron emission tomography (PET) visualization of brain components in vivo is a rapidly growing field. Molecular imaging with PET is also increasingly used in drug development, especially for the determination of drug receptor interaction for CNS-active drugs. This gives the opportunity to relate clinical efficacy to per cent receptor occupancy of a drug on a certain targeted receptor and to relate drug pharmacokinetics in plasma to interaction with target protein. In the present review we will focus on the study of transporters, such as the monoamine transporters, the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter, the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2, and the glucose transporter using PET radioligands. Neurotransmitter transporters are presynaptically located and in vivo imaging using PET can therefore be used for the determination of the density of afferent neurons. Several promising PET ligands for the noradrenaline transporter (NET) have been labeled and evaluated in vivo including in man, but a really useful PET ligand for NET still remains to be identified. The most promising tracer to date is (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2. The in vivo visualization of the dopamine transporter (DAT) may give clues in the evaluation of conditions related to dopamine, such as Parkinson's disease and drug abuse. The first PET radioligands based on cocaine were not selective, but more recently several selective tracers such as [11C]PE2I have been characterized and shown to be suitable as PET radioligands. Although there are a large number of serotonin transporter inhibitors used today as SSRIs, it was not until very recently, when [11C]McN5652 was synthesized, that this transporter was studied using PET. New candidates as PET radioligands for the SERT have subsequently been developed and [11C]DASB and [11C]MADAM and their analogues are today the most promising ligands. The existing radioligands for Pgp transporters seem to be suitable tools for the study of both peripheral and central drug

  16. UPAR targeted molecular imaging of cancers with small molecule-based probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Chen, Seng; Zhang, Wanshu; Tu, Yufeng; Sun, Yao

    2017-10-15

    Molecular imaging can allow the non-invasive characterization and measurement of biological and biochemical processes at the molecular and cellular levels in living subjects. The imaging of specific molecular targets that are associated with cancers could allow for the earlier diagnosis and better treatment of diseases. Small molecule-based probes play prominent roles in biomedical research and have high clinical translation ability. Here, with an emphasis on small molecule-based probes, we review some recent developments in biomarkers, imaging techniques and multimodal imaging in molecular imaging and highlight the successful applications for molecular imaging of cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Imaging Evaluation of the Entheses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Terslev, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Numerous papers have been published on the advantage to use ultrasonography and MRI for detecting enthesitis for diagnosing and managing patients with spondyloarthritis. This paper describes the latest advances in the imaging of enthesitis. A research agenda has also been defined for answering...

  18. Characterization of nanoparticle-based contrast agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Liang; Chopra, Arvind; Leung, Kam; Eckelman, William C.; Menkens, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    The development of molecular imaging agents is currently undergoing a dramatic expansion. As of October 2011, ∼4,800 newly developed agents have been synthesized and characterized in vitro and in animal models of human disease. Despite this rapid progress, the transfer of these agents to clinical practice is rather slow. To address this issue, the National Institutes of Health launched the Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agents Database (MICAD) in 2005 to provide freely accessible online information regarding molecular imaging probes and contrast agents for the imaging community. While compiling information regarding imaging agents published in peer-reviewed journals, the MICAD editors have observed that some important information regarding the characterization of a contrast agent is not consistently reported. This makes it difficult for investigators to evaluate and meta-analyze data generated from different studies of imaging agents, especially for the agents based on nanoparticles. This article is intended to serve as a guideline for new investigators for the characterization of preclinical studies performed with nanoparticle-based MRI contrast agents. The common characterization parameters are summarized into seven categories: contrast agent designation, physicochemical properties, magnetic properties, in vitro studies, animal studies, MRI studies, and toxicity. Although no single set of parameters is suitable to define the properties of the various types of contrast agents, it is essential to ensure that these agents meet certain quality control parameters at the preclinical stage, so that they can be used without delay for clinical studies.

  19. PET-based molecular nuclear neuro-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho

    2004-01-01

    Molecular nuclear neuro-imaging in CNS drug discovery and development can be divided into four categories that are clearly inter-related. (1) Neuroreceptor mapping to examine the involvement of specific neurotransmitter system in CNS diseases, drug occupancy characteristics and perhaps examine mechanisms of action;(2) Structural and spectroscopic imaging to examine morphological changes and their consequences;(3) Metabolic mapping to provide evidence of central activity and CNS fingerprinting the neuroanatomy of drug effects;(4) Functional mapping to examine disease-drug interactions. In addition, targeted delivery of therapeutic agents could be achieved by modifying stem cells to release specific drugs at the site of transplantation('stem cell pharmacology'). Future exploitation of stem cell biology, including enhanced release of therapeutic factors through genetic stem cell engineering might thus constitute promising pharmaceutical approaches to treating diseases of the nervous system. With continued improvements in instrumentation, identification of better imaging probes by innovative chemistry, molecular nuclear neuro-imaging promise to play increasingly important roles in disease diagnosis and therapy

  20. PET-based molecular nuclear neuro-imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Ho [Gil Medical Center, Gachon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Molecular nuclear neuro-imaging in CNS drug discovery and development can be divided into four categories that are clearly inter-related. (1) Neuroreceptor mapping to examine the involvement of specific neurotransmitter system in CNS diseases, drug occupancy characteristics and perhaps examine mechanisms of action;(2) Structural and spectroscopic imaging to examine morphological changes and their consequences;(3) Metabolic mapping to provide evidence of central activity and CNS fingerprinting the neuroanatomy of drug effects;(4) Functional mapping to examine disease-drug interactions. In addition, targeted delivery of therapeutic agents could be achieved by modifying stem cells to release specific drugs at the site of transplantation('stem cell pharmacology'). Future exploitation of stem cell biology, including enhanced release of therapeutic factors through genetic stem cell engineering might thus constitute promising pharmaceutical approaches to treating diseases of the nervous system. With continued improvements in instrumentation, identification of better imaging probes by innovative chemistry, molecular nuclear neuro-imaging promise to play increasingly important roles in disease diagnosis and therapy.

  1. Immunohistochemical evaluation of molecular radiotherapy target expression in neuroblastoma tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gains, Jennifer E.; Gaze, Mark N. [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Pathology, London (United Kingdom); Moroz, Veronica; Wheatley, Keith [University of Birmingham, Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2018-03-15

    Neuroblastoma may be treated with molecular radiotherapy, {sup 131}I meta-Iodobenzylguanidine and {sup 177}Lu Lutetium DOTATATE, directed at distinct molecular targets: Noradrenaline Transporter Molecule (NAT) and Somatostatin Receptor (SSTR2), respectively. This study used immunohistochemistry to evaluate target expression in archival neuroblastoma tissue, to determine whether it might facilitate clinical use of molecular radiotherapy. Tissue bank samples of formalin fixed paraffin embedded neuroblastoma tissue from patients for whom clinical outcome data were available were sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and monoclonal antibodies directed against NAT and SSTR2. Sections were examined blinded to clinical information and scored for the percentage and intensity of tumour cells stained. These data were analysed in conjunction with clinical data. Tissue from 75 patients was examined. Target expression scores varied widely between patients: NAT median 45%, inter-quartile range 25% - 65%; and SSTR2 median 55%, interquartile range 30% - 80%; and in some cases heterogeneity of expression between different parts of a tumour was observed. A weak positive correlation was observed between the expression scores of the different targets: correlation coefficient = 0.23, p = 0.05. MYCN amplified tumours had lower SSTR2 scores: mean difference 23% confidence interval 8% - 39%, p < 0.01. Survival did not differ by scores. As expression of both targets is variable and heterogeneous, imaging assessment of both may yield more clinical information than either alone. The clinical value of immunohistochemical assessment of target expression requires prospective evaluation. Variable target expression within a patient may contribute to treatment failure. (orig.)

  2. The development of nuclear medicine molecular imaging: An era of multiparametric imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yuyuan; Huang Gang

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear medical molecular imaging is developing toward a multimodality and multitracer future. Abundant complementary data generated from different tracers in different modalities are successfully serving the biological research and clinical treatment. Among the others, PER-MRI has the greatest potential and will be a research of interest in the near future. This article focused on the evolution history on nuclear medicine from single modality to multimodality, single tracer to multitracer. It also gave a brief summary to the identifications, differences, pros and consofmultimodality, multitracer, multiparametric molecular imaging. Issues, problems and challenges concerned with her development and recognition are also discussed. (authors)

  3. Radiogenomics: Creating a link between molecular diagnostics and diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutman, Aaron M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Kuo, Michael D. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Center for Translational Medical Systems, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States)], E-mail: mkuo@ucsd.edu

    2009-05-15

    Studies employing high-throughput biological techniques have recently contributed to an improved characterization of human cancers, allowing for novel sub-classification, better diagnostic accuracy, and more precise prognostication. However, requirement of surgical procurement of tissue among other things limits the clinical application of such methods in everyday patient care. Radiographic imaging is routine in clinical practice but is currently histopathology based. The use of routine radiographic imaging provides a potential platform for linking specific imaging traits with specific gene expression patterns that inform the underlying cellular pathophysiology; imaging features could then serve as molecular surrogates that contribute to the diagnosis, prognosis, and likely gene-expression-associated treatment response of various forms of human cancer. This review focuses on high-throughput methods such as microarray analysis of gene expression, their role in cancer research, and in particular, on novel methods of associating gene expression patterns with radiographic imaging phenotypes, known as 'radiogenomics.' These findings underline a potential future role of both diagnostic and interventional radiologists in genetic assessment of cancer patients with radiographic imaging studies.

  4. Radiogenomics: Creating a link between molecular diagnostics and diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutman, Aaron M.; Kuo, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Studies employing high-throughput biological techniques have recently contributed to an improved characterization of human cancers, allowing for novel sub-classification, better diagnostic accuracy, and more precise prognostication. However, requirement of surgical procurement of tissue among other things limits the clinical application of such methods in everyday patient care. Radiographic imaging is routine in clinical practice but is currently histopathology based. The use of routine radiographic imaging provides a potential platform for linking specific imaging traits with specific gene expression patterns that inform the underlying cellular pathophysiology; imaging features could then serve as molecular surrogates that contribute to the diagnosis, prognosis, and likely gene-expression-associated treatment response of various forms of human cancer. This review focuses on high-throughput methods such as microarray analysis of gene expression, their role in cancer research, and in particular, on novel methods of associating gene expression patterns with radiographic imaging phenotypes, known as 'radiogenomics.' These findings underline a potential future role of both diagnostic and interventional radiologists in genetic assessment of cancer patients with radiographic imaging studies.

  5. Molecular image in biomedical research. Molecular imaging unit of the National Cancer Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Bruzon, J.; Mulero Anhiorte, F.

    2010-01-01

    This article has two basic objectives. firstly, it will review briefly the most important imaging techniques used in biomedical research indicting the most significant aspects related to their application in the preclinical stage. Secondly, it will present a practical application of these techniques in a pure biomedical research centre (not associated to a clinical facility). Practical aspects such as organisation, equipment, work norms, shielding of the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) Imaging Unit will be shown. This is a pioneering facility in the application of these techniques in research centres without any dependence or any direct relationship with other hospital Nuclear Medicine services. (Author) 7 refs.

  6. From molecular imaging to personalized radionuclide therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. 68 Gallium is a positron emitter (t 1/2 68 min) which can be produced from a generator in a convenient, 'in-house' preparation and used for labeling of peptides, e.g. somatostatin analogues (SA) like DOTATOC or DOTATATE for molecular imaging of SSTR expressing tumors. Since 2004, we have performed over 7700 68 Ga PET/CT studies in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and have established SSTR PET/CT as the new gold standard for imaging G1 and G2 NET (staging, re-staging, therapy response evaluation and detection of unknown primary NET). The same peptides can be labeled with 177 Lutetium or 90 Yttrium for radionuclide therapy, a form of personalized treatment (THERANOSTICS approach). PRRNT is based on the receptor-mediated internalization of SA. Several clinical trials indicate that PRRNT can deliver effective radiation doses to tumors. A German multi-institutional registry study with prospective follow up in 450 patients indicates that PRRT is an effective therapy for patients with G1-2 neuroendocrine tumors, irrespective of previous therapies, with a survival advantage of several years compared to other therapies and only minor side effects. Median overall survival (OS) of all patients from the start of treatment was 59 months. Median progression-free survival (PFS) measured from last cycle of therapy accounted to 41 mo. Median PFS of pancreatic NET was 39 mo. Similar results were obtained for NET of unknown primary (median PFS: 38 mo) whereas NET of small bowel had a median PFS of 51 months. Side effects like 3-4 NEThro- or hemato-toxicity were observed in only 0.2% and 2% of patients respectively. PRRNT is highly effective in the management of NET, even in advanced cases. In patients with progressive neuroendocrine tumors, fractionated, personalized PRRNT with lower doses of radioactivity given over a longer period of time (Bad Berka Concept using sequential (DUO) PRRNT) results in excellent therapeutic responses

  7. Performance evaluation of image segmentation algorithms on microscopic image data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Miroslav; Zitová, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 275, č. 1 (2015), s. 65-85 ISSN 0022-2720 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/12/2211 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : image segmentation * performance evaluation * microscopic images Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 2.136, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/zitova-0434809-DOI.pdf

  8. Imaging systems in nuclear medicine and image evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Charleston, D.; Metz, C.; Tsui, B.

    1981-01-01

    A general computer code to simulate the imaging properties of existing and hypothetical imaging systems viewing realistic source distributions within non-uniform media. Such a code allows comparative evaluations of existing and hypothetical systems, and optimization of critical parameters of system design by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio. To be most useful, such a code allows simulation of conventional scintillation scanners and cameras as well as single-photon and position tomographic systems

  9. Evaluation of a new image compression technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algra, P.R.; Kroon, H.M.; Noordveld, R.B.; DeValk, J.P.J.; Seeley, G.W.; Westerink, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present the evaluation of a new image compression technique, subband coding using vector quantization, on 44 CT examinations of the upper abdomen. Three independent radiologists reviewed the original images and compressed versions. The compression ratios used were 16:1 and 20:1. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed no difference in the diagnostic contents between originals and their compressed versions. Subjective visibility of anatomic structures was equal. Except for a few 20:1 compressed images, the observers could not distinguish compressed versions from original images. They conclude that subband coding using vector quantization is a valuable method for data compression in CT scans of the abdomen

  10. Companion diagnostics and molecular imaging-enhanced approaches for oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heertum, Ronald L; Scarimbolo, Robert; Ford, Robert; Berdougo, Eli; O'Neal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, diagnostic approaches are helping pharmaceutical and biotechnology sponsors streamline the clinical trial process. Molecular assays and diagnostic imaging are routinely being used to stratify patients for treatment, monitor disease, and provide reliable early clinical phase assessments. The importance of diagnostic approaches in drug development is highlighted by the rapidly expanding global cancer diagnostics market and the emergent attention of regulatory agencies worldwide, who are beginning to offer more structured platforms and guidance for this area. In this paper, we highlight the key benefits of using companion diagnostics and diagnostic imaging with a focus on oncology clinical trials. Nuclear imaging using widely available radiopharmaceuticals in conjunction with molecular imaging of oncology targets has opened the door to more accurate disease assessment and the modernization of standard criteria for the evaluation, staging, and treatment responses of cancer patients. Furthermore, the introduction and validation of quantitative molecular imaging continues to drive and optimize the field of oncology diagnostics. Given their pivotal role in disease assessment and treatment, the validation and commercialization of diagnostic tools will continue to advance oncology clinical trials, support new oncology drugs, and promote better patient outcomes.

  11. Molecular imaging in neurological diseases; Molekulare Bildgebung bei neurologischen Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimold, M.; Fougere, C. la [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Abteilung Nuklearmedizin und Klinische Molekulare Bildgebung, Department Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    In neurodegeneration and in neuro-oncology, the standard imaging procedure, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), shows limited sensitivity and specificity. Molecular imaging with specific positron-emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers allows various molecular targets and metabolic processes to be assessed and is thus a valuable adjunct to MRI. Two important examples are referred to here: amino acid transport for neuro-oncological issues, and the recently approved PET tracers for detecting amyloid depositions during the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease. This review discusses the clinical relevance and indications for the following nuclear medicine imaging procedures: amyloid PET, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, and dopamine transporter (DaT)-SPECT for the diagnosis of dementia and the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, in addition to amino acid PET for the diagnosis of brain tumors and somatostatin receptor imaging in meningioma. (orig.) [German] Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) weist als Standardverfahren bei neurodegenerativen und neuroonkologischen Fragestellungen eine eingeschraenkte Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet auf. Die nuklearmedizinische molekulare Bildgebung mit spezifischen Positronenemissionstomographie(PET)- und single-photon-emission-computed-tomography(SPECT)-Tracern ermoeglicht die Darstellung verschiedener molekularer Targets bzw. Stoffwechselprozesse und stellt damit eine wichtige Ergaenzung zur MRT dar. Hier sei exemplarisch auf die Darstellung des Aminosaeuretransports im Rahmen neuroonkologischer Fragestellungen verwiesen, sowie auf die bereits im praeklinischen Stadium der Alzheimer-Demenz nachweisbaren Amyloidablagerungen mit hierfuer seit Kurzem zugelassenen PET-Tracern. Dieser Uebersichtsbeitrag bespricht die klinische Bedeutung bzw. die Indikationen der folgenden nuklearmedizinischen Untersuchungsverfahren: der Amyloid-PET, der {sup 18}F

  12. Dynamic fluorescence imaging with molecular agents for cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sun Kuk

    Non-invasive dynamic optical imaging of small animals requires the development of a novel fluorescence imaging modality. Herein, fluorescence imaging is demonstrated with sub-second camera integration times using agents specifically targeted to disease markers, enabling rapid detection of cancerous regions. The continuous-wave fluorescence imaging acquires data with an intensified or an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device. The work presented in this dissertation (i) assessed dose-dependent uptake using dynamic fluorescence imaging and pharmacokinetic (PK) models, (ii) evaluated disease marker availability in two different xenograft tumors, (iii) compared the impact of autofluorescence in fluorescence imaging of near-infrared (NIR) vs. red light excitable fluorescent contrast agents, (iv) demonstrated dual-wavelength fluorescence imaging of angiogenic vessels and lymphatics associated with a xenograft tumor model, and (v) examined dynamic multi-wavelength, whole-body fluorescence imaging with two different fluorescent contrast agents. PK analysis showed that the uptake of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf) in xenograft tumor regions linearly increased with doses of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf) up to 1.5 nmol/mouse. Above 1.5 nmol/mouse, the uptake did not increase with doses, suggesting receptor saturation. Target to background ratio (TBR) and PK analysis for two different tumor cell lines showed that while Kaposi's sarcoma (KS1767) exhibited early and rapid uptake of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf), human melanoma tumors (M21) had non-significant TBR differences and early uptake rates similar to the contralateral normal tissue regions. The differences may be due to different compartment location of the target. A comparison of fluorescence imaging with NIR vs. red light excitable fluorescent dyes demonstrates that NIR dyes are associated with less background signal, enabling rapid tumor detection. In contrast, animals injected with red light excitable fluorescent dyes showed high autofluorescence. Dual

  13. Cell and Tissue Imaging with Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kunath, Stephanie; Haupt, Karsten; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Advanced tools for cell imaging are of particular interest as they can detect, localize and quantify molecular targets like abnormal glycosylation sites that are biomarkers of cancer and infection. Targeting these biomarkers is often challenging due to a lack of receptor materials. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are promising artificial receptors; they can be tailored to bind targets specifically, be labeled easily, and are physically and chemically stable. Herein, we demonstrate the application of MIPs as artificial antibodies for selective labeling and imaging of cellular targets, on the example of hyaluronan and sialylation moieties on fixated human skin cells and tissues. Thus, fluorescently labeled MIP nanoparticles templated with glucuronic acid (MIPGlcA) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (MIPNANA) are respectively applied. Two different fluorescent probes are used: (1) MIPGlcA particles, ~400 nm in size are labeled with the dye rhodamine that target the extracellular hyaluronan on cells and tissue specimens and (2) MIP-coated InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) of two different colors, ~125 nm in size that target the extracellular and intracellular hyaluronan and sialylation sites. Green and red emitting QDs are functionalized with MIPGlcA and MIPNANA respectively, enabling multiplexed cell imaging. This is a general approach that can also be adapted to other target molecules on and in cells.

  14. In Situ Correlated Molecular Imaging of Chemically Communicating Microbial Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Paul W. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Shrout, J. D. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Sweedler, J. V. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Farrand, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2016-01-25

    This document constitutes the final technical report for DE-SC0006642, In Situ Correlated Molecular Imaging of Chemically Communicating Microbial Communities, a project carried out collaboratively by investigators at Notre Dame and UIUC. The work carried out under DOE support in this project produced advances in two areas: development of new highly sophisticated correlated imaging approaches and the application of these new tools to the growth and differentiation of microbial communities under a variety of environmental conditions. A significant effort involved the creation of technical enhancements and sampling approaches to allow us to advance heterocorrelated mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and correlated Raman microscopy (CRM) from bacterial cultures and biofilms. We then exploited these measurement advances in heterocorrelated MS/CRM imaging to determine relationship of signaling molecules and excreted signaling molecules produced by P. aeruginosa to conditions relevant to the rhizosphere. In particular, we: (1) developed a laboratory testbed mimic for the rhizosphere to enable microbial growth on slides under controlled conditions; (2) integrated specific measurements of (a) rhamnolipids, (b) quinolone/quinolones, and (c) phenazines specific to P. aeruginosa; and (3) utilized the imaging tools to probe how messenger secretion, quorum sensing and swarming behavior are correlated with behavior.

  15. Comprehensive evaluation of a digital imaging network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, S.K.; Benson, H.; Elliott, L.P.; Horii, S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors' institution has installed a comprehensive PACS network involving a dozen work stations and ten imaging systems with electronic archiving and teleradiology capability based on the CommView (AT and T) system and its fiberoptic network. Diagnostic reporting stations are placed in neuroradiology, abdominal imaging, general radiology, and ultrasound service. Other review stations are located in intensive care units, radiation medicine, the emergency room, and other sites. Clinical acceptance of such technology varies depending on a number of factors: image quality, image data volume, service style, and personal preference. The general acceptance depends on the work station performance, network response time, and work station environment. Clinical acceptance by radiologists and referring physicians was evaluated. The evaluation project included work-station performance, network performance, system interface, RIS interface, and development of training methods and implementation strategy for other sites. A cost analysis and a study of administrative impact are integral parts of the comprehensive evaluation project

  16. Biomedical nanotechnology for molecular imaging, diagnostics, and targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shuming

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical nanotechnology is a cross-disciplinary area of research in science, engineering and medicine with broad applications for molecular imaging, molecular diagnosis, and targeted therapy. The basic rationale is that nanometer-sized particles such as semiconductor quantum dots and iron oxide nanocrystals have optical, magnetic or structural properties that are not available from either molecules or bulk solids. When linked with biotargeting ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides or small molecules, these nanoparticles can be used to target diseased cells and organs (such as malignant tumors and cardiovascular plaques) with high affinity and specificity. In the "mesoscopic" size range of 5-100 nm diameter, nanoparticles also have large surface areas and functional groups for conjugating to multiple diagnostic (e.g., optical, radioisotopic, or magnetic) and therapeutic (e.g., anticancer) agents.

  17. Contributions on biomedical imaging, with a side-look at molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, G.

    2004-05-01

    This report is intended as a brief introduction to the emerging scientific field of biomedical imaging. The breadth of the subject is shown and future fields of research are indicated, which hopefully will serve as a guide to the identification of starting points for the research in 'Biomedical and/or Molecular Imaging' at the GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health. The report starts with a brief sketch of the history. Then a - necessarily incomplete - list of research topics is presented. It is organized in two parts: the first one addresses medical imaging, and the second one is concerned with biological point aspects of the matter. (orig.) [de

  18. The characterization of an economic and portable LED-based photoacoustic imaging system to facilitate molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hariri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic imaging (PAI is a non-invasive, high-resolution hybrid imaging modality that combines optical excitation and ultrasound detection. PAI can image endogenous chromophores (melanin, hemoglobin, etc. and exogenous contrast agents in different medical applications. However, most current equipment uses sophisticated and complicated OPO lasers with tuning and stability features inconsistent with broad clinical deployment. As the number of applications of PAI in medicine increases, there is an urgent need to make the imaging equipment more compact, portable, and affordable. Here, portable light emitting diode – based photoacoustic imaging (PLED-PAI was introduced and characterized in terms of system specifications, light source characterizations, photoacoustic spatial/temporal resolution, and penetration. The system uses two LED arrays attached to the sides of a conventional ultrasound transducer. The LED pulse repetition rate is tunable between 1 K Hz, 2 K Hz, 3 K Hz, and 4 K Hz. The axial resolution was 0.268 mm, and the lateral resolution was between 0.55 and 0.59 mm. The system could detect optical absorber (pencil lead at a depth of 3.2 cm and the detection limits of indocyanine green (ICG and methylene blue (MB were 9 μM and 0.78 mM. In vivo imaging of labeled human mesenchymal stem cells was achieved to confirm compatibility with small animal imaging. The characterization we report here may have value to other groups evaluating commercially available photoacoustic imaging equipment. Keywords: Portable photoacoustic imaging, LED, Optoacoustic imaging, Molecular imaging

  19. Molecular imaging of hypoxia in non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, Connie; Blower, Philip J.; Goh, Vicky; Landau, David B.; Cook, Gary J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the commonest cancer worldwide but survival remains poor with a high risk of relapse, particularly after nonsurgical treatment. Hypoxia is present in a variety of solid tumours, including NSCLC. It is associated with treatment resistance and a poor prognosis, although when recognised may be amenable to different treatment strategies. Thus, noninvasive assessment of intratumoral hypoxia could be used to stratify patients for modification of subsequent treatment to improve tumour control. Molecular imaging approaches targeting hypoxic cells have shown some early success in the clinical setting. This review evaluates the evidence for hypoxia imaging using PET in NSCLC and explores its potential clinical utility. (orig.)

  20. Molecular imaging of hypoxia in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Connie [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); National Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Singapore (Singapore); St Thomas' Hospital, Imaging 2, London (United Kingdom); Blower, Philip J. [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Imaging Chemistry and Biology, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Goh, Vicky [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Landau, David B. [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Clinical Oncology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Cook, Gary J.R. [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); St Thomas' Hospital, Clinical PET Imaging Centre, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the commonest cancer worldwide but survival remains poor with a high risk of relapse, particularly after nonsurgical treatment. Hypoxia is present in a variety of solid tumours, including NSCLC. It is associated with treatment resistance and a poor prognosis, although when recognised may be amenable to different treatment strategies. Thus, noninvasive assessment of intratumoral hypoxia could be used to stratify patients for modification of subsequent treatment to improve tumour control. Molecular imaging approaches targeting hypoxic cells have shown some early success in the clinical setting. This review evaluates the evidence for hypoxia imaging using PET in NSCLC and explores its potential clinical utility. (orig.)

  1. Onboard functional and molecular imaging: A design investigation for robotic multipinhole SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, James; Giles, William; Yin, Fang-Fang; Yan, Susu; Roper, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Onboard imaging—currently performed primarily by x-ray transmission modalities—is essential in modern radiation therapy. As radiation therapy moves toward personalized medicine, molecular imaging, which views individual gene expression, may also be important onboard. Nuclear medicine methods, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are premier modalities for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate a robotic multipinhole approach to onboard SPECT. Methods: Computer-aided design (CAD) studies were performed to assess the feasibility of maneuvering a robotic SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. In order to obtain fast, high-quality SPECT images, a 49-pinhole SPECT camera was designed which provides high sensitivity to photons emitted from an imaging region of interest. This multipinhole system was investigated by computer-simulation studies. Seventeen hot spots 10 and 7 mm in diameter were placed in the breast region of a supine female phantom. Hot spot activity concentration was six times that of background. For the 49-pinhole camera and a reference, more conventional, broad field-of-view (FOV) SPECT system, projection data were computer simulated for 4-min scans and SPECT images were reconstructed. Hot-spot localization was evaluated using a nonprewhitening forced-choice numerical observer. Results: The CAD simulation studies found that robots could maneuver SPECT cameras about patients in position for radiation therapy. In the imaging studies, most hot spots were apparent in the 49-pinhole images. Average localization errors for 10-mm- and 7-mm-diameter hot spots were 0.4 and 1.7 mm, respectively, for the 49-pinhole system, and 3.1 and 5.7 mm, respectively, for the reference broad-FOV system. Conclusions: A robot could maneuver a multipinhole SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. The system could provide onboard functional and molecular imaging with 4-min

  2. Onboard functional and molecular imaging: A design investigation for robotic multipinhole SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowsher, James, E-mail: james.bowsher@duke.edu; Giles, William; Yin, Fang-Fang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Yan, Susu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Roper, Justin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Onboard imaging—currently performed primarily by x-ray transmission modalities—is essential in modern radiation therapy. As radiation therapy moves toward personalized medicine, molecular imaging, which views individual gene expression, may also be important onboard. Nuclear medicine methods, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), are premier modalities for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study is to investigate a robotic multipinhole approach to onboard SPECT. Methods: Computer-aided design (CAD) studies were performed to assess the feasibility of maneuvering a robotic SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. In order to obtain fast, high-quality SPECT images, a 49-pinhole SPECT camera was designed which provides high sensitivity to photons emitted from an imaging region of interest. This multipinhole system was investigated by computer-simulation studies. Seventeen hot spots 10 and 7 mm in diameter were placed in the breast region of a supine female phantom. Hot spot activity concentration was six times that of background. For the 49-pinhole camera and a reference, more conventional, broad field-of-view (FOV) SPECT system, projection data were computer simulated for 4-min scans and SPECT images were reconstructed. Hot-spot localization was evaluated using a nonprewhitening forced-choice numerical observer. Results: The CAD simulation studies found that robots could maneuver SPECT cameras about patients in position for radiation therapy. In the imaging studies, most hot spots were apparent in the 49-pinhole images. Average localization errors for 10-mm- and 7-mm-diameter hot spots were 0.4 and 1.7 mm, respectively, for the 49-pinhole system, and 3.1 and 5.7 mm, respectively, for the reference broad-FOV system. Conclusions: A robot could maneuver a multipinhole SPECT system about a patient in position for radiation therapy. The system could provide onboard functional and molecular imaging with 4-min

  3. Multifunctional Gold Nanostars for Molecular Imaging and Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Fales, Andrew; Register, Janna; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2015-08-01

    Plasmonics-active gold nanoparticles offer excellent potential in molecular imaging and cancer therapy. Among them, gold nanostars (AuNS) exhibit cross-platform flexibility as multimodal contrast agents for macroscopic X-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), as well as nanoprobes for photoacoustic tomography (PAT), two-photon photoluminescence (TPL) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Their surfactant-free surface enables versatile functionalization to enhance cancer targeting, and allow triggered drug release. AuNS can also be used as an efficient platform for drug carrying, photothermal therapy, and photodynamic therapy. This review paper presents the latest progress regarding AuNS as a promising nanoplatform for cancer nanotheranostics. Future research directions with AuNS for biomedical applications will also be discussed.

  4. Molecular Imaging of Hydrolytic Enzymes Using PET and SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Brian P; Price, Eric W; Phenix, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Hydrolytic enzymes are a large class of biological catalysts that play a vital role in a plethora of critical biochemical processes required to maintain human health. However, the expression and/or activity of these important enzymes can change in many different diseases and therefore represent exciting targets for the development of positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracers. This review focuses on recently reported radiolabeled substrates, reversible inhibitors, and irreversible inhibitors investigated as PET and SPECT tracers for imaging hydrolytic enzymes. By learning from the most successful examples of tracer development for hydrolytic enzymes, it appears that an early focus on careful enzyme kinetics and cell-based studies are key factors for identifying potentially useful new molecular imaging agents.

  5. Status and Advances of RGD Molecular Imaging in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YUE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has been one of the most common and the highest mortality rates malignant tumors at home and abroad. Sustained angiogenesis was not only the characteristic of malignant tumors, but also the foundation of tumor proliferation, invasion, recurrence and metastasis, it was also one of the hot spots of treatments in lung cancer biology currently. Integrins played an important part in tumor angiogenesis. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD peptides could combine with integrins specifically, and the application of radionuclide-labeled RGD molecular probes enabled imaging of tumor blood vessels to reflect its changes. The lung cancer imaging of RGD peptides at home and abroad in recent years was reviewed in this article.

  6. Digital image envelope: method and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Cao, Fei; Zhou, Michael Z.; Mogel, Greg T.; Liu, Brent J.; Zhou, Xiaoqiang

    2003-05-01

    Health data security, characterized in terms of data privacy, authenticity, and integrity, is a vital issue when digital images and other patient information are transmitted through public networks in telehealth applications such as teleradiology. Mandates for ensuring health data security have been extensively discussed (for example The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, HIPAA) and health informatics guidelines (such as the DICOM standard) are beginning to focus on issues of data continue to be published by organizing bodies in healthcare; however, there has not been a systematic method developed to ensure data security in medical imaging Because data privacy and authenticity are often managed primarily with firewall and password protection, we have focused our research and development on data integrity. We have developed a systematic method of ensuring medical image data integrity across public networks using the concept of the digital envelope. When a medical image is generated regardless of the modality, three processes are performed: the image signature is obtained, the DICOM image header is encrypted, and a digital envelope is formed by combining the signature and the encrypted header. The envelope is encrypted and embedded in the original image. This assures the security of both the image and the patient ID. The embedded image is encrypted again and transmitted across the network. The reverse process is performed at the receiving site. The result is two digital signatures, one from the original image before transmission, and second from the image after transmission. If the signatures are identical, there has been no alteration of the image. This paper concentrates in the method and evaluation of the digital image envelope.

  7. Technology evaluation: SAGE, Genzyme molecular oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J

    2001-02-01

    Genzyme Molecular Oncology (GMO) is using its SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) combinatorial chemistry technology to screen compound libraries. SAGE is a high-throughput, high-efficiency method to simultaneously detect and measure the expression levels of genes expressed in a cell at a given time, including rare genes. SAGE can be used in a wide variety of applications to identify disease-related genes, to analyze the effect of drugs on tissues and to provide insights into disease pathways. It works by isolating short fragments of genetic information from the expressed genes that are present in the cell being studied. These short sequences, called SAGE tags, are linked together for efficient sequencing. The sequence data are then analyzed to identify each gene expressed in the cell and the levels at which each gene is expressed. This information forms a library that can be used to analyze the differences in gene expression between cells [293437]. By December 1999, GMO had identified a set of 40 genes from 3.5 million transcripts that were expressed at elevated levels in all cancer tissue but not seen in normal tissue. The company hope these may provide diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets. The studies also provided data furthering the understanding of the way cells use their genome [349968]. GMO has signed a collaborative agreement with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to search for new drug candidates in the field of cancer chemotherapy. The collaboration combines GMO's SAGE technology with the NCI's extensive array of 60 cell-based cancer screens. Under the agreement, the NCI will evaluate Genzyme's library consisting of one million compounds against selected cancer screens to identify compounds with anticancer properties [255082]. Xenometrix granted a license agreement for gene expression profiling to GMO in February 1999, giving company access to claims covered in issued US and European patents. The license is non-exclusive and covers the

  8. Functional histology of tumors as a basis of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungkvist, A.S.; Bussink, J.; Rijken, P.F.; Van Der Kogel, A.; Kaanders, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the various elements of the microenvironment and their interrelationships by quantitative image analysis. Tumor cell proliferation, hypoxia, and apoptosis are detected by immunohistochemical methods, and mapped in relation to the vasculature. This allows quantitative relationships to be measured in the context of tissue structure. Guided by e.g., gene expression profiles for hypoxia induced-genes, several molecular markers of tumor hypoxia were identified and are immunohistochemically detectable. We have thus far concentrated on the glucose transporters glut-1 and glut-3, as well as a pH-regulating enzyme, carbonic anhydrase IX. The extent and distribution of hypoxia is assessed by administering nitroimidazole-based markers such as pimonidazole, that can be detected immunohistochemically. Multiple hypoxia markers (CCI-103F, pimonidazole) can be used to study the effects of modifiers of perfusion or oxygenation on the distribution and dynamics of hypoxic cells in the same tumor. Proliferating cells are detected by thymidine analogues. Apoptotic cells are imaged by TUNEL and caspase-3 detection. In xenografted human tumors, examples of the use of quantitative imaging of hypoxia and proliferation are the study of reoxygenation after irradiation, or the investigation of the lifespan and dynamics of hypoxic cell populations over time. Perturbation of the microenvironment after cytotoxic treatments has been investigated by co-registration of the various markers, e.g. after treatment with the hypoxic cytotoxin tirapazamine. The combination of well-timed administration of external markers of hypoxia and proliferation with the detection of intrinsic molecular markers followed by quantitative image-registration yields a comprehensive view of the dynamics of the microenvironment in individual tumors

  9. A gamma-ray tracking detector for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Helsby, W.I.; Nolan, P.; Boston, A.

    2003-01-01

    A design for a gamma-ray detector for molecular imaging is presented. The system is based on solid-state strip detector technology. The advantages of position sensitivity coupled with fine spectral resolution are exploited to produce a tracking detector for use with a variety of isotopes in nuclear medicine. Current design concepts employ both silicon and germanium layers to provide an energy range from 60 keV to >1 MeV. This allows a reference X-ray image to be collected simultaneously with the gamma-ray image providing accurate anatomical registration. The tracking ability of the gamma-ray detector allows ambiguities in the data set to be resolved which would otherwise cause events to be rejected in standard non-tracking system. Efficiency improvements that high solid angle coverage and the use of a higher proportion of events make time resolved imaging and multi-isotope work possible. A modular detector system, designed for viewing small animals has been accepted for funding

  10. Molecular imaging needles: dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging of labeled antibodies deep in tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolaro, Loretta; Lorenser, Dirk; Madore, Wendy-Julie; Kirk, Rodney W.; Kramer, Anne S.; Yeoh, George C.; Godbout, Nicolas; Sampson, David D.; Boudoux, Caroline; McLaughlin, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging using optical techniques provides insight into disease at the cellular level. In this paper, we report on a novel dual-modality probe capable of performing molecular imaging by combining simultaneous three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and two-dimensional fluorescence imaging in a hypodermic needle. The probe, referred to as a molecular imaging (MI) needle, may be inserted tens of millimeters into tissue. The MI needle utilizes double-clad fiber to carry both imaging modalities, and is interfaced to a 1310-nm OCT system and a fluorescence imaging subsystem using an asymmetrical double-clad fiber coupler customized to achieve high fluorescence collection efficiency. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first dual-modality OCT and fluorescence needle probe with sufficient sensitivity to image fluorescently labeled antibodies. Such probes enable high-resolution molecular imaging deep within tissue. PMID:26137379

  11. Combination of cross-sectional and molecular imaging studies in the localization of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpanakis, Christos; Kim, Michelle K; Rinke, Anja; Bergestuen, Deidi S; Thirlwell, Christina; Khan, Mohid S; Salazar, Ramon; Oberg, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    aggressive disease course. When a secondary malignancy has already been established or is strongly suspected, combining molecular imaging techniques (e.g. (18)F-FDG PET and (68)Ga-DOTA PET) takes advantage of the diverse avidities of different tumor types to differentiate lesions of different origins. All the above-mentioned molecular imaging studies should always be reviewed and interpreted in a multidisciplinary (tumor board) meeting in combination with the conventional cross-sectional imaging, as the latter remains the imaging of choice for the evaluation of treatment response and disease follow-up. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Evaluation of fetal anomalies with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.C.; Platt, L.D.; Colletti, P.M.; Raval, J.K.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty pregnant women underwent MR imaging (0.5 T) after US disclosed a significant fetal anomaly. The ability of MR imaging to depict the abnormalities was assessed. Of 20 abnormalities, 17 were visualized with MR imaging. Abnormalities included conjoined twins, omphalocele, gastroschisis, hydrocephalus, hydronephrosis, fetal ascites, facial teratoma, anencephaly, bladder outlet obstruction, thanatophoric dwarfism, cystic, hygroma, and fetal ovarian cyst. Thirteen of 14 abnormalities in third-trimester fetuses were visualized, as were four of six abnormalities in second-trimester fetuses. Associated polyhydramnios or oligohydramnios was evident in six of six cases. Anomalies were best delineated with T1-weighted sequences. The study suggests that MR imaging is potentially useful as a complementary imaging modality in the evaluation of fetal anomalies

  13. Raman molecular imaging of brain frozen tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Rachel E; Auner, Gregory W; Rosenblum, Mark L; Mikkelsen, Tom; Yurgelevic, Sally M; Raghunathan, Aditya; Poisson, Laila M; Kalkanis, Steven N

    2014-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a molecular signature of the region being studied. It is ideal for neurosurgical applications because it is non-destructive, label-free, not impacted by water concentration, and can map an entire region of tissue. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the meaningful spatial molecular information provided by Raman spectroscopy for identification of regions of normal brain, necrosis, diffusely infiltrating glioma and solid glioblastoma (GBM). Five frozen section tissues (1 normal, 1 necrotic, 1 GBM, and 2 infiltrating glioma) were mapped in their entirety using a 300-µm-square step size. Smaller regions of interest were also mapped using a 25-µm step size. The relative concentrations of relevant biomolecules were mapped across all tissues and compared with adjacent hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, allowing identification of normal, GBM, and necrotic regions. Raman peaks and peak ratios mapped included 1003, 1313, 1431, 1585, and 1659 cm(-1). Tissue maps identified boundaries of grey and white matter, necrosis, GBM, and infiltrating tumor. Complementary information, including relative concentration of lipids, protein, nucleic acid, and hemoglobin, was presented in a manner which can be easily adapted for in vivo tissue mapping. Raman spectroscopy can successfully provide label-free imaging of tissue characteristics with high accuracy. It can be translated to a surgical or laboratory tool for rapid, non-destructive imaging of tumor margins.

  14. Multifunctional nanomaterials for advanced molecular imaging and cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Prasad

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for use in biomedical applications, including cancer and stem cell imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The development of nanosystems has aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of many diseases and permitted the controlled nanoscale manipulation of biological phenomena. In recent years, many studies have focused on the use of several kinds of nanomaterials for cancer and stem cell imaging and also for the delivery of anticancer therapeutics to tumor cells. However, the proper diagnosis and treatment of aggressive tumors such as brain and breast cancer requires highly sensitive diagnostic agents, in addition to the ability to deliver multiple therapeutics using a single platform to the target cells. Addressing these challenges, novel multifunctional nanomaterial-based platforms that incorporate multiple therapeutic and diagnostic agents, with superior molecular imaging and targeting capabilities, has been presented in this work. The initial part of this work presents the development of novel nanomaterials with superior optical properties for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into brain cancer cells with minimal toxicity. Specifically, this section details the development of non-toxic quantums dots for the imaging and delivery of siRNA into brain cancer and mesenchymal stem cells, with the hope of using these quantum dots as multiplexed imaging and delivery vehicles. The use of these quantum dots could overcome the toxicity issues associated with the use of conventional quantum dots, enabled the imaging of brain cancer and stem cells with high efficiency and allowed for the delivery of siRNA to knockdown the target oncogene in brain cancer cells. The latter part of this thesis details the development of nanomaterial-based drug delivery platforms for the co-delivery of multiple anticancer drugs to brain tumor cells. In particular, this part of the thesis focuses on

  15. Subjective evaluation of compressed image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesub; Rowberg, Alan H.; Frank, Mark S.; Choi, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yongmin

    1992-05-01

    Lossy data compression generates distortion or error on the reconstructed image and the distortion becomes visible as the compression ratio increases. Even at the same compression ratio, the distortion appears differently depending on the compression method used. Because of the nonlinearity of the human visual system and lossy data compression methods, we have evaluated subjectively the quality of medical images compressed with two different methods, an intraframe and interframe coding algorithms. The evaluated raw data were analyzed statistically to measure interrater reliability and reliability of an individual reader. Also, the analysis of variance was used to identify which compression method is better statistically, and from what compression ratio the quality of a compressed image is evaluated as poorer than that of the original. Nine x-ray CT head images from three patients were used as test cases. Six radiologists participated in reading the 99 images (some were duplicates) compressed at four different compression ratios, original, 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1. The six readers agree more than by chance alone and their agreement was statistically significant, but there were large variations among readers as well as within a reader. The displacement estimated interframe coding algorithm is significantly better in quality than that of the 2-D block DCT at significance level 0.05. Also, 10:1 compressed images with the interframe coding algorithm do not show any significant differences from the original at level 0.05.

  16. Deep Learning in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging: Current Perspectives and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongyoon

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in deep learning have impacted various scientific and industrial fields. Due to the rapid application of deep learning in biomedical data, molecular imaging has also started to adopt this technique. In this regard, it is expected that deep learning will potentially affect the roles of molecular imaging experts as well as clinical decision making. This review firstly offers a basic overview of deep learning particularly for image data analysis to give knowledge to nuclear medicine physicians and researchers. Because of the unique characteristics and distinctive aims of various types of molecular imaging, deep learning applications can be different from other fields. In this context, the review deals with current perspectives of deep learning in molecular imaging particularly in terms of development of biomarkers. Finally, future challenges of deep learning application for molecular imaging and future roles of experts in molecular imaging will be discussed.

  17. Molecular imaging of atherosclerotic plaques with technetium-99m-labelled antisense oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Guangming; Zhang Yongxue; Cao Wei; An Rui; Gao Zairong; Xu Wendai; Zhang Kaijun; Li Guiling; Li Shuren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to visualise experimental atherosclerotic lesions using radiolabelled antisense oligonucleotides (ASONs). Atherosclerosis was induced in New Zealand White rabbits fed 1% cholesterol for approximately 60 days. In vivo and ex vivo imaging was performed in atherosclerotic rabbits and normal control rabbits after i.v. injection of 92.5±18.5 MBq 99m Tc-labelled ASON or 99m Tc-labelled sense oligonucleotides. Immediately after the in vivo imaging, the animals were sacrificed and ex vivo imaging of the aortic specimens was performed. Biodistribution of radiolabelled c-mycASON was evaluated in vivo in atherosclerotic rabbits. Planar imaging revealed accumulation of 99m Tc-labelled c-mycASON in atherosclerotic lesions along the artery wall. Ex vivo imaging further demonstrated that the area of activity accumulation matched the area of atherosclerotic lesions. In contrast, no atherosclerotic lesions were found in the vessel wall and no positive imaging results were obtained in animals of the control group. This molecular imaging approach has potential for non-invasive imaging of atherosclerotic plaques at an early stage. (orig.)

  18. Impact of molecular imaging with PET on healthcare worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, Abbas

    2009-01-01

    Full text: FDG-PET imaging has substantially improved healthcare throughout the world. This technique has been applied to patients with some of the most serious diseases, including cancer, central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular disease and infections including infected prostheses. There is also enormous potential for further improvement in patient management using this technique, for example, in the detection of atherosclerosis and clots, and assessment of muscle function. Studies using FDG-PET methodology have led to the development of many novel radiotracers that have been designed to explore new diagnostic and therapeutic domains. We therefore expect that molecular imaging with PET will play an increasingly central role in research and in the optimal management of patients with many disorders. This will include diagnosing pathological processes at the molecular level and individualizing treatment for these patients. By utilizing PET and the appropriately labeled pharmaceuticals, one will be able to select the most suitable therapeutic drugs for a particular disease, instead of administering drugs to patients without a good idea of the chance of efficacy. Likewise, PET will increasingly play a major role in drug development by demonstrating the degree to which the intended pharmaceutical targets the diseased tissues in animal models and in human beings. PET will also assist in determining the rate of metabolism of the administered drugs by different tissues. PET imaging will also allow accurate staging of cancer and other serious diseases and will be adopted as the most accurate technique for monitoring response to treatment and detecting recurrence. The role of CT and/or MRI as independent modalities in medicine will decrease as the efficacy of PET is realized by scientists and clinicians alike. In particular, the use of contrast agents such as iodinated compounds and gadolinium based agents will be minimized. Similarly, imaging with single gamma

  19. Transferring Biomarker into Molecular Probe: Melanin Nanoparticle as a Naturally Active Platform for Multimodality Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Quli; Cheng, Kai; Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ruiping; Yang, Min; Lu, Xiaomei; Xing, Lei; Huang, Wei; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Developing multifunctional and easily prepared nanoplatforms with integrated different modalities is highly challenging for molecular imaging. Here, we report the successful transfer of an important molecular target, melanin, into a novel multimodality imaging nanoplatform. Melanin is abundantly expressed in melanotic melanomas and thus has been actively studied as a target for melanoma imaging. In our work, the multifunctional biopolymer nanoplatform based on ultrasmall (

  20. Molecular and Ionized Hydrogen in 30 Doradus. I. Imaging Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sherry C. C.; Seaquist, Ernest R.; Matzner, Christopher D.; Pellegrini, Eric W.

    2015-07-01

    We present the first fully calibrated H2 1-0 S(1) image of the entire 30 Doradus nebula. The observations were conducted using the NOAO Extremely Wide-field Infrared Imager (NEWFIRM) on the CTIO 4 m Blanco Telescope. Together with a NEWFIRM Brγ image of 30 Doradus, our data reveal the morphologies of the warm molecular gas and ionized gas in 30 Doradus. The brightest H2-emitting area, which extends from the northeast to the southwest of R136, is a photodissociation region (PDR) viewed face-on, while many clumps and pillar features located at the outer shells of 30 Doradus are PDRs viewed edge-on. Based on the morphologies of H2, Brγ, CO, and 8 μm emission, the H2 to Brγ line ratio, and Cloudy models, we find that the H2 emission is formed inside the PDRs of 30 Doradus, 2-3 pc to the ionization front of the H ii region, in a relatively low-density environment <104 cm-3. Comparisons with Brγ, 8 μm, and CO emission indicate that H2 emission is due to fluorescence, and provide no evidence for shock excited emission of this line.

  1. Molecular Imaging Of Metabolic Reprogramming In Mutant IDH Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra eViswanath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH have recently been identified as drivers in the development of several tumor types. Most notably, cytosolic IDH1 is mutated in 70-90% of low-grade gliomas and upgraded glioblastomas, and mitochondrial IDH2 is mutated in ~20% of acute myeloid leukemia cases. Wild-type IDH catalyzes the interconversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG. Mutations in the enzyme lead to loss of wild-type enzymatic activity and a neomorphic activity that converts α-KG to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG. In turn, 2-HG, which has been termed an oncometabolite, inhibits key α-KG- dependent enzymes, resulting in alterations of the cellular epigenetic profile and, subsequently, inhibition of differentiation and initiation of tumorigenesis. In addition, it is now clear that the IDH mutation also induces a broad metabolic reprogramming that extends beyond 2-HG production, and this reprogramming often differs from what has been previously reported in other cancer types. In this review we will discuss in detail what is known to date about the metabolic reprogramming of mutant IDH cells and how this reprogramming has been investigated using molecular metabolic imaging. We will describe how metabolic imaging has helped shed light on the basic biology of mutant IDH cells and how this information can be leveraged to identify new therapeutic targets and to develop new clinically translatable imaging methods to detect and monitor mutant IDH tumors in vivo.

  2. MOLECULAR AND IONIZED HYDROGEN IN 30 DORADUS. I. IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Sherry C. C. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Seaquist, Ernest R.; Matzner, Christopher D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Pellegrini, Eric W., E-mail: yeh@naoj.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    We present the first fully calibrated H{sub 2} 1–0 S(1) image of the entire 30 Doradus nebula. The observations were conducted using the NOAO Extremely Wide-field Infrared Imager (NEWFIRM) on the CTIO 4 m Blanco Telescope. Together with a NEWFIRM Brγ image of 30 Doradus, our data reveal the morphologies of the warm molecular gas and ionized gas in 30 Doradus. The brightest H{sub 2}-emitting area, which extends from the northeast to the southwest of R136, is a photodissociation region (PDR) viewed face-on, while many clumps and pillar features located at the outer shells of 30 Doradus are PDRs viewed edge-on. Based on the morphologies of H{sub 2}, Brγ, CO, and 8 μm emission, the H{sub 2} to Brγ line ratio, and Cloudy models, we find that the H{sub 2} emission is formed inside the PDRs of 30 Doradus, 2–3 pc to the ionization front of the H ii region, in a relatively low-density environment <10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}. Comparisons with Brγ, 8 μm, and CO emission indicate that H{sub 2} emission is due to fluorescence, and provide no evidence for shock excited emission of this line.

  3. Development of Antibody–Drug Conjugates Using DDS and Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yasunaga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-drug conjugate (ADC, as a next generation of antibody therapeutics, is a combination of an antibody and a drug connected via a specialized linker. ADC has four action steps: systemic circulation, the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect, penetration within the tumor tissue, and action on cells, such as through drug delivery system (DDS drugs. An antibody with a size of about 10 nm has the same capacity for passive targeting as some DDS carriers, depending on the EPR effect. In addition, some antibodies are capable of active targeting. A linker is stable in the bloodstream but should release drugs efficiently in the tumor cells or their microenvironment. Thus, the linker technology is actually a typical controlled release technology in DDS. Here, we focused on molecular imaging. Fluorescent and positron emission tomography (PET imaging is useful for the visualization and evaluation of antibody delivery in terms of passive and active targeting in the systemic circulation and in tumors. To evaluate the controlled release of the ADC in the targeted area, a mass spectrometry imaging (MSI with a mass microscope, to visualize the drug released from ADC, was used. As a result, we succeeded in confirming the significant anti-tumor activity of anti-fibrin, or anti-tissue factor-ADC, in preclinical settings by using DDS and molecular imaging.

  4. Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Bremer, Christoph; Weissleder, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    A recent development in biomedical imaging is the non-invasive mapping of molecular events in intact tissues using fluorescence. Underpinning to this development is the discovery of bio-compatible, specific fluorescent probes and proteins and the development of highly sensitive imaging technologies for in vivo fluorescent detection. Of particular interest are fluorochromes that emit in the near infrared (NIR), a spectral window, whereas hemoglobin and water absorb minimally so as to allow photons to penetrate for several centimetres in tissue. In this review article we concentrate on optical imaging technologies used for non-invasive imaging of the distribution of such probes. We illuminate the advantages and limitations of simple photographic methods and turn our attention to fluorescence-mediated molecular tomography (FMT), a technique that can three-dimensionally image gene expression by resolving fluorescence activation in deep tissues. We describe theoretical specifics, and we provide insight into its in vivo capacity and the sensitivity achieved. Finally, we discuss its clinical feasibility. (orig.)

  5. Optical Molecular Imaging of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression to Improve Detection of Oral Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Nitin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of noninvasive molecular imaging approaches has the potential to improve management of cancer. Methods: In this study, we demonstrate the potential of noninvasive topical delivery of an epidermal growth factor-Alexa 647 (EGF-Alexa 647 conjugate to image changes in epidermal growth factor receptor expression associated with oral neoplasia. We report a series of preclinical analyses to evaluate the optical contrast achieved after topical delivery of EGF-Alexa 647 in a variety of model systems, including cells, three-dimensional tissue cultures, and intact human tissue specimens using wide-field and high-resolution fluorescence imaging. Data were collected from 17 different oral cancer patients: eight pairs of normal and abnormal biopsies and nine resected tumors were examined. Results: The EGF-dye conjugate can be uniformly delivered throughout the oral epithelium with a penetration depth exceeding 500 µm and incubation time of less than 30 minutes. After EGF-Alexa 647 incubation, the presence of oral neoplasia is associated with a 1.5- to 6.9-fold increase in fluorescence contrast compared with grossly normal mucosa from the same patient with both wide-field and high-resolution fluorescence imaging. Conclusions: Results illustrate the potential of EGF-targeted fluorescent agents for in vivo molecular imaging, a technique that may aid in the diagnosis and characterization of oral neoplasia and allow real-time detection of tumor margins.

  6. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using Molecular Imaging Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Paul C

    2006-01-01

    In the first year of this training grant, five faculty members from different departments at the Howard University were trained in molecular imaging with the faculty at the In Vivo Cellular Molecular...

  7. Condensed images for evaluating gastric motility patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsch, K.; Schroettle, W.; Kirsch, C.-M. (Munich Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-04-01

    A condensed imaging technique was applied to gastric emptying studies to investigate (a) whether different types of motility disorders may be distinguished by characteristic image patterns and (b) whether the findings obtained provide additional information compared to standard quantitative measurements. Condensed images and quantitative data of gastric emptying were evaluated in 75 consecutive patients with normal function and various disorders such as peptic ulcer, postvagotomy, pyloric obstruction, dumping syndrome, gastoparesis etc. Condensed images were generated from a gastric region of interest. They display the distribution and behaviour of a radioactive test meal in a space-time matrix, whose horizontal and vertical dimensions are temporal and spatial, respectively. As shown in a series of representative examples condensed images disclose a variety of well-defined image patterns reflecting different pathophysiological mechanisms. This qualitative characterization of gastric emptying patterns provided in 34 of the 75 patients (45%) important new information compared to quantitative data. The application of condensed imaging techniques to gastric emptying studies (complementary to quantitative measurements) may, therefore, enhance the diagnostic value of scintigraphic techniques. (author).

  8. Dosimetry of FDG PET/CT and other molecular imaging applications in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Effective doses for PET and SPECT imaging of molecular imaging agents depend on the radiopharmaceutical, administered activity and the weight of the patient. Effective doses for the accompanying CT scan depend on the CT protocol being used. CT protocols can be designed to produce diagnostic quality images, localization images or attenuation correction data without imaging. In each case, the co-registered molecular imaging examination (PET or SPECT) and the CT study must be acquired without patient movement. For PET/CT, attention to the respiratory phase during the CT study is also of critical importance. In addition to the molecular imaging agents 18 F-FDG and 123 I-MIBG that are frequently used in children, additional PET and SPECT imaging agents may have promise for molecular imaging in children. (orig.)

  9. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Gerbaudo, Victor H

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine allows tailoring of preventive or therapeutic interventions to avoid the expense and toxicity of futile treatment given to those who will not respond. Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease functionally and morphologically. PET is a sensitive molecular imaging technique with a major role in the precision medicine algorithm of patients with lung cancer. It contributes to the precision medicine of lung neoplasia by interrogating tumor heterogeneity throughout the body. It provides anatomofunctional insight during diagnosis, staging, and restaging of the disease. It is a biomarker of tumoral heterogeneity that helps direct selection of the most appropriate treatment, the prediction of early response to cytotoxic and cytostatic therapies, and is a prognostic biomarker in patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F; Brussel, Aram SA van; Groep, Petra van der; Morsink, Folkert HM; Bult, Peter; Wall, Elsken van der; Diest, Paul J van

    2012-01-01

    Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6) resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R) that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate

  11. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Jeroen F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. Results The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6 resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. Conclusions In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  12. Association Between Imaging Characteristics and Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingxiang; Ma, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer can be divided into four major molecular subtypes based on the expression of hormone receptor (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, HER2 status, and molecular proliferation rate (Ki67). In this study, we sought to investigate the association between breast cancer subtype and radiological findings in the Chinese population. Medical records of 300 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients were reviewed from the database: the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The imaging characteristics of the lesions were evaluated. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer were classified into four types: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 overexpressed (HER2), and basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between the subtype (dependent variable) and mammography or 15 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators (independent variables). Luminal A and B subtypes were commonly associated with "clustered calcification distribution," "nipple invasion," or "skin invasion" (P cancers showed association with persistent enhancement in the delayed phase on MRI and "clustered calcification distribution" on mammography (P breast tumor, which are potentially useful tools in the diagnosis and subtyping of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Evaluation and Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods: Blood samples were taken from 2000 pregnant women, admitted to Shiraz university-affiliated hospitals in 2014 and serum and buffy coat were separated. Data such as age, number of pregnancy, pregnancy age and place of resident were recorded for each participant. Sera samples were evaluated ...

  14. Evaluation of transmitted images by teleradiology system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshikawa, Yoshikazu

    1993-01-01

    Teleradiology system is a combination of digital data networks and computer systems, which is the electric transmission of radiographs and/or radiologic images from local to center radiological system. The author evaluated reproducibility of transmitted images using Photophone (Image Data Corporation) as teleradiology system. Proven cases of abdominal free air (38 plain films, 15 CT), pneumothorax (24 plain films, 20 CT) and small bowel obstruction (30 plain films, 8 CT) were transmitted. Findings could be identified on non-magnified plain films in 75.6%, 83.3% and 96.7% respectively and on magnified CT in 100%, 100% and 100%. Transmitted images of 57 cases of abdominal trauma were read for positive findings and diagnosis by three radiologists. Average positive ratio was 47.3% on plain films and 70.9% on CT. Diagnosis was correct in 66.7% on CT. Specificity and sensitivity were 81.9% and 61.6% respectively on plain film and 88.6% and 93.9% on CT. The accuracy of transmitted images appears to be unsatisfactory on this study. It is suggested that the system is useful for consultation of already identified findings on the original images. (author)

  15. Evaluation of transmitted images by teleradiology system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshikawa, Yoshikazu (St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-12-01

    Teleradiology system is a combination of digital data networks and computer systems, which is the electric transmission of radiographs and/or radiologic images from local to center radiological system. The author evaluated reproducibility of transmitted images using Photophone (Image Data Corporation) as teleradiology system. Proven cases of abdominal free air (38 plain films, 15 CT), pneumothorax (24 plain films, 20 CT) and small bowel obstruction (30 plain films, 8 CT) were transmitted. Findings could be identified on non-magnified plain films in 75.6%, 83.3% and 96.7% respectively and on magnified CT in 100%, 100% and 100%. Transmitted images of 57 cases of abdominal trauma were read for positive findings and diagnosis by three radiologists. Average positive ratio was 47.3% on plain films and 70.9% on CT. Diagnosis was correct in 66.7% on CT. Specificity and sensitivity were 81.9% and 61.6% respectively on plain film and 88.6% and 93.9% on CT. The accuracy of transmitted images appears to be unsatisfactory on this study. It is suggested that the system is useful for consultation of already identified findings on the original images. (author).

  16. Evaluation of camouflage effectiveness using hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavvartorbati, Ahmad; Dehghani, Hamid; Rashidi, Ali Jabar

    2017-10-01

    Recent advances in camouflage engineering have made it more difficult to detect targets. Assessing the effectiveness of camouflage against different target detection methods leads to identifying the strengths and weaknesses of camouflage designs. One of the target detection methods is to analyze the content of the scene using remote sensing hyperspectral images. In the process of evaluating camouflage designs, there must be comprehensive and efficient evaluation criteria. Three parameters were considered as the main factors affecting the target detection and based on these factors, camouflage effectiveness assessment criteria were proposed. To combine the criteria in the form of a single equation, the equation used in target visual search models was employed and for determining the criteria, a model was presented based on the structure of the computational visual attention systems. Also, in software implementations on the HyMap hyperspectral image, a variety of camouflage levels were created for the real targets in the image. Assessing the camouflage levels using the proposed criteria, comparing and analyzing the results can show that the provided criteria and model are effective for the evaluation of camouflage designs using hyperspectral images.

  17. Optical Molecular Imaging Frontiers in Oncology: The Pursuit of Accuracy and Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutting-edge technologies in optical molecular imaging have ushered in new frontiers in cancer research, clinical translation, and medical practice, as evidenced by recent advances in optical multimodality imaging, Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI, and optical image-guided surgeries. New abilities allow in vivo cancer imaging with sensitivity and accuracy that are unprecedented in conventional imaging approaches. The visualization of cellular and molecular behaviors and events within tumors in living subjects is improving our deeper understanding of tumors at a systems level. These advances are being rapidly used to acquire tumor-to-tumor molecular heterogeneity, both dynamically and quantitatively, as well as to achieve more effective therapeutic interventions with the assistance of real-time imaging. In the era of molecular imaging, optical technologies hold great promise to facilitate the development of highly sensitive cancer diagnoses as well as personalized patient treatment—one of the ultimate goals of precision medicine.

  18. Nuclear molecular imaging of paragangliomas; Imagerie moleculaire nucleaire des paragangliomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taieb, D.; Tessonnier, L.; Mundler, O. [Service central de biophysique et de medecine nucleaire, CHU de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2010-08-15

    Paragangliomas (PGL) are relatively rare neural crest tumors originating in the adrenal medulla (usually called pheochromocytoma), chemoreceptors (i.e., carotid and aortic bodies) or autonomic ganglia. These tumors are highly vascular, usually benign and slow-growing. PGL may occur as sporadic or familial entities, the latter mostly in association with germline mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) B, SDHC, SDHD, SDH5, von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), ret proto-oncogene (RET), neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) (von Recklinghausen's disease), prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) genes and TMEM127. Molecular nuclear imaging has a central role in characterization of PGL and include: somatostatin receptor imaging ({sup 111}In, {sup 68}Ga), MIBG scintigraphy ({sup 131}I, {sup 123}I), {sup 18}F-dihydroxy-phenylalanine ({sup 18}F-DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET), and {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) PET. The choice of the tracer is not yet fully established but the work-up of familial forms often require the combination of multiple approaches. (authors)

  19. Imaging for evaluation of erectile dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Penile erection is a complex phenomenon that includes coordinated intraaction of the nervous, arterial, venous, and sinusoidal systems. A defect in any of these systems may result in erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is defined as the consistent inability to generate or maintain an erection of sufficient rigidity for sexual intercourse. Although the introduction of sildenafil citrate made the information from imaging studies less critical in the management of the patients with erectile dysfunction, still the imaging studies such as Doppler US, penile arteriography, and cavemosonetry/cavemosography remain the major modalities in the evaluation of erectile dysfunction.

  20. Molecular imaging agents for SPECT (and SPECT/CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Ballinger, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras has increased the diagnostic value of many existing single photon radiopharmaceuticals. Precise anatomical localization of lesions greatly increases diagnostic confidence in bone imaging of the extremities, infection imaging, sentinel lymph node localization, and imaging in other areas. Accurate anatomical localization is particularly important prior to surgery, especially involving the parathyroid glands and sentinel lymph node procedures. SPECT/CT plays a role in characterization of lesions, particularly in bone scintigraphy and radioiodine imaging of metastatic thyroid cancer. In the development of novel tracers, SPECT/CT is particularly important in monitoring response to therapies that do not result in an early change in lesion size. Preclinical SPECT/CT devices, which actually have spatial resolution superior to PET/CT devices, have become essential in characterization of the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of novel tracers, allowing coregistration of serial studies within the same animals, which serves both to reduce biological variability and reduce the number of animals required. In conclusion, SPECT/CT increases the utility of existing radiopharmaceuticals and plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of novel tracers. (orig.)

  1. Molecular imaging agents for SPECT (and SPECT/CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanasegaran, Gopinath [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Ballinger, James R. [Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    The development of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) cameras has increased the diagnostic value of many existing single photon radiopharmaceuticals. Precise anatomical localization of lesions greatly increases diagnostic confidence in bone imaging of the extremities, infection imaging, sentinel lymph node localization, and imaging in other areas. Accurate anatomical localization is particularly important prior to surgery, especially involving the parathyroid glands and sentinel lymph node procedures. SPECT/CT plays a role in characterization of lesions, particularly in bone scintigraphy and radioiodine imaging of metastatic thyroid cancer. In the development of novel tracers, SPECT/CT is particularly important in monitoring response to therapies that do not result in an early change in lesion size. Preclinical SPECT/CT devices, which actually have spatial resolution superior to PET/CT devices, have become essential in characterization of the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of novel tracers, allowing coregistration of serial studies within the same animals, which serves both to reduce biological variability and reduce the number of animals required. In conclusion, SPECT/CT increases the utility of existing radiopharmaceuticals and plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of novel tracers. (orig.)

  2. MR imaging evaluation of diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, J.; Campanini, D.S.; McCalla, M.; Knight, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    Fourteen diabetic patients with suspected foot infection and/or neuropathic joint were evaluated with MR imaging to identify the presence and extent of infection and also to exclude coexistent infection in the neuropathic joint. Osteomyelitis (n = 8), abscess (n = 7), septic arthritis (n = 4), tenosynovitis (n = 4), and neuropathic joint (n = 5) were diagnosed with MR imaging. Osteomyelitis and/or abscess were excluded by MR findings in 13 instances. Most patients with infection had one more than one site of involvement. Clinical or surgical confirmation of the MR diagnoses was obtained in all but nine of the infection sites or cases of neuropathic joint. Only one false-negative diagnosis of osteomyelitis was made in this series. It is concluded that MR imaging provided accurate information regarding the presence and extent of infection and that this information was decisive in patient management

  3. Imaging evaluation of complications after liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Mingyue

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation is an effective treatment for end-stage chronic liver diseases and acute liver failure. With the rapid development of surgical techniques, organ preservation technology, and pharmacotherapy, patients' survival rates are improved constantly. However, postoperative complications are still major influencing factors for postoperative incidence and mortality rates. Since clinical and laboratory examinations lack specificity and it is difficult to diagnose various postoperative complications, the application of imaging techniques effectively solves such problems. This article summarizes the imaging findings of common complications after liver transplantation, such as vascular complications, biliary complications, liver parenchyma lesions, and postoperative infection, and points out that imaging examinations have significant advantages and can be used for comprehensive evaluation of disease progression.

  4. Metal-Based Systems for Molecular Imaging Applications - COST D38 Annual Workshop - Scientific Program and Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolajczak, R.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the Action is the development of metal-based imaging probes for cellular and molecular imaging applications, based on MRI, PET, SPECT and optical imaging that will facilitate early diagnosis, assessment of disease progression and treatment evaluation.The goal of this Action is to further the development of innovative imaging probes through the pursuit of innovations in a number of different areas, ranging from the design of imaging units endowed with enhanced sensitivity to the control of the structural and electronic determinants responsible for the molecular recognition of the target molecule.At present, in vivo diagnostic systems basically assess the structure and function of human organs. Therefore, for important diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular pathologies,and also diseases of the central nervous system, only the late symptoms are detected. It is expected that the advances in genomics and proteomics will have a tremendous impact on human health care of the future. However, advances in molecular biology are already redefining diseases in terms of molecular abnormalities. With this knowledge, new generations of diagnostic imaging agents can be defined that aim at the detection of those molecular processes in vivo.The molecular imaging approach offers a great potential for earlier detection and characterisation of disease, and evaluation of treatment. However, more research is necessary to bring these ideas to clinical applications and a key aspect relates to the development of high-specificity, high-sensitivity imaging probes for the different detection modalities. Additionally, the Action includes research activities dealing with the exploitation of peculiar nuclear properties of given isotopes for therapeutic effects, thus integrating the diagnostic and the therapeutic stages.Apart from its use in early diagnosis in clinical practice, the molecular imaging approach will have also a major impact on the development of new

  5. MR imaging evaluation of congenital spine anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bury, E.A.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Grossman, R.I.; Goldberg, H.I.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hackney, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Over a 2-year period, 135 patients between the ages of 1 week and 18 years were examined with MR imaging for possible congenital anomalies of the spine and spinal cord. Tethered cords with various other associated pathologies such as lipomas and myelomeningoceles were found in 36 patients. The remaining abnormal examinations consisted of syrinxes, Chiari malformations, diastematomyelia, and conus masses. In 55 patients the studies were interpreted as normal. Of these, three were subsequently shown by surgery of myelography to be abnormal. The first had a thickened filum with a small epidermoid, the second a thickened filum, and the third, with only sagittal images, a diastematomyelia. Children presenting with symptoms highly suspicious for congenital abnormalities but with a normal MR study in multiple planes may still require further evaluation with myelography. Multiplanar MR examination in most instances will be a sufficient evaluation for congenital anomalies

  6. Molecular Imaging of Tumors Using a Quantitative T1 Mapping Technique via Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Herrmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with molecular imaging agents would allow for the specific localization of brain tumors. Prior studies using T1-weighted MR imaging demonstrated that the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 molecular imaging agent labeled heterotopic xenograft models of brain tumors more intensely than non-specific contrast agents using conventional T1-weighted imaging techniques. In this study, we used a dynamic quantitative T1 mapping strategy to more objectively compare intra-tumoral retention of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time in comparison to non-targeted control agents. Our results demonstrate that the targeted SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent, a scrambled-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 control agent, and the non-specific clinical contrast agent Optimark™ all enhanced flank tumors of human glioma cells with similar maximal changes on T1 mapping. However, the retention of the agents differs. The non-specific agents show significant recovery within 20 min by an increase in T1 while the specific agent SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 is retained in the tumors and shows little recovery over 60 min. The retention effect is demonstrated by percent change in T1 values and slope calculations as well as by calculations of gadolinium concentration in tumor compared to muscle. Quantitative T1 mapping demonstrates the superior binding and retention in tumors of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time compared to the non-specific contrast agent currently in clinical use.

  7. Contributions on biomedical imaging, with a side-look at molecular imaging; Beitraege zur biomedizinischen Bildgebung mit einem Seitenblick auf Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, G. (ed.)

    2004-05-01

    This report is intended as a brief introduction to the emerging scientific field of biomedical imaging. The breadth of the subject is shown and future fields of research are indicated, which hopefully will serve as a guide to the identification of starting points for the research in 'Biomedical and/or Molecular Imaging' at the GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health. The report starts with a brief sketch of the history. Then a - necessarily incomplete - list of research topics is presented. It is organized in two parts: the first one addresses medical imaging, and the second one is concerned with biological point aspects of the matter. (orig.) [German] In diesem Bericht sind einige Beitraege zum Gebiet 'Bildgebende Verfahren in Biologie und Medizin' zusammengestellt. Sie stammen saemtlich aus dem Institut fuer Biomathematik und Biometrie, IBB, am Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, GSF, in Muenchen/Neuherberg, und seinem engeren Umfeld. Ziel war es, zu sichten, was in und um diesen Themenkreis herum an Wissen und sonstiger Kompetenz hier vorhanden ist. Einige am IBB etablierte Gebiete wie Roentgen-Mammographie oder funktionelle Magnetresonanztherapie wurden ausgeblendet. Der Grund ist die Fokussierung auf ein nicht exakt definierbares, neues Gebiet der Bildgebung, das unter dem Namen 'Molecular Imaging' kursiert und derzeit Furore macht macht. (orig.)

  8. Contributions on biomedical imaging, with a side-look at molecular imaging; Beitraege zur biomedizinischen Bildgebung mit einem Seitenblick auf Molecular Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, G [ed.

    2004-05-01

    This report is intended as a brief introduction to the emerging scientific field of biomedical imaging. The breadth of the subject is shown and future fields of research are indicated, which hopefully will serve as a guide to the identification of starting points for the research in 'Biomedical and/or Molecular Imaging' at the GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health. The report starts with a brief sketch of the history. Then a - necessarily incomplete - list of research topics is presented. It is organized in two parts: the first one addresses medical imaging, and the second one is concerned with biological point aspects of the matter. (orig.) [German] In diesem Bericht sind einige Beitraege zum Gebiet 'Bildgebende Verfahren in Biologie und Medizin' zusammengestellt. Sie stammen saemtlich aus dem Institut fuer Biomathematik und Biometrie, IBB, am Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, GSF, in Muenchen/Neuherberg, und seinem engeren Umfeld. Ziel war es, zu sichten, was in und um diesen Themenkreis herum an Wissen und sonstiger Kompetenz hier vorhanden ist. Einige am IBB etablierte Gebiete wie Roentgen-Mammographie oder funktionelle Magnetresonanztherapie wurden ausgeblendet. Der Grund ist die Fokussierung auf ein nicht exakt definierbares, neues Gebiet der Bildgebung, das unter dem Namen 'Molecular Imaging' kursiert und derzeit Furore macht macht. (orig.)

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Cardiac Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggion-Santos, Maria Fernanda; Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Volpe, Gustavo Jardim; Trad, Henrique Simão; Schmidt, André

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are extremely rare; however, when there is clinical suspicion, proper diagnostic evaluation is necessary to plan the most appropriate treatment. In this context, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) plays an important role, allowing a comprehensive characterization of such lesions. To review cases referred to a CMRI Department for investigation of cardiac and paracardiac masses. To describe the positive case series with a brief review of the literature for each type of lesion and the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation. Between August 2008 and December 2011, all cases referred for CMRI with suspicion of tumor involving the heart were reviewed. Cases with positive histopathological diagnosis, clinical evolution or therapeutic response compatible with the clinical suspicion and imaging findings were selected. Among the 13 cases included in our study, eight (62%) had histopathological confirmation. We describe five benign tumors (myxomas, rhabdomyoma and fibromas), five malignancies (sarcoma, lymphoma, Richter syndrome involving the heart and metastatic disease) and three non-neoplastic lesions (pericardial cyst, intracardiac thrombus and infectious vegetation). CMRI plays an important role in the evaluation of cardiac masses of non-neoplastic and neoplastic origin, contributing to a more accurate diagnosis in a noninvasive manner and assisting in treatment planning, allowing safe clinical follow-up with good reproducibility

  10. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, C.; Janssen, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the

  11. Evaluation of the Next Generation Gamma Imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amgarou, Khalil; Timi, Tebug; Blanc de Lanaute, Nicolas; Patoz, Audrey; Talent, Philippe; Menaa, Nabil; Carrel, Frederick; Schoepff, Vincent; Lemaire, Hermine; Gmar, Mehdi; Abou Khalil, Roger; Dogny, Stephane; Varet, Thierry

    2013-06-01

    Towards the end of their life-cycle, nuclear facilities are generally associated with high levels of radiation exposure. The implementation of the ALARA principle requires limiting the radiation exposure of the operating people during the different tasks of maintenance, decontamination and decommissioning. Canberra's latest involvement in the provision of nuclear measurement solutions has led, in the framework of a partnership agreement with CEA LIST, to the development of a new generation gamma imager. The latter, which is designed for an accurate localization of radioactive hotspots, consists of a pixilated chip hybridized to a 1 mm thick CdTe substrate to record photon pulses and a coded mask aperture allowing for background noise subtraction by means of a technique called mask/anti-mask procedure. This greatly contributes to the reduced size and weight of the gamma imager as gamma shielding around the detector is less required. The spatial radioactivity map is automatically superimposed onto a pre-recorded photographic (visible) image of the scene of interest. In an effort to evaluate the performances of the new gamma imager, several experimental tests have been performed on a industrial prototype to investigate its detection response, including gamma imaging sensitivity and angular resolutions, over a wide energy range (at least from 59 keV to 1330 keV). The impact of the background noise was also evaluated together with some future features like energy discrimination and parallax correction. This paper presents and discusses the main results obtained in the above experimental study. A comparison with Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP code is provided as well. (authors)

  12. Perspectives in molecular imaging through translational research, human medicine, and veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Clifford R; Garg, Predeep

    2014-01-01

    The concept of molecular imaging has taken off over the past 15 years to the point of the renaming of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and Journals (European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and offering of medical fellowships specific to this area of study. Molecular imaging has always been at the core of functional imaging related to nuclear medicine. Even before the phrase molecular imaging came into vogue, radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals were developed that targeted select physiological processes, proteins, receptor analogs, antibody-antigen interactions, metabolites and specific metabolic pathways. In addition, with the advent of genomic imaging, targeted genomic therapy, and theranostics, a number of novel radiopharmaceuticals for the detection and therapy of specific tumor types based on unique biological and cellular properties of the tumor itself have been realized. However, molecular imaging and therapeutics as well as the concept of theranostics are yet to be fully realized. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the translational approaches to targeted molecular imaging with application to some naturally occurring animal models of human disease. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Application of Deep Learning in Automated Analysis of Molecular Images in Cancer: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Chen, Shihui; Liu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Molecular imaging enables the visualization and quantitative analysis of the alterations of biological procedures at molecular and/or cellular level, which is of great significance for early detection of cancer. In recent years, deep leaning has been widely used in medical imaging analysis, as it overcomes the limitations of visual assessment and traditional machine learning techniques by extracting hierarchical features with powerful representation capability. Research on cancer molecular images using deep learning techniques is also increasing dynamically. Hence, in this paper, we review the applications of deep learning in molecular imaging in terms of tumor lesion segmentation, tumor classification, and survival prediction. We also outline some future directions in which researchers may develop more powerful deep learning models for better performance in the applications in cancer molecular imaging. PMID:29114182

  14. SU-E-I-39: Molecular Image Guided Cancer Stem Cells Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells resistance to radiation is a problematic issue that has caused a big fail in cancer treatment. Methods: As a primary work, molecular imaging can indicate the main mechanisms of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. By developing and commissioning new probes and nanomolecules and biomarkers, radiation scientist will able to identify the essential pathways of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. As the second solution, molecular imaging is a best way to find biological target volume and delineate cancer stem cell tissues. In the other hand, by molecular imaging techniques one can image the treatment response in tumor and also in normal tissue. In this issue, the response of cancer stem cells to radiation during therapy course can be imaged, also the main mechanisms of radiation resistance and finding the best radiation modifiers (sensitizers) can be achieved by molecular imaging modalities. In adaptive radiotherapy the molecular imaging plays a vital role to have higher tumor control probability by delivering high radiation doses to cancer stem cells in any time of treatment. The outcome of a feasible treatment is dependent to high cancer stem cells response to radiation and removing all of which, so a good imaging modality can show this issue and preventing of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Results: Our results are dependent to use of molecular imaging as a new modality in the clinic. We propose molecular imaging as a new radiobiological technique to solve radiation therapy problems due to cancer stem cells. Conclusion: Molecular imaging guided cancer stem cell diagnosis and therapy is a new approach in the field of cancer treatment. This new radiobiological imaging technique should be developed in all clinics as a feasible tool that is more biological than physical imaging.

  15. SU-E-I-39: Molecular Image Guided Cancer Stem Cells Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdollahi, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells resistance to radiation is a problematic issue that has caused a big fail in cancer treatment. Methods: As a primary work, molecular imaging can indicate the main mechanisms of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. By developing and commissioning new probes and nanomolecules and biomarkers, radiation scientist will able to identify the essential pathways of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. As the second solution, molecular imaging is a best way to find biological target volume and delineate cancer stem cell tissues. In the other hand, by molecular imaging techniques one can image the treatment response in tumor and also in normal tissue. In this issue, the response of cancer stem cells to radiation during therapy course can be imaged, also the main mechanisms of radiation resistance and finding the best radiation modifiers (sensitizers) can be achieved by molecular imaging modalities. In adaptive radiotherapy the molecular imaging plays a vital role to have higher tumor control probability by delivering high radiation doses to cancer stem cells in any time of treatment. The outcome of a feasible treatment is dependent to high cancer stem cells response to radiation and removing all of which, so a good imaging modality can show this issue and preventing of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Results: Our results are dependent to use of molecular imaging as a new modality in the clinic. We propose molecular imaging as a new radiobiological technique to solve radiation therapy problems due to cancer stem cells. Conclusion: Molecular imaging guided cancer stem cell diagnosis and therapy is a new approach in the field of cancer treatment. This new radiobiological imaging technique should be developed in all clinics as a feasible tool that is more biological than physical imaging

  16. Molecular Imaging and Updated Diagnostic Criteria in Lewy Body Dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Müller, Martijn L T M; Frey, Kirk A

    2017-08-14

    The aims of the study were to review recent advances in molecular imaging in the Lewy body dementias (LBD) and determine if these may support the clinical but contested temporal profile distinction between Parkinson disease (PD) with dementia (PDD) versus dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). There do not appear to be major regional cerebral metabolic or neurotransmitter distinctions between PDD and DLB. However, recent studies highlight the relative discriminating roles of Alzheimer proteinopathies. PDD patients have lower cortical β-amyloid deposition than DLB. Preliminary tau PET studies suggest a gradient of increasing tau binding from cognitively normal PD (absent to lowest) to cognitively impaired PD (low) to DLB (intermediate) to Alzheimer disease (AD; highest). However, tau binding in DLB, including the medial temporal lobe, is substantially lower than in AD. Alzheimer-type proteinopathies appear to be more common in DLB compared to PDD with relative but no absolute differences. Given the spectrum of overlapping pathologies, future α-synuclein ligands are expected to have the best potential to distinguish the LBD from pure AD.

  17. From molecular imaging to systems diagnostics: Time for another paradigm shift?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, King C.P.

    2009-01-01

    The term 'Molecular Imaging' has hit the consciousness of radiologists only in the past decade although many of the concepts that molecular imaging encompasses has been practiced in biomedical imaging, especially in nuclear medicine, for many decades. Many new imaging techniques have allowed us to interrogate biologic events at the cellular and molecular level in vivo in four dimensions but the challenge now is to translate these techniques into clinical practice in a way that will enable us to revolutionize healthcare delivery. The purpose of this article is to introduce the term 'Systems Diagnostics' and examine how radiologists can become translators of disparate sources of information into medical decisions and therapeutic actions.

  18. Evaluation of ambiguous genitalia with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secaf, E.; Nuruddin, R.; Hricak, H.; Conte, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the potential of MR imaging in the evaluation of patients with ambiguous genitalia. Twenty-three consecutive patients with ambiguous genitalia at birth or phenotypic anomalies at puberty were included in this study. MR imaging was performed on a 1.5-T unit using T1- (600/30) and T2- (2,500/70) weighted sequences. In patients aged 5 years or less, 3-mm contiguous sagittal and transaxial sections were obtained. The same imaging planes at 5-mm intervals were obtained in older patients. MR findings were compared to those of surgery (n = 14) or biochemical assays (n = 9). Diagnoses included true hermaphroditism (n = 2), pseudohermaphroditism (n = 6), Turner syndrome (n = 2), testicular feminization (n = 2), adrenogenital syndrome (n = 3), vaginal agenesis (n = 3), cloacal abnormality (n = 2), microphallus (n = 2), and double phallus (n = 1. MR imaging correctly identified the presence or absence of the vagina (n = 10) and uterus (n = 9), thus helping in the diagnosis and management of patients with ambiguous genitalia. Demonstration of development of corpora cavernosa, corpora spongiosa, undescended testis, or partial vaginal agenesis assisted in the surgical approach

  19. A versatile nondestructive evaluation imaging workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are of the pointwise type evaluation systems that rely on a mechanical scanner to physically maneuver a probe relative to the specimen point by point in order to acquire data and generate images. Since the ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are based on the same mechanical scanning mechanisms, the two systems can be combined using the same PC platform with a common mechanical manipulation subsystem and integrated data acquisition software. Based on this concept, we have developed an IBM PC-based combined ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging system. The system is modularized and provides capacity for future hardware and software expansions. Advantages associated with the combined system are: (1) eliminated duplication of the computer and mechanical hardware, (2) unified data acquisition, processing and storage software, (3) reduced setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy current scans, and (4) improved system efficiency. The concept can be adapted to many engineering systems by integrating related PC-based instruments into one multipurpose workstation such as dispensing, machining, packaging, sorting, and other industrial applications.

  20. Diversity of radioprobes targeted to tumor angiogenesis on molecular functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xia; Zhang Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Molecular functional imaging could visualize, characterize, and measure the bio- logical processes including tumor angiogenesis at the molecular and cellular levels in humans and other living systems. The molecular probes labeled by a variety of radionuclide used in the field of the nuclear medicine play pivotal roles in molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis. However, the regulatory role of different probes in tumor angiogenesis has not been systematically illustrated. The current status of tumor angiogenesis imaging with radiolabeled probes of peptide, monoclonal antibody as well as its fragment, especially nanoparticle-based probes to gain insights into the robust tumor angiogenesis development were summarized. It was recognized that only the probes such as nanoparticle-based probes, which truly target the tumor vasculature rather than tumor cells because of poor extravasation, are really tumor angiogenesis imaging agent. The research of molecular probe targeted to angiogenesis would meet its flourish just after the outstanding improvements in the in vivo stability and biocompatibility, tumor-targeting efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of tumor angiogenesis imaging probes are made. Translation to clinical applications will also be critical for the maximize benefits of these novel agents. The future of tumor angiogenesis imaging lies in liable imaging probes and multiple imaging modalities, imaging of protein-protein interactions, and quantitative molecular imaging. (authors)

  1. Noninvasive imaging of multiple myeloma using near infrared fluorescent molecular probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathi, Deep; Zhou, Haiying; Bollerman-Nowlis, Alex; Shokeen, Monica; Akers, Walter J.

    2016-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by monoclonal gammopathy and osteolytic bone lesions. Multiple myeloma is most commonly diagnosed in late disease stages, presenting with pathologic fracture. Early diagnosis and monitoring of disease status may improve quality of life and long-term survival for multiple myeloma patients from what is now a devastating and fatal disease. We have developed a near-infrared targeted fluorescent molecular probe with high affinity to the α4β1 integrin receptor (VLA-4)overexpressed by a majority of multiple myeloma cells as a non-radioactive analog to PET/CT tracer currently being developed for human diagnostics. A near-infrared dye that emits about 700 nm was conjugated to a high affinity peptidomimmetic. Binding affinity and specificity for multiple myeloma cells was investigated in vitro by tissue staining and flow cytometry. After demonstration of sensitivity and specificity, preclinical optical imaging studies were performed to evaluate tumor specificity in murine subcutaneous and metastatic multiple myeloma models. The VLA-4-targeted molecular probe showed high affinity for subcutaneous MM tumor xenografts. Importantly, tumor cells specific accumulation in the bone marrow of metastatic multiple myeloma correlated with GFP signal from transfected cells. Ex vivo flow cytometry of tumor tissue and bone marrow further corroborated in vivo imaging data, demonstrating the specificity of the novel agent and potential for quantitative imaging of multiple myeloma burden in these models.

  2. Molecular Imaging: A Useful Tool for the Development of Natural Killer Cell-Based Immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Gangadaran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is a relatively new discipline that allows visualization, characterization, and measurement of the biological processes in living subjects, including humans, at a cellular and molecular level. The interaction between cancer cells and natural killer (NK cells is complex and incompletely understood. Despite our limited knowledge, progress in the search for immune cell therapies against cancer could be significantly improved by dynamic and non-invasive visualization and tracking of immune cells and by visualization of the response of cancer cells to therapies in preclinical and clinical studies. Molecular imaging is an essential tool for these studies, and a multimodal molecular imaging approach can be applied to monitor immune cells in vivo, for instance, to visualize therapeutic effects. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of NK cells in cancer therapies and the preclinical and clinical usefulness of molecular imaging in NK cell-based therapies. Furthermore, we discuss different molecular imaging modalities for use with NK cell-based therapies, and their preclinical and clinical applications in animal and human subjects. Molecular imaging has contributed to the development of NK cell-based therapies against cancers in animal models and to the refinement of current cell-based cancer immunotherapies. Developing sensitive and reproducible non-invasive molecular imaging technologies for in vivo NK cell monitoring and for real-time assessment of therapeutic effects will accelerate the development of NK cell therapies.

  3. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of Mannich bases derived from 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole- 2-thiones as potential urease inhibitors. ... Mannich bases (5-17) were subjected to in silico screening as urease inhibitors, using crystal structure of urease (Protein Data Bank ID: 5FSE) as a model enzyme.

  4. Molecular evaluation of genetic diversity and association studies in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular evaluation of genetic diversity and association studies in rice. (Oryza sativa L.) C. Vanniarajan, K. K. Vinod and Andy Pereira. J. Genet. 91, 9–19. Table 1. Chromosome-wise distribution of SSR alleles and their number (k), polymorphic information content (PIC) and allele discrimination index (Dm). Chromosome.

  5. Inflammation Modulates Murine Venous Thrombosis Resolution In Vivo: Assessment by Multimodal Fluorescence Molecular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripplinger, Crystal M.; Kessinger, Chase W.; Li, Chunqiang; Kim, Jin Won; McCarthy, Jason R.; Weissleder, Ralph; Henke, Peter K.; Lin, Charles P.; Jaffer, Farouc A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Assessment of thrombus inflammation in vivo could provide new insights into deep vein thrombosis (DVT) resolution. Here we develop and evaluate two integrated fluorescence molecular-structural imaging strategies to quantify DVT-related inflammation and architecture, and to assess the effect of thrombus inflammation on subsequent DVT resolution in vivo. Methods and Results Murine DVT were created with topical 5% FeCl3 application to thigh or jugular veins (n=35). On day 3, mice received macrophage and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity fluorescence imaging agents. On day 4, integrated assessment of DVT inflammation and architecture was performed using confocal fluorescence intravital microscopy (IVM). Day 4 analyses showed robust relationships among in vivo thrombus macrophages, MMP activity, and FITC-dextran deposition (r>0.70, pthrombus inflammation at day 4 predicted the magnitude of DVT resolution at day 6 (pthrombus resolution. PMID:22995524

  6. Molecular Imaging to Predict Response to Targeted Therapies in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Leguerney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular magnetic resonance imaging targeted to an endothelial integrin involved in neoangiogenesis was compared to DCE-US and immunochemistry to assess the early response of three different therapeutic agents in renal cell carcinoma. Human A498 renal cells carcinoma was subcutaneously inoculated into 24 nude mice. Mice received either phosphate-buffered saline solution, sunitinib, everolimus, or bevacizumab during 4 days. DCE-US and molecular MRI targeting αvβ3 were performed at baseline and 4 days after treatment initiation. PI, AUC, relaxation rate variations ΔR2⁎, and percentage of vessels area quantified on CD31-stained microvessels were compared. Significant decreases were observed for PI and AUC parameters measured by DCE-US for bevacizumab group as early as 4 days, whereas molecular αvβ3-targeted MRI was able to detect significant changes in both bevacizumab and everolimus groups. Percentage of CD31-stained microvessels was significantly correlated with DCE-US parameters, PI (R=0.87, p=0.0003 and AUC (R=0.81, p=0.0013. The percentage of vessel tissue area was significantly reduced (p<0.01 in both sunitinib and bevacizumab groups. We report an early detection of neoangiogenesis modification after induction of targeted therapies, using DCE-US or αvβ3-targeted MRI. We consider these outcomes should encourage clinical trial developments to further evaluate the potential of this molecular MRI technique.

  7. Imaging evaluation of post pancreatic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scialpi, Michele; Scaglione, Mariano; Volterrani, Luca; Lupattelli, Luciano; Ragozzino, Alfonso; Romano, Stefania; Rotondo, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The role of several imaging techniques in patients submitted to pancreatic surgery with special emphasis to single-slice helical computed tomography (CT) and multidetector-row CT (MDCT) was reviewed. Several surgical options may be performed such as Whipple procedure, distal pancreatectomy, central pancreatectomy, and total pancreatectomy. Ultrasound examination may be used to detect peritoneal fluid in the early post-operative period as well as lesion recurrence in long-term follow-up. Radiological gastrointestinal studies has a major role in evaluation of intestinal functionality. In spite of the advent of other imaging modalities, CT is the most effective after pancreatic surgery. On post-operative CT, the most common findings were small fluid peritoneal or pancreatic collections, stranding of the mesenteric fat with perivascular cuffing, reactive adenopathy and pneumobilia. In addition, CT may demonstrate early (leakage of anastomosis, pancreatico-jejunal fistula, haemorrage, acute pancreatitis of the remnant pancreas, peritonitis), and late (chronic fistula, abscess, aneurysms, anastomotic bilio-digestive stenosis, perianastomotic ulcers, biloma, and intra-abdominal bleeding) surgical complications. In the follow-up evaluation, CT may show tumor recurrence, liver and lymph nodes metastasis. Magnetic resonance may be used as alternative imaging modality to CT, when renal insufficiency or contrast sensitivity prevents the use of iodinated i.v. contrast material or when the biliary tree study is primarily requested. The knowledge of the type of surgical procedures, the proper identification of the anastomoses as well as the normal post-operative imaging appearances are essential for an accurate detection of the complications and recurrent disease

  8. Imaging evaluation of post pancreatic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scialpi, Michele [Department of Radiology, ' Santissima Annunziata' Hospital, Via Bruno 1, I-74100 Taranto (Italy)]. E-mail: michelescialpi@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano [Department of Radiology, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Volterrani, Luca [Institute of Radiology, University of Siena, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Lupattelli, Luciano [Institute of Radiology, University of Perugia, I-06122 Perugia (Italy); Ragozzino, Alfonso [Department of Radiology, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Romano, Stefania [Department of Radiology, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Rotondo, Antonio [Section of Radiology, Department ' Magrassi-Lanzara' , Second University, I-80138 Naples (Italy)

    2005-03-01

    The role of several imaging techniques in patients submitted to pancreatic surgery with special emphasis to single-slice helical computed tomography (CT) and multidetector-row CT (MDCT) was reviewed. Several surgical options may be performed such as Whipple procedure, distal pancreatectomy, central pancreatectomy, and total pancreatectomy. Ultrasound examination may be used to detect peritoneal fluid in the early post-operative period as well as lesion recurrence in long-term follow-up. Radiological gastrointestinal studies has a major role in evaluation of intestinal functionality. In spite of the advent of other imaging modalities, CT is the most effective after pancreatic surgery. On post-operative CT, the most common findings were small fluid peritoneal or pancreatic collections, stranding of the mesenteric fat with perivascular cuffing, reactive adenopathy and pneumobilia. In addition, CT may demonstrate early (leakage of anastomosis, pancreatico-jejunal fistula, haemorrage, acute pancreatitis of the remnant pancreas, peritonitis), and late (chronic fistula, abscess, aneurysms, anastomotic bilio-digestive stenosis, perianastomotic ulcers, biloma, and intra-abdominal bleeding) surgical complications. In the follow-up evaluation, CT may show tumor recurrence, liver and lymph nodes metastasis. Magnetic resonance may be used as alternative imaging modality to CT, when renal insufficiency or contrast sensitivity prevents the use of iodinated i.v. contrast material or when the biliary tree study is primarily requested. The knowledge of the type of surgical procedures, the proper identification of the anastomoses as well as the normal post-operative imaging appearances are essential for an accurate detection of the complications and recurrent disease.

  9. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of breast tumors with MRI and PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinker, K.; Marino, M.A.; Meyer-Baese, A.; Helbich, T.H.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is an indispensable tool in breast imaging for many indications. Several functional parameters with MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) have been assessed for imaging of breast tumors and their combined application is defined as multiparametric imaging. Available data suggest that multiparametric imaging using different functional MRI and PET parameters can provide detailed information about the hallmarks of cancer and may provide additional specificity. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast comprises established MRI parameters, such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MR proton spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRSI) as well as combinations of radiological and MRI techniques (e.g. PET/CT and PET/MRI) using radiotracers, such as fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast can be performed at different field-strengths (range 1.5-7 T). Emerging parameters comprise novel promising techniques, such as sodium imaging ( 23 Na MRI), phosphorus spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRSI), chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and hyperpolarized MRI as well as various specific radiotracers. Multiparametric and molecular imaging has multiple applications in breast imaging. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast is an evolving field that will enable improved detection, characterization, staging and monitoring for personalized medicine in breast cancer. (orig.) [de

  10. Targeting Phosphatidylserine with a 64Cu-Labeled Peptide for Molecular Imaging of Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Amanda; Richter, Susan; Bergman, Cody; Wuest, Melinda; Wuest, Frank

    2016-10-03

    Molecular imaging of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in vivo is an innovative strategy for early assessment of treatment response and treatment efficacy in cancer patients. Externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) to the cell membrane surface of dying cells makes this phospholipid an attractive molecular target for the development of apoptosis imaging probes. In this study, we have radiolabeled PS-binding 14-mer peptide FNFRLKAGAKIRFG (PSBP-6) with positron-emitter copper-64 ( 64 Cu) for PET imaging of apoptosis. Peptide PSBP-6 was conjugated with radiometal chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) through an aminovaleric acid (Ava) linker for subsequent radiolabeling with 64 Cu to prepare radiotracer 64 Cu-NOTA-Ava-PSBP-6. PS-binding potencies of PSBP-6, NOTA-Ava-PSBP-6, and nat Cu-NOTA-Ava-PSBP-6 were determined in a competitive radiometric PS-binding assay. Radiotracer 64 Cu-NOTA-Ava-PSBP-6 was studied in camptothecin-induced apoptotic EL4 mouse lymphoma cells and in a murine EL4 tumor model of apoptosis using dynamic PET imaging. Peptide PSBP-6 was also conjugated via an Ava linker with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). FITC-Ava-PSBP-6 was evaluated in flow cytometry and fluorescence confocal microscopy experiments. Radiopeptide 64 Cu-NOTA-Ava-PSBP-6 was synthesized in high radiochemical yields of >95%. The IC 50 values for PS-binding potency of PSBP-6, NOTA-Ava-PSBP-6, and nat Cu-NOTA-PSBP-6 were 600 μM, 30 μM, and 23 μM, respectively. A competitive radiometric cell binding assay confirmed binding of 64 Cu-NOTA-Ava-PSBP-6 to camptothecin-induced apoptotic EL4 cells in a Ca 2+ -independent manner. PET imaging studies demonstrated significantly higher uptake of 64 Cu-NOTA-Ava-PSBP-6 in apoptotic EL4 tumors (SUV 5min 0.95 ± 0.04) compared to control tumors (SUV 5min 0.74 ± 0.03). Flow cytometry studies showed significantly higher binding of FITC-Ava-PSBP-6 to EL4 cells treated with camptothecin compared to untreated cells

  11. The diabetic foot: Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, J.; Campanini, D.S.; Knight, C.; McCalla, M.

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen diabetic patients with suspected foot infection and/or neuropathic joint (Charcot Joint) were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an attempt to assess the extent of the infection and also to distinguish infection from the changes seen with neuroarthropathy. The majority of patients with infection had more than one site of involvement and the following diagnoses were made by MRI evaluation: Osteomyelitis (n=8), abscess (n=7), neuropathic joint (n=5), septic arthritis (n=4), and tenosynovitis (n=4). Clinical or surgical/pathological confirmation of the MRI diagnoses was obtained in all but nine sites of infection or cases of neuropathic joint. If the two diagnostic categories of septic arthritis and tenosynovitis are excluded, all but four of the MRI diagnoses were confirmed. A distinctive pattern for neuroarthropathy was identified in five cases, consisting of low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images within the bone marrow space adjacent to the involved joint. We conclude that MRI is a valuable adjunct in the evaluation of the diabetic foot, and that it provides accurate information regarding the presence and extent of infection in this subset of patients. MRI has proven particularly helpful in differentiating neuroarthropathy from osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  12. In-vivo evaluation of convex array synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an in-vivo study of synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging in comparison to conventional imaging, evaluating whether STA imaging is feasible in-vivo, and whether the image quality obtained is comparable to traditional scanned imaging in terms of penetration depth, spatial...

  13. Evaluation of the imaging properties of Microwave Imaging Reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, I; Lee, W; Leem, J; Nam, Y; Kim, M; Yun, G S; Park, H K; Domier, C W; Jr, N C Luhmann

    2012-01-01

    Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) has been developed for unambiguous measurement of electron density fluctuations in fusion plasmas. The loss of phase information limiting the use of conventional reflectometry can be minimized by a large aperture imaging optics and an array of detectors in the MIR embodiment. The evaluation of the optical system is critical for precise reconstruction of the fluctuations. The optical systems of the prototype TEXTOR MIR [2] and newly-designed KSTAR MIR [5] systems have been tested with a corrugated target simulating density fluctuations at the cut-off surface. The reconstructed phase from the MIR system has been compared to the directly measured phase of corrugations taking into account the rotational speed of the target. The effects of optical aberrations and interference between lenses on the phase reconstruction have been investigated by the 2D amplitude measurement of the reflected waves and the diffraction-based optical simulations. (CODE V) A preliminary design of the KSTAR MIR optics has been suggested which can minimize the aberration and interference effects.

  14. Molecular Beacon-Based MicroRNA Imaging During Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Soonhag

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescence monitoring system for examining endogenous microRNA (miRNA) activity in cellular level provides crucial information on not only understanding a critical role of miRNA involving a variety of biological processes, but also evaluating miRNA expression patterns in a noninvasive manner. In this protocol, we report the details of a new procedure for a molecular beacon-based miRNA monitoring system, which includes the illustration scheme for miRNA detection strategy, exogenous miRNA detection, and measurement of endogenous miRNA expression level during neurogenesis. The fluorescence signal of miR-124a beacon quenched by BHQ2 was gradually recovered as increasing concentration of the miR-124a in tube. The functional work of miR-124a beacon was examined in intracellular environment, allowing for the internalization of the miR-124a beacon by lipofectamine, which resulted in activated fluorescent signals of the miR-124a beacon in the HeLa cells after the addition of synthetic miR-124a. The endogenous miR-124a expression level was detected by miR-124a beacon system during neurogenesis, showing brighter fluorescence intensity in cytoplasmic area of P19 cells after induction of neuronal differentiation by retinoic acid. The molecular beacon based-miRNA detection technique could be applicable to the simultaneous visualization of a variety of miRNA expression patterns using different fluorescence dyes. For the study of examining endogenous miRNA expression level using miRNA-beacon system, if cellular differentiation step is already prepared, transfection step of miR-124a beacon into P19 cells, and acquisition of activated fluorescence signal measured by confocal microscope can be conducted approximately within 6 h.

  15. Applications of the Preclinical Molecular Image in Biomedicine; Aplicaciones de la imagen Molecular Preclínica en Biomedicina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, M.; Bascuñana, P.; Fernández de la Rosa, R.; De Cristobal, J.; García-García, L.; Pozo, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    Molecular imaging is a broad platform, which provides valuable information about physiological and pathophysiological changes in living organisms by non-invasive methods. Depending on the used technique: anatomical, functional metabolic or molecular data could be assessed. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) provides with functional and molecular data, and combined with Computerized Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MRI) with the multimodality equipment, it can be exponentially improved. Metabolic pathways and changes on the molecular and cellular level are target in molecular imaging cancer research. Tumour microenvironment, stroma and new vessels can be assessed by PET imaging. Additionally the visualization of functions and monitoring data of provided therapies could be obtained. The aim of the current review is to summarize principles and novel findings in molecular imaging specifically in PET and its application in preclinical cancer research. The theoretical background of techniques and main applications will be highlighted [Spanish] La imagen molecular aporta información muy valiosa, mediante métodos no invasivos, acerca de la fisiología de organismos vivos y sus cambios debidos a patologías. Dependiendo de la técnica utilizada se pueden obtener datos anatómicos, funcionales, metabólicos o moleculares. La Tomografía por Emisión de Positrones (PET) aporta datos metabólicos y moleculares con una alta sensibilidad, y en asociación con la Tomografía Computarizada (TC) o con Resonancia Magnética (RM), con la aparición de los nuevos equipos multimodalidad, las posibilidades de diagnóstico se incrementan exponencialmente. La imagen molecular en investigación oncológica presenta como objetivos principales identificar las diferentes vías metabólicas tumorales y sus cambios a nivel molecular y celular, el comportamiento del microentorno tumoral, aparición de nuevos vasos, estroma, etc. Además, es posible el análisis y cuantificación del

  16. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal; Adams, Denise M.; Gupta, Anita; Lim, Foong-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  17. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal [MLC 5031 Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Adams, Denise M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics and Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Gupta, Anita [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Pediatric Surgery and Fetal Center of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  18. Clinical applications of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for molecular imaging and targeted therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trung D; Caruthers, Shelton D; Hughes, Michael; Marsh, John N; Cyrus, Tillmann; Winter, Patrick M; Neubauer, Anne M; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a novel tool that has allowed non-invasive diagnostic imaging to transition from gross anatomical description to identification of specific tissue epitopes and observation of biological processes at the cellular level. This technique has been confined to the field of nuclear imaging; however, recent advances in nanotechnology have extended this research to include ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The exploitation of nanotechnology for MR and US molecular imaging has generated several candidate contrast agents. One multimodality platform, targeted perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles, is useful for noninvasive detection with US and MR, targeted drug delivery, and quantification.

  19. Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging in thoracic inlet tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Eiro (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-06-01

    To evaluate the detectability of tumor invasion to the thoracic inlet, MRI was performed in 57 patients with thoracic inlet tumor, and the diagnostic accuracy of MRI was compared with that of CT concerning the utility for thoracic inlet lesions. And we assessed abnormal findings in comparison with surgical or autopsy findings. In the local extent of the tumor, the accuracy for tumor invasion to the vessels such as subclavian artery and vein was 94.9% for MRI, and 83.5% for CT, and to the brachial plexus was 95.0% for MRI, and 60.0% for CT. MRI was superior to CT, but MRI was equivalent to CT with regard to invasion to the base of the neck, lateral chest wall, ribs, and vertebral bodies. However on MRI, it is easier to understand the longitudinal tumor extent than on CT. CT has superior spatial resolusion but CT has also disadvantages, such as streak artifact caused by shoulder joints, resulting in image degradation. In contrast, MRI has inherent advantages, and multiple images which facilitate the relationship between tumor and normal structures. Coronal and sagittal MR images facilitated three-dimensional observation of tumor of invasion in the thoracic inlet. Furthermore to improve image quality of MRI for the thoracic inlet, we newly devised a high molecular polyester shell for fixing a surface coil. On the high resolution MR (HR-MR) imaging using our shell, normal lymph nodes, muscles, blood vessels and the branches of the branchial plexus were clearly visualized in detail. Our shell was simple to process and facilitated immobilization of a surface coil. HR-MR technique produces images of high resolution after simple preparation. In conclusion, MRI was very useful for detecting lesions of the thoracic inlet and in deciding surgical indication and the planning for radiotherapy. (author).

  20. In vivo quantification of fluorescent molecular markers in real-time by ratio Imaging for diagnostic screening and image-guided surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaards, A.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Trachtenberg, J.; Wilson, B. C.; Lilge, L.

    2007-01-01

    Future applications of "molecular diagnostic screening" and "molecular image-guided surgery" will demand images of molecular markers with high resolution and high throughput (similar to >= 30 frames/second). MRI, SPECT, PET, optical fluorescence tomography, hyper-spectral fluorescence imaging, and

  1. An Evaluation of Explicit Receptor Flexibility in Molecular Docking Using Molecular Dynamics and Torsion Angle Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armen, Roger S; Chen, Jianhan; Brooks, Charles L

    2009-10-13

    Incorporating receptor flexibility into molecular docking should improve results for flexible proteins. However, the incorporation of explicit all-atom flexibility with molecular dynamics for the entire protein chain may also introduce significant error and "noise" that could decrease docking accuracy and deteriorate the ability of a scoring function to rank native-like poses. We address this apparent paradox by comparing the success of several flexible receptor models in cross-docking and multiple receptor ensemble docking for p38α mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Explicit all-atom receptor flexibility has been incorporated into a CHARMM-based molecular docking method (CDOCKER) using both molecular dynamics (MD) and torsion angle molecular dynamics (TAMD) for the refinement of predicted protein-ligand binding geometries. These flexible receptor models have been evaluated, and the accuracy and efficiency of TAMD sampling is directly compared to MD sampling. Several flexible receptor models are compared, encompassing flexible side chains, flexible loops, multiple flexible backbone segments, and treatment of the entire chain as flexible. We find that although including side chain and some backbone flexibility is required for improved docking accuracy as expected, docking accuracy also diminishes as additional and unnecessary receptor flexibility is included into the conformational search space. Ensemble docking results demonstrate that including protein flexibility leads to to improved agreement with binding data for 227 active compounds. This comparison also demonstrates that a flexible receptor model enriches high affinity compound identification without significantly increasing the number of false positives from low affinity compounds.

  2. A CZT-based blood counter for quantitative molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espagnet, Romain; Frezza, Andrea; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Hamel, Louis-André; Lechippey, Laëtitia; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Després, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Robust quantitative analysis in positron emission tomography (PET) and in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) typically requires the time-activity curve as an input function for the pharmacokinetic modeling of tracer uptake. For this purpose, a new automated tool for the determination of blood activity as a function of time is presented. The device, compact enough to be used on the patient bed, relies on a peristaltic pump for continuous blood withdrawal at user-defined rates. Gamma detection is based on a 20 × 20 × 15 mm 3 cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector, read by custom-made electronics and a field-programmable gate array-based signal processing unit. A graphical user interface (GUI) allows users to select parameters and easily perform acquisitions. This paper presents the overall design of the device as well as the results related to the detector performance in terms of stability, sensitivity and energy resolution. Results from a patient study are also reported. The device achieved a sensitivity of 7.1 cps/(kBq/mL) and a minimum detectable activity of 2.5 kBq/ml for 18 F. The gamma counter also demonstrated an excellent stability with a deviation in count rates inferior to 0.05% over 6 h. An energy resolution of 8% was achieved at 662 keV. The patient study was conclusive and demonstrated that the compact gamma blood counter developed has the sensitivity and the stability required to conduct quantitative molecular imaging studies in PET and SPECT.

  3. Imaging evaluation of vocal cord paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Magalhaes, Fabiana Pizanni; Dadalto, Gabriela Bijos; Moura, Marina Vimieiro Timponi de [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelomgarcia@superig.com.br, e-mail: ce@axialmg.com.br

    2009-09-15

    Vocal cord paralysis is a common cause of hoarseness. It may be secondary to many types of lesions along the cranial nerve X pathway and its branches, particularly the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Despite the idiopathic nature of a great number of cases, imaging methods play a very significant role in the investigation of etiologic factors, such as thyroid and esophagus neoplasias with secondary invasion of the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Other conditions such as aortic and right subclavian artery aneurysms also may be found. The knowledge of local anatomy and related diseases is of great importance for the radiologist, so that he can tailor the examination properly to allow an appropriate diagnosis and therapy planning. Additionally, considering that up to 35% of patients with vocal cord paralysis are asymptomatic, the recognition of radiological findings indicative of this condition is essential for the radiologist who must warn the referring physician on the imaging findings. In the present study, the authors review the anatomy and main diseases related to vocal cord paralysis, demonstrating them through typical cases evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, besides describing radiological findings of laryngeal abnormalities indicative of this condition. (author)

  4. Algorithms evaluation for fundus images enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braem, V; Marcos, M; Bizai, G; Drozdowicz, B; Salvatelli, A

    2011-01-01

    Color images of the retina inherently involve noise and illumination artifacts. In order to improve the diagnostic quality of the images, it is desirable to homogenize the non-uniform illumination and increase contrast while preserving color characteristics. The visual result of different pre-processing techniques can be very dissimilar and it is necessary to make an objective assessment of the techniques in order to select the most suitable. In this article the performance of eight algorithms to correct the non-uniform illumination, contrast modification and color preservation was evaluated. In order to choose the most suitable a general score was proposed. The results got good impression from experts, although some differences suggest that not necessarily the best statistical quality of image is the one of best diagnostic quality to the trained doctor eye. This means that the best pre-processing algorithm for an automatic classification may be different to the most suitable one for visual diagnosis. However, both should result in the same final diagnosis.

  5. MARS spectral molecular imaging of lamb tissue: data collection and image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aamir, R; Bateman, C.J.; Butler, A.P.H.; Butler, P.H.; Anderson, N.G.; Bell, S.T.; Panta, R.K.; Healy, J.L.; Mohr, J.L.; Rajendran, K.; Walsh, M.F.; Ruiter, N.de; Gieseg, S.P.; Woodfield, T.; Renaud, P.F.; Brooke, L.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Clyne, M.; Glendenning, R.; Bones, P.J.; Billinghurst, M.; Bartneck, C.; Mandalika, H.; Grasset, R.; Schleich, N.; Scott, N.; Nik, S.J.; Opie, A.; Janmale, T.; Tang, D.N.; Kim, D.; Doesburg, R.M.; Zainon, R.; Ronaldson, J.P.; Cook, N.J.; Smithies, D.J.; Hodge, K.

    2014-01-01

    Spectral molecular imaging is a new imaging technique able to discriminate and quantify different components of tissue simultaneously at high spatial and high energy resolution. Our MARS scanner is an x-ray based small animal CT system designed to be used in the diagnostic energy range (20 to 140 keV). In this paper, we demonstrate the use of the MARS scanner, equipped with the Medipix3RX spectroscopic photon-processing detector, to discriminate fat, calcium, and water in tissue. We present data collected from a sample of lamb meat including bone as an illustrative example of human tissue imaging. The data is analyzed using our 3D Algebraic Reconstruction Algorithm (MARS-ART) and by material decomposition based on a constrained linear least squares algorithm. The results presented here clearly show the quantification of lipid-like, water-like and bone-like components of tissue. However, it is also clear to us that better algorithms could extract more information of clinical interest from our data. Because we ...

  6. Exploration of target molecules for molecular imaging of inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashikawa, Kei; Akada, Naoki; Yagi, Katsuharu [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Watanabe, Keiko; Kamino, Shinichiro; Kanayama, Yousuke; Hiromura, Makoto [Multiple Molecular Imaging Research Laboratory, RIKEN Center for Molecular Imaging Science, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Enomoto, Shuichi, E-mail: senomoto@pharm.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Multiple Molecular Imaging Research Laboratory, RIKEN Center for Molecular Imaging Science, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {sup {yields}18}F-FDG PET could discriminate each inflamed area of IBD model mice clearly. {sup {yields}18}F-FDG PET could not discriminate the difference of pathogenic mechanism. {yields} Cytokines and cytokine receptors expression was different by pathogenic mechanism. {yields} Cytokines and cytokine receptors would be new target molecules for IBD imaging. -- Abstract: Molecular imaging technology is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the efficacy evaluation of various drug therapies for it. However, it is difficult to elucidate directly the relationships between the responsible molecules and IBD using existing probes. Therefore, the development of an alternative probe that is able to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism and provide information on the appropriate guidelines for treatment is earnestly awaited. In this study, we investigated pathognomonic molecules in the intestines of model mice. The accumulation of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) in the inflamed area of the intestines of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)- or indomethacin (IND)-induced IBD model mice was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) and autoradiography to confirm the inflamed area. The results suggested that the inflammation was selectively induced in the colons of mice by the administration of DSS, whereas it was induced mainly in the ilea and the proximal colons of mice by the administration of IND. To explore attractive target molecules for the molecular imaging of IBD, we evaluated the gene expression levels of cytokines and cytokine receptors in the inflamed area of the intestines of both model mice. We found that the expression levels of cytokines and cytokine receptors were significantly increased during the progression of IBD, whereas the expression levels were decreased as the mucosa began to heal. In particular, the expression levels of these molecules had already changed before the symptoms of IBD appeared. In

  7. Development of Optical Molecular Imaging System for the Acquisition of Bioluminescence Signals from Small Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Il; Kim, Hyeon Sik; Jeong, Hye Jin; Lee, Hyung Jae; Moon, Seung Min; Kwon, Seung Young; Jeong, Shin Young; Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Joon; Choi, Eun Seo

    2009-01-01

    Optical imaging is providing great advance and improvement in genetic and molecular imaging of animals and humans. Optical imaging system consists of optical imaging devices, which carry out major function for monitoring, tracing, and imaging in most of molecular in-vivo researches. In bio-luminescent imaging, small animals containing luciferase gene locally irradiate light, and emitted photons transmitted through skin of the small animals are imaged by using a high sensitive charged coupled device (CCD) camera. In this paper, we introduced optical imaging system for the image acquisition of bio-luminescent signals emitted from small animals. In the system, Nikon lens and four LED light sources were mounted at the inside of a dark box. A cooled CCD camera equipped with a control module was used. We tested the performance of the optical imaging system using effendorf tube and light emitting bacteria which injected intravenously into CT26 tumor bearing nude mouse. The performance of implemented optical imaging system for bio-luminescence imaging was demonstrated and the feasibility of the system in small animal imaging application was proved. We anticipate this system could be a useful tool for the molecular imaging of small animals adaptable for various experimental conditions in future

  8. Nuclear imaging evaluation of galactosylation of chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Chang Guhn; Park, In Kyu; Cho, Chong Su; Bom, Hee Seung

    2004-01-01

    Chitosan has been studied as a non-viral gene delivery vector, drug delivery carrier, metal chelater, food additive, and radiopharmaceutical, among other things. Recently, galactose-graft chitosan was studied as a non-viral gene and drug delivery vector to target hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of nuclear imaging for in vivo evaluation of targeting the hepatocyte by galactose grafting. Galactosyl methylated chitosan (GMC) was produced by methylation to lactobionic acid coupled chitosan Cytotoxicity of 99 mTc-GMC was determined by MTT assay. Rabbits were injected via their auricular vein with 99 mTc-GMC and 99 mTc-methylated chitosan (MC), the latter of which does not contain a galactose group, and images were acquired with a gamma camera equipped with a parallel hole collimator. The composition of the galactose group in galactosylated chitosan (GC), as well as the tri-, di-, or mono-methylation of GMC, was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. The results of MTT assay indicated that 99 mTc-GMC was non-toxic. 99 mTc-GMC specifically accumulated in the liver within 10 minutes of injection and maintained high hepatic uptake. In contrast, 99 mTc-MC showed faint liver uptake. 99 mTc-GMC scintigraphy of rabbits showed that the galactose ligand principally targeted the liver while the chitosan functionalities led to excretion through the urinary system. Bioconjugation with a specific ligand endows some degree of targetability to an administered molecule or drug, as in the case of galactose for hepatocyte in vivo, and evaluating said targetability is a clear example of the great benefit proffered by nuclear imaging

  9. A matter of collection and detection for intraoperative and noninvasive near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging: To see or not to see?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although fluorescence molecular imaging is rapidly evolving as a new combinational drug/device technology platform for molecularly guided surgery and noninvasive imaging, there remains no performance standards for efficient translation of “first-in-humans” fluorescent imaging agents using these devices. Methods: The authors employed a stable, solid phantom designed to exaggerate the confounding effects of tissue light scattering and to mimic low concentrations (nM–pM) of near-infrared fluorescent dyes expected clinically for molecular imaging in order to evaluate and compare the commonly used charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems employed in preclinical studies and in human investigational studies. Results: The results show that intensified CCD systems offer greater contrast with larger signal-to-noise ratios in comparison to their unintensified CCD systems operated at clinically reasonable, subsecond acquisition times. Conclusions: Camera imaging performance could impact the success of future “first-in-humans” near-infrared fluorescence imaging agent studies. PMID:24506637

  10. Empirical evaluation of data normalization methods for molecular classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huei-Chung; Qin, Li-Xuan

    2018-01-01

    Data artifacts due to variations in experimental handling are ubiquitous in microarray studies, and they can lead to biased and irreproducible findings. A popular approach to correct for such artifacts is through post hoc data adjustment such as data normalization. Statistical methods for data normalization have been developed and evaluated primarily for the discovery of individual molecular biomarkers. Their performance has rarely been studied for the development of multi-marker molecular classifiers-an increasingly important application of microarrays in the era of personalized medicine. In this study, we set out to evaluate the performance of three commonly used methods for data normalization in the context of molecular classification, using extensive simulations based on re-sampling from a unique pair of microRNA microarray datasets for the same set of samples. The data and code for our simulations are freely available as R packages at GitHub. In the presence of confounding handling effects, all three normalization methods tended to improve the accuracy of the classifier when evaluated in an independent test data. The level of improvement and the relative performance among the normalization methods depended on the relative level of molecular signal, the distributional pattern of handling effects (e.g., location shift vs scale change), and the statistical method used for building the classifier. In addition, cross-validation was associated with biased estimation of classification accuracy in the over-optimistic direction for all three normalization methods. Normalization may improve the accuracy of molecular classification for data with confounding handling effects; however, it cannot circumvent the over-optimistic findings associated with cross-validation for assessing classification accuracy.

  11. Hybrid Imaging Labels: Providing the Link Between Mass Spectrometry-Based Molecular Pathology and Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Tessa; van der Wal, Steffen; van Malderen, Stijn J.M.; Müller, Larissa; Kuil, Joeri; van Unen, Vincent; Peters, Ruud J.B.; van Bemmel, Margaretha E.M.; McDonnell, Liam A.; Velders, Aldrik H.; Koning, Frits; Vanhaeke, Frank; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Development of theranostic concepts that include inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) imaging can be hindered by the lack of a direct comparison to more standardly used methods for in vitro and in vivo evaluation; e.g. fluorescence or nuclear medicine. In this study a bimodal (or rather, hybrid) tracer that contains both a fluorescent dye and a chelate was used to evaluate the existence of a direct link between mass spectrometry (MS) and in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging findings using fluorescence and radioisotopes. At the same time, the hybrid label was used to determine whether the use of a single isotope label would allow for MS-based diagnostics. Methods: A hybrid label that contained both a DTPA chelate (that was coordinated with either 165Ho or 111In) and a Cy5 fluorescent dye was coupled to the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) targeting peptide Ac-TZ14011 (hybrid-Cy5-Ac-TZ4011). This receptor targeting tracer was used to 1) validate the efficacy of (165Ho-based) mass-cytometry in determining the receptor affinity via comparison with fluorescence-based flow cytometry (Cy5), 2) evaluate the microscopic binding pattern of the tracer in tumor cells using both fluorescence confocal imaging (Cy5) and LA-ICP-MS-imaging (165Ho), 3) compare in vivo biodistribution patterns obtained with ICP-MS (165Ho) and radiodetection (111In) after intravenous administration of hybrid-Cy5-Ac-TZ4011 in tumor-bearing mice. Finally, LA-ICP-MS-imaging (165Ho) was linked to fluorescence-based analysis of excised tissue samples (Cy5). Results: Analysis with both mass-cytometry and flow cytometry revealed a similar receptor affinity, respectively 352 ± 141 nM and 245 ± 65 nM (p = 0.08), but with a much lower detection sensitivity for the first modality. In vitro LA-ICP-MS imaging (165Ho) enabled clear discrimination between CXCR4 positive and negative cells, but fluorescence microscopy was required to determine the

  12. Quantitative study of luminescence optical tomography. Application to sources localisation in molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffety, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a major modality in the field of preclinical research. Among the existing methods, techniques based on optical detection of visible or near infrared radiation are the most recent and are mainly represented by luminescence optical tomography techniques. These methods allow for 3D characterization of a biological medium by reconstructing maps of concentration or localisation of luminescent beacons sensitive to biological and chemical processes at the molecular or cellular scale. Luminescence optical tomography is based on a model of light propagation in tissues, a protocol for acquiring surface signal and a numerical inversion procedure used to reconstruct the parameters of interest. This thesis is structured around these three axes and provides an answer to each problem. The main objective of this study is to introduce and present the tools to evaluate the theoretical performances of optical tomography methods. One of its major outcomes is the realisation of experimental tomographic reconstructions from images acquired by an optical imager designed for 2D planar imaging and developed by the company Quidd. In a first step we develop the theory of transport in scattering medium to establish the concept on which our work will rely. We present two different propagation models as well as resolution methods and theoretical difficulties associated with them. In a second part we introduce the statistical tools used to characterise tomographic systems. We define and apply a procedure to simple situations in luminescence optical tomography. The last part of this work presents the development of an inversion procedure. After introducing the theoretical framework we validate the procedure from numerical data before successfully applying it to experimental measurements. (author) [fr

  13. Molecular imaging of atherosclerosis in mice with MRI and near-infrared fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Tong; Wen Song; Zhou Guanhui; Ju Shenghong; Teng Gaojun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of detecting atherosclerotic plaques with 7.0 T MRI and near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) using molecular imaging probes. Methods: Atherosclerotic plaques were established in male atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed with high-cholesterol diet for 20 weeks. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice were used as negative controls. 7.0 T MRI was performed before and 36 h after intravenously administration of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particle of iron oxide (USPIO). NIR 797 was conjugated with anti-mouse-oxidized modified low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) antibodies to construct an anti-oxLDL-Ab-NIR 797 probe while non-specific IgG-NIR 797 and PBS used as controls. NIRF was performed 24 h after tail vein injection of the probe. Independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to analyze the data by SPSS 17.0. Results: In APOE-/-mice, in vivo 36 h post-USPIO T 2 WI images revealed strong focal signal loss in the abdominal aorta than that of pre-USPIO, with relative signal intensity 0.70 ± 0.04 and 1.28 ± 0.06, respectively (t=3.376, P<0.05). The percent of signal reduced was (-56.58 ± 4.25)%. The Prussian blue staining confirmed the depositions of iron particles in the plaque lesions. Significant fluorochrome accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques was demonstrated in aortic root, aortic arch and the starting of descending aorta 24 h after injection of the anti-oxLDL-Ab-NIR 797 probe. Minimal antibody uptake was observed in normal vessels from wild-type mice receiving the anti-oxLDL-Ab-NIR 797 (SNR: 2.29 ± 1.11) and in atherosclerotic vessels from ApoE-/- mice receiving the non-specific IgG-NIR 797 (19.58 ±3.06) or PBS (4.19 ±0.82), which was significantly different from the uptake of anti-oxLDL-Ab-NIR 797 group (42.51 ±5.24, F=25.104, P<0.05). Comparison between oil red O staining and NIRF 24 h after injection of NIR 797 labeled oxLDL-antibody revealed a significant correlation (r=0.738, P

  14. Clinical applications of perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for molecular imaging and targeted therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Trung D; Caruthers, Shelton D; Hughes, Michael; Marsh, John N; Cyrus, Tillmann; Winter, Patrick M; Neubauer, Anne M; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a novel tool that has allowed non-invasive diagnostic imaging to transition from gross anatomical description to identification of specific tissue epitopes and observation of biological processes at the cellular level. This technique has been confined to the field of nuclear imaging; however, recent advances in nanotechnology have extended this research to include ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The exploitation of nanotechnology for MR and US molecul...

  15. Molecular image-guided radiation treatment planing using biological target volume (BTV)for advanced esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamamura, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Makoto; Bou, Sayuri; Satou, Yoshitaka; Minami, Hiroki; Saga, Yusuke; Aoyama, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Kawamura, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    As the biological mechanisms of cancer cell proliferation become clear at molecular level, 'precision therapy' is attracting a great attention, in which the irradiation dose and area are determined in consideration of these molecular mechanism. For this sophisticated radiotherapy, it is essential to evaluate the tumor morphology and proliferation/activation of cancer cells before radiation treatment planning. Generally, cancer cells start to proliferate when their activity levels increase, and subsequently primary tumor or metastatic tumor that can De recognized by CT scan or MRI start to develop. Thus, when proliferation of cancer cells occurs and tumor start to develop, a vast amount of energy is required for proliferation and cancer cells obtain a part of this energy from glucose in the body. Therefore, we can get the information on the status of metabolism and density of cancer cells by PET using F-18-FDG, which is structurally similar to glucose. It is a general belief that, when conducting evaluation using F18-FDG-PET, evaluation of proliferation of cancer cells before tumor formation might be possible at the cell level by evaluating and visualizing glucose metabolism in cancer cells that proliferate in a manner that they cannot be visualized morphologically by using CT scan or MRI. Therefore, when performing sophisticated precision radiotherapy, it is important to implement radiation treatment plan including information obtained from FDG-PET imaging. Many studies have reported usefulness of FDG-PET imaging for esophagus cancer so far, indicating the efficacy of using FDG-PET imaging for radiation treatment plan of esophagus cancer as well. However, few studies have described how to use FDG-PET imaging for radiation treatment plan for esophagus cancer. In this review, therefore, we will outline the usefulness of molecular image-guided radiation treatment plan, in which biological target volume (BTV) and the actual radiation treatment plan using FDG

  16. Investigating Atmospheric Oxidation with Molecular Dynamics Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, W. G.; Case, A. S.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2013-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Earth's atmosphere constitute trace gas species emitted primarily from the biosphere, and are the subject of inquiry for a variety of air quality and climate studies. Reactions intiated (primarily) by the hydroxyl radical (OH) lead to a myriad of oxygenated species (OVOCs), which in turn are prone to further oxidation. Investigations of the role that VOC oxidation plays in tropospheric chemistry have brought to light two troubling scenarios: (1) VOCs are responsible in part for the production of two EPA-regulated pollutants---tropospheric ozone and organic aerosol---and (2) the mechanistic details of VOC oxidation remain convoluted and poorly understood. The latter issue hampers the implementation of near-explicit atmospheric simulations, and large discrepancies in OH reactivity exist between measurements and models at present. Such discrepancies underscore the need for a more thorough description of VOC oxidation. Time-of-flight measurements and ion-imaging techniques are viable options for resolving some of the mechanistic and energetic details of VOC oxidation. Molecular beam studies have the advantage of foregoing unwanted bimolecular reactions, allowing for the characterization of specific processes which must typically compete with the complex manifold of VOC oxidation pathways. The focus of this work is on the unimolecular channels of organic peroxy radical intermediates, which are necessarily generated during VOC oxidation. Such intermediates may isomerize and decompose into distinct chemical channels, enabling the unambiguous detection of each pathway. For instance, a (1 + 1') resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) scheme may be employed to detect carbon monoxide generated from a particular unimolecular process. A number of more subtle mechanistic details may be explored as well. By varying the mean free path of the peroxy radicals in a flow tube, the role of collisional quenching in these unimolecular

  17. Novel molecular imaging ligands targeting matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 for imaging of unstable atherosclerotic plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Hakimzadeh

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs may allow detection of atherosclerotic lesions vulnerable to rupture. In this study, we develop a novel radiolabelled compound that can target gelatinase MMP subtypes (MMP2/9 with high selectivity and inhibitory potency. Inhibitory potencies of several halogenated analogues of MMP subtype-selective inhibitors (N-benzenesulfonyliminodiacetyl monohydroxamates and N-halophenoxy-benzenesulfonyl iminodiacetyl monohydroxamates were in the nanomolar range for MMP2/9. The analogue with highest inhibitory potency and selectivity was radiolabelled with [123I], resulting in moderate radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity. Biodistribution studies in mice, revealed stabilization in blood 1 hour after intravenous bolus injection. Intravenous infusion of the radioligand and subsequent autoradiography of excised aortas showed tracer uptake in atheroprone mice. Distribution of the radioligand showed co-localization with MMP2/9 immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, we have developed a novel selective radiolabeled MMP2/9 inhibitor, suitable for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging that effectively targets atherosclerotic lesions in mice.

  18. Novel molecular imaging ligands targeting matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 for imaging of unstable atherosclerotic plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Ger; de Waard, Vivian; Lutgens, Esther; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; de Bruin, Kora; Piek, Jan J.; Eersels, Jos L. H.; Booij, Jan; Verberne, Hein J.; Windhorst, Albert D.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may allow detection of atherosclerotic lesions vulnerable to rupture. In this study, we develop a novel radiolabelled compound that can target gelatinase MMP subtypes (MMP2/9) with high selectivity and inhibitory potency. Inhibitory potencies of several halogenated analogues of MMP subtype-selective inhibitors (N-benzenesulfonyliminodiacetyl monohydroxamates and N-halophenoxy-benzenesulfonyl iminodiacetyl monohydroxamates) were in the nanomolar range for MMP2/9. The analogue with highest inhibitory potency and selectivity was radiolabelled with [123I], resulting in moderate radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity. Biodistribution studies in mice, revealed stabilization in blood 1 hour after intravenous bolus injection. Intravenous infusion of the radioligand and subsequent autoradiography of excised aortas showed tracer uptake in atheroprone mice. Distribution of the radioligand showed co-localization with MMP2/9 immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, we have developed a novel selective radiolabeled MMP2/9 inhibitor, suitable for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging that effectively targets atherosclerotic lesions in mice. PMID:29190653

  19. Molecular Imaging : Computer Reconstruction and Practice - Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molecular Imaging from Physical Principles to Computer Reconstruction and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2008-01-01

    This volume collects the lectures presented at the ninth ESI School held at Archamps (FR) in November 2006 and is dedicated to nuclear physics applications in molecular imaging. The lectures focus on the multiple facets of image reconstruction processing and management and illustrate the role of digital imaging in clinical practice. Medical computing and image reconstruction are introduced by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, relevant quality aspects, clinical performance and recent advancements in the field. Several stages of the imaging process are specifically addressed, e.g. optimisation of data acquisition and storage, distributed computing, physiology and detector modelling, computer algorithms for image reconstruction and measurement in tomography applications, for both clinical and biomedical research applications. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehen...

  20. Multimodality molecular imaging of disease progression in living ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    immune cell trafficking, stem cell therapy, transgenic animals and even molecular interactions in living subjects. .... measurement of the effect of absorbed electromagnetic ..... Changes in intracellular pH, electrical impulses by nerve cells and ...

  1. Molecular imaging of serotonin degeneration in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gwenn S; Barrett, Frederick S; Joo, Jin Hui; Nassery, Najlla; Savonenko, Alena; Sodums, Devin J; Marano, Christopher M; Munro, Cynthia A; Brandt, Jason; Kraut, Michael A; Zhou, Yun; Wong, Dean F; Workman, Clifford I

    2017-09-01

    Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions and is found in high concentrations in the serotonergic cell bodies of origin of these projections (raphe nuclei). Twenty-eight participants with mild cognitive impairment (age 66.6±6.9, 16 males) and 28 healthy, cognitively normal, demographically matched controls (age 66.2±7.1, 15 males) underwent magnetic resonance imaging for measurement of grey matter volumes and high-resolution positron emission tomography with well-established radiotracers for the serotonin transporter and regional cerebral blood flow. Beta-amyloid imaging was performed to evaluate, in combination with the neuropsychological testing, the likelihood of subsequent cognitive decline in the participants with mild cognitive impairment. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) the serotonin transporter would be lower in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic regions, 2) in mild cognitive impairment relative to controls, the serotonin transporter would be lower to a greater extent and observed in a more widespread pattern than lower grey matter volumes or lower regional cerebral blood flow and 3) lower cortical and limbic serotonin transporters would be correlated with greater deficits in auditory-verbal and visual-spatial memory in mild cognitive impairment, not in controls. Reduced serotonin transporter availability was observed in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic

  2. Color image definition evaluation method based on deep learning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Li, YingChun

    2018-01-01

    In order to evaluate different blurring levels of color image and improve the method of image definition evaluation, this paper proposed a method based on the depth learning framework and BP neural network classification model, and presents a non-reference color image clarity evaluation method. Firstly, using VGG16 net as the feature extractor to extract 4,096 dimensions features of the images, then the extracted features and labeled images are employed in BP neural network to train. And finally achieve the color image definition evaluation. The method in this paper are experimented by using images from the CSIQ database. The images are blurred at different levels. There are 4,000 images after the processing. Dividing the 4,000 images into three categories, each category represents a blur level. 300 out of 400 high-dimensional features are trained in VGG16 net and BP neural network, and the rest of 100 samples are tested. The experimental results show that the method can take full advantage of the learning and characterization capability of deep learning. Referring to the current shortcomings of the major existing image clarity evaluation methods, which manually design and extract features. The method in this paper can extract the images features automatically, and has got excellent image quality classification accuracy for the test data set. The accuracy rate is 96%. Moreover, the predicted quality levels of original color images are similar to the perception of the human visual system.

  3. Current applications of molecular imaging and luminescence-based techniques in traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Wan, Haitong; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2011-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is fundamentally different from Western medicine, has been widely investigated using various approaches. Cellular- or molecular-based imaging has been used to investigate and illuminate the various challenges identified and progress made using therapeutic methods in TCM. Insight into the processes of TCM at the cellular and molecular changes and the ability to image these processes will enhance our understanding of various diseases of TCM and will provide new tools to diagnose and treat patients. Various TCM therapies including herbs and formulations, acupuncture and moxibustion, massage, Gua Sha, and diet therapy have been analyzed using positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and optical imaging. These imaging tools have kept pace with developments in molecular biology, nuclear medicine, and computer technology. We provide an overview of recent developments in demystifying ancient knowledge - like the power of energy flow and blood flow meridians, and serial naturopathies - which are essential to visually and vividly recognize the body using modern technology. In TCM, treatment can be individualized in a holistic or systematic view that is consistent with molecular imaging technologies. Future studies might include using molecular imaging in conjunction with TCM to easily diagnose or monitor patients naturally and noninvasively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular Imaging Biomarkers of Resistance to Radiation Therapy for Spontaneous Nasal Tumors in Canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, Tyler J. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bowen, Stephen R. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Deveau, Michael A. [Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas (United States); Kubicek, Lyndsay [Angell Animal Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); White, Pamela [Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bentzen, Søren M. [Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chappell, Richard J. [Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Forrest, Lisa J. [Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Jeraj, Robert, E-mail: rjeraj@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Human Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Imaging biomarkers of resistance to radiation therapy can inform and guide treatment management. Most studies have so far focused on assessing a single imaging biomarker. The goal of this study was to explore a number of different molecular imaging biomarkers as surrogates of resistance to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two canine patients with spontaneous sinonasal tumors were treated with accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy, receiving either 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy each or 10 fractions of 5.0 Gy each to the gross tumor volume. Patients underwent fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-, fluorothymidine (FLT)-, and Cu(II)-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM)-labeled positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging before therapy and FLT and Cu-ATSM PET/CT imaging during therapy. In addition to conventional maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}) measurements, imaging metrics providing response and spatiotemporal information were extracted for each patient. Progression-free survival was assessed according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumor. The prognostic value of each imaging biomarker was evaluated using univariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Multivariable analysis was also performed but was restricted to 2 predictor variables due to the limited number of patients. The best bivariable model was selected according to pseudo-R{sup 2}. Results: The following variables were significantly associated with poor clinical outcome following radiation therapy according to univariable analysis: tumor volume (P=.011), midtreatment FLT SUV{sub mean} (P=.018), and midtreatment FLT SUV{sub max} (P=.006). Large decreases in FLT SUV{sub mean} from pretreatment to midtreatment were associated with worse clinical outcome (P=.013). In the bivariable model, the best 2-variable combination for predicting poor outcome was high midtreatment FLT SUV{sub max} (P=.022) in

  5. Molecular Imaging Biomarkers of Resistance to Radiation Therapy for Spontaneous Nasal Tumors in Canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, Tyler J.; Bowen, Stephen R.; Deveau, Michael A.; Kubicek, Lyndsay; White, Pamela; Bentzen, Søren M.; Chappell, Richard J.; Forrest, Lisa J.; Jeraj, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Imaging biomarkers of resistance to radiation therapy can inform and guide treatment management. Most studies have so far focused on assessing a single imaging biomarker. The goal of this study was to explore a number of different molecular imaging biomarkers as surrogates of resistance to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two canine patients with spontaneous sinonasal tumors were treated with accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy, receiving either 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy each or 10 fractions of 5.0 Gy each to the gross tumor volume. Patients underwent fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-, fluorothymidine (FLT)-, and Cu(II)-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM)-labeled positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging before therapy and FLT and Cu-ATSM PET/CT imaging during therapy. In addition to conventional maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV max ; SUV mean ) measurements, imaging metrics providing response and spatiotemporal information were extracted for each patient. Progression-free survival was assessed according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumor. The prognostic value of each imaging biomarker was evaluated using univariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Multivariable analysis was also performed but was restricted to 2 predictor variables due to the limited number of patients. The best bivariable model was selected according to pseudo-R 2 . Results: The following variables were significantly associated with poor clinical outcome following radiation therapy according to univariable analysis: tumor volume (P=.011), midtreatment FLT SUV mean (P=.018), and midtreatment FLT SUV max (P=.006). Large decreases in FLT SUV mean from pretreatment to midtreatment were associated with worse clinical outcome (P=.013). In the bivariable model, the best 2-variable combination for predicting poor outcome was high midtreatment FLT SUV max (P=.022) in combination with large FLT response from

  6. Lipid-based nanoparticles for magnetic resonance molecular imaging : design, characterization, and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis research is described which was aimed to develop lipidic nanoparticles for the investigation and visualization of atherosclerosis and angiogenesis with both magnetic resonance molecular imaging and optical techniques. The underlying rationale for this is that conventional MR imaging

  7. Lipid-based nanoparticles for contrast-enhanced MRI and molecular imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Willem J. M.; Strijkers, Gustav J.; van Tilborg, Geralda A. F.; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2006-01-01

    In the field of MR imaging and especially in the emerging field of cellular and molecular MR imaging, flexible strategies to synthesize contrast agents that can be manipulated in terms of size and composition and that can be easily conjugated with targeting ligands are required. Furthermore, the

  8. Molecular imaging for theranostics in gastroenterology: one stone to kill two birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwang Hyun; Kown, Chang-Il; Park, Jong Min; Lee, Hoo Geun; Han, Na Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2014-09-01

    Molecular imaging in gastroenterology has become more feasible with recent advances in imaging technology, molecular genetics, and next-generation biochemistry, in addition to advances in endoscopic imaging techniques including magnified high-resolution endoscopy, narrow band imaging or autofluorescence imaging, flexible spectral imaging color enhancement, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. These developments have the potential to serve as "red flag" techniques enabling the earlier and accurate detection of mucosal abnormalities (such as precancerous lesions) beyond biomarkers, virtual histology of detected lesions, and molecular targeted therapy-the strategy of "one stone to kill two or three birds"; however, more effort should be done to be "blue ocean" benefit. This review deals with the introduction of Raman spectroscopy endoscopy, imaging mass spectroscopy, and nanomolecule development for theranostics. Imaging of molecular pathological changes in cells/tissues/organs might open the "royal road" to either convincing diagnosis of diseases that otherwise would only be detected in the advanced stages or novel therapeutic methods targeted to personalized medicine.

  9. PBCA-based polymeric microbubbles for molecular imaging and drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koczera, Patrick; Appold, Lia; Shi, Yang; Liu, Mengjiao; Dasgupta, Anshuman; Pathak, Vertika; Ojha, Tarun; Fokong, Stanley; Wu, Zhuojun; Van Zandvoort, Marc; Iranzo, Olga; Kuehne, Alexander J C; Pich, Andrij; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2017-01-01

    Microbubbles (MB) are routinely used as contrast agents for ultrasound (US) imaging. We describe different types of targeted and drug-loaded poly(n-butyl cyanoacrylate) (PBCA) MB, and demonstrate their suitability for multiple biomedical applications, including molecular US imaging and US-mediated

  10. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared

  11. PET molecular imaging of peripheral and central inflammatory processes targeting the TSPO 18 kDa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernards, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the in vivo potential of the TSPO 18 kDa as a bio-marker of inflammation, with the use of its radioligand [ 18 F]DPA-714, to non-invasively quantify the inflammatory state within the scope of various pathologies. Multiple animal models of various inflammatory diseases, to include: inflammatory bowel disease, neuro-inflammation, and septic shock, were developed and put in place by adapted measures. The animals well-being and the subsequent inflammation was evaluated. The inflammatory state was measured using quantitative PET imaging with the TSPO radioligand [ 18 F]DPA-714 and correlated to the expression of conventional inflammatory markers using microscopy. Based on the observed data, we were able to distinguish control groups from treated groups when using [ 18 F]DPA-714. This TSPO radioligand permitted us to quantify the inflammatory level and to observe evolutionary changes in the inflammatory state of the disease in multiple models. The PET results, using the [ 18 F]DPA-714 signal was correlated with an increased TSPO expression at cellular level. Results indicate that [ 18 F]DPA-714 is a suitable tracer for studying inflammation of multiple diseases. [ 18 F]DPA-714 could be a good molecular probe to non-invasively evaluate the level and localization of inflammation. Moreover, in vivo imaging using this TSPO ligand is potentially a powerful tool to stage and certainly to follow the evolution and therapeutic efficiency at molecular level in inflammatory diseases. (author) [fr

  12. Applications of the Preclinical Molecular Imaging in Biomedicine: Gene Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, M.; Peñuelas, I.

    2014-01-01

    Gene therapy constitutes a promising option for efficient and targeted treatment of several inherited disorders. Imaging techniques using ionizing radiation as PET or SPECT are used for non-invasive monitoring of the distribution and kinetics of vector-mediated gene expression. In this review the main reporter gene/reporter probe strategies are summarized, as well as the contribution of preclinical models to the development of this new imaging modality previously to its application in clinical arena. [es

  13. Nanotechnology-Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    percent of invasive carcinoma and grows slowly over the course of years. It is very soft and looks like gray-blue gelatin . Two other invasive...Nitin, N., D. J. Javier, et al. (2007). "Widefield and high-resolution reflectance imaging of gold and silver nanospheres." J Biomed Opt 12(5...2010. “Widefield and High-resolution Reflectance Imaging of Gold and Silver Nanospheres.” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12 (5): 051505. doi:10.1117

  14. An LG-graph-based early evaluation of segmented images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitsoulis, Athanasios; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation is one of the first important parts of image analysis and understanding. Evaluation of image segmentation, however, is a very difficult task, mainly because it requires human intervention and interpretation. In this work, we propose a blind reference evaluation scheme based on regional local–global (RLG) graphs, which aims at measuring the amount and distribution of detail in images produced by segmentation algorithms. The main idea derives from the field of image understanding, where image segmentation is often used as a tool for scene interpretation and object recognition. Evaluation here derives from summarization of the structural information content and not from the assessment of performance after comparisons with a golden standard. Results show measurements for segmented images acquired from three segmentation algorithms, applied on different types of images (human faces/bodies, natural environments and structures (buildings)). (paper)

  15. First PET Center in Mexico: the power of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila R, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique modality. It represents the forefront of medical images and was developed as a quantitative technique for imaging biochemical and physiological processes in the human body. PET is unique because it produces images of the body's basic biochemistry or function. Traditional diagnostic techniques such as x-rays, CT scans or MRI, produce images of the body's anatomy or structure. The premise with these techniques is that the change in anatomy or structure that occurs with disease can be seen. However, biochemical processes are also altered with disease and may occur before there is a change gross anatomy. PET is an imaging technique that is used to visualize some of these processes. The development of PET as we know it today began in 1974 with the development of a single ring detector system by Phelps et al. Today, over 350 PET scanners are in use in the world, mainly in the USA (over 140), Europe (particularly in the Anglo-Saxon countries and France) and Japan. Many of these facilities also have their own cyclotron to produce the positron emitters. In the Southern hemisphere, only Australia, Argentina. and recently Mexico, have a very small number of PET facilities. (Author)

  16. First PET Center in Mexico: the power of molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila R, M.A. [Unidad PET, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM (Mexico)

    2001-09-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique modality. It represents the forefront of medical images and was developed as a quantitative technique for imaging biochemical and physiological processes in the human body. PET is unique because it produces images of the body's basic biochemistry or function. Traditional diagnostic techniques such as x-rays, CT scans or MRI, produce images of the body's anatomy or structure. The premise with these techniques is that the change in anatomy or structure that occurs with disease can be seen. However, biochemical processes are also altered with disease and may occur before there is a change gross anatomy. PET is an imaging technique that is used to visualize some of these processes. The development of PET as we know it today began in 1974 with the development of a single ring detector system by Phelps et al. Today, over 350 PET scanners are in use in the world, mainly in the USA (over 140), Europe (particularly in the Anglo-Saxon countries and France) and Japan. Many of these facilities also have their own cyclotron to produce the positron emitters. In the Southern hemisphere, only Australia, Argentina. and recently Mexico, have a very small number of PET facilities. (Author)

  17. Autonomic innervation of the heart. Role of molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slart, Riemer H.J.A; Elsinga, Philip H. [Univ. Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Tio, Rene A. [Univ. Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Thorax Center Cardiology; Schwaiger, Markus (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik

    2015-03-01

    Reviews in detail the value of SPECT-CT and PET-CT in the imaging of cardiac innervation. Details the role of imaging in a range of conditions and diseases. Includes important background on pathophysiology, tracers, radiopharmaceutical production, and kinetic modeling software. This book explains in detail the potential value of the hybrid modalities, SPECT-CT and PET-CT, in the imaging of cardiac innervation in a wide range of conditions and diseases, including ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, amyloidosis, heart transplantation, and ventricular arrhythmias. Imaging of the brain-heart axis in neurodegenerative disease and stress and of cardiotoxicity is also discussed. The roles of the various available tracers are fully considered, and individual chapters address radiopharmaceutical development under GMP, imaging physics, and kinetic modeling software. Highly relevant background information is included on the autonomic nervous system of the heart and its pathophysiology, and in addition future perspectives are discussed. Awareness of the importance of autonomic innervation of the heart for the optimal management of cardiac patients is growing, and there is an evident need for objective measurement techniques or imaging modalities. In this context, Autonomic Innervation of the Heart will be of wide interest to clinicians, researchers, and industry.

  18. Autonomic innervation of the heart. Role of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slart, Riemer H.J.A; Elsinga, Philip H.; Tio, Rene A.; Schwaiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Reviews in detail the value of SPECT-CT and PET-CT in the imaging of cardiac innervation. Details the role of imaging in a range of conditions and diseases. Includes important background on pathophysiology, tracers, radiopharmaceutical production, and kinetic modeling software. This book explains in detail the potential value of the hybrid modalities, SPECT-CT and PET-CT, in the imaging of cardiac innervation in a wide range of conditions and diseases, including ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, amyloidosis, heart transplantation, and ventricular arrhythmias. Imaging of the brain-heart axis in neurodegenerative disease and stress and of cardiotoxicity is also discussed. The roles of the various available tracers are fully considered, and individual chapters address radiopharmaceutical development under GMP, imaging physics, and kinetic modeling software. Highly relevant background information is included on the autonomic nervous system of the heart and its pathophysiology, and in addition future perspectives are discussed. Awareness of the importance of autonomic innervation of the heart for the optimal management of cardiac patients is growing, and there is an evident need for objective measurement techniques or imaging modalities. In this context, Autonomic Innervation of the Heart will be of wide interest to clinicians, researchers, and industry.

  19. Integrated Molecular Imaging and Therapy for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2008-01-01

    ...) and NIR dosing of cancer cells using SWCNT. While previous studies have shown the transport of DNA into cells using nanotubes, in this study we show multi-component molecular targeting of both IGF1R and Her2 surface markers in cancer cells...

  20. Development of neuroradiology. From the visualization of bones to molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.

    2005-01-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays, rapid and significant progress has been and continues to be made in imaging techniques, particularly neuroradiology. Milestones along the way included use of contrast agents, digital subtraction angiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The most recent achievements are visualization of cerebral activation and fiber systems in the brain parenchyma. Application of new contrast agents seems to make imaging at the ''molecular'' level also possible. (orig.) [de

  1. SPECT and PET Serve as Molecular Imaging Techniques and in Vivo Biomarkers for Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Barbara; Buresta, Tommaso; Nuvoli, Susanna; Spanu, Angela; Schillaci, Orazio; Fravolini, Mario Luca; Palumbo, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear medicine techniques (single photon emission computerized tomography, SPECT, and positron emission tomography, PET) represent molecular imaging tools, able to provide in vivo biomarkers of different diseases. To investigate brain tumours and metastases many different radiopharmaceuticals imaged by SPECT and PET can be used. In this review the main and most promising radiopharmaceuticals available to detect brain metastases are reported. Furthermore the diagnostic contribution of the combination of SPECT and PET data with radiological findings (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) is discussed. PMID:24897023

  2. The preoperative imaging evaluation for cochlear implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhonglin; Wang Zhenchang; Fu Lin; Li Yong; Xian Junfang; Yang Bentao; Lan Baosen; Li Yongxin; Zheng Jun; Song Yan; Liu Bo; Chen Xueqing; He Haili

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze CT and MRI findings of temporal bone and to evaluate preoperative diagnostic value for cochlear implantation. Methods: One hundred and sixty candidates for cochlear implantation were examined with axial CT scan, 64 of them also with coronal CT scan, and 119 patients with MRI. Results: All of 320 ears were well-aerated, and 206 ears had mastoid cavities extended posteriorly to the sigmoid sinus. The length from posterior-lateral tympanic wall to the outer cortex was (2.34±0.42) mm (left side) and (2.25±0.40) mm (right side) (U=1.887, P 1 and T 2 signal on MRI. The congenital malformations of inner ear occurred in 67 ears, including complete dysplasia in 1 ear, cochlear hypodysplasia in 6 ears, Mondini deformation in 5 ears, enlarged vestibular aqueduct in 40 ears, dysplastic semicircular canal and the vestibulae in 10 ears, and narrowing of internal auditory canal in 5 ears. Conclusion: Preoperative imaging examinations can provide critical information to ensure successful cochlear' implantation. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of horizontal magnification on panoramic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the horizontal magnification of images taken from adults and pediatrics with PM 2002 CC Planmeca analogue machine. Materials and Methods: A series of 120 panoramic radiographs were obtained of 60 adults and 60 pediatrics. For all patients, negative impressions were used to make positive casts of the teeth. A caliper was used to measure the maximum mesiodistal length of the buccal surface of all teeth except canines on both casts and radiographs. The horizontal magnification factor was calculated for incisor, premolar, and molar regions by dividing the values obtained from the casts by the values obtained from the radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: The results indicated that with regard to adults, maxillary and mandibular incisor regions, unlike the other two sessions, didn′t show significant difference of the mean magnification of horizontal dimension (P = 0.5. In pediatrics, the comparison between mean magnification factors of all subgroups showed significant difference (P < 0.0001. Despite the adults′ radiographs, the results of pediatrics′ radiographs showed significantly higher magnification than the index listed by the manufacturer of the radiographic machine used. Conclusion: The present study results point to the fact that PM 2002 CC Proline panoramic machine makes possible precise measurements on radiographs of adults′ jaws in the horizontal dimension.

  4. Coronary magnetic resonance imaging: visualization of the vessel lumen and the vessel wall and molecular imaging of arteriothrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuentrup, Elmar; Botnar, Rene M.

    2006-01-01

    Coronary magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has dramatically emerged over the last decade. Technical improvements have enabled reliable visualization of the proximal and midportion of the coronary artery tree for exclusion of significant coronary artery disease. However, current technical developments focus also on direct visualization of the diseased coronary vessel wall and imaging of coronary plaque because plaques without stenoses are typically more vulnerable with higher risk of plaque rupture. Plaque rupture with subsequent thrombosis and vessel occlusion is the main cause of myocardial infarction. Very recently, the first success of molecular imaging in the coronary arteries has been demonstrated using a fibrin-specific contrast agent for selective visualization of coronary thrombosis. This demonstrates in general the high potential of molecular MR imaging in the field of coronary artery disease. In this review, we will address recent technical advances in coronary MR imaging, including visualization of the lumen and the vessel wall and molecular imaging of coronary arteriothrombosis. First results of these new approaches will be discussed. (orig.)

  5. From molecular imaging to systems diagnostics: Time for another paradigm shift?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, King C.P. [Department of Radiology, Methodist Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, 6565 Fannin Street, D280 Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: kli@tmhs.org

    2009-05-15

    The term 'Molecular Imaging' has hit the consciousness of radiologists only in the past decade although many of the concepts that molecular imaging encompasses has been practiced in biomedical imaging, especially in nuclear medicine, for many decades. Many new imaging techniques have allowed us to interrogate biologic events at the cellular and molecular level in vivo in four dimensions but the challenge now is to translate these techniques into clinical practice in a way that will enable us to revolutionize healthcare delivery. The purpose of this article is to introduce the term 'Systems Diagnostics' and examine how radiologists can become translators of disparate sources of information into medical decisions and therapeutic actions.

  6. Potentials and limits of modern tomographic methods (CT, MR, PET) in molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, M.; Paul, D.; Moser, E.; Brink, I.

    2007-01-01

    The present survey gives an introduction into the basics of computed tomography, magnetic resonance tomography and positron emission tomography. The current potentials of these methods in relation to their temporal, spatial and contrast resolutions as well as their sensitivities within clinical routine and experimental studies (in vitro, ex vivo) will be presented. Computed tomography constitutes the anatomical reference method with well defined contrast, high spatial resolution but low sensitivity (10 -2 mol/l) for functional and molecular imaging. Magnetic resonance tomography represents the anatomical method for research with variable tissue contrast, physiological image information, highest spatial resolution but moderate sensitivity (10 -3 -10 -5 mol/l) for functional and molecular imaging. Positron emission tomography offers good suitability for molecular imaging due to highest sensitivity (10 -11 -10 -12 mol/l). However, the spatial resolution of positron emission tomography is low. (orig.)

  7. Integration of molecular imaging in treatment planning and delivery of modern radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, V.; Wilkens, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Among various imaging modalities currently available, positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to visualize processes on a molecular level. Molecular imaging, often also referred to as functional or biological imaging, brought a new dimension to diagnostics and therapy of cancer by providing images of metabolism and other processes in the human body and in tumours. PET was first applied for diagnostics and staging of various tumours with high diagnostic precision. Modern radiotherapy asks increasingly for individualized treatment strategies, taking molecular imaging into account. Technical developments over the last years, in particular methods to register various imaging modalities within software packages for treatment planning and target delineation, facilitated the use of PET imaging in radiotherapy. In order to exploit the full potential of modern high-precision radiotherapy, exact imaging procedures are necessary, for example for precise target volume definition. In the long run, concepts employing an inhomogeneous dose prescription based on biological imaging may become routine in clinical applications, leading to individualized, biologically adaptive therapy. (orig.)

  8. Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets, Complementary/Innovative Treatment, and Therapeutic Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Therapeutic and Imaging Agents to Lung Cancer (PI and co-PI: Renata Pasqualini , Ph.D., Wadih Arap, M.D., Ph.D.) The studies outlined in this proposal...with Drs. Pasqualini , Arap, and Wistuba. The IHC staining of lung cancer TMAs (390 cases) has been completed. We are working with investigators to...Project 3, R. Pasqualini ). This project was completed and a manuscript is in preparation by Dr. Pasqualini’s lab. b) Molecular abnormalities

  9. The research progress of dual-modality probes for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Feng; Chen Yue

    2010-01-01

    Various imaging modalities have been exploited to investigate the anatomic or functional dissemination of tissues in the body. However, no single imaging modality allows overall structural, functional, and molecular information as each imaging modality has its own unique strengths and weaknesses. The combination of two imaging modalities that investigates the strengths of different methods might offer the prospect of improved diagnostic abilities. As more and more dual-modality imaging system have become clinically adopted, significant progress has been made toward the creation of dual-modality imaging probes, which can be used as novel tools for future multimodality systems. These all-in-one probes take full advantage of two different imaging modalities and could provide comprehensive information for clinical diagnostics. This review discusses the advantages and challenges in developing dual-modality imaging probes. (authors)

  10. Utility of Digital Stereo Images for Optic Disc Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Gui-shuang; Pearson, Denise J.; Bansal, Mayank; Puri, Manika; Miller, Eydie; Alexander, Judith; Piltz-Seymour, Jody; Nyberg, William; Maguire, Maureen G.; Eledath, Jayan; Sawhney, Harpreet

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the suitability of digital stereo images for optic disc evaluations in glaucoma. Methods. Stereo color optic disc images in both digital and 35-mm slide film formats were acquired contemporaneously from 29 subjects with various cup-to-disc ratios (range, 0.26–0.76; median, 0.475). Using a grading scale designed to assess image quality, the ease of visualizing optic disc features important for glaucoma diagnosis, and the comparative diameters of the optic disc cup, experienced observers separately compared the primary digital stereo images to each subject's 35-mm slides, to scanned images of the same 35-mm slides, and to grayscale conversions of the digital images. Statistical analysis accounted for multiple gradings and comparisons and also assessed image formats under monoscopic viewing. Results. Overall, the quality of primary digital color images was judged superior to that of 35-mm slides (P digital color images were mostly equivalent to the scanned digitized images of the same slides. Color seemingly added little to grayscale optic disc images, except that peripapillary atrophy was best seen in color (P digital over film images was maintained under monoscopic viewing conditions. Conclusions. Digital stereo optic disc images are useful for evaluating the optic disc in glaucoma and allow the application of advanced image processing applications. Grayscale images, by providing luminance distinct from color, may be informative for assessing certain features. PMID:20505199

  11. Devices for Evaluating Imaging Systems. Chapter 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkaya, O.; Al-Mazrou, R. [Department of Biomedical Physics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-15

    A quality management system (QMS) has three main components: (a) Quality assurance (QA); (b) Quality improvement; (c) Quality control (QC). The aim of a QMS is to ensure that the deliverables meet the requirements set forth by the users. The deliverables can be, in general, all the services provided in a nuclear medicine department, and the diagnostic imaging services in particular. In this section, the primary focus is the diagnostic imaging equipment and images produced by them.

  12. Sacroiliitis: imaging evaluation; Sacroiliite: avaliacao por imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montandon, Cristiano; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Clinicas da Imagem e Multimagem, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio [Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: cmontandon@terra.com.br

    2007-01-15

    Sacroiliitis is a non-infectious inflammatory process involving the sacroiliac joint, and is a diagnostic criterion for seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Imaging methods are of great value for confirming the diagnosis of this condition. The present study is a review of cases included in didactic files and in the literature to illustrate the anatomy, techniques, and main imaging findings in x-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for determining the diagnosis of sacroiliitis, also approaching main differential diagnoses. (author)

  13. Medical image transmission via communication satellite: evaluation of ultrasonographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Horikoshi, H; Shiba, H; Shimamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    As compared with terrestrial circuits, communication satellites possess superior characteristics such as wide area coverage, broadcasting functions, high capacity, and resistance to disasters. Utilizing the narrow band channel (64 kbps) of the stationary communication satellite JCSAT1 located at an altitude of 36,000 km above the equator, we investigated satelliterelayed dynamic medical images transmitted by video signals, using hepatic ultrasonography as a model. We conclude that the "variable playing speed transmission scheme" proposed by us is effective for the transmission of dynamic images in the narrow band channel. This promises to permit diverse utilization and applications for purposes such as the transmission of other types of ultrasonic images as well as remotely directed medical diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Performance evaluation of breast image compression techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastassopoulos, G; Lymberopoulos, D [Wire Communications Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Patras, Greece (Greece); Panayiotakis, G; Bezerianos, A [Medical Physics Department, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Greece (Greece)

    1994-12-31

    Novel diagnosis orienting tele working systems manipulate, store, and process medical data through real time communication - conferencing schemes. One of the most important factors affecting the performance of these systems is image handling. Compression algorithms can be applied to the medical images, in order to minimize : a) the volume of data to be stored in the database, b) the demanded bandwidth from the network, c) the transmission costs, and to minimize the speed of the transmitted data. In this paper an estimation of all the factors of the process that affect the presentation of breast images is made, from the time the images are produced from a modality, till the compressed images are stored, or transmitted in a Broadband network (e.g. B-ISDN). The images used were scanned images of the TOR(MAX) Leeds breast phantom, as well as typical breast images. A comparison of seven compression techniques has been done, based on objective criteria such as Mean Square Error (MSE), resolution, contrast, etc. The user can choose the appropriate compression ratio in order to achieve the desired image quality. (authors). 12 refs, 4 figs.

  15. Performance evaluation of breast image compression techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassopoulos, G.; Lymberopoulos, D.; Panayiotakis, G.; Bezerianos, A.

    1994-01-01

    Novel diagnosis orienting tele working systems manipulate, store, and process medical data through real time communication - conferencing schemes. One of the most important factors affecting the performance of these systems is image handling. Compression algorithms can be applied to the medical images, in order to minimize : a) the volume of data to be stored in the database, b) the demanded bandwidth from the network, c) the transmission costs, and to minimize the speed of the transmitted data. In this paper an estimation of all the factors of the process that affect the presentation of breast images is made, from the time the images are produced from a modality, till the compressed images are stored, or transmitted in a Broadband network (e.g. B-ISDN). The images used were scanned images of the TOR(MAX) Leeds breast phantom, as well as typical breast images. A comparison of seven compression techniques has been done, based on objective criteria such as Mean Square Error (MSE), resolution, contrast, etc. The user can choose the appropriate compression ratio in order to achieve the desired image quality. (authors)

  16. Molecular imaging in the management of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyong-Huey Lai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and integrated 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET/computed tomography are valuable techniques for assessing prognosis, treatment response after the completion of concurrent chemoradiation, suspicious or documented recurrence, unexplained post therapy elevations in tumor markers, and the response to salvage treatment when managing cervical cancer. However, PET plays a limited role in the primary staging of MRI-defined node-negative patients. Currently, 18F-FDG is still the only tracer approved for routine use, but several novel targeting PET compounds, high-Tesla MRI machines, diffusion-weighted imaging without contrast, and dynamic nuclear polarized-enhanced 13C-MR spectroscopic imaging may hold promising applications.

  17. Evaluations of Molecular Nuclear Medicine in pediatric urgencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Duncker R, C.

    2000-01-01

    Several diagnostic procedures of Molecular Nuclear Medicine are considered in first choice in clinical evaluation of patients with different illnesses. So, the gammagraphy is the diagnostic form more sensitive to detect alterations of the perfusion on organs and systems such as bones, heart, brain, lungs or kidneys. Also is possible to identify, localize, evaluate the activity of inflammatory processes such as cellulitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, the abscesses and several primary or metastatic tumours before each other diagnostic technique. In this work is treated about the importance of treatments with radioactive materials have been an important reappearance in last years since with the present capacity to localize specifically intracellular processes (for example, synthesis of DNA) new gateways are opened to research which in coming years would be of great utility. (Author)

  18. Nanotechnology-Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    quantitatively and dynamically detect molecular markers of breast cancer in vivo without tissue removal or directly after removal in a surgical...hour oshells by c es, the nano ting to a fin ER2- positiv (CHTN) th tinction spect ter of 276 nm sert depicts co microscopy. n was visua rption...conclusively determine the penetration depth of the nanoshells. Additionally, a quantitative difference of the nanoshell signal at the surface of the Her2

  19. Evaluation of Strontium Selectivity by Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigali, Mark J.; Stewart, Thomas Austin

    2016-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has collaborated with Pleasanton Ridge Research Company (PRRC) to determine whether Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) and modified SOMs materials can be synthesized in large batches and produced in granular form. Sandia National Laboratories tested these SOMS and its variants based in aqueous chemical environments for an application-based evaluation of material performance as a sorbent. Testing focused primarily on determining the distribution coefficients (K d ) and chemical selectivity SOMs for alkali earth (Sr) ions in aqueous and dilute seawater solutions. In general the well-crystallized SOMS materials tested exhibited very high K d values (>10 6 ) in distilled water but K d values dropped substantially (%7E10 2 -10 3 ) in the dilute seawater (3%). However, one set of SOMS samples (1.4.2 and 1.4.6) provided by PRRC yielded relatively high K d (approaching 10 4 ) in dilute seawater. Further examination of these samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of at least two phases at least one of which may be accounting for the improved K d values in dilute seawater. Evaluation of Strontium Selectivity by Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) January 20, 2016

  20. Evaluations of Molecular Nuclear Medicine in pediatric urgencies; Evaluaciones de Medicina Nuclear Molecular en urgencias pediatricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Duncker R, C [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear Molecular, Hospital Infantil de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Several diagnostic procedures of Molecular Nuclear Medicine are considered in first choice in clinical evaluation of patients with different illnesses. So, the gammagraphy is the diagnostic form more sensitive to detect alterations of the perfusion on organs and systems such as bones, heart, brain, lungs or kidneys. Also is possible to identify, localize, evaluate the activity of inflammatory processes such as cellulitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, the abscesses and several primary or metastatic tumours before each other diagnostic technique. In this work is treated about the importance of treatments with radioactive materials have been an important reappearance in last years since with the present capacity to localize specifically intracellular processes (for example, synthesis of DNA) new gateways are opened to research which in coming years would be of great utility. (Author)

  1. Research on simulated infrared image utility evaluation using deep representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiheng; Mu, Chengpo; Yang, Yu; Xu, Lixin

    2018-01-01

    Infrared (IR) image simulation is an important data source for various target recognition systems. However, whether simulated IR images could be used as training data for classifiers depends on the features of fidelity and authenticity of simulated IR images. For evaluation of IR image features, a deep-representation-based algorithm is proposed. Being different from conventional methods, which usually adopt a priori knowledge or manually designed feature, the proposed method can extract essential features and quantitatively evaluate the utility of simulated IR images. First, for data preparation, we employ our IR image simulation system to generate large amounts of IR images. Then, we present the evaluation model of simulated IR image, for which an end-to-end IR feature extraction and target detection model based on deep convolutional neural network is designed. At last, the experiments illustrate that our proposed method outperforms other verification algorithms in evaluating simulated IR images. Cross-validation, variable proportion mixed data validation, and simulation process contrast experiments are carried out to evaluate the utility and objectivity of the images generated by our simulation system. The optimum mixing ratio between simulated and real data is 0.2≤γ≤0.3, which is an effective data augmentation method for real IR images.

  2. Performance evaluation of 2D image registration algorithms with the numeric image registration and comparison platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, G.; Kuvandjiev, V.; Dimitrova, I.; Mitev, K.; Kawrakow, I.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the capabilities of the NUMERICS web platform for evaluation of the performance of image registration algorithms. The NUMERICS platform is a web accessible tool which provides access to dedicated numerical algorithms for registration and comparison of medical images (http://numerics.phys.uni-sofia.bg). The platform allows comparison of noisy medical images by means of different types of image comparison algorithms, which are based on statistical tests for outliers. The platform also allows 2D image registration with different techniques like Elastic Thin-Plate Spline registration, registration based on rigid transformations, affine transformations, as well as non-rigid image registration based on Mobius transformations. In this work we demonstrate how the platform can be used as a tool for evaluation of the quality of the image registration process. We demonstrate performance evaluation of a deformable image registration technique based on Mobius transformations. The transformations are applied with appropriate cost functions like: Mutual information, Correlation coefficient, Sum of Squared Differences. The accent is on the results provided by the platform to the user and their interpretation in the context of the performance evaluation of 2D image registration. The NUMERICS image registration and image comparison platform provides detailed statistical information about submitted image registration jobs and can be used to perform quantitative evaluation of the performance of different image registration techniques. (authors)

  3. Perceptual evaluation of different image fusion schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; IJspeert, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    Human perceptual performance was tested with images of nighttime outdoor scenes. The scenes were registered both with a dual band (visual and near infrared) image intensified low-light CCD camera (DII) and with a thermal middle wavelength band (3-5 μm) infrared (IR) camera. Fused imagery was

  4. Perceptual evaluation of different image fusion schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Franken, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Human scene recognition performance was tested with images of night-time outdoor scenes. The scenes were registered both with a dual band (visual and near infrared) image intensified low-light CCD camera (DII) and with a thermal middle wavelength band (3–5 mm) infrared (IR) camera. Fused imagery was

  5. Evaluation of image quality of lumbar spine images: A comparison between FFE and VGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingberg, A.; Baath, M.; Haakansson, M.; Medin, J.; Besjakov, J.; Sandborg, M.; Alm-Carlsson, G.; Mattsson, S.; Maansson, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study is to compare two different methods for evaluation of the quality of clinical X-ray images. Methods: Based on fifteen lumbar spine radiographs, two new sets of images were created. A hybrid image set was created by adding two distributions of artificial lesions to each original image. The image quality parameters spatial resolution and noise were manipulated and a total of 210 hybrid images were created. A set of 105 disease-free images was created by applying the same combinations of spatial resolution and noise to the original images. The hybrid images were evaluated with the free-response forced error experiment (FFE) and the normal images with visual grading analysis (VGA) by nine experienced radiologists. Results: In the VGA study, images with low noise were preferred over images with higher noise levels. The alteration of the MTF had a limited influence on the VGA score. For the FFE study, the visibility of the lesions was independent of the sharpness and the noise level. No correlation was found between the two image quality measures. Conclusions: FFE is a precise method for evaluation of image quality, but the results are only valid for the type of lesion used in the study, whereas VGA is a more general method for clinical image quality assessment. The results of the FFE study indicate that there might be a potential to lower the dose levels in lumbar spine radiography without losing important diagnostic information. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of Marfan syndrome: MR imaging versus CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulen, R.L.; Fishman, E.K.; Pyeritz, R.E.; Gott, V.L.; Zerhouni, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with Marfan, syndrome underwent both CT and MR imaging. MR imaging were interpreted in blinded fashion and then compared with CT scans MR imaging was found to be equivalent to CT in the detection of aortic, dural, and hip abnormalities in patients not operated on. MR imaging was superior to CT in the evaluation of postoperative patients because the artifact produced by Bjork-Shirley or St. Jude valves precludes adequate evaluation of the aortic root on CT while producing only a small inferior field distortion (a ''pseudo-ventricular septal defect'') on MR imaging. The absence of radiation exposure is another major advantage of MR imaging in this relatively young population requiring serial studies. The authors conclude that MR imaging is the modality of choice for the evaluation and follow-up of patients with Marfan syndrome and offers an appropriate means of screening their kindred

  7. Towards imaging of ultrafast molecular dynamics using FELs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouzee, A.; Johnsson, P.; Rading, L.; Siu, W.; Huismans, Y.; Duesterer, S.; Redlin, H.; Tavella, F.; Stojanovic, N.; Al-Shemmary, A.; Lepine, F.; Holland, D. M. P.; Schlathölter, Thomas; Hoekstra, R.; Fukuzawa, H.; Ueda, K.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Hundertmark, A.

    2013-01-01

    The dissociation dynamics induced by a 100 fs, 400 nm laser pulse in a rotationally cold Br-2 sample was characterized by Coulomb explosion imaging (CEI) using a time-delayed extreme ultra-violet (XUV) FEL pulse, obtained from the Free electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH). The momentum distribution of

  8. Research on image complexity evaluation method based on color information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Duan, Jin; Han, Xue-hui; Xiao, Bo

    2017-11-01

    In order to evaluate the complexity of a color image more effectively and find the connection between image complexity and image information, this paper presents a method to compute the complexity of image based on color information.Under the complexity ,the theoretical analysis first divides the complexity from the subjective level, divides into three levels: low complexity, medium complexity and high complexity, and then carries on the image feature extraction, finally establishes the function between the complexity value and the color characteristic model. The experimental results show that this kind of evaluation method can objectively reconstruct the complexity of the image from the image feature research. The experimental results obtained by the method of this paper are in good agreement with the results of human visual perception complexity,Color image complexity has a certain reference value.

  9. Homing peptide guiding optical molecular imaging for the diagnosis of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-feng; Pang, Jian-zhi; Liu, Jie-hao; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Xing-you; Li, Jun; Liu, Reng-xin; Wang, Wei; Fan, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Zi-qiang; Yan, San-hua; Luo, Jun-qian; Zhang, Xiao-lei

    2014-11-01

    Background: The limitations of primary transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBt) have led the residual tumors rates as high as 75%. The intraoperative fluorescence imaging offers a great potential for improving TURBt have been confirmed. So we aim to distinguish the residual tumors and normal mucosa using fluorescence molecular imaging formed by conjugated molecule of the CSNRDARRC bladder cancer homing peptide with fluorescent dye. The conjugated molecule was abbreviated FIuo-ACP. In our study, we will research the image features of FIuo-ACP probe targeted bladder cancer for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Methods: After the FIuo-ACP probe was synthetized, the binding sites, factors affecting binding rates, the specificity and the targeting of Fluo-ACP labeled with bladder cancer cells were studied respectively by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), immunofluorescence and multispectral fluorescence ex vivo optical molecular imaging system. Results: The binding sites were located in nucleus and the binding rates were correlated linearly with the dose of probe and the grade of pathology. Moreover, the probe has a binding specificity with bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Tumor cells being labeled by the Fluo-ACP, bright green spots were observed under LSCM. The tissue samples and tumor cells can be labeled and identified by fluorescence microscope. Optical molecular imaging of xenograft tumor tissues was exhibited as fluorescent spots under EMCCD. Conclusion: The CSNRDARRC peptides might be a useful bladder cancer targeting vector. The FIuo-ACP molecular probe was suitable for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo.

  10. Translation of New Molecular Imaging Approaches to the Clinical Setting: Bridging the Gap to Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Es, Suzanne C; Venema, Clasina M; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Elias, Sjoerd G; Boellaard, Ronald; Hospers, Geke A P; Schröder, Carolina P; de Vries, Elisabeth G E

    2016-02-01

    Molecular imaging with PET is a rapidly emerging technique. In breast cancer patients, more than 45 different PET tracers have been or are presently being tested. With a good rationale, after development of the tracer and proven feasibility, it is of interest to evaluate whether there is a potential meaningful role for the tracer in the clinical setting-such as in staging, in the (early) prediction of a treatment response, or in supporting drug choices. So far, only (18)F-FDG PET has been incorporated into breast cancer guidelines. For proof of the clinical relevance of tracers, especially for analysis in a multicenter setting, standardization of the technology and access to the novel PET tracer are required. However, resources for PET implementation research are limited. Therefore, next to randomized studies, novel approaches are required for proving the clinical value of PET tracers with the smallest possible number of patients. The aim of this review is to describe the process of the development of PET tracers and the level of evidence needed for the use of these tracers in breast cancer. Several breast cancer trials have been performed with the PET tracers (18)F-FDG, 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT), and (18)F-fluoroestradiol ((18)F-FES). We studied them to learn lessons for the implementation of novel tracers. After defining the gap between a good rationale for a tracer and implementation in the clinical setting, we propose solutions to fill the gap to try to bring more PET tracers to daily clinical practice. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  11. Ultrasound Image Quality Assessment: A framework for evaluation of clinical image quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    Improvement of ultrasound images should be guided by their diagnostic value. Evaluation of clinical image quality is generally performed subjectively, because objective criteria have not yet been fully developed and accepted for the evaluation of clinical image quality. Based on recommendation 50...... information, which is fast enough to get sufficient number of scans under realistic operating conditions, so that statistical evaluation is valid and reliable....

  12. COMPARISON AND EVALUATION OF CLUSTER BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Hetangi D. Mehta*, Daxa Vekariya, Pratixa Badelia

    2017-01-01

    Image segmentation is the classification of an image into different groups. Numerous algorithms using different approaches have been proposed for image segmentation. A major challenge in segmentation evaluation comes from the fundamental conflict between generality and objectivity. A review is done on different types of clustering methods used for image segmentation. Also a methodology is proposed to classify and quantify different clustering algorithms based on their consistency in different...

  13. Biokinetics and dosimetry of target-specific radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro F, G.; Torres G, E.; Gonzalez V, A.; Murphy, C.A. de

    2006-01-01

    Molecular imaging techniques directly or indirectly monitor and record the spatiotemporal distribution of molecular or cellular processes for biochemical, biologic, diagnostic or therapeutic applications. 99m Tc-HYNlC-TOC has shown high in vitro and in vivo stability, rapid background clearance and rapid detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. Therapies using radiolabeled anti-CD20 have demonstrated their efficacy in patients with B-cell non Hodgkin's Iymphoma (NHL). The aim of this study was to establish biokinetic models for 99m Tc-HYNlC-TOC and 188 Re-anti-CD20 prepared from Iyophilized kits, and to evaluate their dosimetry as target-specific radiopharmaceuticals. Whole-body images were acquired at different times after 99m Tc-HYNlC-TOC or 188 Re-anti-CD20 administration obtained from instant freeze-dried kit formulations with radiochemical purities > 95 %. Regions of interest (ROls) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The cpm of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate time-activity curves in each organ, to adjust the biokinetic model using the SAAM software, and to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. 99m Tc-HYNlC-TOC images showed an average tumor/blood (heart) ratio of 4.3 ± 0.7 in receptor-positive tumors at 1 h and the mean radiation absorbed dose calculated for a study using 740 MBq was 24, 21.5, 5.5 and 1.0 mSv for spleen, kidneys, liver and bone marrow respectively and the effective dose was 4.4 mSv. Results showed that after administration of 7 GBq of 188 Re-anti-CD20 the absorbed dose to whole body would be 0.7 Gy (0.1 mGy/MBq) which is the indicated dose for non Hodgkin's Iymphome therapies. (Author)

  14. Current perspectives in the use of molecular imaging to target surgical treatments for genitourinary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Francesco; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Gill, Inderbir S; Kaouk, Jihad H; Remzi, Mesut; Thompson, R Houston; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; van der Poel, Henk G; Fornara, Paolo; Rassweiler, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Molecular imaging (MI) entails the visualisation, characterisation, and measurement of biologic processes at the molecular and cellular levels in humans and other living systems. Translating this technology to interventions in real-time enables interventional MI/image-guided surgery, for example, by providing better detection of tumours and their dimensions. To summarise and critically analyse the available evidence on image-guided surgery for genitourinary (GU) oncologic diseases. A comprehensive literature review was performed using PubMed and the Thomson Reuters Web of Science. In the free-text protocol, the following terms were applied: molecular imaging, genitourinary oncologic surgery, surgical navigation, image-guided surgery, and augmented reality. Review articles, editorials, commentaries, and letters to the editor were included if deemed to contain relevant information. We selected 79 articles according to the search strategy based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis criteria and the IDEAL method. MI techniques included optical imaging and fluorescent techniques, the augmented reality (AR) navigation system, magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography. Experimental studies on the AR navigation system were restricted to the detection and therapy of adrenal and renal malignancies and in the relatively infrequent cases of prostate cancer, whereas fluorescence techniques and optical imaging presented a wide application of intraoperative GU oncologic surgery. In most cases, image-guided surgery was shown to improve the surgical resectability of tumours. Based on the evidence to date, image-guided surgery has promise in the near future for multiple GU malignancies. Further optimisation of targeted imaging agents, along with the integration of imaging modalities, is necessary to further enhance intraoperative GU oncologic surgery. Copyright © 2013

  15. Perspectives in Molecular Imaging Using Staging Biomarkers and Immunotherapies in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Leclerc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD is an emerging chronic illness characterized by a progressive pleiotropic pathophysiological mode of actions triggered during the senescence process and affecting the elderly worldwide. The complex molecular mechanisms of AD not only are supported by cholinergic, beta-amyloid, and tau theories but also have a genetic basis that accounts for the difference in symptomatology processes activation among human population which will evolve into divergent neuropathological features underlying cognitive and behaviour alterations. Distinct immune system tolerance could also influence divergent responses among AD patients treated by immunotherapy. The complexity in nature increases when taken together the genetic/immune tolerance with the patient’s brain reserve and with neuropathological evolution from early till advance AD clinical stages. The most promising diagnostic strategies in today’s world would consist in performing high diagnostic accuracy of combined modality imaging technologies using beta-amyloid 42 peptide-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF positron emission tomography (PET, Pittsburgh compound B-PET, fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, total and phosphorylated tau-CSF, and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging hippocampus biomarkers for criteria evaluation and validation. Early diagnosis is the challenge task that needs to look first at plausible mechanisms of actions behind therapies, and combining them would allow for the development of efficient AD treatment in a near future.

  16. Dynamical image-charge effect in molecular tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Chengjun; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    the finite IC formation time affects charge transport through a molecule suspended between two electrodes. For a single-level model, an analytical treatment shows that the conductance is suppressed by a factor Z(2), where Z is the quasiparticle renormalization factor, compared to the static IC approximation...... that the dynamical corrections can reduce the conductance by more than a factor of two when compared to static GW or density functional theory where the molecular energy levels have been shifted to match the exact quasiparticle levels....

  17. Progress in molecular nuclear medicine imaging of pancreatic beta cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Haifei; Yin Hongyan; Liu Shuai; Zhang Yifan

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common and frequently occurring disease which seriously threaten the health of human beings. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes respectively results from being destroyed and insufficient beta-cell mass. The associated symptoms appear until 50%-60% decrease of beta-cell mass. Because pancreas is deeply located in the body, with few beta-cell mass, the current methods of clinical diagnosis are invasive and late. So diagnosis of metabolism disease of beta-cell early non-invasively becomes more and more popular, imaging diagnosis of diabetes mellitus becomes the focus of researches, but how to estimate the mass of beta-cell still an important subject in imaging technology. (authors)

  18. Advancing Precision Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging for Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Chadwick L; Maly, Joseph J; Zhang, Jun; Knopp, Michael V

    2017-01-01

    PET with fluorodeoxyglucose F 18 ( 18 F FDG-PET) is a meaningful biomarker for the detection, targeted biopsy, and treatment of lymphoma. This article reviews the evolution of 18 F FDG-PET as a putative biomarker for lymphoma and addresses the current capabilities, challenges, and opportunities to enable precision medicine practices for lymphoma. Precision nuclear medicine is driven by new imaging technologies and methodologies to more accurately detect malignant disease. Although quantitative assessment of response is limited, such technologies will enable a more precise metabolic mapping with much higher definition image detail and thus may make it a robust and valid quantitative response assessment methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recombinant carcinoembryonic antigen as a reporter gene for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenanova, Vania; Barat, Bhaswati; Olafsen, Tove; Chatziioannou, Arion; Herschman, Harvey R.; Wu, Anna M.; Braun, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Reporter genes can provide a way of noninvasively assessing gene activity in vivo. However, current reporter gene strategies may be limited by the immunogenicity of foreign reporter proteins, endogenous expression, or unwanted biological activity. We have developed a reporter gene based on carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a human protein with limited normal tissue expression. To construct a CEA reporter gene for PET, a CEA minigene (N-A3) was fused to the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the human FcγRIIb receptor. The NA3-FcγRIIb recombinant gene, driven by a CMV promoter, was transfected in Jurkat (human T cell leukemia) cells. Expression was analyzed by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and microPET imaging. Flow cytometry identified Jurkat clones stably expressing NA3-FcγRIIb at low, medium, and high levels. High and medium NA3-FcγRIIb expression could also be detected by Western blot. Reporter gene positive and negative Jurkat cells were used to establish xenografts in athymic mice. IHC showed staining of the tumor with high reporter gene expression; medium and low N-A3 expression was not detected. MicroPET imaging, using an anti-CEA 124 I-labeled single-chain Fv-Fc antibody fragment, demonstrated that only high N-A3 expression could be detected. Specific accumulation of activity was visualized at the N-A3 positive tumor as early as 4 h. MicroPET image quantitation showed tumor activity of 1.8 ± 0.2, 15.2 ± 1.3, and 4.6 ± 1.2 percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g) at 4, 20, and 48 h, respectively. Biodistribution at 48 h demonstrated tumor uptake of 4.8 ± 0.8%ID/g. The CEA N-A3 minigene has the potential to be used as a reporter gene for imaging cells in vivo. (orig.)

  20. Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: Current Functional and Future Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Elise M.; Martucci, Victoria; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Paragangliomas are neural crest-derived tumors, arising either from chromaffin sympathetic tissue (in adrenal, abdominal, intra-pelvic, or thoracic paraganglia) or from parasympathetic tissue (in head and neck paraganglia). They have a specific cellular metabolism, with the ability to synthesize, store, and secrete catecholamines (although most head and neck paragangliomas do not secrete any catecholamines). This disease is rare and also very heterogeneous, with various presentations (e.g., in regards to localization, multifocality, potential to metastasize, biochemical phenotype, and genetic background). With growing knowledge, notably about the pathophysiology and genetic background, guidelines are evolving rapidly. In this context, functional imaging is a challenge for the management of paragangliomas. Nuclear imaging has been used for exploring paragangliomas for the last three decades, with MIBG historically as the first-line exam. Tracers used in paragangliomas can be grouped in three different categories. Agents that specifically target catecholamine synthesis, storage, and secretion pathways include: 123 and 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123/131I-MIBG), 18F-fluorodopamine (18F-FDA), and 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-FDOPA). Agents that bind somatostatin receptors include 111In-pentetreotide and 68Ga-labeled somatostatin analog peptides (68Ga-DOTA-TOC, 68Ga-DOTA-NOC, 68Ga-DOTA-TATE). The non-specific agent most commonly used in paragangliomas is 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). This review will first describe conventional scintigraphic exams that are used for imaging paragangliomas. In the second part we will emphasize the interest in new PET approaches (specific and non-specific), considering the growing knowledge about genetic background and pathophysiology, with the aim of understanding how tumors behave, and optimally adjusting imaging technique for each tumor type.

  1. Insight into the Molecular Imaging of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abishek Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is a complex neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Earlier it was diagnosed only via clinical assessments and confirmed by postmortem brain histopathology. The development of validated biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease has given impetus to improve diagnostics and accelerate the development of new therapies. Functional imaging like positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides a means of detecting and characterising the regional changes in brain blood flow, metabolism, and receptor binding sites that are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Multimodal neuroimaging techniques have indicated changes in brain structure and metabolic activity, and an array of neurochemical variations that are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Radiotracer-based PET and SPECT potentially provide sensitive, accurate methods for the early detection of disease. This paper presents a review of neuroimaging modalities like PET, SPECT, and selected imaging biomarkers/tracers used for the early diagnosis of AD. Neuroimaging with such biomarkers and tracers could achieve a much higher diagnostic accuracy for AD and related disorders in the future.

  2. Transferring biomarker into molecular probe: melanin nanoparticle as a naturally active platform for multimodality imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Quli; Cheng, Kai; Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ruiping; Yang, Min; Lu, Xiaomei; Xing, Lei; Huang, Wei; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-10-29

    Developing multifunctional and easily prepared nanoplatforms with integrated different modalities is highly challenging for molecular imaging. Here, we report the successful transfer of an important molecular target, melanin, into a novel multimodality imaging nanoplatform. Melanin is abundantly expressed in melanotic melanomas and thus has been actively studied as a target for melanoma imaging. In our work, the multifunctional biopolymer nanoplatform based on ultrasmall (passive nanoplatforms require complicated and time-consuming processes for prebuilding reporting moieties or chemical modifications using active groups to integrate different contrast properties into one entity. In comparison, utilizing functional biomarker melanin can greatly simplify the building process. We further conjugated αvβ3 integrins, cyclic c(RGDfC) peptide, to MNPs to allow for U87MG tumor accumulation due to its targeting property combined with the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. The multimodal properties of MNPs demonstrate the high potential of endogenous materials with multifunctions as nanoplatforms for molecular theranostics and clinical translation.

  3. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Congsen [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Janssen, Maurice H. M. [LaserLaB Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, de Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the density profile of the molecular beam, and the measured absolute density is compared with theoretical calculations of the centre line beam density. Subsequently, we discuss reasons accounting for the differences between measurements and calculations and propose that strong skimmer interference is the most probable cause for the differences. Furthermore, we report on experiments measuring the centre line density of seeded supersonic beams. The femtosecond ion images show that seeding the heavy Xe atom at low relative seed fractions (1%-10%) in a light carrier gas like Ne results in strong relative enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude.

  4. Preparation and comparative evaluation of 99m Tc-HYNIC-cNGR and 99m Tc-HYNIC-PEG2 -cNGR as tumor-targeting molecular imaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Kusum; Satpati, Drishty; Sharma, Rohit; Kumar, Chandan; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2018-02-01

    The tripeptide sequence asparagine-glycine-arginine (NGR) specifically recognizes aminopeptidase N (APN or CD13) receptors highly expressed on tumor cells and vasculature. Thus, NGR peptides can precisely deliver therapeutic and diagnostic compounds to CD13 expressing cancer sites. In this regard, 2 NGR peptide ligands, HYNIC-c(NGR) and HYNIC-PEG 2 -c(NGR), were synthesized, radiolabeled with 99m Tc, and evaluated in CD13-positive human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 tumor xenografts. The radiotracers, 99m Tc-HYNIC-c(NGR) and 99m Tc-HYNIC-PEG 2 -c(NGR), could be prepared in approximately 95% radiochemical purity and exhibited excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The radiotracers were hydrophilic in nature with log P values being -2.33 ± 0.05 and -2.61 ± 0.08. The uptake of 2 radiotracers 99m Tc-HYNIC-c(NGR) and 99m Tc-HYNIC-PEG 2 -c(NGR) was similar in nude mice bearing human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 tumor xenografts, which was significantly reduced (P Tc-labeled HYNIC peptide could not be modulated through introduction of PEG 2 unit, thus posing a challenge for studies with other linkers towards enhanced tumor uptake and retention. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Molecular imaging techniques in magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging; Molekulare Bildgebung in der Magnetresonanztomographie und der Nuklearmedizin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegemann, D.; Basilion, J.P.; Weissleder, R. [Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charleston, MA (United States)

    2001-02-01

    The identification of genetic and biochemical changes allows a more conclusive characterization and classification of disease. Up to now this information is mostly obtained through in vitro analysis after resection or biopsy by immunohistopathology and molecular biology. There is a definite need for non-invasive detection and repeated monitoring of such changes in experimental research as well as in clinical trials. Therefore, it is necessary to develop radiological imaging techniques that not only visualize morphologic and physiologic alterations, but track genetic and biochemical processes. This short review reports some of the various ongoing research projects that address this problem and provide some very promising approaches. (orig.) [German] Die Bestimmung genetischer und biochemischer Veraenderungen erlaubt in zunehmendem Masse die eindeutige Charakterisierung und Klassifikation von Erkrankungen. Bisher ist hierzu in der Regel eine gezielte immunohistopathologische oder molekularbiologische In-vitro-Analyse nach Resektion oder Entnahme einer Biopsie erforderlich. In der experimentellen Forschung wie auch in der klinischen Anwendung sind bildgebende Verfahren wuenschenswert, die eine nichtinvasive Detektion und ein wiederholt durchfuehrbares Monitoring gewaehrleisten. Aus diesem Grunde ist die Entwicklung radiologischer Untersuchungsmethoden erforderlich, die ueber die morphologischen und physiologischen Veraenderungen hinaus eine Beurteilung der genetischen und biochemischen Vorgaenge ermoeglichen. In diesem kurzen Uebersichtsartikel werden einige der zahlreichen aktuellen Forschungsprojekte zusammengefasst, die sich mit diesem Problem beschaeftigen und inzwischen aussichtsreiche Techniken zur Verfuegung stellen. (orig.)

  6. Preclinical evaluation of molecular-targeted anticancer agents for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Mechthild; Zips, Daniel; Thames, Howard D.; Kummermehr, Johann; Baumann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The combination of molecular-targeted agents with irradiation is a highly promising avenue for cancer research and patient care. Molecular-targeted agents are in themselves not curative in solid tumours, whereas radiotherapy is highly efficient in eradicating tumour stem cells. Recurrences after high-dose radiotherapy are caused by only one or few surviving tumour stem cells. Thus, even if a novel agent has the potential to kill only few tumour stem cells, or if it interferes in mechanisms of radioresistance of tumours, combination with radiotherapy may lead to an important improvement in local tumour control and survival. To evaluate the effects of novel agents combined with radiotherapy, it is therefore necessary to use experimental endpoints which reflect the killing of tumour stem cells, in particular tumour control assays. Such endpoints often do not correlate with volume-based parameters of tumour response such as tumour regression and growth delay. This calls for radiotherapy specific research strategies in the preclinical testing of novel anti-cancer drugs, which in many aspects are different from research approaches for medical oncology

  7. Molecular evaluation of genetic variability of wheat elite breeding material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brbaklić Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of genetic variability of breeding material is essential for yield improvement in wheat cultivars. Modern techniques based on molecular markers application are more efficient and precise in genetic variability evaluation then conventional methods. Variability of 96 wheat cultivars and lines was analyzed using four microsatellite markers (Gwm11, Gwm428, Psp3200, Psp3071. The markers were chosen according to their potential association with important agronomical traits indicated in the literature. Total of 31 alleles were detected with maximum number of alleles (11 in Xgwm11 locus. The highest polymorphism information content (PIC value (0,831 was found in the locus Xpsp3071. The genotypes were grouped into three subpopulations based on their similarity in the analyzed loci. The results have indicated wide genetic variability of the studied material and possibility of its application in further breeding process after validation of marker-trait association. .

  8. Quantitative diffusion weighted imaging parameters in tumor and peritumoral stroma for prediction of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Peng; Li, Hui; Zhang, Juan; Shao, Guoliang; Li, Lihua

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer can be classified into four molecular subtypes of Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2 and Basal-like, which have significant differences in treatment and survival outcomes. We in this study aim to predict immunohistochemistry (IHC) determined molecular subtypes of breast cancer using image features derived from tumor and peritumoral stroma region based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). A dataset of 126 breast cancer patients were collected who underwent preoperative breast MRI with a 3T scanner. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were recorded from DWI, and breast image was segmented into regions comprising the tumor and the surrounding stromal. Statistical characteristics in various breast tumor and peritumoral regions were computed, including mean, minimum, maximum, variance, interquartile range, range, skewness, and kurtosis of ADC values. Additionally, the difference of features between each two regions were also calculated. The univariate logistic based classifier was performed for evaluating the performance of the individual features for discriminating subtypes. For multi-class classification, multivariate logistic regression model was trained and validated. The results showed that the tumor boundary and proximal peritumoral stroma region derived features have a higher performance in classification compared to that of the other regions. Furthermore, the prediction model using statistical features, difference features and all the features combined from these regions generated AUC values of 0.774, 0.796 and 0.811, respectively. The results in this study indicate that ADC feature in tumor and peritumoral stromal region would be valuable for estimating the molecular subtype in breast cancer.

  9. Imaging Multi-Particle Atomic and Molecular Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, Allen [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Final Report for Grant Number: DE- FG02-10ER16146 This grant supported research in basic atomic, molecular and optical physics related to the interactions of atoms and molecules with photons and electrons. The duration of the grant was the 5 year period from 4/1/2010 – 10/31/2015. All of the support from the grant was used to pay salaries of the PI, graduate students, and undergraduates and travel to conferences and meetings. The results were in the form of publications in peer reviewed journals. There were 20 peer reviewed publications over these 5 years with 2 of the publications in Physical Review Letters and 1 in Nature; all of the other articles were in respected peer reviewed journals (Physical Review A, New Journal of Physics, Journal of Physics B ...).

  10. Molecular targeting of angiogenesis for imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, Simon S.; Neri, Dario; Dinkelborg, Ludger M.

    2004-01-01

    Angiogenesis, i.e. the proliferation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is an underlying process in many human diseases, including cancer, blinding ocular disorders and rheumatoid arthritis. The ability to selectively target and interfere with neovascularisation would potentially be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases. This review presents the authors' views on some of the most relevant markers of angiogenesis described to date, as well as on specific ligands which have been characterised in pre-clinical animal models and/or clinical studies. Furthermore, we present an overview on technologies which are likely to have an impact on the way molecular targeting of angiogenesis is performed in the future. (orig.)

  11. Performance evaluation of emerging JPEGXR compression standard for medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basit, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Medical images require loss less compression as a small error due to lossy compression may be considered as a diagnostic error. JPEG XR is the latest image compression standard designed for variety of applications and has a support for lossy and loss less modes. This paper provides in-depth performance evaluation of latest JPEGXR with existing image coding standards for medical images using loss less compression. Various medical images are used for evaluation and ten images of each organ are tested. Performance of JPEGXR is compared with JPEG2000 and JPEGLS using mean square error, peak signal to noise ratio, mean absolute error and structural similarity index. JPEGXR shows improvement of 20.73 dB and 5.98 dB over JPEGLS and JPEG2000 respectively for various test images used in experimentation. (author)

  12. Radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyldeoxyspergualin for molecular imaging of heat shock proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pradip; Li, King C. [Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine Division, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, 6565 Fannin Street, MB1-066, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Lee, Daniel Y., E-mail: dlee@tmhs.or [Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine Division, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, 6565 Fannin Street, MB1-066, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    To probe the in vivo role of stress response factors in normal physiology and in solid tumors we have designed a stable {sup 18}F-labeled molecular imaging agent based on a ligand for heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). We describe the synthesis of [{sup 18}F] fluorodeoxymethylspergualin ([{sup 18}F]MeDSG) as a new radiopharmaceutical probe using a prosthetic group, [{sup 18}F]SFB, for efficient and rapid radiolabeling. Ongoing molecular imaging studies are under way to detect HSP70 expression in tumors by positron emission tomography.

  13. Targeting the treatment of drug abuse with molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Wynne K. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: wynne@bnl.gov; Liebling, Courtney N.B.; Patel, Vinal; Dewey, Stephen L. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences.

  14. Targeting the treatment of drug abuse with molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Wynne K.; Liebling, Courtney N.B.; Patel, Vinal; Dewey, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences

  15. Small animal SPECT and its place in the matrix of molecular imaging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikle, Steven R; Kench, Peter; Kassiou, Michael; Banati, Richard B

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging refers to the use of non-invasive imaging techniques to detect signals that originate from molecules, often in the form of an injected tracer, and observe their interaction with a specific cellular target in vivo. Differences in the underlying physical principles of these measurement techniques determine the sensitivity, specificity and length of possible observation of the signal, characteristics that have to be traded off according to the biological question under study. Here, we describe the specific characteristics of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) relative to other molecular imaging technologies. SPECT is based on the tracer principle and external radiation detection. It is capable of measuring the biodistribution of minute ( -10 molar) concentrations of radio-labelled biomolecules in vivo with sub-millimetre resolution and quantifying the molecular kinetic processes in which they participate. Like some other imaging techniques, SPECT was originally developed for human use and was subsequently adapted for imaging small laboratory animals at high spatial resolution for basic and translational research. Its unique capabilities include (i) the ability to image endogenous ligands such as peptides and antibodies due to the relative ease of labelling these molecules with technetium or iodine (ii) the ability to measure relatively slow kinetic processes (compared with positron emission tomography, for example) due to the long half-life of the commonly used isotopes and (iii) the ability to probe two or more molecular pathways simultaneously by detecting isotopes with different emission energies. In this paper, we review the technology developments and design tradeoffs that led to the current state-of-the-art in SPECT small animal scanning and describe the position SPECT occupies within the matrix of molecular imaging technologies. (topical review)

  16. Damage Degree Evaluation of Earthquake Area Using UAV Aerial Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV system and its aerial image analysis method are developed to evaluate the damage degree of earthquake area. Both the single-rotor and the six-rotor UAVs are used to capture the visible light image of ground targets. Five types of typical ground targets are considered for the damage degree evaluation: the building, the road, the mountain, the riverway, and the vegetation. When implementing the image analysis, first the Image Quality Evaluation Metrics (IQEMs, that is, the image contrast, the image blur, and the image noise, are used to assess the imaging definition. Second, once the image quality is qualified, the Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM texture feature, the Tamura texture feature, and the Gabor wavelet texture feature are computed. Third, the Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier is employed to evaluate the damage degree. Finally, a new damage degree evaluation (DDE index is defined to assess the damage intensity of earthquake. Many experiment results have verified the correctness of proposed system and method.

  17. Current research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in Italy: highlights of the 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuocolo, A

    2011-06-01

    The 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (AIMN) took place in Rimini on March 18-21, 2011 under the chairmanship of Professor Stefano Fanti. The program was of excellent quality and put a further step for the settlement of the standardized AIMN congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success with more than 1100 total participants and more than 360 abstracts received. Of these, 40 abstracts were accepted for oral and 285 for poster presentations. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, with particular focus on advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, and infection and inflammation. Noteworthy, several presentations at this congress, focusing on quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and patient management and further demonstrated that nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in the contemporary medical scenario. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress abstract book, published as volume 55, supplement 1 of the Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in April 2011.

  18. Emerging Themes in Image Informatics and Molecular Analysis for Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rohit; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-07-11

    Pathology is essential for research in disease and development, as well as for clinical decision making. For more than 100 years, pathology practice has involved analyzing images of stained, thin tissue sections by a trained human using an optical microscope. Technological advances are now driving major changes in this paradigm toward digital pathology (DP). The digital transformation of pathology goes beyond recording, archiving, and retrieving images, providing new computational tools to inform better decision making for precision medicine. First, we discuss some emerging innovations in both computational image analytics and imaging instrumentation in DP. Second, we discuss molecular contrast in pathology. Molecular DP has traditionally been an extension of pathology with molecularly specific dyes. Label-free, spectroscopic images are rapidly emerging as another important information source, and we describe the benefits and potential of this evolution. Third, we describe multimodal DP, which is enabled by computational algorithms and combines the best characteristics of structural and molecular pathology. Finally, we provide examples of application areas in telepathology, education, and precision medicine. We conclude by discussing challenges and emerging opportunities in this area.

  19. GEOMETRIC AND RADIOMETRIC EVALUATION OF RASAT IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RASAT, the second remote sensing satellite of Turkey, was designed and assembled, and also is being operated by TÜBİTAK Uzay (Space Technologies Research Institute (Ankara. RASAT images in various levels are available free-of-charge via Gezgin portal for Turkish citizens. In this paper, the images in panchromatic (7.5 m GSD and RGB (15 m GSD bands in various levels were investigated with respect to its geometric and radiometric characteristics. The first geometric analysis is the estimation of the effective GSD as less than 1 pixel for radiometrically processed level (L1R of both panchromatic and RGB images. Secondly, 2D georeferencing accuracy is estimated by various non-physical transformation models (similarity, 2D affine, polynomial, affine projection, projective, DLT and GCP based RFM reaching sub-pixel accuracy using minimum 39 and maximum 52 GCPs. The radiometric characteristics are also investigated for 8 bits, estimating SNR between 21.8-42.2, and noise 0.0-3.5 for panchromatic and MS images for L1R when the sea is masked to obtain the results for land areas. The analysis show that RASAT images satisfies requirements for various applications. The research is carried out in Zonguldak test site which is mountainous and partly covered by dense forest and urban areas.

  20. Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of some important medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varahalarao Vadlapudi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of plants is an important task in medicinal botany and drug discovery. In the current study, Ocimum species, Pimenta officinalis and Piper betel were considered as medicinal plants by evaluation of phytochemical composition like phenol content, Flavonoid content, antioxidant content and other activities like antibacterial, antifungal, lethal dosage (LD 50 of the plant extracts. Among the selected plants P. officinalis shown higher medicinal properties and is selected for molecular characterization. Methods: Antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method and also estimated Total phenols, flavonoids content, Total Antioxidants, Cytotoxic assay on Artemia salina for determining lethal dosage (LD50, matK gene was sequenced by using ABI Prism 3700. Leaf extract of P. officinalis plant is further selected for GC-chromatographic analysis to know its chemical composition. DNA was isolated by different protocols, optimized, and is used for the PCR amplification of trnL-gene which is a universal marker among plants in molecular taxonomy. The trnL-gene is amplified by using PCR. The product obtained from PCR is purified and the sample is used for sequencing so that it can be used for comparative studies. Results: P.offcinalis has shown good antimicrobial activity against all organisms . A. flavus is resistant against O. sanctum (B. Phenolic content (26.5 毺 g/g is found to be rich in P. betel where as flavonoid and Antioxidant content are significant in P. betel. The chromatogram revealed the presence of high concentration of Eugenol in the leaf sample. On submitting to BLASTN, the genetic sequence has found similarity with Pimenta dioica plastid partial matK gene and Ugni molinae trnK gene. MatK did not shown any interactions with trnK or trnL genes. MatK has shown interactions with various genes like ycf5, pclpp, psbh, atph, NDVI, rpoc1, ndha, ndhd, psai. Conclusions: we can

  1. Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzeng Min

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanide-doped upconversion-luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs, which can be excited by near-infrared (NIR laser irradiation to emit multiplex light, have been proven to be very useful for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging studies. In comparison with the conventionally used down-conversion fluorescence imaging strategies, the NIR light excited luminescence of UCNPs displays high photostability, low cytotoxicity, little background auto-fluorescence, which allows for deep tissue penetration, making them attractive as contrast agents for biomedical imaging applications. In this review, we will mainly focus on the latest development of a new type of lanthanide-doped UCNP material and its main applications for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging and we will also discuss the challenges and future perspectives.

  2. Optical-based molecular imaging: contrast agents and potential medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, Christoph; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Weissleder, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Laser- and sensitive charge-coupled device technology together with advanced mathematical modelling of photon propagation in tissue has prompted the development of novel optical imaging technologies. Fast surface-weighted imaging modalities, such as fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) and 3D quantitative fluorescence-mediated tomography have now become available [1, 2]. These technical advances are paralleled by a rapid development of a whole range of new optical contrasting strategies, which are designed to generate molecular contrast within a living organism. The combination of both, technical advances of light detection and the refinement of optical contrast media, finally yields a new spectrum of tools for in vivo molecular diagnostics. Whereas the technical aspects of optical imaging are covered in more detail in a previous review article in ''European Radiology'' [3], this article focuses on new developments in optical contrasting strategies and design of optical contrast agents for in vivo diagnostics. (orig.)

  3. Systems Biology-Driven Hypotheses Tested In Vivo: The Need to Advancing Molecular Imaging Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Garima; Palombo, Alessandro; Grigioni, Mauro; La Monaca, Morena; D'Avenio, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Processing and interpretation of biological images may provide invaluable insights on complex, living systems because images capture the overall dynamics as a "whole." Therefore, "extraction" of key, quantitative morphological parameters could be, at least in principle, helpful in building a reliable systems biology approach in understanding living objects. Molecular imaging tools for system biology models have attained widespread usage in modern experimental laboratories. Here, we provide an overview on advances in the computational technology and different instrumentations focused on molecular image processing and analysis. Quantitative data analysis through various open source software and algorithmic protocols will provide a novel approach for modeling the experimental research program. Besides this, we also highlight the predictable future trends regarding methods for automatically analyzing biological data. Such tools will be very useful to understand the detailed biological and mathematical expressions under in-silico system biology processes with modeling properties.

  4. Molecular Imaging to Identify Tumor Recurrence following Chemoradiation in a Hostile Surgical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga T. Okusanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical biopsy of potential tumor recurrence is a common challenge facing oncologists, surgeons, and cancer patients. Imaging modalities have limited ability to accurately detect recurrent cancer in fields affected by previous surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation. However, definitive tissue diagnosis is often needed to initiate treatment and to direct therapy. We sought to determine if a targeted fluorescent intraoperative molecular imaging technique could be applied in a clinical setting to assist a surgical biopsy in a “hostile” field. We describe the use of a folate-fluorescein conjugate to direct the biopsy of a suspected recurrent lung adenocarcinoma invading the mediastinum that had been previously treated with chemoradiation. We found that intraoperative imaging allowed the identification of small viable tumor deposits that were otherwise indistinguishable from scar and necrosis. Our operative observations were confirmed by histology, fluorescence microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate one possible application and clinical value of intraoperative molecular imaging.

  5. Performance evaluation methodology for historical document image binarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntirogiannis, Konstantinos; Gatos, Basilis; Pratikakis, Ioannis

    2013-02-01

    Document image binarization is of great importance in the document image analysis and recognition pipeline since it affects further stages of the recognition process. The evaluation of a binarization method aids in studying its algorithmic behavior, as well as verifying its effectiveness, by providing qualitative and quantitative indication of its performance. This paper addresses a pixel-based binarization evaluation methodology for historical handwritten/machine-printed document images. In the proposed evaluation scheme, the recall and precision evaluation measures are properly modified using a weighting scheme that diminishes any potential evaluation bias. Additional performance metrics of the proposed evaluation scheme consist of the percentage rates of broken and missed text, false alarms, background noise, character enlargement, and merging. Several experiments conducted in comparison with other pixel-based evaluation measures demonstrate the validity of the proposed evaluation scheme.

  6. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in evaluation of cholesteatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, M.; Sugimura, K.; Ishida, T.; Fujino, A.; Miyakuni, Y.

    1990-01-01

    It was sometimes difficult to differentiate cholesteatoma from accompanied granuloma, cholesterol granuloma, or mastoiditis on high-resolution CT. This study was designed to assess the reliability with which cholesteatoma can be differentiated from those accompanied lesions by gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Eight patients suspected to have cholesteatoma were evaluated with GD-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging with a 1.5-T MR imaging GE Signa unit. axial pre- and postcontrast T1-weighted (TR/TE, 600/20) and T2-weighted (TR/TE, 2,000/70) images were studied. MR imaging findings were compared with histologic findings (13 lesions), which included cholesteatoma (n = 6), granuloma (n = 4), cholesterol granuloma (n = 2), and mastoiditis (n = 1). Cholesteatoma had an intermediate to high signal intensity (SI) similar to that of granuloma on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Cholesterol granulomas showed high SI on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Mastoiditis demonstrated marked high SI on T2-weighted images. Cholesterol granuloma and mastoiditis can be distinguished from cholesteatoma or granuloma on both T1- and T2-weighted images. On Gd-DTPA-enhanced images, there was marked enhancement of all granulomas. However, no cholesteatoma enhancement was seen in all six lesions. Gd-DTPA-enhanced images were able to distinguish cholesteatoma from granuloma and to estimate the exact extent of cholesteatoma. Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging is valuable in the evaluation and management of cholesteatoma

  7. Basic pathologies of neurodegenerative dementias and their relevance for state-of-the-art molecular imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzezga, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Rising life-expectancy in the modern society has resulted in a rapidly growing prevalence of dementia, particularly of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dementia turns into one of the most common age-related disorders with deleterious consequences for the concerned patients and their relatives, as well as worrying effects on the socio-economic systems. These facts justify strengthened scientific efforts to identify the pathologic origin of dementing disorders, to improve diagnosis, and to interfere therapeutically with the disease progression. In the recent years, remarkable progress has been made concerning the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders. Growing evidence indicates that a common basis of many neurodegenerative dementias can be found in increased production, misfolding and pathological aggregation of proteins, such as ss-amyloid, tau protein, a-synuclein, or the recently described ubiquitinated TDP-43. This progressive insight in pathological processes is paralleled by the development of new therapeutic approaches. However, the exact contribution or mechanism of different pathologies with regard to the development of disease is not yet sufficiently clear. Considerable overlap of pathologies has been documented in different types of clinically defined dementias post mortem, and it has been difficult to correlate post mortem histopathology data with disease-expression during life. Molecular imaging procedures may play a valuable role to circumvent this limitation. In general, methods of molecular imaging have recently experienced an impressive advance, with numerous new and improved technologies emerging. These exciting tools may play a key role in the future regarding the evaluation of pathomechanisms, preclinical evaluation of new diagnostic procedures in animal models, selection of patients for clinical trials, and therapy monitoring. In this overview, molecular key pathologies, which are currently

  8. Towards an automatic tool for resolution evaluation of mammographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, J. E. E. [FUMEC, Av. Alfonso Pena 3880, CEP 30130-009 Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: juliae@fumec.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Medical images are important for diagnosis purposes as they are related to patients medical history and pathology. Breast cancer represents a leading cause of death among women worldwide, and its early detection is the most effective method of reducing mortality. In a way to identify small structures with low density differences, a high image quality is required with the use of low doses of radiation. The analysis of the quality of the obtained image from a mammogram is performed from an image of a simulated breast and this is a fundamental key point for a program of quality control of mammography equipment s. In a control program of mammographic equipment s, besides the analysis of the quality of mammographic images, each element of the chain which composes the formation of the image is also analyzed: X-rays equipment s, radiographic films, and operating conditions. This control allows that an effective and efficient exam can be provided to the population and is within the standards of quality required for the early detection of breast cancer. However, according to the State Program of Quality Control in Mammography of Minas Gerais, Brazil, only 40% of the mammographies have provided a simulated image with a minimum level of quality, thus reinforcing the need for monitoring the images. The reduction of the morbidity and mortality indexes, with optimization and assurance of access to diagnosis and breast cancer treatment in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, may be the result of a mammographic exam which has a final image with good quality and which automatic evaluation is not subjective. The reason is that one has to consider the hypothesis that humans are subjective when performing the image analysis and that the evaluation of the image can be executed by a computer with objectivity. In 2007, in order to maintain the standard quality needed to mammography, the State Health Secretariat of Minas Gerais, Brazil, established a Program of Monthly Monitoring the

  9. Towards an automatic tool for resolution evaluation of mammographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira, J. E. E.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2014-08-01

    Medical images are important for diagnosis purposes as they are related to patients medical history and pathology. Breast cancer represents a leading cause of death among women worldwide, and its early detection is the most effective method of reducing mortality. In a way to identify small structures with low density differences, a high image quality is required with the use of low doses of radiation. The analysis of the quality of the obtained image from a mammogram is performed from an image of a simulated breast and this is a fundamental key point for a program of quality control of mammography equipment s. In a control program of mammographic equipment s, besides the analysis of the quality of mammographic images, each element of the chain which composes the formation of the image is also analyzed: X-rays equipment s, radiographic films, and operating conditions. This control allows that an effective and efficient exam can be provided to the population and is within the standards of quality required for the early detection of breast cancer. However, according to the State Program of Quality Control in Mammography of Minas Gerais, Brazil, only 40% of the mammographies have provided a simulated image with a minimum level of quality, thus reinforcing the need for monitoring the images. The reduction of the morbidity and mortality indexes, with optimization and assurance of access to diagnosis and breast cancer treatment in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, may be the result of a mammographic exam which has a final image with good quality and which automatic evaluation is not subjective. The reason is that one has to consider the hypothesis that humans are subjective when performing the image analysis and that the evaluation of the image can be executed by a computer with objectivity. In 2007, in order to maintain the standard quality needed to mammography, the State Health Secretariat of Minas Gerais, Brazil, established a Program of Monthly Monitoring the

  10. Lower tract neoplasm: Update of imaging evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Robert; Kawashima, Akira

    2017-12-01

    Cancers of the lower urinary tract can arise from the bladder, urachus or urethra. Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) is the most common of these. The presentation of bladder, urachal and urethral cancers can differ but many result in hematuria as an initial indication. The diagnosis and staging of these cancers often necessitate radiologic imaging often in the form of cross-section CT urography or MR urography. The following article reviews the specific nature of lower tract cancers and their imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Final Technical Report for SISGR: Ultrafast Molecular Scale Chemical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersam, Mark C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Guest, Jeffrey R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Guisinger, Nathan P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Hla, Saw Wai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Schatz, George C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Seideman, Tamar [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Van Duyne, Richard P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-04-10

    The Northwestern-Argonne SISGR program utilized newly developed instrumentation and techniques including integrated ultra-high vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy/scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-TERS/STM) and surface-enhanced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SE-FSRS) to advance the spatial and temporal resolution of chemical imaging for the study of photoinduced dynamics of molecules on plasmonically active surfaces. An accompanying theory program addressed modeling of charge transfer processes using constrained density functional theory (DFT) in addition to modeling of SE-FSRS, thereby providing a detailed description of the excited state dynamics. This interdisciplinary and highly collaborative research resulted in 62 publications with ~ 48% of them being co-authored by multiple SISGR team members. A summary of the scientific accomplishments from this SISGR program is provided in this final technical report.

  12. Radiopharmaceuticals: nanoparticles like multi-functional systems for the obtaining in vivo of molecular images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro F, G.; Ramirez de la Cruz, F. M.; Ocampo G, B. E.; Morales A, E.; Santos C, C. L.; Mendoza S, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques of obtaining direct or indirect molecular images detect and register the space-temporary distribution of molecular or cellular processes for biochemical, biological, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The advanced techniques of image like the nuclear magnetic resonance, the single photon emission computed tomography, the positron emission tomography and the images of optic fluorescence have been used successfully to detect these processes. On the other hand, the utility of the nanoparticles for any application is dependent of the physicochemical properties that present, being possible to modify their surface when making them react with different biomolecules what allows the formation of conjugates with specific molecular recognition. The joint of various protein molecules, peptides or oligonucleotides to the surface of a nanoparticle produce a multi-functional system able to increase the multivalent joints from the nanoparticles-biomolecules to their receivers for the obtaining of molecular images in vivo. The peptides stimulate, regulate or inhibit numerous functions of the life, acting mainly as information transmitters and activity coordinators of several tissues in the organism. The receivers of regulator peptides are over represented in numerous types of cancer cells and they are protein structures. These receivers have been used as white molecular of marked peptides, to locate primary malignant tumors and their metastasis, using the diagnostic techniques of molecular image mentioned above, which consist basically on the radio peptides use and conjugated peptides to fluoro chromes, to metallic nanoparticles and nano crystals. A summary of the work is presented carried out by the personnel of the Radio-active Materials and Chemistry Departments of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares in this field. (Author)

  13. Molecular imaging of lipids in cells and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Katrin; Malmberg, Per; Mansson, Jan-Eric; Nygren, Hakan

    2007-02-01

    The distribution pattern of lipid species in biological tissues was analyzed with imaging mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS; time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry). The first application shows distribution of a glycosphingolipid, the galactosylceramide-sulfate (sulfatide) with different hydrocarbon chain lengths and the fatty acids palmitate and oleate in rat cerebellum. Sulfatides were seen localized in regions suggested as paranodal areas of rat cerebellar white matter as well as in the granular layer, with highest concentrations at the borders of the white matter. Different distribution patterns could be shown for the fatty acid C16:0 palmitate and C18:1 oleate in rat cerebellum, which seem to origin partly from the hydrocarbon chains of phosphatidylcholine. Results were shown for two different tissue preparation methods, which were plunge-freezing and cryostat sectioning as well as high-pressure freezing, freeze-fracturing and freeze-drying. The second application shows TOF-SIMS analysis on a biological trial of choleratoxin treatment in mouse intestine. The effect of cholera toxin on lipids in the intestinal epithelium was shown by comparing control and cholera toxin treated mouse intestine samples. A significant increase of the cholesterol concentration was seen after treatment. Cholesterol was mainly localized to the brush border of enterocytes of the intestinal villi, which could be explained by the presence of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts present on the microvilli or by relations to cholesterol uptake. After cholera toxin exposure, cholesterol was seen increased in the nuclei of enterocytes and apparently in the interstitium of the villi. We find that imaging TOF-SIMS is a powerful tool for studies of lipid distributions in cells and tissues, enabling the elucidation of their role in cell function and biology.

  14. Spatial Organization and Molecular Correlation of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Using Deep Learning on Pathology Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Saltz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Beyond sample curation and basic pathologic characterization, the digitized H&E-stained images of TCGA samples remain underutilized. To highlight this resource, we present mappings of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs based on H&E images from 13 TCGA tumor types. These TIL maps are derived through computational staining using a convolutional neural network trained to classify patches of images. Affinity propagation revealed local spatial structure in TIL patterns and correlation with overall survival. TIL map structural patterns were grouped using standard histopathological parameters. These patterns are enriched in particular T cell subpopulations derived from molecular measures. TIL densities and spatial structure were differentially enriched among tumor types, immune subtypes, and tumor molecular subtypes, implying that spatial infiltrate state could reflect particular tumor cell aberration states. Obtaining spatial lymphocytic patterns linked to the rich genomic characterization of TCGA samples demonstrates one use for the TCGA image archives with insights into the tumor-immune microenvironment. : Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs were identified from standard pathology cancer images by a deep-learning-derived “computational stain” developed by Saltz et al. They processed 5,202 digital images from 13 cancer types. Resulting TIL maps were correlated with TCGA molecular data, relating TIL content to survival, tumor subtypes, and immune profiles. Keywords: digital pathology, immuno-oncology, machine learning, lymphocytes, tumor microenvironment, deep learning, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, artificial intelligence, bioinformatics, computer vision

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of Molecular Tumor Targets in Nuclear Medicine: Immunohistochemistry Is One Option, but Under Which Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, Jean Claude

    2017-12-01

    The identification of new molecular targets for diagnostic and therapeutic applications using in vitro methods is an important challenge in nuclear medicine. One such method is immunohistochemistry, increasingly popular because it is easy to perform. This review presents the case for conducting receptor immunohistochemistry to evaluate potential molecular targets in human tumor tissue sections. The focus is on the immunohistochemistry of G-protein-coupled receptors, one of the largest families of cell surface proteins, representing a major class of drug targets and thus playing an important role in nuclear medicine. This review identifies common pitfalls and challenges and provides guidelines on performing such immunohistochemical studies. An appropriate validation of the target is a prerequisite for developing robust and informative new molecular probes. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  16. The effect of image sharpness on quantitative eye movement data and on image quality evaluation while viewing natural images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Tero; Olkkonen, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study is to test both customer image quality rating (subjective image quality) and physical measurement of user behavior (eye movements tracking) to find customer satisfaction differences in imaging technologies. Methodological aim is to find out whether eye movements could be quantitatively used in image quality preference studies. In general, we want to map objective or physically measurable image quality to subjective evaluations and eye movement data. We conducted a series of image quality tests, in which the test subjects evaluated image quality while we recorded their eye movements. Results show that eye movement parameters consistently change according to the instructions given to the user, and according to physical image quality, e.g. saccade duration increased with increasing blur. Results indicate that eye movement tracking could be used to differentiate image quality evaluation strategies that the users have. Results also show that eye movements would help mapping between technological and subjective image quality. Furthermore, these results give some empirical emphasis to top-down perception processes in image quality perception and evaluation by showing differences between perceptual processes in situations when cognitive task varies.

  17. MR imaging evaluation of suprascapular nerve entrapment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludig, T.; Walter, F.; Roland, J.; Blum, A.; Chapuis, D.; Mole, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the significance of muscular edema, atrophy, and fatty changes in the diagnosis of suprascapular nerve entrapment (SSNE), and to confirm muscular edema as the most significant sign of neuropathy. A retrospective study of 18 patients with suprascapular nerve entrapment was performed. All patients underwent electromyographic studies and MR imaging with a 1.5-T Echo Speed system (General Electric, Milwaukee, Wis.). The diagnosis of muscle edema was reached when muscles presented a high signal on T2-weighted fast spin-echo (SE) fat-suppressed images. Muscular trophicity and fatty changes were analyzed on a sagittal oblique cut using SE T1-weighted images. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility using kappa test, sensitivity, and specificity were analyzed, together with negative and positive predictive value of each criterion. The topographic diagnosis was correct as edema affected the infraspinatus muscle alone when the suprascapular nerve was entrapped at the spinoglenoid notch. Both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were affected when nerve was compressed at the suprascapular notch. Sensitivity and specificity of muscular edema were, respectively, 94.5 and 100%. Muscular atrophy sensitivity and specificity were 81 and 80%, respectively. Fatty changes sensitivity and specificity were 25 and 96%, respectively. Muscular edema seems to be a more sensitive sign of SSNE than muscle atrophy and fatty changes when compared with EMG results. Magnetic resonance imaging can reach a positive, topographic, and etiologic diagnosis of SSNE. (orig.)

  18. Functionalized Nanolipobubbles Embedded Within a Nanocomposite Hydrogel: a Molecular Bio-imaging and Biomechanical Analysis of the System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufamadi, Maluta S; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; Iyuke, Sunny E; Pillay, Viness

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of molecular bio-imaging systems and biomechanical dynamics to elucidate the fate of a nanocomposite hydrogel system prepared by merging FITC-labeled nanolipobubbles within a cross-linked hydrogel network. The nanocomposite hydrogel system was characterized by size distribution analysis and zeta potential as well as shears thinning behavior, elastic modulus (G'), viscous loss moduli (G"), TEM, and FTIR. In addition, molecular bio-imaging via Vevo ultrasound and Cell-viZio techniques evaluated the stability and distribution of the nanolipobubbles within the cross-linked hydrogel. FITC-labeled and functionalized nanolipobubbles had particle sizes between 135 and 158 nm (PdI = 0.129 and 0.190) and a zeta potential of -34 mV. TEM and ultrasound imaging revealed the uniformity and dimensional stability of the functionalized nanolipobubbles pre- and post-embedment into the cross-linked hydrogel. Biomechanical characterization of the hydrogel by shear thinning behavior was governed by the polymer concentration and the cross-linker, glutaraldehyde. Ultrasound analysis and Cell-viZio bio-imaging were highly suitable to visualize the fluorescent image-guided nanolipobubbles and their morphology post-embedment into the hydrogel to form the NanoComposite system. Since the nanocomposite is intended for targeted treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, the distribution of the functionalized nanolipobubbles into PC12 neuronal cells was also ascertained via confocal microscopy. Results demonstrated effective release and localization of the nanolipobubbles within PC12 neuronal cells. The molecular structure of the synthetic surface peptide remained intact for an extended period to ensure potency for targeted delivery from the hydrogel ex vivo. These findings provide further insight into the properties of nanocomposite hydrogels for specialized drug delivery.

  19. Development and Evaluation of Amino Acid Molecular Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecido R. Silva

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of structure and function of proteins has a tight relationshipwith the development of structural biology. However, biochemistry students usuallyfind difficulty to visualize the structures when they use only schematic drawings ofdidactic books. The representation of three-dimensional structures of somebiomolecules with ludic models, built with representative units, have supplied tothe students and teachers a successfully experience to better visualize andcorrelate the structures to the real molecules. The present work shows thedeveloped models and the process to produce the representative units of the mainamino acids in industrial scale. The design and applicability of the representativeunits were discussed with many teachers and some suggestions wereimplemented to the models. The preliminary evaluation and perspective ofutilization by researchers show that the work is in the right direction. At the actualstage, the models are defined, prototypes were made and will be presented in thismeeting. The moulds for the units are at the final stage of construction and trial inspecialized tool facilities. The last term will consist of an effective evaluation of thedidactic tool for the teaching/learning process in Structural Molecular Biology. Theevaluation protocol is being elaborated containing simple and objective questions,similar to those used in research on science teaching.

  20. Evaluation of skin moisturizer effects using terahertz time domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Meza, L. H.; Rojas-Landeros, S. C.; Castro-Camus, E.; Alfaro-Gomez, M.

    2018-02-01

    We use terahertz time domain imaging for the evaluation of the effects of skin-moisturizers in vivo. We evaluate three principal substances used in commercial moisturizers: glycerin, hyaluronic acid and lanolin. We image the interaction of the forearm with each of the substances taking terahertz spectra at sequential times. With this, we are able to measure the effect of the substances on the hydration level of the skin in time, determining the feasibility of using THz imaging for the evaluation of the products and their effects on the hydration levels of the skin.

  1. Prognostic value of molecular and imaging biomarkers in patients with supratentorial glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Humanitas Cancer Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Riva, Marco; Raneri, Fabio; Pessina, Federico [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Olivari, Laura; Rossi, Marco; Alfieri, Tommaso [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Soffietti, Riccardo; Ruda, Roberta [University and City of Health and Science Hospital, Neuro-Oncology, Turin (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Genova (Italy); Bizzi, Alberto [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Neuroradiology, Milan (Italy); Navarria, Pierina; Ascolese, Anna Maria [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Fernandes, Bethania [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Pathology, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Simonelli, Matteo; Zucali, Paolo Andrea [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Radiology Department, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Pathology, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Humanitas University, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Humanitas Cancer Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Humanitas University, Rozzano, Milan (Italy)

    2017-07-15

    We evaluated the relationship between {sup 11}C-methionine PET ({sup 11}C-METH PET) findings and molecular biomarkers in patients with supratentorial glioma who underwent surgery. A consecutive series of 109 patients with pathologically proven glioma (64 men, 45 women; median age 43 years) referred to our Institution from March 2012 to January 2015 for tumour resection and who underwent preoperative {sup 11}C-METH PET were analysed. Semiquantitative evaluation of the {sup 11}C-METH PET images included SUVmax, region of interest-to-normal brain SUV ratio (SUVratio) and metabolic tumour volume (MTV). Imaging findings were correlated with disease outcome in terms of progression-free survival (PFS), and compared with other clinical biological data, including IDH1 mutation status, 1p/19q codeletion and MGMT promoter methylation. The patients were monitored for a mean period of 16.7 months (median 13 months). In all patients, the tumour was identified on {sup 11}C-METH PET. Significant differences in SUVmax, SUVratio and MTV were observed in relation to tumour grade (p < 0.001). IDH1 mutation was found in 49 patients, 1p/19q codeletion in 58 patients and MGMT promoter methylation in 74 patients. SUVmax and SUVratio were significantly inversely correlated with the presence of IDH1 mutation (p < 0.001). Using the 2016 WHO classification, SUVmax and SUVratio were significantly higher in patients with primary glioblastoma (IDH1-negative) than in those with other diffuse gliomas (p < 0.001). Relapse or progression was documented in 48 patients (median PFS 8.7 months). Cox regression analysis showed that SUVmax and SUVratio, tumour grade, tumour type on 2016 WHO classification, IDH1 mutation status, 1p/19q codeletion and MGMT promoter methylation were significantly associated with PFS. None of these factors was found to be an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis. {sup 11}C-METH PET parameters are significantly correlated with histological grade and IDH1

  2. Hybrid gold nanoparticles in molecular imaging and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katti, K.V.; Kannan, R.; Katti, K.; Kattumuri, V.; Pandrapragada, R.; Rahing, V.; Cutler, C.; Boote, E.; Casteel, S.W.; Smith, C.J.; Robertson, J.D.; Jurrison, S.

    2006-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles, because of their size, chemical and physical properties, are particularly attractive as therapeutic probes in treating cancer. Central to any clinical advances in nanoparticulate based therapy will be to produce hybrid nanoparticles that can be targeted to vascular, extracellular or cell surface receptors. Development of hybrid nanoparticles that specifically target cancer vasculature has received considerable attention. Most cancers have leaky vasculature and the defective vascular architecture, created due to the rapid vascularisation necessary to serve fast growing cancers, in combination with poor lymphatic drainage allows increased permeation and retention effects. The leaky vasculature, because of higher porosity and permeability, serve as natural high affinity targets to metallic nanoparticles. Another attractive approach toward the application of nanotechnology to nanomedicine is the utility of nanoparticles that display inherent therapeutic properties. For example radioactive gold nanoparticles present attractive prospects in therapy of cancer. The radioactive properties of Au-198 (β(max) = 0.96 MeV; t(1/2) = 2.7 d) and Au-199 (β(max) 0.46 MeV; t(1/2) = 3.14 d) make them ideal candidates for use in radiotherapeutic applications. In addition, they both have imageable gamma emissions for dosimetry and pharmacokinetic studies and Au-199 can be made carrier-free by indirect methods. Gold nanoparticles are of interest for treatment of disease as they can deliver agents directly into cells and cellular components with a higher concentration of radioactivity, e.g. higher dose of radioactivity, to cancerous tumor cells

  3. Image feature extraction based on the camouflage effectiveness evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Lv, Xuliang; Li, Ling; Wang, Xinzhu; Zhang, Zhi

    2018-04-01

    The key step of camouflage effectiveness evaluation is how to combine the human visual physiological features, psychological features to select effectively evaluation indexes. Based on the predecessors' camo comprehensive evaluation method, this paper chooses the suitable indexes combining with the image quality awareness, and optimizes those indexes combining with human subjective perception. Thus, it perfects the theory of index extraction.

  4. Identification of a Common Binding Mode for Imaging Agents to Amyloid Fibrils from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skeby, Katrine Kirkeby; Sørensen, Jesper; Schiøtt, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    experimentally due to the insoluble nature of amyloid fibrils. This study uses molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interactions between 13 aromatic amyloid imaging agents, entailing 4 different organic scaffolds, and a model of an amyloid fibril. Clustering analysis combined with free energy...

  5. Precision medicine and molecular imaging: new targeted approaches toward cancer therapeutic and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Nabipour, Iraj; Omrani, Abdolmajid; Alipour, Zeinab; Assadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the importance and role of precision medicine and molecular imaging technologies in cancer diagnosis with therapeutics and diagnostics purposes. Precision medicine is progressively becoming a hot topic in all disciplines related to biomedical investigation and has the capacity to become the paradigm for clinical practice. The future of medicine lies in early diagnosis and individually appropriate treatments, a concept that has been named precision medicine, i.e. delivering the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Molecular imaging is quickly being recognized as a tool with the potential to ameliorate every aspect of cancer treatment. On the other hand, emerging high-throughput technologies such as omics techniques and systems approaches have generated a paradigm shift for biological systems in advanced life science research. In this review, we describe the precision medicine, difference between precision medicine and personalized medicine, precision medicine initiative, systems biology/medicine approaches (such as genomics, radiogenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), P4 medicine, relationship between systems biology/medicine approaches and precision medicine, and molecular imaging modalities and their utility in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Accordingly, the precision medicine and molecular imaging will enable us to accelerate and improve cancer management in future medicine. PMID:28078184

  6. Application of molecular imaging combined with genetic screening in diagnosing MELAS, diabetes and recurrent pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiping, W; Quwen, L; Hai, Z; Jian, Z; Peiyi, G

    2016-01-01

    We report molecular imaging combined with gene diagnosis in a family with 7 members who carried an A3243G mutation in mitochondrial tRNA and p.Thr 137 Met in cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene presented with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), diabetes, and recurrent pancreatitis. DNA sequencing was used to detect and validate mitochondrial DNA and PRSS1. We also verified that mitochondrial heterozygous mutations and c.410 C>T mutation causing p.Thr 137 Met could be detected in oral epithelial cells or in urine sediment cells. In addition, molecular imaging was carried out in the affected family members. In this pedigree, MELAS syndrome accompanied by pancreatitis was an important clinical feature, followed by diabetes. Heteroplasmy of the mtDNA A3243G and c.410 C>T mutation of PRSS1 was found in all tissue samples of these patients, but no mutations were found in 520 normal control and normal individuals of the family. However, based on molecular imaging observations, patients with relatively higher lactate/pyruvate levels had more typical and more severe symptoms, particularly those of pancreatic disease (diabetes or pancreatitis). MELAS syndrome may be associated with pancreatitis. For the diagnosis, it is more reasonable to perform molecular imaging combined with gene diagnosis.

  7. Oligometastatic prostate cancer: shaping the definition with molecular imaging and an improved understanding of tumor biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joice, Gregory A; Rowe, Steven P; Pienta, Kenneth J; Gorin, Michael A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss how novel imaging modalities and molecular markers are shaping the definition of oligometastatic prostate cancer. To effectively classify a patient as having oligometastatic prostate cancer, diagnostic tests must be sensitive enough to detect subtle sites of metastatic disease. Conventional imaging modalities can readily detect widespread polymetastatic disease but do not have the sensitivity necessary to reliably classify patients as oligometastatic. Molecular imaging using both metabolic- and molecularly-targeted radiotracers has demonstrated great promise in aiding in our ability to define the oligometastatic state. Perhaps the most promising data to date have been generated with radiotracers targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen. In addition, early studies are beginning to define biologic markers in the oligometastatic state that may be indicative of disease with minimal metastatic potential. Recent developments in molecular imaging have allowed for improved detection of metastatic prostate cancer allowing for more accurate staging of patients with oligometastatic disease. Future development of biologic markers may assist in defining the oligometastatic state and determining prognosis.

  8. Precision medicine and molecular imaging: new targeted approaches toward cancer therapeutic and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Nabipour, Iraj; Omrani, Abdolmajid; Alipour, Zeinab; Assadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the importance and role of precision medicine and molecular imaging technologies in cancer diagnosis with therapeutics and diagnostics purposes. Precision medicine is progressively becoming a hot topic in all disciplines related to biomedical investigation and has the capacity to become the paradigm for clinical practice. The future of medicine lies in early diagnosis and individually appropriate treatments, a concept that has been named precision medicine, i.e. delivering the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Molecular imaging is quickly being recognized as a tool with the potential to ameliorate every aspect of cancer treatment. On the other hand, emerging high-throughput technologies such as omics techniques and systems approaches have generated a paradigm shift for biological systems in advanced life science research. In this review, we describe the precision medicine, difference between precision medicine and personalized medicine, precision medicine initiative, systems biology/medicine approaches (such as genomics, radiogenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), P4 medicine, relationship between systems biology/medicine approaches and precision medicine, and molecular imaging modalities and their utility in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Accordingly, the precision medicine and molecular imaging will enable us to accelerate and improve cancer management in future medicine.

  9. Molecular MR imaging of fibrosis in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polášek, Miloslav; Yang, Y.; Schühle, D. T.; Yaseen, M. A.; Kim, Y. R.; Sung, Y. S.; Guimaraes, A. R.; Caravan, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Aug 14 (2017), č. článku 8114. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fibrosis * molecular imaging * pancreatic cancer Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology OBOR OECD: Oncology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/ articles /s41598-017-08838-6

  10. Magnetically engineered smart thin films: toward lab-on-chip ultra-sensitive molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad A; Saqib, Mudassara; Shaikh, Haseeb; Ahmad, Nasir M; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2013-03-01

    Magnetically responsive engineered smart thin films of nanoferrites as contrast agent are employed to develop surface based magnetic resonance imaging to acquire simple yet fast molecular imaging. The work presented here can be of significant potential for future lab-on-chip point-of-care diagnostics from the whole blood pool on almost any substrates to reduce or even prevent clinical studies involve a living organism to enhance the non-invasive imaging to advance the '3Rs' of work in animals-replacement, refinement and reduction.

  11. SPECT and PET Serve as Molecular Imaging Techniques and in Vivo Biomarkers for Brain Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Palumbo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear medicine techniques (single photon emission computerized tomography, SPECT, and positron emission tomography, PET represent molecular imaging tools, able to provide in vivo biomarkers of different diseases. To investigate brain tumours and metastases many different radiopharmaceuticals imaged by SPECT and PET can be used. In this review the main and most promising radiopharmaceuticals available to detect brain metastases are reported. Furthermore the diagnostic contribution of the combination of SPECT and PET data with radiological findings (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI is discussed.

  12. Cirrhosis: CT and MR imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancatelli, Giuseppe; Federle, Michael P.; Ambrosini, Roberta; Lagalla, Roberto; Carriero, Alessandro; Midiri, Massimo; Vilgrain, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we present the CT and MR imaging characteristics of the cirrhotic liver. We describe the altered liver morphology in different forms of viral, alcoholic and autoimmune end-stage liver disease. We present the spectrum of imaging findings in portal hypertension, such as splenomegaly, ascites and varices. We describe the patchy and lacelike patterns of fibrosis, along with the focal confluent form. The process of hepatocarcinogenesis is detailed, from regenerative to dysplastic nodules to overt hepatocellular carcinoma. Different types of non-neoplastic focal liver lesions occurring in the cirrhotic liver are discussed, including arterially enhancing nodules, hemangiomas and peribiliary cysts. We show different conditions causing liver morphology changes that can mimic cirrhosis, such as congenital hepatic fibrosis, 'pseudo-cirrhosis' due to breast metastases treated with chemotherapy, Budd-Chiari syndrome, sarcoidosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein

  13. Cirrhosis: CT and MR imaging evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brancatelli, Giuseppe [Sezione di Radiologia, Ospedale Specializzato in Gastroenterologia, ' Saverio de Bellis' -IRCCS, 70013 Castellana Grotte (Bari) (Italy) and Sezione di Scienze Radiologiche, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Legale, Universita di Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy) and Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop Street, 15213 Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]. E-mail: gbranca@yahoo.com; Federle, Michael P. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop Street, 15213 Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ambrosini, Roberta [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, ' Maggiore della Carita' University Hospital, ' A.Avogadro' Eastern Piemonte University, Corso Mazzini 18, Novara (Italy); Lagalla, Roberto [Sezione di Scienze Radiologiche, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Legale, Universita di Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Carriero, Alessandro [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, ' Maggiore della Carita' University Hospital, ' A.Avogadro' Eastern Piemonte University, Corso Mazzini 18, Novara (Italy); Midiri, Massimo [Sezione di Scienze Radiologiche, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Legale, Universita di Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Vilgrain, Valerie [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Beaujon, 100 Boulevard du General Leclerc, 92118 Clichy (France)

    2007-01-15

    In this article, we present the CT and MR imaging characteristics of the cirrhotic liver. We describe the altered liver morphology in different forms of viral, alcoholic and autoimmune end-stage liver disease. We present the spectrum of imaging findings in portal hypertension, such as splenomegaly, ascites and varices. We describe the patchy and lacelike patterns of fibrosis, along with the focal confluent form. The process of hepatocarcinogenesis is detailed, from regenerative to dysplastic nodules to overt hepatocellular carcinoma. Different types of non-neoplastic focal liver lesions occurring in the cirrhotic liver are discussed, including arterially enhancing nodules, hemangiomas and peribiliary cysts. We show different conditions causing liver morphology changes that can mimic cirrhosis, such as congenital hepatic fibrosis, 'pseudo-cirrhosis' due to breast metastases treated with chemotherapy, Budd-Chiari syndrome, sarcoidosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein.

  14. Soft Shadow Removal and Image Evaluation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gryka, M.

    2016-01-01

    High-level image manipulation techniques are in increasing demand as they allow users to intuitively edit photographs to achieve desired effects quickly. As opposed to low-level manipulations, which provide complete freedom, but also require specialized skills and significant effort, high-level editing operations, such as removing objects (inpainting), relighting and material editing, need to respect semantic constraints. As such they shift the burden from the user to the algorithm to only al...

  15. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Beatriz Mahmud; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos; Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Nobrega, Bruno Barcelos da

    2003-01-01

    Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is a congenital developmental anomaly of the eye that primarily affects premature infants. PHPV results from failure of regression of the embryogenic primary vitreous and hyaloid vasculature, and proliferation of connective tissue. Three types of PHPV may be found: anterior, posterior and a combination of anterior and posterior. The clinical findings include leukocoria (white pupillary reflex) and microphthalmic eye. This anomaly is usually unilateral and unassociated with other systemic findings. The differential diagnosis between PHPV and other ocular diseases may be difficult due to similar features such as leukocoria, detached retina, retinal folds and cataract. Other diseases with similar features include retinoblastoma, isolated congenital cataract, retinopathy of prematurity and pseudo gliomas or leukocorias. Direct visualization of the remnants of the fetal hyaloid vascular system offers the best evidence of PHPV. However, diagnosis using the ophthalmoscope is sometimes impossible because of opaque tissues. In this circumstance an indirect visualization by ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be useful. These imaging methods provide valuable information for the differentiation from other diseases, particularly retinoblastoma. The authors present a review of the literature and an iconographic study of the imaging findings in patients with PHPV. (author)

  16. Molecular images as a tool in research. From radiopharmacy to radiopharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubillaga, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The rapidly emerging biomedical research discipline of Molecular Imaging (MI) enables the visualization, characterization and quantification of biologic process taking place at the cellular and sub-cellular levels within the intact living organism. The overall goal of MI is to interrogate biologic process in the cell of a living subject to report on and reveal their molecular abnormalities that form the basis of disease. This is in contrast to classical diagnostic imaging where documented findings are the result of the end effects of these molecular alterations, usually in the form of macroscopic and well-established gross pathology. MI includes the field of Nuclear Medicine (SPECT and PET) and other strategies that do not depend on radioactivity to produce imaging signals (optical, bioluminescence and Magnetic Resonance). The emergence of MI strategies has made possible the achievement of several important biomedical research goals that open the door to advancement of study in molecular medicine. These various accomplishments include: (1) development of non invasive 'in vivo' imaging methods to reflect gene expression and more complex events such as protein-protein interactions; (2) ability to monitor multiple molecular events near simultaneously; (3) capacity to follow cell trafficking and cell targeting; (4) optimization of drug and gene therapy; (5) capability of imaging drug effects at a molecular and cellular level; (6) assessment of disease progression at a molecular pathologic level; (7) advancement of the possibility of achieving all the above mentioned goals rapidly, reproducibly and quantitatively, in support of monitoring a time-dependent manner the experimental, developmental, environmental and therapeutic influences on gene products in a single living subject. Although many laboratory based proof-of-principle and validation studies have been conducted using MI approaches, a great deal more experimental research will be necessary to

  17. Evaluation of multimodality imaging using image fusion with ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging in an experimental animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprottka, P M; Zengel, P; Cyran, C C; Ingrisch, M; Nikolaou, K; Reiser, M F; Clevert, D A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging by comparison to multimodality imaging using image fusion with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and conventional grey scale imaging with additional elasticity-ultrasound in an experimental small-animal-squamous-cell carcinoma-model for the assessment of tissue morphology. Human hypopharynx carcinoma cells were subcutaneously injected into the left flank of 12 female athymic nude rats. After 10 days (SD ± 2) of subcutaneous tumor growth, sonographic grey scale including elasticity imaging and MRI measurements were performed using a high-end ultrasound system and a 3T MR. For image fusion the contrast-enhanced MRI DICOM data set was uploaded in the ultrasonic device which has a magnetic field generator, a linear array transducer (6-15 MHz) and a dedicated software package (GE Logic E9), that can detect transducers by means of a positioning system. Conventional grey scale and elasticity imaging were integrated in the image fusion examination. After successful registration and image fusion the registered MR-images were simultaneously shown with the respective ultrasound sectional plane. Data evaluation was performed using the digitally stored video sequence data sets by two experienced radiologist using a modified Tsukuba Elasticity score. The colors "red and green" are assigned for an area of soft tissue, "blue" indicates hard tissue. In all cases a successful image fusion and plan registration with MRI and ultrasound imaging including grey scale and elasticity imaging was possible. The mean tumor volume based on caliper measurements in 3 dimensions was ~323 mm3. 4/12 rats were evaluated with Score I, 5/12 rates were evaluated with Score II, 3/12 rates were evaluated with Score III. There was a close correlation in the fused MRI with existing small necrosis in the tumor. None of the scored II or III lesions was visible by conventional grey scale. The comparison of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging enables a

  18. Facilitating in vivo tumor localization by principal component analysis based on dynamic fluorescence molecular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Chen, Maomao; Wu, Junyu; Zhou, Yuan; Cai, Chuangjian; Wang, Daliang; Luo, Jianwen

    2017-09-01

    Fluorescence molecular imaging has been used to target tumors in mice with xenograft tumors. However, tumor imaging is largely distorted by the aggregation of fluorescent probes in the liver. A principal component analysis (PCA)-based strategy was applied on the in vivo dynamic fluorescence imaging results of three mice with xenograft tumors to facilitate tumor imaging, with the help of a tumor-specific fluorescent probe. Tumor-relevant features were extracted from the original images by PCA and represented by the principal component (PC) maps. The second principal component (PC2) map represented the tumor-related features, and the first principal component (PC1) map retained the original pharmacokinetic profiles, especially of the liver. The distribution patterns of the PC2 map of the tumor-bearing mice were in good agreement with the actual tumor location. The tumor-to-liver ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher on the PC2 map than on the original images, thus distinguishing the tumor from its nearby fluorescence noise of liver. The results suggest that the PC2 map could serve as a bioimaging marker to facilitate in vivo tumor localization, and dynamic fluorescence molecular imaging with PCA could be a valuable tool for future studies of in vivo tumor metabolism and progression.

  19. Nuclear Medicine Technologists' Perception and Current Assessment of Quality: A Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Technologist Section Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, April; Farrell, Mary Beth; Williams, Jessica; Basso, Danny

    2017-06-01

    In 2015, the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Technologist Section (SNMMI-TS) launched a multiyear quality initiative to help prepare the technologist workforce for an evidence-based health-care delivery system that focuses on quality. To best implement the quality strategy, the SNMMI-TS first surveyed technologists to ascertain their perception of quality and current measurement of quality indicators. Methods: An internet survey was sent to 27,989 e-mail contacts. Questions related to demographic data, perceptions of quality, quality measurement, and opinions on the minimum level of education are discussed in this article. Results: A total of 4,007 (14.3%) responses were received. When asked to list 3 words or phrases that represent quality, there were a plethora of different responses. The top 3 responses were image quality, quality control, and technologist education or competency. Surveying patient satisfaction was the most common quality measure (80.9%), followed by evaluation of image quality (78.2%). Evaluation of image quality (90.3%) and equipment functionality (89.4%) were considered the most effective measures. Technologists' differentiation between quality, quality improvement, quality control, quality assurance, and quality assessment seemed ambiguous. Respondents were confident in their ability to assess and improve quality at their workplace (91.9%) and agreed their colleagues were committed to delivering quality work. Of note, 70.7% of respondents believed that quality is directly related to the technologist's level of education. Correspondingly, respondents felt there should be a minimum level of education (99.5%) and that certification or registry should be required (74.4%). Most respondents (59.6%) felt that a Bachelor's degree should be the minimum level of education, followed by an Associate's degree (40.4%). Conclusion: To best help nuclear medicine technologists provide quality care, the SNMMI-TS queried technologists to

  20. Methodology for quantitative evaluation of diagnostic medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.

    1980-01-01

    This report deals with the evaluation of the performance of diagnostic medical imaging procedures using the Receiver Operating Characteristic or ROC analysis. The development of new tests for the statistical significance of apparent differences between ROC curves is discussed

  1. The use of the general image quality equation in the design and evaluation of imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota, Steve A.; Florio, Christopher J.; Duvall, David J.; Leon, Michael A.

    2009-08-01

    The design of any modern imaging system is the end result of many trade studies, each seeking to optimize image quality within real world constraints such as cost, schedule and overall risk. The National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) is a useful measure of image quality, because, by characterizing the overall interpretability of an image, it combines into one metric those contributors to image quality to which a human interpreter is most sensitive. The main drawback to using a NIIRS rating as a measure of image quality in engineering trade studies is the fact that it is tied to the human observer and cannot be predicted from physical principles and engineering parameters alone. The General Image Quality Equation (GIQE) of Leachtenauer et al. 1997 [Appl. Opt. 36, 8322-8328 (1997)] is a regression of actual image analyst NIIRS ratings vs. readily calculable engineering metrics, and provides a mechanism for using the expected NIIRS rating of an imaging system in the design and evaluation process. In this paper, we will discuss how we use the GIQE in conjunction with The Aerospace Corporation's Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation SOftware (PICASSO) to evaluate imager designs, taking a hypothetical high resolution commercial imaging system as an example.

  2. Molecular imaging in drug development: Update and challenges for radiolabeled antibodies and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Ilaria; Overchuk, Marta; Chen, Juan; Reilly, Raymond M; Zheng, Gang; Lheureux, Stephanie

    2017-11-01

    Despite the significant advancement achieved in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for cancer transformation and aberrant proliferation, leading to novel targeted cancer therapies, significant effort is still needed to "personalize" cancer treatment. Molecular imaging is an emerging field that has shown the ability to characterize in vivo the molecular pathways present at the cancer cell level, enabling diagnosis and personalized treatment of malignancies. These technologies, particularly SPECT and PET also permit the development of novel radiotheranostic probes, which provide capabilities for diagnosis and treatment with the same agent. The small therapeutic index of most anticancer agents is a limitation in the drug development process. Incorporation of molecular imaging in clinical research may help in overcoming this limitation and favouring selection of patient populations most likely to achieve benefit from targeted therapy. This review will focus on two of the most advanced theranostic approaches with promising potential for application in the clinic: 1) therapeutic monoclonal antibodies which may be linked to a radionuclide for SPECT or PET imaging to guide cancer diagnosis, staging, molecular characterization, and assessment of the response to treatment and 2) multifunctional nanotechnology that allows image guided drug delivery through encapsulation of multiple therapeutic, targeting and imaging agents into a single nanoparticle. Porphysome, a liposome-like nanoparticle, is an example of a novel and promising application of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment. These technologies have proven to be effective in preclinical models, warranting further clinical investigation to advance their application for the benefit of cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Targeted gold nanoparticles enable molecular CT imaging of cancer: an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuveni T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobi Reuveni1, Menachem Motiei1, Zimam Romman2, Aron Popovtzer3, Rachela Popovtzer11Faculty of Engineering and the Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-ilan University, Ramat Gan, 2GE HealthCare, Tirat Hacarmel, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and Onology, Davidoff Center, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tiqwa, IsraelAbstract: In recent years, advances in molecular biology and cancer research have led to the identification of sensitive and specific biomarkers that associate with various types of cancer. However, in vivo cancer detection methods with computed tomography, based on tracing and detection of these molecular cancer markers, are unavailable today. This paper demonstrates in vivo the feasibility of cancer diagnosis based on molecular markers rather than on anatomical structures, using clinical computed tomography. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor conjugated gold nanoparticles (30 nm were intravenously injected into nude mice implanted with human squamous cell carcinoma head and neck cancer. The results clearly demonstrate that a small tumor, which is currently undetectable through anatomical computed tomography, is enhanced and becomes clearly visible by the molecularly-targeted gold nanoparticles. It is further shown that active tumor targeting is more efficient and specific than passive targeting. This noninvasive and nonionizing molecular cancer imaging tool can facilitate early cancer detection and can provide researchers with a new technique to investigate in vivo the expression and activity of cancer-related biomarkers and molecular processes.Keywords: functional computed tomography, molecular imaging, gold nanoparticles, biologically targeted in vivo imaging, contrast agents

  4. Molecular imaging and the unification of multilevel mechanisms and data in medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforidis, George C.; Sakellaropoulos, George C.; Kagadis, George C.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular imaging (MI) constitutes a recently developed approach of imaging, where modalities and agents have been reinvented and used in novel combinations in order to expose and measure biologic processes occurring at molecular and cellular levels. It is an approach that bridges the gap between modalities acquiring data from high (e.g., computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron-emitting isotopes) and low (e.g., PCR, microarrays) levels of a biological organization. While data integration methodologies will lead to improved diagnostic and prognostic performance, interdisciplinary collaboration, triggered by MI, will result in a better perception of the underlying biological mechanisms. Toward the development of a unifying theory describing these mechanisms, medical physicists can formulate new hypotheses, provide the physical constraints bounding them, and consequently design appropriate experiments. Their new scientific and working environment calls for interventions in their syllabi to educate scientists with enhanced capabilities for holistic views and synthesis.

  5. Direct molecular analysis of whole-body animal tissue sections by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyzer, Michelle L; Chaurand, Pierre; Angel, Peggi M; Caprioli, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    The determination of the localization of various compounds in a whole animal is valuable for many applications, including pharmaceutical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies and biomarker discovery. Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for localizing compounds of biological interest with molecular specificity and relatively high resolution. Utilizing imaging mass spectrometry for whole-body animal sections offers considerable analytical advantages compared to traditional methods, such as whole-body autoradiography, but the experiment is not straightforward. This chapter addresses the advantages and unique challenges that the application of imaging mass spectrometry to whole-body animal sections entails, including discussions of sample preparation, matrix application, signal normalization, and image generation. Lipid and protein images obtained from whole-body tissue sections of mouse pups are presented along with detailed protocols for the experiments.

  6. Full-direct method for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guanglei, E-mail: guangleizhang@bjtu.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Computer and Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Pu, Huangsheng; Liu, Fei; Bai, Jing [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He, Wei [China Institute of Sport Science, Beijing 100061 (China); Luo, Jianwen, E-mail: luo-jianwen@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-02-23

    Images of pharmacokinetic parameters (also known as parametric images) in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can provide three-dimensional metabolic information for biological studies and drug development. However, the ill-posed nature of FMT and the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration together make it difficult to obtain accurate parametric images in small animals in vivo. In this letter, we present a method to directly reconstruct the parametric images from the boundary measurements based on hybrid FMT/X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. This method can not only utilize structural priors obtained from the XCT system to mitigate the ill-posedness of FMT but also make full use of the temporal correlations of boundary measurements to model the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration. The results of numerical simulation and mouse experiment demonstrate that the proposed method leads to significant improvements in the reconstruction quality of parametric images.

  7. Next Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue Specimens for Enhanced Clinical Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH- 14-1-0192 TITLE: Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer...DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue

  8. The Molecular Autopsy: Should the Evaluation Continue After the Funeral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, David J.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the most common causes of death in developed countries, with most SCDs involving the elderly, and structural heart disease evident at autopsy. Each year, however, thousands of sudden deaths involving individuals younger than 35 years of age remain unexplained after a comprehensive medicolegal investigation that includes an autopsy. In fact, several epidemiologic studies have estimated that at least 3% and up to 53% of sudden deaths involving previously healthy children, adolescents, and young adults show no morphologic abnormalities identifiable at autopsy. Cardiac channelopathies associated with structurally normal hearts such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), and Brugada syndrome (BrS) yield no evidence to be found at autopsy, leaving coroners, medical examiners, and forensic pathologists only to speculate that a lethal arrhythmia might lie at the heart of a sudden unexplained death (SUD). In cases of autopsy-negative SUD, continued investigation through either a cardiologic and genetic evaluation of first- or second-degree relatives or a molecular autopsy may elucidate the underlying mechanism contributing to the sudden death and allow for identification of living family members with the pathogenic substrate that renders them vulnerable, with an increased risk for cardiac events including syncope, cardiac arrest, and sudden death. PMID:22307399

  9. Bacterial population in traditional sourdough evaluated by molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, C L; Heilig, H; Restuccia, C; Giudici, P; Caggia, C

    2005-01-01

    To study the microbial communities in artisanal sourdoughs, manufactured by traditional procedure in different areas of Sicily, and to evaluate the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population by classical and culture-independent approaches. Forty-five LAB isolates were identified both by phenotypic and molecular methods. The restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing gave evidence of a variety of species with the dominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Lactobacillus pentosus, in all sourdoughs tested. Culture-independent method, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the V6-V8 regions of the 16S rDNA, was applied for microbial community fingerprint. The DGGE profiles revealed the dominance of L. sanfranciscensis species. In addition, Lactobacillus-specific primers were used to amplify the V1-V3 regions of the 16S rDNA. DGGE profiles flourished the dominance of L. sanfranciscensis and Lactobacillus fermentum in the traditional sourdoughs, and revealed that the closely related species Lactobacillus kimchii and Lactobacillus alimentarius were not discriminated. Lactobacillus-specific PCR-DGGE analysis is a rapid tool for rapid detection of Lactobacillus species in artisanal sourdough. This study reports a characterization of Lactobacillus isolates from artisanal sourdoughs and highlights the value of DGGE approach to detect uncultivable Lactobacillus species.

  10. Monitoring the Spatiotemporal Activities of miRNAs in Small Animal Models Using Molecular Imaging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Baril

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding mRNA targets via sequence complementary inducing translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. A current challenge in the field of miRNA biology is to understand the functionality of miRNAs under physiopathological conditions. Recent evidence indicates that miRNA expression is more complex than simple regulation at the transcriptional level. MiRNAs undergo complex post-transcriptional regulations such miRNA processing, editing, accumulation and re-cycling within P-bodies. They are dynamically regulated and have a well-orchestrated spatiotemporal localization pattern. Real-time and spatio-temporal analyses of miRNA expression are difficult to evaluate and often underestimated. Therefore, important information connecting miRNA expression and function can be lost. Conventional miRNA profiling methods such as Northern blot, real-time PCR, microarray, in situ hybridization and deep sequencing continue to contribute to our knowledge of miRNA biology. However, these methods can seldom shed light on the spatiotemporal organization and function of miRNAs in real-time. Non-invasive molecular imaging methods have the potential to address these issues and are thus attracting increasing attention. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of methods used to detect miRNAs and discusses their contribution in the emerging field of miRNA biology and therapy.

  11. Monitoring the spatiotemporal activities of miRNAs in small animal models using molecular imaging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Patrick; Ezzine, Safia; Pichon, Chantal

    2015-03-04

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding mRNA targets via sequence complementary inducing translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. A current challenge in the field of miRNA biology is to understand the functionality of miRNAs under physiopathological conditions. Recent evidence indicates that miRNA expression is more complex than simple regulation at the transcriptional level. MiRNAs undergo complex post-transcriptional regulations such miRNA processing, editing, accumulation and re-cycling within P-bodies. They are dynamically regulated and have a well-orchestrated spatiotemporal localization pattern. Real-time and spatio-temporal analyses of miRNA expression are difficult to evaluate and often underestimated. Therefore, important information connecting miRNA expression and function can be lost. Conventional miRNA profiling methods such as Northern blot, real-time PCR, microarray, in situ hybridization and deep sequencing continue to contribute to our knowledge of miRNA biology. However, these methods can seldom shed light on the spatiotemporal organization and function of miRNAs in real-time. Non-invasive molecular imaging methods have the potential to address these issues and are thus attracting increasing attention. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of methods used to detect miRNAs and discusses their contribution in the emerging field of miRNA biology and therapy.

  12. Advances in Molecular Imaging of Locally Delivered Targeted Therapeutics for Central Nervous System Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Tosi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the recent advances in the development of chemotherapeutics, the morbidity and mortality of many cancers has decreased significantly. However, compared to oncology in general, the field of neuro-oncology has lagged behind. While new molecularly targeted chemotherapeutics have emerged, the impermeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB renders systemic delivery of these clinical agents suboptimal. To circumvent the BBB, novel routes of administration are being applied in the clinic, ranging from intra-arterial infusion and direct infusion into the target tissue (convection enhanced delivery (CED to the use of focused ultrasound to temporarily disrupt the BBB. However, the current system depends on a “wait-and-see” approach, whereby drug delivery is deemed successful only when a specific clinical outcome is observed. The shortcomings of this approach are evident, as a failed delivery that needs immediate refinement cannot be observed and corrected. In response to this problem, new theranostic agents, compounds with both imaging and therapeutic potential, are being developed, paving the way for improved and monitored delivery to central nervous system (CNS malignancies. In this review, we focus on the advances and the challenges to improve early cancer detection, selection of targeted therapy, and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, brought forth by the development of these new agents.

  13. Advances in Molecular Imaging of Locally Delivered Targeted Therapeutics for Central Nervous System Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Umberto; Marnell, Christopher S.; Chang, Raymond; Cho, William C.; Ting, Richard; Maachani, Uday B.; Souweidane, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to the recent advances in the development of chemotherapeutics, the morbidity and mortality of many cancers has decreased significantly. However, compared to oncology in general, the field of neuro-oncology has lagged behind. While new molecularly targeted chemotherapeutics have emerged, the impermeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) renders systemic delivery of these clinical agents suboptimal. To circumvent the BBB, novel routes of administration are being applied in the clinic, ranging from intra-arterial infusion and direct infusion into the target tissue (convection enhanced delivery (CED)) to the use of focused ultrasound to temporarily disrupt the BBB. However, the current system depends on a “wait-and-see” approach, whereby drug delivery is deemed successful only when a specific clinical outcome is observed. The shortcomings of this approach are evident, as a failed delivery that needs immediate refinement cannot be observed and corrected. In response to this problem, new theranostic agents, compounds with both imaging and therapeutic potential, are being developed, paving the way for improved and monitored delivery to central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. In this review, we focus on the advances and the challenges to improve early cancer detection, selection of targeted therapy, and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, brought forth by the development of these new agents. PMID:28208698

  14. Direct-Conversion Molecular Breast Imaging of Invasive Breast Cancer: Imaging Features, Extent of Invasive Disease, and Comparison Between Invasive Ductal and Lobular Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Amy Lynn; Jones, Katie N; Hruska, Carrie B; Geske, Jennifer R; Boughey, Judy C; Rhodes, Deborah J

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the tumor appearance of invasive breast cancer on direct-conversion molecular breast imaging using a standardized lexicon and to determine how often direct-conversion molecular breast imaging identifies all known invasive tumor foci in the breast, and whether this differs for invasive ductal versus lobular histologic profiles. Patients with prior invasive breast cancer and concurrent direct-conversion molecular breast imaging examinations were retrospectively reviewed. Blinded review of direct-conversion molecular breast imaging examinations was performed by one of two radiologists, according to a validated lexicon. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings were matched with lesions described on the pathology report to exclude benign reasons for direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings and to document direct-conversion molecular breast imaging-occult tumor foci. Associations between direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings and tumor histologic profiles were examined using chi-square tests. In 286 patients, 390 invasive tumor foci were present in 294 breasts. A corresponding direct-conversion molecular breast imaging finding was present for 341 of 390 (87%) tumor foci described on the pathology report. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tumor foci were more likely to be a mass (40% IDC vs 15% invasive lobular carcinoma [ILC]; p < 0.001) and to have marked intensity than were ILC foci (63% IDC vs 32% ILC; p < 0.001). Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging correctly revealed all pathology-proven foci of invasive disease in 79.8% of cases and was more likely to do so for IDC than for ILC (86.1% vs 56.7%; p < 0.0001). Overall, direct-conversion molecular breast imaging showed all known invasive foci in 249 of 286 (87%) patients. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging features of invasive cancer, including lesion type and intensity, differ by histologic subtype. Direct-conversion molecular

  15. Feature Evaluation for Building Facade Images - AN Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M. Y.; Förstner, W.; Chai, D.

    2012-08-01

    The classification of building facade images is a challenging problem that receives a great deal of attention in the photogrammetry community. Image classification is critically dependent on the features. In this paper, we perform an empirical feature evaluation task for building facade images. Feature sets we choose are basic features, color features, histogram features, Peucker features, texture features, and SIFT features. We present an approach for region-wise labeling using an efficient randomized decision forest classifier and local features. We conduct our experiments with building facade image classification on the eTRIMS dataset, where our focus is the object classes building, car, door, pavement, road, sky, vegetation, and window.

  16. Statistics Refresher for Molecular Imaging Technologists, Part 2: Accuracy of Interpretation, Significance, and Variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Mary Beth

    2018-06-01

    This article is the second part of a continuing education series reviewing basic statistics that nuclear medicine and molecular imaging technologists should understand. In this article, the statistics for evaluating interpretation accuracy, significance, and variance are discussed. Throughout the article, actual statistics are pulled from the published literature. We begin by explaining 2 methods for quantifying interpretive accuracy: interreader and intrareader reliability. Agreement among readers can be expressed simply as a percentage. However, the Cohen κ-statistic is a more robust measure of agreement that accounts for chance. The higher the κ-statistic is, the higher is the agreement between readers. When 3 or more readers are being compared, the Fleiss κ-statistic is used. Significance testing determines whether the difference between 2 conditions or interventions is meaningful. Statistical significance is usually expressed using a number called a probability ( P ) value. Calculation of P value is beyond the scope of this review. However, knowing how to interpret P values is important for understanding the scientific literature. Generally, a P value of less than 0.05 is considered significant and indicates that the results of the experiment are due to more than just chance. Variance, standard deviation (SD), confidence interval, and standard error (SE) explain the dispersion of data around a mean of a sample drawn from a population. SD is commonly reported in the literature. A small SD indicates that there is not much variation in the sample data. Many biologic measurements fall into what is referred to as a normal distribution taking the shape of a bell curve. In a normal distribution, 68% of the data will fall within 1 SD, 95% will fall within 2 SDs, and 99.7% will fall within 3 SDs. Confidence interval defines the range of possible values within which the population parameter is likely to lie and gives an idea of the precision of the statistic being

  17. Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in evaluation of Bell palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A.M.; Wesolowski, D.P.; Bojrab, D.I.; Ernstoff, R.M.; Farah, J.

    1989-01-01

    Eight patients with Bell palsy were evaluated with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist)-enhanced MR imaging in a 1.0-T Siemen's Magnetom unit. Axial pre-and postcontrast and coronal postcontrast T1-weighted MR images of facial nerves were studied. Significant unilateral enhancement of the facial nerve within the internal auditory canal, with or without involvement of the geniculate ganglia, was found in six patients. Three of these patients without satisfactory response to medical treatment underwent surgical decompression, with excellent recovery of facial nerve function. The authors believe that gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging is valuable in the evaluation and management of Bell palsy

  18. Image segmentation evaluation for very-large datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Anthony P.; Liu, Shuang; Xie, Yiting

    2016-03-01

    With the advent of modern machine learning methods and fully automated image analysis there is a need for very large image datasets having documented segmentations for both computer algorithm training and evaluation. Current approaches of visual inspection and manual markings do not scale well to big data. We present a new approach that depends on fully automated algorithm outcomes for segmentation documentation, requires no manual marking, and provides quantitative evaluation for computer algorithms. The documentation of new image segmentations and new algorithm outcomes are achieved by visual inspection. The burden of visual inspection on large datasets is minimized by (a) customized visualizations for rapid review and (b) reducing the number of cases to be reviewed through analysis of quantitative segmentation evaluation. This method has been applied to a dataset of 7,440 whole-lung CT images for 6 different segmentation algorithms designed to fully automatically facilitate the measurement of a number of very important quantitative image biomarkers. The results indicate that we could achieve 93% to 99% successful segmentation for these algorithms on this relatively large image database. The presented evaluation method may be scaled to much larger image databases.

  19. Functional and molecular imaging with MRI: potential applications in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthurs, Owen J.; Gallagher, Ferdia A.

    2011-01-01

    MRI is a very versatile tool for noninvasive imaging and it is particularly attractive as an imaging technique in paediatric patients given the absence of ionizing radiation. Recent advances in the field of MRI have enabled tissue function to be probed noninvasively, and increasingly MRI is being used to assess cellular and molecular processes. For example, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI has been used to assess tissue vascularity, diffusion-weighted imaging can quantify molecular movements of water in tissue compartments and MR spectroscopy provides a quantitative assessment of metabolite levels. A number of targeted contrast agents have been developed that bind specifically to receptors on the vascular endothelium or cell surface and there are several MR methods for labelling cells and tracking cellular movements. Hyperpolarization techniques have the capability of massively increasing the sensitivity of MRI and these have been used to image tissue pH, successful response to drug treatment as well as imaging the microstructure of the lungs. Although there are many challenges to be overcome before these techniques can be translated into routine paediatric imaging, they could potentially be used to aid diagnosis, predict disease outcome, target biopsies and determine treatment response noninvasively. (orig.)

  20. The molecular imaging approach to image infections and inflammation by nuclear medicine techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, Alberto; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory and infectious diseases are a heterogeneous class of diseases that may be divided into infections, acute inflammation and chronic inflammation. Radiological imaging techniques have, with the exception of functional MRI, high sensitivity but lack in specificity. Nuclear medicine

  1. Neurobiology of Chronic Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: Evidence from Molecular Imaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Margaret T.; Holmes, Sophie E.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Esterlis, Irina

    2018-01-01

    Chronic stress accounts for billions of dollars of economic loss annually in the United States alone, and is recognized as a major source of disability and mortality worldwide. Robust evidence suggests that chronic stress plays a significant role in the onset of severe and impairing psychiatric conditions, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Application of molecular imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography in recent years has begun to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms by which chronic stress confers risk for these disorders. The present paper provides a comprehensive review and synthesis of all positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography imaging publications focused on the examination of molecular targets in individuals with major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or bipolar disorder to date. Critical discussion of discrepant findings and broad strengths and weaknesses of the current body of literature is provided. Recommended future directions for the field of molecular imaging to further elucidate the neurobiological substrates of chronic stress-related disorders are also discussed. This article is part of the inaugural issue for the journal focused on various aspects of chronic stress. PMID:29862379

  2. PET for molecular imaging of cancer: a tool for tailored therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The concept of personalised medicine has led to a need for improved phenotyping as well as prediction of treatment response early after therapy initiation. Most of the molecular biology methods used today need tissue sampling for in vitro analysis. In contrast, molecular imaging allows for non-invasive studies at the molecular level in living, intact organisms. Accordingly, molecular imaging with PET has been one of the most successful techniques in such phenotyping and response prediction using FDG. In addition, recent development of new PET tracers has further improved the value of PET in tumor characterization. Such new PET tracers allow for visualization of tumor specific receptors and tissue characteristics such as ability to metastasize. Furthermore, PET has a high sensitivity and allows for quantification and is not prone to sampling error as seen with biopsies. We will present examples of development of probes targeting the somatostatin receptor type 2, over-expressed in neuroendocrine tumors, including our first-in-man studies of 64 Cu-DOTATATE. Also development in probes for visualization of the invasive phenotype will be presented. Finally, with the most recent development of true integrated PET/MRI scanners has now become possible to add information from MRI. The value of such hybrid imaging will also be briefly discussed. (author)

  3. PET for molecular imaging of cancer: a tool for tailored therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The concept of personalised medicine has led to a need for improved phenotyping as well as prediction of treatment response early after therapy initiation. Most of the molecular biology methods used today need tissue sampling for in vitro analysis. In contrast, molecular imaging allows for non-invasive studies at the molecular level in living, intact organisms. Accordingly, molecular imaging with PET has been one of the most successful techniques in such phenotyping and response prediction using FDG. In addition, recent development of new PET tracers has further improved the value of PET in tumor characterization. Such new PET tracers allow for visualization of tumor specific receptors and tissue characteristics such as ability to metastasize. Furthermore, PET has a high sensitivity and allows for quantification and is not prone to sampling error as seen with biopsies. We will present examples of development of probes targeting the somatostatin receptor type 2, over-expressed in neuroendocrine tumors, including our first-in-man studies of 64Cu-DOTATATE. Also development in probes for visualization of the invasive phenotype will be presented. Finally, with the most recent development of true integrated PET/MRI scanners it has now become possible to add information from MRI. The value of such hybrid imaging will also be briefly discussed. (author)

  4. Personalized Medicine Based on Theranostic Radioiodine Molecular Imaging for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging based personalized therapy has been a fascinating concept for individualized therapeutic strategy, which is able to attain the highest efficacy and reduce adverse effects in certain patients. Theranostics, which integrates diagnostic testing to detect molecular targets for particular therapeutic modalities, is one of the key technologies that contribute to the success of personalized medicine. Although the term "theranostics" was used after the second millennium, its basic principle was applied more than 70 years ago in the field of thyroidology with radioiodine molecular imaging. Differentiated thyroid cancer, which arises from follicular cells in the thyroid, is the most common endocrine malignancy, and theranostic radioiodine has been successfully applied to diagnose and treat differentiated thyroid cancer, the applications of which were included in the guidelines published by various thyroid or nuclear medicine societies. Through better pathophysiologic understanding of thyroid cancer and advancements in nuclear technologies, theranostic radioiodine contributes more to modern tailored personalized management by providing high therapeutic effect and by avoiding significant adverse effects in differentiated thyroid cancer. This review details the inception of theranostic radioiodine and recent radioiodine applications for differentiated thyroid cancer management as a prototype of personalized medicine based on molecular imaging.

  5. Technological advances in Preclinical Molecular Imaging; Avances tecnológicos en Imagen Molecular Preclínica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña-Zalbidea, S.; Vaquero, J.

    2014-07-01

    Molecular imaging is undergoing an intense activity, mainly due to the availability of new detection and image reconstruction technologies, which in recent years have improved significantly both the resolution and sensitivity of these methods. The greatest potential for innovation comes from multimodality imaging, which combines information from more than one imaging technique and exploits the synergies between them. The main arguments in favour of these devices are the possibility of performing intrinsically registered scans in a minimum time and without moving the animal. Currently, the combination of PET and MRI as a hybrid imaging modality is receiving great attention and although its potential is clear, as it was with the PET/CT, this technology will have to overcome certain limitations and demonstrate its value for different applications. [Spanish] La imagen molecular es un área de investigación muy activa acelerada en los últimos años por la disponibilidad de nuevas tecnologías de detección y reconstrucción de imágenes. Estas innovaciones han permitido mejorar considerablemente tanto la resolución como la sensibilidad de las imágenes obtenidas sobre modelos preclínicos desarrollados en pequeños animales (ratón y rata principalmente). El mayor potencial de esta tecnología proviene de la imagen multimodalidad, que combina información de más de una técnica de imagen y explota las posibles sinergias entre ellas al integrar en una sola imagen “forma y función”. Los principales argumentos a favor de estos dispositivos multimodales son la posibilidad de hacer las exploraciones intrínsecamente registradas en un tiempo reducido, y sin necesidad de mover el animal entre diferentes equipos. De todas las posibles combinaciones la que está reclamando más la atención últimamente es la PET/IRM (tomografía por emisión de positrones e imagen de resonancia magnética), aunque de momento la PET/CT (tomografía por emisión de positrones y tomograf

  6. Development of new Molecular Imaging probes; Desarrollo de nuevas sondas de Imagen Molecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Vallejo, V.; Baz, Z.; Llop, J.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear Imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) are essential tools for the early diagnose of certain pathologies, and have been widely applied to the mechanistic investigation of disease, the visualization of biological and physiological phenomena and in the process of drug development. PET and SPECT require the administration of a radiotracer (compound labelled with a radioactive nuclide) to the subject under investigation (patient, healthy volunteer or experimental animal). Due to their high sensitivity and their noninvasive nature, nuclear imaging techniques have a great potential. However, only a few radiotracers are currently routinely used in clinical diagnose. In contrast, new tracers suitable for the visualization of new targets or showing improved specificity, selectivity or pharmacokinetic properties are continuously designed, synthesized and assayed in the preclinical setting. Far from performing an exhaustive revision of the new radiotracers currently under development, this paper aims to collate recent advances related to the preparation of novel nuclear imaging probes, which have a significant scientific impact in terms of literature volume, and which could be translated to the clinical environment in the near future. First, peptides and nanoparticles (NPs) are discussed. Finally, antibody derivatives and the recently developed pretargeting strategy, which enables the visualization of tumours while lowering significantly the effective dose posed on the subject under investigation, will be briefly covered. [Spanish] Las técnicas de imagen nuclear, entre las que se encuentran la tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET) y la tomografía por emisión de fotón único (SPECT) son herramientas fundamentales no sólo en el entorno clínico diagnóstico, sino también para el estudio mecanístico de determinadas patologías, la visualización de procesos biol

  7. Imaging Seeker Surrogate for IRCM evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Carpenter, S.R.; Mellier, B.; Dimmeler, A.

    2007-01-01

    NATO-SCI-139 and its predecessor groups have more than a decade of history in the evaluation and recommendation of EO and IR Countermeasures against anti-aircraft missiles. Surrogate Seekers have proven to be a valuable tool for this work. The use of surrogate seekers in international co-operations

  8. Diagnostic imaging in liver transplantation. Preoperative evaluation and postoperative complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, T.; Ruehm, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    Complimentary to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is increasingly considered a therapeutic option in the therapy of end-stage liver disease. Accurate pre- and postoperative imaging is crucial for the transplantation success and represents an established part of the current evaluation algorithms. This article summarizes the most important requirements and the current imaging standards. Preoperative imaging is important for exclusion of transplantation contraindications in the recipient and for reliable assessment of anatomical variants in the donor. The main purpose of postoperative imaging is the early detection and characterization of complications. In both instances, multislice CT currently represents the most versatile and reliable imaging modality, still superior to MRI. For postoperative follow-up, the imaging modality of first choice is still bedside ultrasound; however, unclear findings usually need to be further assessed by CT. (orig.) [de

  9. Mechanistic and quantitative insight into cell surface targeted molecular imaging agent design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Bhatnagar, Sumit; Deschenes, Emily; Thurber, Greg M

    2016-05-05

    Molecular imaging agent design involves simultaneously optimizing multiple probe properties. While several desired characteristics are straightforward, including high affinity and low non-specific background signal, in practice there are quantitative trade-offs between these properties. These include plasma clearance, where fast clearance lowers background signal but can reduce target uptake, and binding, where high affinity compounds sometimes suffer from lower stability or increased non-specific interactions. Further complicating probe development, many of the optimal parameters vary depending on both target tissue and imaging agent properties, making empirical approaches or previous experience difficult to translate. Here, we focus on low molecular weight compounds targeting extracellular receptors, which have some of the highest contrast values for imaging agents. We use a mechanistic approach to provide a quantitative framework for weighing trade-offs between molecules. Our results show that specific target uptake is well-described by quantitative simulations for a variety of targeting agents, whereas non-specific background signal is more difficult to predict. Two in vitro experimental methods for estimating background signal in vivo are compared - non-specific cellular uptake and plasma protein binding. Together, these data provide a quantitative method to guide probe design and focus animal work for more cost-effective and time-efficient development of molecular imaging agents.

  10. Molecular markers for use in plant molecular breeding and germplasm evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.D.; McCouch, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    A number of molecular marker technologies exist, each with different advantages and disadvantages. When available, genome sequence allows for the development of greater numbers and higher quality molecular markers. When genome sequence is limited in the organism of interest, related species may serve as sources of molecular markers. Some molecular marker technologies combine the discovery and assay of DNA sequence variations, and therefore can be used in species without the need for prior sequence information and up-front investment in marker development. As a prerequisite for marker-assisted selection (MAS), there must be a known association between genetic markers and genes affecting the phenotype to be modified. Comparative databases can facilitate the transfer of knowledge of genetic marker-phenotype association across species so that discoveries in one species may be applied to many others. Further genomics research and reductions in the costs associated with molecular markers will continue to provide new opportunities to employ MAS. (author)

  11. CT imaging vs. traditional radiographic imaging for evaluating Harris Lines in tibiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primeau, Charlotte; Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first to systematically investigate computer tomography (CT) images vs. ordinary flat plane radiography for evaluating Harris Lines (HL) on tibiae. Harris Lines are traditionally investigated using radiographic images and recorded as either present or absent, or by counting...

  12. Epithelial cell biocompatibility of silica nanospheres for contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriaco, Fernanda; Conversano, Francesco; Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Ernesto [Institute of Clinical Physiology, Bioengineering Division, National Research Council (Italy); Ragusa, Andrea [National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-NANO (Italy); Sbenaglia, Enzo Antonio; Dipaola, Lucia [Institute of Clinical Physiology, Bioengineering Division, National Research Council (Italy); Casciaro, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.casciaro@cnr.it [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica (CNR-IFC) c/o Campus Universitario Ecotekne, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Nanosized particles are receiving increasing attention as future contrast agents (CAs) for ultrasound (US) molecular imaging, possibly decorated on its surface with biological recognition agents for targeted delivery and deposition of therapeutics. In particular, silica nanospheres (SiNSs) have been demonstrated to be feasible in terms of contrast enhancement on conventional US systems. In this work, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of SiNSs on breast cancer (MCF-7) and HeLa (cervical cancer) cells employing NSs with sizes ranging from 160 to 330 nm and concentration range of 1.5-5 mg/mL. Cell viability was evaluated in terms of size, dose and time dependence, performing the MTT reduction assay with coated and uncoated SiNSs. Whereas uncoated SiNSs caused a variable significant decrease in cell viability on both cell lines mainly depending on size and exposure time, PEGylated SiNSs (SiNSs-PEG) exhibit a high level of biocompatibility. In fact, after 72-h incubation, viability of both cell types was above the cutoff value of 70 % at concentration up to 5 mg/mL. We also investigated the acoustical behavior of coated and uncoated SiNSs within conventional diagnostic US fields in order to determine a suitable configuration, in terms of particle size and concentration, for their employment as targetable CAs. Our results indicate that the employment of SiNSs with diameters around 240 nm assures the most effective contrast enhancement even at the lowest tested concentration, coupled with the possibility of targeting all tumor tissues, being the SiNSs still in a size range where reticuloendothelial system trapping effect is relatively low.

  13. Epithelial cell biocompatibility of silica nanospheres for contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiriacò, Fernanda; Conversano, Francesco; Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Ernesto; Ragusa, Andrea; Sbenaglia, Enzo Antonio; Dipaola, Lucia; Casciaro, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Nanosized particles are receiving increasing attention as future contrast agents (CAs) for ultrasound (US) molecular imaging, possibly decorated on its surface with biological recognition agents for targeted delivery and deposition of therapeutics. In particular, silica nanospheres (SiNSs) have been demonstrated to be feasible in terms of contrast enhancement on conventional US systems. In this work, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of SiNSs on breast cancer (MCF-7) and HeLa (cervical cancer) cells employing NSs with sizes ranging from 160 to 330 nm and concentration range of 1.5–5 mg/mL. Cell viability was evaluated in terms of size, dose and time dependence, performing the MTT reduction assay with coated and uncoated SiNSs. Whereas uncoated SiNSs caused a variable significant decrease in cell viability on both cell lines mainly depending on size and exposure time, PEGylated SiNSs (SiNSs-PEG) exhibit a high level of biocompatibility. In fact, after 72-h incubation, viability of both cell types was above the cutoff value of 70 % at concentration up to 5 mg/mL. We also investigated the acoustical behavior of coated and uncoated SiNSs within conventional diagnostic US fields in order to determine a suitable configuration, in terms of particle size and concentration, for their employment as targetable CAs. Our results indicate that the employment of SiNSs with diameters around 240 nm assures the most effective contrast enhancement even at the lowest tested concentration, coupled with the possibility of targeting all tumor tissues, being the SiNSs still in a size range where reticuloendothelial system trapping effect is relatively low

  14. Imaging modes of atomic force microscopy for application in molecular and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrêne, Yves F; Ando, Toshio; Garcia, Ricardo; Alsteens, David; Martinez-Martin, David; Engel, Andreas; Gerber, Christoph; Müller, Daniel J

    2017-04-06

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful, multifunctional imaging platform that allows biological samples, from single molecules to living cells, to be visualized and manipulated. Soon after the instrument was invented, it was recognized that in order to maximize the opportunities of AFM imaging in biology, various technological developments would be required to address certain limitations of the method. This has led to the creation of a range of new imaging modes, which continue to push the capabilities of the technique today. Here, we review the basic principles, advantages and limitations of the most common AFM bioimaging modes, including the popular contact and dynamic modes, as well as recently developed modes such as multiparametric, molecular recognition, multifrequency and high-speed imaging. For each of these modes, we discuss recent experiments that highlight their unique capabilities.

  15. [Evaluation of dental plaque by quantitative digital image analysis system].