WorldWideScience

Sample records for molecular events basic

  1. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    The initiation and control of the division process in normal cells is studied to gain insight into changes in these regards caused by x-irradiation and neoplasia. The Primer Hypothesis for eukaryotic gene regulation proposes that small molecular weight RNA acts as primer for new RNA synthesis by hybridizing with DNA and there initiating the transcription of a new RNA chain. The experiments reported here indicate that small molecular weight RNA will induce the production of new proteins. These results are consistent with the Primer Hypothesis, and demonstrate that RNA can be taken up from the media by cells in culture and can induce in vitro the production of differentiated cell products

  2. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  3. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Research during the past year has been directed at induction of specific protein synthesis in differentiated mammalian cells. The Primer Hypothesis for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression suggests that RNA transcription is primed by small molecular weight RNA. It predicts that albumin mRNA transcription in a 3T3 fibroblast, which ordinarily does not produce albumin, can be initiated by RNA primer present in liver cells. In experiments this past year, mouse fibroblasts were incubated with mouse liver RNA. These cells did indeed produce albumin which was detected by counterimmunoelectrophoresis. Confluent 3T3 cell cultures were incubated with mouse liver RNA and polylysine in serum free media. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) of the dialyzed and lyophilized media against mouse albumin antisera gave a single precipitin line indicating albumin snthesis by the fibroblasts. The synthesis of this protein immunologicaly similar to albumin required new albumin mRNA transcription since it was not synthesized in the presence of actinomycin, could be found in media which had been incubated with RNA significantly smaller in size than albumin mRNA, and was synthesized in the absence of added poly A containing RNA. These results represent the first reported demonstration that RNA can be taken up from the media by cells in culture, and can induce in those cells the production of a differentiated cell product not ordinarily synthesized by those cells, i.e, a change in the normal transcription pattern in those cells

  4. Introduction to basic molecular biologic techniques for molecular imaging researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a rapidly growing field due to the advances in molecular biology and imaging technologies. With the introduction of imaging reporter genes into the cell, diverse cellular processes can be monitored, quantified and imaged non-invasively in vivo. These processes include the gene expression, protein-protein interactions, signal transduction pathways, and monitoring of cells such as cancer cells, immune cells, and stem cells. In the near future, molecular imaging analysis will allow us to observe the incipience and progression of the disease. These will make us easier to give a diagnosis in the early stage of intractable diseases such as cancer, neuro-degenerative disease, and immunological disorders. Additionally, molecular imaging method will be a valuable tool for the real-time evaluation of cells in molecular biology and the basic biological studies. As newer and more powerful molecular imaging tools become available, it will be necessary to corporate clinicians, molecular biologists and biochemists for the planning, interpretation, and application of these techniques to their fullest potential. In order for such a multidisciplinary team to be effective, it is essential that a common understanding of basic biochemical and molecular biologic techniques is achieved. Basic molecular techniques for molecular imaging methods are presented in this paper

  5. Basic principles of molecular effects of irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Edgar; Hebar, Alexandra

    2012-02-01

    In order to understand the consequences of radiation a thorough understanding of the radiobiological mechanisms of the molecular up to the clinical level is of importance. Radiobiology therefore combines the basic principles of physics as well as biology and medicine and is concerned with the action of radiation from the subcellular level up to the living organism. Topics of interest and relevance are covered in much more broadness as is possible in the short following article in the literature to which the interested reader is referred to. Classical books in this field were written by Steel et al. (1989) as well as by Hall (1994). Topics usually covered by radiobiological reviews are the classification of different types of radiation, cell cycle dependency of radiation effects, types of radiation damage and cell death, dose response curves, measurement of radiation damage, the oxygen effect, relative biological effectiveness, the influence of dose rate, and several other important research areas. This short overview will concentrate on a subset of radiobiological topics of high importance and relative novelty.

  6. Events in time: Basic analysis of Poisson data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1994-09-01

    The report presents basic statistical methods for analyzing Poisson data, such as the member of events in some period of time. It gives point estimates, confidence intervals, and Bayesian intervals for the rate of occurrence per unit of time. It shows how to compare subsets of the data, both graphically and by statistical tests, and how to look for trends in time. It presents a compound model when the rate of occurrence varies randomly. Examples and SAS programs are given

  7. Events in time: Basic analysis of Poisson data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1994-09-01

    The report presents basic statistical methods for analyzing Poisson data, such as the member of events in some period of time. It gives point estimates, confidence intervals, and Bayesian intervals for the rate of occurrence per unit of time. It shows how to compare subsets of the data, both graphically and by statistical tests, and how to look for trends in time. It presents a compound model when the rate of occurrence varies randomly. Examples and SAS programs are given.

  8. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Prescription Drug Events PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is a Public Use File for Prescription Drug Events drawn from the 2008 Beneficiary Summary File of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled during the calendar year 2008,...

  9. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on regulation of gene expression included research projects on turnover of ribosomal RNA, ribonuclease-resistant oligonucleotides, and reutilization of oligonucleotides. Studies on radiation effects on RNA included research projects on radioinduced strand breaks in RNA and radioinduced alterations in RNA nucleotides. Effects of vasopression on radiosensitivity were studied. Studies on amino acid-nucleic acid interactions included research projects on synthesis and spectroscopic analysis of nucleotide-amino acid covalently bonded model compound and intermolecular interactions between tryptophan and dinucleoside phosphates

  10. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    1974-01-01

    Work during the past year has been focused on three areas related to the cellular effects of radiation. Radiation effects on RNA and the regulation of gene expression and amino acid-nucleic acid interactions were studied. Studies on the radiation response of RNA in growing and confluent cells were continued. We have derived radiation survival curves and demonstrated repair of potentially lethal damage in 3T3 cells. Studies of giant cell formation and turnover of ribosomal RNA in irradiated cells has demonstrated differences in growing and confluent cells. We have sought evidence consistent with our hypothesis for regulation of eukaryotic gene expression with segments of RNA reutilized to prime new RNA synthesis. Data derived from the turnover of ribosomal RNA and the methylation pattern of ribosomal RNA during turnover are consistent with the possibility that a segment of 18s ribosomal RNA is being conserved during new RNA synthesis. We were unable to show reutilization of the 5' trinucleotide of 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA but did find a ribonuclease resistant oligonucleotide in 18s RNA which appeared to be reutilized. In studies of amino acid nucleic-acid interactions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy we have been able to successfully synthesize an amidate and begin an examination of the intramolecular interactions. We have also studied intermolecular interactions betweentryptophan and nucleoside monophosphates and found upfield shifts which provide evidence for preferential stacking of the 6-membered ring of tryptophan with adenine and evidence for specific geometry of interactions of tryptophan with cytosine. (U.S.)

  11. A molecular rotor based ratiometric sensor for basic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettiwala, Aafrin M; Singh, Prabhat K

    2018-01-05

    The inevitable importance of basic amino acids, arginine and lysine, in human health and metabolism demands construction of efficient sensor systems for them. However, there are only limited reports on the 'ratiometric' detection of basic amino acids which is further restricted by the use of chemically complex sensor molecules, which impedes their prospect for practical applications. Herein, we report a ratiometric sensor system build on simple mechanism of disassociation of novel emissive Thioflavin-T H-aggregates from heparin surface, when subjected to interaction with basic amino acids. The strong and selective electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interaction of basic amino acids with heparin leads to large alteration in photophysical attributes of heparin bound Thioflavin-T, which forms a highly sensitive sensor platform for detection of basic amino acids in aqueous solution. These selective interactions between basic amino acids and heparin allow our sensor system to discriminate arginine and lysine from other amino acids. This unique mechanism of dissociation of Thioflavin-T aggregates from heparin surface provides ratiometric response on both fluorimetric and colorimetric outputs for detection of arginine and lysine, and thus it holds a significant advantage over other developed sensor systems which are restricted to single wavelength detection. Apart from the sensitivity and selectivity, our system also provides the advantage of simplicity, dual mode of sensing, and more importantly, it employs an inexpensive commercially available probe molecule, which is a significant advantage over other developed sensor systems that uses tedious synthesis protocol for the employed probe in the detection scheme, an impediment for practical applications. Additionally, our sensor system also shows response in complex biological media of serum samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Early molecular events in the development of the diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monkemann, H.; Vriese, A.S. de; Blom, H.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Heil, S.G.; Schild, H.H.; Golubnitschaja, O.

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA has been well documented in cardiac cells isolated from diabetic patients and rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). This study evaluates possible molecular mechanisms for early events in the development of DM-induced cardiomyopathy. Methods: To analyze the

  13. An Integrated Visualization and Basic Molecular Modeling Laboratory for First-Year Undergraduate Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D model visualization and basic molecular modeling laboratory suitable for first-year undergraduates studying introductory medicinal chemistry is presented. The 2 h practical is embedded within a series of lectures on drug design, target-drug interactions, enzymes, receptors, nucleic acids, and basic pharmacokinetics. Serving as a teaching aid…

  14. Genomic Signal Processing: Predicting Basic Molecular Biological Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Orly

    2005-03-01

    Advances in high-throughput technologies enable acquisition of different types of molecular biological data, monitoring the flow of biological information as DNA is transcribed to RNA, and RNA is translated to proteins, on a genomic scale. Future discovery in biology and medicine will come from the mathematical modeling of these data, which hold the key to fundamental understanding of life on the molecular level, as well as answers to questions regarding diagnosis, treatment and drug development. Recently we described data-driven models for genome-scale molecular biological data, which use singular value decomposition (SVD) and the comparative generalized SVD (GSVD). Now we describe an integrative data-driven model, which uses pseudoinverse projection (1). We also demonstrate the predictive power of these matrix algebra models (2). The integrative pseudoinverse projection model formulates any number of genome-scale molecular biological data sets in terms of one chosen set of data samples, or of profiles extracted mathematically from data samples, designated the ``basis'' set. The mathematical variables of this integrative model, the pseudoinverse correlation patterns that are uncovered in the data, represent independent processes and corresponding cellular states (such as observed genome-wide effects of known regulators or transcription factors, the biological components of the cellular machinery that generate the genomic signals, and measured samples in which these regulators or transcription factors are over- or underactive). Reconstruction of the data in the basis simulates experimental observation of only the cellular states manifest in the data that correspond to those of the basis. Classification of the data samples according to their reconstruction in the basis, rather than their overall measured profiles, maps the cellular states of the data onto those of the basis, and gives a global picture of the correlations and possibly also causal coordination of

  15. Atomic and molecular spectroscopy basic concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kakkar, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy is the study of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with solid, liquid, gas and plasma. It is one of the widely used analytical techniques to study the structure of atoms and molecules. The technique is also employed to obtain information about atoms and molecules as a result of their distinctive spectra. The fast-spreading field of spectroscopic applications has made a noteworthy influence on many disciplines, including energy research, chemical processing, environmental protection and medicine. This book aims to introduce students to the topic of spectroscopy. The author has avoided the mathematical aspects of the subject as far as possible; they appear in the text only when inevitable. Including topics such as time-dependent perturbation theory, laser action and applications of Group Theory in interpretation of spectra, the book offers a detailed coverage of the basic concepts and applications of spectroscopy.

  16. Basic molecular biology in radiation-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytoemaa, T.

    1992-01-01

    The tumour suppressor gene p53 is 'guardian of the genome'. If a DNA molecule (each chromosome has one DNA molecule) is damaged by an external factor, such as ionizing radiation, the protein product of the p53 gene stops the cell's proliferative activity until the damage is repaired. If the repair fails, the p53 gene product normally triggers programmed death of the cell. P53 gene itself is commonly damaged by radiation (or by another DNA-damaging factor). The altered gene product fails to control the integrity of the genome, and it also prevents the guardian action of the protein which is produced by the intact allele (each cell has two p53 genes). Under these circumstances any subsequent damage to DNA, induced e.g. by a chemical, is easily 'fixed'. Potentially critical sites for an additional DNA damage are the proto-oncogens (when damaged these genes are called oncogens), which commonly act as components of the regulatory network in a cell. Permanent malfunction of the signal network may then lead to uncontrolled cell growth, resulting in a malignant clone (=cancer). This simplified molecular model seems to be the common mechanism in many (or most) human cancers. (orig.)

  17. MEG event-related desynchronization and synchronization deficits during basic somatosensory processing in individuals with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Frank

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a prevalent, complex disorder which is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Convergent evidence from neurobiological studies of ADHD identifies dysfunction in fronto-striatal-cerebellar circuitry as the source of behavioural deficits. Recent studies have shown that regions governing basic sensory processing, such as the somatosensory cortex, show abnormalities in those with ADHD suggesting that these processes may also be compromised. Methods We used event-related magnetoencephalography (MEG to examine patterns of cortical rhythms in the primary (SI and secondary (SII somatosensory cortices in response to median nerve stimulation, in 9 adults with ADHD and 10 healthy controls. Stimuli were brief (0.2 ms non-painful electrical pulses presented to the median nerve in two counterbalanced conditions: unpredictable and predictable stimulus presentation. We measured changes in strength, synchronicity, and frequency of cortical rhythms. Results Healthy comparison group showed strong event-related desynchrony and synchrony in SI and SII. By contrast, those with ADHD showed significantly weaker event-related desynchrony and event-related synchrony in the alpha (8–12 Hz and beta (15–30 Hz bands, respectively. This was most striking during random presentation of median nerve stimulation. Adults with ADHD showed significantly shorter duration of beta rebound in both SI and SII except for when the onset of the stimulus event could be predicted. In this case, the rhythmicity of SI (but not SII in the ADHD group did not differ from that of controls. Conclusion Our findings suggest that somatosensory processing is altered in individuals with ADHD. MEG constitutes a promising approach to profiling patterns of neural activity during the processing of sensory input (e.g., detection of a tactile stimulus, stimulus predictability and facilitating our

  18. Molecular events leading to HPV-induced high grade neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia M. Wilting

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is initiated by high-risk types of the human papillomavirus (hrHPV and develops via precursor stages, called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. High-grade CIN lesions are considered true precancerous lesions when the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 are aberrantly expressed in the dividing cells. This results in abolishment of normal cell cycle control via p53 and pRb degradation. However, it has become clear that these viral oncogenes possess additional oncogenic properties, including interference with the DNA methylation machinery and mitotic checkpoints. Identification of the resulting molecular events leading to high-grade neoplasia will 1 increase our understanding of cervical carcinogenesis, 2 yield biomarkers for early diagnosis, and 3 identify therapeutic targets for HPV-induced (pre cancerous lesions.This review will briefly summarise current advances in our understanding of the molecular alterations in the host cell genome that occur during HPV-induced carcinogenesis.

  19. Pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema – cellular and molecular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Petta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary emphysema is a chronic obstructive disease, resulting fromimportant alterations in the whole distal structure of terminal bronchioles, either by enlargement of air spaces or by destruction of the alveolar wall, leading to loss of respiratory surface, decreased elastic recoil and lung hyperinflation. For many years, the hypothesis of protease-antiprotease unbalance prevailed as the central theme in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. According to this hypothesis, the release of active proteolytic enzymes, produced mainly by neutrophils and macrophages, degrades the extracellular matrix, affecting the integrity of its components, especially collagen and elastic fibers. However, new concepts involving cellular and molecular events were proposed, including oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, cellular senescence and failed lung tissue repair. The aim of this review paper was to evaluate the cellular and molecular mechanisms seen in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema.

  20. Molecular Events in Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a heterogeneous disease, developing through a multipathway sequence of events guided by clonal selections. Pathways included in the development of CRC may be broadly categorized into (a genomic instability, including chromosomal instability (CIN, microsatellite instability (MSI, and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, (b genomic mutations including suppression of tumour suppressor genes and activation of tumour oncogenes, (c microRNA, and (d epigenetic changes. As cancer becomes more advanced, invasion and metastases are facilitated through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, with additional genetic alterations. Despite ongoing identification of genetic and epigenetic markers and the understanding of alternative pathways involved in the development and progression of this disease, CRC remains the second highest cause of malignancy-related mortality in Canada. The molecular events that underlie the tumorigenesis of primary and metastatic colorectal carcinoma are detailed in this manuscript.

  1. BASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    De sidste 10 år har vi været vidner til opkomsten af et nyt evidensbaseret policy paradigme, Behavioural Public Policy (BPP), der søger at integrere teoretiske og metodiske indsigter fra adfærdsvidenskaberne i offentlig politikudvikling. Arbejdet med BPP har dog båret præg af, at være usystematisk...... BPP. Tilgangen består dels af den overordnede proces-model BASIC og dels af et iboende framework, ABCD, der er en model for systematisk adfærdsanalyse, udvikling, test og implementering af adfærdsrettede løsningskoncepter. Den samlede model gør det muligt for forskere såvel som offentligt ansatte...

  2. Molecular Characterization of Transgenic Events Using Next Generation Sequencing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikonda, Satish K; Marri, Pradeep; Mammadov, Jafar; Ye, Liang; Soe, Khaing; Richey, Kimberly; Cruse, James; Zhuang, Meibao; Gao, Zhifang; Evans, Clive; Rounsley, Steve; Kumpatla, Siva P

    2016-01-01

    Demand for the commercial use of genetically modified (GM) crops has been increasing in light of the projected growth of world population to nine billion by 2050. A prerequisite of paramount importance for regulatory submissions is the rigorous safety assessment of GM crops. One of the components of safety assessment is molecular characterization at DNA level which helps to determine the copy number, integrity and stability of a transgene; characterize the integration site within a host genome; and confirm the absence of vector DNA. Historically, molecular characterization has been carried out using Southern blot analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing. While this is a robust approach to characterize the transgenic crops, it is both time- and resource-consuming. The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has provided highly sensitive and cost- and labor-effective alternative for molecular characterization compared to traditional Southern blot analysis. Herein, we have demonstrated the successful application of both whole genome sequencing and target capture sequencing approaches for the characterization of single and stacked transgenic events and compared the results and inferences with traditional method with respect to key criteria required for regulatory submissions.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Transgenic Events Using Next Generation Sequencing Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish K Guttikonda

    Full Text Available Demand for the commercial use of genetically modified (GM crops has been increasing in light of the projected growth of world population to nine billion by 2050. A prerequisite of paramount importance for regulatory submissions is the rigorous safety assessment of GM crops. One of the components of safety assessment is molecular characterization at DNA level which helps to determine the copy number, integrity and stability of a transgene; characterize the integration site within a host genome; and confirm the absence of vector DNA. Historically, molecular characterization has been carried out using Southern blot analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing. While this is a robust approach to characterize the transgenic crops, it is both time- and resource-consuming. The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies has provided highly sensitive and cost- and labor-effective alternative for molecular characterization compared to traditional Southern blot analysis. Herein, we have demonstrated the successful application of both whole genome sequencing and target capture sequencing approaches for the characterization of single and stacked transgenic events and compared the results and inferences with traditional method with respect to key criteria required for regulatory submissions.

  4. Centro de Biologia Molecular "Severo Ochoa": a center for basic research into Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Jesus; Hernandez, Felix; Wandosell, Francisco; Lucas, Jose J; Esteban, Jose A; Ledesma, M Dolores; Bullido, Maria J

    2010-01-01

    One important aspect of studies carried out at the Center for Molecular Biology "Severo Ochoa" is focused on basic aspects of Alzheimer's disease, mainly the search for suitable therapeutic targets for this disorder. Several groups at the Center are involved in these studies, and, in this spotlight, the work they are carrying out will be described.

  5. Molecular events in matrix protein metabolism in the aging kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sataranatarajan, Kavithalakshmi; Feliers, Denis; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M.; Lee, Hak Joo; Lee, Myung Ja; Day, Robert T.; Yalamanchili, Hima Bindu; Choudhury, Goutam G.; Barnes, Jeffrey L.; Van Remmen, Holly; Richardson, Arlan; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.

    2018-01-01

    Summary We explored molecular events associated with aging-induced matrix changes in the kidney. C57BL6 mice were studied in youth, middle age, and old age. Albuminuria and serum cystatin C level (an index of glomerular filtration) increased with aging. Renal hypertrophy was evident in middle-aged and old mice and was associated with glomerulomegaly and increase in mesangial fraction occupied by extracellular matrix. Content of collagen types I and III and fibronectin was increased with aging; increment in their mRNA varied with the phase of aging. The content of ZEB1 and ZEB2, collagen type I transcription inhibitors, and their binding to the collagen type Iα2 promoter by ChIP assay also showed age-phase-specific changes. Lack of increase in mRNA and data from polysome assay suggested decreased degradation as a potential mechanism for kidney collagen type I accumulation in the middle-aged mice. These changes occurred with increment in TGFβ mRNA and protein and activation of its SMAD3 pathway; SMAD3 binding to the collagen type Iα2 promoter was also increased. TGFβ-regulated microRNAs (miRs) exhibited selective regulation. The renal cortical content of miR-21 and miR-200c, but not miR-192, miR-200a, or miR-200b, was increased with aging. Increased miR-21 and miR-200c contents were associated with reduced expression of their targets, Sprouty-1 and ZEB2, respectively. These data show that aging is associated with complex molecular events in the kidney that are already evident in the middle age and progress to old age. Agephase-specific regulation of matrix protein synthesis occurs and involves matrix protein-specific transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. PMID:23020145

  6. Basic experiments during loss of vacuum event (LOVE) in fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masuro; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Seki, Yasushi

    1993-01-01

    If a loss of vacuum event (LOVE) occurs due to damage of the vacuum vessel of a nuclear fusion experimental reactor, some chemical reactions such as a graphic oxidation and a buoyancy-driven exchange flow take place after equalization of the gas pressure between the inside and outside of the vacuum vessel. The graphite oxidation would generate inflammable carbon monoxide and release tritium retained in the graphite. The exchange flow through the breaches may transport the carbon monoxide and tritium out of the vacuum vessel. To add confidence to the safety evaluations and analyses, it is important to grasp the basic phenomena such as the exchange flow and the graphite oxidation. Experiments of the exchange flow and the graphite oxidation were carried out to obtain the exchange flow rate and the rate constant for the carbon monoxide combustion, respectively. These experimental results were compared with existing correlations. The authors plan a scaled-model test and a full-scale model test for the LOVE

  7. Iterative Calibration: A Novel Approach for Calibrating the Molecular Clock Using Complex Geological Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeza-Quintana, Tzitziki; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2018-02-01

    During the past 50 years, the molecular clock has become one of the main tools for providing a time scale for the history of life. In the era of robust molecular evolutionary analysis, clock calibration is still one of the most basic steps needing attention. When fossil records are limited, well-dated geological events are the main resource for calibration. However, biogeographic calibrations have often been used in a simplistic manner, for example assuming simultaneous vicariant divergence of multiple sister lineages. Here, we propose a novel iterative calibration approach to define the most appropriate calibration date by seeking congruence between the dates assigned to multiple allopatric divergences and the geological history. Exploring patterns of molecular divergence in 16 trans-Bering sister clades of echinoderms, we demonstrate that the iterative calibration is predominantly advantageous when using complex geological or climatological events-such as the opening/reclosure of the Bering Strait-providing a powerful tool for clock dating that can be applied to other biogeographic calibration systems and further taxa. Using Bayesian analysis, we observed that evolutionary rate variability in the COI-5P gene is generally distributed in a clock-like fashion for Northern echinoderms. The results reveal a large range of genetic divergences, consistent with multiple pulses of trans-Bering migrations. A resulting rate of 2.8% pairwise Kimura-2-parameter sequence divergence per million years is suggested for the COI-5P gene in Northern echinoderms. Given that molecular rates may vary across latitudes and taxa, this study provides a new context for dating the evolutionary history of Arctic marine life.

  8. Translating molecular medicine into clinical tools: doomed to fail by neglecting basic preanalytical principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannello Ferdinando

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This commentary discusses a study on measurements of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 in serum of pseudoxanthoma elasticum patients recently published in Journal of Molecular Medicine. This study can be considered the typical "obstacle" to effective translational medicine as previously documented in JTM journal. Although serum has been frequently proven as inappropriate sample for determining numerous circulating MMPs, among them MMP-9, there are over and over again studies, as in this case, that measure MMP-9 in serum. Comparative measurements in serum and plasma samples demonstrated higher concentrations for MMP-9 in serum due to the additional release from leukocytes and platelets following the coagulation/fibrinolysis process. From this example it can be concluded that translating basic research discoveries into clinical tools needs a more intensive exchange between basic biomedical research and clinical scientists already in an early stage. Otherwise a lost of translation, as discussed in JTM journal, seems to be inevitable.

  9. Landscape of Innovation for Cardiovascular Pharmaceuticals: From Basic Science to New Molecular Entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beierlein, Jennifer M; McNamee, Laura M; Walsh, Michael J; Kaitin, Kenneth I; DiMasi, Joseph A; Ledley, Fred D

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the complete timelines of translational science for new cardiovascular therapeutics from the initiation of basic research leading to identification of new drug targets through clinical development and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of new molecular entities (NMEs) based on this research. This work extends previous studies by examining the association between the growth of research on drug targets and approval of NMEs associated with these targets. Drawing on research on innovation in other technology sectors, where technological maturity is an important determinant in the success or failure of new product development, an analytical model was used to characterize the growth of research related to the known targets for all 168 approved cardiovascular therapeutics. Categorizing and mapping the technological maturity of cardiovascular therapeutics reveal that (1) there has been a distinct transition from phenotypic to targeted methods for drug discovery, (2) the durations of clinical and regulatory processes were significantly influenced by changes in FDA practice, and (3) the longest phase of the translational process was the time required for technology to advance from initiation of research to a statistically defined established point of technology maturation (mean, 30.8 years). This work reveals a normative association between metrics of research maturation and approval of new cardiovascular therapeutics and suggests strategies for advancing translational science by accelerating basic and applied research and improving the synchrony between the maturation of this research and drug development initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ab initio molecular dynamics: basic concepts, current trends and novel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckerman, Mark E

    2002-01-01

    The field of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), in which finite temperature molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories are generated with forces obtained from accurate 'on the fly' electronic structure calculations, is a rapidly evolving and growing technology that allows chemical processes in condensed phases to be studied in an accurate and unbiased way. This article is intended to present the basics of the AIMD method as well as to provide a broad survey of the state of the art of the field and showcase some of its capabilities. Beginning with a derivation of the method from the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, issues including the density functional representation of electronic structure, basis sets, calculation of observables and the Car-Parrinello extended Lagrangian algorithm are discussed. A number of example applications, including liquid structure and dynamics and aqueous proton transport, are presented in order to highlight some of the current capabilities of the approach. Finally, advanced topics such as inclusion of nuclear quantum effects, excited states and scaling issues are addressed. (topical review)

  11. Basic Safety Considerations for Nuclear Power Plant Dealing with External Human Induced Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, W., E-mail: wafaasalem21@yahoo.com [Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (Egypt)

    2014-10-15

    Facilities and human activities in the region in which a nuclear power plant is located may under some conditions affect its safety. The potential sources of human induced events external to the plant should be identified and the severity of the possible resulting hazard phenomena should be evaluated to derive the appropriate design bases for the plant. They should also be monitored and periodically assessed over the lifetime of the plant to ensure that consistency with the design assumptions is maintained. External human induced events that could affect safety should be investigated in the site evaluation stage for every nuclear power plant site. The region is required to be examined for facilities and human activities that have the potential, under certain conditions, to endanger the nuclear power plant over its entire lifetime. Each relevant potential source is required to be identified and assessed to determine the potential interactions with personnel and plant items important to safety. (author)

  12. Safety of Basic nuclear facilities (INB) other than electronuclear reactors. Lessons learned from declared significant events in 2011 and 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The first part of this report presents the different types of basic nuclear facilities other than electronuclear reactors. These installations can be industrial installations dedicated or not to the nuclear fuel cycle, research and support installations, be definitively stopped or being dismantled, or radioactive waste storage installations. After a comment of the main trends noticed in 2011 and 2012, the report proposes a transverse analysis of events which occurred in these installations. These events are related to various risks: dissemination of radioactive materials, exposure to ionizing radiations, criticality, fire and explosion, handling operations, loss of electric supplies or fluids, external aggression. Other events are those significant for the environment with a radiological component, or related to periodic controls and tests. The causes of these events are analysed. Specific events are presented which occurred on different sites (in the MELOX plant, in Areva sites in La Hague, Pierrelatte, in CEA sites in Cadarache and Saclay, in a fuel factory in Romans). Other topics are finally addressed: safety measures after the Fukushima accident, safety and radiation protection management systems of Areva and CEA, dismantling of nuclear installations

  13. Metabolic and Molecular Events Occurring during Chromoplast Biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanping Bian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromoplasts are nonphotosynthetic plastids that accumulate carotenoids. They derive from other plastid forms, mostly chloroplasts. The biochemical events responsible for the interconversion of one plastid form into another are poorly documented. However, thanks to transcriptomics and proteomics approaches, novel information is now available. Data of proteomic and biochemical analysis revealed the importance of lipid metabolism and carotenoids biosynthetic activities. The loss of photosynthetic activity was associated with the absence of the chlorophyll biosynthesis branch and the presence of proteins involved in chlorophyll degradation. Surprisingly, the entire set of Calvin cycle and of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway persisted after the transition from chloroplast to chromoplast. The role of plastoglobules in the formation and organisation of carotenoid-containing structures and that of the Or gene in the control of chromoplastogenesis are reviewed. Finally, using transcriptomic data, an overview is given the expression pattern of a number of genes encoding plastid-located proteins during tomato fruit ripening.

  14. Chance Discovery with Data Crystallization: A Basic Research for Discovering Unobservable Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-10

    Ohsawa y School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo-ku, 113-8563, Japan y.ohsawa@gmail.com Received 17 June 2005 This paper...this study as the software developer of data crystallization. y School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8653...University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8563 Japan, ohsawa@q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract. There are invisible events which play an important role

  15. Identification of independent modules in fault trees which contain dependent basic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.; Andrews, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    The reliability performance of a system is frequently a function of component failures of which some are independent whilst others are interdependent. It is possible to represent the system failure logic in a fault tree diagram, however only the sections containing independent events can be assessed using the conventional fault tree analysis methodology. The analysis of the dependent sections will require a Markov analysis. Since the efficiency of the Markov analysis largely depends on the size of the established Markov model, the key is to extract from the fault tree the smallest sections which contain dependencies. This paper proposes a method aimed at establishing the smallest Markov model for the dependencies contained within the fault tree

  16. Basic principles and criteria for public health protection in the event of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiradzhiev, G.

    1992-01-01

    Decision making criteria for population protection in nuclear accidents are discussed, and in particular the three basic principles: 1) excluding the appearance of nonstostochastic effects that occur in the case of high individual doses; 2) weighing the risks of radiation damage if such measures are not taken; 3) optimization based on comparison of benefit and costs, using the same measures for costs of health injury to affected populations and of the protected measures to be taken. The decision making criteria developed in Bulgaria are based on international recommendations with lowered upper limit of the range for evacuation and specified doses for vulnerable groups, children and pregnant women. The organization and the specific problems of the following individual types of protective measures are described: sheltering; protection of respiratory organs; iodine prophylaxis; evacuation of the public. One major condition for ensuring protection is to provide the public with timely information on the actual situation and the necessary countermeasures. Such information should be released in a manner that allows for understanding the expediency and significance of actions to be taken. An important aspect of emergency planning consists in taking into consideration the conditions actually prevailing in the country. This is well illustrated in the principle designated as 'national level of challenge' taking into account a country's capabilities for introducing intervention levels and permissible dose levels. In the case of Bulgaria this still remains to be done in protective planning for accidents. (author)

  17. Comparison of Basic Psychological Needs, Social Support and Stressful events in Addicts and Non-addicts: gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahele Mohammadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare basic psychological needs, stressful life events, and social support in addicts and non-addicts. The study was a causal-comparative research. Two hundreds residents of Khorramabad were chosen by available sampling (130 healthy and 70 addicts and were asked to respond to Basic Psychological Need Scale La Guardia, Ryan, Couchman & Deci, Multi-facet Perceived Social Support Scale Zimet, Powell, Farley, Werkman, & Berkoff, Addiction Acceptance Scale Weed, Butcher, McKenna, & Ben-Porath, and Weekly Stress Inventory Brantley, Jones & Boudreaux. Results of analysis of variance and and discriminant analysis showed singnificant differences between men and women. The results also showed significant differences  competency and friend social support in the two groups of men, and autonomy, competency and family social support in the two groups of women. Discriminant analysis revealed that stressful life events and competency predict addiction in men. and relationship and family social support predict addiction in women.Results were discussed according to different protecting factors in men and women and possible reciprocal relationships between addiction and protecting factors.

  18. Life After the Event: A Review of Basic Life Support Training for Parents Following Apparent Life-Threatening Events and Their Experience and Practices Following Discharge

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-05-01

    Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs) are a common presentation to paediatric hospitals and represent a significant cause of parental anxiety. Basic Life Support (BLS) training is recommended for all caregivers following ALTEs. This study aimed to assess the rate of caregiver BLS training and reviewed parents experience following discharge. Parents were interviewed by phone following discharge. Over the study period 25 children attended the Emergency Department with ALTE, 17\\/25 (68%) were trained and 13\\/17 (76%) were contactable for interview. All parents found training decreased their anxiety level and were interested in attending for re-training. BLS resuscitation was subsequently required by 2\\/13 (15%) of children. Non-medical grade monitors were in use by 10\\/13 (77%) of caregivers following discharge. Caregivers are eager to engage in BLS training and it effectively reduces their caregiver anxiety. We recommend an increase in instructor staff and use of group re-training post discharge

  19. Life After the Event: A Review of Basic Life Support Training for Parents Following Apparent Life-Threatening Events and Their Experience and Practices Following Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, W L; Clarke, N; Nadeem, M; Coghlan, D

    2017-05-10

    Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs) are a common presentation to paediatric hospitals and represent a significant cause of parental anxiety. Basic Life Support (BLS) training is recommended for all caregivers following ALTEs. This study aimed to assess the rate of caregiver BLS training and reviewed parents experience following discharge. Parents were interviewed by phone following discharge. Over the study period 25 children attended the Emergency Department with ALTE, 17/25 (68%) were trained and 13/17 (76%) were contactable for interview. All parents found training decreased their anxiety level and were interested in attending for re-training. BLS resuscitation was subsequently required by 2/13 (15%) of children. Non-medical grade monitors were in use by 10/13 (77%) of caregivers following discharge. Caregivers are eager to engage in BLS training and it effectively reduces their caregiver anxiety. We recommend an increase in instructor staff and use of group re-training post discharge.

  20. [Comparison of the "Trigger" tool with the minimum basic data set for detecting adverse events in general surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Zapata, A I; Gutiérrez Samaniego, M; Rodríguez Cuéllar, E; Gómez de la Cámara, A; Ruiz López, P

    Surgery is a high risk for the occurrence of adverse events (AE). The main objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the Trigger tool with the Hospital National Health System registration of Discharges, the minimum basic data set (MBDS), in detecting adverse events in patients admitted to General Surgery and undergoing surgery. Observational and descriptive retrospective study of patients admitted to general surgery of a tertiary hospital, and undergoing surgery in 2012. The identification of adverse events was made by reviewing the medical records, using an adaptation of "Global Trigger Tool" methodology, as well as the (MBDS) registered on the same patients. Once the AE were identified, they were classified according to damage and to the extent to which these could have been avoided. The area under the curve (ROC) were used to determine the discriminatory power of the tools. The Hanley and Mcneil test was used to compare both tools. AE prevalence was 36.8%. The TT detected 89.9% of all AE, while the MBDS detected 28.48%. The TT provides more information on the nature and characteristics of the AE. The area under the curve was 0.89 for the TT and 0.66 for the MBDS. These differences were statistically significant (P<.001). The Trigger tool detects three times more adverse events than the MBDS registry. The prevalence of adverse events in General Surgery is higher than that estimated in other studies. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response. Progress report, July 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the effects of x irradiation at the cellular level that lead ultimately to either malignant transformation or cell death. Experimental results consistent with the primer hypothesis for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes are reported. It was found that oligonucleotides can be inserted en bloc into newly synthesized RNA. Studies on amino acid-nucleic acid interactions were continued by successfully synthesizing an amidate and beginning NMR studies on the interactions between its nucleic acid and amino acid moieties. In studies on radiation induced giant cells in 3T3 cells growing in culture, it was demonstrated that conditions which potentiate potential lethal damage repair and those which prevent radiation induced giant cell formation exist. In an examination of the in vitro effects of vasopressin, no direct effect was found of vasopressin on radiation sensitivity and significant effects of radiation on lysosomal enzyme activity in cultured cells were found

  2. Molecular events basic to cellular radiation response. Progress report, July 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodny, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the effects of x irradiation at the cellular level that lead ultimately to either malignant transformation or cell death. Experimental results consistent with the primer hypothesis for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes are reported. It was found that oligonucleotides can be inserted en bloc into newly synthesized RNA. Studies on amino acid-nucleic acid interactions were continued by successfully synthesizing an amidate and beginning NMR studies on the interactions between its nucleic acid and amino acid moieties. In studies on radiation induced giant cells in 3T3 cells growing in culture, it was demonstrated that conditions which potentiate potential lethal damage repair and those which prevent radiation induced giant cell formation exist. In an examination of the in vitro effects of vasopressin, no direct effect was found of vasopressin on radiation sensitivity and significant effects of radiation on lysosomal enzyme activity in cultured cells were found.

  3. Aplicação catalítica de peneiras moleculares básicas micro e mesoporosas Catalytic applications of basic micro and mesoporous molecular sieves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Martins

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Catalysis by solid acids has received much attention due to its importance in petroleum refining and petrochemical processes. Relatively few studies have focused on catalysis by bases and even les on using basic molecular sieves. This paper deals with the potential application of micro and mesoporous molecular sieves in base catalysis reactions. The paper is divided in two parts, the first one dedicated to the design of the catalysts and the second to some relevant examples of catalytic reactions, which find a huge field of applications essentially in the synthesis of fine chemicals. Here, recent developments in catalysis by basic molecular sieves and the perspectives of applications in correlated catalytic processes are described.

  4. Assessment of Knowledge of Participants on Basic Molecular Biology Techniques after 5-Day Intensive Molecular Biology Training Workshops in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisau, J. I.; Adagbada, A. O.; Bamidele, T.; Fowora, M.; Brai, B. I. C.; Adebesin, O.; Bamidele, M.; Fesobi, T.; Nwaokorie, F. O.; Ajayi, A.; Smith, S. I.

    2017-01-01

    The deployment of molecular biology techniques for diagnosis and research in Nigeria is faced with a number of challenges, including the cost of equipment and reagents coupled with the dearth of personnel skilled in the procedures and handling of equipment. Short molecular biology training workshops were conducted at the Nigerian Institute of…

  5. Safety at basic nuclear facilities other than nuclear power plants. Lessons learned from significant events reported in 2011 and 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The third report on the safety of basic nuclear installations in France other than power reactors presents an IRSN's analysis of significant events reported to the Nuclear Safety Authority in the years 2011 and 2012. It covers plants, laboratories, research reactors and facilities for the treatment, storage or disposal of waste. This report aims to contribute to a better understanding by stakeholders and more widely by the public of the safety and radiation protection issues associated with the operation of nuclear facilities, the progress made in terms of safety as well as the identified deficiencies. The main trend shows, once again, the significant role of organizational and human factors in the significant events that occurred in 2011 and 2012, of which the vast majority are without noteworthy consequences. Aging mechanisms are another major cause of equipment failure and require special attention. The report also provides IRSN's analysis of specific events that are particularly instructive for facility safety and a synthesis of assessments performed by IRSN on topics that are important for safety and radiation protection. IRSN also includes an overview of its analysis of measures proposed by licensees for increasing the safety of their facilities after the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, which consist of providing a 'hardened safety core' to confront extreme situations (earthquake, flooding, etc.) that are unlikely but plausible and can bring about levels of hazards higher than those taken into account in the design of the facilities

  6. Seawater-flooding events and impact on freshwater lenses of low-lying islands: Controlling factors, basic management and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Voss, Clifford I.; Johnson, Adam G.

    2017-08-01

    An unprecedented set of hydrologic observations was collected after the Dec 2008 seawater-flooding event on Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. By two days after the seawater flooding that occurred at the beginning of dry season, the observed salinity of water withdrawn by the island's main skimming well increased to 100% seawater concentration, but by ten days later already decreased to only 10-20% of seawater fraction. However, the damaging impact on the potability of the groundwater supply (when pumped water had concentrations above 1% seawater fraction) lasted 22 months longer. The data collected make possible analyses of the hydrologic factors that control recovery and management of the groundwater-supply quality on Roi-Namur and on similar low-lying islands. With the observed data as a guide, three-dimensional numerical-model simulation analyses reveal how recovery is controlled by the island's hydrology. These also allow evaluation of the efficacy of basic water-quality management/mitigation alternatives and elucidate how groundwater withdrawal and timing of the seawater-flooding event affect the length of recovery. Simulations show that, as might be expected, by adding surplus captured rainwater as artificial recharge, the freshwater-lens recovery period (after which potable groundwater may again be produced) can be shortened, with groundwater salinity remaining lower even during the dry season, a period during which no artificial recharge is applied. Simulations also show that the recovery period is not lengthened appreciably by groundwater withdrawals during recovery. Simulations further show that had the flooding event occurred at the start of the wet season, the recovery period would have been about 25% (5.5 months) shorter than actually occurred during the monitored flood that occurred at the dry-season start. Finally, analyses show that artificial recharge improves freshwater-lens water quality, making possible longer use of

  7. Guide to the declaration procedure and coding system for criteria concerning significant events related to safety, radiation protection or the environment, applicable to basic nuclear installations and the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, Andre-Claude

    2005-01-01

    This guide notably contains various forms associated with the declaration of significant events, and explanations to fill them in: significant event declaration form for a basic nuclear installation, significant event declaration form for radioactive material transport, significant event report for a basic nuclear installation, significant event report for radioactive material transport, declaration criteria for significant events related to the safety of non-PWR basic nuclear installations, declaration criteria for significant events related to PWR safety, significant events declared further to events resulting in group 1 unavailability and non-compliance with technical operating specifications, declaration criteria for significant events concerning radiation protection for basic nuclear installations, declaration criteria for significant events concerning environmental protection, applicable to basic nuclear installations, and declaration criteria for significant events concerning radioactive material transport

  8. A fuzzy-based reliability approach to evaluate basic events of fault tree analysis for nuclear power plant probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purba, Julwan Hendry

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a fuzzy-based reliability approach to evaluate basic event reliabilities. • It implements the concepts of failure possibilities and fuzzy sets. • Experts evaluate basic event failure possibilities using qualitative words. • Triangular fuzzy numbers mathematically represent qualitative failure possibilities. • It is a very good alternative for conventional reliability approach. - Abstract: Fault tree analysis has been widely utilized as a tool for nuclear power plant probabilistic safety assessment. This analysis can be completed only if all basic events of the system fault tree have their quantitative failure rates or failure probabilities. However, it is difficult to obtain those failure data due to insufficient data, environment changing or new components. This study proposes a fuzzy-based reliability approach to evaluate basic events of system fault trees whose failure precise probability distributions of their lifetime to failures are not available. It applies the concept of failure possibilities to qualitatively evaluate basic events and the concept of fuzzy sets to quantitatively represent the corresponding failure possibilities. To demonstrate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the actual basic event failure probabilities collected from the operational experiences of the David–Besse design of the Babcock and Wilcox reactor protection system fault tree are used to benchmark the failure probabilities generated by the proposed approach. The results confirm that the proposed fuzzy-based reliability approach arises as a suitable alternative for the conventional probabilistic reliability approach when basic events do not have the corresponding quantitative historical failure data for determining their reliability characteristics. Hence, it overcomes the limitation of the conventional fault tree analysis for nuclear power plant probabilistic safety assessment

  9. Assessment of knowledge of participants on basic molecular biology techniques after 5-day intensive molecular biology training workshops in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisau, J I; Adagbada, A O; Bamidele, T; Fowora, M; Brai, B I C; Adebesin, O; Bamidele, M; Fesobi, T; Nwaokorie, F O; Ajayi, A; Smith, S I

    2017-07-08

    The deployment of molecular biology techniques for diagnosis and research in Nigeria is faced with a number of challenges, including the cost of equipment and reagents coupled with the dearth of personnel skilled in the procedures and handling of equipment. Short molecular biology training workshops were conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), to improve the knowledge and skills of laboratory personnel and academics in health, research, and educational facilities. Five-day molecular biology workshops were conducted annually between 2011 and 2014, with participants drawn from health, research facilities, and the academia. The courses consisted of theoretical and practical sessions. The impact of the workshops on knowledge and skill acquisition was evaluated by pre- and post-tests which consisted of 25 multiple choice and other questions. Sixty-five participants took part in the workshops. The mean knowledge of molecular biology as evaluated by the pre- and post-test assessments were 8.4 (95% CI 7.6-9.1) and 13.0 (95 CI 11.9-14.1), respectively. The mean post-test score was significantly greater than the mean pre-test score (p biology workshop significantly increased the knowledge and skills of participants in molecular biology techniques. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):313-317, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. On recent progress using QCLs for molecular trace gas detection - from basic research to industrial applicaitons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röpcke, J.; Davies, P.; Hempel, F.; Hübner, M.; Glitsch, S.; Lang, N.; Nägele, M.; Rousseau, A.; Wege, S.; Welzel, S.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum Cascade Lasers offer attractive options for applications of MIR absorption spectroscopy for basic research and industrial process control. The contribution reviews applications for plasma diagnostics and trace gas monitoring in research and industry.

  11. Seawater-flooding events and impact on freshwater lenses of low-lying islands: Controlling factors, basic management and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Voss, Clifford I.; Johnson, Adam G.

    2017-01-01

    An unprecedented set of hydrologic observations was collected after the Dec 2008 seawater-flooding event on Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. By two days after the seawater flooding that occurred at the beginning of dry season, the observed salinity of water withdrawn by the island’s main skimming well increased to 100% seawater concentration, but by ten days later already decreased to only 10–20% of seawater fraction. However, the damaging impact on the potability of the groundwater supply (when pumped water had concentrations above 1% seawater fraction) lasted 22 months longer. The data collected make possible analyses of the hydrologic factors that control recovery and management of the groundwater-supply quality on Roi-Namur and on similar low-lying islands.With the observed data as a guide, three-dimensional numerical-model simulation analyses reveal how recovery is controlled by the island’s hydrology. These also allow evaluation of the efficacy of basic water-quality management/mitigation alternatives and elucidate how groundwater withdrawal and timing of the seawater-flooding event affect the length of recovery. Simulations show that, as might be expected, by adding surplus captured rainwater as artificial recharge, the freshwater-lens recovery period (after which potable groundwater may again be produced) can be shortened, with groundwater salinity remaining lower even during the dry season, a period during which no artificial recharge is applied. Simulations also show that the recovery period is not lengthened appreciably by groundwater withdrawals during recovery. Simulations further show that had the flooding event occurred at the start of the wet season, the recovery period would have been about 25% (5.5 months) shorter than actually occurred during the monitored flood that occurred at the dry-season start. Finally, analyses show that artificial recharge improves freshwater-lens water quality, making possible longer

  12. Action-Derived Molecular Dynamics in the Study of Rare Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passerone, Daniele; Parrinello, Michele

    2001-09-03

    We present a practical method to generate classical trajectories with fixed initial and final boundary conditions. Our method is based on the minimization of a suitably defined discretized action. The method finds its most natural application in the study of rare events. Its capabilities are illustrated by nontrivial examples. The algorithm lends itself to straightforward parallelization, and when combined with ab initio molecular dynamics it promises to offer a powerful tool for the study of chemical reactions.

  13. Action-Derived Molecular Dynamics in the Study of Rare Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passerone, Daniele; Parrinello, Michele

    2001-01-01

    We present a practical method to generate classical trajectories with fixed initial and final boundary conditions. Our method is based on the minimization of a suitably defined discretized action. The method finds its most natural application in the study of rare events. Its capabilities are illustrated by nontrivial examples. The algorithm lends itself to straightforward parallelization, and when combined with ab initio molecular dynamics it promises to offer a powerful tool for the study of chemical reactions

  14. Experimental and theoretical study of pyrazole N-alkylation catalyzed by basic modified molecular sieves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matos, I.; Pérez-Mayoral, E.; Soriano, E.; Zukal, Arnošt; Martín-Aranda, R. M.; López-Peinado, A. J.; Fonseca, I.; Čejka, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 3 (2010), s. 377-383 ISSN 1385-8947 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS400400560 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : pyrazole alkylation * basic mesoporous materials * reaction mechanism Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.074, year: 2010

  15. Design and evaluation of basic standard encryption algorithm modules using nanosized complementary metal oxide semiconductor molecular circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Massoud; Raissi, Farshid; Ahmadian, Mahmoud; Keshavarzi, Parviz

    2006-01-01

    We are proposing that the recently proposed semiconductor-nanowire-molecular architecture (CMOL) is an optimum platform to realize encryption algorithms. The basic modules for the advanced encryption standard algorithm (Rijndael) have been designed using CMOL architecture. The performance of this design has been evaluated with respect to chip area and speed. It is observed that CMOL provides considerable improvement over implementation with regular CMOS architecture even with a 20% defect rate. Pseudo-optimum gate placement and routing are provided for Rijndael building blocks and the possibility of designing high speed, attack tolerant and long key encryptions are discussed.

  16. Facilitating adverse drug event detection in pharmacovigilance databases using molecular structure similarity: application to rhabdomyolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Santiago; Harpaz, Rave; Chase, Herbert S; Costanzi, Stefano; Rabadan, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Background Adverse drug events (ADE) cause considerable harm to patients, and consequently their detection is critical for patient safety. The US Food and Drug Administration maintains an adverse event reporting system (AERS) to facilitate the detection of ADE in drugs. Various data mining approaches have been developed that use AERS to detect signals identifying associations between drugs and ADE. The signals must then be monitored further by domain experts, which is a time-consuming task. Objective To develop a new methodology that combines existing data mining algorithms with chemical information by analysis of molecular fingerprints to enhance initial ADE signals generated from AERS, and to provide a decision support mechanism to facilitate the identification of novel adverse events. Results The method achieved a significant improvement in precision in identifying known ADE, and a more than twofold signal enhancement when applied to the ADE rhabdomyolysis. The simplicity of the method assists in highlighting the etiology of the ADE by identifying structurally similar drugs. A set of drugs with strong evidence from both AERS and molecular fingerprint-based modeling is constructed for further analysis. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the proposed methodology could be used as a pharmacovigilance decision support tool to facilitate ADE detection. PMID:21946238

  17. Introduction to the physics of matter basic atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Manini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an up-to-date, compact presentation of basic topics in the physics of matter, from atoms to molecules to solids, including elements of statistical mechanics. The adiabatic separation of the motion of electrons and nuclei in matter and its spectroscopic implications are outlined for molecules and recalled regularly in the study of the dynamics of gases and solids. Numerous experiments are described and more than 160 figures give a clear visual impression of the main concepts. Sufficient detail of mathematical derivations is provided to enable students to follow easily. The focus is on present-day understanding and especially on phenomena fitting various independent-particle models. The historical development of this understanding, and phenomena such as magnetism and superconductivity, where interparticle interactions and nonadiabatic effects play a crucial role, are mostly omitted. A final outlook section stimulates the curiosity of the reader to pursue the study of such advanced topics in gra...

  18. Young-type interferences with electrons basics and theoretical challenges in molecular collision systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frémont, François

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery that atomic-size particles can be described as waves, many interference experiments have been realized with electrons to demonstrate their wave behavior. In this book, after describing the different steps that led to the present knowledge, we focus on the strong link existing between photon and electron interferences, highlighting the similarities and the differences. For example, the atomic centers of a hydrogen molecule are used to mimic the slits in the Young's famous interference experiment with light. We show, however, that the basic time-dependent ionization theories that describe these Young-type electron interferences are not able to reproduce the experiment. This crucial point remains a real challenge for theoreticians in atomic collision physics.

  19. Novel molecular events associated with altered steroidogenesis induced by exposure to atrazine in the intact and castrate male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology is increasingly focused on molecular events comprising adverse outcome pathways. Atrazine activates the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, but relationships to gonadal alterations are unknown. We characterized hormone profiles and adrenal (intact and castrate) and te...

  20. Reno-endocrinal disorders: A basic understanding of the molecular genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful management of endocrine diseases is greatly helped by the complete understanding of the underlying pathology. The knowledge about the molecular genetics contributes immensely in the appropriate identification of the causative factors of the diseases and their subsequent management. The fields of nephrology and endocrinology are also interrelated to a large extent. Besides performing the secretory functions, the renal tissue also acts as target organ for many hormones such as antidiuretic hormone (ADH, atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP, and aldosterone. Understanding the molecular genetics of these hormones is important because the therapeutic interventions in many of these conditions is related to shared renal and endocrine functions, including the anemia of renal disease, chronic kidney disease, mineral bone disorders, and hypertension related to chronic kidney disease. Their understanding and in-depth knowledge is very essential in designing and formulating the therapeutic plans and innovating new management strategies. However, we still have to go a long way in order to completely understand the various confounding causative relationships between the pathology and disease of these reno-endocrinal manifestations.

  1. Energetic atomic and molecular ions of ionospheric origin observed in distant magnetotail flow-reversal events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, S. P.; Gloeckler, G.; Williams, D. J.; Mukai, T.; Mcentire, R. W.; Jacquey, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Kokubun, S.; Fairfield, D. H.

    1994-01-01

    Energetic atomic (O(+1) and N(+1)) and molecular (O2(+1), NO(+1), and N2(+1)) ions of ionospheric origin were observed in Earth's magnetotail at X approximately -146 R(sub E) during two plasma sheet sunward/tailward flow-reversal events measured by instruments on the GEOTAIL spacecraft. These events were associated with concurrent ground-measured geomagnetic disturbance intensification at auroral-and mid-latitudes (Kp = 7(-)). Energetic ions in the sunward-component and tailward flows were from both the solar wind and ionosphere. Plasma and energetic ions participated in the flows. During tailward flow, ionospheric origin ion abundance ratios at approximately 200-900 km/s in the rest frame were N(+1)/O(+1) = approximately 25-30% and ((O2(+1), NO(+1), and N2(+1))/O(+1) = approximately 1-2%. We argue that tailward flow most likely initiated approximately 80-100 R(sub E) tailward of Earth and molecular ions were in the plasma sheet prior to geomagnetic intensification onset.

  2. Insights into the Molecular Events That Regulate Heat-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Citrus Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, María T; Establés-Ortíz, Beatriz; González-Candelas, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Low non-freezing temperature may cause chilling injury (CI), which is responsible for external quality deterioration in many chilling-sensitive horticultural crops. Exposure of chilling-sensitive citrus cultivars to non-lethal high-temperature conditioning may increase their chilling tolerance. Very little information is available about the molecular events involved in such tolerance. In this work, the molecular events associated with the low temperature tolerance induced by heating Fortune mandarin, which is very sensitive to chilling, for 3 days at 37°C prior to cold storage is presented. A transcriptomic analysis reveals that heat-conditioning has an important impact favoring the repression of genes in cold-stored fruit, and that long-term heat-induced chilling tolerance is an active process that requires activation of transcription factors involved in transcription initiation and of the WRKY family. The analysis also shows that chilling favors degradation processes, which affect lipids and proteins, and that the protective effect of the heat-conditioning treatment is more likely to be related to the repression of the genes involved in lipid degradation than to the modification of fatty acids unsaturation, which affects membrane permeability. Another major factor associated with the beneficial effect of the heat treatment on reducing CI is the regulation of stress-related proteins. Many of the genes that encoded such proteins are involved in secondary metabolism and in oxidative stress-related processes.

  3. Insights into the Molecular Events That Regulate Heat-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Citrus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Lafuente

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low non-freezing temperature may cause chilling injury (CI, which is responsible for external quality deterioration in many chilling-sensitive horticultural crops. Exposure of chilling-sensitive citrus cultivars to non-lethal high-temperature conditioning may increase their chilling tolerance. Very little information is available about the molecular events involved in such tolerance. In this work, the molecular events associated with the low temperature tolerance induced by heating Fortune mandarin, which is very sensitive to chilling, for 3 days at 37°C prior to cold storage is presented. A transcriptomic analysis reveals that heat-conditioning has an important impact favoring the repression of genes in cold-stored fruit, and that long-term heat-induced chilling tolerance is an active process that requires activation of transcription factors involved in transcription initiation and of the WRKY family. The analysis also shows that chilling favors degradation processes, which affect lipids and proteins, and that the protective effect of the heat-conditioning treatment is more likely to be related to the repression of the genes involved in lipid degradation than to the modification of fatty acids unsaturation, which affects membrane permeability. Another major factor associated with the beneficial effect of the heat treatment on reducing CI is the regulation of stress-related proteins. Many of the genes that encoded such proteins are involved in secondary metabolism and in oxidative stress-related processes.

  4. Basic mechanisms of atomic displacement production in cubic silicon carbide: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malerba, L.; Perlado, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Studying the effects of radiation in silicon carbide (SiC) is important for its possible use in both nuclear and electronic technology. One of the most important parameters to describe radiation damage in a material is the threshold displacement energy (TDE). In this paper, the computational technique known as molecular dynamics (MD) is used to determine the TDE's along different crystallographic directions for Si and C atoms in SiC, also allowing for irradiation temperature effects, and to study in detail the mechanisms of atomic displacement production in this material. For this purpose, the widely tested Tersoff potential, implemented in a MD code optimized to study the interaction of high-energy ions with crystals, is used to describe the interatomic forces in SiC. It is found that it is difficult to define a single threshold for this material. Instead, the introduction of two thresholds, upper and lower, becomes necessary. These two thresholds delimit an uncertainty band, within which the displacement may or may not be produced, because the Frenkel pairs generated in such a transferred-kinetic-energy range are metastable. The Arrhenius law expressing the lifetime of one of these metastable defects has also been deduced from the simulation. Finally, on the basis of the results of the simulation, possible values for the recombination distance and the average threshold energy (E d,Si and E d,C ) in SiC are proposed and discussed

  5. Células madre: generalidades, eventos biológicos y moleculares Stem cells: general aspects, biological and molecular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica María Cortés Márquez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las autorrenovación y la diferenciación son características de las células madre que varían entre los diferentes tipos celulares según el tejido en el que se encuentren y el microambiente que las rodee. En ambos procesos intervienen inhibidores del ciclo celular, genes implicados en rearreglos cromosómicos, proteínas del desarrollo esencial y vías de señalización específicas. La autorrenovación está regulada por diversos mecanismos, entre los cuales se destacan las vías Wnt, Notch y Hedgehog, y los factores BMI-1, p16Ink4a, ARF, NANOG, OCT3/4, SOX2, HOXB4 y sus páralogos. Los adelantos en el conocimiento de la biología de las células madre y de los mecanismos moleculares que regulan la autorrenovación y la diferenciación han convertido a estas células en una importante promesa para la investigación básica y aplicada. Self-renewal capacity and differentiation are features of stem cells that vary among the different cellular types according to the tissue in which they reside and the surrounding microenvironment. Cellular cycle inhibitors, genes implied in chromosomal rearrangements, essential development proteins and specific signaling pathways intervene in these processes. Self-renewal is regulated by different mechanisms, the most important of which are the Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog pathways, and the factors BMI-1, p16Ink4a, ARF, NANOG, OCT3/4, SOX2, HOXB4 and their paralogs. Advances in the knowledge of stem cells biology and of the molecular mechanisms that influence their selfrenewal and differentiation have made these cells an important promise for both basic and appliedresearch.

  6. Miscanthus plants used as an alternative biofuel material. The basic studies on ecology and molecular evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chang-Hung [Graduate Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Life Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 404 (China)

    2009-08-15

    Miscanthus Anderss, widely distributed in Asia and Pacific Islands, possesses 20 species. Of which 8 species and 1 variety were recorded in Chinese Mainland; 6 species and 1 variety found in Japan; 5 species and 3 varieties distributed in Taiwan; 3 species documented in the Philippines; and rest of species have been recorded in Jawa, eastern Himalaya, and Sikkim. The plant is a C{sub 4} perennial grass with high productivity of biomass. In the 19th and early 20th centuries in Taiwan, Miscanthus was a very important crop used for forage grass, clothing, and shelter, etc. The relatively high germination, and high yield of biomass made the plant available for people of Taiwan including aboriginal. The taxonomic study of Miscanthus plants was much done by several scientists, and its ecological study has been only taken by the present author since 1972. Chou and his associates paid a great attention to elucidate the mechanism of dominance of Miscanthus vegetation and found that allelopathy plays an important role. In addition, the population biology of Miscanthus taxa by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses technique to examine the patterns of peroxidase and esterase among populations (over 100) of Miscanthus in Taiwan were conducted. They also elucidated the phylogenetic relationship among species and varieties in Taiwan. Chou and Ueng proposed an evolutionary trend of Miscanthus species, indicating that the Miscanthus sinensis was assumed to be the origin of Miscanthus Anderss, which evolved to M. sinensis var. formosana, and M. sinensis var. flavidus, and M. sinensis var. transmorrisonensis, and Miscanthus floridulus was thought to be an out group of M. sinensis complex. Moreover, molecular phylogeny was attempted to clarify the population heterogeneity of M. sinensis complex, resulting in a substantial information. It would be available for making hybridization between Miscanthus species and its related species, such as Saccharum (sugar cane) spp. which is a

  7. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of low energy recoil events in MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, B. A.; Liu, B.; Weber, W. J.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Zhang, Y.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, low-energy recoil events in MgO are studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the dynamic displacement processes and final defect configurations. Threshold displacement energies, E_d, are obtained for Mg and O along three low-index crystallographic directions, [100], [110], and [111]. The minimum values for E_d are found along the [110] direction consisting of the same element, either Mg or O atoms. Minimum threshold values of 29.5 eV for Mg and 25.5 eV for O, respectively, are suggested from the calculations. For other directions, the threshold energies are considerably higher, 65.5 and 150.0 eV for O along [111] and [100], and 122.5 eV for Mg along both [111] and [100] directions, respectively. These results show that the recoil events in MgO are partial-charge transfer assisted processes where the charge transfer plays an important role. Finally, there is a similar trend found in other oxide materials, where the threshold displacement energy correlates linearly with the peak partial-charge transfer, suggesting this behavior might be universal in ceramic oxides.

  9. Defining molecular initiating events in the adverse outcome pathway framework for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy E H; Goodman, Jonathan M; Gutsell, Steve; Russell, Paul J

    2014-12-15

    Consumer and environmental safety decisions are based on exposure and hazard data, interpreted using risk assessment approaches. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) conceptual framework has been presented as a logical sequence of events or processes within biological systems which can be used to understand adverse effects and refine current risk assessment practices in ecotoxicology. This framework can also be applied to human toxicology and is explored on the basis of investigating the molecular initiating events (MIEs) of compounds. The precise definition of the MIE has yet to reach general acceptance. In this work we present a unified MIE definition: an MIE is the initial interaction between a molecule and a biomolecule or biosystem that can be causally linked to an outcome via a pathway. Case studies are presented, and issues with current definitions are addressed. With the development of a unified MIE definition, the field can look toward defining, classifying, and characterizing more MIEs and using knowledge of the chemistry of these processes to aid AOP research and toxicity risk assessment. We also present the role of MIE research in the development of in vitro and in silico toxicology and suggest how, by using a combination of biological and chemical approaches, MIEs can be identified and characterized despite a lack of detailed reports, even for some of the most studied molecules in toxicology.

  10. Cellular and molecular events leading to the development of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikova, Vladislava O.; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N.

    2005-01-01

    The transition from a normal cell to a neoplastic cell is a complex process and involves both genetic and epigenetic changes. The process of carcinogenesis begins when the DNA is damaged, which then leads to a cascade of events leading to the development of a tumor. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes DNA damage, inflammation, erythema, sunburn, immunosuppression, photoaging, gene mutations, and skin cancer. Upon DNA damage, the p53 tumor suppressor protein undergoes phosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus and aids in DNA repair or causes apoptosis. Excessive UV exposure overwhelms DNA repair mechanisms leading to induction of p53 mutations and loss of Fas-FasL interaction. Keratinocytes carrying p53 mutations acquire a growth advantage by virtue of their increased resistance to apoptosis. Thus, resistance to cell death is a key event in photocarcinogenesis and conversely, elimination of cells containing excessive UV-induced DNA damage is a key step in protecting against skin cancer development. Apoptosis-resistant keratinocytes undergo clonal expansion that eventually leads to formation of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas. In this article, we will review some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in initiation and progression of UV-induced skin cancer

  11. Cellular and molecular events leading to the development of skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikova, Vladislava O. [Department of Immunology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, P.O. Box 301402, Unit 902, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N. [Department of Immunology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, P.O. Box 301402, Unit 902, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)]. E-mail: hanantha@mdanderson.org

    2005-04-01

    The transition from a normal cell to a neoplastic cell is a complex process and involves both genetic and epigenetic changes. The process of carcinogenesis begins when the DNA is damaged, which then leads to a cascade of events leading to the development of a tumor. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes DNA damage, inflammation, erythema, sunburn, immunosuppression, photoaging, gene mutations, and skin cancer. Upon DNA damage, the p53 tumor suppressor protein undergoes phosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus and aids in DNA repair or causes apoptosis. Excessive UV exposure overwhelms DNA repair mechanisms leading to induction of p53 mutations and loss of Fas-FasL interaction. Keratinocytes carrying p53 mutations acquire a growth advantage by virtue of their increased resistance to apoptosis. Thus, resistance to cell death is a key event in photocarcinogenesis and conversely, elimination of cells containing excessive UV-induced DNA damage is a key step in protecting against skin cancer development. Apoptosis-resistant keratinocytes undergo clonal expansion that eventually leads to formation of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas. In this article, we will review some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in initiation and progression of UV-induced skin cancer.

  12. An Event-Driven Hybrid Molecular Dynamics and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donev, A; Garcia, A L; Alder, B J

    2007-07-30

    A novel algorithm is developed for the simulation of polymer chains suspended in a solvent. The polymers are represented as chains of hard spheres tethered by square wells and interact with the solvent particles with hard core potentials. The algorithm uses event-driven molecular dynamics (MD) for the simulation of the polymer chain and the interactions between the chain beads and the surrounding solvent particles. The interactions between the solvent particles themselves are not treated deterministically as in event-driven algorithms, rather, the momentum and energy exchange in the solvent is determined stochastically using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The coupling between the solvent and the solute is consistently represented at the particle level, however, unlike full MD simulations of both the solvent and the solute, the spatial structure of the solvent is ignored. The algorithm is described in detail and applied to the study of the dynamics of a polymer chain tethered to a hard wall subjected to uniform shear. The algorithm closely reproduces full MD simulations with two orders of magnitude greater efficiency. Results do not confirm the existence of periodic (cycling) motion of the polymer chain.

  13. Diagnostic and molecular evaluation of three iridovirus-associated salamander mortality events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, D.E.; Meteyer, C.U.; Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, J.; Case, S.T.; Chinchar, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998 viruses were isolated from tiger salamander larvae (Ambystoma tigrinum diaboli and A. tigrinum melanostictum) involved in North Dakota and Utah (USA) mortality events and spotted salamander (A. maculatum) larvae in a third event in Maine (USA). Although sympatric caudates and anurans were present at all three sites only ambystomid larvae appeared to be affected. Mortality at the North Dakota site was in the thousands while at the Utah and Maine sites mortality was in the hundreds. Sick larvae were lethargic and slow moving. They swam in circles with obvious buoyancy problems and were unable to remain upright. On the ventral surface, near the gills and hind limbs, red spots or swollen areas were noted. Necropsy findings included: hemorrhages and ulceration of the skin, subcutaneous and intramuscular edema, swollen and pale livers with multifocal hemorrhage, and distended fluid-filled intestines with areas of hemorrhage. Light microscopy revealed intracytoplasmic inclusions, suggestive of a viral infection, in a variety of organs. Electron microscopy of ultra thin sections of the same tissues revealed iridovirus-like particles within the inclusions. These viruses were isolated from a variety of organs, indicating a systemic infection. Representative viral isolates from the three mortality events were characterized using molecular assays. Characterization confirmed that the viral isolates were iridoviruses and that the two tiger salamander isolates were similar and could be distinguished from the spotted salamander isolate. The spotted salamander isolate was similar to frog virus 3, the type species of the genus Ranavirus, while the tiger salamander isolates were not. These data indicate that different species of salamanders can become infected and die in association with different iridoviruses. Challenge assays are required to determine the fish and amphibian host range of these isolates and to assess the susceptibility of tiger and spotted salamanders to

  14. PASBio: predicate-argument structures for event extraction in molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattarujeekrit, Tuangthong; Shah, Parantu K; Collier, Nigel

    2004-01-01

    Background The exploitation of information extraction (IE), a technology aiming to provide instances of structured representations from free-form text, has been rapidly growing within the molecular biology (MB) research community to keep track of the latest results reported in literature. IE systems have traditionally used shallow syntactic patterns for matching facts in sentences but such approaches appear inadequate to achieve high accuracy in MB event extraction due to complex sentence structure. A consensus in the IE community is emerging on the necessity for exploiting deeper knowledge structures such as through the relations between a verb and its arguments shown by predicate-argument structure (PAS). PAS is of interest as structures typically correspond to events of interest and their participating entities. For this to be realized within IE a key knowledge component is the definition of PAS frames. PAS frames for non-technical domains such as newswire are already being constructed in several projects such as PropBank, VerbNet, and FrameNet. Knowledge from PAS should enable more accurate applications in several areas where sentence understanding is required like machine translation and text summarization. In this article, we explore the need to adapt PAS for the MB domain and specify PAS frames to support IE, as well as outlining the major issues that require consideration in their construction. Results We introduce PASBio by extending a model based on PropBank to the MB domain. The hypothesis we explore is that PAS holds the key for understanding relationships describing the roles of genes and gene products in mediating their biological functions. We chose predicates describing gene expression, molecular interactions and signal transduction events with the aim of covering a number of research areas in MB. Analysis was performed on sentences containing a set of verbal predicates from MEDLINE and full text journals. Results confirm the necessity to analyze

  15. Development of a didactic electrophoresis kit for the practical teaching of Molecular Biology in basic and higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Silva Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The advances in the biotechnology area imposes a new reality, creating products that are present in our daily lives, affecting directly or indirectly the population. Applications related to DNA technologies in the industry, agriculture and medicine have social, ethical and ecological implications, in addition to the human health consequences. So, it is necessary that the public is informed of progress in this area of knowledge. In order to create an alternative method to stimulate students in scientific careers and improve the learning of biotechnology and molecular biology, we developed a junior research project with high school students of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of the Espírito Santo (Brazil, which aimed the construction of a teaching kit of electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is a technique widely used in molecular biology laboratories, which is applied to separate molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. In this technique, electrically charged molecules are exposed to an electric field and then they move towards the oppositely charged pole, being deposited in specific points of the matrix used. The kit built in this work consists of a source of 70 V, and accessories and reagents that are readily available and present low cost and low risk to the health of users. The use of the kit allowed for electrophoretic assays with nucleic acids and food dyes. The kit also contains a printed material that addresses issues about DNA technology and the device user’s guide with suggestions of experiences to simulate paternity test, virus identification and others. The application of the teaching kit in practical classes with students and teachers of basic education showed that the activity was effective in reducing the number of errors in answers contained in a questionnaire related to the electrophoresis. Moreover, biology teachers evaluated the printed material of the didactic kit and 75% of them classified the

  16. Collapse of proteostasis represents an early molecular event in Caenorhabditis elegans aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Anat; Miller, Elizabeth A; Morimoto, Richard I

    2009-09-01

    Protein damage contributes prominently to cellular aging. To address whether this occurs at a specific period during aging or accumulates gradually, we monitored the biochemical, cellular, and physiological properties of folding sensors expressed in different tissues of C. elegans. We observed the age-dependent misfolding and loss of function of diverse proteins harboring temperature-sensitive missense mutations in all somatic tissues at the permissive condition. This widespread failure in proteostasis occurs rapidly at an early stage of adulthood, and coincides with a severely reduced activation of the cytoprotective heat shock response and the unfolded protein response. Enhancing stress responsive factors HSF-1 or DAF-16 suppresses misfolding of these metastable folding sensors and restores the ability of the cell to maintain a functional proteome. This suggests that a compromise in the regulation of proteostatic stress responses occurs early in adulthood and tips the balance between the load of damaged proteins and the proteostasis machinery. We propose that the collapse of proteostasis represents an early molecular event of aging that amplifies protein damage in age-associated diseases of protein conformation.

  17. Signal transduction by FcεRI: Analysis of the early molecular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Metzger

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We are analysing the initial molecular events stimulated by the high-affinity receptor for IgE, FcεRI. Earlier studies have shown that the first response when the receptor-bound IgE interacts with a multivalent antigen is a transphosphorylation of receptor tyrosines, induced by the approximation of two or more receptors by a constitutively associated src-family kinase (Lyn. The amount of weakly associated kinase regulates the intensity of the response. Several aspects are being analyzed: (i the sites on Lyn and the receptor that account for the constitutive interaction; (ii how the intrinsic affinity of a ligand for the receptor-bound IgE influences the responses; and (iii the mechanism(s by which low-affinity ligands can act as antagonists. In the latter studies, mast cell responses were followed by monitoring the phosphorylation of tyrosines on several proteins and secretion. At equivalent levels of receptor phosphorylation, a ligand with high affinity stimulated vigorous phosphorylation of downstream components, whereas a low-affinity ligand was unable to stimulate phosphorylation of the same components effectively. Cells stimulated with a mixture of high- and low-affinity ligands, under a protocol where simple displacement of one by the other was prevented, remarkably showed that excess low-affinity ligand inhibited the phosphorylation as well as degranulation by the high-affinity ligand. This antagonism results from a competition for the limiting amount of the constitutive initiating kinase. Related receptors that depend on recruitment of initiating kinases may be subject to similar regulatory mechanisms.

  18. Molecular confirmation of Bacillus Calmette Guerin vaccine related adverse events among Saudi Arabian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahal Al-Hajoj

    Full Text Available Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG is the only available vaccine for tuberculosis (TB. Low grade complications in healthy recipients and disseminated vaccine associated complications among immuno-suppressed individuals were noticed globally after administration. Recently a series of clinically suspected BCG associated suppurative and non-suppurative lymphadenitis cases were reported from different regions of Saudi Arabia. However a molecular confirmative analysis was lacking to prove these claims.During 2009-2010, 42 Mycobacterium bovis BCG suspected clinical isolates from children diagnosed with suppurative lymphadenitis from different provinces of the country were collected and subjected to 24 loci based MIRU-VNTR typing, spoligotyping and first line anti-TB drugs susceptibility testing.Of the total 42 cases, 41 (97.6% were Saudi nationals and particularly male (64.3%. Majority of the cases were aged below 6 months (83.3% with a median of age 4 months. All the enrolled subjects showed left axillary mass which suppurated in a median of 4 months after vaccination. Among the study subjects, 1 (2.4% case was reactive to HIV antigen and 2 (4.8% case had severe combined immunodeficiency. Genotyping results showed that, 41 (97.6% isolates were identical to the vaccine strain Danish 1331 and one to Tokyo 172-1. Phylogenetic analysis revealed all the Danish 1331 isolates in a single cluster.Elevated proportion of suppurative lymphadenitis caused by M. bovis BCG reported in the country recently is majorly related to the vaccine strain Danish 1331. However lack of nationwide data on real magnitude of BCG related adverse events warrants population centric, long term future studies.

  19. Initial Chemical Events in CL-20 Under Extreme Conditions: An Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isaev, Olexandr; Kholod, Yana; Gorb, Leonid; Qasim, Mohammad; Fredrickson, Herb; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    .... In the present study molecular structure, electrostatic potential, vibrational spectrum and dynamics of thermal decomposition of CL-20 have been investigated by static and dynamic methods of ab...

  20. Propagating Molecular Recognition Events through Highly Integrated Sense-Response Chemical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Gianneschi: 2015 Outstanding Young Scientist Award, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, PAT 2015 2016 Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry 2016...Tianfu Distinguished Lecturer in Polymer Science and Engineering , Sichuan University 2017 Blavatnik Young Scientist Award Finalist Protocol Activity...developing the basic polymer chemistry of responsive, biopolymer/polymer hybrid materials. This began with us generating a nobornyl-PNA (peptide

  1. HLA DNA sequence variation among human populations: molecular signatures of demographic and selective events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Buhler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular differences between HLA alleles vary up to 57 nucleotides within the peptide binding coding region of human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes, but it is still unclear whether this variation results from a stochastic process or from selective constraints related to functional differences among HLA molecules. Although HLA alleles are generally treated as equidistant molecular units in population genetic studies, DNA sequence diversity among populations is also crucial to interpret the observed HLA polymorphism. In this study, we used a large dataset of 2,062 DNA sequences defined for the different HLA alleles to analyze nucleotide diversity of seven HLA genes in 23,500 individuals of about 200 populations spread worldwide. We first analyzed the HLA molecular structure and diversity of these populations in relation to geographic variation and we further investigated possible departures from selective neutrality through Tajima's tests and mismatch distributions. All results were compared to those obtained by classical approaches applied to HLA allele frequencies.Our study shows that the global patterns of HLA nucleotide diversity among populations are significantly correlated to geography, although in some specific cases the molecular information reveals unexpected genetic relationships. At all loci except HLA-DPB1, populations have accumulated a high proportion of very divergent alleles, suggesting an advantage of heterozygotes expressing molecularly distant HLA molecules (asymmetric overdominant selection model. However, both different intensities of selection and unequal levels of gene conversion may explain the heterogeneous mismatch distributions observed among the loci. Also, distinctive patterns of sequence divergence observed at the HLA-DPB1 locus suggest current neutrality but old selective pressures on this gene. We conclude that HLA DNA sequences advantageously complement HLA allele frequencies as a source of data used

  2. Safety at civil basic nuclear installations other than nuclear power plants in France. Lessons learned by IRSN from significant events reported in 2013 and 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    IRSN publishes the lessons learned from its analysis of significant events which have occurred in 2013 and 2014 at 82 civil basic nuclear installations (INBs) other than nuclear power plants (NPPs). Produced every two year since 2009, this report concerns 73 facilities such as plants, laboratories, facilities for the treatment, disposal and storage of waste, and facilities which have been decommissioned, and 9 research reactors, operated by around twenty different licensees in France. 210 and 227 significant events were respectively reported in 2013 and 2014 to the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN). This number remains similar to previous years and tends to 'stabilize' at around 200 to 220. On the one hand, among the improvements observed in 2013 and 2014, IRSN found two subjects of particular interest: - Efforts made by the licensees to increase reliability of organisational and human measures related to handling operations, in particular at the spent fuel reprocessing plant of AREVA NC La Hague and in the radioactive waste storage facilities operated by the CEA. - Important improvement program deployed by the licensee of the FBFC plant in Romans-sur-Isere (Drome) to enhance operating practices, particularly regarding management of criticality risks (prevention of uncontrolled chain reactions). On the other hand, three subjects still require special vigilance by licensees: - Ensuring full control over the safety documentation of facilities. IRSN's cross-cutting analysis of events reveal a large number of cases for which parts of the safety documentation are not fully understood at the facilities, are not applied, are inaccurate or not applicable to the situation. - Ensuring in-depth and comprehensive planning of installation clean-up and dismantling operations. Risks of worker exposure to ionising radiation are higher during these operations which may require personnel to work in close proximity to radioactive materials. - Ensuring more

  3. Fast transient current response to switching events in short chains of molecular islands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav; Velický, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 773-777 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0897 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nonequilibrium * molecular islands * initial correlations * transient currents Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2013

  4. Genetic plasticity of the Shigella virulence plasmid is mediated by intra- and inter-molecular events between insertion sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Giulia; McVicker, Gareth; Tang, Christoph M

    2017-09-01

    Acquisition of a single copy, large virulence plasmid, pINV, led to the emergence of Shigella spp. from Escherichia coli. The plasmid encodes a Type III secretion system (T3SS) on a 30 kb pathogenicity island (PAI), and is maintained in a bacterial population through a series of toxin:antitoxin (TA) systems which mediate post-segregational killing (PSK). The T3SS imposes a significant cost on the bacterium, and strains which have lost the plasmid and/or genes encoding the T3SS grow faster than wild-type strains in the laboratory, and fail to bind the indicator dye Congo Red (CR). Our aim was to define the molecular events in Shigella flexneri that cause loss of Type III secretion (T3S), and to examine whether TA systems exert positional effects on pINV. During growth at 37°C, we found that deletions of regions of the plasmid including the PAI lead to the emergence of CR-negative colonies; deletions occur through intra-molecular recombination events between insertion sequences (ISs) flanking the PAI. Furthermore, by repositioning MvpAT (which belongs to the VapBC family of TA systems) near the PAI, we demonstrate that the location of this TA system alters the rearrangements that lead to loss of T3S, indicating that MvpAT acts both globally (by reducing loss of pINV through PSK) as well as locally (by preventing loss of adjacent sequences). During growth at environmental temperatures, we show for the first time that pINV spontaneously integrates into different sites in the chromosome, and this is mediated by inter-molecular events involving IS1294. Integration leads to reduced PAI gene expression and impaired secretion through the T3SS, while excision of pINV from the chromosome restores T3SS function. Therefore, pINV integration provides a reversible mechanism for Shigella to circumvent the metabolic burden imposed by pINV. Intra- and inter-molecular events between ISs, which are abundant in Shigella spp., mediate plasticity of S. flexneri pINV.

  5. A Network of AOPs for reduced thyroid hormone synthesis derived from inhibition of Thyroperoxidase - A common Molecular Initiating Event Leading to Species-Specific Indices of Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collection of 3 AOPs describe varying outcomes of adversity dependent upon species in response to inhibition of thyroperoxidase (TPO) during development. Chemical inhibition of TPO, the molecular-initiating event (MIE), results in decreased thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis, a...

  6. Basic and substitute supply in the event of customer insolvency. The field between energy law and insolvency law, with due consideration to the unconstitutionality of the basic supply ordinances for electricity and gas; Grund- und Ersatzversorgung in der Insolvenz des Kunden. Das Spannungsfeld von Energie- und Insolvenzrecht unter Beruecksichtigung der Verfassungswidrigkeit der GVV fuer Strom und Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchewitz, Paul

    2008-07-01

    The author of this publication examines the legal relationships that arise between the parties involved if a customer receiving a basic or substitute energy supply runs into crisis and insolvency. The intent is to describe and assess the interplay between energy law and insolvency law. The author examines how far the obligations of the basic supplier reach in the event of customer insolvency, what means the customer, the (provisional) insolvency administrator and the basic supplier have at their disposal in this situation and how these might assessed from a legal and economic viewpoint. Special emphasis is placed on the partial unconstitutionality of the basic supply ordinances for electricity and gas. These laws should also specify the parties' obligations and rights in the event of insolvency.

  7. Basic pathologies of neurodegenerative dementias and their relevance for state-of-the-art molecular imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzezga, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Rising life-expectancy in the modern society has resulted in a rapidly growing prevalence of dementia, particularly of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dementia turns into one of the most common age-related disorders with deleterious consequences for the concerned patients and their relatives, as well as worrying effects on the socio-economic systems. These facts justify strengthened scientific efforts to identify the pathologic origin of dementing disorders, to improve diagnosis, and to interfere therapeutically with the disease progression. In the recent years, remarkable progress has been made concerning the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders. Growing evidence indicates that a common basis of many neurodegenerative dementias can be found in increased production, misfolding and pathological aggregation of proteins, such as ss-amyloid, tau protein, a-synuclein, or the recently described ubiquitinated TDP-43. This progressive insight in pathological processes is paralleled by the development of new therapeutic approaches. However, the exact contribution or mechanism of different pathologies with regard to the development of disease is not yet sufficiently clear. Considerable overlap of pathologies has been documented in different types of clinically defined dementias post mortem, and it has been difficult to correlate post mortem histopathology data with disease-expression during life. Molecular imaging procedures may play a valuable role to circumvent this limitation. In general, methods of molecular imaging have recently experienced an impressive advance, with numerous new and improved technologies emerging. These exciting tools may play a key role in the future regarding the evaluation of pathomechanisms, preclinical evaluation of new diagnostic procedures in animal models, selection of patients for clinical trials, and therapy monitoring. In this overview, molecular key pathologies, which are currently

  8. The role of stable α-synuclein oligomers in the molecular events underlying amyloid formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Nikolai; Nielsen, Søren Bang; Buell, Alexander K.

    2014-01-01

    α-synuclein (αSN), whose aggregation is strongly implicated in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The two types of oligomers are both formed under conditions where amyloid fibril formation is observed but differ in molecular weight by an order of magnitude. Both possess a degree of β......, either as precursors of fibrils or as species involved in the fibril elongation process or instead if they are associated with an aggregation process that is distinct from that generating mature fibrils. Here we describe and characterize in detail two well-defined oligomeric species formed by the protein...

  9. Quantification of pancreatic cancer proteome and phosphorylome: indicates molecular events likely contributing to cancer and activity of drug targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Britton

    Full Text Available LC-MS/MS phospho-proteomics is an essential technology to help unravel the complex molecular events that lead to and propagate cancer. We have developed a global phospho-proteomic workflow to determine activity of signaling pathways and drug targets in pancreatic cancer tissue for clinical application.Peptides resulting from tryptic digestion of proteins extracted from frozen tissue of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and background pancreas (n = 12, were labelled with tandem mass tags (TMT 8-plex, separated by strong cation exchange chromatography, then were analysed by LC-MS/MS directly or first enriched for phosphopeptides using IMAC and TiO2, prior to analysis. In-house, commercial and freeware bioinformatic platforms were used to identify relevant biological events from the complex dataset.Of 2,101 proteins identified, 152 demonstrated significant difference in abundance between tumor and non-tumor tissue. They included proteins that are known to be up-regulated in pancreatic cancer (e.g. Mucin-1, but the majority were new candidate markers such as HIPK1 & MLCK. Of the 6,543 unique phosphopeptides identified (6,284 unique phosphorylation sites, 635 showed significant regulation, particularly those from proteins involved in cell migration (Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors & MRCKα and formation of focal adhesions. Activator phosphorylation sites on FYN, AKT1, ERK2, HDAC1 and other drug targets were found to be highly modulated (≥2 fold in different cases highlighting their predictive power.Here we provided critical information enabling us to identify the common and unique molecular events likely contributing to cancer in each case. Such information may be used to help predict more bespoke therapy suitable for an individual case.

  10. Quantification of pancreatic cancer proteome and phosphorylome: indicates molecular events likely contributing to cancer and activity of drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, David; Zen, Yoh; Quaglia, Alberto; Selzer, Stefan; Mitra, Vikram; Löβner, Christopher; Jung, Stephan; Böhm, Gitte; Schmid, Peter; Prefot, Petra; Hoehle, Claudia; Koncarevic, Sasa; Gee, Julia; Nicholson, Robert; Ward, Malcolm; Castellano, Leandro; Stebbing, Justin; Zucht, Hans Dieter; Sarker, Debashis; Heaton, Nigel; Pike, Ian

    2014-01-01

    LC-MS/MS phospho-proteomics is an essential technology to help unravel the complex molecular events that lead to and propagate cancer. We have developed a global phospho-proteomic workflow to determine activity of signaling pathways and drug targets in pancreatic cancer tissue for clinical application. Peptides resulting from tryptic digestion of proteins extracted from frozen tissue of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and background pancreas (n = 12), were labelled with tandem mass tags (TMT 8-plex), separated by strong cation exchange chromatography, then were analysed by LC-MS/MS directly or first enriched for phosphopeptides using IMAC and TiO2, prior to analysis. In-house, commercial and freeware bioinformatic platforms were used to identify relevant biological events from the complex dataset. Of 2,101 proteins identified, 152 demonstrated significant difference in abundance between tumor and non-tumor tissue. They included proteins that are known to be up-regulated in pancreatic cancer (e.g. Mucin-1), but the majority were new candidate markers such as HIPK1 & MLCK. Of the 6,543 unique phosphopeptides identified (6,284 unique phosphorylation sites), 635 showed significant regulation, particularly those from proteins involved in cell migration (Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors & MRCKα) and formation of focal adhesions. Activator phosphorylation sites on FYN, AKT1, ERK2, HDAC1 and other drug targets were found to be highly modulated (≥2 fold) in different cases highlighting their predictive power. Here we provided critical information enabling us to identify the common and unique molecular events likely contributing to cancer in each case. Such information may be used to help predict more bespoke therapy suitable for an individual case.

  11. Phylogenetic and molecular epidemiological studies reveal evidence of multiple past recombination events between infectious laryngotracheitis viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Won Lee

    Full Text Available In contrast to the RNA viruses, the genome of large DNA viruses such as herpesviruses have been considered to be relatively stable. Intra-specific recombination has been proposed as an important, but underestimated, driving force in herpesvirus evolution. Recently, two distinct field strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV have been shown to have arisen from independent recombination events between different commercial ILTV vaccines. In this study we sequenced the genomes of additional ILTV strains and also utilized other recently updated complete genome sequences of ILTV to confirm the existence of a number of ILTV recombinants in nature. Multiple recombination events were detected in the unique long and repeat regions of the genome, but not in the unique short region. Most recombinants contained a pair of crossover points between two distinct lineages of ILTV, corresponding to the European origin and the Australian origin vaccine strains of ILTV. These results suggest that there are two distinct genotypic lineages of ILTV and that these commonly recombine in the field.

  12. Evidence for nucleosynthetic enrichment of the protosolar molecular cloud core by multiple supernova events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Martin; Paton, Chad; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The presence of isotope heterogeneity of nucleosynthetic origin amongst meteorites and their components provides a record of the diverse stars that contributed matter to the protosolar molecular cloud core. Understanding how and when the solar system's nucleosynthetic heterogeneity was established...... and preserved within the solar protoplanetary disk is critical for unraveling the earliest formative stages of the solar system. Here, we report calcium and magnesium isotope measurements of primitive and differentiated meteorites as well as various types of refractory inclusions, including refractory...... and differentiated meteorites along with canonical and FUN-CAIs define correlated, mass-independent variations in 43Ca, 46Ca and 48Ca. Moreover, sequential dissolution experiments of the Ivuna carbonaceous chondrite aimed at identifying the nature and number of presolar carriers of isotope anomalies within primitive...

  13. Molecular events by which dendritic cells promote Th2 immune protection in helmith infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Samperio, Patricia

    2016-10-01

    Helminth parasites are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting nearly one quarter of the world's population. The common feature of helminth infections is to skew the immune system towards a T-helper 2 (Th2) response that helps to control disease. Dendritic cells (DCs), which are professional antigen-presenting cells, play a critical role for Th2 skewing against helminth parasites. However, the molecular mechanisms by which helminth antigens activate DCs for Th2 polarization have not yet been clearly defined. This review provides a focused update on the major role of DCs for inducing and/or enhancing Th2 immune responses in helminthic infection and will discuss the main signalling-dependent and independent mechanisms by which helminth antigens activate DCs for Th2 skewing.

  14. Analogies Between Digital Radio and Chemical Orthogonality as a Method for Enhanced Analysis of Molecular Recognition Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hun Lee

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic wave biosensors are a real-time, label-free biosensor technology, which have been exploited for the detection of proteins and cells. One of the conventional biosensor approaches involves the immobilization of a monolayer of antibodies onto the surface of the acoustic wave device for the detection of a specific analyte. The method described within includes at least two immobilizations of two different antibodies onto the surfaces of two separate acoustic wave devices for the detection of several analogous analytes. The chemical specificity of the molecular recognition event is achieved by virtue of the extremely high (nM to pM binding affinity between the antibody and its antigen. In a standard ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay test, there are multiple steps and the end result is a measure of what is bound so tightly that it does not wash away easily. The fact that this “gold standard” is very much not real time, masks the dance that is the molecular recognition event. X-Ray Crystallographer, Ian Wilson, demonstrated more than a decade ago that antibodies undergo conformational change during a binding event[1, 2]. Further, it is known in the arena of immunochemistry that some antibodies exhibit significant cross-reactivity and this is widely termed antibody promiscuity. A third piece of the puzzle that we will exploit in our system of acoustic wave biosensors is the notion of chemical orthogonality. These three biochemical constructs, the dance, antibody promiscuity and chemical orthogonality will be combined in this paper with the notions of Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9 155 in-phase (I and quadrature (Q signals from digital radio to manifest an approach to molecular recognition that allows a level of discrimination and analysis unobtainable without the aggregate. As an example we present experimental data on the detection of TNT, RDX, C4, ammonium nitrate and musk oil from a system of antibody-coated acoustic

  15. ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR EVENTS IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: MOLECULAR GENETIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Karpenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study association between stroke and gene polymorphism of angeotensin converting enzyme (ACE, angeotensin II type 1 receptor (ATR1, apolipoprotein СIII (APO CIII, apoproteine Е (APO E, methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, fibrinogen (Fb, endothelial NO-synthase (NOS3 in arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. Molecular genetic analysis by polymerase chain reaction was done in 41 patients with HT, who experienced first episode of acute disturbances of cerebral blood circulation (ADCBC.Results. Stroke rate in patients with HT is associated with A1166C of ATR1 gene polymorphism, G-455A of Fb gene polymorphism and C677T of MTHFR gene polymorphism. The high risk markers are C-allele of ATR1 gene, -455А allele and AA genotype of Fb gene, 677T allele of MTHFR. The A-allele and genotype AA of ATR1 gene, G-445 allele of Fb gene, С677-allele and CC genotype of MTHFR gene play protective role against ADCBC in HT.Conclusion. It is established an association between gene polymorphism of some molecules and ADCBC in HT.

  16. Origin of microbial life: Nano- and molecular events, thermodynamics/entropy, quantum mechanisms and genetic instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, J T

    2011-03-01

    Currently, there are no agreed upon mechanisms and supporting evidence for the origin of the first microbial cells on the Earth. However, some hypotheses have been proposed with minimal supporting evidence and experimentation/observations. The approach taken in this article is that life originated at the nano- and molecular levels of biological organization, using quantum mechanic principles that became manifested as classical microbial cell(s), allowing the origin of microbial life on the Earth with a core or minimal, organic, genetic code containing the correct instructions for cell(s) for growth and division, in a micron dimension environment, with a local entropy range conducive to life (present about 4 billion years ago), and obeying the laws of thermodynamics. An integrated approach that explores all encompassing factors necessary for the origin of life, may bring forth plausible hypotheses (and mechanisms) with much needed supporting experimentation and observations for an origin of life theory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Visualization of early events in acetic acid denaturation of HIV-1 protease: a molecular dynamics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Narendra Borkar

    Full Text Available Protein denaturation plays a crucial role in cellular processes. In this study, denaturation of HIV-1 Protease (PR was investigated by all-atom MD simulations in explicit solvent. The PR dimer and monomer were simulated separately in 9 M acetic acid (9 M AcOH solution and water to study the denaturation process of PR in acetic acid environment. Direct visualization of the denaturation dynamics that is readily available from such simulations has been presented. Our simulations in 9 M AcOH reveal that the PR denaturation begins by separation of dimer into intact monomers and it is only after this separation that the monomer units start denaturing. The denaturation of the monomers is flagged off by the loss of crucial interactions between the α-helix at C-terminal and surrounding β-strands. This causes the structure to transit from the equilibrium dynamics to random non-equilibrating dynamics. Residence time calculations indicate that denaturation occurs via direct interaction of the acetic acid molecules with certain regions of the protein in 9 M AcOH. All these observations have helped to decipher a picture of the early events in acetic acid denaturation of PR and have illustrated that the α-helix and the β-sheet at the C-terminus of a native and functional PR dimer should maintain both the stability and the function of the enzyme and thus present newer targets for blocking PR function.

  18. Assessment of molecular events during in vitro re-epithelialization under honey-alginate matrix ambience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barui, Ananya; Mandal, Naresh; Majumder, Subhadipa; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Banerjee, Provas; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; RoyChaudhuri, Chirosree; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2013-01-01

    Re-epithelialization is one of the most important stages of cutaneous regeneration and its success requires supportive micro-ambience which may be provided with suitable bio-matrix. Biocompatibility and efficacy of such bio-matrix in re-epithelialization could be explored by multimodal analysis of structural and functional attributes of in vitro wound healing model including evaluation of prime molecular expressions of the epithelial cells during repair. Present study examines the influence of honey-alginate and alginate matrices on re-epithelialization in keratinocyte (HaCaT) population in a 2-D wound model. Cellular viability, proliferation and cell–cell adhesion status were assessed during wound closure using live/dead cell assay and by evaluating expressions of Ki67, p63 and E-cadherin along-with % change in cellular electrical impedance. Efficacy of honey-alginate matrix in comparison to only alginate one was demonstrated by a quicker reduction in wound gap, improved cellular viability, enhanced expressions of Ki67, p63 and its isoforms (TAp63, ΔNp63) as well as E-cadherin. Faster restoration of electrical attribute (% of impedance change) after wounding also indicated better impact of honey-alginate matrix in re-epithelialization. - Highlights: • Role of honey based matrix is evaluated in wound re-epithelialization. • Healing impact of matrix studied in 2D in vitro keratinocyte (HaCaT) wound model. • Faster impedance restoration indicated rapid healing rate of HaCaT under honey. • PCR observations showed faster initiation of cell proliferation under honey. • ICC study indicated better up-regulation of healing markers under honey matrix

  19. Assessment of molecular events during in vitro re-epithelialization under honey-alginate matrix ambience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barui, Ananya [Centre for Healthcare Science and Technology, BESU, Shibpur, Howrah 711103, West Bengal (India); Mandal, Naresh [Dept. of Electronics and Telecommunication Engg., BESU, Shibpur, Howrah 711103, West Bengal (India); Majumder, Subhadipa [Department of Biochemistry, University of Calcutta Ballygunge, Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019, West Bengal (India); Das, Raunak Kumar [School of Medical Science and Technology, IIT, Kharagpur 721 302, West Bengal (India); Sengupta, Sanghamitra [Department of Biochemistry, University of Calcutta Ballygunge, Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019, West Bengal (India); Banerjee, Provas [School of Medical Science and Technology, IIT, Kharagpur 721 302, West Bengal (India); Ray, Ajoy Kumar; RoyChaudhuri, Chirosree [Dept. of Electronics and Telecommunication Engg., BESU, Shibpur, Howrah 711103, West Bengal (India); Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy, E-mail: jchatterjee@smst.iitkgp.ernet.in [School of Medical Science and Technology, IIT, Kharagpur 721 302, West Bengal (India)

    2013-08-01

    Re-epithelialization is one of the most important stages of cutaneous regeneration and its success requires supportive micro-ambience which may be provided with suitable bio-matrix. Biocompatibility and efficacy of such bio-matrix in re-epithelialization could be explored by multimodal analysis of structural and functional attributes of in vitro wound healing model including evaluation of prime molecular expressions of the epithelial cells during repair. Present study examines the influence of honey-alginate and alginate matrices on re-epithelialization in keratinocyte (HaCaT) population in a 2-D wound model. Cellular viability, proliferation and cell–cell adhesion status were assessed during wound closure using live/dead cell assay and by evaluating expressions of Ki67, p63 and E-cadherin along-with % change in cellular electrical impedance. Efficacy of honey-alginate matrix in comparison to only alginate one was demonstrated by a quicker reduction in wound gap, improved cellular viability, enhanced expressions of Ki67, p63 and its isoforms (TAp63, ΔNp63) as well as E-cadherin. Faster restoration of electrical attribute (% of impedance change) after wounding also indicated better impact of honey-alginate matrix in re-epithelialization. - Highlights: • Role of honey based matrix is evaluated in wound re-epithelialization. • Healing impact of matrix studied in 2D in vitro keratinocyte (HaCaT) wound model. • Faster impedance restoration indicated rapid healing rate of HaCaT under honey. • PCR observations showed faster initiation of cell proliferation under honey. • ICC study indicated better up-regulation of healing markers under honey matrix.

  20. Molecular events in the induction of murine tumors by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    A new method is presented to identify and clone novel transforming genes from radiation-induced tumors. It involves the creation of a cDNA expression library from radiation-induced tumors. The library is transfected into non-transformed cells, and the nude mouse tumorigenicity assay functionally defines the acquisition of a transformed phenotype. cDNA clones responsible for transformation are rescued by PCR amplification. This method is applicable to a variety of mammalian systems. The only requirement is a functional assay with which to measure the acquisition of an altered phenotype following transfection of a cDNA library. This method has identified a cDNA for the 16 kD subunit of v-H + -ATPase, which has been associated with cellular transformation. Two protocols were used to generate radiation-induced tumors. One experiment utilizing fractionated doses of ionizing radiation had a much greater tumor yield than the second protocol using a single dose of 11.25 Gy. To determine if the mechanism of gene activation is different in radiation- and chemically-induced tumors, the expression pattern of five tumor-associated genes was analyzed. The expression patterns of mals 1-4 were not significantly different. However, transin, a secreted protease, was overexpressed in radiation-induced papillomas and undetectable in chemically-induced papillomas. Transin degrades basement membrane proteins and may be involved in the progression of benign, encapsulated tumors to malignant, invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Isolation and characterization of genes with dominant transforming activity from radiation-induced tumors will provide information to bridge the gap between the initial ionizing radiation event and the subsequent development of malignant tumors. The function of these genes may also provide information about the development of human malignancies. An understanding the natural biology of cells will help elucidate the pathogenesis cancer and other diseases

  1. Early molecular events involved in Pinus pinaster Ait. somatic embryo development under reduced water availability: transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Teyssier, Caroline; Trontin, Jean-François; Eliášová, Kateřina; Pešek, Bedřich; Beaufour, Martine; Morabito, Domenico; Boizot, Nathalie; Le Metté, Claire; Belal-Bessai, Leila; Reymond, Isabelle; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Corbineau, Françoise; Vágner, Martin; Label, Philippe; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-09-01

    Maritime pine somatic embryos (SEs) require a reduction in water availability (high gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium) to reach the cotyledonary stage. This key switch, reported specifically for pine species, is not yet well understood. To facilitate the use of somatic embryogenesis for mass propagation of conifers, we need a better understanding of embryo development. Comparison of both transcriptome (Illumina RNA sequencing) and proteome [two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (MS) identification] of immature SEs, cultured on either high (9G) or low (4G) gellan gum concentration, was performed, together with analysis of water content, fresh and dry mass, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA; gas chromatography-MS), soluble sugars (high-pressure liquid chromatography), starch and confocal laser microscope observations. This multiscale, integrated analysis was used to unravel early molecular and physiological events involved in SE development. Under unfavorable conditions (4G), the glycolytic pathway was enhanced, possibly in relation to cell proliferation that may be antagonistic to SE development. Under favorable conditions (9G), SEs adapted to culture constraint by activating specific protective pathways, and ABA-mediated molecular and physiological responses promoting embryo development. Our results suggest that on 9G, germin-like protein and ubiquitin-protein ligase could be used as predictive markers of SE development, whereas protein phosphatase 2C could be a biomarker for culture adaptive responses. This is the first characterization of early molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pine SEs following an increase in gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium, and it is also the first report on somatic embryogenesis in conifers combining transcriptomic and proteomic datasets. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Origin of the Absorption Band of Bromophenol Blue in Acidic and Basic pH: Insight from a Combined Molecular Dynamics and TD-DFT/MM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyaya, M; Murugan, N Arul; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas

    2016-09-15

    We study the linear and nonlinear optical properties of a well-known acid-base indicator, bromophenol blue (BPB), in aqueous solution by employing static and integrated approaches. In the static approach, optical properties have been calculated using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) on the fully relaxed geometries of the neutral and different unprotonated forms of BPB. Moreover, both closed and open forms of BPB were considered. In the integrated approach, the optical properties have been computed over many snapshots extracted from molecular dynamics simulation using a hybrid time-dependent density functional theory/molecular mechanics approach. The static approach suggests closed neutral ⇒ anionic interconversion as the dominant mechanism for the red shift in the absorption spectra of BPB due to a change from acidic to basic pH. It is found by employing an integrated approach that the two interconversions, namely open neutral ⇒ anionic and open neutral ⇒ dianionic, can contribute to the pH-dependent shift in the absorption spectra of BPB. Even though both static and integrated approaches reproduce the pH-dependent red shift in the absorption spectra of BPB, the latter one is suitable to determine both the spectra and spectral broadening. Finally, the computed static first hyperpolarizability for various protonated and deprotonated forms of BPB reveals that this molecule can be used as a nonlinear optical probe for pH sensing in addition to its highly exploited use as an optical probe.

  3. PopSc: Computing Toolkit for Basic Statistics of Molecular Population Genetics Simultaneously Implemented in Web-Based Calculator, Python and R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yi Chen

    Full Text Available Although various computer tools have been elaborately developed to calculate a series of statistics in molecular population genetics for both small- and large-scale DNA data, there is no efficient and easy-to-use toolkit available yet for exclusively focusing on the steps of mathematical calculation. Here, we present PopSc, a bioinformatic toolkit for calculating 45 basic statistics in molecular population genetics, which could be categorized into three classes, including (i genetic diversity of DNA sequences, (ii statistical tests for neutral evolution, and (iii measures of genetic differentiation among populations. In contrast to the existing computer tools, PopSc was designed to directly accept the intermediate metadata, such as allele frequencies, rather than the raw DNA sequences or genotyping results. PopSc is first implemented as the web-based calculator with user-friendly interface, which greatly facilitates the teaching of population genetics in class and also promotes the convenient and straightforward calculation of statistics in research. Additionally, we also provide the Python library and R package of PopSc, which can be flexibly integrated into other advanced bioinformatic packages of population genetics analysis.

  4. PopSc: Computing Toolkit for Basic Statistics of Molecular Population Genetics Simultaneously Implemented in Web-Based Calculator, Python and R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Yi; Deng, Feilong; Huang, Ying; Li, Cao; Liu, Linhai; Jia, Xianbo; Lai, Song-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Although various computer tools have been elaborately developed to calculate a series of statistics in molecular population genetics for both small- and large-scale DNA data, there is no efficient and easy-to-use toolkit available yet for exclusively focusing on the steps of mathematical calculation. Here, we present PopSc, a bioinformatic toolkit for calculating 45 basic statistics in molecular population genetics, which could be categorized into three classes, including (i) genetic diversity of DNA sequences, (ii) statistical tests for neutral evolution, and (iii) measures of genetic differentiation among populations. In contrast to the existing computer tools, PopSc was designed to directly accept the intermediate metadata, such as allele frequencies, rather than the raw DNA sequences or genotyping results. PopSc is first implemented as the web-based calculator with user-friendly interface, which greatly facilitates the teaching of population genetics in class and also promotes the convenient and straightforward calculation of statistics in research. Additionally, we also provide the Python library and R package of PopSc, which can be flexibly integrated into other advanced bioinformatic packages of population genetics analysis.

  5. A Semester-Long Project for Teaching Basic Techniques in Molecular Biology Such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis to Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartolomeis, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Several reports on science education suggest that students at all levels learn better if they are immersed in a project that is long term, yielding results that require analysis and interpretation. I describe a 12-wk laboratory project suitable for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students, in which the students molecularly locate and map a gene from Drosophila melanogaster called dusky and one of dusky's mutant alleles. The mapping strategy uses restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis; hence, students perform most of the basic techniques of molecular biology (DNA isolation, restriction enzyme digestion and mapping, plasmid vector subcloning, agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, DNA labeling, and Southern hybridization) toward the single goal of characterizing dusky and the mutant allele dusky73. Students work as individuals, pairs, or in groups of up to four students. Some exercises require multitasking and collaboration between groups. Finally, results from everyone in the class are required for the final analysis. Results of pre- and postquizzes and surveys indicate that student knowledge of appropriate topics and skills increased significantly, students felt more confident in the laboratory, and students found the laboratory project interesting and challenging. Former students report that the lab was useful in their careers. PMID:21364104

  6. Evidence of molecular evolution driven by recombination events influencing tropism in a novel human adenovirus that causes epidemic keratoconjunctivitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Walsh

    2009-06-01

    the first genomic, bioinformatic, and biological descriptions of the molecular evolution events engendering an emerging pathogenic adenovirus.

  7. Hygiene Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hygiene Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Hygiene Basics What's in this article? Oily Hair Sweat ... smell, anyway? Read below for information on some hygiene basics — and learn how to deal with greasy ...

  8. The effects of threonine phosphorylation on the stability and dynamics of the central molecular switch region of 18.5-kDa myelin basic protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenrick A Vassall

    Full Text Available The classic isoforms of myelin basic protein (MBP are essential for the formation and maintenance of myelin in the central nervous system of higher vertebrates. The protein is involved in all facets of the development, compaction, and stabilization of the multilamellar myelin sheath, and also interacts with cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. The predominant 18.5-kDa isoform of MBP is an intrinsically-disordered protein that is a candidate auto-antigen in the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. A highly-conserved central segment within classic MBP consists of a proline-rich region (murine 18.5-kDa sequence -T92-P93-R94-T95-P96-P97-P98-S99- containing a putative SH3-ligand, adjacent to a region that forms an amphipathic α-helix (P82-I90 upon interaction with membranes, or under membrane-mimetic conditions. The T92 and T95 residues within the proline-rich region can be post-translationally modified through phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases. Here, we have investigated the structure of the α-helical and proline-rich regions in dilute aqueous buffer, and have evaluated the effects of phosphorylation at T92 and T95 on the stability and dynamics of the α-helical region, by utilizing four 36-residue peptides (S72-S107 with differing phosphorylation status. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that both the α-helical as well as the proline-rich regions are disordered in aqueous buffer, whereas they are both structured in a lipid environment (cf., Ahmed et al., Biochemistry 51, 7475-9487, 2012. Thermodynamic analysis of trifluoroethanol-titration curves monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that phosphorylation, especially at residue T92, impedes formation of the amphipathic α-helix. This conclusion is supported by molecular dynamics simulations, which further illustrate that phosphorylation reduces the folding reversibility of the α-helix upon temperature perturbation and affect the

  9. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  10. Rapid and simple detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus: Evaluation of a cartridge-based molecular detection system for use in basic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goller, K V; Dill, V; Madi, M; Martin, P; Van der Stede, Y; Vandenberge, V; Haas, B; Van Borm, S; Koenen, F; Kasanga, C J; Ndusilo, N; Beer, M; Liu, L; Mioulet, V; Armson, B; King, D P; Fowler, V L

    2018-04-01

    Highly contagious transboundary animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are major threats to the productivity of farm animals. To limit the impact of outbreaks and to take efficient steps towards a timely control and eradication of the disease, rapid and reliable diagnostic systems are of utmost importance. Confirmatory diagnostic assays are typically performed by experienced operators in specialized laboratories, and access to this capability is often limited in the developing countries with the highest disease burden. Advances in molecular technologies allow implementation of modern and reliable techniques for quick and simple pathogen detection either in basic laboratories or even at the pen-side. Here, we report on a study to evaluate a fully automated cartridge-based real-time RT-PCR diagnostic system (Enigma MiniLab ® ) for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV). The modular system integrates both nucleic acid extraction and downstream real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The analytical sensitivity of this assay was determined using serially diluted culture grown FMDV, and the performance of the assay was evaluated using a selected range of FMDV positive and negative clinical samples of bovine, porcine and ovine origin. The robustness of the assay was evaluated in an international inter-laboratory proficiency test and by deployment into an African laboratory. It was demonstrated that the system is easy to use and can detect FMDV with high sensitivity and specificity, roughly on par with standard laboratory methods. This cartridge-based automated real-time RT-PCR system for the detection of FMDV represents a reliable and easy to use diagnostic tool for the early and rapid disease detection of acutely infected animals even in remote areas. This type of system could be easily deployed for routine surveillance within endemic regions such as Africa or could alternatively be used in the developed world. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

  11. The past and the future of Alzheimer’s disease CSF biomarkers – a journey towards validated biochemical tests covering the whole spectra of molecular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj eBlennow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a short review on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, from early developments to high-precision validated assays on fully automated lab analyzers. We also discuss developments on novel biomarkers, such as synaptic proteins and Aβ oligomers. Our vision for the future is that assaying a set of biomarkers in a single CSF tube can monitor the whole spectra of AD molecular pathogenic events. CSF biomarkers will have a central position not only for clinical diagnosis, but also for the understanding of the sequence of molecular events in the pathogenic process underlying AD and as tools to monitor the effects of novel drug candidates targeting these different mechanisms.

  12. Anesthesia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Anesthesia Basics What's in ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...

  13. BASIC Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  14. A Basic Study on P300 Event-Related Potentials Evoked by Simultaneous Presentation of Visual and Auditory Stimuli for the Communication Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Hashimoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We have been engaged in the development of a brain-computer interface (BCI based on the cognitive P300 event-related potentials (ERPs evoked by simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory stimuli in order to assist with the communication in severe physical limitation persons. The purpose of the simultaneous presentation of these stimuli is to give the user more choices as commands. First, we extracted P300 ERPs by either visual oddball paradigm or auditory oddball paradigm. Then amplitude and latency of the P300 ERPs were measured. Second, visual and auditory stimuli were presented simultaneously, we measured the P300 ERPs varying the condition of combinations of these stimuli. In this report, we used 3 colors as visual stimuli and 3 types of MIDI sounds as auditory stimuli. Two types of simultaneous presentations were examined. The one was conducted with random combination. The other was called group stimulation, combining one color, such as red, and one MIDI sound, such as piano, in order to make a group; three groups were made. Each group was presented to users randomly. We evaluated the possibility of BCI using these stimuli from the amplitudes and the latencies of P300 ERPs.

  15. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  16. Monte Carlo: Basics

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, K. P. N.

    2001-01-01

    An introduction to the basics of Monte Carlo is given. The topics covered include, sample space, events, probabilities, random variables, mean, variance, covariance, characteristic function, chebyshev inequality, law of large numbers, central limit theorem (stable distribution, Levy distribution), random numbers (generation and testing), random sampling techniques (inversion, rejection, sampling from a Gaussian, Metropolis sampling), analogue Monte Carlo and Importance sampling (exponential b...

  17. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  18. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  19. Molecular Events Accompanying Rous Sarcoma Virus Rescue from Rodent Cells and the Role of Viral Gene Complementation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lounková, Anna; Dráberová, Eduarda; Šenigl, Filip; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Geryk, Josef; Hejnar, Jiří; Svoboda, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2014), s. 3505-3515 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2207; GA ČR GAP302/12/1673 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Rous sarcoma virus * heterotransmission * cell non-permissiveness Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.439, year: 2014

  20. Basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1999-01-01

    The basic concepts of neutron scattering as a tool for studying the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Theoretical aspects are outlined, the two different cases of coherent and incoherent scattering are presented. The issue of resolution, coherence volume and the role of monochromators are also discussed. (K.A.)

  1. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.

  2. Basic Thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthil, P

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered

  3. Basic Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthil, P [Orsay, IPN (France)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered.

  4. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  5. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M.

    1984-01-01

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation. (Auth.)

  6. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Neurobiology)

    1984-07-23

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation.

  7. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  8. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  9. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  10. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  11. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  12. Study on pivot-point vibration of molecular bond-rupture events by quartz crystal microbalance for biomedical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yong J; Jia, Renjie

    2012-01-01

    Bond-rupture scanning for biomedical diagnostics is examined using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) experiments and microparticle mechanics modeling calculations. Specific and nonspecific interactions between a microparticle and its binding QCM surface can be distinguished by gradually increasing the amplitude of driving voltage applied to QCM and monitoring its frequency changes. This research proposes a mechanical model of interactions between biological molecules and a QCM substrate surface. The mechanical force required to break a biotin-streptavidin bond was calculated through a one-pivot-point bottom-up vibration model. The bond-rupture force increases with an increase of the microparticle radius, the QCM resonant frequency, and the amplitude of driving voltage applied to the QCM. The significance of the research on biological molecular bond rupture is extremely important in characterizing microbial (such as cells and virus) specificity, due to the force magnitude needed to break bonds using a transducer.

  13. Molecular detection of a putatively novel cyprinid herpesvirus in sichel (Pelecus cultratus) during a mass mortality event in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doszpoly, Andor; Papp, Melitta; Deákné, Petra P; Glávits, Róbert; Ursu, Krisztina; Dán, Ádám

    2015-05-01

    In the early summer of 2014, mass mortality of sichel (Pelecus cultratus) was observed in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Histological examination revealed degenerative changes within the tubular epithelium, mainly in the distal tubules and collecting ducts in the kidneys and multifocal vacuolisation in the brain stem and cerebellum. Routine molecular investigations showed the presence of the DNA of an unknown alloherpesvirus in some specimens. Subsequently, three genes of the putative herpesviral genome (DNA polymerase, terminase, and helicase) were amplified and partially sequenced. A phylogenetic tree reconstruction based on the concatenated sequence of these three conserved genes implied that the virus belongs to the genus Cyprinivirus within the family Alloherpesviridae. The sequences of the sichel herpesvirus differ markedly from those of the cypriniviruses CyHV-1, CyHV-2 and CyHV-3, putatively representing a fifth species in the genus.

  14. Introducing Basic Molecular Biology to Turkish Rural and Urban Primary School Children via Hands-on PCR and Gel Electrophoresis Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Cigdem; Yildirim, Gokce; Kaymak, Aysegul; Karacicek, Bilge; Ogut, Deniz; Gungor, Turkan; Erem, Erdem; Ege, Mehmet; Bümen, Nilay; Tosun, Metiner

    2014-01-01

    This study includes the results of a 2-day education project titled "Molecular Biology Laboratory Summer School, MoBiLYO." The project was held at a University Research Center by scientists from Department of Pharmacology and graduate students. The project was composed of introductory lectures, model construction, DNA isolation,…

  15. General perspectives for molecular nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Key

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging provides a visualization of normal as well as abnormal cellular processes at a molecular or genetic level rather than at an anatomical level. Conventional medical imaging methods utilize the imaging signals produced by nonspecific physico-chemical interaction. However, molecular imaging methods utilize the imaging signals derived from specific cellular or molecular events. Because molecular and genetic changes precede anatomical change in the course of disease development, molecular imaging can detect early events in disease progression. In the near future, through molecular imaging we can understand basic mechanisms of disease, and diagnose earlier and, subsequently, treat earlier intractable disease such as cancer, neuro-degenerative diseases, and immunologic disorders. In beginning period, nuclear medicine started as a molecular imaging, and has had a leading role in the field of molecular imaging. But recently molecular imaging has been rapidly developed. Besides nuclear imaging, molecular imaging methods such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging are emerging. Each imaging modalities have their advantages and weaknesses. The opportunities from molecular imaging look bright. We should try nuclear medicine continues to have a leading role in molecular imaging

  16. On semirecurrent events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvurechenskij, A.

    1984-01-01

    In some problems of the mathematical theory of particle counters, film or filmless measurements of track ionization in high energy physics,queueing theory, random walks, etc., the classes of emirecurrent and m-semirecurrent events, which generalize the recurrent events and the recurrent events with delay, appeared. In the paper their basic properties, and some relationships between them are shown

  17. Molecular composition of rainwater and aerosol during rain events in León, Spain, using high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Anna Fee (1), Markus Kalberer (1), Roberto Fraile (2), Amaya Castro (2), Ana. I. Calvo (2), Carlos Blanco-Alegre (2), Fernanda Oduber (2) and Mário Cerqueira (3). 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, UK. 2 Department of Applied Chemistry and Physics, IMARENAB, University of León, Spain. 3 Department of Environmental Planning, University of Aveiro, Portugal. A wide range of atmospheric compounds which are present in rainwater are often also present in aerosol. They can be taken up during cloud droplet formation (in-cloud scavenging) or washed out during precipitation (below-cloud scavenging). Such compounds including aromatic hydrocarbons and organic nitrogen containing compounds are hazardous to health. In this study, the organic chemical composition of rainwater and aerosol from rain events in León, Spain, is being analysed using high resolution mass spectrometry. Collected rainwater along with high volume and low volume filters from rain events which occurred during spring, summer and winter of 2016 have been selected for analysis. Rainwater samples were prepared using Polymeric Reversed Phase Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) and filters have been extracted in water with and without SPE. Three different SPE polymer based sorbents were tested; one for extracting neutral compounds and two which are more suitable for extracting organic compounds containing sulphate and other polar functional groups. The sorbent for extracting neutral compounds was found to yield a higher number of compounds from the sample extraction than the other two varieties. Kendrick masses, Van Krevelen plots and carbon oxidation states have been investigated to identify compounds and patterns. Preliminary results show a predominance in peaks with O/C ratios between 0.2 and 0.7 and H/C ratios between 1 and 2 in both rain and aerosol samples which indicates substituted aromatic compounds. Cellulose material and fatty acids may also be present. The rain samples also have a

  18. Study on pivot-point vibration of molecular bond-rupture events by quartz crystal microbalance for biomedical diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan YJ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yong J Yuan, Renjie JiaLaboratory of Biosensing and MicroMechatronics, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Bond-rupture scanning for biomedical diagnostics is examined using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM experiments and microparticle mechanics modeling calculations. Specific and nonspecific interactions between a microparticle and its binding QCM surface can be distinguished by gradually increasing the amplitude of driving voltage applied to QCM and monitoring its frequency changes. This research proposes a mechanical model of interactions between biological molecules and a QCM substrate surface. The mechanical force required to break a biotin–streptavidin bond was calculated through a one-pivot-point bottom-up vibration model. The bond-rupture force increases with an increase of the microparticle radius, the QCM resonant frequency, and the amplitude of driving voltage applied to the QCM. The significance of the research on biological molecular bond rupture is extremely important in characterizing microbial (such as cells and virus specificity, due to the force magnitude needed to break bonds using a transducer.Keywords: bond rupture, mechanical force, biomolecular binding energy spectra, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM

  19. Meta-analysis of cancer transcriptomes: A new approach to uncover molecular pathological events in different cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundus Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To explore secrets of metastatic cancers, individual expression of true sets of respective genes must spread across the tissue. In this study, meta-analysis for transcriptional profiles of oncogenes was carried out to hunt critical genes or networks helping in metastasizing cancers. For this, transcriptomic analysis of different cancerous tissues causing leukemia, lung, liver, spleen, colorectal, colon, breast, bladder, and kidney cancers was performed by extracting microarray expression data from online resource; Gene Expression Omnibus. A newly developed bioinformatics technique; Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA was applied for enrichment analysis of transcriptional profiles using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID. Furthermore, oPOSSUM (v. 2.0 and Cytoscape (v. 2.8.2 were used for in-depth analysis of transcription factors and regulatory gene networks respectively. DAVID analysis uncovered the most significantly enriched pathways in molecular functions that were 'Ubiquitin thiolesterase activity' up regulated in blood, breast, bladder, colorectal, lung, spleen, prostrate cancer. 'Transforming growth factor beta receptor activity' was inhibited in all cancers except leukemia, colon and liver cancer. oPOSSUM further revealed highly over-represented Transcription Factors (TFs; Broad-complex_3, Broad-complex_4, and Foxd3 except for leukemia and bladder cancer. From these findings, it is possible to target genes and networks, play a crucial role in the development of cancer. In the future, these transcription factors can serve as potential candidates for the therapeutic drug targets which can impede the deadly spread.

  20. Mr 25,000 heparin-binding protein from guinea pig brain is a high molecular weight form of basic fibroblast growth factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Moscatelli, D; Joseph-Silverstein, J; Manejias, R; Rifkin, D B

    1987-01-01

    A Mr 25,000 form of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been isolated from guinea pig brain along with the typical Mr 18,000 form. Both forms were purified to homogeneity by a combination of heparin-affinity chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography on an FPLC Mono S column. The Mr 25,000 form, like the Mr 18,000 form, was not eluted from the heparin-affinity column with 0.95 M NaCl, but was eluted with 2 M NaCl. The Mr 25,000 guinea pig protein stimulated plasminogen activator pro...

  1. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  2. Inflation Basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Dan

    2014-01-01

    waves imprinted on the CMB. These would be a ''smoking gun'' for inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  3. Molecular evolution of glutamine synthetase II: Phylogenetic evidence of a non-endosymbiotic gene transfer event early in plant evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartar Aurélien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutamine synthetase (GS is essential for ammonium assimilation and the biosynthesis of glutamine. The three GS gene families (GSI, GSII, and GSIII are represented in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we examined the evolutionary relationship of GSII from eubacterial and eukaryotic lineages and present robust phylogenetic evidence that GSII was transferred from γ-Proteobacteria (Eubacteria to the Chloroplastida. Results GSII sequences were isolated from four species of green algae (Trebouxiophyceae, and additional green algal (Chlorophyceae and Prasinophytae and streptophyte (Charales, Desmidiales, Bryophyta, Marchantiophyta, Lycopodiophyta and Tracheophyta sequences were obtained from public databases. In Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses, eubacterial (GSIIB and eukaryotic (GSIIE GSII sequences formed distinct clades. Both GSIIB and GSIIE were found in chlorophytes and early-diverging streptophytes. The GSIIB enzymes from these groups formed a well-supported sister clade with the γ-Proteobacteria, providing evidence that GSIIB in the Chloroplastida arose by horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses suggest that GSIIB and GSIIE coexisted for an extended period of time but it is unclear whether the proposed HGT happened prior to or after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages (the Archaeplastida. However, GSIIB genes have not been identified in glaucophytes or red algae, favoring the hypothesis that GSIIB was gained after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages. Duplicate copies of the GSIIB gene were present in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri f. nagariensis, and Physcomitrella patens. Both GSIIB proteins in C. reinhardtii and V. carteri f. nagariensis had N-terminal transit sequences, indicating they are targeted to the chloroplast or mitochondrion. In contrast, GSIIB proteins of P. patens lacked transit sequences, suggesting

  4. Molecular initiating events of the intersex phenotype: Low-dose exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol rapidly regulates molecular networks associated with gonad differentiation in the adult fathead minnow testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feswick, April; Loughery, Jennifer R.; Isaacs, Meghan A.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Male fathead minnow were exposed to 17alpha ethinylestradiol (EE2). • Both 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone production was decreased relative to controls. • A gene network associated with doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 were suppressed. • Genes involved in granulosa cell development were increased and sensitive to EE2 exposure. • Molecular initiating events that may be related to the intersex condition were identified. - Abstract: Intersex, or the presence of oocytes in the testes, has been documented in fish following exposure to wastewater effluent and estrogenic compounds. However, the molecular networks underlying the intersex condition are not completely known. To address this, we exposed male fathead minnows to a low, environmentally-relevant concentration of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) (15 ng/L) and measured the transcriptome response in the testis after 96 h to identify early molecular initiating events that may proceed the intersex condition. The short-term exposure to EE2 did not affect gonadosomatic index and proportion of gametes within the testes. However, the production of 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone from the testis in vitro was decreased relative to controls. Expression profiling using a 8 × 60 K fathead minnow microarray identified 10 transcripts that were differentially expressed in the testes, the most dramatic change being that of coagulation factor XIII A chain (20-fold increase). Transcripts that included guanine nucleotide binding protein (Beta Polypeptide 2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, and WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1a, were down-regulated by EE2. Subnetwork enrichment analysis revealed that EE2 suppressed transcriptional networks associated with steroid metabolism, hormone biosynthesis, and sperm mobility. Most interesting was that gene networks associated with doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (dmrt1) were suppressed in the adult

  5. Molecular initiating events of the intersex phenotype: Low-dose exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol rapidly regulates molecular networks associated with gonad differentiation in the adult fathead minnow testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feswick, April; Loughery, Jennifer R.; Isaacs, Meghan A.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Martyniuk, Christopher J., E-mail: cmartyni@yahoo.ca

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Male fathead minnow were exposed to 17alpha ethinylestradiol (EE2). • Both 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone production was decreased relative to controls. • A gene network associated with doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 were suppressed. • Genes involved in granulosa cell development were increased and sensitive to EE2 exposure. • Molecular initiating events that may be related to the intersex condition were identified. - Abstract: Intersex, or the presence of oocytes in the testes, has been documented in fish following exposure to wastewater effluent and estrogenic compounds. However, the molecular networks underlying the intersex condition are not completely known. To address this, we exposed male fathead minnows to a low, environmentally-relevant concentration of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) (15 ng/L) and measured the transcriptome response in the testis after 96 h to identify early molecular initiating events that may proceed the intersex condition. The short-term exposure to EE2 did not affect gonadosomatic index and proportion of gametes within the testes. However, the production of 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone from the testis in vitro was decreased relative to controls. Expression profiling using a 8 × 60 K fathead minnow microarray identified 10 transcripts that were differentially expressed in the testes, the most dramatic change being that of coagulation factor XIII A chain (20-fold increase). Transcripts that included guanine nucleotide binding protein (Beta Polypeptide 2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, and WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1a, were down-regulated by EE2. Subnetwork enrichment analysis revealed that EE2 suppressed transcriptional networks associated with steroid metabolism, hormone biosynthesis, and sperm mobility. Most interesting was that gene networks associated with doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (dmrt1) were suppressed in the adult

  6. Evaluating the role of acidic, basic, and polar amino acids and dipeptides on a molecular electrocatalyst for H 2 oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boralugodage, Nilusha Priyadarshani; Arachchige, Rajith Jayasingha; Dutta, Arnab; Buchko, Garry W.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2017-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides have been shown to have a significant influence on the H2 production and oxidation reactivity of Ni(PR2NR’2)2, where PR2NR’2 = 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane, R is either phenyl (Ph) or cyclohexyl (Cy), and R’ is either an amino acid or peptide. Most recently, the Ni(PCy2Naminoacid2)2 complexes (CyAA) have shown enhanced H2 oxidation rates, water solubility, and in the case of arginine (CyArg) and phenylalanine (CyPhe), electrocatalytic reversibility. Both the backbone –COOH and side chain interactions were shown to be critical to catalytic performance. Here we further investigate the roles of the outer coordination sphere by evaluating amino acids with acidic, basic, and hydrophilic side chains, as well as dipeptides which combine multiple successful features from previous complexes. Six new complexes were prepared, three containing single amino acids: aspartic acid (CyAsp), lysine (CyLys), and serine (CySer) and three containing dipeptides: glycine-phenylalanine (Cy(GlyPhe)), phenylalanine-glycine (Cy(PheGly)), and aspartic acid-phenylananine (Cy(AspPhe)). The resulting catalytic performance demonstrates that complexes need both interactions between side chain and –COOH groups for fast, efficient catalysis. The fastest of all of the catalysts, Cy(AspPhe), had both of these features, while the other dipeptide complexes with an amide replacing the -COOH were both slower; however, the amide group was demonstrated to participate in the proton pathway when side chain interactions are present to position it. Both the hydrophilic and basic side chains, notably lacking in side chain interactions, significantly increased the overpotential, with only modest increases in TOF. Of all of the complexes, only CyAsp was reversible at room temperature, and only in water, the first of these

  7. Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology in Gastrointestinal Medicine and Hepatology: Basic Paradigms of Molecular Cell Biology. Part C: Protein Synthesis and Post-Translational Processing in Eukaryotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Wild

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The translation of mRNA constitutes the first step in the synthesis of a functional protein. The polypeptide chain is subsequently folded into the appropriate three-dimensional configuration and undergoes a variety of processing steps before being converted into its active form. These processing steps are intimately related to the cellular events that occur in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments, and determine the sorting and transport of different proteins to their appropriate destinations within the cell. While the regulation of gene expression occurs primarily at the level of transcription, the expression of many genes can also be controlled at the level of translation. Most proteins can be regulated in response to extracellular signals. In addition, intracellular protein levels can be controlled by differential rates of protein degradation. Thus, the regulation of both the amounts and activities of intracellular proteins ultimately determines all aspects of cell behaviour.

  8. PROGRAMA DE CALIDAD PARA LAS INVESTIGACIONES BÁSICAS DEL CENTRO DE INMUNOLOGÍA MOLECULAR / PROGRAM OF QUALITY FOR THE BASIC INVESTIGATIONS OF THE CENTER OF MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainerys Infante-Santana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    El artículo describe el Programa de calidad para las investigaciones del Centro de Inmunología Molecular. Este programa incorpora el cumplimiento de las Buenas Prácticas de Laboratorio con una gestión basada en el comportamiento, el análisis de los riesgos, el enfoque a procesos y la evaluación a través de indicadores. La aplicación del nuevo programa de calidad en el proceso de la actividad científica, permitió disminuir los incumplimientos de las mencionadas prácticas, mejorar los indicadores de productividad científica y lograr una mayor cultura de calidad en el área de investigaciones del Centro de Inmunología Molecular.

    Abstract

    The paper describes the Program of quality for the investigations of the Center of Molecular Immunology. This program incorporates the execution of the Good Practices of Laboratory with a behaviour-based management, the analysis of the risks, the process approach and the assessment through indicators. The application of the new quality program in the process of the scientific activity, allowed to decrease the nonfulfillments of the above mentioned practices, to improve the scientific productivity indicators and to achieve a greater quality culture in the area of investigations of the Center of Molecular Immunology.

  9. An overview of techniques for linking high-dimensional molecular data to time-to-event endpoints by risk prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Harald; Porzelius, Christine; Schumacher, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Analysis of molecular data promises identification of biomarkers for improving prognostic models, thus potentially enabling better patient management. For identifying such biomarkers, risk prediction models can be employed that link high-dimensional molecular covariate data to a clinical endpoint. In low-dimensional settings, a multitude of statistical techniques already exists for building such models, e.g. allowing for variable selection or for quantifying the added value of a new biomarker. We provide an overview of techniques for regularized estimation that transfer this toward high-dimensional settings, with a focus on models for time-to-event endpoints. Techniques for incorporating specific covariate structure are discussed, as well as techniques for dealing with more complex endpoints. Employing gene expression data from patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, some typical modeling issues from low-dimensional settings are illustrated in a high-dimensional application. First, the performance of classical stepwise regression is compared to stage-wise regression, as implemented by a component-wise likelihood-based boosting approach. A second issues arises, when artificially transforming the response into a binary variable. The effects of the resulting loss of efficiency and potential bias in a high-dimensional setting are illustrated, and a link to competing risks models is provided. Finally, we discuss conditions for adequately quantifying the added value of high-dimensional gene expression measurements, both at the stage of model fitting and when performing evaluation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Comparative mRNA and microRNA expression profiling of three genitourinary cancers reveals common hallmarks and cancer-specific molecular events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianxin Li

    Full Text Available Genome-wide gene expression profile using deep sequencing technologies can drive the discovery of cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Such efforts are often limited to profiling the expression signature of either mRNA or microRNA (miRNA in a single type of cancer.Here we provided an integrated analysis of the genome-wide mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of three different genitourinary cancers: carcinomas of the bladder, kidney and testis.Our results highlight the general or cancer-specific roles of several genes and miRNAs that may serve as candidate oncogenes or suppressors of tumor development. Further comparative analyses at the systems level revealed that significant aberrations of the cell adhesion process, p53 signaling, calcium signaling, the ECM-receptor and cell cycle pathways, the DNA repair and replication processes and the immune and inflammatory response processes were the common hallmarks of human cancers. Gene sets showing testicular cancer-specific deregulation patterns were mainly implicated in processes related to male reproductive function, and general disruptions of multiple metabolic pathways and processes related to cell migration were the characteristic molecular events for renal and bladder cancer, respectively. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that tumors with the same histological origins and genes with similar functions tended to group together in a clustering analysis. By assessing the correlation between the expression of each miRNA and its targets, we determined that deregulation of 'key' miRNAs may result in the global aberration of one or more pathways or processes as a whole.This systematic analysis deciphered the molecular phenotypes of three genitourinary cancers and investigated their variations at the miRNA level simultaneously. Our results provided a valuable source for future studies and highlighted some promising genes, miRNAs, pathways and processes that may be useful for diagnostic or

  11. M/sub r/ 25,000 heparin-binding protein from guinea pig brain is a high molecular weight form of basic fibroblast growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscatelli, D.; Joseph-Silverstein, J.; Manejias, R.; Rifkin, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    A M/sub r/ 25,000 form of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been isolated from guinea pig grain along with the typical M/sub r/ 18,000 form. Both forms were purified to homogeneity by a combination of heparin-affinity chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography on an FPLC Mono S column. The M/sub r/ 25,000 form, like the M/sub r/ 18,000 form was not eluted from the heparin-affinity column with 0.95 M NaCl, but was eluted with 2 M NaCl. The M/sub r/ 25,000 guinea pig protein stimulated plasminogen activator production by cultured bovine capillary endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner at concentration of 0.1-10 ngml, the same range that was effective for guinea pig and human M/sub r/ 18,000 bFGFs. The binding of human 125 I-labeled bFGF to baby hamster kidney cells is inhibited equally by the M/sub r/ 25,000 guinea pig protein and the M/sub r/ 18,000 guinea pig and human bFGFs. Polyclonal antibodies raised against human bFGF recognize both the M/sub r/ 25,000 and 18,000 guinea pig proteins in an immunoblot analysis. In a radioimmunoassay, both the M/sub r/ 25,000 and M/sub r/ 18,000 guinea pig proteins compete equally well with iodinated human bFGF for binding to the anti-human bFGF antibodies. When treated with low concentrations of trypsin, the M/sub r/ 25,000 guinea pig bFGF was converted to a M/sub r/ 18,000 protein. These results show that the two molecules are closely related and suggest that the M/sub r/ 25,000 protein shares substantial homology with the M/sub r/ 18,000 bFGF

  12. Madagascar sheds new light on the molecular systematics and biogeography of grammitid ferns: New unexpected lineages and numerous long-distance dispersal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauret, Lucie; Gaudeul, Myriam; Sundue, Michael A; Parris, Barbara S; Ranker, Tom A; Rakotondrainibe, France; Hennequin, Sabine; Ranaivo, Jaona; Selosse, Marc-André; Rouhan, Germinal

    2017-06-01

    Based on a worldwide phylogenetic framework filling the taxonomic gap of Madagascar and surrounding islands of the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), we revisited the systematics of grammitid fern species (Polypodiaceae). We also investigated the biogeographic origin of the extant diversity in Madagascar and estimated the relative influence of vicariance, long-distance dispersals (LDD) and in situ diversification. Phylogenetic inferences were based on five plastid DNA regions (atpB, rbcL, rps4-trnS, trnG-trnR, trnL-trnF) and the most comprehensive taxonomic sampling ever assembled (224 species belonging to 31 out of 33 recognized grammitids genera). 31 species from Madagascar were included representing 87% of the described diversity and 77% of the endemics. Our results confirmed a Paleotropical clade nested within an amphi-Atlantic grade. In addition, we identified three new major clades involving species currently belonging to Grammitis s.l., Ctenopterella and Enterosora. We resolved for the first time Grammitis s.s. as monophyletic, and Ctenopterella (newly tested here) and Enterosora as polyphyletic. The Neotropical genus Moranopteris was shown to also occur in Madagascar through a newly discovered species. Most importantly, we suggest a >30% inflation of the species number in the WIO due to the hidden diversity in >10 cryptic lineages, best explained by high morphological homoplasy. Molecular dating and ancestral areas reconstruction allowed identifying the Neotropics as the predominant source of LDD to the African-WIO region, with at least 12 colonization events within the last 20Ma. Repeated eastward migrations may be explained by transoceanic westerly winds transporting the dust-like spores. Tropical Asia s.l. would also have played a (minor) role through one dispersal event to Madagascar at the end of the Oligocene. Last, within the complex Malagasy region made of a mosaic of continental and oceanic islands located close to the African continent, we showed that

  13. Molecular and Functional Characterization of GR2-R1 Event Based Backcross Derived Lines of Golden Rice in the Genetic Background of a Mega Rice Variety Swarna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Bollinedi

    Full Text Available Homozygous Golden Rice lines developed in the background of Swarna through marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB using transgenic GR2-R1 event as a donor for the provitamin A trait have high levels of provitamin A (up to 20 ppm but are dwarf with pale green leaves and drastically reduced panicle size, grain number and yield as compared to the recurrent parent, Swarna. In this study, we carried out detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of these lines in a quest to identify the probable reasons for their abnormal phenotype. Nucleotide blast analysis with the primer sequences used to amplify the transgene revealed that the integration of transgene disrupted the native OsAux1 gene, which codes for an auxin transmembrane transporter protein. Real time expression analysis of the transgenes (ZmPsy and CrtI driven by endosperm-specific promoter revealed the leaky expression of the transgene in the vegetative tissues. We propose that the disruption of OsAux1 disturbed the fine balance of plant growth regulators viz., auxins, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid, leading to the abnormalities in the growth and development of the lines homozygous for the transgene. The study demonstrates the conserved roles of OsAux1 gene in rice and Arabidopsis.

  14. Molecular mimicry between Mycobacterium leprae proteins (50S ribosomal protein L2 and Lysyl-tRNA synthetase) and myelin basic protein: a possible mechanism of nerve damage in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Itu; Yadav, Asha Ram; Mohanty, Keshar Kunja; Katoch, Kiran; Sharma, Prashant; Mishra, Bishal; Bisht, Deepa; Gupta, U D; Sengupta, Utpal

    2015-04-01

    Autoantibodies against various components of host are known to occur in leprosy. Nerve damage is the primary cause of disability associated with leprosy. The aim of this study was to detect the level of autoantibodies and lympho-proliferative response against myelin basic protein (MBP) in leprosy patients (LPs) and their correlation with clinical phenotypes of LPs. Further, probable role of molecular mimicry in nerve damage of LPs was investigated. We observed significantly high level of anti-MBP antibodies in LPs across the spectrum and a positive significant correlation between the level of anti-MBP antibodies and the number of nerves involved in LPs. We report here that 4 B cell epitopes of myelin A1 and Mycobacterium leprae proteins, 50S ribosomal L2 and lysyl tRNA synthetase are cross-reactive. Further, M. leprae sonicated antigen hyperimmunization was responsible for induction of autoantibody response in mice which could be adoptively transferred to naive mice. For the first time our findings suggest the role of molecular mimicry in nerve damage in leprosy. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chernobyl versus Basic Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, G W

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the terms 'remaining risk to be accepted' and 'remainder of the aggregate risk', and explains the line of action to be adopted in compliance with the Constitution in order to respond to the event at Chernobyl: The Constitution demands maximum acceptable limits to be defined as low as possible. The author discusses the various dose estimations and the contradictions to be observed in this context. He states that the Chernobyl accident has done most harm to our legal system, as the basic right of freedom from injury has been ploughed under with the radioactivity that covered the soil after the Chernobyl accident. But, he says, a positive effect is that the idea of abandoning nuclear power as too dangerous a technology has gained more widespread acceptance. (HSCH).

  17. Chernobyl versus Basic Law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the terms 'remaining risk to be accepted' and 'remainder of the aggregate risk', and explains the line of action to be adopted in compliance with the Constitution in order to respond to the event at Chernobyl: The Constitution demands maximum acceptable limits to be defined as low as possible. The author discusses the various dose estimations and the contradictions to be observed in this context. He states that the Chernobyl accident has done most harm to our legal system, as the basic right of freedom from injury has been ploughed under with the radioactivity that covered the soil after the Chernobyl accident. But, he says, a positive effect is that the idea of abandoning nuclear power as too dangerous a technology has gained more widespread acceptance. (HSCH) [de

  18. [Biometric bases: basic concepts of probability calculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinya, E

    1998-04-26

    The author gives or outline of the basic concepts of probability theory. The bases of the event algebra, definition of the probability, the classical probability model and the random variable are presented.

  19. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  20. Event-by-event simulation of quantum phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, H. De; Raedt, K. De; Michielsen, K.; Landau, DP; Lewis, SP; Schuttler, HB

    2006-01-01

    In various basic experiments in quantum physics, observations are recorded event-by-event. The final outcome of such experiments can be computed according to the rules of quantum theory but quantum theory does not describe single events. In this paper, we describe a stimulation approach that does

  1. Mathematical foundations of event trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, Ioannis A.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical foundation from first principles of event trees is presented. The main objective of this formulation is to offer a formal basis for developing automated computer assisted construction techniques for event trees. The mathematical theory of event trees is based on the correspondence between the paths of the tree and the elements of the outcome space of a joint event. The concept of a basic cylinder set is introduced to describe joint event outcomes conditional on specific outcomes of basic events or unconditional on the outcome of basic events. The concept of outcome space partition is used to describe the minimum amount of information intended to be preserved by the event tree representation. These concepts form the basis for an algorithm for systematic search for and generation of the most compact (reduced) form of an event tree consistent with the minimum amount of information the tree should preserve. This mathematical foundation allows for the development of techniques for automated generation of event trees corresponding to joint events which are formally described through other types of graphical models. Such a technique has been developed for complex systems described by functional blocks and it is reported elsewhere. On the quantification issue of event trees, a formal definition of a probability space corresponding to the event tree outcomes is provided. Finally, a short discussion is offered on the relationship of the presented mathematical theory with the more general use of event trees in reliability analysis of dynamic systems

  2. Basic Phage Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedon, Stephen T; Katsaounis, Tena I

    2018-01-01

    Basic mathematical descriptions are useful in phage ecology, applied phage ecology such as in the course of phage therapy, and also toward keeping track of expected phage-bacterial interactions as seen during laboratory manipulation of phages. The most basic mathematical descriptor of phages is their titer, that is, their concentration within stocks, experimental vessels, or other environments. Various phenomena can serve to modify phage titers, and indeed phage titers can vary as a function of how they are measured. An important aspect of how changes in titers can occur results from phage interactions with bacteria. These changes tend to vary in degree as a function of bacterial densities within environments, and particularly densities of those bacteria that are susceptible to or at least adsorbable by a given phage type. Using simple mathematical models one can describe phage-bacterial interactions that give rise particularly to phage adsorption events. With elaboration one can consider changes in both phage and bacterial densities as a function of both time and these interactions. In addition, phages along with their impact on bacteria can be considered as spatially constrained processes. In this chapter we consider the simpler of these concepts, providing in particular detailed verbal explanations toward facile mathematical insight. The primary goal is to stimulate a more informed use and manipulation of phages and phage populations within the laboratory as well as toward more effective phage application outside of the laboratory, such as during phage therapy. More generally, numerous issues and approaches to the quantification of phages are considered along with the quantification of individual, ecological, and applied properties of phages.

  3. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  4. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  5. A centennial record of anthropogenic impacts and extreme weather events in southwestern Taiwan: Evidence from sedimentary molecular markers in coastal margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Lee, Chon-Lin; Louchouarn, Patrick; Huh, Chih-An; Liu, James T.; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Lee, Kun-Je

    2014-09-15

    A 100-year history of human and natural disturbances in southwestern Taiwan was reconstructed using a suite of molecular markers in four dated sediment cores from the upper slope region off the Gaoping River mouth. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) tracked Taiwan's industrialization/urbanization starting in the 1970s, and the enactment of environmental regulatory policies thereafter.

  6. Transient downregulation of Sema3A mRNA in a rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy. A novel molecular event potentially contributing to mossy fiber sprouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtmaat, Anthony J D G; Gorter, Jan A; de Wit, Joris; Tolner, Else A; Spijker, Sabine; Giger, Roman J; Lopes da Silva, Fernando H; Verhaagen, J.

    Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is thought to play a critical role in the hyperexcitability of the hippocampus in temporal lobe epilepsy patients. The composition of molecular signals that is needed to direct this sprouting response has not yet been elucidated to a great

  7. Neuronal Functions Associated with Endo- and Exocytotic Events-cum-Molecular Trafficking May Be Cell Maturation-Dependent: Lessons Learned from Studies on Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum type A progenitor toxins . Infect Immun 64:1589–1594 Li L, Singh BR (1999) Structure -function relationship of clostridial...experimental design and demonstration of the validity of the targeted neurologic therapeutic delivery approach based on recombinant botulinum toxin ...Endocytosis Exocytosis Molecular trafficking Cell maturation Botulism Targeted therapeutic Background Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are produced by

  8. Deciphering the molecular events necessary for synergistic tumor cell apoptosis mediated by the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat and the BH3 mimetic ABT-737

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, Adrian P.; Alsop, Amber E.; Bots, Michael; Cluse, Leonie A.; Williams, Steven P.; Banks, Kellie-Marie; Ralli, Rachael; Scott, Clare L.; Frenzel, Anna; Villunger, Andreas; Johnstone, Ricky W.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of personalized anticancer therapy is based on the use of targeted therapeutics through in-depth knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of action of these agents when used alone and in combination. We have identified the apoptotic proteins and pathways necessary for synergistic tumor cell

  9. Basic standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The basic standards for radiation protection have been based, for many years, on the recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection. The three basic standards recommended by the Commission may be summarized as ''justification, optimization of protection and adherence to dose limitations. The applications of these basic principles to different aspects of protection are briefly summarized and the particular ways in which they have been applied to waste described in more detail. The application of dose limits, both in the control of occupational exposure and in regulating routine discharges of radioactive effluents is straight forward in principle although the measurement and calculational requirements may be substantial. Secondary standards such as derived limits may be extremely useful and the principles underlying their derivation will be described. Optimization of protection is inherently a more difficult concept to apply in protection and the various techniques used will be outlined by with particular emphasis on the use of cost benefit analysis are recommended by the ICRP. A review will be given of the problems involved in extending these basic concepts of the ICRP to probabilistic analyses such as those required for assessing the consequences of accidents or disruptive events in long term repositories. The particular difficulties posed by the very long timescales involved in the assessment of waste management practices will be discussed in some detail. (orig./RW)

  10. Event boundaries and anaphoric reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexis N; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-06-01

    The current study explored the finding that parsing a narrative into separate events impairs anaphor resolution. According to the Event Horizon Model, when a narrative event boundary is encountered, a new event model is created. Information associated with the prior event model is removed from working memory. So long as the event model containing the anaphor referent is currently being processed, this information should still be available when there is no narrative event boundary, even if reading has been disrupted by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. In those cases, readers may reactivate their prior event model, and anaphor resolution would not be affected. Alternatively, comprehension may not be as event oriented as this account suggests. Instead, any disruption of the contents of working memory during comprehension, event related or not, may be sufficient to disrupt anaphor resolution. In this case, reading comprehension would be more strongly guided by other, more basic language processing mechanisms and the event structure of the described events would play a more minor role. In the current experiments, participants were given stories to read in which we included, between the anaphor and its referent, either the presence of a narrative event boundary (Experiment 1) or a narrative event boundary along with a working-memory-clearing distractor task (Experiment 2). The results showed that anaphor resolution was affected by narrative event boundaries but not by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. This is interpreted as being consistent with the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.

  11. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  12. Hydromechanics - basic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Tak; Lee, Je Geun

    1987-03-01

    This book tells of hydromechanics, which is about basic properties of hydromechanics such as conception, definition, mass, power and weight, and perfect fluid and perfect gas, hydrostatics with summary, basic equation of hydrostatics, relative balance of hydrostatics, and kinematics of hydromechanics, description method of floating, hydromechanics about basic knowledge, equation of moment, energy equation and application of Bernoulli equation, application of momentum theory, inviscid flow and fluid measuring.

  13. Event Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.

    2000-01-01

    The events in the nuclear industry are investigated from the license point of view and from the regulatory side too. It is well known the importance of the event investigation. One of the main goals of such investigation is to prevent the circumstances leading to the event and the consequences of the event. The protection of the nuclear workers against nuclear hazard, and the protection of general public against dangerous effects of an event could be achieved by systematic approach to the event investigation. Both, the nuclear safety regulatory body and the licensee shall ensure that operational significant events are investigated in a systematic and technically sound manner to gather information pertaining to the probable causes of the event. One of the results should be appropriate feedback regarding the lessons of the experience to the regulatory body, nuclear industry and general public. In the present paper a general description of systematic approach to the event investigation is presented. The systematic approach to the event investigation works best where cooperation is present among the different divisions of the nuclear facility or regulatory body. By involving management and supervisors the safety office can usually improve their efforts in the whole process. The end result shall be a program which serves to prevent events and reduce the time and efforts solving the root cause which initiated each event. Selection of the proper method for the investigation and an adequate review of the findings and conclusions lead to the higher level of the overall nuclear safety. (author)

  14. A multiple translocation event in a patient with hexadactyly, facial dysmorphism, mental retardation and behaviour disorder characterised comprehensively by molecular cytogenetics. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Jörg; Heller, Anita; Senger, Gabriele; Starke, Heike; Chudoba, Ilse; Kelbova, Christina; Tönnies, Holger; Neitzel, Heidemarie; Haase, Claudia; Beensen, Volkmar; Zintl, Felix; Claussen, Uwe; Liehr, Thomas

    2003-09-01

    We report a 13-year-old female patient with multiple congenital abnormalities (microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, anteverted dysplastic ears and postaxial hexadactyly), mental retardation, and adipose-gigantism. Ultrasonography revealed no signs of a heart defect or renal abnormalities. She showed no speech development and suffered from a behavioural disorder. CNS abnormalities were excluded by cerebral MRI. Initial cytogenetic studies by Giemsa banding revealed an aberrant karyotype involving three chromosomes, t(2;4;11). By high resolution banding and multicolour fluoresence in-situ hybridisation (M-FISH, MCB), chromosome 1 was also found to be involved in the complex chromosomal aberrations, confirming the karyotype 46,XX,t(2;11;4).ish t(1;4;2;11)(q43;q21.1;p12-p13.1;p14.1). To the best of our knowledge no patient has been previously described with such a complex translocation involving 4 chromosomes. This case demonstrates that conventional chromosome banding techniques such as Giemsa banding are not always sufficient to characterise complex chromosomal abnormalities. Only by the additional utilisation of molecular cytogenetic techniques could the complexity of the present chromosomal rearrangements and the origin of the involved chromosomal material be detected. Further molecular genetic studies will be performed to clarify the chromosomal breakpoints potentially responsible for the observed clinical symptoms. This report demonstrates that multicolour-fluorescence in-situ hybridisation studies should be performed in patients with congenital abnormalities and suspected aberrant karyotypes in addition to conventional Giemsa banding.

  15. Understanding molecular structure from molecular mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinger, Norman L

    2011-04-01

    Molecular mechanics gives us a well known model of molecular structure. It is less widely recognized that valence bond theory gives us structures which offer a direct interpretation of molecular mechanics formulations and parameters. The electronic effects well-known in physical organic chemistry can be directly interpreted in terms of valence bond structures, and hence quantitatively calculated and understood. The basic theory is outlined in this paper, and examples of the effects, and their interpretation in illustrative examples is presented.

  16. Finding Basic Writing's Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan-Rabideau, Mary P.; Brossell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Posits that basic writing serves a vital function by providing writing support for at-risk students and serves the needs of a growing student population that universities accept yet feel needs additional writing instruction. Concludes that the basic writing classroom is the most effective educational support for at-risk students and their writing.…

  17. Biomass Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Energy Basics Biomass Energy Basics We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy" keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can landfills (which are methane, the main component in natural gas) can be used as a biomass energy source. A

  18. Wind Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine can use the wind's energy to most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and

  19. Solar Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Energy Basics Solar Energy Basics Solar is the Latin word for sun-a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. That's because more energy from the technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings. The most commonly used solar technologies for

  20. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  1. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  2. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Basics articles explain just how each body system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ... Teeth Skin, Hair, and Nails Spleen and Lymphatic System ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  3. From basic needs to basic rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, A

    1995-06-01

    After arriving at an understanding that basic rights refer to all human needs, it is clear that a recognition of the basic needs of female humans must precede the realization of their rights. The old Women in Development (WID) framework only understood women's needs from an androcentric perspective which was limited to practical interests. Instead, women's primary need is to be free from their subordination to men. Such an understanding places all of women's immediate needs in a new light. A human rights approach to development would see women not as beneficiaries but as people entitled to enjoy the benefits of development. Discussion of what equality before the law should mean to women began at the Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi where the issue of violence against women was first linked to development. While debate continues about the distinction between civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, the realities of women's lives do not permit such a distinction. The concept of the universality of human rights did not become codified until the UN proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. The declaration has been criticized by feminists because the view of human rights it embodies has been too strongly influenced by a liberal Western philosophy which stresses individual rights and because it is ambiguous on the distinction between human rights and the rights of a citizen. The protection of rights afforded by the Declaration, however, should not be viewed as a final achievement but as an ongoing struggle. International conferences have led to an analysis of the human-rights approach to sustainable development which concludes that women continue to face the routine denial of their rights. Each human right must be redefined from the perspective of women's needs, which must also be redefined. Women must forego challenging the concept of the universality of human rights in order to overcome the argument of cultural

  4. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  5. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  6. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  7. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  8. A centennial record of anthropogenic impacts and extreme weather events in southwestern Taiwan: Evidence from sedimentary molecular markers in coastal margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Lee, Chon-Lin; Louchouarn, Patrick; Huh, Chih-An; Liu, James T.; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Lee, Kun-Je

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Historical reconstruction of human and natural disturbances in SW Taiwan. • Comparative analysis of PAHs and lignin to evaluate sources/processes. • Distinct timing of PAH maxima between western Pacific, Europe and North America. • Consistently low (Ad/Al) v suggests quick transport of TOM by mountainous rivers. • Both PAHs and lignin point to turbidite flows driven by typhoon floods. - Abstract: A 100-year history of human and natural disturbances in southwestern Taiwan was reconstructed using a suite of molecular markers in four dated sediment cores from the upper slope region off the Gaoping River mouth. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) tracked Taiwan’s industrialization/urbanization starting in the 1970s, and the enactment of environmental regulatory policies thereafter. The predominant pyrogenic sources include vehicular, smelter, and coal combustion but spatial differences are observed among sub-regions of the shelf. Profiles of lignin oxidation products (LOPs) point to a significant increase in terrestrial organic matter inputs driven by land development after the 1970s. Low lignin diagenetic signature ratios [(Ad/Al) v ] in all sediments suggest quick transport of fresh plant material from land to sea via mountainous rivers. Shifts in PAHs, LOPs, and radionuclides in recent sediments reveal the deposition of turbidites resulting from typhoon-induced floods. Multiproxy analysis illustrates the interplay between anthropogenic activities and natural processes

  9. A centennial record of anthropogenic impacts and extreme weather events in southwestern Taiwan: evidence from sedimentary molecular markers in coastal margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jung; Lee, Chon-Lin; Louchouarn, Patrick; Huh, Chih-An; Liu, James T; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Lee, Kun-Je

    2014-09-15

    A 100-year history of human and natural disturbances in southwestern Taiwan was reconstructed using a suite of molecular markers in four dated sediment cores from the upper slope region off the Gaoping River mouth. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) tracked Taiwan's industrialization/urbanization starting in the 1970s, and the enactment of environmental regulatory policies thereafter. The predominant pyrogenic sources include vehicular, smelter, and coal combustion but spatial differences are observed among sub-regions of the shelf. Profiles of lignin oxidation products (LOPs) point to a significant increase in terrestrial organic matter inputs driven by land development after the 1970s. Low lignin diagenetic signature ratios [(Ad/Al)v] in all sediments suggest quick transport of fresh plant material from land to sea via mountainous rivers. Shifts in PAHs, LOPs, and radionuclides in recent sediments reveal the deposition of turbidites resulting from typhoon-induced floods. Multiproxy analysis illustrates the interplay between anthropogenic activities and natural processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1p as a molecular event associated with marrow fibrosis in MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bordoni, Roberta; Casetti, Ilaria; Milanesi, Chiara; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Pancrazzi, Alessandro; Rotunno, Giada; Severgnini, Marco; Pietrelli, Alessandro; Astori, Cesare; Fugazza, Elena; Pascutto, Cristiana; Boveri, Emanuela; Passamonti, Francesco; De Bellis, Gianluca; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Cazzola, Mario

    2013-05-23

    We studied mutations of MPL exon 10 in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) or primary myelofibrosis (PMF), first investigating a cohort of 892 consecutive patients. MPL mutation scanning was performed on granulocyte genomic DNA by using a high-resolution melt assay, and the mutant allele burden was evaluated by using deep sequencing. Somatic mutations of MPL, all but one involving codon W515, were detected in 26/661 (4%) patients with ET, 10/187 (5%) with PMF, and 7/44 (16%) patients with post-ET myelofibrosis. Comparison of JAK2 (V617F)-mutated and MPL-mutated patients showed only minor phenotypic differences. In an extended group of 62 MPL-mutated patients, the granulocyte mutant allele burden ranged from 1% to 95% and was significantly higher in patients with PMF or post-ET myelofibrosis compared with those with ET. Patients with higher mutation burdens had evidence of acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of chromosome 1p in granulocytes, consistent with a transition from heterozygosity to homozygosity for the MPL mutation in clonal cells. A significant association was found between MPL-mutant allele burden greater than 50% and marrow fibrosis. These observations suggest that acquired CN-LOH of chromosome 1p involving the MPL location may represent a molecular mechanism of fibrotic transformation in MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

  11. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  12. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  13. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  14. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  15. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  16. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  17. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of ... injury? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  18. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  19. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD Kristine Cichowski, MS Read Bio Founding ...

  20. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  1. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  2. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  3. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  4. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  5. Development NGOs: Basic Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Gani; Navarra, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    This paper systematizes the results of the empirical literature on development non-governmental organizations (NGOs), drawing both from quantitative and qualitative analyses, and constructs a set of basic facts about these organizations. These basic facts concern the size of the development NGO sector and its evolution, the funding of NGOs, the allocation of NGO aid and projects across beneficiary countries, the relationship of NGOs with beneficiaries, and the phenomenon of globalization of d...

  6. Early energy metabolism-related molecular events in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats: The effects of l-arginine and SOD mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancic, Ana; Filipovic, Milos; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Masovic, Sava; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Otasevic, Vesna; Korac, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Bato

    2017-06-25

    Considering the vital role of skeletal muscle in control of whole-body metabolism and the severity of long-term diabetic complications, we aimed to reveal the molecular pattern of early diabetes-related skeletal muscle phenotype in terms of energy metabolism, focusing on regulatory mechanisms, and the possibility to improve it using two redox modulators, l-arginine and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats (120 mg/kg) were treated with l-arginine or the highly specific SOD mimic, M40403, for 7 days. As appropriate controls, non-diabetic rats received the same treatments. We found that l-arginine and M40403 restored diabetes-induced impairment of phospho-5'-AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) signaling by upregulating AMPKα protein itself and its downstream effectors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and nuclear respiratory factor 1. Also, there was a restitution of the protein levels of oxidative phosphorylation components (complex I, complex II and complex IV) and mitofusin 2. Furthermore, l-arginine and M40403 induced translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the membrane and upregulation of protein of phosphofructokinase and acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase, diminishing negative diabetic effects on limiting factors of glucose and lipid metabolism. Both treatments abolished diabetes-induced downregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase proteins (SERCA 1 and 2). Similar effects of l-arginine and SOD mimic treatments suggest that disturbances in the superoxide/nitric oxide ratio may be responsible for skeletal muscle mitochondrial and metabolic impairment in early diabetes. Our results provide evidence that l-arginine and SOD mimics have potential in preventing and treating metabolic disturbances accompanying this widespread metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  8. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  9. Comprehensive basic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, GR

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features As per II PUC Basic Mathematics syllabus of Karnataka. Provides an introduction to various basic mathematical techniques and the situations where these could be usefully employed. The language is simple and the material is self-explanatory with a large number of illustrations. Assists the reader in gaining proficiency to solve diverse variety of problems. A special capsule containing a gist and list of formulae titled ''REMEMBER! Additional chapterwise arranged question bank and 3 model papers in a separate section---''EXAMINATION CORNER''.

  10. Ecology and basic laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    The author sketches the critical relation between ecology and basic law - critical in more than one sense. He points out the incompatibility of constitutional states and atomic states which is due to constitutional order being jeopardised by nuclear policy. He traces back the continuously rising awareness of pollution and the modern youth movement to their common root i.e. the awakening, the youth movement of the turn of the century. Eventually, he considers an economical, political, and social decentralization as a feasible alternative which would considerably relieve our basic living conditions from the threatening forms of civilization prevailing. (HSCH) [de

  11. Basic Energy Sciences Program Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels to provide the foundations for new energy technologies and to support DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security. The research disciplines covered by BES—condensed matter and materials physics, chemistry, geosciences, and aspects of physical biosciences— are those that discover new materials and design new chemical processes. These disciplines touch virtually every aspect of energy resources, production, conversion, transmission, storage, efficiency, and waste mitigation. BES also plans, constructs, and operates world-class scientific user facilities that provide outstanding capabilities for imaging and spectroscopy, characterizing materials of all kinds ranging from hard metals to fragile biological samples, and studying the chemical transformation of matter. These facilities are used to correlate the microscopic structure of materials with their macroscopic properties and to study chemical processes. Such experiments provide critical insights to electronic, atomic, and molecular configurations, often at ultrasmall length and ultrafast time scales.

  12. Precompound Reactions: Basic Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenmueller, H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the non-zero nuclear equilibration time, the compound-nucleus scattering model fails when the incident energy exceeds 10 or 20 MeV, and precompound reactions become important. Basic ideas used in the quantum-statistical approaches to these reactions are described

  13. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  14. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  15. Basic SPSS tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Matthijssen, A.C.B.

    2015-01-01

    This supplementary book for the social, behavioral, and health sciences helps readers with no prior knowledge of IBM® SPSS® Statistics, statistics, or mathematics learn the basics of SPSS. Designed to reduce fear and build confidence, the book guides readers through point-and-click sequences using

  16. Basic Skills Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Alexander C.; Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    After surveying 1,827 students in their final year at eighty randomly selected two-year and four-year public and private institutions, American Institutes for Research (2006) reported that approximately 30 percent of students in two-year institutions and nearly 20 percent of students in four-year institutions have only basic quantitative…

  17. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  18. Basic pharmaceutical technology

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Bistra; Drakalska, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The lecture deals with basics of pharmaceutical technology as applied discipline of pharmaceutical science, whose main subject of study is formulation and manufacture of drugs. In a broad sense, pharmaceutical technology is science of formulation, preparation, stabilization and determination of the quality of medicines prepared in the pharmacy or in pharmaceutical industry

  19. Basic radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyzadeoglu, M. M.; Ebruli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Basic Radiation Oncology is an all-in-one book. It is an up-to-date bedside oriented book integrating the radiation physics, radiobiology and clinical radiation oncology. It includes the essentials of all aspects of radiation oncology with more than 300 practical illustrations, black and white and color figures. The layout and presentation is very practical and enriched with many pearl boxes. Key studies particularly randomized ones are also included at the end of each clinical chapter. Basic knowledge of all high-tech radiation teletherapy units such as tomotherapy, cyberknife, and proton therapy are also given. The first 2 sections review concepts that are crucial in radiation physics and radiobiology. The remaining 11 chapters describe treatment regimens for main cancer sites and tumor types. Basic Radiation Oncology will greatly help meeting the needs for a practical and bedside oriented oncology book for residents, fellows, and clinicians of Radiation, Medical and Surgical Oncology as well as medical students, physicians and medical physicists interested in Clinical Oncology. English Edition of the book Temel Radyasyon Onkolojisi is being published by Springer Heidelberg this year with updated 2009 AJCC Staging as Basic Radiation Oncology

  20. Bottled Water Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Bottled water basics ....................................... pg.2 Advice for people with severely compromised immune systems (Sidebar) ............................. pg2 Know what you’re buying .............................. pg.3 Taste considerations ........................................ pg.4 Bottled water terms (Sidebar) ..................... pg.4 Begin by reading the ...

  1. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  2. Basic Soils. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  3. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  4. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  5. Basic Emotions: A Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, William A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Emotionality is a basic feature of behavior. The argument over whether the expression of emotions is based primarily on culture (constructivism, nurture) or biology (natural forms, nature) will never be resolved because both alternatives are untenable. The evidence is overwhelming that at all ages and all levels of organization, the development of emotionality is epigenetic: The organism is an active participant in its own development. To ascribe these effects to “experience” was the best that could be done for many years. With the rapid acceleration of information on how changes in organization are actually brought about, it is a good time to review, update, and revitalize our views of experience in relation to the concept of basic emotion. PMID:27110280

  6. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  7. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  8. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  9. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  10. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Roberto; Universidad de San Martín de Porres / Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal

    2010-01-01

    As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts pe...

  11. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  12. Risk communication basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrado, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information

  13. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  14. Basic nucleonics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    This book is oriented mainly towards professionals who are not physicists or experts in nuclear sciences, physicians planning to specialize in nuclear medicine or radiotherapy and technicians involved in nuclear applications. The book covers the fundamental concepts of nuclear science and technology in a simple and ordered fashion. Theory is illustrated with appropriate exercises and answers. With 17 chapters plus 3 appendices on mathematics, basic concepts are covered in: nuclear science, radioactivity, radiation and matter, nuclear reactions, X rays, shielding and radioprotection

  15. Basic of Neutron NDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this presentation are to introduce the basic physics of neutron production, interactions and detection; identify the processes that generate neutrons; explain the most common neutron mechanism, spontaneous and induced fission and (a,n) reactions; describe the properties of neutron from different sources; recognize advantages of neutron measurements techniques; recognize common neutrons interactions; explain neutron cross section measurements; describe the fundamental of 3He detector function and designs; and differentiate between passive and active assay techniques.

  16. Shoulder arthroscopy: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Kevin W; Wright, Thomas W

    2015-04-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy is a commonly performed and accepted procedure for a wide variety of pathologies. Surgeon experience, patient positioning, knowledge of surgical anatomy, proper portal placement, and proper use of instrumentation can improve technical success and minimize complication risks. This article details the surgical anatomy, indications, patient positioning, portal placement, instrumentation, and complications for basic shoulder arthroscopy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Basic accelerator optics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    1985-01-01

    A complete derivation, from first principles, of the concepts and methods applied in linear accelerator and beamline optics will be presented. Particle motion and beam motion in systems composed of linear magnets, as well as weak and strong focusing and special insertions are treated in mathematically simple terms, and design examples for magnets and systems are given. This series of five lectures is intended to provide all the basic tools required for the design and operation of beam optical systems.

  18. Basic concepts in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Basic concepts in oceanography include major wind patterns that drive ocean currents, and the effects that the earth's rotation, positions of land masses, and temperature and salinity have on oceanic circulation and hence global distribution of radioactivity. Special attention is given to coastal and near-coastal processes such as upwelling, tidal effects, and small-scale processes, as radionuclide distributions are currently most associated with coastal regions. (author)

  19. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis....

  20. Three duplication events and variable molecular evolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Staff Development Institute of CNTC, Zhengzhou, Henan 450008, People's Republic of China .... more strict selective constraint than others and none of high ω value ... (2007) description, M1a versus M2a is less power than M7 ... We failed to.

  1. Three duplication events and variable molecular evolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some large insertion fragments of NbeGGPS1 and NbeGGPS3 were deleted for more visibility. Three conserved motifs were located in the middle region of proteins and were conservative in all 25 sequences. Four positive selection sites were detected in N-terminal region of proteins that are labelled as red arrows.

  2. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... model [2], isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model ... easier to implement analytically and its main advantage is that one can ... We also have to state which nuclei are included in computing QN0,Z0 (eq.

  3. Annual progress report of the physical chemistry department. Basic research 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Basic research for 1987 in physical chemistry of the French Atomic Energy Commission are reviewed. Topics include molecular chemistry, isotopic geochemistry, molecular photophysics, laser photochemistry, solid and surface physical chemistry. A list of publications and thesis is given [fr

  4. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  5. Uranium: a basic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crull, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    All energy sources and technologies, including uranium and the nuclear industry, are needed to provide power. Public misunderstanding of the nature of uranium and how it works as a fuel may jeopardize nuclear energy as a major option. Basic chemical facts about uranium ore and uranium fuel technology are presented. Some of the major policy decisions that must be made include the enrichment, stockpiling, and pricing of uranium. Investigations and lawsuits pertaining to uranium markets are reviewed, and the point is made that oil companies will probably have to divest their non-oil energy activities. Recommendations for nuclear policies that have been made by the General Accounting Office are discussed briefly

  6. C# Database Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Working with data and databases in C# certainly can be daunting if you're coming from VB6, VBA, or Access. With this hands-on guide, you'll shorten the learning curve considerably as you master accessing, adding, updating, and deleting data with C#-basic skills you need if you intend to program with this language. No previous knowledge of C# is necessary. By following the examples in this book, you'll learn how to tackle several database tasks in C#, such as working with SQL Server, building data entry forms, and using data in a web service. The book's code samples will help you get started

  7. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  8. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C

    2012-01-01

    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d

  9. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  10. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  11. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  12. Basic bladder neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J Quentin

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of normal lower urinary tract function is a complex process that requires coordination between the central nervous system and the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system. This article provides an overview of the basic principles that are recognized to regulate normal urine storage and micturition, including bladder biomechanics, relevant neuroanatomy, neural control of lower urinary tract function, and the pharmacologic processes that translate the neural signals into functional results. Finally, the emerging role of the urothelium as a sensory structure is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Basic Principles of Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Michael H.

    Spectroscopy deals with the production, measurement, and interpretation of spectra arising from the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. There are many different spectroscopic methods available for solving a wide range of analytical problems. The methods differ with respect to the species to be analyzed (such as molecular or atomic spectroscopy), the type of radiation-matter interaction to be monitored (such as absorption, emission, or diffraction), and the region of the electromagnetic spectrum used in the analysis. Spectroscopic methods are very informative and widely used for both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Spectroscopic methods based on the absorption or emission of radiation in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), infrared (IR), and radio (nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR) frequency ranges are most commonly encountered in traditional food analysis laboratories. Each of these methods is distinct in that it monitors different types of molecular or atomic transitions. The basis of these transitions is explained in the following sections.

  14. Theoretical Molecular Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    "Theoretical Molecular Biophysics" is an advanced study book for students, shortly before or after completing undergraduate studies, in physics, chemistry or biology. It provides the tools for an understanding of elementary processes in biology, such as photosynthesis on a molecular level. A basic knowledge in mechanics, electrostatics, quantum theory and statistical physics is desirable. The reader will be exposed to basic concepts in modern biophysics such as entropic forces, phase separation, potentials of mean force, proton and electron transfer, heterogeneous reactions coherent and incoherent energy transfer as well as molecular motors. Basic concepts such as phase transitions of biopolymers, electrostatics, protonation equilibria, ion transport, radiationless transitions as well as energy- and electron transfer are discussed within the frame of simple models.

  15. Nuclear data uncertainties: I, Basic concepts of probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.

    1988-12-01

    Some basic concepts of probability theory are presented from a nuclear-data perspective, in order to provide a foundation for thorough understanding of the role of uncertainties in nuclear data research. Topics included in this report are: events, event spaces, calculus of events, randomness, random variables, random-variable distributions, intuitive and axiomatic probability, calculus of probability, conditional probability and independence, probability distributions, binomial and multinomial probability, Poisson and interval probability, normal probability, the relationships existing between these probability laws, and Bayes' theorem. This treatment emphasizes the practical application of basic mathematical concepts to nuclear data research, and it includes numerous simple examples. 34 refs.

  16. Nuclear data uncertainties: I, Basic concepts of probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1988-12-01

    Some basic concepts of probability theory are presented from a nuclear-data perspective, in order to provide a foundation for thorough understanding of the role of uncertainties in nuclear data research. Topics included in this report are: events, event spaces, calculus of events, randomness, random variables, random-variable distributions, intuitive and axiomatic probability, calculus of probability, conditional probability and independence, probability distributions, binomial and multinomial probability, Poisson and interval probability, normal probability, the relationships existing between these probability laws, and Bayes' theorem. This treatment emphasizes the practical application of basic mathematical concepts to nuclear data research, and it includes numerous simple examples. 34 refs

  17. Basic research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined

  18. Basic scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    This series of lectures on basic scattering theory were given as part of a course for postgraduate high energy physicists and were designed to acquaint the student with some of the basic language and formalism used for the phenomenological description of nuclear reactions and decay processes used for the study of elementary particle interactions. Well established and model independent aspects of scattering theory, which are the basis of S-matrix theory, are considered. The subject is considered under the following headings; the S-matrix, cross sections and decay rates, phase space, relativistic kinematics, the Mandelstam variables, the flux factor, two-body phase space, Dalitz plots, other kinematic plots, two-particle reactions, unitarity, the partial-wave expansion, resonances (single-channel case), multi-channel resonances, analyticity and crossing, dispersion relations, the one-particle exchange model, the density matrix, mathematical properties of the density matrix, the density matrix in scattering processes, the density matrix in decay processes, and the helicity formalism. Some exercises for the students are included. (U.K.)

  19. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  20. Basics and application of PSpice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Pyeong; Cho, Yong Beom; Mok, Hyeong Su; Baek, Dong CHeol

    2006-03-01

    This book is comprised of nineteenth chapters, which introduces basics and application of PSpice. The contents of this book are PSpice?, PSpice introduction, PSpice simulation, DC analysis, parametric analysis, Transient analysis, parametric analysis and measurements, Monte Carlo analysis, changing of device characteristic, ABM application. The elementary laws of circuit, R.L.C. basic circuit, Diode basic cc circuit, Transistor and EET basic circuit, OP-Amp basic circuit, Digital basic circuit, Analog, digital circuit practice, digital circuit application and practice and ABM circuit application and practice.

  1. ESPlannerBASIC CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kotlikoff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional financial planning is based on a fundamental rule of thumb: Aim to save enough for retirement to replace 80 per cent of your pre-retirement income with income from pensions and assets. Millions of Canadians follow this formula. Yet, there is no guarantee this approach is consistent with a savings plan that will allow them to experience their optimal standard of living — given their income — throughout their working lives. Consumption smoothing happens when a consumer projects her income and her non-discretionary expenses (such as mortgage payments all the way up until the end of her life, and is able to determine her household discretionary spending power over time, to achieve the smoothest living standard path possible without going into debt. When consumption smoothing is calculated accurately, a person’s lifestyle should be roughly the same whether she is in her 30s with small children, in her 50s with kids in college, or in retirement, with adult children. Consumption smoothing allows that to happen. But while it is conceptually straightforward, consumption smoothing requires the use of advanced numerical techniques. Now, Canadian families have access to a powerful consumption-smoothing tool: ESPlannerBASIC Canada. This free, secure and confidential online tool will allow Canadian families to safely and securely enter their earnings and other financial resources and will calculate for them how much they can spend and how much they should save in order to maintain their lifestyle from now until they die, without going into debt. It will also calculate how much life insurance they should buy, to ensure that household living standards are not affected after a family member dies. Users can easily and instantly run “what-if” scenarios to see how retiring early (or later, changing jobs, adjusting retirement contributions, having children, moving homes, timing RRSP withdrawals, and other financial and lifestyle decisions would

  2. Cloud computing basics

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing Basics covers the main aspects of this fast moving technology so that both practitioners and students will be able to understand cloud computing. The author highlights the key aspects of this technology that a potential user might want to investigate before deciding to adopt this service. This book explains how cloud services can be used to augment existing services such as storage, backup and recovery. Addressing the details on how cloud security works and what the users must be prepared for when they move their data to the cloud. Also this book discusses how businesses could prepare for compliance with the laws as well as industry standards such as the Payment Card Industry.

  3. Basic semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of basic semiconductor physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. Four different methods of energy band calculations in the full band region are explained: local empirical pseudopotential, non-local pseudopotential, KP perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for analysis of transport properties are discussed. Further, the book examines experiments and theoretical analyses of cyclotron resonance in detail. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two-dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET) and quantum transport are reviewed, while optical transition, electron-phonon interaction and electron mobility are also addressed. Energy and electronic structure of a quantum dot (artificial atom) are explained with the help of Slater determinants. The...

  4. Basic category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leinster, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of this short introduction to category theory is the idea of a universal property, important throughout mathematics. After an introductory chapter giving the basic definitions, separate chapters explain three ways of expressing universal properties: via adjoint functors, representable functors, and limits. A final chapter ties all three together. The book is suitable for use in courses or for independent study. Assuming relatively little mathematical background, it is ideal for beginning graduate students or advanced undergraduates learning category theory for the first time. For each new categorical concept, a generous supply of examples is provided, taken from different parts of mathematics. At points where the leap in abstraction is particularly great (such as the Yoneda lemma), the reader will find careful and extensive explanations. Copious exercises are included.

  5. Energy the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Schobert, Harold

    2013-01-01

    People rarely stop to think about where the energy they use to power their everyday lives comes from and when they do it is often to ask a worried question: is mankind's energy usage killing the planet? How do we deal with nuclear waste? What happens when the oil runs out? Energy: The Basics answers these questions but it also does much more. In this engaging yet even-handed introduction, readers are introduced to: the concept of 'energy' and what it really means the ways energy is currently generated and the sources used new and emerging energy technologies such as solar power and biofuels the impacts of energy use on the environment including climate change Featuring explanatory diagrams, tables, a glossary and an extensive further reading list, this book is the ideal starting point for anyone interested in the impact and future of the world's energy supply.

  6. Basic ionizing physic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    To become an expert in this field, radiographer must first master in radiation physics. That why the second chapter discussed on radiation physic. The topic that must covered such as atom and molecule, atomic structure, proton, isotope, half life, types of radiation and some basic formula such as formula for shielding, half life, half value layer, tenth value layer and more. All of this must be mastered by radiographer if they want to know more detail on this technique because this technique was a combination of theory and practical. Once they failed the theory they cannot go further on this technique. And to master this technique, once cannot depend on theory only. So, for this technique theory and practical must walk together.

  7. 15. Basic economic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carless, J.; Dow, B.; Farivari, R.; O'Connor, J.; Fox, T.; Tunstall, D.; Mentzingen, M.

    1992-01-01

    The clear value of economic data and analysis to decisionmakers has motivated them to mandate the creation of extensive global economic data sets. This chapter contains a set of these basic economic data, which provides the context for understanding the causes and the consequences of many of the decisions that affect the world's resources. Many traditional economic indicators fail to account for the depletion or deterioration of natural resources, the long-term consequences of such depletion, the equitable distribution of income within a country, or the sustainability of current economic practices. The type of measurement shown here, however, is still useful in showing the great differences between the wealthiest and the poorest countries. Tables are given on the following: Gross national product and official development assistance 1969-89; External debt indicators 1979-89; Central government expenditures; and World commodity indexes and prices 1975-89

  8. Basic engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    Introductory mathematics written specifically for students new to engineering Now in its sixth edition, Basic Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams. John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure that readers can relate theory to practice. The extensive and thorough topic coverage makes this an ideal text for introductory level engineering courses. This title is supported by a companion website with resources for both students and lecturers, including lists of essential formulae, multiple choice tests, full solutions for all 1,600 further questions contained within the practice exercises, and biographical information on t...

  9. Basic real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrab, Houshang H

    2014-01-01

    This expanded second edition presents the fundamentals and touchstone results of real analysis in full rigor, but in a style that requires little prior familiarity with proofs or mathematical language. The text is a comprehensive and largely self-contained introduction to the theory of real-valued functions of a real variable. The chapters on Lebesgue measure and integral have been rewritten entirely and greatly improved. They now contain Lebesgue’s differentiation theorem as well as his versions of the Fundamental Theorem(s) of Calculus. With expanded chapters, additional problems, and an expansive solutions manual, Basic Real Analysis, Second Edition, is ideal for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students, both as a classroom text and a self-study guide. Reviews of first edition: The book is a clear and well-structured introduction to real analysis aimed at senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The prerequisites are few, but a certain mathematical sophistication is required. ....

  10. Magnetism basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanita, Carmen-Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    This textbook is aimed at engineering students who are likely to come across magnetics applications in their professional practice. Whether designing lithography equipment containing ferromagnetic brushes, or detecting defects in aeronautics, some basic knowledge of 21st century magnetism is needed. From the magnetic tape on the pocket credit card to the read head in a personal computer, people run into magnetism in many products. Furthermore, in a variety of disciplines tools of the trade exploit magnetic principles, and many interdisciplinary laboratory research areas cross paths with magnetic phenomena that may seem mysterious to the untrained mind. Therefore, this course offers a broad coverage of magnetism topics encountered more often in this millenium, revealing key concepts on which many practical applications rest. Some traditional subjects in magnetism are discussed in the first half of the book, followed by areas likely to spark the curiosity of those more interested in today’s technological achi...

  11. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  12. Event Index - a LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00392208; Kazeev, Nikita; Redkin, Artem

    2015-12-23

    LHC experiments generate up to $10^{12}$ events per year. This paper describes Event Index - an event search system. Event Index's primary function is quickly selecting subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or stripping lines output. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  13. Basic Energy Sciences at NREL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S.

    2000-01-01

    NREL's Center for Basic Sciences performs fundamental research for DOE's Office of Science. Our mission is to provide fundamental knowledge in the basic sciences and engineering that will underpin new and improved renewable energy technologies

  14. An open-label randomized controlled trial of low molecular weight heparin compared to heparin and coumadin for the treatment of venous thromboembolic events in children: the REVIVE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massicotte, Patricia; Julian, Jim A; Gent, Michael; Shields, Karen; Marzinotto, Velma; Szechtman, Barbara; Andrew, Maureen

    2003-01-25

    Venous thromboembolic events (VTE) are serious complications in children and for which the standard of care, unfractionated heparin followed by oral anticoagulation (UFH/OA), is problematic. The objective of REVIVE was to compare the efficacy and safety of a low molecular weight heparin (reviparin-sodium) to UFH/OA for the treatment of VTE in children. This multicenter, open-label study, with blinded central outcome adjudication, randomized patients with objectively confirmed VTE to receive either reviparin-sodium or UFH/OA. Dose adjustments were made using nomograms. The efficacy outcome was based on recurrent VTE and death due to VTE during the 3-month treatment period. The safety outcomes were major bleeding, minor bleeding and death. Due to slow patient accrual, REVIVE was closed prematurely. At 3 months, with reviparin-sodium, 2/36 patients (5.6%) had recurrent VTE or death compared to 4/40 patients (10.0%) receiving UFH/OA (odds ratio=0.53; 95% CI=(0.05, 4.00); Fisher's exact test: 2P=0.677). There were 7 major bleeds, 2/36 (5.6%) in the reviparin-sodium group and 5/40 (12.5%) in UFH/OA group (odds ratio=0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.04, 2.76); Fisher's exact test: P=0.435). There were 5 deaths during the study period, 1 (2.8%) in the reviparin-sodium group and 4 (10.0%) in the UFH/OA group. All five deaths were unrelated to VTE but one was due to an intracranial hemorrhage in the UFH/OA group. Although limited by small sample size, REVIVE provides valuable information on the incidence of recurrent VTE, major bleeding and problematic issues associated with therapy of VTE in children.

  15. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulating events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, C; Bruzzone, L [Techint Italimpianti, Milan (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    The Petacalco Marine terminal on the Pacific coast in the harbour of Lazaro Carclenas (Michoacan) in Mexico, provides coal to the thermoelectric power plant at Pdte Plutarco Elias Calles in the port area. The plant is being converted from oil to burn coal to generate 2100 MW of power. The article describes the layout of the terminal and equipment employed in the unloading, coal stacking, coal handling areas and the receiving area at the power plant. The contractor Techint Italimpianti has developed a software system, MHATIS, for marine terminal management which is nearly complete. The discrete event simulator with its graphic interface provides a real-type decision support system for simulating changes to the terminal operations and evaluating impacts. The article describes how MHATIS is used. 7 figs.

  17. Event generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.; Lopez, O.; Vient, E.

    1998-01-01

    The results concerning the heavy ion collision simulations at Fermi energies by means of phenomenological models obtained in the last two years ar presented. The event generators are essentially following the phase of elaboration of analysis methods of data obtained by INDRA or NAUTILUS 4 π multidetectors. To identify and correctly quantify a phenomenon or a physical quantity it is necessary to verify by simulation the feasibility and validity of the analysis and also to estimate the bias introduced by the experimental filter. Many studies have shown this, for instance: the determination of the collision reaction plan for flow studies, determination of kinematical characteristics of the quasi-projectiles, and the excitation energy measurement stored in the hot nuclei. To Eugene, the currently utilised generator, several improvements were added: introduction of space-time correlations between the different products emitted in the decay of excited nuclei by calculating the trajectories of the particles in the final phase of the reaction; taking into account in the decay cascade of the discrete levels of the lighter fragments; the possibility of the schematically description of the explosion of the nucleus by simultaneous emission of multi-fragments. Thus, by comparing the calculations with the data relative to heavy systems studied with the NAUTILUS assembly it was possible to extract the time scales in the nuclear fragmentation. The utilisation of these event generators was extended to the analysis of INDRA data concerning the determination of the vaporization threshold in the collisions Ar + Ni and also the research of the expansion effects in the collisions Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/u

  18. Basic concepts of epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitz, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiology can be defined simply as the science of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. As a descriptive tool, epidemiology can aid health care service providers, for example, in allocation of resources. In its analytic capacity, the epidemiologic approach can help identify determinants of disease through the study of human populations. Epidemiology is primarily an observational rather than experimental methodology, with corresponding strengths and limitations. Relative to other approaches for assessing disease etiology and impacts of potential health hazards, epidemiology has a rather unique role that is complementary to, but independent of, both basic biologic sciences and clinical medicine. Experimental biologic sciences such as toxicology and physiology provide critical information on biologic mechanisms of disease required for causal inference. Clinical medicine often serves as the warning system that provides etiologic clues to be pursued through systematic investigation. The advantage of the epidemiologic approach is its reliance on human field experience, that is, the real world. While laboratory experimentation is uniquely well suited to defining potential hazards, it can neither determine whether human populations have actually been affected nor quantify that effect. Building all the complexities of human behavior and external factors into a laboratory study or mathematical model is impossible. By studying the world as it exists, epidemiology examines the integrated, summarized product of the myriad factors influencing health

  19. Basic operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gohberg, Israel

    2001-01-01

    rii application of linear operators on a Hilbert space. We begin with a chapter on the geometry of Hilbert space and then proceed to the spectral theory of compact self adjoint operators; operational calculus is next presented as a nat­ ural outgrowth of the spectral theory. The second part of the text concentrates on Banach spaces and linear operators acting on these spaces. It includes, for example, the three 'basic principles of linear analysis and the Riesz­ Fredholm theory of compact operators. Both parts contain plenty of applications. All chapters deal exclusively with linear problems, except for the last chapter which is an introduction to the theory of nonlinear operators. In addition to the standard topics in functional anal­ ysis, we have presented relatively recent results which appear, for example, in Chapter VII. In general, in writ­ ing this book, the authors were strongly influenced by re­ cent developments in operator theory which affected the choice of topics, proofs and exercises. One ...

  20. Basics of aerothermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    This successful book gives an introduction to the basics of aerothermodynamics, as applied in particular to winged re-entry vehicles and airbreathing hypersonic cruise and acceleration vehicles. The book gives a review of the issues of transport of momentum, energy and mass, real-gas effects as well as inviscid and viscous flow phenomena. In this second, revised edition the chapters with the classical topics of aerothermodynamics more or less were left untouched. The access to some single topics of practical interest was improved. Auxiliary chapters were put into an appendix. The recent successful flights of the X-43A and the X-51A indicate that the dawn of sustained airbreathing hypersonic flight now has arrived. This proves that the original approach of the book to put emphasis on viscous effects and the aerothermodynamics of radiation-cooled vehicle surfaces was timely. This second, revised edition even more accentuates these topics. A new, additional chapter treats examples of viscous thermal surface eff...

  1. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  2. Basic Data on Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Renewable gases such as biogas and biomethane are considered as key energy carrier when the society is replacing fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. In Sweden, almost 80 % of the fossil fuels are used in the transport sector. Therefore, the focus in Sweden has been to use the produced biogas in this sector as vehicle gas. Basic Data on Biogas contains an overview of production, utilisation, climate effects etc. of biogas from a Swedish perspective. The purpose is to give an easy overview of the current situation in Sweden for politicians, decision makers and interested public. 1.4 TWh of biogas is produced annually in Sweden at approximately 230 facilities. The 135 wastewater treatment plants that produce biogas contribute with around half of the production. In order to reduce the sludge volume, biogas has been produced at wastewater treatment plants for decades. New biogas plants are mainly co-digestion plants and farm plants. The land filling of organic waste has been banned since 2005, thus the biogas produced in landfills is decreasing.

  3. Events diary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  4. Geophysical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a summary of SEAN Bulletin, 13(3), March 31, 1988, a publication of the Smithsonian Institution's Scientific Event Alert Network. The complete bulletin is available in the microfiche edition of Eos as a microfiche supplement or as a paper reprint. For the microfiche, order document E88-002 at $2.50 (U.S.) by writing to AGU Orders, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by calling toll free on 800-424-2488. For the paper reprint, order SEAN Bulletin (giving volume and issue numbers and issue date) through the same address; the price is $3.50 for one copy of each issue number for those who do not have a deposit account, $2 for those who do; additional copies of each issue number are $1. Subscriptions to SEAN Bulletin are also available from AGU-Orders; the price is $18 for 12 monthly issues mailed to a U.S. address, $28 if mailed elsewhere, and must be prepaid.

  5. Food Allergies: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. PMID:25680669

  6. Food allergies: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-05-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients-manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell- and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Teaching Molecular Biology with Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Rebecca; Jameson, David

    1984-01-01

    Describes a series of computer programs that use simulation and gaming techniques to present the basic principles of the central dogma of molecular genetics, mutation, and the genetic code. A history of discoveries in molecular biology is presented and the evolution of these computer assisted instructional programs is described. (MBR)

  8. Development of molecular nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ganghua

    2002-01-01

    The basic theory of molecular nuclear medicine is briefly introduced. The hot areas of molecular nuclear medicine including metabolic imaging and blood flow imaging, radioimmunoimaging and radioimmunotherapy, radioreceptor imaging and receptor-radioligand therapy, and imaging gene expression and gene radiation therapy are emphatically described

  9. Theoretical molecular biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Philipp O J

    2017-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to molecular biophysics. It starts from material properties at equilibrium related to polymers, dielectrics and membranes. Electronic spectra are developed for the understanding of elementary dynamic processes in photosynthesis including proton transfer and dynamics of molecular motors. Since the molecular structures of functional groups of bio-systems were resolved, it has become feasible to develop a theory based on the quantum theory and statistical physics with emphasis on the specifics of the high complexity of bio-systems. This introduction to molecular aspects of the field focuses on solvable models. Elementary biological processes provide as special challenge the presence of partial disorder in the structure which does not destroy the basic reproducibility of the processes. Apparently the elementary molecular processes are organized in a way to optimize the efficiency. Learning from nature by means exploring the relation between structure and function may even help to b...

  10. Visual Basic 2012 programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive guide to Visual Basic 2012 Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) is the most popular programming language in the world, with millions of lines of code used in businesses and applications of all types and sizes. In this edition of the bestselling Wrox guide, Visual Basic expert Rod Stephens offers novice and experienced developers a comprehensive tutorial and reference to Visual Basic 2012. This latest edition introduces major changes to the Visual Studio development platform, including support for developing mobile applications that can take advantage of the Windows 8 operating system

  11. Molecular sensors and molecular logic gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, N.; Bojinov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The rapid grow of nanotechnology field extended the concept of a macroscopic device to the molecular level. Because of this reason the design and synthesis of (supra)-molecular species capable of mimicking the functions of macroscopic devices are currently of great interest. Molecular devices operate via electronic and/or nuclear rearrangements and, like macroscopic devices, need energy to operate and communicate between their elements. The energy needed to make a device work can be supplied as chemical energy, electrical energy, or light. Luminescence is one of the most useful techniques to monitor the operation of molecular-level devices. This fact determinates the synthesis of novel fluorescence compounds as a considerable and inseparable part of nanoscience development. Further miniaturization of semiconductors in electronic field reaches their limit. Therefore the design and construction of molecular systems capable of performing complex logic functions is of great scientific interest now. In semiconductor devices the logic gates work using binary logic, where the signals are encoded as 0 and 1 (low and high current). This process is executable on molecular level by several ways, but the most common are based on the optical properties of the molecule switches encoding the low and high concentrations of the input guest molecules and the output fluorescent intensities with binary 0 and 1 respectively. The first proposal to execute logic operations at the molecular level was made in 1988, but the field developed only five years later when the analogy between molecular switches and logic gates was experimentally demonstrated by de Silva. There are seven basic logic gates: AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NAND, NOR and XNOR and all of them were achieved by molecules, the fluorescence switching as well. key words: fluorescence, molecular sensors, molecular logic gates

  12. Polyhydroyalkanoates: from Basic Research and Molecular Biology to Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd alFattah Amara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA, an intracellular biodegradable microbial polymer. PHAs is formed from different types of three hydroxyalkanoic acids monomers, each unit forms an ester bond with the hydroxyl group of the other one and the hydroxyl substituted carbon has R configuration. The C-3 atom in β position is branched with at least one carbon atom in the form of methyl group (C1 to thirteen carbons in the form of tridecyl (C13. This alkyl side chain is not necessarily saturated. PHAs are biosynthesized through regulated pathways by specific enzymes. PHAs are accumulated in bacterial cells from soluble to insoluble form as storage materials inside the inclusion bodies during unbalanced nutrition or to save organisms from reducing equivalents. PHAs are converted again to soluble components by PHAs depolymerases and the degraded materials enter various metabolic pathways. Until now, four classes of enzymes responsible for PHAs polymerization are known. PHAs were well studied regarding their promising applications, physical, chemical and biological properties. PHAs are biodegradable, biocompatible, have good material properties, renewable and can be used in many applications. The most limiting factor in PHAs commercialization is their high cost compared to the petroleum plastics. This review highlights the new knowledge and that established by the pioneers in this field as well as the factors, which affect PHAs commercialization.

  13. Molecular Formula and Molecular Weight - NBDC NikkajiRDF | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us NBDC NikkajiRDF Molecular Formula and Molecular Weight Data detail Data name Molecular Formula and Molecul...- Description of data contents This RDF data includes molecular formula and molecular weight of chemical sub...ikkajiRDF_MFMW.tar.gz File size: 404 MB Simple search URL - Data acquisition method The data was converted from data of molecul...ar formulas and molecular weights in Basic Information ( http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.j... Policy | Contact Us Molecular Formula and Molecular Weight - NBDC NikkajiRDF | LSDB Archive ...

  14. Towards 'selection rules' in the radiation chemistry of molecular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, V.I.; Inst. of Synthetic Polymetric Materials, Moscow; Moscow State Univ.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. There are a lot of experimental evidences suggesting that the primary radiation-induced events in organic solids and polymers are highly selective and sensitive to conformation, molecular packing, matrix environment, etc. Nevertheless, specific 'selection rules' in the radiation chemistry of molecules in solids are still not established. This contribution presents a review of our recent studies of the radiation damage in organic molecules in low-temperature matrices and polymers aimed at elucidation of basic physical factors controlling selectivity of the primary chemical events. The following aspects will be analyzed: 1. 'Fine tuning' effects in positive hole trapping in rigid systems containing molecular 'traps' with close ionization energy. 2. Selective chemical bond weakening in ionized molecules: experimental and theoretical results. 3. Matrix-assisted and matrix-controlled chemical reactions of ionized molecules in solid media (including the effect of 'matrix-catalysis'). 4. Effect of excess energy on the fate of ionized molecules in solid matrices: the role of intramolecular and intermolecular relaxation. Finally, the problem of experimental and theoretical simulation of the distribution of the radiation-induced events in complex molecular systems and polymers will be addressed

  15. Basic Energy Sciences at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S.

    2000-12-04

    NREL's Center for Basic Sciences performs fundamental research for DOE's Office of Science. Our mission is to provide fundamental knowledge in the basic sciences and engineering that will underpin new and improved renewable energy technologies.

  16. BASIC Instructional Program: System Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dageforde, Mary L.

    This report documents the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP), a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language, as implemented in the MAINSAIL language, a machine-independent revision of SAIL which should facilitate implementation of BIP on other computing systems. Eight instructional modules which make up…

  17. Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar cells, also called found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Soon solar cells were being used to power space satellites and smaller items like calculators and watches. Photo of a large silicon solar

  18. Solar Process Heat Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process Heat Basics Solar Process Heat Basics Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be

  19. Basics of LASIK Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vea esta página en español The Basics of LASIK Eye Surgery Share This Page Facebook Twitter Linked- ... Surgery Surgical Alternatives to LASIK For More Information  LASIK Basics If you wear glasses or contact lenses, ...

  20. Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Researchers are developing fuel cells that can be silver four-door sedan being driven on a roadway and containing the words "hydrogen fuel cell electric" across the front and rear doors. This prototype hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle was

  1. Children and Their Basic Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Debra Lindsey; Howard, Esther M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes obstacles presented by poverty in the fulfillment of the basic needs of children. Individually addresses Maslow's five basic needs with regard to children reared in poverty: (1) physiological needs; (2) safety needs; (3) belonging and love needs; (4) self-esteem needs; and (5) self-actualization needs. (Author/SD)

  2. International Sport Events: Improving Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Kerzaitė

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The report and the article will be a comprehensive analysis ofthe needs to improve the international sport events marketing.Highlighting the role of international sport events in contemporarysociety and the challenges in the context of globalization,comparing opinions of various authors about aspects of classificationand the benefits for host country. The article and the reportreveals the main existing problem encountered in organizinginternational sport events, estimated perspectives for solutionof this problem. Summarizes the international sport eventsopportunities, basically modernize marketing tools according tothe marketing mix correction based on systematic synthesis ofmarketing concepts and adaptation/standardization needs, themost important factors in the marketing mix for the excretion ofthe main marketing objectives. The article is based on the latestscientific literature analysis.

  3. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of reprogramming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Marie N. [Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla 92037, CA (United States); University Hospital of Würzburg, Department of Pediatrics, 2 Josef-Schneiderstrasse, 97080 Würzburg (Germany); Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio [Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla 92037, CA (United States); Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, King' s College London, 28th Floor, Tower Wing, Guy' s Hospital, Great Maze Pond, London (United Kingdom); Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos, E-mail: belmonte@salk.edu [Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla 92037, CA (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Despite the profound and rapid advancements in reprogramming technologies since the generation of the first induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in 2006[1], the molecular basics of the process and its implications are still not fully understood. Recent work has suggested that a subset of TFs, so called “Pioneer TFs”, play an important role during the stochastic phase of iPSC reprogramming [2–6]. Pioneer TFs activities differ from conventional transcription factors in their mechanism of action. They bind directly to condensed chromatin and elicit a series of chromatin remodeling events that lead to opening of the chromatin. Chromatin decondensation by pioneer factors progressively occurs during cell division and in turn exposes specific gene promoters in the DNA to which TFs can now directly bind to promoters that are readily accessible[2, 6]. Here, we will summarize recent advancements on our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying reprogramming to iPSC as well as the implications that pioneer Transcription Factor activities might play during different lineage conversion processes. - Highlights: • Pioneer transcription factor activity underlies the initial steps of iPSC generation. • Reprogramming can occur by cis- and/or trans- reprogramming events. • Cis-reprogramming implies remodeling of the chromatin for enabling TF accessibility. • Trans-reprogramming encompasses direct binding of Tfs to their target gene promoters.

  4. Private events: from methodological behaviorism to interbehaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bueno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As supposed events being accessible to a unique observer, private events posit an interesting challenge to a behavioristic psychology. Three historical variants of behaviorism dealt with the problem of private events: methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism and interbehaviorism. The basic argument of the two last views, and that distinguishes them from the former, is that private events are comprised into the scope of an objective science of behavior. The analysis of these accounts permits us to confirm a gradual advance in behavior theory, in dealing with this issue, toward a totally monistic view.

  5. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

  6. Basic entwinements: unassuming analogue inserts in basic digital modeling (courses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous, basic digital modelling tools are currently deployed with relative ease in architecture schools during the course of first year studies. While these first architectural projects essays sometimes communicate matter with already quite impressive professional outlooks, a certain disparit...

  7. La Investigación Básica. La Investigación en Ciencias Fisiológicas: Bioquímica, Biología Molecular y Fisiología. Cuestiones Previas Basic Research. Research in Physiological Sciences: Biochemistry, Biophysics, Molecular Biology and Physiology. Some prior considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constancio González Martínez

    2004-03-01

    conjugate some general ideas on scientific research with known facts on the socioeconomic reality of Latin American countries. In the initial part of the talk I put forward a definition of research, emphasizing the great value of considering the teleology of biological phenomena for the advance of biological sciences. A succinct consideration of the importance of Good Laboratory Practices, especially if there is not a tradition of research, drove my talk to the presentation of some basic data on the socioeconomic situation of the Latin American countries. In the second half of the conference my efforts were directed to incite our Latin American colleagues to demand from their politicians, and to justify in front of their fellow citizens, the necessity of implementing a program on scientific research as a national priority. Such demand should be justified on the basis of the recognition that research represents a way to correctly use the intellectual capital of the citizens of every country and a mean to profit from free international resources, that research is a source of culture, contributing to the national identity of any given country, and finally, on the fact that research is an activity that generates wealth. I concluded my talk pointing out that basic research, and therefore research in physiological sciences, is assembled so tight with basic research that they conform a unique reality.

  8. HPV: Molecular pathways and targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kumar, Prabhat; Das, Bhudev C

    2018-04-05

    and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cell cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, deregulation of microRNA and cancer stem cell and stemness related markers expression could serve as novel molecular targets for reliable diagnosis and treatment of HPV-positive cancers. However, the search for new proposals for disease control and prevention has brought new findings and approaches in the context of molecular biology indicating innovations and perspectives in the early detection and prevention of the disease. Thus, in this article, we discuss molecular signaling pathways activated by HPV and potential targets or biomarkers for early detection or prevention and the treatment of HPV-associated cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Life events and Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Tamar; Shmuel-Baruch, Sharona; Horesh, Netta; Apter, Alan

    2013-07-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric developmental disorder characterized by the presence of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Although TS is primarily biological in origin, stress-diatheses interactions most probably play a role in the course of the illness. The precise influence of the environment on this basically biological disorder is difficult to ascertain, particularly when TS is complicated by comorbidities. Among the many questions that remain unresolved are the differential impact of positive and negative events and specific subtypes of events, and the importance of major crucial events relative to minor daily ones to tic severity. To examine the relationships between life events, tic severity and comorbid disorders in Tourette Syndrome (TS), including OCD, ADHD, anxiety, depression and rage attacks. Life events were classified by quantity, quality (positive or negative) and classification types of events (family, friends etc.). Sixty patients aged 7-17 years with Tourette syndrome or a chronic tic disorder were recruited from Psychological Medicine Clinic in Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel. Yale Global Tic Severity Scale; Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale; Life Experiences Survey; Brief Adolescent Life Events Scale; Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders; Child Depression Inventory/Beck Depression Inventory; ADHD Rating Scale IV; Overt Aggression Scale. Regarding tics and minor life events, there was a weak but significant correlation between severity of motor tics and the quantity of negative events. No significant correlation was found between tic severity and quantity of positive events. Analysis of the BALES categories yielded a significant direct correlation between severity of vocal tics and quantity of negative events involving friends. Regarding comorbidities and minor life events, highly significant correlations were found with depression and anxiety. Regarding tics and major life

  10. Hydrogen Bond Basicity Prediction for Medicinal Chemistry Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Peter W; Montanari, Carlos A; Prokopczyk, Igor M; Ribeiro, Jean F R; Sartori, Geraldo Rodrigues

    2016-05-12

    Hydrogen bonding is discussed in the context of medicinal chemistry design. Minimized molecular electrostatic potential (Vmin) is shown to be an effective predictor of hydrogen bond basicity (pKBHX), and predictive models are presented for a number of hydrogen bond acceptor types relevant to medicinal chemistry. The problems posed by the presence of nonequivalent hydrogen bond acceptor sites in molecular structures are addressed by using nonlinear regression to fit measured pKBHX to calculated Vmin. Predictions are made for hydrogen bond basicity of fluorine in situations where relevant experimental measurements are not available. It is shown how predicted pKBHX can be used to provide insight into the nature of bioisosterism and to profile heterocycles. Examples of pKBHX prediction for molecular structures with multiple, nonequivalent hydrogen bond acceptors are presented.

  11. TECHNOLOGY OF EDUCATIONAL EVENTS DESIGNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Volkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to prove and disclose the essence of the author’s technology of educational events designing.Methodology and methods of research. Methodological basis of work is humanitarian approach. The method of pedagogical modeling was used for the model development of educational events influence on pedagogical activity formation. The content analysis of texts descriptions, case-study method, expert estimations of event projects were applied as the main methods of efficiency confirmation of the technology of educational events design.Results and scientific novelty. The characteristics of an educational event are emphasized by means of an empirical way: opening (what a person opens for himself; generation (a result of a personal action; and participation in creation of something "new" (new communications, relations and experience. The structure of technology of educational events design including work with concepts (an educational event, substantial and procedural components is presented. The technology of educational events designing is considered as the process of the well-grounded choice of designing technologies, mutual activity, pedagogical communication, components of educational activity: contents, methods, means, and organizational forms depending on educational aims due to age-specific peculiarities of participants of the educational event. The main conditions providing successful use of the technology are the involvement into joint cognitive activity of all its participants and importance of the events for each of them that qualitatively change the nature of a cognitive process and generate real transformations of the reality.Practical significance. The author’s experience in teaching testifies to introduction of the module «Technology of Design of Educational Events» into the basic educational subject-module «Design Competence of the Teacher» (degree program «Pedagogical Education», considering this module as

  12. Revisiting the Operating Room Basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Chakravorty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Young doctors walking into the operating room are eager to develop their skills to become efficient and knowledgeable professionals in future. But precious little is done to actively develop the basic practical skills of the budding doctors. They remain unaware about the layout of the operating room, the OR etiquette and often do not have sound scientific understanding and importance of meticulous execution of the basic operating room protocols. This article stresses the need to develop the basics of OR protocol and to improve the confidence of the young doctor by strengthening his foundation by showing him that attention to the basics of medical care and empathy for the patient can really make a difference to the outcome of a treatment.

  13. New Federalism: Back to Basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durenberger, Dave

    1983-01-01

    The senator explains the basic concepts of New Federalism, including a rethinking of responsibilities and intergovernmental relations and a reconsideration of the role of state and local government. (SK)

  14. Basic statements of relativity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Muschik

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some basic statements of relativity theory, starting out with geometry and observers up to Einstein's field equations, are collected in a systematical order without any proof, to serve as a short survey of tools and results.

  15. Dental Health: The Basic Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dental Health THE BASIC FACTS MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Kim, diagnosed in 1986 People with a chronic disease may neglect their general health and wellness, research shows. Dental care is no exception. A tendency to focus ...

  16. Basic principles of concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Xianglin; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the latest version of designing codes both for buildings and bridges (GB50010-2010 and JTG D62-2004), this book starts from steel and concrete materials, whose properties are very important to the mechanical behavior of concrete structural members. Step by step, analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete members under basic loading types (tension, compression, flexure, shearing and torsion) and environmental actions are introduced. The characteristic of the book that distinguishes it from other textbooks on concrete structures is that more emphasis has been laid on the basic theories of reinforced concrete and the application of the basic theories in design of new structures and analysis of existing structures. Examples and problems in each chapter are carefully designed to cover every important knowledge point. As a basic course for undergraduates majoring in civil engineering, this course is different from either the previously learnt mechanics courses or the design courses to be learnt. Compa...

  17. Transforming Defense Basic Research Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fountain, Augustus W

    2004-01-01

    ... technologies for development. With a basic research budget less than half that of the National Science Foundation and a mere fraction that of the NIH the DoD can no longer afford to pursue lofty science education goals...

  18. Transforming Defense Basic Research Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fountain, Augustus W

    2004-01-01

    .... Public funding of basic research for the DoD during the Cold War was successful because it minimized risk through taking maximum advantage of long term research projects that produced rather mature...

  19. Basic hypergeometry of supersymmetric dualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahramanov, Ilmar, E-mail: ilmar.gahramanov@aei.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Mühlenberg 1, D14476 Potsdam (Germany); Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Grossen Windkanal 6, D12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Radiation Problems ANAS, B.Vahabzade 9, AZ1143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Department of Mathematics, Khazar University, Mehseti St. 41, AZ1096, Baku (Azerbaijan); Rosengren, Hjalmar, E-mail: hjalmar@chalmers.se [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2016-12-15

    We introduce several new identities combining basic hypergeometric sums and integrals. Such identities appear in the context of superconformal index computations for three-dimensional supersymmetric dual theories. We give both analytic proofs and physical interpretations of the presented identities.

  20. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Basic Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir HIV and ... HIV. Interested in learning more about CDC's HIV statistics? Terms, Definitions, and Calculations Used in CDC HIV ...

  1. Basic petroleum research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesjoe, Bjarne; Stiksrud, Helge

    2004-01-01

    An overview of projects in the field of basic petroleum research (PetroForsk) is presented. A brief presentation of some of the projects is included, as well as political comments on the value of these projects. The research program Basic Petroleum Research (PetroForsk) was established in 1998 and ended in 2004. The program has been part of the Research Council of Norway's long-term effort in petroleum research (ml)

  2. Molecular imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2013-02-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  3. Molecular imaging in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  4. A Fourier analysis of extreme events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Zhao, Yuwei

    2014-01-01

    The extremogram is an asymptotic correlogram for extreme events constructed from a regularly varying stationary sequence. In this paper, we define a frequency domain analog of the correlogram: a periodogram generated from a suitable sequence of indicator functions of rare events. We derive basic ...... properties of the periodogram such as the asymptotic independence at the Fourier frequencies and use this property to show that weighted versions of the periodogram are consistent estimators of a spectral density derived from the extremogram....

  5. Topology of Event Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Siino, Masaru

    1997-01-01

    The topologies of event horizons are investigated. Considering the existence of the endpoint of the event horizon, it cannot be differentiable. Then there are the new possibilities of the topology of the event horizon though they are excluded in smooth event horizons. The relation between the topology of the event horizon and the endpoint of it is revealed. A torus event horizon is caused by two-dimensional endpoints. One-dimensional endpoints provide the coalescence of spherical event horizo...

  6. Synergetics of molecular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lupichev, Lev N; Kadantsev, Vasiliy N

    2014-01-01

    Synergetics is the quantitative study of multicomponent systems that exhibit nonlinear dynamics and cooperativity. This book specifically considers basic models of the nonlinear dynamics of molecular systems and discusses relevant applications in biological physics and the polymer sciences.Emphasis is placed on specific solutions to the dynamical equations that correspond to the coherent formation of spatial-temporal structures, such as solitons, kinks and breathers, in particular. The emergence of these patterns in molecular structures provides a variety of information on their structural pro

  7. W, F, and I : Three quantities basic to radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.

    1998-01-01

    The W value is an index of the mean number of ions produced in a gas subjected to ionizing radiation. Formally, it is defined as the radiation energy absorbed (usually expressed in units of eV) ''per ion pair of either sign produced'', or, in a simpler language, ''per electron liberated''. The basic knowledge up to 1961 is eloquently articulated in a classic essay by Platzman [1], which Professor Doke loves to cite. The theme of Platzman was to explain from the point of view of basic physics the magnitude and characteristics of the ratio W/I, where I is the (first) ionization threshold energy. In summary, major characteristics are as follows. (1) The W value for a given gas depends weakly on the properties of the radiation such as the mass and charge of particles or initial energies (provided they are sufficiently high). This makes the ionization measurement useful as a method of dosimetry, viz., the determination of the absorbed energy. (2) The ratio W/I is always greater than unity because a part of the absorbed energy must be used in nonionizing events such as discrete excitation or molecular dissociation into neutral fragments and also in producing subexcitation electrons, viz., electrons with kinetic energies too low to cause electronic excitation or ionization [2]. (3) The ratio W/I is 1.7-1.8 for rare gases, and 2.1-2.6 for gases of common molecules (depending on the electronic structure, going from ''hard'' to ''soft''). Calculation of the W value is possible from three approaches: (i) the energy balance of Platzman, heuristic for general understanding and appropriate for an estimate; (ii) the Fowler equation [3] for the direct evaluation of the mean number of ions produced; and (iii) the method of Spencer and Fano [4] through the degradation spectra (or the track length distributions) of charged particles, most importantly of electrons, present in the medium. The Fowler method is good for obtaining the mean number of ions or excited states resulting from

  8. Japan's new basic energy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, John S.; Woodall, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In June 2010, the Japanese cabinet adopted a new Basic Energy Plan (BEP). This was the third such plan that the government has approved since the passage of the Basic Act on Energy Policy in 2002, and it represents the most significant statement of Japanese energy policy in more than four years, since the publication of the New National Energy Strategy (NNES) in 2006. Perhaps more than its predecessors, moreover, the new plan establishes a number of ambitious targets as well as more detailed measures for achieving those targets. Among the targets are a doubling of Japan's 'energy independence ratio,' a doubling of the percentage of electricity generated by renewable sources and nuclear power, and a 30 percent reduction in energy-related CO 2 emissions, all by 2030. This paper explains the origins of the 2010 BEP and why it was adopted. It then describes the content of the plan and how it differs from the NNES. A third section analyzes the appropriateness of the new goals and targets contained in the BEP and their feasibility, finding that achievement of many of the targets was likely to be quite challenging even before the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis. - Highlights: → Origins of Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Content of Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Feasibility of achieving the targets in Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Impact of 2011 earthquake and tsunami on Japanese energy policy.

  9. Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin Huang, G. Khai; Stewardson, Andrew J.; Lindsay Grayson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections has strengthened in recent years, particularly in terms of reduced rates of staphylococcal sepsis. Defining the key components of effective implementation strategies and the ideal method(s) of assessing hand hygiene compliance are dependent on a range of factors associated with the healthcare system. Although patient isolation continues to be an important strategy, particularly in outbreaks, it also has some limitations and can be associated with negative effects. Recent detailed molecular epidemiology studies of key healthcare-acquired pathogens have questioned the true efficacy of isolation, alone as an effective method for the routine prevention of disease transmission. Summary Hand hygiene and isolation are key components of basic infection control. Recent insights into the benefits, limitations and even adverse effects of these interventions are important for their optimal implementation. PMID:24945613

  10. Basic Science for a Secure Energy Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Linda

    2010-03-01

    Anticipating a doubling in the world's energy use by the year 2050 coupled with an increasing focus on clean energy technologies, there is a national imperative for new energy technologies and improved energy efficiency. The Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) supports fundamental research that provides the foundations for new energy technologies and supports DOE missions in energy, environment, and national security. The research crosses the full spectrum of materials and chemical sciences, as well as aspects of biosciences and geosciences, with a focus on understanding, predicting, and ultimately controlling matter and energy at electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. In addition, BES is the home for national user facilities for x-ray, neutron, nanoscale sciences, and electron beam characterization that serve over 10,000 users annually. To provide a strategic focus for these programs, BES has held a series of ``Basic Research Needs'' workshops on a number of energy topics over the past 6 years. These workshops have defined a number of research priorities in areas related to renewable, fossil, and nuclear energy -- as well as cross-cutting scientific grand challenges. These directions have helped to define the research for the recently established Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) and are foundational for the newly announced Energy Innovation Hubs. This overview will review the current BES research portfolio, including the EFRCs and user facilities, will highlight past research that has had an impact on energy technologies, and will discuss future directions as defined through the BES workshops and research opportunities.

  11. The basics of neutron spin echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farago, B.

    1999-01-01

    Until 1974 inelastic neutron scattering consisted of producing by some means a neutron beam of known speed and measuring the final speed of the neutrons after the scattering event. The smaller the energy change was, the better the neutron speed had to be defined. As the neutrons come form a reactor with an approximately Maxwell distribution, an infinitely good energy resolution can be achieved only at the expense of infinitely low count rate. This introduces a practical resolution limit around 0.1 μeV on back-scattering instruments. In 1972 F. Mezei discovered the method of Neutron Spin Echo. This method decouples the energy resolution from intensity loss. The basics of this method is presented. (author)

  12. Radiation chemistry: basic, strategic or tactical science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardman, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The work of Weiss in the 1930s, particularly with Haber, has only recently been recognized to have implications in biology and medicine. Similarly, research in radiation chemistry and the application of the pulse radiolysis technique, for example, have implications far beyond traditional radiation chemistry. Some examples of such research are discussed against a background of categorization into 'basic', 'strategic' or 'tactical' science. Examples discussed include redox properties of free radicals, and the identification and characterization of nitro radicals as intermediates in drug metabolism. Radical reactions often take place in multicomponent systems, and the techniques of radiation chemistry can be used to probe, for example, events occurring at interfaces in micelles. Industrial processes involving radiation are attracting investment, particularly in Japan. (author)

  13. Basic mechanisms for the new millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1998-01-01

    This part of the Short Course will review the basic mechanisms for radiation effects in semiconductor devices. All three areas of radiation damage will be considered -- total dose, displacement effects, and single event effects. Each of these areas will be discussed in turn. First an overview and background will be provided on the historical understanding of the damage mechanism. Then there will be a discussion of recent enhancements to the understanding of those mechanisms and an up-to-date picture provided of the current state of knowledge. Next the potential impact of each of these damage mechanisms on devices in emerging technologies and how the mechanisms may be used to understand device performance will be described, with an emphasis on those likely to be of importance in the new millennium. Finally some additional thoughts will be presented on how device scaling expected into the next century may impact radiation hardness

  14. On the Basic Equations of the Magnetostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Makarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the physical relationship between the main objects of the magnetic field in a continuous medium with magnetization effects. Consistently considers the following hypotheses: a hypothesis of the primacy and the physical reality of the magnetization vector field environment, a similar hypothesis about the real existence of Ampere currents (molecular currents, magnetization currents, a hypothesis of a magnetic dipole moment of the medium volume element in view of bulk density of electric currents in this volume. A more rigorous derivation of the basic differential equations of magnetostatics from the Biot-Savart-Laplace equation is proposed.The well-known works justifying basic equations of magnetostatics use a procedure wherein when proving the local differential ratio is used a transformation of some volume integral to the surface integral bounding this volume. Thus, there is a specific way to select a closed surface that is either a surface in a vacuum (beyond the medium volume under consideration, or a surface of the conductor (a normal component of currents to the surface, here, becomes zero. In the paper the control surface is arbitrarily carried out within the volume of the medium under consideration, thereby leading to the mathematically sound result.The paper analyzes the hypotheses listed above. The main feature of analysis is a succesively using concept of bilateralism surface bounding the medium volume of the arbitrary finite dimensions. The analysis allowed us to reveal the physical adequacy of the considered hypotheses, derive the appropriate differential equations for the basic vector fields of magnetostatics and obtain a new condition. The resulting condition for the closedness of magnetization currents is recorded in entire compliance with the well-known Gauss electrostatic law, which avoids the need for additional, but not always reasonable assumptions.

  15. Adult Basic Education: Aligning Adult Basic Education and Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the 80th Texas Legislature included a rider to the General Appropriations Act for the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. The rider directed the agency to coordinate with the Texas Education Agency to develop and implement plans to align adult basic education with postsecondary education. The Coordinating Board, in collaboration…

  16. E-Basics: Online Basic Training in Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    E-Basics is an online training in program evaluation concepts and skills designed for youth development professionals, especially those working in nonformal science education. Ten hours of online training in seven modules is designed to prepare participants for mentoring and applied practice, mastery, and/or team leadership in program evaluation.…

  17. Basic research for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs

  18. General relativity basics and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Date, Ghanashyam

    2015-01-01

    A Broad Perspective on the Theory of General Relativity and Its Observable Implications General Relativity: Basics and Beyond familiarizes students and beginning researchers with the basic features of the theory of general relativity as well as some of its more advanced aspects. Employing the pedagogical style of a textbook, it includes essential ideas and just enough background material needed for readers to appreciate the issues and current research. Basics The first five chapters form the core of an introductory course on general relativity. The author traces Einstein’s arguments and presents examples of space-times corresponding to different types of gravitational fields. He discusses the adaptation of dynamics in a Riemannian geometry framework, the Einstein equation and its elementary properties, and different phenomena predicted or influenced by general relativity. Beyond Moving on to more sophisticated features of general relativity, the book presents the physical requirements of a well-defined de...

  19. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Introducing Disjoint and Independent Events in Probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, I. W.; Zwiers, F. W.

    Two central concepts in probability theory are those of independence and mutually exclusive events. This document is intended to provide suggestions to teachers that can be used to equip students with an intuitive, comprehensive understanding of these basic concepts in probability. The first section of the paper delineates mutually exclusive and…

  1. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Three basic topics are addressed for the disruptive event analysis: first, the range of disruptive consequences of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity; second, the possible reduction of the risk of disruption by volcanic activity through selective siting of a repository; and third, the quantification of the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity

  2. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    1975-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  3. Stereochemistry basic concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nógrádi, M

    2013-01-01

    Stereochemistry: Basic Concepts and Applications is a three-chapter text that introduces the basic principles and concepts of stereochemistry, as well as its application to organic chemistry application.Chapter 1 describes first the stereochemistry of the ground state, specifically the configuration and conformation of organic compounds, as well as the most important methods for its investigation. This chapter also deals with the kinetics of conformational changes and provides an overview of the so-called ""applied stereochemistry"". Chapter 2 focuses on the analysis of the internal motions of

  4. Nanotechnology Review: Molecular Electronics to Molecular Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Reviewing the status of current approaches and future projections, as already published in scientific journals and books, the talk will summarize the direction in which computational and experimental nanotechnologies are progressing. Examples of nanotechnological approaches to the concepts of design and simulation of carbon nanotube based molecular electronic and mechanical devices will be presented. The concepts of nanotube based gears and motors will be discussed. The above is a non-technical review talk which covers long term precompetitive basic research in already published material that has been presented before many US scientific meeting audiences.

  5. Transport properties of molecular junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of the physical mechanisms that control electron transport and the characteristics of metal-molecule-metal (MMM) junctions is presented. As far as possible, methods and formalisms presented elsewhere to analyze electron transport through molecules are avoided. This title introduces basic concepts—a description of the electron transport through molecular junctions—and briefly describes relevant experimental methods. Theoretical methods commonly used to analyze the electron transport through molecules are presented. Various effects that manifest in the electron transport through MMMs, as well as the basics of density-functional theory and its applications to electronic structure calculations in molecules are presented. Nanoelectronic applications of molecular junctions and similar systems are discussed as well. Molecular electronics is a diverse and rapidly growing field. Transport Properties of Molecular Junctions presents an up-to-date survey of the field suitable for researchers ...

  6. Molecular ion photofragment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamente, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    A new molecular ion photofragment spectrometer is described which features a supersonic molecular beam ion source and a radio frequency octapole ion trap interaction region. This unique combination allows several techniques to be applied to the problem of detecting a photon absorption event of a molecular ion. In particular, it may be possible to obtain low resolution survey spectra of exotic molecular ions by using a direct vibrational predissociation process, or by using other more indirect detection methods. The use of the spectrometer is demonstrated by measuring the lifetime of the O 2 + ( 4 π/sub u/) metastable state which is found to consist of two main components: the 4 π/sub 5/2/ and 4 π/sub -1/2/ spin components having a long lifetime (approx. 129 ms) and the 4 π/sub 3/2/ and 4 π/sub 1/2/ spin components having a short lifetime (approx. 6 ms)

  7. Magnetismo Molecular (Molecular Magentism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The new synthesis processes in chemistry open a new world of research, new and surprising materials never before found in nature can now be synthesized and, as a wonderful result, observed a series of physical phenomena never before imagined. Among these are many new materials the molecular magnets, the subject of this book and magnetic properties that are often reflections of the quantum behavior of these materials. Aside from the wonderful experience of exploring something new, the theoretical models that describe the behavior these magnetic materials are, in most cases, soluble analytically, which allows us to know in detail the physical mechanisms governing these materials. Still, the academic interest in parallel this subject, these materials have a number of properties that are promising to be used in technological devices, such as in computers quantum magnetic recording, magnetocaloric effect, spintronics and many other devices. This volume will journey through the world of molecular magnets, from the structural description of these materials to state of the art research.

  8. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2010-01-01

    The effect of event-dependent sampling of processes consisting of recurrent events is investigated when analyzing whether the risk of recurrence increases with event count. We study the situation where processes are selected for study if an event occurs in a certain selection interval. Motivation...... retrospective and prospective disease course histories are used. We examine two methods to correct for the selection depending on which data are used in the analysis. In the first case, the conditional distribution of the process given the pre-selection history is determined. In the second case, an inverse...

  9. Welding. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a basic welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (2 hours daily) course developed to teach the fundamentals of welding shop work, to become familiar with the operation of the welding shop…

  10. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  11. Guarani Basic Course, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert W.; And Others

    This volume of the basic course in Guarani (the indigenous language of Paraguay) contains the core stage, or class-instructional phase, of the ten units presented in Volume One. These units contain explanations, exercises, dialogues, various types of pattern drills, suggestions for games and communication activities, and various types of…

  12. Guarani Basic Course, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert W.; And Others

    This is the first in a two-volume basic course in Guarani, the indigenous language of Paraguay. The volume consists of an introduction to the Guarani language, some general principles for adult language-learning, and ten instructional units. Because the goal of the course is to encourage and lead the learner to communicate in Guarani in class and…

  13. Accounting & Finance; a Basic Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs. Ewoud Jansen

    2011-01-01

    The book is about finance and accounting, subjects widely discussed in many other books. What sets this book apart from most others is that it discusses all the basic aspects of finance and accounting in one single textbook. Three areas of interest are discussed: Financial Management; Management

  14. Basic biology in health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.

    1976-10-01

    This report describes the consequences of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living cells and tissues. The basic processes of living cells, which are relevant to an understanding of health physics problems, are outlined with particular reference to cell-death, cancer induction and genetic effects. (author)

  15. Basic Concepts of Surface Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degras, D A

    1974-07-01

    The basic concepts of surface physics are given in this paper which deals mainly with the thermodynamics of metal surfaces. one finds also a short review of vibrational and electronic properties. Written for a Summer School, the text provides numerous references.

  16. Play Therapy: Basics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Terry

    This book provides an atheoretical orientation to basic concepts involved in play therapy and an introduction to different skills used in play therapy. The demand for mental professionals and school counselors who have training and expertise in using play as a therapeutic tool when working with children has increased tremendously. In response to…

  17. Vocational Interests and Basic Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, Lilach

    2002-01-01

    Study 1 (n=97) provided evidence of the correlation of Holland's model of vocational interests with Schwartz' theory of basic values. Realistic career interests did not correlate with values. Study 2 (n=545) replicated these findings, showing a better match for individuals who had reached a career decision in counseling than for the undecided.…

  18. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erp, J.B. van [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report).

  19. Health care marketing: Basic features

    OpenAIRE

    Gajić-Stevanović Milena

    2006-01-01

    Paper discuss an introduction to importance's as well as challenges facing health care sector in many countries. Particular attention is devoted to the preconditions and/or basic requirements have to be developed in order to make health sector to functioned. Focusing to end users as well as employing marketing tools ought to be right orientation.

  20. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) - Basic Principles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 4. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) - Basic Principles. Bhaskar G Maiya. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 6-18. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/04/0006-0018 ...

  1. Basic Income on the Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, Loek; Veen, van der Robert-Jan

    2000-01-01

    Persisting unemployment, poverty and social exclusion, labour market flexibility, job insecurity and higher wage inequality, changing patterns of work and family life are among the factors that exert pressure on welfare states in Europe. This book explores the potential of an unconditional basic

  2. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erp, J.B. van

    1997-01-01

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report)

  3. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  4. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  5. Notes on basic materials (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, R.

    1976-01-01

    This lecture was a revision of basic material, intended for students who were mainly postgraduate at the end of their first year in experimental high energy physics. The subject headings include the following: notation and generalities; classification of particles; symmetry arguments; higher symmetries; SU 3 isoscalar factors; predictions from SU 3; charm; relativistic wave equations; Feynman graphical techniques. (U.K.)

  6. Breast Cancer Basics and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... more than 232,670 new cases of female breast cancer in the United States in 2014. More than ...

  7. Computer Assisted Instruction in Basic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-28

    LIBRARY........................16 Program Purpose.........................16 Flowcharts ..........................17 Lessons...17IFlowchart For Main Menu...............19 Flowchart for Lessons One Through Six......................20 CHAPTER Page Tests I1-6 .* 21 Flowchart For...Software support was limited to off-the-shelf packages. All of the computers were purchased with Beginners All Purpose Instruction Code (BASIC), a word

  8. Development of Quantitative Framework for Event Significance Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Durk Hun; Kim, Min Chull; Kim, Inn Seock

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing trend in quantitative evaluation of the safety significance of operational events using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) technique. An integrated framework for evaluation of event significance has been developed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), which consists of an assessment hierarchy and a number of matrices. The safety significance of various events, e.g., internal or external initiating events that occurred during at-power or shutdown conditions, can be quantitatively analyzed using this framework, and then, the events rated according to their significance. This paper briefly describes the basic concept of the integrated quantitative framework for evaluation of event significance, focusing on the assessment hierarchy

  9. Characterization of Morphological and Cellular Events Underlying Oral Regeneration in the Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldine R. Amiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarians, the extant sister group to bilateria, are well known for their impressive regenerative capacity. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a well-established system for the study of development and evolution that is receiving increased attention for its regenerative capacity. Nematostella is able to regrow missing body parts within five to six days after its bisection, yet studies describing the morphological, cellular, and molecular events underlying this process are sparse and very heterogeneous in their experimental approaches. In this study, we lay down the basic framework to study oral regeneration in Nematostella vectensis. Using various imaging and staining techniques we characterize in detail the morphological, cellular, and global molecular events that define specific landmarks of this process. Furthermore, we describe in vivo assays to evaluate wound healing success and the initiation of pharynx reformation. Using our described landmarks for regeneration and in vivo assays, we analyze the effects of perturbing either transcription or cellular proliferation on the regenerative process. Interestingly, neither one of these experimental perturbations has major effects on wound closure, although they slightly delay or partially block it. We further show that while the inhibition of transcription blocks regeneration in a very early step, inhibiting cellular proliferation only affects later events such as pharynx reformation and tentacle elongation.

  10. Event generators for address event representation transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares Barranco, Bernabe

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. In a typical AER transmitter chip, there is an array of neurons that generate events. They send events to a peripheral circuitry (let's call it "AER Generator") that transforms those events to neurons coordinates (addresses) which are put sequentially on an interchip high speed digital bus. This bus includes a parallel multi-bit address word plus a Rqst (request) and Ack (acknowledge) handshaking signals for asynchronous data exchange. There have been two main approaches published in the literature for implementing such "AER Generator" circuits. They differ on the way of handling event collisions coming from the array of neurons. One approach is based on detecting and discarding collisions, while the other incorporates arbitration for sequencing colliding events . The first approach is supposed to be simpler and faster, while the second is able to handle much higher event traffic. In this article we will concentrate on the second arbiter-based approach. Boahen has been publishing several techniques for implementing and improving the arbiter based approach. Originally, he proposed an arbitration squeme by rows, followed by a column arbitration. In this scheme, while one neuron was selected by the arbiters to transmit his event out of the chip, the rest of neurons in the array were

  11. 10 CFR 431.385 - Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... basic model of an electric motor. (a) In the event that a model of an electric motor is determined non... a model of an electric motor to be in noncompliance, then the manufacturer or private labeler shall... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cessation of distribution of a basic model of an electric...

  12. Event-by-event jet quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.J.; Rodriguez, R.; Ramirez, E.

    2010-08-14

    High momentum jets and hadrons can be used as probes for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. We investigate the influence of fluctuations in the fireball on jet quenching observables by comparing propagation of light quarks and gluons through averaged, smooth QGP fireballs with event-by-event jet quenching using realistic inhomogeneous fireballs. We find that the transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} can be fit well in an event-by-event quenching scenario within experimental errors. However the transport coefficient {cflx q} extracted from fits to the measured nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in averaged fireballs underestimates the value from event-by-event calculations by up to 50%. On the other hand, after adjusting {cflx q} to fit R{sub AA} in the event-by-event analysis we find residual deviations in the azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} and in two-particle correlations, that provide a possible faint signature for a spatial tomography of the fireball. We discuss a correlation function that is a measure for spatial inhomogeneities in a collision and can be constrained from data.

  13. Event-by-event jet quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R. [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Fries, R.J., E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.ed [Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); RIKEN/BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ramirez, E. [Physics Department, University of Texas El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2010-09-27

    High momentum jets and hadrons can be used as probes for the quark gluon plasma (QGP) formed in nuclear collisions at high energies. We investigate the influence of fluctuations in the fireball on jet quenching observables by comparing propagation of light quarks and gluons through averaged, smooth QGP fireballs with event-by-event jet quenching using realistic inhomogeneous fireballs. We find that the transverse momentum and impact parameter dependence of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} can be fit well in an event-by-event quenching scenario within experimental errors. However the transport coefficient q extracted from fits to the measured nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in averaged fireballs underestimates the value from event-by-event calculations by up to 50%. On the other hand, after adjusting q to fit R{sub AA} in the event-by-event analysis we find residual deviations in the azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} and in two-particle correlations, that provide a possible faint signature for a spatial tomography of the fireball. We discuss a correlation function that is a measure for spatial inhomogeneities in a collision and can be constrained from data.

  14. Event-by-event fluctuations at SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Appelshauser, Harald; Adamova, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Belaga, V.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Castillo, A.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanovic, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Esumi, S.I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glassel, P.; Hering, G.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Lenkeit, B.; Ludolphs, W.; Maas, A.; Marn, A.; Milosevic, J.; Milov, A.; Miskowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petracek, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Schmitz, W.; Schukraft, J.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Slvova, J.; Stachel, J.; Sumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J.P.; Wienold, T.; Windelband, B.; Wurm, J.P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.; Appelshauser, Harald; Sako, Hiro

    2005-01-01

    Results on event-by-event fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum and net charge in Pb-Au collisions, measured by the CERES Collaboration at CERN-SPS, are presented. We discuss the centrality and beam energy dependence and compare our data to cascade calculations.

  15. Bringing molecules back into molecular evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus O Wilke

    Full Text Available Much molecular-evolution research is concerned with sequence analysis. Yet these sequences represent real, three-dimensional molecules with complex structure and function. Here I highlight a growing trend in the field to incorporate molecular structure and function into computational molecular-evolution work. I consider three focus areas: reconstruction and analysis of past evolutionary events, such as phylogenetic inference or methods to infer selection pressures; development of toy models and simulations to identify fundamental principles of molecular evolution; and atom-level, highly realistic computational modeling of molecular structure and function aimed at making predictions about possible future evolutionary events.

  16. Molecular hematology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Provan, Drew; Gribben, John

    2010-01-01

    ... The molecular basis of hemophilia, 219 Paul LF Giangrande 4 The genetics of acute myeloid leukemias, 42 Carolyn J Owen & Jude Fitzgibbon 19 The molecular basis of von Willebrand disease, 233 Luciano Baronc...

  17. Basics of modern mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Spokoiny, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified and self-contained presentation of the main approaches to and ideas of mathematical statistics. It collects the basic mathematical ideas and tools needed as a basis for more serious studies or even independent research in statistics. The majority of existing textbooks in mathematical statistics follow the classical asymptotic framework. Yet, as modern statistics has changed rapidly in recent years, new methods and approaches have appeared. The emphasis is on finite sample behavior, large parameter dimensions, and model misspecifications. The present book provides a fully self-contained introduction to the world of modern mathematical statistics, collecting the basic knowledge, concepts and findings needed for doing further research in the modern theoretical and applied statistics. This textbook is primarily intended for graduate and postdoc students and young researchers who are interested in modern statistical methods.

  18. Basic concepts in computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stickler, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    This new edition is a concise introduction to the basic methods of computational physics. Readers will discover the benefits of numerical methods for solving complex mathematical problems and for the direct simulation of physical processes. The book is divided into two main parts: Deterministic methods and stochastic methods in computational physics. Based on concrete problems, the first part discusses numerical differentiation and integration, as well as the treatment of ordinary differential equations. This is extended by a brief introduction to the numerics of partial differential equations. The second part deals with the generation of random numbers, summarizes the basics of stochastics, and subsequently introduces Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Specific emphasis is on MARKOV chain MC algorithms. The final two chapters discuss data analysis and stochastic optimization. All this is again motivated and augmented by applications from physics. In addition, the book offers a number of appendices to provide the read...

  19. Basic metallurgy for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    For this chapter, reader will be served with the basic knowledge on metallurgy for nondestructive testing. One the main application of nondestructive testing is to detect discontinuity of mass defect in metal. As we already know, metal are widely used in many application such as in building as a system, component and engineering product. Steel and iron are metal that usually used in industry, especially heavy industry such as gas and petroleum industry, chemistry, electric generation, automobile, and military device. Based on this, basic knowledge on metallurgy must need by NDT practitioner. The combination between metallurgy and datas from radiography testing can make radiographer good interpretation on quality of the metal inspected and can used to make a good decision either to accept or not certain product, system or components.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinides, Christakis

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a rapidly developing field in basic applied science and clinical practice. Research efforts in this area have already been recognized with five Nobel prizes awarded to seven Nobel laureates in the past 70 years. Based on courses taught at The Johns Hopkins University, Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Basics provides a solid introduction to this powerful technology. The book begins with a general description of the phenomenon of magnetic resonance and a brief summary of Fourier transformations in two dimensions. It examines the fundamental principles of physics for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal formation and image construction and provides a detailed explanation of the mathematical formulation of MRI. Numerous image quantitative indices are discussed, including (among others) signal, noise, signal-to-noise, contrast, and resolution. The second part of the book examines the hardware and electronics of an MRI scanner and the typical measurements and simulations of m...

  1. Positron emission tomography basic sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, D W; Valk, P E; Maisey, M N

    2003-01-01

    Essential for students, science and medical graduates who want to understand the basic science of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this book describes the physics, chemistry, technology and overview of the clinical uses behind the science of PET and the imaging techniques it uses. In recent years, PET has moved from high-end research imaging tool used by the highly specialized to an essential component of clinical evaluation in the clinic, especially in cancer management. Previously being the realm of scientists, this book explains PET instrumentation, radiochemistry, PET data acquisition and image formation, integration of structural and functional images, radiation dosimetry and protection, and applications in dedicated areas such as drug development, oncology, and gene expression imaging. The technologist, the science, engineering or chemistry graduate seeking further detailed information about PET, or the medical advanced trainee wishing to gain insight into the basic science of PET will find this book...

  2. Health insurance basic actuarial models

    CERN Document Server

    Pitacco, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...

  3. Increasing the power of accelerated molecular dynamics methods and plans to exploit the coming exascale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voter, Arthur

    Many important materials processes take place on time scales that far exceed the roughly one microsecond accessible to molecular dynamics simulation. Typically, this long-time evolution is characterized by a succession of thermally activated infrequent events involving defects in the material. In the accelerated molecular dynamics (AMD) methodology, known characteristics of infrequent-event systems are exploited to make reactive events take place more frequently, in a dynamically correct way. For certain processes, this approach has been remarkably successful, offering a view of complex dynamical evolution on time scales of microseconds, milliseconds, and sometimes beyond. We have recently made advances in all three of the basic AMD methods (hyperdynamics, parallel replica dynamics, and temperature accelerated dynamics (TAD)), exploiting both algorithmic advances and novel parallelization approaches. I will describe these advances, present some examples of our latest results, and discuss what should be possible when exascale computing arrives in roughly five years. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, and by the Los Alamos Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  4. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  5. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics conversion of organic and inorganic matter sedimentation aeration The theory presented in this volume forms the basis upon which the other books...

  6. Positron emission tomography. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Massardo, Teresa; Gonzalez, Patricio

    2001-01-01

    The basic principles of positron emission tomography (PET) technique are reviewed. lt allows to obtain functional images from gamma rays produced by annihilation of a positron, a positive beta particle. This paper analyzes positron emitters production in a cyclotron, its general mechanisms, and the various detection systems. The most important clinical applications are also mentioned, related to oncological uses of fluor-l8-deoxyglucose

  7. Basic statistics for social research

    CERN Document Server

    Hanneman, Robert A; Riddle, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    A core statistics text that emphasizes logical inquiry, notmath Basic Statistics for Social Research teaches core generalstatistical concepts and methods that all social science majorsmust master to understand (and do) social research. Its use ofmathematics and theory are deliberately limited, as the authorsfocus on the use of concepts and tools of statistics in theanalysis of social science data, rather than on the mathematicaland computational aspects. Research questions and applications aretaken from a wide variety of subfields in sociology, and eachchapter is organized arou

  8. A basic guide to investing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael C

    2006-03-01

    Today's investors have many choices. From seemingly simple investments, such as stocks, bonds and cash, to more complicated option strategies, there is a dizzying array of investment vehicles that can leave even the most seasoned investor a bit confused. In discussions with our clients, one common thread is the desire to learn more about the various types of investments available. Following is a basic guide to the most common investments and the risks inherent in those choices.

  9. BLAS- BASIC LINEAR ALGEBRA SUBPROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is a collection of FORTRAN callable routines for employing standard techniques in performing the basic operations of numerical linear algebra. The BLAS library was developed to provide a portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebraic computations. The subprograms available in the library cover the operations of dot product, multiplication of a scalar and a vector, vector plus a scalar times a vector, Givens transformation, modified Givens transformation, copy, swap, Euclidean norm, sum of magnitudes, and location of the largest magnitude element. Since these subprograms are to be used in an ANSI FORTRAN context, the cases of single precision, double precision, and complex data are provided for. All of the subprograms have been thoroughly tested and produce consistent results even when transported from machine to machine. BLAS contains Assembler versions and FORTRAN test code for any of the following compilers: Lahey F77L, Microsoft FORTRAN, or IBM Professional FORTRAN. It requires the Microsoft Macro Assembler and a math co-processor. The PC implementation allows individual arrays of over 64K. The BLAS library was developed in 1979. The PC version was made available in 1986 and updated in 1988.

  10. Hurdles in Basic Science Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Perry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past century there have been incredible advances in the field of medical research, but what hinders translation of this knowledge into effective treatment for human disease? There is an increasing focus on the failure of many research breakthroughs to be translated through the clinical trial process and into medical practice. In this mini review, we will consider some of the reasons that findings in basic medical research fail to become translated through clinical trials and into basic medical practices. We focus in particular on the way that human disease is modeled, the understanding we have of how our targets behave in vivo, and also some of the issues surrounding reproducibility of basic research findings. We will also look at some of the ways that have been proposed for overcoming these issues. It appears that there needs to be a cultural shift in the way we fund, publish and recognize quality control in scientific research. Although this is a daunting proposition, we hope that with increasing awareness and focus on research translation and the hurdles that impede it, the field of medical research will continue to inform and improve medical practice across the world.

  11. Research into basic rocks types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km 2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  12. Readers in Adult Basic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Adrienne E; Kim, Young-Suk; Tighe, Elizabeth L; Vorstius, Christian

    The present study explored the reading skills of a sample of 48 adults enrolled in a basic education program in northern Florida, United States. Previous research has reported on reading component skills for students in adult education settings, but little is known about eye movement patterns or their relation to reading skills for this population. In this study, reading component skills including decoding, language comprehension, and reading fluency are reported, as are eye movement variables for connected-text oral reading. Eye movement comparisons between individuals with higher and lower oral reading fluency revealed within- and between-subject effects for word frequency and word length as well as group and word frequency interactions. Bivariate correlations indicated strong relations between component skills of reading, eye movement measures, and both the Test of Adult Basic Education ( Reading subtest) and the Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic Reading Battery Passage Comprehension assessments. Regression analyses revealed the utility of decoding, language comprehension, and lexical activation time for predicting achievement on both the Woodcock Johnson III Passage Comprehension and the Test of Adult Basic Education Reading Comprehension.

  13. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  14. Teaching molecular genetics: Chapter 1--Background principles and methods of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoers, Nine V A M; Monnens, Leo A H

    2006-02-01

    In this first chapter of the series "Teaching molecular genetics," an introduction to molecular genetics is presented. We describe the structure of DNA and genes and explain in detail the central dogma of molecular biology, that is, the flow of genetic information from DNA via RNA to polypeptide (protein). In addition, several basic and frequently used general molecular tools, such as restriction enzymes, Southern blotting, DNA amplification and sequencing are discussed, in order to lay the foundations for the forthcoming chapters.

  15. Basic Color Terms in Estonian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Liivi; Sutrop, Urmas

    2011-01-01

    The article is written in the tradition of Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's theory of basic color terms. According to this theory there is a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms of any given language are always drawn. The number of basic color terms varies from 2 to 11 and in a language having a fully…

  16. Dynamics of Charged Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachas, Constantin; Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc

    2009-01-01

    In three spacetime dimensions the world volume of a magnetic source is a single point, an event. We make the event dynamical by regarding it as the imprint of a flux-carrying particle impinging from an extra dimension. This can be generalized to higher spacetime dimensions and to extended events. We exhibit universal observable consequences of the existence of events and argue that events are as important as particles or branes. We explain how events arise on the world volume of membranes in M theory, and in a Josephson junction in superconductivity.

  17. The global event system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, J.

    1994-01-01

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different

  18. A formal modeling approach for supply chain event management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, R.; Kumar, Akhil; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2007-01-01

    As supply chains become more dynamic, there is a need for a sense-and-respond capability to react to events in a real-time manner. In this paper, we propose Petri nets extended with time and color (to represent case data) as a formalism for managing events. We designed seven basic patterns to

  19. Event by event physics in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Christakoglou, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities are fundamental for the study of the QGP phase transition. The ALICE experiment is well suited for precise event-by-event measurements of various quantities. In this article, we review the capabilities of ALICE to study the fluctuations of several key observables such as the net charge, the temperature, and the particle ratios. Among the observables related to correlations, we review the balance functions and the long range correlations.

  20. Molecular MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleige, G.; Hamm, B.

    2000-01-01

    Basic medicobiological research in recent years has made rapid advances in the functional understanding of normal and pathological processes down to the molecular level. At the same time, various imaging modalities have developed from the depiction of organs to approaching the depiction of the cellular level and are about to make the visualization of molecular processes an established procedure. Besides other modalities like PET and near-infrared fluorescence, MR imaging offers some promising options for molecular imaging as well as some applications that have already been tested such as the visualization of enzyme activity, the depiction of the expression of certain genes, the visualization of surface receptors, or the specific demonstration of cells involved in the body's immune response. A major advantage of molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) over other more sensitive modalities is its high spatial resolution. However, the establishment of mMRI crucially relies on further improvements in resolution and the development of molecular markers for improving its sensitivity and specificity. The state of the art of mMRI is presented by giving a survey of the literature on experimental studies and reporting the results our study group obtained during investigation on gliomas. (orig.) [de

  1. Chiroptical Molecular Switches 1; Principles and Syntheses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Ben de; Jager, Wolter F.; Feringa, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    The concept and the synthesis of the basic molecules for a chiroptical molecular switch are described. This molecular switch is based on photochemical interconversion of two bistable forms of chiral sterically overcrowded olefins. A large variety of these alkenes with different properties have been

  2. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging strives to visualize processes in living subjects at the molecular level. Monitoring biochemical processes at this level will allow us to directly track biological processes and signaling events that lead to pathophysiological abnormalities, and help make personalized medicine a reality by allowing evaluation of therapeutic efficacies on an individual basis. Although most molecular imaging techniques emerged from the field of oncology, they have now gradually gained acceptance by the cardiovascular community. Hence, the availability of dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems and specific targeting imaging probes is now enhancing our understanding of cardiovascular diseases and expediting the development of newer therapies. Examples include imaging approaches to evaluate and track the progress of recent genetic and cellular therapies for treatment of myocardial ischemia. Other areas include in vivo monitoring of such key molecular processes as angiogenesis and apoptosis. Cardiovascular molecular imaging is already an important research tool in preclinical experiments. The challenge that lies ahead is to implement these techniques into the clinics so that they may help fulfill the promise of molecular therapies and personalized medicine, as well as to resolve disappointments and controversies surrounding the field

  3. Computational challenges in modeling gene regulatory events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataskar, Abhijeet; Tiwari, Vijay K

    2016-10-19

    Cellular transcriptional programs driven by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms could be better understood by integrating "omics" data and subsequently modeling the gene-regulatory events. Toward this end, computational biology should keep pace with evolving experimental procedures and data availability. This article gives an exemplified account of the current computational challenges in molecular biology.

  4. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2016-06-14

    Jun 14, 2016 ... Approved by the Management Executive Committee. - 1 - ... Event ‒ represents activities related to IDRC operations and may include both ... Events include business meetings; corporate, branch or divisional management.

  5. Initiating events frequency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; Vukovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes work performed for the Nuclear Power Station (NPS). Work is related to the periodic initiating events frequency update for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Data for all relevant NPS initiating events (IE) were reviewed. The main focus was on events occurring during most recent operating history (i.e., last four years). The final IE frequencies were estimated by incorporating both NPS experience and nuclear industry experience. Each event was categorized according to NPS individual plant examination (IPE) initiating events grouping approach. For the majority of the IE groups, few, or no events have occurred at the NPS. For those IE groups with few or no NPS events, the final estimate was made by means of a Bayesian update with general nuclear industry values. Exceptions are rare loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCA) events, where evaluation of engineering aspects is used in order to determine frequency.(author)

  6. Agronomic Use of Basic Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Oliveiri de Nobile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern civilization, in recent years, has increased the requirement of products derived from iron and steel, stimulating the growth of the national siderurgical sector and, consequently, the generation of industrial residue called basic slag. In this context, the recycling of residues can contribute to solve problems of the industries that give priority to the excellence of the production with quality. On the other hand, there is a sector of primary production in Brazil, the agriculture, with a great cultivated area in acid ground and with low fertility, being these factors admittedly determinative for vegetal production, under tropical conditions. Thus, there is a scenery of two primary sectors of production, although distinct ones, that present interaction potential, for , on one hand, there is disponibility of a product with similar properties to the liming materials and traditional fertilizers and, on the other hand, a production sector that is highly dependent of these products. And the interaction between these two sectors helps in the preservation of the environment, bringing, thus, a certain sustainability in the production systems of the postmodern civilization that will be the challenge of this new century. Considering the current possibility of recycling these industrial residues in agriculture, three important factors have to be taken into account. The first would be the proper use of the abundant, available and promising industrial residue; the second, in a propitious agricultural environment, acid soil and low fertility; and third, in a responsive and important socio-economic culture, the sugar cane, considering its vast cultivated area. In national literature, few works have dealt with the use of the basic slag and have evaluated the reply of the cultures to its application. Thus, the present work had as its aim to gather information from literature concerning the characterization and production of basic slag in Brazil, as well

  7. Molecular Force Spectroscopy on Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoyu; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Molecular force spectroscopy has become a powerful tool to study how mechanics regulates biology, especially the mechanical regulation of molecular interactions and its impact on cellular functions. This force-driven methodology has uncovered a wealth of new information of the physical chemistry of molecular bonds for various biological systems. The new concepts, qualitative and quantitative measures describing bond behavior under force, and structural bases underlying these phenomena have substantially advanced our fundamental understanding of the inner workings of biological systems from the nanoscale (molecule) to the microscale (cell), elucidated basic molecular mechanisms of a wide range of important biological processes, and provided opportunities for engineering applications. Here, we review major force spectroscopic assays, conceptual developments of mechanically regulated kinetics of molecular interactions, and their biological relevance. We also present current challenges and highlight future directions.

  8. Advertising Effectiveness In Events

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sushilkumar

    2012-01-01

    Confronted with decreasing effectiveness of the classic marketing communications, events have become an increasingly popular alternative for marketers. Events constitute one of the most exciting and fastest growing forms of leisure and business. With time, the decreasing effectiveness of classical marketing communications boosted the use of events for marketing and making brand awareness. Event marketing is seen as the unique opportunity to integrate the firm’s communication activities like p...

  9. Paediatric airway management: basic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Knudsen, R J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    Paediatric airway management is a great challenge, especially for anaesthesiologists working in departments with a low number of paediatric surgical procedures. The paediatric airway is substantially different from the adult airway and obstruction leads to rapid desaturation in infants and small...... children. This paper aims at providing the non-paediatric anaesthesiologist with a set of safe and simple principles for basic paediatric airway management. In contrast to adults, most children with difficult airways are recognised before induction of anaesthesia but problems may arise in all children...

  10. Basic Elements of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom, knowledge sources (internal, external, and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social. Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization. At the end of the article there is mentioned the knowledge creating process (the concept of knowledge creation spiral and the role of Intelligence Technology (IT and organizational culture as main elements supporting knowledge management implementation in organizations.

  11. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  12. Security basics for computer architects

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Ruby B

    2013-01-01

    Design for security is an essential aspect of the design of future computers. However, security is not well understood by the computer architecture community. Many important security aspects have evolved over the last several decades in the cryptography, operating systems, and networking communities. This book attempts to introduce the computer architecture student, researcher, or practitioner to the basic concepts of security and threat-based design. Past work in different security communities can inform our thinking and provide a rich set of technologies for building architectural support fo

  13. Combustion from basics to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lackner, Maximilian; Winter, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Combustion, the process of burning, is defined as a chemical reaction between a combustible reactant (the fuel) and an oxidizing agent (such as air) in order to produce heat and in most cases light while new chemical species (e.g., flue gas components) are formed. This book covers a gap on the market by providing a concise introduction to combustion. Most of the other books currently available are targeted towards the experienced users and contain too many details and/or contain knowledge at a fairly high level. This book provides a brief and clear overview of the combustion basics, suitable f

  14. Administration of medicines. Midwifery basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Helen

    2002-04-01

    Midwifery Basics is a series of articles that cover the main clinical skills underpinning midwifery practice. The series uses National Occupational Standards (Care Sector Consortium 1998) as a framework to identify the areas of competence that students need to achieve in order to master clinical skills. This format is combined with the use of 'triggers' to prompt the student to identify what she needs to know in order to care for a client in such a situation. The information that follows then enables the student to fill in the gaps in her knowledge.

  15. Basic concepts of materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of accounting for nuclear materials to the efficient, safe, and economical operation of nuclear facilities is introduced, and the following topics are covered: material balance equation; item control areas; material balance uncertainty; decision procedures for materials accounting; conventional and near-real-time accounting; regulatory requirements of the US Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and a summary related to the development of a materials accounting system to implement the basic concepts described. The summary includes a section on each of the following: problem definition, system objectives, and system design

  16. Basic optics of effect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven A

    2010-01-01

    Effect materials derive their color and effect primarily from thin-film interference. Effect materials have evolved over the decades from simple guanine crystals to the complex multilayer optical structures of today. The development of new complex effect materials requires an understanding of the optics of effect materials. Such an understanding would also benefit the cosmetic formulator as these new effect materials are introduced. The root of this understanding begins with basic optics. This paper covers the nature of light, interference of waves, thin-film interference, color from interference, and color travel.

  17. Basic reactions induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesby, A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarises some of the basic reactions resulting from exposure to high energy radiation. In the initial stages energy is absorbed, but not necessarily at random, giving radical and ion species which may then react to promote the final chemical change. However, it is possible to intervene at intermediate stages to modify or reduce the radiation effect. Under certain conditions enhanced reactions are also possible. Several expressions are given to calculate radiation yield in terms of energy absorbed. Some analogies between radiation-induced reactions in polymers, and those studied in radiobiology are outlined. (author)

  18. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  19. Basic photovoltaic principles and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

    1982-02-01

    This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

  20. A Mosque event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten; Neergaard, Maja de; Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2017-01-01

    and public imaginations attached to it. And they are connected to a specific event – the opening of the mosque. In the first part, a conceptual framework is presented bringing together literature on three notions: encounters, visibility and the event. Following this, the paper explores the opening event...

  1. Discrete event systems diagnosis and diagnosability

    CERN Document Server

    Sayed-Mouchaweh, Moamar

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Event Systems: Diagnosis and Diagnosability addresses the problem of fault diagnosis of Discrete Event Systems (DES). This book provides the basic techniques and approaches necessary for the design of an efficient fault diagnosis system for a wide range of modern engineering applications. The different techniques and approaches are classified according to several criteria such as: modeling tools (Automata, Petri nets) that is used to construct the model; the information (qualitative based on events occurrences and/or states outputs, quantitative based on signal processing and data analysis) that is needed to analyze and achieve the diagnosis; the decision structure (centralized, decentralized) that is required to achieve the diagnosis. The goal of this classification is to select the efficient method to achieve the fault diagnosis according to the application constraints. This book focuses on the centralized and decentralized event based diagnosis approaches using formal language and automata as mode...

  2. Specific Reaction Patterns to Distinct Positive Emotional Cues Related to Incentive Motivation in Dependence of the Taq1A-Polymorphism: Molecular Genetic Associations of Early and Late Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Aisha J L; Wielpuetz, Catrin; Osinsky, Roman; Müller, Erik M; Grant, Phillip; Hennig, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Early and late event-related potential (ERP) responses, representing early subconscious and late motivational processes, were recorded for positive emotional words related to 'wanting' and 'liking', in dependence of the dopamine-related Taq1A genotype (ANKK1/DRD2). Research suggests that 'wanting' as opposed to 'liking' is related to dopaminergic processes. Therefore, it was hypothesized that risk allele carriers of the Taq1A polymorphism exhibit late ERP changes in reaction to words representing incentive motivation, i.e. 'wanting' (word categories 'lust' and 'anticipation'), but not to words representing 'liking' ('closeness'). Seventy-two male participants performed an emotional-word Stroop task during EEG recording and were genotyped according to the Taq1A polymorphism of ANKK1/DRD2. Positive emotional words related to anticipation and lust revealed blunted responses in the late positive potential (LPP) in carriers of the A1 allele, an effect absent in response to 'liking'-related words. These differences were not evident in the earlier posterior negativity (EPN). As no differences in dependence of the Taq1A genotype were observed in reaction to 'wanting'- and 'liking'-related words in the EPN, but merely in the LPP, it can be assumed that incentive-motivational stimuli only modify motivation-related ERP responses in carriers of the A1 allele of the Taq1A polymorphism, indicating the role of dopamine in late ERP components. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Development of a Basic Professional Educational Programs for Teacher Training according to Teacher Professional Standart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtarieva R.F.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A teaching position involves professional activities in keeping with professional standards, as well as competences and knowledge necessary for it. Development of a basic professional educational program improves teacher training to make it more practice-oriented, so the ability of the future teacher to act according to the professional standard becomes basic educational result. The article describes the features of our basic professional educational program for teaching training, developed according to professional standards and peculiarities of professional activity. The basic professional program consists of modules developed in the light of idea of “eventness” when Incoming or Outcoming Event means the level of ability to professional performance.

  4. Basic entwinements: unassuming analogue inserts in basic digital modeling (courses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    between the various intentions and the student’s actual grasp of the many basic architectural element’s interplays of form and space can become apparent. To alleviate, calibrate and cognitively fine-tune the potential for more acute and lasting cognitive understandings of (scaled) body and space...... of options for speedily produced material for various attuned and conscious, supplementary oblique architectural assessments. The simple procedure(s) advance a certain amount of beneficial cognitive complementarities: Beneficial interplay-changes between right and left brain concentrations; Change...... of tactility (whole hand gestures v/s mouse directed fixed “digits”); Fast production of simple material to re-assess various architectural spatial conditions; Fast toggling between scale/scaleless, conceptual-abstract/ and figurative/concrete; The fast exercises permit various interactive dealings, opening up...

  5. Basic logic and quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zizzi, P A

    2007-01-01

    As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing

  6. Basic logic and quantum entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizzi, P A [Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, Via Trieste 63, 35121 Padova (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    As it is well known, quantum entanglement is one of the most important features of quantum computing, as it leads to massive quantum parallelism, hence to exponential computational speed-up. In a sense, quantum entanglement is considered as an implicit property of quantum computation itself. But... can it be made explicit? In other words, is it possible to find the connective 'entanglement' in a logical sequent calculus for the machine language? And also, is it possible to 'teach' the quantum computer to 'mimic' the EPR 'paradox'? The answer is in the affirmative, if the logical sequent calculus is that of the weakest possible logic, namely Basic logic. - A weak logic has few structural rules. But in logic, a weak structure leaves more room for connectives (for example the connective 'entanglement'). Furthermore, the absence in Basic logic of the two structural rules of contraction and weakening corresponds to the validity of the no-cloning and no-erase theorems, respectively, in quantum computing.

  7. Fundamentals of neurogastroenterology: basic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, David; Al-Chaer, Elie D; Aziz, Qasim; Collins, Stephen M; Ke, Meiyun; Taché, Yvette; Wood, Jackie D

    2006-04-01

    The focus of neurogastroenterology in Rome II was the enteric nervous system (ENS). To avoid duplication with Rome II, only advances in ENS neurobiology after Rome II are reviewed together with stronger emphasis on interactions of the brain, spinal cord, and the gut in terms of relevance for abdominal pain and disordered gastrointestinal function. A committee with expertise in selective aspects of neurogastroenterology was invited to evaluate the literature and provide a consensus overview of the Fundamentals of Neurogastroenterology textbook as they relate to functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). This review is an abbreviated version of a fuller account that appears in the forthcoming book, Rome III. This report reviews current basic science understanding of visceral sensation and its modulation by inflammation and stress and advances in the neurophysiology of the ENS. Many of the concepts are derived from animal studies in which the physiologic mechanisms underlying visceral sensitivity and neural control of motility, secretion, and blood flow are examined. Impact of inflammation and stress in experimental models relative to FGIDs is reviewed as is human brain imaging, which provides a means for translating basic science to understanding FGID symptoms. Investigative evidence and emerging concepts implicate dysfunction in the nervous system as a significant factor underlying patient symptoms in FGIDs. Continued focus on neurogastroenterologic factors that underlie the development of symptoms will lead to mechanistic understanding that is expected to directly benefit the large contingent of patients and care-givers who deal with FGIDs.

  8. Use of the Hadoop structured storage tools for the ATLAS EventIndex event catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Favareto, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration; Cardenas Zarate, Simon Ernesto; Cranshaw, Jack; Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Hrivnac, Julius; Malon, David; Prokoshin, Fedor; Salt, Jose; Sanchez, Javier; Toebbicke, Rainer; Yuan, Ruijun; Garcia Montoro, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment collects billions of events per year of data-taking, and processes them to make them available for physics analysis in several different formats. An even larger amount of events is in addition simulated according to physics and detector models and then reconstructed and analysed to be compared to real events. The EventIndex is a catalogue of all events in each production stage; it includes for each event a few identification parameters, some basic non-mutable information coming from the online system, and the references to the files that contain the event in each format (plus the internal pointers to the event within each file for quick retrieval). Each EventIndex record is logically simple but the system has to hold many tens of billions of records, all equally important. The Hadoop technology was selected at the start of the EventIndex project development in 2012 and proved to be robust and flexible to accommodate this kind of information; both the insertion times and query response tim...

  9. Virtual immunology: software for teaching basic immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berçot, Filipe Faria; Fidalgo-Neto, Antônio Augusto; Lopes, Renato Matos; Faggioni, Thais; Alves, Luiz Anastácio

    2013-01-01

    As immunology continues to evolve, many educational methods have found difficulty in conveying the degree of complexity inherent in its basic principles. Today, the teaching-learning process in such areas has been improved with tools such as educational software. This article introduces "Virtual Immunology," a software program available free of charge in Portuguese and English, which can be used by teachers and students in physiology, immunology, and cellular biology classes. We discuss the development of the initial two modules: "Organs and Lymphoid Tissues" and "Inflammation" and the use of interactive activities to provide microscopic and macroscopic understanding in immunology. Students, both graduate and undergraduate, were questioned along with university level professors about the quality of the software and intuitiveness of use, facility of navigation, and aesthetic organization using a Likert scale. An overwhelmingly satisfactory result was obtained with both students and immunology teachers. Programs such as "Virtual Immunology" are offering more interactive, multimedia approaches to complex scientific principles that increase student motivation, interest, and comprehension. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Event-by-Event Observables and Fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    In this talk the status and open questions of the phenomenological description of all the stages of a heavy ion reaction are highlighted. Special emphasis is put on event-by-event fluctuations and associated observables. The first part is concentrated on high RHIC and LHC energies and the second part reviews the challenges for modeling heavy ion reactions at lower beam energies in a more realistic fashion. Overall, the main conclusion is that sophisticated theoretical dynamical approaches that describe many observables in the same framework are essential for the quantitative understanding of the properties of hot and dense nuclear matter

  11. Diet, lifestyle, and molecular alterations that drive colorectal carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors have been repeatedly implicated in the etiology of colorectal cancer, and much is known about the molecular events involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The relationships between environmental risk factors and the molecular alterations that drive colorectal carcinogenesis are

  12. Basic algebraic geometry, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Shafarevich, Igor Rostislavovich

    1994-01-01

    Shafarevich Basic Algebraic Geometry 2 The second edition of Shafarevich's introduction to algebraic geometry is in two volumes. The second volume covers schemes and complex manifolds, generalisations in two different directions of the affine and projective varieties that form the material of the first volume. Two notable additions in this second edition are the section on moduli spaces and representable functors, motivated by a discussion of the Hilbert scheme, and the section on Kähler geometry. The book ends with a historical sketch discussing the origins of algebraic geometry. From the Zentralblatt review of this volume: "... one can only respectfully repeat what has been said about the first part of the book (...): a great textbook, written by one of the leading algebraic geometers and teachers himself, has been reworked and updated. As a result the author's standard textbook on algebraic geometry has become even more important and valuable. Students, teachers, and active researchers using methods of al...

  13. Benchmarking Using Basic DBMS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crolotte, Alain; Ghazal, Ahmad

    The TPC-H benchmark proved to be successful in the decision support area. Many commercial database vendors and their related hardware vendors used these benchmarks to show the superiority and competitive edge of their products. However, over time, the TPC-H became less representative of industry trends as vendors keep tuning their database to this benchmark-specific workload. In this paper, we present XMarq, a simple benchmark framework that can be used to compare various software/hardware combinations. Our benchmark model is currently composed of 25 queries that measure the performance of basic operations such as scans, aggregations, joins and index access. This benchmark model is based on the TPC-H data model due to its maturity and well-understood data generation capability. We also propose metrics to evaluate single-system performance and compare two systems. Finally we illustrate the effectiveness of this model by showing experimental results comparing two systems under different conditions.

  14. Electrochemistry. The basics, with examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefrou, Christine [LEPMI, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Poignet, Jean-Claude; Fabry, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    This book offers original and new approaches to the teaching of electrochemical concepts, principles and applications. Throughout the text the authors provide a balanced coverage of the thermodynamic and kinetic processes at the heart of electrochemical systems. The first half of the book outlines fundamental concepts appropriate to undergraduate students and the second half gives an in-depth account of electrochemical systems suitable for experienced scientists and course lecturers. Concepts are clearly explained and mathematical treatments are kept to a minimum or reported in appendices. This book features: 1. Questions and answers for self-assessment 2. Basic and advanced level numerical descriptions. 3. Illustrated electrochemistry applications This book is accessible to both novice and experienced electrochemists and supports a deep understanding of the fundamental principles and laws of electrochemistry.

  15. Basic DTU Wind Energy controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    This report contains a description and documentation, including source code, of the basic DTU Wind Energy controller applicable for pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbines. The controller features both partial and full load operation capabilities as well as switching mechanisms ensuring......-integral controller to counter the effects of changing dynamics of the wind turbine for different wind speeds. Blade pitch servo and generator models are not included in this controller and should be modeled separately, if they are to be included in the simulations....... dependent minimum blade pitch in partial load operation. The controller uses the collective blade pitch angle and electromagnetic generator torque to control the wind turbine. In full load operation a feedback term from the collective blade pitch angle is used to schedule the gains of the proportional...

  16. Katyn Massacre – Basic Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Komaniecka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Katyn is a symbol of the criminal policy of the Soviet system against the Polish nation. The present study aims to demonstrate the basic facts of Katyn massacre – the execution of almost 22,000 people: Polish prisoners of war in Katyn, Kharkov, Kalinin (Tver and also other Polish prisoners (soldiers and civilians, which took place in the spring of 1940 in different places of the Soviet Ukraine and Belarus republics based on the decision of the Soviet authorities, that is the Political Bureau of All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks of March 5, 1940. This article refers not only to the massacre itself, but also its origin, historical processes and the lies accompanying Katyn massacre.

  17. Basic Concepts of String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Theisen, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.

  18. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böckh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  19. Basic concepts of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.

  20. Basic science of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.P.; Taylor, D.M.; Smith, P.H.S.

    1978-01-01

    A book has been written presenting those aspects of physics, chemistry and related sciences which are essential to a clear understanding of the scientific basis of nuclear medicine. Part I covers the basic physics of radiation and radioactivity. Part II deals with radiation dosimetry, the biological effects of radiation and the principles of tracer techniques. The measurement of radioactivity and the principal aspects of modern instrumentation are presented in Part III. Those aspects of chemistry relevant to the preparation and use of radiopharmaceuticals are discussed in Part IV. The final section is concerned with the production of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals and with the practical aspects of laboratory practice, facilities and safety. The book serves as a general introductory text for physicians, scientists, radiographers and technicians who are entering nuclear medicine. (U.K.)

  1. Basic principles of quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, M.

    1977-01-01

    After a brief review of the origin of the 'quality concept' and the historical development of quality assurance, questions such as 'what is QA' and 'why is QA so important in nuclear technology' as well as definitions and main requirements of relevant QA codes and standards are presented and discussed. By means of a project realization schematic, tasks, duties, responsibilities, and possible QA organigrammes as well as QA programme and manual requirements are explained and compared. From a QA point of view, it is shown that no basic difference exists between design and production or construction control activities. Special emphasis is layed upon active owner's participation in the implementation of QA programmes for NPP and the advantages offered are described and illustrated by typical examples. (RW) [de

  2. Basics of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barha, C K; Nagamatsu, L S; Liu-Ambrose, T

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the anatomy and functioning of the central nervous system. We begin the discussion by first examining the cellular basis of neural transmission. Then we present a brief description of the brain's white and gray matter and associated diseases, including a discussion of white-matter lesions. Finally, we place this information into context by discussing how the central nervous system integrates complex information to guide key functional systems, including the visual, auditory, chemosensory, somatic, limbic, motor, and autonomic systems. Where appropriate, we have supplied information pertaining to pathologic and functional outcomes of damage to the central nervous system. Also included is a brief description of important tools and methods used in the study of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. Overall, this chapter provides a basic review of the concepts required to understand and interpret the clinical disorders and related material presented in the subsequent chapters of this book. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Flatland optics. II. Basic experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, A W; Wang, D; Pe'er, A; Friesem, A A

    2001-05-01

    In "Flatland optics: fundamentals" [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1755 (2000)] we described the basic principles of two-dimensional (2D) optics and showed that a wavelength lambda in three-dimensional (3D) space (x,y,z) may appear in Flatland (x,z) as a wave with another wavelength, lambda = lambda/cosalpha. The tilt angle alpha can be modified by a 3D (Spaceland) individual who then is able to influence the 2D optics in a way that must appear to be magical to 2D Flatland individuals-in the spirit of E. A. Abbott's science fiction story [Flatland, a Romance of Many Dimensions, 6th ed. (Dover, New York, 1952)] of 1884. We now want to establish the reality or objectivity of the 2D wavelength lambda by some basic experiments similar to those that demonstrated roughly 200 years ago the wave nature of light. Specifically, we describe how to measure the 2D wavelength lambda by mean of five different arrangements that involve Young's biprism configuration, Talbot's self-imaging effect, measuring the focal length of a Fresnel zone plate, and letting light be diffracted by a double slit and by a grating. We also performed experiments with most of these arrangements. The results reveal that the theoretical wavelength, as predicted by our Flatland optics theory, does indeed coincide with the wavelength lambda as measured by Flatland experiments. Finally, we present an alternative way to understand Flatland optics in the spatial frequency domains of Flatland and Spaceland.

  4. Basic research on maxillofacial implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Yoshiro [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry

    2001-11-01

    Osseointegrated implants have begun to be used not only in general practice in dentistry but also in various clinical situations in the maxillofacial region. The process has yielded three problems: the spread of application, new materials and diagnostic methods, and management for difficult situations. This paper presents basic data and clinical guidelines for new applications, it investigates the characteristics of the materials and the usefulness of a new diagnostic method, and it studies effective techniques for difficult cases. The results obtained are as follows: Investigations into the spreading application. The lateral and superior orbital rim have sufficient bone thickness and width for the implant body to be placed. Osseointegrated implants, especially by the fixed bridge technique, are not recommended in the craniofacial bone and jaws of young children. Implant placement into bone after/before irradiation must be performed in consideration of impaired osteogenesis, the decrease of trabecular bone, and the time interval between implantation and irradiation. Investigations into materials and diagnostic methods. Hydroxyapatite-coated and titanium implants should be selected according to the characteristics of the materials. A dental simulating soft may also be applicable in the craniofacial region. Investigations into the management of difficult cases. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and tissue engineering should be useful for improving the quality and increasing the quantity of bone where implants are placed. Soft tissue around implants placed in the reconstructed area should be replaced with mucosal tissue. The data obtained here should be useful for increasing the efficiency of osseointegrated implants, but further basic research is required in the future. (author)

  5. Basic Concepts of Reading Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading act is performed by connected physiological, psychological and cognitive processes. The operations taking place in these processes are expected to continue for life by being developed with certain strategies. A lot of information is gained with reading skill in education life. Therefore, basic concepts that constitute reading education in teaching and improving reading are important for teachers. The aim of this study is to submit information compiled from the literature about reading education process and which basic concepts are used in reading education. While teaching reading from part to whole, from whole to part and interactional approaches are used. From part to whole approach is at the forefront. Then with interactional approach strategies, both code solving and making sense is improved. Teachers should know the characteristics of bouncing, stopping, turning back, and scanning movements of the eye both in code solving and making sense. The teacher should configure the teaching for the students to gain fluid reading elements by making use of reading out and reading silently. After reading act is acquired; good reader characteristics should be gained by improving asking questions, guessing, summarizing, interpretation skills in integrated readings. Reading skill is improved by studies on the text. Therefore, the students should come across texts that are suitable to their levels, textuality and readability criteria. The vocabulary of children should be improved in a planned way with text-based word and meaning studies. Fluid reading, making sense and interpretation skills of children should be pursued with different evaluation types. In the long term, work should be done to make reading a habit for them.

  6. Basic research on maxillofacial implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Yoshiro

    2001-01-01

    Osseointegrated implants have begun to be used not only in general practice in dentistry but also in various clinical situations in the maxillofacial region. The process has yielded three problems: the spread of application, new materials and diagnostic methods, and management for difficult situations. This paper presents basic data and clinical guidelines for new applications, it investigates the characteristics of the materials and the usefulness of a new diagnostic method, and it studies effective techniques for difficult cases. The results obtained are as follows: Investigations into the spreading application. The lateral and superior orbital rim have sufficient bone thickness and width for the implant body to be placed. Osseointegrated implants, especially by the fixed bridge technique, are not recommended in the craniofacial bone and jaws of young children. Implant placement into bone after/before irradiation must be performed in consideration of impaired osteogenesis, the decrease of trabecular bone, and the time interval between implantation and irradiation. Investigations into materials and diagnostic methods. Hydroxyapatite-coated and titanium implants should be selected according to the characteristics of the materials. A dental simulating soft may also be applicable in the craniofacial region. Investigations into the management of difficult cases. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and tissue engineering should be useful for improving the quality and increasing the quantity of bone where implants are placed. Soft tissue around implants placed in the reconstructed area should be replaced with mucosal tissue. The data obtained here should be useful for increasing the efficiency of osseointegrated implants, but further basic research is required in the future. (author)

  7. European Radiation Protection Course - Basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massiot, Philippe; Ammerich, Marc; Viguier, Herve; Jimonet, Christine; Bruchet, Hugues; Vivier, Alain; Bodineau, Jean-Christophe; Etard, Cecile; Metivier, Henri; Moreau, Jean-Claude; Nourredine, Abdel-Mijd

    2014-01-01

    Radiation protection is a major challenge in the industrial applications of ionising radiation, both nuclear and non-nuclear, as well as in other areas such as the medical and research domains. The overall objective of this textbook is to participate to the development of European high-quality scheme and good practices for education and training in radiation protection (RP), coming from the new Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. These ERPTS (European Radiation Protection Training Scheme) reflects the needs of the Radiation Protection Expert (RPE) and the Radiation Protection Officer (RPO), specifically with respect to the Directive 2013/59/Euratom in all sectors where ionising radiation are applied. To reflect the RPE training scheme, six chapters have been developed in this textbook: Radioactivity and nuclear physics; Interaction of ionising radiation with matter; Dosimetry; Biological effects of ionising radiation; Detection and measurement of ionising radiation; Uses of sources of ionising radiation. The result is a homogeneous textbook, dealing with the ERPTS learning outcomes suggested by ENETRAPII project (European Network on Education and Training in Radiological Protection II) from the 7. Framework Programme. A cyber-book is also part of the whole training material to develop the concept of 'learning more' (http://www.rpe-training.eu). The production of this first module 'basics' training material, in the combined form of a textbook plus a cyber-book as learning tools, will contribute to facilitate mutual recognition and enhanced mobility of these professionals across the European Union. (authors)

  8. Molecular Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid...

  9. Molecular genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.R.; Krontiris, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the authors review new findings concerning the molecular genetics of malignant melanoma in the context of other information obtained from clinical, epidemiologic, and cytogenetic studies in this malignancy. These new molecular approaches promise to provide a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of melanoma, thereby suggesting new methods for its treatment and prevention

  10. Molecular Modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. Molecular Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Drug Design and Molecular Docking. Rama Rao Nadendla. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Identifying jet quantum numbers event by event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, M.J.

    1979-12-01

    A method is proposed to identify the parton that gives rise to any particular jet. The method improves with the number of particles in the jet, and should indicate which of the jets in a three jet event at PETRA is the gluon jet. (author)

  12. Poverty Mapping Project: Unsatisfied Basic Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Unsatisfied Basic Needs dataset consists of measures of household level wellbeing and access to basic needs (such as adequate housing conditions, water,...

  13. Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español The Basics on Genes and Genetic Disorders KidsHealth / For Teens / The Basics ... such as treating health problems. What Is a Gene? To understand how genes work, let's review some ...

  14. Learning and Memory, Part II: Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombroso, Paul; Ogren, Marilee

    2009-01-01

    The molecular events that are responsible for strengthening synaptic connections and how these are linked to memory and learning are discussed. The laboratory preparations that allow the investigation of these events are also described.

  15. Measuring student teachers' basic psychological needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Bob Koster; Dr. Jos Castelijns; Dr. Marjan Vermeulen; dr.ir. Quinta Kools

    2012-01-01

    In the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need

  16. Measuring student teachers’ basic psychological needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Koster, Bob; Kools, Quinta

    2018-01-01

    In the Self–Determination Theory (SDT) basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need

  17. Validity of the ISUOG basic training test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, Niels Emil; Tabor, Ann; Konge, Lars

    2018-01-01

    A certain level of theoretical knowledge is required when performing basic obstetrical and gynecological ultrasound. To assess the adequacy of trainees' basic theoretical knowledge, the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISUOG) has developed a theoretical test of 49...... Multiple Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) items for their basic training courses....

  18. The RSZ BASIC programming language manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K.; Kochhar, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The RSZ BASIC interactive language is described. The RSZ BASIC interpreter is resident in the Telemetry Data Processor, a system dedicated to the processing and displaying of PCM telemetry data. A series of working examples teaches the fundamentals of RSZ BASIC and shows how to construct, edit, and manage storage of programs.

  19. Soundscapes, events, resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Put it bluntly, a soundscape is the sonic counterpart, or component, of landscape. From such minimal assumption, some interesting consequences follow: just as landscape is far from being a simple stage-set upon which events take place, soundscape, too, is itself evental, i.e., it consists of events. Not only because its nature, far from being acoustics is always ‘psychoacoustics’, as Murray Schafer (1977/1994 first argued. Processes of environmental perception are of course there.

  20. The independent molecular interaction sites model. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumann, K.H.; Lippert, E.

    1981-01-01

    A new reference system for the treatment of molecular fluids within the framework of thermodynamic perturbation theory is presented. The basic ingredient of our approach is a potential transformation which allows us to view molecular liquids and gases as mixtures of formally independent molecular interaction sites (IMIS model). Some relations between out method and the RAM theory are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Neural correlates of processing "self-conscious" vs. "basic" emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Michael; Katzir, Maayan; Eyal, Tal; Liberman, Nira

    2016-01-29

    Self-conscious emotions are prevalent in our daily lives and play an important role in both normal and pathological behavior. Despite their immense significance, the neural substrates that are involved in the processing of such emotions are surprisingly under-studied. In light of this, we conducted an fMRI study in which participants thought of various personal events which elicited feelings of negative and positive self-conscious (i.e., guilt, pride) or basic (i.e., anger, joy) emotions. We performed a conjunction analysis to investigate the neural correlates associated with processing events that are related to self-conscious vs. basic emotions, irrespective of valence. The results show that processing self-conscious emotions resulted in activation within frontal areas associated with self-processing and self-control, namely, the mPFC extending to the dACC, and within the lateral-dorsal prefrontal cortex. Processing basic emotions resulted in activation throughout relatively phylogenetically-ancient regions of the cortex, namely in visual and tactile processing areas and in the insular cortex. Furthermore, self-conscious emotions differentially activated the mPFC such that the negative self-conscious emotion (guilt) was associated with a more dorsal activation, and the positive self-conscious emotion (pride) was associated with a more ventral activation. We discuss how these results shed light on the nature of mental representations and neural systems involved in self-reflective and affective processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Do brain lesions in stroke affect basic emotions and attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, Marina; Panksepp, Jaak; Gestieri, Laura; Maffei, Monica; Agati, Raffaele; Cevolani, Daniela; Pedone, Vincenzo; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic emotions and attachment in a sample of 86 stroke patients. We included a control group of 115 orthopedic patients (matched for age and cognitive status) without brain lesions to control for unspecific general illness effects of a traumatic recent event on basic emotions and attachment. In order to measure basic emotions and attachment style we applied the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The stroke patients showed significantly different scores in the SEEKING, SADNESS, and ANGER subscales of the ANPS as well as in the Relationship as Secondary Attachment dimension of the ASQ when compared to the control group. These differences show a pattern influenced by lesion location mainly as concerns basic emotions. Anterior, medial, left, and subcortical patients provide scores significantly lower in ANPS-SEEKING than the control group; ANPS-SADNESS scores in anterior, right, medial, and subcortical patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. ANPS-ANGER scores in posterior, right, and lateral patients were significantly higher than those in the control group; finally, the ANPS-FEAR showed slightly lower scores in posterior patients than in the control group. Minor effects on brain lesions were also individuated in the attachment style. Anterior lesion patients showed a significantly higher average score in the ASQ-Need for Approval subscale than the control group. ASQ-Confidence subscale scores differed significantly in stroke patients with lesions in medial brain regions when compared to control subjects. Scores at ANPS and ASQ subscales appear significantly more correlated in stroke patients than in the control group. Such finding of abnormalities, especially concerning basic emotions in stroke brain-lesioned patients, indicates that the effect of brain lesions may enhance the interrelation between basic emotions and attachment with

  3. f-Element Ion Chelation in Highly Basic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) generated in the DOE complex is stored in tanks at several sites, but predominantly it is found at the Hanford reservation. Much of the material has been exposed to high pHs, consequently the waste exists in a complex, poorly understood mixture of solids, gels and solutions. The final waste remediation plan may involve chemical separation of fractions and a suitable, well developed molecular chemistry basis for performing these separations is not available. Indeed, the fundamental chemical behavior of most radioactive nuclides in basic media is not known. The goal of this project is to undertake fundamental studies of the coordination chemistry of f-element species in basic aqueous solutions containing common waste treatment ions (e.g., NO3 -, CO3 2-, organic carboxylates, and EDTA), as well as new waste scrubbing chelators produced in this study. The experimental agenda includes: 1. Studies of the speciation of Sr and Ln ions in basic solutions wit h and without common counterions; 2. Preparations of new multifunctional ligands that may act as strong, ion-specific chelators for Sr and/or Ln ions in basic media; and 3. Studies of the coordination and dissolution behavior of oxide-hydroxide species, as well as in insoluble sols, gels, and precipitates in combination with new chelating ligands. It is anticipated that this coordination chemistry will facilitate the design of advanced separation schemes required for handling the complex waste matrices found at the Hanford HLW facility

  4. Molecular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rodger, Alison

    1995-01-01

    Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans

  5. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. King

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report

  6. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  7. Basic Regge theory rides again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    In this series of lectures Regge theory, which plays a role in high-energy production just as in 2 → 2 processes, is considered. It is shown that exclusive applications and tests are hampered by lack of events and phase space but observation of double Pomeron exchange is encouraging for the multi-Regge Model. In inclusive processes, approximate scaling and its approach are described, including development of a central plateau and limiting fragmentation and triple-Regge behaviour. The Regge picture also sets a natural scale of distance in rapidity for discussion of interparticle correlations. All this understanding involves domination of unphysical multiparticle forward amplitudes by the familiar factorising Regge poles seen directly in 2 → 2 reactions. (UK)

  8. Basic statistics for nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1981-01-01

    The paper reports many equations of general utility in the non-destructive measurement of nuclear materials. Its content is the synthesis of several lectures given in various courses of nuclear electronics and non-destructive measurements. It does not contain original derivations but provides in a convenient format formulae which may be useful to experimenters in their daily work. General equations on variances and standard deviations as well as the probability of single observations are represented. The most common frequency distributions of events (binomial, normal, poissonian and interval) are presented and practical formulae are given. Particular attention is devoted to deadtime effects (even although the cascade of deadtimes is not considered) and to the regularizing effect of scalers. Finally a short examination of ratemeters and the resolution problem in detection and amplification chains is provided

  9. Safeguards summary event list (SSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.J.; MacMurdy, P.H.

    1980-12-01

    The List contains nine categories of events involving NRC licensed material or licensees. It is deliberately broad in scope for two main reasons. First, the list is designed to serve as a reference document. It is as complete and accurate as possible. Second, the list is intended to provide as broad a perspective of the nature of licensee-related events as possible. The nine categories of events are as follows: bomb-related events; intrusion events; missing and/or allegedly stolen events; transportation-related events; vandalism events; arson events; firearms-related events; sabotage events; and miscellaneous events

  10. Radiation: Basic life for human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Basically, radiation is sources for everything in this world. From radiation, many reactions and activities can be done by organisms. The tree can do photosynthesis and at the same time can give oxygen to human and others. In Quran, radiation was mentioned almost 41 times and from that, 12 are preferred to sun, moon, and stars. Radiation can be classified into two groups, mechanical and electromagnetic. Mechanical radiations are produced from vibration process. For example, when we are talking, sound radiation will be produced from vibration of sounds box. The guitar will sounded when we pluck it. Generally, mechanical radiation needs medium for its propagation and the velocity of wave can change and it cannot propagate in vacuum states. Meanwhile, electromagnetic radiations are energy that emitted in wave produced by propagation of electrical charges. This will produce magnetic fields and then if these fields changed, electrical fields will produce. There are two types of radiation in human life, natural radiation and artificially radiation. Radiation can be applied in medical and defend sector. Radiation also can be misuse by some people that want it for other purpose in intention to do something wrong, such as in making bomb and others weapons. In Malaysia, there are one act to control the imports, exports, licensing, transferring and application of ionizing radiation but not for non-ionizing radiation. In future, laser radiations have their own potential to become one of the most important radiations in renewable energy sector, medical and defend.

  11. The atomic energy basic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The law establishes clearly the principles that Japan makes R and D, and utilizations of atomic energy only for the peaceful purposes. All the other laws and regulations concerning atomic energy are based on the law. The first chapter lays down the above mentioned objective of the law, and gives definitions of basic concepts and terms, such as atomic energy, nuclear fuel material, nuclear source material, nuclear reactor and radiation. The second chapter provides for the establishment of Atomic Energy Commission which conducts plannings and investigations, and also makes decisions concerning R and D, and utilizations of atomic energy. The third chapter stipulates for establishment of two government organizations which perform R and D of atomic energy developments including experiments and demonstrations of new types of reactors, namely, Atomic Energy Research Institute and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Chapters from 4th through 8th provide for the regulations on development and acquisition of the minerals containing nuclear source materials, controls on nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors, administrations of the patents and inventions concerning atomic energy, and also prevention of injuries due to radiations. The last 9th chapter requires the government and its appointee to compensate the interested third party for damages in relation to the exploitation of nuclear source materials. (Matsushima, A.)

  12. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  13. The Atomic energy basic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law aims to secure future energy resources, push forward progress of science and advancement of industry for welfare of the mankind and higher standard of national life by helping research, development and utilization of atomic power. Research, development and utilization of atomic power shall be limited to the peaceful purpose with emphasis laid on safety and carried on independently under democratic administration. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: atomic power; nuclear fuel material; nuclear raw material; reactor and radiation. The Atomic Energy Commission and the Atomic Energy Safety Commission shall be set up at the Prime Minister's Office deliberately to realize national policy of research, development and utilization of atomic power and manage democratic administration for atomic energy. The Atomic Energy Commission shall plan, consider and decide matters concerning research, development and utilization of atomic energy. The Atomic Energy Safety Commission shall plan, consider and decide issues particularly concerning safety securing among such matters. The Atomic Energy Research Institute shall be founded under the governmental supervision to perform research, experiment and other necessary affairs for development of atomic energy. The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation shall be established likewise to develop fast breeding reactor, advanced thermal reactor and nuclear fuel materials. Development of radioactive minerals, control of nuclear fuel materials and reactors and measures for patent and invention concerning atomic energy, etc. are stipulated respectively. (Okada, K.)

  14. [Basic life support in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Macías, A; Manrique Martínez, I; Rodríguez Núñez, A; López-Herce Cid, J

    2006-09-01

    Basic life support (BLS) is the combination of maneuvers that identifies the child in cardiopulmonary arrest and initiates the substitution of respiratory and circulatory function, without the use of technical adjuncts, until the child can receive more advanced treatment. BLS includes a sequence of steps or maneuvers that should be performed sequentially: ensuring the safety of rescuer and child, assessing unconsciousness, calling for help, positioning the victim, opening the airway, assessing breathing, ventilating, assessing signs of circulation and/or central arterial pulse, performing chest compressions, activating the emergency medical service system, and checking the results of resuscitation. The most important changes in the new guidelines are the compression: ventilation ratio and the algorithm for relieving foreign body airway obstruction. A compression/ ventilation ratio of 30:2 will be recommended for lay rescuers of infants, children and adults. Health professionals will use a compression: ventilation ratio of 15:2 for infants and children. If the health professional is alone, he/she may also use a ratio of 30:2 to avoid fatigue. In the algorithm for relieving foreign body airway obstruction, when the child becomes unconscious, the maneuvers will be similar to the BLS sequence with chest compressions (functioning as a deobstruction procedure) and ventilation, with reassessment of the mouth every 2 min to check for a foreign body, and evaluation of breathing and the presence of vital signs. BLS maneuvers are easy to learn and can be performed by anyone with adequate training. Therefore, BLS should be taught to all citizens.

  15. Basic design report of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M. H.; Yeo, J. W.; Zee, Q. S.; Lee, D. J.; Park, K. B.; Koo, I. S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, J. I.

    2002-03-01

    KAERI has been developing a 330MWt integral reactor, SMART and its application system since 1997. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. The SMART system can produce portable water of 40.000m 3 /day using the MED-TVC desalination process and about 90MW of electricity. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as inherent safety and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment-friendly. The objective of this design report is to provide the overall information on the basic design of SMART NSSS, and the applied technologies. The information covers mainly NSSS design with some information on the desalination system. For the secondary system, only the information directly related to the coupling with NSSS are covered

  16. Assessment of basic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1996-01-01

    Work on the French-German common safety approach for future nuclear power plants continued in 1994 to allow for more detailed discussion of some major issues, taking into account the options provided by the industry for the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project, as described in the document entitled 'Conceptual Safety Features Review File'. Seven meetings of a GPR/RSK advisory experts subgroup, six GPR/RSK plenary sessions and six meetings of the safety authorities (DFD) dealt with the following topics: design of the systems and use of probabilistic approaches, application of a 'break preclusion' approach to the main primary pipings, protection against external hazards (aircraft crashes, explosions, earthquakes), provisions with respect to accidents involving core melt and to containment design, radiological consequences of reference accidents and accidents involving core melt at low pressure. The important aspects of the joint policy are recalled in the presentation. The whole set of GPR/RSK recommendations were agreed by the French and German safety authorities during the DFD meetings of 1994 and early 1995. The utilities decided to begin the basic design phase in February, 1995. Work is now continuing to develop the common French-German approach for future nuclear power plants, in the same way as before. In 1995, this mainly covers the design of the containment and of the systems, but also new issues such as the protection against secondary side overpressurization, radiological protection of workers and radioactive wastes. (J.S.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Basic DTU Wind Energy controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartvig Hansen, M.; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-15

    This report contains a description and documentation, including source code, of the basic DTU Wind Energy controller applicable for pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbines. The controller features both partial and full load operation capabilities as well as switching mechanisms ensuring smooth switching between the two modes of operation. The partial and full load controllers are both based on classical proportional-integral control theory as well as additional filters such as an optional drive train damper and a notch filter mitigating the influence of rotor speed dependent variations in the feedback. The controller relies on generator speed as the primary feedback sensor. Additionally, the reference generator power is used as a feedback term to smoothen the switching between partial and full load operation. Optionally, a low-pass filtered wind speed measurement can be used for wind speed dependent minimum blade pitch in partial load operation. The controller uses the collective blade pitch angle and electromagnetic generator torque to control the wind turbine. In full load operation a feedback term from the collective blade pitch angle is used to schedule the gains of the proportional-integral controller to counter the effects of changing dynamics of the wind turbine for different wind speeds. Blade pitch servo and generator models are not included in this controller and should be modeled separately, if they are to be included in the simulations. (Author)

  18. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  19. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA)

  20. Human Performance Event Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trager, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe several aspects of a Human Performance Event Database (HPED) that is being developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These include the background, the database structure and basis for the structure, the process for coding and entering event records, the results of preliminary analyses of information in the database, and plans for the future. In 1992, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) within the NRC decided to develop a database for information on human performance during operating events. The database was needed to help classify and categorize the information to help feedback operating experience information to licensees and others. An NRC interoffice working group prepared a list of human performance information that should be reported for events and the list was based on the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP) that had been developed by the NRC as an aid in investigating events. The structure of the HPED was based on that list. The HPED currently includes data on events described in augmented inspection team (AIT) and incident investigation team (IIT) reports from 1990 through 1996, AEOD human performance studies from 1990 through 1993, recent NRR special team inspections, and licensee event reports (LERs) that were prepared for the events. (author)

  1. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts and metho...

  2. Intermediate mass dimuon events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.-G.

    1985-01-01

    We report the observation of 67 dimuon events at the CERN p anti p collider with the UA1 detector. The events will be interpreted in terms of the Drell-Yan mechanism, J/PSI and UPSILON decays and heavy flavour production. (author)

  3. The Blayais event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the main events occurred to the Blayais installation during the year 2000. For each events, the detailed chronology, the situation analysis, the crisis management and the public information are provided. Some recommendations are also provided by the nuclear safety authorities. (A.L.B.)

  4. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  5. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  6. NATIONAL HISTORICAL EVENTS IN IRANIAN COLLECTIVE MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ebadollahi Chanzanagh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate presence of nationalhistorical events in Iraniancollective memory. According to social theorists remembering is a socialphenomenon which occurs in social cadres. In Iranian social context, ethnicity,generation, religion and education are important social cadres of memory. 384national samples from three different ethnicities,Azeri, Gilaki and Kurd, werechosen by quota sampling. Results of survey indicated three social cadres ofgeneration, religion and education explained remembering national historicalevents and Iranian collective memory is basically rooted in national historicalevents rather than ethnic one. ‘The 1979 Islamic revolution’, ‘Iran’s oilnationalization and the following 1953 Iranian coupd’état’ from the last centuryevents and ‘Iranian constitutional revolution’, ‘Russo-Persian wars’ from prior tothe last century events are the most important national events remembered byIranian.

  7. An event-based model for contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Cimoli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a basic model for contracts. Our model extends event structures with a new relation, which faithfully captures the circular dependencies among contract clauses. We establish whether an agreement exists which respects all the contracts at hand (i.e. all the dependencies can be resolved, and we detect the obligations of each participant. The main technical contribution is a correspondence between our model and a fragment of the contract logic PCL. More precisely, we show that the reachable events are exactly those which correspond to provable atoms in the logic. Despite of this strong correspondence, our model improves previous work on PCL by exhibiting a finer-grained notion of culpability, which takes into account the legitimate orderings of events.

  8. The ATLAS Event Index: The Architecture of the Core Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, Dario; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The global view of the ATLAS Event Index system has been presented in the 17th ACAT Conference. This article concentrates on the architecture of the system core component. This component handles the final stage of the event metadata import, it organizes its storage and provides a fast and feature-rich access to all information. A user is able to interrogate metadata in various ways, including by executing user-provided code on the data to make selections and to interpret the results. A wide spectrum of clients is available, from a set of linux-like commands to an interactive graphical Web Service. The stored event metadata contain the basic description of the related events, the references to the experiment event storage, the full trigger record and can be extended with other event characteristics. Derived collections of events can be created. Such collections can be annotated and tagged with further information.

  9. ADULT BASIC LIFE SUPPORT ON NEAR DROWNING AT THE SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gd. Harry Kurnia Prawedana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a popular tourist destination which has potential for drowning cases. Therefore, required knowledge of adult basic life support to be able to deal with such cases in the field. Basic life support in an act to maintain airway and assist breathing and circulation without the use of tools other than simple breathing aids. The most important factor that determines the outcome of drowning event is the duration and severity of hypoxia induced. The management of near drowning at the scene include the rescue of victim from the water, rescue breathing, chest compression, cleaning the vomit substances which allowing blockage of the airway, prevent loss of body heat, and transport the victim to nearest emergency department for evaluation and monitoring.

  10. Nightside High Latitude Magnetic Impulse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Connors, M. G.; Braun, D.; Posch, J. L.; Kaur, M.; Guillon, S.; Hartinger, M.; Kim, H.; Behlke, R.; Reiter, K.; Jackel, B. J.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    High latitude Magnetic Impulse Events (MIEs), isolated pulses with periods 5-10 min, were first noted in ground-based magnetometer data near local noon, and are now understood to be signatures of transient pressure increases in the solar wind (sudden impulses - SIs) and/or in the ion foreshock (traveling convection vortex events - TCVs). However, solitary pulses with considerably larger amplitude (ΔB up to 1500 nT) have often been observed in the night sector at these same latitudes. These events are not directly associated with transient external pressure increases, and are often large enough to produce significant ground induced currents. Although many night sector MIEs occur in association with substorm signatures, others appear to be very isolated. We present here a survey of intense MIE events identified in magnetometer data from the AUTUMNX and MACCS arrays in eastern Arctic Canada at all local times between July 1, 2014 and June 30, 2017. We also show maps of horizontal and vertical perturbations and maximum dB/dt values, as well as sample magnetograms, for several example events using data from these and other arrays in Arctic Canada, as well as in West Greenland and Antarctica, the latter to show the conjugate nature of these events. A basic relation to GIC data in the Hydro-Québec electrical transmission network in eastern Canada has been determined and will be discussed.

  11. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.; Yang, Shiyong [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This research, which is relevant to the development of new catalytic systems for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen, is divided into two tasks. Task 1 centers on the activation of dihydrogen by molecular basic reagents such as hydroxide ion to convert it into a reactive adduct (OH{center_dot}H{sub 2}){sup {minus}} that can reduce organic molecules. Such species should be robust withstanding severe conditions and chemical poisons. Task 2 is focused on an entirely different approach that exploits molecular catalysts, derived from organometallic compounds that are capable of reducing monocyclic aromatic compounds under very mild conditions. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  12. Energetics of basic karate kata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussweiler, Jens; Hartmann, Ulrich

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge about energy requirements during exercises seems necessary to develop training concepts in combat sport Karate. It is a commonly held view that the anaerobic lactic energy metabolism plays a key role, but this assumption could not be confirmed so far. The metabolic cost and fractional energy supply of basic Karate Kata (Heian Nidan, Shotokan style) with duration of about 30 s were analyzed. Six male Karateka [mean ± SD (age 29 ± 8 years; height 177 ± 5 cm, body mass 75 ± 9 kg)] with different training experience (advanced athletes, experts, elite athletes) were examined while performing one time and two time continuously the sport-specific movements. During Kata performance oxygen uptake was measured with a portable spirometric device, blood lactate concentrations were examined before and after testing and fractional energy supply was calculated. The results have shown that on average 52 % of the energy supply for one Heian Nidan came from anaerobic alactic metabolism, 25 % from anaerobic lactic and 23 % from aerobic metabolism. For two sequentially executed Heian Nidan and thus nearly doubling the duration, the calculated percentages were 33, 25 and 42 %. Total energy demand for one Kata and two Kata was approximately 61 and 99 kJ, respectively. Despite measured blood lactate concentrations up to 8.1 mmol l(-1), which might suggest a dominance of lactic energy supply, a lactic fraction of only 17-31 % during these relatively short and intense sequences could be found. A heavy use of lactic energy metabolism had to be rejected.

  13. Social marketing and basic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, G

    1990-01-01

    Many educators attended the World Conference on Education for All in March 1990 in Thailand. To meet the goal of education for all, they need to attain enough resources to provide basic education to everyone who wants it. They also must guarantee that the education is efficient and effective. The toughest task is gaining the support of parents of those children needing primary education. Social marketing techniques may be able to generate the needed enthusiasm for education among parents. It must lead parents to toss aside the common belief that education is primarily a way to secure employment and a steady income. A national campaign to better parent participation and the quality of education should emphasize 6 areas. It should stress that eating a balanced breakfast and overall good nutrition increase a child's ability to concentrate and do well in school. The campaign must also emphasize attendance of both students and teachers thereby providing continuity and allowing students to build on past knowledge. Research indicates that homework strengthens achievement, therefore parents need to provide guidance and encouragement for their children while at home. Social marketing can further increase primary school attendance by promoting parent participation in school activities. It can also inform parents about the performance responsibilities of teachers and administrators so they can remind educators what they are expected to accomplish. In some countries, resources from the government are insufficient, so social marketing can encourage community incentive programs bound to satisfying specific educational standards. Educators and social marketers need to work together to empower parents to make education for all come true.

  14. Basics of acute stroke treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haass, A.

    2005-01-01

    Acute stroke presents an emergency that requires immediate referral to a specialized hospital, preferably with a stroke unit. Disability and mortality are reduced by 30% in patients treated in stroke units compared to those treated on regular wards, even if a specialized team is present on the ward. Systolic blood pressure may remain high at 200-220 mmHg in the acute phase and should not be lowered too quickly. Further guidelines for basic care include: optimal O 2 delivery, blood sugar levels below 100-150 mg%, and lowering body temperature below 37.5 C using physical means or drugs. Increased intracranial pressure should be treated by raising the upper body of the patient, administration of glycerol, mannitol, and/or sorbitol, artificial respiration, and special monitoring of Tris buffer. Decompressive craniectomy may be considered in cases of ''malignant'' media stroke and expansive cerebellar infarction. Fibrinolysis is the most effective stroke treatment and is twice as effective in the treatment of stroke than myocardial infarction. Fibrinolysis may be initiated within 3 h of a stroke in the anterior circulation. If a penumbra is detectable by ''PWI-DWI mismatch MRI,'' specialized hospitals may perform fibrinolysis up to 6 h after symptom onset. In cases of stroke in the basilar artery, fibrinolysis may be performed even later after symptom onset. Intra-arterial fibrinolysis is performed in these cases using rt-PA or urokinase. Follow-up treatment of stroke patients should not only address post-stroke depression and neuropsychological deficits, but also include patient education about risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac arrhythmias. (orig.) [de

  15. 9th International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies: Basic,Epidemiologic and Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of speakers and events from the 2005 ICMAOI conference, focused on presenting basic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of research on malignancies in HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed individuals.

  16. 10th International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies: Basic, Epidemiologic and Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of speakers and events from the 2006 ICMAOI conference, focused on presenting basic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of research on malignancies in HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed individuals.

  17. 4th International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies: Basic,Epidemiologic and Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of speakers and events from the 2000 ICMAOI conference, focused on presenting basic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of research on malignancies in HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed individuals.

  18. 5th International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies: Basic,Epidemiologic and Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of speakers and events from the 2005 ICMAOI conference, focused on presenting basic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of research on malignancies in HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed individuals.

  19. 3rd International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies: Basic,Epidemiologic and Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of speakers and events from the 1999 ICMAOI conference, focused on presenting basic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of research on malignancies in HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed individuals.

  20. 7th International Conference on Malignancies in AIDS and Other Acquired Immunodeficiencies: Basic,Epidemiologic and Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of speakers and events from the 2003 ICMAOI conference, focused on presenting basic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of research on malignancies in HIV-infected and other immunosuppressed individuals.