WorldWideScience

Sample records for mol belgium 4 5

  1. Results of postirradiation examination of the in-pile blockage experiments MOL-7C/4 and MOL-7C/5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimar, P.; Schleisiek, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Mol-7C in-pile local blockage experiments are performed in the BR-2 reactor at Mol, Belgium as a joint project of Kernforchungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) and Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nuclearire-Mol. The main objective is to investigate the consequences of local cooling disturbances in liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) fuel subassemblies. In the tests Mol-7C/4 and MOL-7C/5, fuel pins from KNK II are used with a burnup of 5 and 1.7%, respectively. An active central porous blockage is used to simulate the cooling disturbance. During irradiation, the blockage causes significant local damage, including melting of cladding and fuel. Extensive postirradiation examinations (PIE) are performed to investigate the extent of damage. In this paper a description and interpretation of results of the destructive PIE performed at the Hot Cells Laboratory at KfK is given, along with some conclusions related to LMR safety

  2. Uranium series disequilibrium measurements at Mol, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovich, M.; Wilkins, M.A.

    1985-02-01

    The contract just completed has funded two parallel uranium series disequilibrium studies and the aims of and the progress to completion of these studies are given in this report. The larger study was concerned with the measurement of uranium series disequilibrium in ground waters derived from sand layers above and below the Boom Clay formation in North East Belgium. The disequilibrium data are analysed in terms of uranium, thorium and radium isotopic geochemistries and in terms of water types and their mixing in the regional groundwater system. It is concluded that most sampled waters are mixtures of younger and older waters. No true old water end-members have been sampled. Simple considerations of the uranium isotopic data indicate that the longest residence times of the sampled waters are not much in excess of 1 to 10 x 10 3 y. Detailed mixing patterns could not be established from this limited data set particularly in the absence of more detailed modelling in conjunction with groundwater hydraulic pressure and flow direction data. (author)

  3. Corrosion inhibition of iron in 0.5 mol L-1 H2SO4 by halide ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyaprabha C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition effect of halide ions such as iodide, bromide and chloride ions on the corrosion of iron in 0.5 mol L-1 H2SO4 and the adsorption behaviour of these ions on the electrode surface have been studied by polarization and impedance methods. It has been found that the inhibition of nearly 90% has been observed for iodide ions at 2.5 10-3 mol L-1, for bromide ions at 10 10-3 mol L-1 and 80% for chloride ions at 2.5 10-3 mol L-1. The inhibition effect is increased with increase of halide ions concentration in the case of I- and Br- ions, whereas it has decreased in the case of Cl- ion at concentrations higher than 5 10-3 mol L-1. The double layer capacitance values have decreased considerably in the presence of halide ions which indicate that these anions are adsorbed on iron at the corrosion potential.

  4. Structure and optical homogeneity of LiNbO3:Zn (0.03–4.5 mol.%) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, Nikolay; Tepljakova, Natalja; Gabain, Aleksei; Yanichev, Aleksander; Palatnikov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Structure and optical homogeneity of LiNbO 3 :Zn (0.03–4.5 mol.%) crystals were searched by photoinduced light scattering and by Raman spectroscopy. The photorefractive effect depends on Zn 2+ concentration nonmonotonically. Decrease of photorefractive effect is explained by decrease of structure defects with localized electrons. The Zn 2+ cations replace structure defects Nb Li and Li Nb , trapping levels appear near the bottom of the conduction band and photo electrons recombine with emission under laser radiation. By the Raman spectra the area of the high structure order is found. In this area the own alternation, the alternation of impurity cations and the vacancies along the polar axis is almost perfect

  5. Geological slow evolution scenari, applied on clay site of Mol (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberghe, Noel

    1981-01-01

    In the frame of safety assessment studies concerning radioactive waste disposal in a clay layer, the analysis of tertiary and quaternary geological history of the area involved at Mol, Belgium, showed that amongst slow natural phenomena, major climatic changes (e.g. glaciations) and epeirogenetic movements are the most important. These two phenomena result in glacio-eustatic movements, fluviatile, marine and glacial erosion etc. On the basis of their intensities and frequencies, observed in the past, several possible scenarios of future geological evolution have been considered for the coming 200.000 years. This approach contributed to evaluate the failure possibilities of the geological barrier, due to the direct action of these processes. It also demonstrates the geological frame to be taken into account in a consequence analysis

  6. The large scale in-situ PRACLAY heater and seal tests in URL HADES, Mol, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangling Li; Guangjing Chen; Verstricht, Jan; Van Marcke, Philippe; Troullinos, Ioannis [ESV EURIDICE, Mol (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    In Belgium, the URL HADES was constructed in the Boom Clay formation at the Mol site to investigate the feasibility of geological disposal in a clay formation. Since 1995, the URL R and D programme has focused on large scale demonstration tests like the PRACLAY Heater and Seal tests. The main objective of the Heater Test is to demonstrate that the thermal load generated by the heat-emitting waste will not jeopardise the safety functions of the host rock. The primary objective of the Seal Test is to provide suitable hydraulic boundary conditions for the Heater Test. The Seal Test also provides an opportunity to investigate the in-situ behaviour of a bentonite-based EBS. The PRACLAY gallery was constructed in 2007 and the hydraulic seal was installed in 2010. The bentonite is hydrated both naturally and artificially. The swelling, total pressure and pore pressure of the bentonite are continuously measured and analysed by numerical simulations to get a better understanding of this hydration processes. The timing of switching on the heater depends on the progress of the bentonite hydration, as a sufficient seal swelling is needed to fulfill its role. A set of conditions to be met for the heater switch-on and its schedule will be given. (authors)

  7. Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Mol-Dessel site (Belgium): a historic overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.; Loos, M.; Rojas-Palma, C.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear site of Mol-Dessel (Belgium) dates from the fifties, and a large diversity of activities have taken place from then on till today. The site comprises a nuclear research centre SCK CEN, operating research reactors (one of them in dismantling), hot laboratories, laboratories for plutonium research, experimental fields etc. But there are also industrial facilities related to waste handling and treatment (Belgoprocess) or nuclear fuel fabrication (FBFC Int'l and Belgonucleaire). In the past, there has also been a reprocessing plant operated by the OECD, shut down in 1974, and laboratories for isotope production, that moved to the novel site of IRE at Fleurus between 1970 and 1974. Recently, a survey has been performed of the environmental monitoring results from the beginning on till end of 2000 in the framework of the selection of a candidate site for a repository for low level waste. The paper intends to present some of the monitoring results and lessons learnt from it. These lessons relate to several aspects. At first: the responsibilities for monitoring and data management (in a site with various operators). Also historical changes have had an impact on the monitoring programme. Furthermore, technological evolutions introduce some difficulties in establishing a coherent data set. Furthermore, the influence of non-site related events, such as fall-out from nuclear weapons testing or the Chernobyl accident, but also the presence of a coal fired station, is apparent. (authors)

  8. PIRAMID 1: a prime European CEC experiment in BR2 at Mol, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, C.; Simoni, O.

    1987-01-01

    In the event of a core disruptive accident in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), molten core materials interacting with liquid sodium may form debris beds to settle on the retention structures or on the reactor vessel. The decay heat of retained fission products can induce high temperatures or high thermal loads on the retention structures or the reactor vessel with consequent fission product release. To assess the long-term coolability of core debris beds the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) decided to coordinate and fund the European PAHR (Post-Accident Heat Removal) program. The first work carried out for the program resulted in PIRAMID 1 (Pahr IRradiation According to a Mol Integrated Device), a unique irradiation device, designed, constructed and tested at Mol

  9. Geochemical characterisation of kerogen from the Boom Clay Formation (Mol, Belgium) and evolution under different thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniau, I.

    2002-12-01

    The Boom clay formation in Belgium has been chosen as test site for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The organic matter present in the clay (kerogen) is sensible to the thermal stress and can generate a huge number of gaseous and liquid compounds leading to local pH changes and to fracturing processes. In particular, some polar compounds can complex radionuclides. The samples analyzed in this work were taken in the underground laboratory of Mol at a 223 m depth. They have been analyzed in detail using geochemical methods (Rock-Eval pyrolysis, element analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopy), spectroscopic methods (Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, solid state 13 C NMR, Raman) and pyrolytic methods (off-line, on-line and in sealed tubes combined with coupled CG/SM analyses). The study of a representative sample of this formation has permitted to characterize the organic matter at the molecular scale, to determine its fossilization mechanisms and the nature of the organic compounds trapped inside the kerogen. The organic matter of the Boom clays comes mainly from phyto-planktonic matter with an important contribution of terrestrial and bacterial matter. The degradation-recondensation played an important role in its preservation but the presence of numerous oxygenated molecules implies that oxidative incorporation also participated to this preservation. Finally, various products (hydrocarbons, oxygenated and nitrogenous polar compounds) trapped in significant amount inside the macro-molecular structure are released under a relatively weak thermal stress. Moreover several small polar organic molecules are released and can play a significant role in the retention or migration of radionuclides inside the geologic barrier. A sample submitted to a in-situ thermal stress of 80 deg. C during 5 years (Cerberus experiment) do not show any significant change in its kerogen structure with respect to the non-heated reference sample

  10. Time extrapolation aspects in the performance assessment of high and medium level radioactive waste disposal in the Boom Clay at Mol (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volckaert, G.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN is studying the disposal of high and long-lived medium level waste in the Boom Clay at Mol, Belgium. In the performance assessment for such a repository time extrapolation is an inherent problem due to the extremely long half-life of some important radionuclides. To increase the confidence in these time extrapolations SCK-CEN applies a combination of different experimental and modelling approaches including laboratory and in situ experiments, natural analogue studies, deterministic (or mechanistic) models and stochastical models. An overview is given of these approaches and some examples of applications to the different repository system components are given. (author)

  11. Structural evolution of plasma-sprayed nanoscale 3 mol% and 5 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings during sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Gao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    The microstructure of plasma-sprayed nanostructured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings may change during high-temperature exposure, which would influence the coating performance and service lifetime. In this study, the phase structure and the microstructural evolution of 3YSZ (zirconia-3 mol% yttria) and 5YSZ (zirconia-5 mol% yttria) nanostructured coatings were investigated by means of sintering at 1400 °C for 50-100 h. The microhardness, elastic moduli, and thermal shock cycles of the 3YSZ and 5YSZ nanostructured coatings were also investigated. The results showed that the redistribution of yttrium ions at 1400 °C caused the continuous increase of monoclinic-phase zirconia, but no obvious inter-splat cracking formed at the cross-sections, even after 100 h. Large voids appeared around the nanoporous zone because of the sintering of nanoscale granules upon high-temperature exposure. The microhardness and elastic moduli of the nanostructured coatings first increased and then decreased with increasing sintering times. The growth rate of the nanograins in the 3YSZ coating was lower than that in 5YSZ, which slowed the changes in 3YSZ coating porosity during sintering. Although the 3YSZ coating was prone to monoclinic phase transition, the experimental results showed that the thermal shock resistance of the 3YSZ coating was better than that of the 5YSZ coating.

  12. Measurements of plume geometry and argon-41 radiation field at the BR1 reactor in Mol, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drews, M.; Joergensen, H.; Lauritzen, Bent; Mikkelsen, T.; Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U.; Bargholz, K.; Rojas-Palma, C.; Ammel, R. van

    2002-02-01

    An atmospheric dispersion experiment was conducted using a visible tracer along with the routine releases of 41 Ar from the BR1 air-cooled research reactor in Mol. In the experiment, simultaneous measurements of the radiation field from the 41 Ar decay, the meteorology, the 41 Ar source term and plume geometry were performed. The visible tracer was injected into the reactor emission stack, and the plume cross section determined by Lidar scanning of the released aerosols. The data collected in the exercise provide a valuable resource for atmospheric dispersion and dose rate modeling. (au)

  13. Characterization of the porosity in Boom (Mol site, Belgium) and Opalinus (Mont Terri, Switzerland) clays - about the benefit of using ion beam milling tools and CRYO-SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbois, G.; Houben, M.E.; Sholokhova, Y.; Urai, J.L.; Kukla, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    imaging of pore space at high resolution. The first of them is to use ion beam milling tools able to prepare smooth, damage free cross-sectioned surfaces. Two main ion source are available: (1) a broad ion beam (BIB, up to 3.5 mA) is suitable to produce large polished cross-sections area of few mm 2 , while the focused ion beam (FIB, 1 pA - 45 nA) is better used for fine and precise polished cross-sections area of about few μm 2 . The second alternative is to preserve the in-situ nanostructures of wet clay-stones by using cryogenic techniques in order to stabilize in-situ fluids at temperature of liquid nitrogen. A FIB/BIB-cryo- SEM instrument combines cryo-techniques to preserve wet samples, in-situ sample preparation by ion beam cross-sectioning (BIB or FIB) and observations of the stabilized microstructure at high resolution (SEM). Since the ion beam is directly embedded into the SEM, this instrument offers a unique way to get a direct access of the pore space in 3D by using a 'slice and view' procedure equivalent to nano-serial sectioning. This procedure allows us investigating the natural in-situ pore space as a 3D matrix. This contribution reports on a study of Boom and Opalinus clays from reference sites for research (respectively at Mol site, Belgium and Mont Terri, Switzerland) using cryo-SEM at cryogenic temperature, with ion beam cross-sectioning to prepare smooth, damage free surfaces. Pores commonly have crack-like tips, preferred orientation parallel to bedding and power law size distribution. We define a number of pore types depending on shape and location in the microstructure. 3-D reconstruction by serial cross-sectioning shows 3-D connectivity of the pore space and provide natural pore matrix for simulation of permeability using Lattice Boltzmann method. These findings offer a new insight into the morphology of pores and quantification of porosity down to nano-scale and provide the basis for microstructure-based models of transport in clays

  14. Crystallographic Investigation of Ag (4 mol%) Doped ZnO (SZO) Thin Films by XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwin Lwin Nwe; Sandar Dwe; Khant Khant Lin; Khin Thuzar; Than Than Win; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2008-03-01

    Silver doped ZnO(SZO) thin films are prepared by sol-based method. The silver dopant concentration is 4 mol % in this case. XRD analysis carried out to determine, crystallographic properties such as lattice parameters and crystallite size of SZO thin films.

  15. Mol 7C/6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, J.; Schleisiek, K.; Schmuck, I.; Schmidt, L.; Romer, O.; Weih, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Mol 7C/6 coolant blockage experiment in the Belgian BR2 reactor yielded results different from Mol 7C experiments with low burnup pins: At 10% burnup local failure is not self-limiting, but requires active systems for detection and scram. The Mol 7C series was finished in 1991. In each of the test bundles Mol 7C/4, /5 and /6, 30 Mk I pins pre-irradiated in KNK II were used. The central blockage consisted of enriched UO 2 covering 30 percent of the bundle cross-section, with a height of 40 mm. The most important system for timely detection of coolant blockages of the type studied in Mol 7C/6 is based on DND. (orig.)

  16. PERBEDAAN FISIK DAN KIMIA KOMPOS DAUN YANG MENGGUNAKAN BIOAKTIVATOR MOL DAN EM 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyantini Widiyaningrum

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui kemampuan mikroorganisme lokal (MOL sebagai aktivator dalam proses pengomposan sampah daun, serta membandingkan penampilan fisik, penyusutan bahan, kadar air dan C/N rasio kompos yang dihasilkan dengan kompos yang menggunakan EM sebagai bioaktivator. Bahan baku kompos terdiri dari daun kering cacah dan kotoran kambing. Kompos dipanen setelah proses pengomposan berlangsung selama 6 minggu. Setiap perlakuan dibuat tiga ulangan. Data kualitatif yang diamati meliputi tekstur, warna dan bau, sedangkan data kuantitatif yang diukur meliputi persentase penyusutan bahan, persentase kompos yang terbentuk, kadar air, dan C/N rasio. Analisis data kualitatif dilakukan secara deskriptif, sedangkan data kuantitatif menggunakan uji t. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa kompos kedua perlakuan memiliki penampilan fisik tidak berbeda. Berdasarkan uji t, ratarata penyusutan bahan, kadar air dan C/N rasio kompos matang tidak berbeda nyata, akan tetapi persentase kompos yang terbentuk menunjukkan perbedaan nyata. Dari penelitian ini disimpulkan bahwa kompos daun kedua perlakuan memperlihatkan penampilan fisik, penyusutan, kadar air dan C/N rasio yang tidak berbeda, sedangkan persentase kompos yang terbentuk pada kompos + EM lebih tinggi dibanding kompos + MOL. Secara umum kedua kompos masuk kategori layak digunakan berdasarkan standar SNI No. 19-7030-2004. 4 4

  17. ExoMol molecular line lists - XXVII: spectra of C2H4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mant, Barry P.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Yurchenko, Jonathan Tennyson Sergei N.

    2018-05-01

    A new line list for ethylene, 12C21H4 is presented. The line list is based on high level ab initiopotential energy and dipole moment surfaces. The potential energy surface is refined by fitting to experimental energies. The line list covers the range up to 7000 cm-1(1.43 μm) with all ro-vibrational transitions (50 billion) with the lower state below 5000 cm-1included and thus should be applicable for temperatures up to 700 K. A technique for computing molecular opacities from vibrational band intensities is proposed and used to provide temperature dependent cross sections of ethylene for shorter wavelength and higher temperatures. When combined with realistic band profiles (such as the proposed three-band model), the vibrational intensity technique offers a cheap but reasonably accurate alternative to the full ro-vibrational calculations at high temperatures and should be reliable for representing molecular opacities. The C2H4 line list, which is called MaYTY, is rmade available in electronic form from the CDS (http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr) and ExoMol (www.exomol.com) databases.

  18. Mol 7C/6; Mol 7C/6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberle, J.; Schleisiek, K.; Schmuck, I.; Schmidt, L.; Romer, O.; Weih, G.

    1995-08-01

    The Mol 7C/6 coolant blockage experiment in the Belgian BR2 reactor yielded results different from Mol 7C experiments with low burnup pins: At 10% burnup local failure is not self-limiting, but requires active systems for detection and scram. The Mol 7C series was finished in 1991. In each of the test bundles Mol 7C/4, /5 and /6, 30 Mk I pins pre-irradiated in KNK II were used. The central blockage consisted of enriched UO{sub 2} covering 30 percent of the bundle cross-section, with a height of 40 mm. The most important system for timely detection of coolant blockages of the type studied in Mol 7C/6 is based on DND. (orig.)

  19. NMR study on the Li diffusion in a cathode material of amorphous vanadium pentoxide-5 mol% phosphorus pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Kawai, S.

    1989-01-01

    Diffusion properties of Li ion in a cathode material of amorphous Li chi V 2 O 5 with 5 mol% P 2 O 5 (chi=0.2-2) studied by means of Li NMR. From the relaxation time, the diffusion coefficient at 25 0 C is obtained. From the second moment, Li + ions seemed to occupy sites approximately 2.9 A apart in a large cavity similar to that in the crystalline V 2 O 5 . It is suggested that there are three kinds of sites for the Li + ion in the cavity, and that the ion changes the site of one kind to the others at chi≅0.6

  20. Anesthetic efficacy of combinations of 0.5 mol/L mannitol and lidocaine with epinephrine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Timothy; Kiser, Russell; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Drum, Melissa; Beck, Mike

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of these 2 prospective, randomized, single-blind studies was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of lidocaine with epinephrine compared with a combination lidocaine with epinephrine plus 0.5 mol/L mannitol for inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. In study one, 55 emergency patients randomly received IAN blocks by using a 3.18-mL formulation containing 63.6 mg of lidocaine with 31.8 μg epinephrine or a 5-mL formulation containing 63.6 mg of lidocaine with 31.8 μg epinephrine (3.18 mL) plus 1.82 mL of 0.5 mol/L mannitol. In study two, 51 emergency patients randomly received IAN blocks by using a 1.9-mL formulation containing 76.4 mg of lidocaine with 36 μg epinephrine or a 3-mL formulation containing 76.4 mg of lidocaine with 36 μg epinephrine (1.9 mL) plus 1.1 mL of 0.5 mol/L mannitol. Endodontic access was begun 15 minutes after the IAN block, and all patients had profound lip numbness. Success was defined as no or mild pain (visual analogue scale recordings) on endodontic access or instrumentation. The 1.9 mL of lidocaine (76.4 mg) with epinephrine plus 0.5 mol/L mannitol had a significantly (P = .04) better success rate of 39% when compared with the lidocaine formulation without mannitol (13% success rate). For mandibular posterior teeth in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, the addition of 0.5 mol/L mannitol to 1.9 mL of lidocaine (76.4 mg) with epinephrine resulted in a statistically higher success rate. However, the combination lidocaine/mannitol formulation would not result in predictable pulpal anesthesia. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A social preference valuations set for EQ-5D health states in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemput, Irina

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed at deriving a preference valuation set for EQ-5D health states from the general Flemish public in Belgium. A EuroQol valuation instrument with 16 health states to be valued on a visual analogue scale was sent to a random sample of 2,754 adults. The initial response rate was 35%. Eventually, 548 (20%) respondents provided useable valuations for modeling. Valuations for 245 health states were modeled using a random effects model. The selection of the model was based on two criteria: health state valuations must be consistent, and the difference with the directly observed valuations must be small. A model including a value decrement if any health dimension of the EQ-5D is on the worst level was selected to construct the social health state valuation set. A comparison with health state valuations from other countries showed similarities, especially with those from New Zealand. The use of a single preference valuation set across different health economic evaluations within a country is highly preferable to increase their usability for policy makers. This study contributes to the standardization of outcome measurement in economic evaluations in Belgium.

  2. Thermochemical reactivity of 5–15 mol% Fe, Co, Ni, Mn-doped cerium oxides in two-step water-splitting cycle for solar hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokon, Nobuyuki, E-mail: ngokon@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp [Center for Transdisciplinary Research, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Suda, Toshinori [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Kodama, Tatsuya [Department of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi 2-nocho, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2015-10-10

    Highlights: • 5–15 mol% M-doped ceria are examined for thermochemical two-step water-splitting. • 5 mol% Fe- and Co-doped ceria have stoichiometric production of oxygen and hydrogen. • 10–15 mol% Fe- and Mn-doped ceria showed near-stoichiometric production. - Abstract: The thermochemical two-step water-splitting cycle using transition element-doped cerium oxide (M–CeO{sub 2−δ}; M = Fe, Co, Ni, Mn) powders was studied for hydrogen production from water. The oxygen/hydrogen productivity and repeatability of M–CeO{sub 2−δ} materials with M doping contents in the 5–15 mol% range were examined using a thermal reduction (TR) temperature of 1500 °C and water decomposition (WD) temperatures in the 800–1150 °C range. The temperature, steam partial pressure, and steam flow rate in the WD step had an impact on the hydrogen productivity and production rate. 5 mol% Fe- and Co-doped CeO{sub 2−δ} enhances hydrogen productivity by up to 25% on average compared to undoped CeO{sub 2}, and shows stable repeatability of stoichiometric oxygen and hydrogen production for the cyclic thermochemical two-step water-splitting reaction. In addition, 5 mol% Mn-doped CeO{sub 2−δ}, 10 and 15 mol% Fe- and Mn-doped CeO{sub 2−δ} show near stoichiometric reactivities.

  3. Nutrition quality test of fermented waste vegetables by bioactivator local microorganisms (MOL) and effective microorganism (EM4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirwandono, E.; Sitepu, M.; Wahyuni, T. H.; Hasnudi; Ginting, N.; Siregar, G. AW; Sembiring, I.

    2018-02-01

    Livestock feed mostly used waste which has low nutrition content and one way to improve feed content by fermentation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bioactifator types on fermented vegetables waste for animal feed.The research was conducted in Nutrition and Animal Feed Laboratory, Universitas Sumatera Utara from May until July 2016. The research was factorial completely randomized design of 3 x 3 with 3 replications. Factor I were bioactivator types which were control, local bioactivator and EM4 (Effective Microorganisms 4). Factor II were time of incubation 3, 5 and 7 days. Parameters were moisture content, ash, Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE) and Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN). The results showed that bioactivator types either local activator or EM4 has highly significantly different effect (P<0,01) on water content, NFE and TDN on vegetables waste while there was no different between local bioactifator with EM4 on all parameters. Time of incubation 7 days has highly significantly different effect (P<0,01) on NFE, TDN and significant different (P<0,05) on water content and ash. In conclusion local bioactifators could improve animal feed by fermenting vegetables waste and it is more available for livestockers.

  4. Occurrence of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) in groundwater of the Walloon Region (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Anna; Borges, Alberto V.; Pujades, Estanislao; Hakoun, Vivien; Knöller, Kay; Brouyère, Serge

    2017-04-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are an environmental problem because their concentrations in the atmosphere have continuously risen since the industrial revolution. They can be indirectly transferred to the atmosphere through groundwater discharge into surface water bodies such as rivers. However, their occurrence is poorly evaluated in groundwater. The aim of this work is to identify the hydrogeological contexts (e.g., chalk and limestone aquifers) and the most conductive conditions for the generation of GHGs in groundwater at a regional scale. To this end, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations, major and minor elements and environmental isotopes were monitored in several groundwater bodies of the Walloon Region (Belgium) from September 2014 to June 2016. The concentrations of GHGs in groundwater ranged from 1769 to 100519 ppm for the partial pressure of CO2 and from 0 to 1064 nmol/L and 1 to 37062 nmol/L for CH4 and N2O respectively. Overall, groundwater was supersaturated in GHGs with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, suggesting that groundwater contribute to the atmospheric GHGs budget. Prior inspection of the data suggested that N2O in groundwater can be produced by denitrification and nitrification. The most suitable conditions for the accumulation of N2O are promoted by intermediate dissolved oxygen concentrations (2.5-3 mg L-1) and the availability of nitrate (NO3-). These observations will be compared with the isotopes of NO3-. CH4 was less detected and at lower concentration than N2O, suggesting that groundwater redox conditions are not reducing enough to promoted the production of CH4. The results will be presented and discussed in detail in the presentation.

  5. Irradiation creep of the martensitic steel no. 1.4914 between 400 deg C and 600 deg C (Mol 5B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschbach, K.; Doser, W.

    1983-01-01

    The irradiation induced creep of the martensitic steel DIN No. 1.4914 was investigated in the temperature range from 400 to 600 deg C for stresses up to 200 Mpa using the Mol 5B irradiation rig. The results point to a behavior quite different from that observed in the austenitic steels as will be discussed in detail. The creep is thermally activated and non-linearly dependent upon the applied stress. (author)

  6. Enteroaggregative Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O104:H4 in Belgium and Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. De Rauw

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a large outbreak of infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O104:H4 occurred in Germany. This exceptionally virulent strain combined virulence factors of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC and STEC. After the outbreak only a few sporadic cases of infection with this rare serotype were reported, most of which were related to travel to the Middle East or North Africa. Here we describe two cases of enteroaggregative STEC (Agg-STEC O104:H4 infection that occurred in Belgium in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In both cases travel in a Mediterranean country preceded the infection. The first strain was isolated from the stool of a 42-year-old woman presenting bloody diarrhoea, who had travelled to Tunisia the week before. The second case involves a 14-year-old girl who, upon her return from Turkey to Belgium, suffered from an episode of bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Extended typing of the isolates with pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that the strains were closely related, though not exactly the same as the 2011 outbreak strain. This report supports the previously made hypothesis that Agg-STEC has a human reservoir and might be imported by travellers coming from an area where the pathogen is endemic. Furthermore, it emphasizes the concern that these bacteria may cause future outbreaks as evenly virulent O104:H4 isolates seem to be widespread.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ExoMol line lists for 28SiH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, A.; Yachmenev, A.; Thiel, W.; Tennyson, J.; Yurchenko, S. N.

    2017-08-01

    The states file sih4_e42.dat contains a list of rovibrational states. Each state is labelled with: nine TROVE local mode vibrational quantum numbers and the vibrational symmetry; three rotational quantum numbers including the total angular momentum J and rotational symmetry; the total symmetry quantum number Gamma. In addition there is a largest coefficients used to assign the state in question. Each rovibrational state has a unique number, which is the number of the row in which it appears in the file. This number is the means by which the state is related to the second part of the data system, the transitions files. The total degeneracy is also given to facilitate the intensity calculations. Because of their size, the transitions are listed in 50 separate files, each containing all the transitions in a 100cm-1 frequency range. These transition files T_*.dat contain the silane lines lines consisting of three columns: the reference number in the energy file of the upper state, that of the lower state, the Einstein A coefficient of the transition and the transition wavenumber. These entries are ordered by increasing frequency. The name of the file includes the lowest frequency in the range; thus the T_00500.dat file contains all the transitions in the frequency range 500-600cm-1. The energy file and the transitions files are bzipped, and need to be extracted before use. A programme ExoCross to generate synthetic spectra from these line lists can be obtained at www.exomol.com. (2 data files).

  8. Influence of preliminary loading on fracture toughness of ceramics ZrO2-(3,4) mol.% Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, G.Ya.; Timchenko, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of preliminary mechanical loading on the fracture toughness of ceramics of the ZrO 2 -3-4 mol.% Y 2 O 3 composition is studied. It is shown that the fracture toughness monotonously increases and the increment constitutes ∼ 50% from the initial value. It is supposed that by the preliminary loading there takes place slow isothermal stage of the martensitic phase transformation of the part of the material grains. This leads to increase in the transformation degree by mechanical testing which is expressed in the increase in the fracture toughness [ru

  9. Synthesis and characterization of BaTi1−xSnxO3–0.5 mol%GeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucur, Raul Alin; Bucur, Alexandra Ioana; Novaconi, Stefan; Nicoara, Irina

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► BaTi 1−x Sn x O 3 –0.5 mol%GeO 2 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) ceramics were prepared at 1190 °C. ► GeO 2 improves crystallization and densification. ► Anomalies are noted for the rhombohedral–orthorhombic transition of BT–0.5Ge. ► For x = 0.3 and 0.5, ε′ r exhibit nearly constant variation between 200 and 400 K. - Abstract: Microcrystalline BaTi 1−x Sn x O 3 –0.5 mol%GeO 2 x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 (BTSx–0.5Ge) and BaTiO 3 (BT) ceramics (1–0.5 μm) were prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The crystalline structure of the samples was examined using XRD, the microstructure was analyzed by means of electron microscope and the density was measured by the Archimede’s method. The sintered ceramic disks have a tetragonal symmetry for BT, pseudo cubic for BTS1–0.5Ge and cubic symmetry for the other studied materials, with a gradual increase of unit cell dimensions. Small addition of GeO 2 can improve the density of BT ceramics: 97.9% for BT–0.5Ge, and 96.21% for pure BT. The highest degree of densification in the case of tin doping is achieved for BTS1–0.5Ge (96.93%). The formation of a liquid phase can lead to an anomalous grain growth, and in the case of BT–0.5Ge the grains are completely surrounded by a frozen eutectic melt. For the dielectric constant, while increasing the Sn concentration, the T C gradually shifts towards lower temperatures, and the peak of this transition becomes broader. The lowering of T C is mostly due to the concentration of tin ions and in a much delicate way to Ge ions. Anomalies are noticed for the orthorhombic transition, where the permittivity is higher than the same transition of the matrix (BT), with a shift towards higher temperatures. The BTS3–0.5Ge and BTS5–0.5Ge are the most stable compositions in terms of dielectric behavior, since in the temperature range 200–400 K, ε′ r is almost constant. Therefore, these compositions can be used for devices that operate over a

  10. Physicochemical Properties of α-Form Hydrated Crystalline Phase of 3-(10-Carboxydecyl)-1,1,1,3,5,5,5-heptamethyl Trisiloxane/Higher alcohol/Polyoxyethylene (5 mol) Glyceryl monostearate/Water System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, Makoto; Araki, Hidefumi; Fukuhara, Tadao; Watanabe, Kei

    2018-06-07

    The α-form hydrated crystalline phase (often called as an α-gel) is one of the hydrated crystalline phases which can be exhibited by surfactants and lipids. In this study, a novel system of an α-form hydrated crystal was developed, composed of 3-(10-carboxydecyl)-1,1,1,3,5,5,5-heptamethyl trisiloxane (CDTS), polyoxyethylene (5 mol) glyceryl monostearate (GMS-5), higher alcohol. This is the first report to indicate that a silicone surfactant can form an α-form hydrated crystal. The physicochemical properties of this system were characterized by small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) experiments. SWAXS and DSC measurements revealed that a plurality of crystalline phases coexist in the CDTS/higher alcohol/water ternary system. By adding GMS-5 to the ternary system, however, a wide region of a single α-form hydrated crystalline phase was obtained. The self-diffusion coefficients (D sel ) from the NMR measurements suggested that all of the CDTS, GMS-5, and higher alcohol molecules were incorporated into the same α-form hydrated crystals.

  11. XPS and ToF-SIMS analysis of natural rubies and sapphires heat-treated in a reducing (5 mol% H 2/Ar) atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiwawanich, S.; James, B. D.; Liesegang, J.

    2008-12-01

    Surface effects on Mong Hsu rubies and Kanchanaburi sapphires after heat treatment in a controlled reducing atmosphere (5 mol% H 2/Ar) have been investigated using advanced surface science techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Visual appearance of the gemstones is clearly affected by the heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere. Kanchanaburi sapphires, in particular, exhibit Fe-containing precipitates after the heat treatment which have not been observed in previous studies under an inert atmosphere. Significant correlation between changes in visual appearance of the gemstones and variations in surface concentration of trace elements, especially Ti and Fe are observed. The XPS and ToF-SIMS results suggest that; (1) a reducing atmosphere affects the oxidation state of Fe; (2) dissociation of Fe-Ti interaction may occur during heat treatment.

  12. XPS and ToF-SIMS analysis of natural rubies and sapphires heat-treated in a reducing (5 mol% H{sub 2}/Ar) atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achiwawanich, S. [Department of Physics, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); James, B.D. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Department of Chemistry, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Liesegang, J. [Department of Physics, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia)], E-mail: J.Liesegang@latrobe.edu.au

    2008-12-30

    Surface effects on Mong Hsu rubies and Kanchanaburi sapphires after heat treatment in a controlled reducing atmosphere (5 mol% H{sub 2}/Ar) have been investigated using advanced surface science techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Visual appearance of the gemstones is clearly affected by the heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere. Kanchanaburi sapphires, in particular, exhibit Fe-containing precipitates after the heat treatment which have not been observed in previous studies under an inert atmosphere. Significant correlation between changes in visual appearance of the gemstones and variations in surface concentration of trace elements, especially Ti and Fe are observed. The XPS and ToF-SIMS results suggest that; (1) a reducing atmosphere affects the oxidation state of Fe; (2) dissociation of Fe-Ti interaction may occur during heat treatment.

  13. Gold Rush in Mol at the 15th ASCERI Atomiade

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Haen, Konrad Jende & Rachel Bray, Atomiade organizers and athletes for the CERN team

    2015-01-01

    What initially began as a football tournament between German institutes involved in nuclear research has developed into ASCERI (Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes), which aims to contribute to a united Europe through regular sport meetings, bringing together members of public research institutes at the European level. The members come from over 40 research institutes (see here) spanning 16 countries.     CERN team going for Gold at the summer Atomiade!   One of the main sport events organised by ASCERI, the 15th Atomiade was held from 5 to 8 June 2015 (organisational committee JRC Geel) in Mol, in the Kempen region of Belgium. CERN participated by sending 40 athletes from 15 countries to compete in a variety of disciplines: Athletics, Basketball, Cycling, Mountain Bike Race, Canoeing/Kayak, S.U.P., Swimming, Table Tennis, Tennis, Triathlon, Volleyball. The 1200 athletes from 36 European research institutes were housed in th...

  14. Structure, glass transition temperature and spectroscopic properties of 10Li2O-xP2O5-(89-x)TeO2-1CuO (5≤x≤25 mol%) glass system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upender, G; Babu, J Chinna; Mouli, V Chandra

    2012-04-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR), Raman, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption studies on 10Li2O-xP2O5-(89-x)TeO2-1CuO glasses (where x=5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mol%) have been carried out. The amorphous nature of the glasses was confirmed using XRD and FESEM measurements. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of glass samples have been estimated from DSC traces and found that the Tg increases with increasing P2O5 content. Both the IR and Raman studies have been showed that the present glass system consists of [TeO3], [TeO4], [PO3] and [PO4] units. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters such as g∥, g⊥, and A∥ have been determined from EPR spectra and it was found that the Cu2+ ion is present in tetragonal distorted octahedral site with [Formula: see text] as the ground state. Bonding parameters and bonding symmetry of Cu2+ ions have been calculated by correlating EPR and optical data and were found to be composition dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi criteria decision analysis on a waste repository in Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, B.

    2005-01-01

    In Belgium, the management of radioactive waste is taken care of by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials. Local partnerships with stakeholders from municipalities in existing nuclear zones were setup to facilitate the dialogue between the repository designers and the local community. Since the establishment of the partnership in Mol, MONA in February 2000, all aspects of a possible near-surface or a deep geological repository are discussed in 4 working groups by around 50 volunteer members. The outcome of the discussions in the partnership can be a shared project, supported by both local stakeholders and ONDRAF/NIRAS, in which the specifications and the conditions needed for establishing a repository in Mol are elaborated. MONA asked the Decision Strategy Research Department of SCK-CEN to organise a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) in the context of the deciding between a surface and a deep repository for low level radioactive waste. The objective of the multi criteria analysis is to support a number of representatives of the various working groups within MONA in their selection between two acceptable options for a repository of low level radioactive waste on the territory of Mol. The options are the surface repository developed by the working groups of MONA, and a deep repository in the clay layers underneath the nuclear site of Mol. This study should facilitate the selection between both options, or in case this appears to be difficult, at least to get a well-structured overview of all factors (criteria) of importance to the judgement, and to get insight into the degree in which the various criteria contribute to the selection

  16. Synthesis of cyclophosphamide-4,4,5,5-d4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, S.P.; Chang, Y.H.; Ludeman, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    3-Hydroxypropionitrile was subjected to a base-catalyzed exchange reaction in D 2 O which provided 2,2-dideuterio-3-deuteroxypropionitrile (DOCH 2 CD 2 CN) in 70% yield. Reduction of the nitrile with LiAID 4 gave 3-amino-2,2,3,3-tetradeuteriopropan-1-ol (HOCH 2 CD 2 CD 2 NH 2 ) in a crude yield of 71%. Reaction of this intermediate with N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)phosphoramidic dichloride [Cl 2 P(O)N(CH 2 CH 2 Cl) 2 ] followed by the combination of those chromatography fractions which contained only pure material gave cyclophosphamide-4,4,5,5-d 4 as a white oil in 13% yield. A portion of this oil was converted to the monohydrate by the addition of water (1.1 equivalents) and crystallization from ether/petroleum ether (62% yield). For the hydrate, MS analyses gave an average mole percent enrichment (with average deviation over 5 determinations) of 89.1 ± 0.5% d 4 . (author)

  17. Effect of ortho-substituted aniline on the corrosion protection of aluminum in 2 mol/L H2SO4 solution

    KAUST Repository

    El-Deeb, Mohamed M.; Alshammari, Hamed M.; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat

    2017-01-01

    Corrosion protection of aluminum in 2 mol/L HSO solution is examined in the presence of ortho-substituted aniline derivatives using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Density function theory (DFT

  18. Compressive strain-dependent bending strength property of Al2O3-ZrO2 (1.5 mol% Y2O3) composites performance by HIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Rojas, A.; Esparza-Ponce, H.; De la Torre, S.D.; Torres-Moye, E.

    2009-01-01

    Nanometric powders and sintered ceramics of Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 (1.5 mol% Y 2 O 3 ) prepared by hot isostatic pressing HIP have been studied. A detailed crystallographic study has been performed through X-ray diffraction, Williamson-Hall method, Rietveld method and high-resolution electron microscopy HREM analysis. The crystallographic structure data, such as domain size, lattice parameters, wt% phase, and micro-strain direction have been obtained using Rietveld refinement and Williamson-Hall methods. The results revealed that the compressive strain (ε) increased from 0.56 to 1.18 (10 -3 ) as the t-ZrO 2 content increased too. The HREM interface study conducted along the [0 0 0 1]Al 2 O 3 ||[0 0 1]ZrO 2 zone axis revealed a micro-strain lattice distortion accumulated at the grain boundary due to the ZrO 2 martensitic phase transformation on cooling, t-ZrO 2 grains coalescence and to the grain growth of α-Al 2 O 3 which cause elongated tetragonal crystals. Micro-strain lattice distortion is adjusted by the shear displacements of the planes (1 1 0) and (11-bar0) along [1-bar10] and [1-bar1-bar0] crystallographic directions, respectively; these planes are arrested by the (101-bar0) alumina plane. In this case, semi-coherent interfaces were observed along the grain boundary. It is verified that the bending strength increased in connection with the strain accumulation and amount of tetragonal structure

  19. Thermodynamics of HfCl/sub 4/-KCl molten mixtures containing HfCl/sub 4/ up to 33. 3 mol. per cent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, M V; Salyulev, A B; Kudyakov, V Ya [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehlektrokhimii

    1980-05-01

    Based on measurements of saturated vapour pressure in components of melted mixtures of HfCl/sub 4/-KCl, depending on temperature and concentration, calculated are the results of changes in activity coefficients of hafnium tetrachloride and potassium chloride on transition from diluted solutions, where the Henry law is met, to those concentrated where the law is disobeyed. Growth in the activity coefficient of HfCl/sub 4/ is due to dissociation of complex groups of HfCl/sub 6//sup 2 -/ into complexes with a lesser number of ligands and decreasing relative binding energy of Hf/sup 4 +/-Cl/sup -/ there. In this case, marked changes take place in partial enthalpy and entropy of hafnium tetrachloride mixing. Similar dependences are observed for potassium chloride, but they are expressed considerably weaker. Evaporation enthalpy and entropy are calculated for HfCl/sub 4/ and KCl monomers from their melted mixtures of various concentrations.

  20. Thermodynamics of HfCl4-KCl molten mixtures containing HfCl4 up to 33.3 mol. per cent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, M.V.; Salyulev, A.B.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    Based on measurements of saturated vapour pressure in components of melted mixtures of HfCl 4 -KCl, depending on temperature and concentration, calculated are the results of changes in activity coefficients of hafnium tetrachloride and potassium chloride on transition from diluted solutions, where the Henry law is met, to those concentrated where the law is disobeyed. Growth in the activity coefficient of HfCl 4 is due to dissociation of complex groups of HfCl 6 2- into complexes with a lesser number of ligands and decreasing relative binding energy of Hf 4+ -Cl - there. In this case, marked changes take place in partial enthalpy and entropy of hafnium tetrachloride mixing. Similar dependences are observed for potassium chloride, but they are expressed considerably weaker. Evaporation enthalpy and entropy are calculated for HfCl 4 and KCl monomers from their melted mixtures of various concentrations

  1. 5 º 4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    became apparent, prompting a detailed investigation of the kinetics of this unexpected, and apparently spontaneous, trans- esterification. At 400 MHz, the 1H NMR ..... tems, 2nd edn., Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 7. 8 J. March, Advanced Oranic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms and Struc- ture, 4th edn., John Wiley ...

  2. VSDMIP 1.5: an automated structure- and ligand-based virtual screening platform with a PyMOL graphical user interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Álvaro Cortés; Gil-Redondo, Rubén; Perona, Almudena; Gago, Federico; Morreale, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    A graphical user interface (GUI) for our previously published virtual screening (VS) and data management platform VSDMIP (Gil-Redondo et al. J Comput Aided Mol Design, 23:171-184, 2009) that has been developed as a plugin for the popular molecular visualization program PyMOL is presented. In addition, a ligand-based VS module (LBVS) has been implemented that complements the already existing structure-based VS (SBVS) module and can be used in those cases where the receptor's 3D structure is not known or for pre-filtering purposes. This updated version of VSDMIP is placed in the context of similar available software and its LBVS and SBVS capabilities are tested here on a reduced set of the Directory of Useful Decoys database. Comparison of results from both approaches confirms the trend found in previous studies that LBVS outperforms SBVS. We also show that by combining LBVS and SBVS, and using a cluster of ~100 modern processors, it is possible to perform complete VS studies of several million molecules in less than a month. As the main processes in VSDMIP are 100% scalable, more powerful processors and larger clusters would notably decrease this time span. The plugin is distributed under an academic license upon request from the authors. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  3. Diffusion coefficients of N2O in aqueous piperazine solutions using the taylor dispersion technique from (293 to 333) K and (0.3 to 1.4) mol·dm-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamborg, E. S.; Derks, P. W. J.; Kersten, S. R. A.; Niederer, J. P. M.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2008-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients of N2O in aqueous piperazine (PZ) solutions have been determined using the Taylor dispersion technique over a temperature range from (293 to 333) K and a concentration range from (0.3 to 1.4) mol·dm-3 PZ. The experimental results have been compared to literature values.

  4. Densities and apparent molar volumes of atmospherically important electrolyte solutions. 2. The systems H(+)-HSO4(-)-SO4(2-)-H2O from 0 to 3 mol kg(-1) as a function of temperature and H(+)-NH4(+)-HSO4(-)-SO4)2-)-H2O from 0 to 6 mol kg(-1) at 25 °C using a Pitzer ion interaction model, and NH4HSO4-H2O and (NH4)3H(SO4)2-H2O over the entire concentration range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S L; Wexler, A S

    2011-04-21

    A Pitzer ion interaction model has been applied to the systems H(2)SO(4)-H(2)O (0-3 mol kg(-1), 0-55 °C) and H(2)SO(4)-(NH(4))(2)SO(4)-H(2)O (0-6 mol kg(-1), 25 °C) for the calculation of apparent molar volume and density. The dissociation reaction HSO(4)(-)((aq)) ↔ H(+)((aq)) + SO(4)(2-)((aq)) is treated explicitly. Apparent molar volumes of the SO(4)(2-) ion at infinite dilution were obtained from part 1 of this work, (1) and the value for the bisulfate ion was determined in this study from 0 to 55 °C. In dilute solutions of both systems, the change in the degree of dissociation of the HSO(4)(-) ion with concentration results in much larger variations of the apparent molar volumes of the solutes than for conventional strong (fully dissociated) electrolytes. Densities and apparent molar volumes are tabulated. Apparent molar volumes calculated using the model are combined with other data for the solutes NH(4)HSO(4) and (NH(4))(3)H(SO(4))(2) at 25 °C to obtain apparent molar volumes and densities over the entire concentration range (including solutions supersaturated with respect to the salts).

  5. Effect of boron oxide addition on fibre drawing, mechanical properties and dissolution behaviour of phosphate-based glass fibres with fixed 40, 45 and 50 mol% P2O5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmin, Nusrat; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D; Ahmed, Ifty

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies investigating manufacture of phosphate-based glass fibres from glasses fixed with P2O5 content less than 50 mol% showed that continuous manufacture without breakage was very difficult. In this study, nine phosphate-based glass formulations from the system P2O5-CaO-Na2O-MgO-B2O3 were prepared with P2O5 contents fixed at 40, 45 and 50 mol%, where Na2O was replaced by 5 and 10 mol% B2O3 and MgO and CaO were fixed to 24 and 16 mol%, respectively. The effect of B2O3 addition on the fibre drawing, fibre mechanical properties and dissolution behaviour was investigated. It was found that addition of 5 and 10 mol% B2O3 enabled successful drawing of continuous fibres from glasses with phosphate (P2O5) contents fixed at 40, 45 and 50 mol%. The mechanical properties of the fibres were found to significantly increase with increasing B2O3 content. The highest tensile strength (1200 ± 130 MPa) was recorded for 45P2O5-16CaO-5Na2O-24MgO-10B2O3 glass fibres. The fibres were annealed, and a comparison of the mechanical properties and mode of degradation of annealed and non-annealed fibres were investigated. A decrease in tensile strength and an increase in tensile modulus were observed for the annealed fibres. An assessment of the change in mechanical properties of both the annealed and non-annealed fibres was performed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37℃ for 28 and 60 days, respectively. Initial loss of mechanical properties due to annealing was found to be recovered with degradation. The B2O3-containing glass fibres were found to degrade at a much slower rate as compared to the non-B2O3-containing fibres. Both annealed and non-annealed fibres exhibited a peeling effect of the fibre's outer layer during degradation. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. 4,5-Bis(4-methoxyphenoxyphthalonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyou Peng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H16N2O4, was obtained unintentionally as the product of an attempted synthesis of a new phthalocyanine. The dihedral angles formed by the central benzene ring with the aromatic rings of the methoxyphenoxy groups are 85.39 (5 and 64.19 (5°.

  7. Electrochemical and spectroscopic investigations of the K2SO4-V2O5 molten electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Douglas S.; Winnick, Jack; Boghosian, Soghomon

    1999-01-01

    A 60 mol % K(2)SO(4)J/40 mol % V2O5 molten salt mixture was tested for electrochemical activity to determine its propensity for sulfate transport. Results of cyclic voltammetry showed a high electrochemical activity due likely to the reduction and oxidation of bulk, as opposed to minor, species...

  8. Caramel colour and process contaminants in foods and beverages: Part II - Occurrence data and exposure assessment of 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI) and 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Van Holderbeke, M; Cornelis, C; Jacobs, G; Sioen, I; De Maeyer, M; Vinkx, C; Vanermen, G

    2018-07-30

    In Europe, 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI) and 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) are - to a certain level - allowed to be present in the food colours ammonia caramel (E 150c) and sulphite ammonia caramel (E 150d). Besides their presence in food colours, exposure to these contaminants may also include other dietary sources. This study describes the occurrence of THI and 4-MEI in a wide variety of food products (n = 522) purchased from the Belgian market and their dietary intake in Belgian consumers from 15 years old onwards. THI was found to be present in 22.4% of the investigated foods at a level up to 551 µg/kg. For 4-MEI (57.7% quantifiable), concentrations up to 2,835 µg/kg were observed. The average dietary intake amounted to 0.02-0.36 µg kg -1  bw -1  day for THI and 0.4-3.7 µg kg -1  bw -1  day for 4-MEI. Coffee, cola and beer were contributing most to the dietary THI and 4-MEI intake in Belgium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of ortho-substituted aniline on the corrosion protection of aluminum in 2 mol/L H2SO4 solution

    KAUST Repository

    El-Deeb, Mohamed M.

    2017-02-13

    Corrosion protection of aluminum in 2 mol/L HSO solution is examined in the presence of ortho-substituted aniline derivatives using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Density function theory (DFT) calculations are performed to investigate the aluminum-electrolyte interface relationship in the absence and presence of both ortho-substituted aniline derivatives and sulphate anions, as well as their roles in the protection efficiency at the atomic level. Our results show that ortho-aniline derivatives are good inhibitors and that their efficiencies improved as the concentration increased. SEM-EDX analysis is used to confirm the adsorption thermodynamics of the studied compounds on the aluminum surface. The best inhibitory effect is exhibits in the presence of the methyl group in ortho-position followed by ortho-carboxilic compared to aniline. The adsorption of these compounds on the aluminum surface is well described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm as well as the experimental and the theoretical adosrption energies are in a good agreement. DFT calculations also show that the interaction between the inhibitors and the aluminum surface is mainly electrostatic and depends on the type of the ortho-substituted group in addition to the sulphate anions.

  10. African Journals Online: Belgium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Belgium. Home > African Journals Online: Belgium. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  11. Structural analysis of xSrO–(50 − x)CaO–50P_2O_5 glasses with x = 0, 5, or 10 mol% for potential use in a local delivery system for osteomyelitis treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeau, P.A.; Filiaggi, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of ions into a local delivery matrix is one method of managing degradation and subsequent release of the incorporated therapeutic agents. Of interest in this study was whether we could modify the structural nature of calcium polyphosphate (CPP) glass and the subsequent therapeutic potential of this local delivery matrix with inclusion of strontium (Sr). We found that adding 10 mol% Sr significantly increased the density and chain length of the glass. There was no significant impact of Sr doping on the subsequent loading of vancomycin into the matrix, or the matrix porosity. The noted differences in structural stability, ion release, and vancomycin release between the un-doped CPP matrices and 10 mol% Sr-doped CPP matrices in vitro are likely a result of a decrease in glass disorder upon Sr addition to the glass and preferential retention of Sr over Ca during matrix degradation. This study has provided further evidence that Sr incorporation may serve to both manipulate antibiotic release from the amorphous CPP matrix and provide a potential source of therapeutic ions for enhanced bone regeneration. - Highlights: • A strontium-doped CPP glass was fabricated with a novel calcine-melt protocol. • The density and chain length of CPP glass increased upon 10 mol% Sr addition to CPP. • The phosphorous ion released in vitro was not dependent on 10 mol% Sr addition. • Doping CPP with 10 mol% Sr improved matrix short-term structural stability in vitro.

  12. Use of INIS magnetic tapes, in Belgium, with the help of STAIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coster, M. de; Bijnens, A.; Wandeler-Brankaer, M. de; Strubbe-Kuyer, A.

    1975-01-01

    In the framework of its participation to an international scientific information network, Belgium has developed a computerised sectorial nuclear system based on the use of the INIS magnetic tapes. Our paper describes how the system is operated by the CEN/SCK (Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)) and the C.T.I. (Centre de Traitement de l'Information du Ministere des Affaires Economiques, Brussels (Belgium)). (authors)

  13. Penetration and characteristics of an intergranular-liquid phase during sintering of CaSi2O5-dropped 8 mol%-yttria-stabilized zirconia estimation by impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Soo; Choi, Jung-Hae; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2004-01-01

    The grain-boundary resistivity of CaSi 2 O 5 -dropped 8 mol%-yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) was determined by impedance spectroscopy using sub-millimeter-scale electrodes. During sintering, a liquid that formed at the top surface of the specimen penetrated into the 8YSZ and induced enhanced grain growth near the surface region. The grain-boundary resistivity of the specimen surface was observed to be 150 times higher than that of the interior. The deterioration of the grain-boundary conductivity was explained in terms of the presence of an intergranular siliceous phase

  14. Vol 5, No 4 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of wetland valuation purposes in Lagos Metropolis and the Niger Delta, Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MO Ajibola, AO Ogungbemi, MT Adenipekun, 450-458. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v5i4.S3 ...

  15. Strongly enhanced vortex pinning from 4 to 77 K in magnetic fields up to 31 T in 15 mol.% Zr-added (Gd, Y)-Ba-Cu-O superconducting tapes

    OpenAIRE

    A. Xu; L. Delgado; N. Khatri; Y. Liu; V. Selvamanickam; D. Abraimov; J. Jaroszynski; F. Kametani; D. C. Larbalestier

    2014-01-01

    Applications of REBCO coated conductors are now being developed for a very wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields and it is not yet clear whether vortex pinning strategies aimed for high temperature, low field operation are equally valid at lower temperatures and higher fields. A detailed characterization of the superconducting properties of a 15 mol. % Zr-added REBCO thin film made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, from 4.2 to 77 K under magnetic fields up to 31 T is presen...

  16. Expresión fenotípica de las moléculas CD5 y CD6 en la leucemia linfoide crónica B-CD5+ The B-CD5+ chronic lymphoid leukemia related to the phenotype expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Beatriz Socarrás Ferrer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Las moléculas CD5 y CD6 tienen función coestimuladora y muestran homología en su estructura. Se evaluó la expresión de la molécula CD6 mediante el uso del anticuerpo monoclonal anti-CD6 (T1 en el inmunofenotipaje celular de pacientes con leucemia linfoide crónica By se comparó con la expresión de la molécula CD5.Los resultados demuestranuna homología en la expresión fenotípica de ambas moléculas, CD5 y CD6, lo que asociado con que ambos receptores linfocitarios se encuentran físicamente vinculados, permite sugerir que la molécula CD6 constituye un marcador biológico de interés en la evaluación del pronóstico y la posibilidad de nuevas variantes terapéuticas en esta enfermedad.CD5 and CD6 molecules have a co-stimulant function and show homology in structure. We assessed CD6 molecule expression using anti-CD6 (T1 monoclonal antibody in the cellular immunophenotyping from patients presenting B chronic lymphoid leukemia, and it was compared to CD5 molecule expression. Results show a homology in phenotype expression of both molecules (CD5 and CD6, what associated with the fact that both lymphocyte receptors are physically linked, allow to suggest that CD6 molecule is a interesting biological marker in prognosis assessment, and the possibility of new therapeutic variants in this disease.

  17. Mapping EQ-5D utilities to GBD 2010 and GBD 2013 disability weights: Results of two pilot studies in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Maertens De Noordhout (Charline); B. Devleesschauwer (Brecht); Gielens, L.; Plasmans, M.H.D.; J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); N. Speybroeck (Niko)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Utilities and disability weights (DWs) are metrics used for calculating Quality-Adjusted Life Years and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), respectively. Utilities can be obtained with multi-attribute instruments such as the EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D). In

  18. Country profiles: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Within months, Belgium will have to import practically all of its energy requirements; coal production will stop in 1992. Though nuclear will continue to provide the bulk of the country's power supply, government policy has shifted away from reliance on the atom for electricity generation towards natural gas. With no oil reserves of its own, keeping demand under check has been a priority for governments down the years. The actual level of oil imports runs well above consumption since the refining sector supplies products for the European market. Belgium's own petrol station businesses face considerable rationalisation, with average throughput well below EC levels. (author)

  19. Cancer mortality among nuclear workers in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, H.; Holmstock, L.; Mieghem, E. Van; Swaen, G.M.; Wambersie, A.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate long term health effects of chronic exposure to low doses of ionising radiation, the Nuclear Research Center (SCK.CEN) in Mol set up a retrospective cohort study in 5 nuclear facilities in Belgium (SCK.CEN, Belgonucleaire, Belgoprocess, 2 Electrabel nuclear power plants). Cancer mortality among nuclear workers is studied in relation to occupational exposure to ionising radiation. This study is part of the 'International Collaborative Study on Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers', coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), pooling data of 14 countries. During the period 1953-1994, all workers registered in one of the participating facilities were included in the study (n=7361). Data have been collected from different information sources: personnel registries (identification, occupational history), dosimetry records (e.g. annual effective dose), National Population Registry and local authorities (vital status). National Institute of Statistics (causes of death from the death certificates), National Radiation Registry/Ministry of Labour (transfer doses), questionnaires (e.g. smoking habits). Retrospective collection of data and privacy protection regulations specific to Belgium hampered the conduct of this study, causing labour intensive and time consuming procedures. Written informed consent of next-of-kin is required to obtain information from the death certificates. Before 1969 only family reported causes of death are available. Despite the above mentioned constraints, first results of Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) calculations are now available for SCK.CEN workers for the period 1969-1994 (n=3270, vital status ascertainment: 95%, underlying cause of death ascertainment: 80%). Available SMR's can be summarised as follows: male workers, no measurable dose (n=785): SMR all causes=75% (95%CI: 61-91), SMR all tumours=64% (95%CI: 42-93), 2 leukemia deaths were observed, whereas 1 is expected, male workers, measurable

  20. Structural analysis of xSrO-(50 - x)CaO-50P2O5 glasses with x=0, 5, or 10 mol% for potential use in a local delivery system for osteomyelitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, P A; Filiaggi, M J

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of ions into a local delivery matrix is one method of managing degradation and subsequent release of the incorporated therapeutic agents. Of interest in this study was whether we could modify the structural nature of calcium polyphosphate (CPP) glass and the subsequent therapeutic potential of this local delivery matrix with inclusion of strontium (Sr). We found that adding 10 mol% Sr significantly increased the density and chain length of the glass. There was no significant impact of Sr doping on the subsequent loading of vancomycin into the matrix, or the matrix porosity. The noted differences in structural stability, ion release, and vancomycin release between the un-doped CPP matrices and 10 mol% Sr-doped CPP matrices in vitro are likely a result of a decrease in glass disorder upon Sr addition to the glass and preferential retention of Sr over Ca during matrix degradation. This study has provided further evidence that Sr incorporation may serve to both manipulate antibiotic release from the amorphous CPP matrix and provide a potential source of therapeutic ions for enhanced bone regeneration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. [Primary care in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2017-09-01

    Belgium is an attractive country to work in, not just for doctors but for all Spanish workers, due to it having the headquarters of European Union. The health job allure is double; on the one hand, the opportunity to find a decent job, and on the other, because it is possible to develop their professional abilities with patients of the same nationality in a health system with a different way of working. The Belgium health care system is based on security social models. Health care is financed by the government, social security contributions, and voluntary private health insurance. Primary care in Belgium is very different to that in Spain. Citizens may freely choose their doctor (general practitioner or specialist) increasing the lack of coordination between primary and specialized care. This leads to serious patient safety problems and loss of efficiency within the system. Belgium is a European country with room to improve preventive coverage. General practitioners are self-employed professionals with free choice of setting, and their salary is linked to their professional activity. Ambulatory care is subjected to co-payment, and this fact leads to great inequities on access to care. The statistics say that there is universal coverage but, in 2010, 14% of the population did not seek medical contact due to economic problems. It takes 3 years to become a General Practitioner and continuing medical education is compulsory to be revalidated. In general, Belgian and Spaniards living and working in Belgium are happy with the functioning of the health care system. However, as doctors, we should be aware that it is a health care system in which access is constrained for some people, and preventive coverage could be improved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BELGOWASTE was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: Purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste; centralization assumes the making of adequate arrangements for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of resiudal material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste; deep clay formations are at present preferred; disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol [fr

  3. Ozone and ultraviolet radiation. Observations and research in the Netherlands and Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An overview of recent scientific research in Belgium and the Netherlands on the title subject is given. After an overall introduction on ozone and ultraviolet radiation in chapter 1 attention is paid to observations and monitoring of ozone and UV-radiation in chapter 2 and recent research projects in the Netherlands and Belgium with respect to those quantities in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the biological effects of UV-radiation are described, while in chapter 5 the international policy to protect the ozone layer is discussed as well as the effects of such policy on the UV burden and public health. 10 refs

  4. RJHS 5(4).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Achievers University, Owo, Nigeria. 4. Department ... Research Journal of Health Sciences subscribed to terms and conditions of Open Access publication. Articles are ..... Bearing in mind that these two ...

  5. RJHS 5(4).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    everyone will enjoy life at all levels of human endeavor. This statutory ..... sector because of poor electricity, the internet and weak communication .... International Student Edition. Mcgraw-Hill Kogakusha, Ltd, 1960. 5. The Nation, Thursday ...

  6. Synthesis and characterization of organically modified silica gel with 4-amino-5-(4-pyridyl)-4h-1 ,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (APTT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magossi, M.S.; Carmo, D.R. do

    2014-01-01

    This work object the preparation and characterization of a silica gel (SG) organically with a triazole compound, 4-amino-5-(4-pyridyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3- thiol (APTT). The prepared organofunctionalized material (SGAPTT) was preliminarily characterized by spectroscopic techniques such as: Spectroscopy in the Region of Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy X-ray (EDX). The vibrational spectrum (FTIR) showed characteristic bands of the starting materials, such as bands at ∼ 1120cm"-"1 related to the asymmetric stretching Si-O-Si (νSi-O-Si) as well as the bands between 1350 and 1650 cm"-"1 assigned vibrations and deformations of the ring APTT. The SGAPTT material was tested as support for adsorption of cupric ions in aqueous solution, ethanol and 42% ethanol. The maximum amount of copper (II) adsorbed (Nf "m"a"x".) was 22.0 × 10"-"5 mol g"-"1, 31.4 × 10-5 mol g-1 and 47.17 × 10"-"5 mol g"-"1 to aqueous media, 42% ethanol and 99% ethanol respectively. (author)

  7. RJHS 5(4).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    society the female partners are more willing to per take in ... focused on women without much consideration given to .... probably due to poor knowledge and subsequent .... Divorced. 126. 159. 15. 42.0. 53.0. 5.0. Level of Education No formal.

  8. Finance management and administrative aspects of project management at SCK/CEN, Mol, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cort, R.; De Cock, R.; Billiau, R.; Proost, J.

    1979-01-01

    In this contribution we have tried to point out the way in which the financial management of SCK/CEN is carried out. Despite the fact that research is still very often considered to be an area of activity in which decisions can only be made on the basis of intuition we believe that methods based on the principle of management by objectives and follow-up of expenditure and results, has enabled us to make our managerial staff and personnel ''resource-minded''. However, it should be stressed that in most cases, and contrary to private industry, the output of most R and D work cannot be measured or balanced in terms of cost and income. Cost accounting therefore only provides information on the input, whereas the output has to be evaluated in terms of long-term benefits to the nation. As these are rather diffucult to quantify, no clear balance can be shown and discussions may often arises as to the real output and the necessity to carry out R and D work. (author)

  9. Rhenium(5) and molybdenum(5) complexes with 4',4(5)-divaleryldibenzo-18-crown-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurova, N.Kh.; Yakubov, K.G.; Tashmukhamedova, A.K.; Basitova, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Methods for synthesizing oxohalide complexes of rhenium and molybdenum with +5 oxidation degree with 4',4 (5) -divaleryldibenzo-18-crown-6 were developed. Content and composition of prepared compounds were investigated by the methods of element analysis, crystal optics, conductometry, IR spectroscopy in the near and far regions, thermogravimetry. Oxidation degree of the complex-forming metal was determined. It was established that composition of the compounds coressponded to the general formula MOLX · H 2 O, where M - Re, Mo; L -4',4 (5) -divaleryldibenzo-18-crown-6; X -Cl - , Br -

  10. Features of the Diels-Alder reaction between 9,10-diphenylanthracene and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, V. D.; Kornilov, D. A.; Kashaeva, E. A.; Potapova, L. N.; Krivolapov, D. B.; Litvinov, I. A.; Konovalov, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    The Diels-Alder reaction between substituted anthracenes 1a-1j and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5 ( 2) is studied. In all cases except one, the reaction proceeds on the most active 9,10-atoms of substituted anthracenes. The orthogonality of the two phenyl groups at the 9,10-position of diene 1a is found to shield 9,10-reactive centers. No dienophiles with C=C bonds are shown to participate in the Diels-Alder reaction with 1a; however, the reaction 1a + 2 proceeds with the very active dienophile 2,4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione. It is shown that attachment occurs on the less active but sterically accessible 1,4-reactive center of diene 1a. The structure of adduct 3a is proved by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The following parameters are obtained for reaction 1a + 2 ⇆ 3a in toluene at 25°C: K eq = 2120 M-1, Δ Hf ≠ = 58.6 kJ/mol, Δ Sf ≠ = -97 J/(mol K), Δ Vf ≠ = -17.2 cm3/mol, Δ Hb ≠ = 108.8 kJ/mol, Δ Sb ≠ = 7.3 J/(mol K), Δ Vb ≠ = -0.8 cm3/mol, Δ H r-n = -50.2 kJ/mol, Δ S r-n = -104.3 J/(mol K), Δ V r-n = -15.6 cm3/mol. It is concluded that the values of equilibrium constants of the reactions 1a-1j + 2 ⇆ 3a-3j vary within 4 × 101-1011 M-1.

  11. 4 CFR 5.5 - Travel, transportation, and subsistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel, transportation, and subsistence. 5.5 Section 5.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.5 Travel, transportation, and subsistence. The provisions of chapter 57 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for the...

  12. Experimental thermochemical study of 4,5-dichloro-2-nitroaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D.M.C.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Galvao, Tiago L.P.

    2009-01-01

    The standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of 4,5-dichloro-2-nitroaniline, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, was derived from the combination of the values of the standard molar enthalpy of formation, in the crystalline phase, at T = 298.15 K, and the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, at the same temperature. The standard molar enthalpy of formation, in the crystalline phase, at T = 298.15 K, was derived as -(99.7 ± 1.6) kJ . mol -1 from the standard massic energy of combustion, in oxygen, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpy of sublimation was calculated, (109.4 ± 0.9) kJ . mol -1 by the application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, to the vapour pressures measured at several temperatures by Knudsen effusion technique. The standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous phase, of the six dichloro-2-nitroaniline isomers and of the four dichloro-4-nitroaniline isomers were estimated by the Cox Scheme and by the Domalski and Hearing group additivity method and compared with the available experimental values. For the Domalski and Hearing group additivity method four new correction terms were derived.

  13. Nuclear fuel activities in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairiot, H

    1997-12-01

    In his presentation on nuclear fuel activities in belgium the author considers the following directions of this work: fuel fabrication, NPP operation, fuel performance, research and development programmes.

  14. Grain-size dependence of the deterioration of oxygen transport for pure and 3 mol% Zr-doped Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ induced by thermal annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saher, S.; Meffert, M.; Störmer, H.; Gerthsen, D.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the influence of long-term annealing at intermediate temperatures on oxygen transport of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3 d (BSCF) and 3 mol% Zr-doped BSCF (BSCF-Z3) ceramics with different grain sizes was studied by means of in situ electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) measurements.

  15. Strongly enhanced vortex pinning from 4 to 77 K in magnetic fields up to 31 T in 15 mol.% Zr-added (Gd, Y)-Ba-Cu-O superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, A; Delgado, L; Khatri, N; Liu, Y; Selvamanickam, V; Abraimov, D; Jaroszynski, J; Kametani, F; Larbalestier, DC

    2014-04-01

    Applications of REBCO coated conductors are now being developed for a very wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields and it is not yet clear whether vortex pinning strategies aimed for high temperature, low field operation are equally valid at lower temperatures and higher fields. A detailed characterization of the superconducting properties of a 15 mol.% Zr-added REBCO thin film made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, from 4.2 to 77 K under magnetic fields up to 31 T is presented in this article. Even at a such high level of Zr addition, T-c depression has been avoided (T-c = 91 K), while at the same time an exceptionally high irreversibility field H-irr approximate to 14.8 T at 77 K and a remarkably high vortex pinning force density F-p approximate to 1.7 TN/m(3) at 4.2 K have been achieved. We ascribe the excellent pinning performance at high temperatures to the high density (equivalent vortex matching field similar to 7 T) of self-assembled BZO nanorods, while the low temperature pinning force is enhanced by large additional pinning which we ascribe to strain-induced point defects induced in the REBCO matrix by the BZO nanorods. Our results suggest even more room for further performance enhancement of commercial REBCO coated conductors and point the way to REBCO coil applications at liquid nitrogen temperatures since the critical current density J(c)(H//c) characteristic at 77 K are now almost identical to those of fully optimized Nb-Ti at 4 K. (C) 2014 Author(s).

  16. Strongly enhanced vortex pinning from 4 to 77 K in magnetic fields up to 31 T in 15 mol.% Zr-added (Gd, Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting tapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of REBCO coated conductors are now being developed for a very wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields and it is not yet clear whether vortex pinning strategies aimed for high temperature, low field operation are equally valid at lower temperatures and higher fields. A detailed characterization of the superconducting properties of a 15 mol. % Zr-added REBCO thin film made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, from 4.2 to 77 K under magnetic fields up to 31 T is presented in this article. Even at a such high level of Zr addition, Tc depression has been avoided (Tc = 91 K, while at the same time an exceptionally high irreversibility field Hirr ≈ 14.8 T at 77 K and a remarkably high vortex pinning force density Fp ≈ 1.7 TN/m3 at 4.2 K have been achieved. We ascribe the excellent pinning performance at high temperatures to the high density (equivalent vortex matching field ∼7 T of self-assembled BZO nanorods, while the low temperature pinning force is enhanced by large additional pinning which we ascribe to strain-induced point defects induced in the REBCO matrix by the BZO nanorods. Our results suggest even more room for further performance enhancement of commercial REBCO coated conductors and point the way to REBCO coil applications at liquid nitrogen temperatures since the critical current density Jc(H//c characteristic at 77 K are now almost identical to those of fully optimized Nb-Ti at 4 K.

  17. Compressive strain-dependent bending strength property of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} (1.5 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) composites performance by HIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Rojas, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Cd. de Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)], E-mail: armando_reyesmx@yahoo.com.mx; Esparza-Ponce, H. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Cd. de Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); De la Torre, S.D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica (CIITEC)-IPN, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Torres-Moye, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Cd. de Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    Nanometric powders and sintered ceramics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} (1.5 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) prepared by hot isostatic pressing HIP have been studied. A detailed crystallographic study has been performed through X-ray diffraction, Williamson-Hall method, Rietveld method and high-resolution electron microscopy HREM analysis. The crystallographic structure data, such as domain size, lattice parameters, wt% phase, and micro-strain direction have been obtained using Rietveld refinement and Williamson-Hall methods. The results revealed that the compressive strain ({epsilon}) increased from 0.56 to 1.18 (10{sup -3}) as the t-ZrO{sub 2} content increased too. The HREM interface study conducted along the [0 0 0 1]Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}||[0 0 1]ZrO{sub 2} zone axis revealed a micro-strain lattice distortion accumulated at the grain boundary due to the ZrO{sub 2} martensitic phase transformation on cooling, t-ZrO{sub 2} grains coalescence and to the grain growth of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} which cause elongated tetragonal crystals. Micro-strain lattice distortion is adjusted by the shear displacements of the planes (1 1 0) and (11-bar0) along [1-bar10] and [1-bar1-bar0] crystallographic directions, respectively; these planes are arrested by the (101-bar0) alumina plane. In this case, semi-coherent interfaces were observed along the grain boundary. It is verified that the bending strength increased in connection with the strain accumulation and amount of tetragonal structure.

  18. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BelgoWaste was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste, centralization assuming that adequate arrangements are made for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of residual material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste (deep clay formations are at present preferred); and disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic Ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol. (author)

  19. Rhenium (5) and molybdenum (5) complexes with 4',4''(5'')-ditretbutyldibenzo-24-crown-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurova, N.Kh.; Yakubov, K.G.; Basitova, S.M.; Tashmukhamedova, A.K.; Sajfullina, N.Zh.

    1989-01-01

    Rhenium and molybdenum complexes in +5 oxidation degree with 4',4''(5'')-ditretbutyldibenzo-24-crown-8 (L) are synthesized with 75-95 % yield. Composition and structure of compounds produced are investigated using element analysis, conductometry, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry methods. Oxidation degree of complexer metal is determined. It is ascertained that the compound composition corresponds to the MOLX 3 formula, where M-Re, Mo; X-Cl - , Br -

  20. Regional energy and environment exploration in Belgium 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciujpers, C.

    1994-01-01

    The prospects for energy consumption and related emission of NO x , SO 2 , and CO 2 gases for the year 2000 are reported for three regions (the Flanders, Brussels Metropolitan, and Wallonie region) in Belgium. Two scenarios were developed: a reference scenario in which the policy of 1990 is continued on the one hand and a policy making scenario in which the energy and carbon taxes, proposed by the European Commission are introduced on the other hand. This methodology allows to estimate the impact of the energy and carbon taxes on energy consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases. In conclusion is stated that at continued policy, primary energy consumption in Belgium will rise 22.4 percent from 1990 to 2000. The introduction of energy and carbon taxes will result in a reduction of the primary energy consumption with 5.9 percent. At a continued policy NO X , SO 2 emissions will reduce respectively 27.2 percent, 18.8 percent while CO 2 emissions will increase 21.4 percent from 1990 till 2000. Compared to the continued scenario, the introduction of energy and carbon taxes in Belgium will lead to additional NO X and CO 2 emissions of respectively 6.5 and 13.6 percent, while the CO 2 emission will be reduced by 9.5 percent in 2000. It is concluded that the proposed energy and carbon taxes are important impulses for the realization of the Belgian objective to reduce the CO 2 -emission from 1990 to 2000 by five percent. (A.S.) 5 Figs. 9 Tabs

  1. 27 CFR 4.5 - Related regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Related regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.5 Related regulations. The following...

  2. Retraction RETRACTION of "Association between polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene and the risk of non-small cell lung cancer", by Han JC, Zhang YJ and Li XD - Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (4): 12888-12893 (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J C; Zhang, Y J; Li, X D

    2016-10-07

    The retracted article is: Han JC, Zhang YJ and Li XD (2015). Association between polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene and the risk of non-small cell lung cancer. Genet. Mol. Res. 14: 12888-12893. The GMR editorial staff was alerted about this article (received on May 3, 2015; accepted on August 18, 2015) published on October 21, 2015 (DOI: 10.4238/2015.October.21.9) that was found to be substantially similar to the publication of "Association of XRCC1 gene polymorphisms with risk of non-small cell lung cancer" (received on January 25, 2015; accepted on March 23, 2015; e-published on April 1, 2015) by Kang et al., published in the International Journal of Clinical Experimental Pathology 8 (4): 4171-4176. The authors were aware of the Kang et al.'s paper, since they cite it several times in the manuscript published in GMR. Some of the language is similar between the two manuscripts, but what is the most concerning is that several of the tables in the papers are nearly identical. Tables 2 and 3 are exactly identical between the two articles, suggesting that the publication in GMR was plagiarized from the publication in the International Journal of Clinical Experimental Pathology. The Publisher and Editor decided to retract these articles in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). After a thorough investigation, we have strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure and, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract the article. The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics.

  3. Cryopreservation of in vitro shoot apices of Oxalis tuberosa Mol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benito, M E; Mendoza-Condori, V H; Molina-Garcia, A D

    2007-01-01

    Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) is an under-utilized tuber crop from the Andean region. Cryopreservation would allow the safe and long-term preservation of the genetic resources of this crop. A protocol for the cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoots has been developed using the vitrification solution PVS2. Two genotypes were studied (G1 and G27). Nodal segments were cultured on MS medium and incubated at 10 degree C with 16 h photoperiod and 10 mol per square meter per second irradiance, for two weeks. Apices were then excised and cultured on MS+0.15 M sucrose for 3 days at 5 degree C in darkness. Subsequently, apices were immersed in a loading solution (liquid MS medium+2 M glycerol+0.4 M sucrose), and then treated with the vitrification solution PVS2 for 0 to 40 minutes. Cryovials were then immersed in liquid nitrogen. Four weeks after rewarming and culture on recovery medium, genotype G1 showed approximately 60 percent recovery (normal growth) with 20 min PVS2 treatment. Genotype G27 showed lower recovery (30 percent). Differential scanning calorimetry yielded a Tg midpoint for PSV2 solution of ca. -120 degree C. Calorimetric studies on apices at different stages of the cryopreservation protocol showed a change in calorimetric parameters consistent with a decrease in the amount of frozen water as the protocol advanced.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of organically modified silica gel with 4-amino-5-(4-pyridyl)-4h-1 ,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (APTT); Sintese e caracterizacao da silica gel organofuncionalizada com 4-amino-5-(4-piridil)-4h-1,2,4-triazol-3-tiol (APTT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magossi, M.S.; Carmo, D.R. do, E-mail: maiaramagossi@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2014-07-01

    This work object the preparation and characterization of a silica gel (SG) organically with a triazole compound, 4-amino-5-(4-pyridyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3- thiol (APTT). The prepared organofunctionalized material (SGAPTT) was preliminarily characterized by spectroscopic techniques such as: Spectroscopy in the Region of Infrared (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy X-ray (EDX). The vibrational spectrum (FTIR) showed characteristic bands of the starting materials, such as bands at ∼ 1120cm{sup -1} related to the asymmetric stretching Si-O-Si (νSi-O-Si) as well as the bands between 1350 and 1650 cm{sup -1} assigned vibrations and deformations of the ring APTT. The SGAPTT material was tested as support for adsorption of cupric ions in aqueous solution, ethanol and 42% ethanol. The maximum amount of copper (II) adsorbed (Nf {sup max.}) was 22.0 × 10{sup -5} mol g{sup -1}, 31.4 × 10-5 mol g-1 and 47.17 × 10{sup -5} mol g{sup -1} to aqueous media, 42% ethanol and 99% ethanol respectively. (author)

  5. Mol - Research Division Report 1986 - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbarre, J.

    1987-03-01

    This report covers the research activities carried out at the SCK-CEN, Mol during the second semester of 1986. It deals with chemistry, chemical engineering, biology, nuclear metrology, analytical chemistry. (MCB)

  6. Mol - Research Division report 1987 - 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbarre, J.

    1988-03-01

    This report covers the research activities at the SCK-CEN, MOl, during the second semester of 1987. It deals with materials physics, nuclear physics, metallurgy, ceramics, nuclear chemistry, chemical engineering, biology, nuclear metrology and analytical chemistry. (MCB)

  7. Mol - Research Division Report 1986 - 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbarre, J.; Assche, P. van

    1986-11-01

    This report covers the research activities carried out at the SCK-CEN, Mol from the middle of 1985 till mid 1986. It deals with materials science, metallurgy, ceramics, nuclear chemistry, chemical engineering, biology, nuclear meteorology and analytical chemistry. (MCB)

  8. Mol - Research Division report 1987 - 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbarre, J.

    1987-10-01

    This report covers the research activities at the SCK-CEN, Mol, during the first semester of 1987. It deals with material physics, nuclear physics, metallurgy, ceramics, nuclear chemistry, chemical engineering, biology, nuclear metrology and analytical chemistry. (MCB)

  9. A first interpretation of the Mol 7C/l and Mol 7C/2 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, J.; Carluec, B.; Fortunato, M.; Lemmet, L.

    1983-01-01

    The interpretation of the two experiments MOL 7C/1 and MOL 7C/2 that has been performed at the CEA of Cadarache is presented here: one will find first a recall of the experimental conditions of the MOL experiments, then a short description of the codes that enable the interpretation and finally the results of this interpretation compared to the experimental results

  10. Anatomia da madeira e casca de espinilho, Acacia caven Mol.Mol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 São descritos os aspectos anatômicos da madeira e casca de Acácia caven (Mol. Mol. São apresentados dados quantitativos de 34 caracteres do xilema secundário, bem como fotomicrografias das estruturas anatômicas da madeira e casca. A ausência de septos em fibras, a abundância de parênquima axial e a elevada percentagem de raios com 4 ou mais células de largura, são os caracteres mais importantes na estrutura do lenho. O arranjo das fibras floemáticas em feixes tangenciais regulares, rodeados por séries cristalíferas, é, por sua vez, o aspecto mais notável da casca. Este caráter ainda não havia sido reportado pela literatura anatômica das acácias sul-americanas, e pode ter valor taxonômico em nível infra-genérico.

  11. 2-[(4-Bromophenyliminomethyl]-5-pentadecylphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Padmashali

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 2-[(4-Bromophenyliminomethyl]-5-pentadecylphenol has been synthesized by reaction of 2-hydroxy-4-pentadecylbenzaldehyde with 4-bromoaniline in 1,4-dioxane and its IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS spectroscopic data are presented.

  12. Synthesis of symmetrical 2,2',4,4'-tetrasubstituted [4,4'-bithiazole]-5,5'(4H,4'H)-diones and their reactions with some nucleophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth K.; Bray, Diana D.; Kjær, Anders

    1997-01-01

    steric factors. X-Ray crystallography established the structure of the dehydrodimer (4R*,4R'*)-2,2'-diethoxy-4,4'-dibenzyl-[4,4'-bithiazole]-5,5'(4H,4 'H)-dione. One stereoisomer of 2,2'-diphenyl-4,4'-dimethyl-[4,4'-bithiazole]-5,5'(4H,4'H)-dione and a mixture of the stereoisomers 2,2'-diphenyl-4......-carboxylic acid and piperidylamide, was established by X-ray crystallography. Treatment of stereoisomeric mixtures of 2,2'-diethoxy-4,4'-bithiazolones with HCl in benzene gave the corresponding racemic and meso bis-(N-carboxythioanhydride)s. A stereoisomeric mixture of the bis...

  13. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA E CASCA DO ESPINILHO, Acacia caven (Mol. Mol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os aspectos anatômicos da madeira e casca de Acacia cavem (Mol. Mol. São apresentados dados quantitativos de 34 características do xilema secundário, bem como fotomicrografias das estruturas anatômicas da madeira e casca. A ausência de septos em fibras, a abundância de parênquima axial e a elevada percentagem de raios com 4 ou mais células de largura, são os caracteres mais importantes na estrutura do lenho. O arranjo das fibras floemáticas em feixes tangenciais regulares, rodeados por sériescristalíferas, é, por sua vez, o aspecto mais notável da casca. Este caráter ainda não havia sido reportado pela literatura anatômica das acácias sul-americanas, e pode ter valor taxonômico em nivel infra-genético.

  14. 16 CFR 4.5 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees. 4.5 Section 4.5 Commercial Practices... same fees and mileage as are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States. (b) Presiding officers... in the courts of the United States. (c) Responsibility. The fees and mileage referred to in this...

  15. 5,5-Dihydroxybarbituric acid 1,4-dioxane hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gelbrich

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound,, C4H4N2O5·0.5C4H8O2, contains one molecule of 5,5-dihydroxybarbituric acid with a nearly planar barbiturate ring and half a molecule of 1,4-dioxane. The geometry of the centrosymmetric dioxane molecule is close to an ideal chair conformation. The crystal structure exhibits a complex three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network. Barbiturate molecules are connected to one another via N—H...O=C, O—H...O=C and N—H...O(hydroxy interactions, while the barbituric acid molecule is linked to dioxane by an O—H...O contact.

  16. Investigation of an excess of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 14b and MLVA type 4-7-3-13-10-2-2 in Luxembourg, Belgium and Germany during 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossong, J; Ragimbeau, C; Schuh, J; Weicherding, P; Peetso, R; Wildemauwe, C; Imberechts, H; Rabsch, W; Bertrand, S

    2012-01-01

    We investigated an increase of human cases of Salmonella Enteritidis occurring from August until November 2010 in Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany involving an estimated three hundred laboratory confirmed cases. Molecular typing indicated that the increase in Luxembourg and Belgium was due a particular strain having phage type 14b, MLVA pattern 4-7-3-13-10-2-2 and fully susceptible to the Enternet panel of antibiotics. MLVA and phage typing were found to have similar discriminatory power on a collection of 40 Belgian and Luxembourg strains isolated during 2010. Epidemiological investigations in Luxembourg suggested eggs as a possible source for some cases, although supermarket eggs tested were negative. No other EU countries observed a substantial increase of cases, although three smaller outbreaks in Germany were also due to a strain with the same phage type and MLVA pattern. In 2010 the EU directive banning battery cages came into force in Germany followed by a dioxin food scare incident. Given that the EU Laying Hens Directive will come into force across all Member States in 2012, a closer monitoring of Salmonella contamination of imported eggs at retail and wholesale level is recommended.

  17. 4 CFR 5.1 - Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay. 5.1 Section 5.1 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.1 Pay. (a) Pay principles. Pay of the employees of GAO shall be fixed by the Comptroller General consistent with the principles that— (1) There be equal pay for work of...

  18. 4 CFR 5.3 - Merit pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Merit pay. 5.3 Section 5.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.3 Merit pay. The Comptroller General may promulgate regulations establishing a merit pay system for such employees of the Government Accountability Office as the...

  19. Drugs used for euthanasia in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Stichele, R H; Bilsen, J J R; Bernheim, J L; Mortier, F; Deliens, L

    2004-02-01

    Our aim was to describe and assess the medicinal products and doses used for euthanasia in a series of cases, identified within an epidemiological death certificate study in Belgium, where euthanasia was until recently legally forbidden and where guidelines for euthanasia are not available. In a random sample of the deaths in 1998 in Belgium, the physicians who signed the death certificates were identified and sent an anonymous mail questionnaire. The questionnaires of the deaths classified as euthanasia cases were reviewed by a multi-disciplinary panel. A total of 22 among 1925 questionnaires pertained to voluntary euthanasia. In 17 cases, detailed information on the euthanatics (medicinal substances used for euthanasia) used was provided. Opioids were used in 13 cases (in 7 as a single drug). Time between last dose and expiry ranged from 4 to 900 min. The panel judged that only in 4 cases effective euthanatics were used. In the end-of-life decision cases perceived by Belgian physicians as euthanasia, pharmacological practices were disparate, although dominated by the use of morphine, in the very late phase of dying, in doses which were unlikely to be lethal. Most physicians clandestinely engaging in euthanasia in Belgium seemed unaware of procedures for guaranteeing a quick, mild and certain death. Information on the pharmacological aspects of euthanasia should be included in the medical curriculum and continuing medical education, at least in countries with a legal framework permitting euthanasia under specified conditions.

  20. 3-Ethyl-5-(4-meth­oxy­phen­oxy)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, S.; SubbiahPandi, A.; Suresh, A. D.; Pitchumani, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C20H18N4O2, the imidazopyridine fused ring system is almost perpendicular to the benzene ring [dihedral angle = 87.6 (5)°]. The pyridine ring makes a dihedral angle of 35.5 (5)° with the mean plane of the imidazopyridine fragment. The crystal structure is stabilized by an aromatic π–π stacking inter­action between the phenyl rings of neighbouring mol­ecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.772 (2) Å, inter­planar distance = 3.546 (2) Å and slippage = 1.286 (2) Å]. PMID:21837144

  1. N-(4,5-Diazafluoren-9-ylideneaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Cang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the molecule of the title compound, C17H11N3, the 4,5-diazafluorenylidene unit is nearly planar and is oriented with respect to the phenyl ring at a dihedral angle of 75.75 (3°. In the crystal structure, the molecules are aligned in the [100] direction in such a way that neighbouring 4,5-diazafluorenylidene planes face each other in an antiparallel fashion.

  2. Burial history of two potential clay host formations in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, J.; Wouters, L.; Van Marcke, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    When dealing with long term stability of repository host rocks, it is important to consider and learn from all past geological events since the deposition of the formations. The burial history of the Boom Clay and Ypresian Clays, both considered as potential host rocks in Belgium, illustrates that the North Belgian region was tectonically relatively stable since deposition. In Northern Belgium, where both formations are located at a few hundreds meters of depth, tectonic movements were relatively small and no significant uplifts took place. The burial history of the Boom Clay in Mol, where the HADES underground research facility is located illustrates this. On the poster, the burial history for both formations is presented at two locations each: one location in the outcrop region and one research site location, where the formation is currently buried under a few 100 metres of sediment. (authors)

  3. Kinetic analysis of the thermal decomposition of Li4Ti5O12 pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Mosqueda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A single dynamic kinetic analysis, describing the surface decomposition of Li4Ti5O12 pellets, has been performed. Samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The analyses were performed between 1000 and 1100°C and different times, perceiving the Li4Ti5O12 decomposition to Li2Ti3O7, with a loss of lithium. As expected, more rapid decomposition behaviour was found at higher temperatures. Finally, the activation energy for this decomposition of Li4Ti5O12 to Li2Ti3O7 was estimated to be equal to 383 kJ/mol.

  4. Chimie des interactions moléculaires

    OpenAIRE

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Le cours de l’année 2008-2009 a porté sur « Autoorganisation et dynamique moléculaires ». Des cours ont été donnés à l’Université de Strasbourg (3 h), à l’Université Charles de Prague (3 h) et à la City University de Hong Kong (3 h). Cours au Collège de France : Autoorganisation et dynamique moléculaires Introduction Le cours a porté sur l’évolution de la chimie supramoléculaire vers la chimie dynamique constitutionnelle (CDC) et la chimie adaptative. Du fait de la labilité des interactions n...

  5. 4′,5-Dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H14O5·2H2O [systematic name: 5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl-7-methoxychroman-4-one dihydrate], is a natural phytoalexin flavone isolated from the native chilean species Heliotropium taltalense and crystallizes with an organic molecule and two water molecules in the asymmetric unit. The 5-hydroxy group forms a strong intramolecular hydrogen bond with the carbonyl group, resulting in a six-membered ring. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The 4-hydroxyphenyl benzene ring is bonded equatorially to the pyrone ring, which adopts a slightly distorted sofa conformation. The title compound is the hydrated form of a previously reported structure [Shoja (1990. Acta Cryst. C46, 1969–1971]. There are only slight variations in the molecular geometry between the two compounds.

  6. 4-Chloroanilinium 2-carboxy-4,5-dichlorobenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the 1:1 proton-transfer compound of 4-chloroaniline with 4,5-dichlorophthalic acid (DCPA, viz. C6H7ClN+·C8H3Cl2O4−, has been determined at 130 K. The non-planar hydrogen phthalate anions and the 4-chloroanilinium cations form two-dimensional O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen-bonded substructures which have no peripheral extension. Between the sheets there are weak π–π associations between alternating cation–anion aromatic ring systems [shortest centroid–centroid separation = 3.735 (4 Å].

  7. 4′,5-Dihy­droxy-7-meth­oxy­flavanone dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Iván; Bórquez, Jorge; Simirgiotis, Mario; Cárdenas, Alejandro; López-Rodríguez, Matías

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C16H14O5·2H2O [systematic name: 5-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­phen­yl)-7-meth­oxy­chroman-4-one dihydrate], is a natural phytoalexin flavone isolated from the native chilean species Heliotropium taltalense and crystallizes with an organic mol­ecule and two water mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. The 5-hy­droxy group forms a strong intra­molecular hydrogen bond with the carbonyl group, resulting in a six-membered ring. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The 4-hy­droxy­phenyl benzene ring is bonded equatorially to the pyrone ring, which adopts a slightly distorted sofa conformation. The title compound is the hydrated form of a previously reported structure [Shoja (1990 ▶). Acta Cryst. C46, 1969–1971]. There are only slight variations in the mol­ecular geometry between the two compounds. PMID:22259537

  8. 12 CFR 5.4 - Filing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATE ACTIVITIES Rules of General Applicability § 5.4 Filing required. (a) Filing. A depository institution shall file an application or notice with the OCC to engage in corporate activities and... advise an applicant through a pre-filing communication to send the filing or submission directly to the...

  9. Laboratory hydro-mechanical characterisation of Boom Clay at Essen and Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Y. F.; Tang, A. M.; Cui, Y. J.; Nguyen, X. P.; Li, X. L.; Wouters, L.

    2011-01-01

    Boom Clay has been selected as a potential host rock formation for the geological disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. In the present work, the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom Clay samples from the borehole Essen-1 at a depth of 220-260 m and from HADES that is the underground rock laboratory at Mol in Belgium, at 223-m depth was investigated in the laboratory by performing low pressure odometer tests (vertical effective stress ranging from 0.05 to 3.2 MPa), high pressure odometer tests (vertical effective stress ranging from 0.125 to 32 MPa), isotropic consolidation tests (confining effective stress ranging from the in situ stress to 20 MPa) and triaxial shear tests. It has been observed that the mineralogy, geotechnical properties and hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom Clay from Essen at 227-m, 240-m and 248-m depths are similar to that of Boom Clay from Mol. As in the case of Boom Clay at Mol, the failure envelope of Boom Clay at Essen in the p'- q plane is not linear. The slope of the portion beyond the pre-consolidation stress of Boom Clay from Essen is almost the same as that from Mol, suggesting a similar internal friction angle of about 13 deg. The compression curves (void index I v versus logarithm of vertical stress) beyond the pre-consolidation stress are the same for both samples from Mol and Essen, and situated between the intrinsic compression line (ICL) and the sedimentation compression line (SCL). The yield stress determined from odometer tests seems to be stress-path dependent and lower than the pre-consolidation stress. Thus determining the over-consolidation ratio (OCR) using the yield stress value would lead to an incorrect estimate. From a practical point view, the laboratory test results from Essen and their comparison with those from Mol provide important information regarding the transferability of knowledge on Boom Clay at different sites, taking into account the fact that most investigations have been carried out on Boom Clay at

  10. Robert Cailliau honoured by Belgium

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 15 November, Robert Cailliau received the distinction of Commandeur de l'Ordre de Léopold from Belgium, his home country, for his pioneering work in developing the World Wide Web. Robert Cailliau worked closely with Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the Web.

  11. Impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospitalisations in Belgium: comparing model predictions with observed data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudouin Standaert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published economic assessments of rotavirus vaccination typically use modelling, mainly static Markov cohort models with birth cohorts followed up to the age of 5 years. Rotavirus vaccination has now been available for several years in some countries, and data have been collected to evaluate the real-world impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalisations. This study compared the economic impact of vaccination between model estimates and observed data on disease-specific hospitalisation reductions in a country for which both modelled and observed datasets exist (Belgium. METHODS: A previously published Markov cohort model estimated the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the number of rotavirus hospitalisations in children aged <5 years in Belgium using vaccine efficacy data from clinical development trials. Data on the number of rotavirus-positive gastroenteritis hospitalisations in children aged <5 years between 1 June 2004 and 31 May 2006 (pre-vaccination study period or 1 June 2007 to 31 May 2010 (post-vaccination study period were analysed from nine hospitals in Belgium and compared with the modelled estimates. RESULTS: The model predicted a smaller decrease in hospitalisations over time, mainly explained by two factors. First, the observed data indicated indirect vaccine protection in children too old or too young for vaccination. This herd effect is difficult to capture in static Markov cohort models and therefore was not included in the model. Second, the model included a 'waning' effect, i.e. reduced vaccine effectiveness over time. The observed data suggested this waning effect did not occur during that period, and so the model systematically underestimated vaccine effectiveness during the first 4 years after vaccine implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Model predictions underestimated the direct medical economic value of rotavirus vaccination during the first 4 years of vaccination by approximately 10% when assessing

  12. Development of a standard reference material containing 22 chlorinated hydrocarbon gases at 1 μmol/mol in nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Du, Jian; Yang, Jing; Fan, Qiang; Tian, Wen

    2017-11-01

    A gas standard mixture containing 22 chlorinated hydrocarbons in high purity nitrogen was prepared using a two-step weighing method and a gasifying apparatus developed in-house. The concentration of each component was determined using a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detection (GC/FID). Linear regression analysis of every component was performed using the gas standard mixture with concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 μmol/mol, showing the complete gasification of volatile organic compound (VOCs) species in a selected cylinder. Repeatability was also examined to ensure the reliability of the preparation method. In addition, no significant difference was observed between domestic treated and imported treated cylinders, which were conducive to reduction of the cost of raw materials. Moreover, the results of stability testing at different pressures and long-term stability tests indicated that the gas standard at 1 μmol/mol level with relative expanded uncertainties of 5% was stable above 2 MPa for a minimum of 12 months. Finally, a quantity comparison was conducted between the gas standard and a commercial gas standard from Scott Specialty Gases (now Air Liquide America Specialty Gases). The excellent agreement of every species suggested the favorable accuracy of our gas standard. Therefore, this reference material can be applied to routine observation of VOCs and for other purposes.

  13. .NET 4.5 parallel extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This book contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create task-based parallel programs using C#, .NET 4.5, and Visual Studio. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to create scalable programs.This book is intended to help experienced C# developers write applications that leverage the power of modern multicore processors. It provides the necessary knowledge for an experienced C# developer to work with .NET parallelism APIs. Previous experience of writing multithreaded applications is not necessary.

  14. Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation study of the sublimation and vaporization energetics of iron metalocenes. crystal structures of Fe(eta5-C5H4CH3)2 and Fe[(eta5-(C5H5)(eta5-C5H4CHO)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousada, Claudio M; Pinto, Susana S; Lopes, José N Canongia; da Piedade, M Fatima Minas; Diogo, Hermínio P; da Piedade, Manuel E Minas

    2008-04-03

    The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of ferrocene, 1,1'-dimethylferrocene, decamethylferrocene, ferrocenecarboxaldehyde and alpha-methylferrocenemethanol, and the enthalpy of vaporization of N,N-dimethyl(aminomethyl)ferrocene, at 298.15 K, were determined by Calvet-drop microcalorimetry and/or the Knudsen effusion method. The obtained values were used to assess and refine our previously developed force field for metallocenes. The modified force field was able to reproduce the deltasubHdegreesm and deltavapHdegreesm values of the test-set with an accuracy better than 5 kJ.mol-1, except for decamethylferrocene, in which case the deviation between the calculated and experimental deltasubHdegreesm values was 16.1 kJ.mol-1. The origin of the larger error found in the prediction of the sublimation energetics of decamethylferrocene, and which was also observed in the estimation of structural properties (e.g., density and unit cell dimensions), is discussed. Finally, the crystal structures of Fe(eta5-C5H4CH3)2 and Fe[(eta5-(C5H5)(eta5-C5H4CHO)] at 293 and 150 K, respectively, are reported.

  15. Strong red-emission of Eu{sup 3+}:Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} powders for phosphor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yan [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States); Jiménez, José A. [Department of Chemistry, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Wu, Yiquan, E-mail: wuy@alfred.edu [Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The synthesis and photoluminescence properties of trivalent europium doped lithium titanate (Eu{sup 3+}:Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) with different Eu{sup 3+} concentrations (0.1 mol%, 0.3 mol%, 1.0 mol%, 3.0 mol%) are reported and analyzed as a phosphor. Europium (III) nitrate (Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) was employed as Eu{sup 3+} source, while lithium acetate dihydrate (CH{sub 3}COOLi·2H{sub 2}O) and titanium n-butoxide (Ti(OC{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}) were adopted as raw materials to synthesize the host lithium titanate with a Li:Ti stoichiometry of 4.5:1. Phase identification was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Eu{sup 3+}:Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} powders showed strong red emission at 612 nm, corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition, with the strongest excitation peak observed in the blue light region at 464 nm. Decay time analyses revealed relatively short lifetimes accompanying typical exponential decay rates. The effect of Eu{sup 3+} concentration (0.1 mol%, 0.3 mol%, 1.0 mol%, 3.0 mol%) on photoluminescence intensity and decay time was explored, and is reported here. It was determined that the CIE color coordinates (0.66, 0.34) of the doped Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} powders were independent of Eu{sup 3+} concentration, and that the coordinates are very similar to the ideal red chromaticity (0.67, 0.33) designated by the National Television Standard Committee (NTSC) system.

  16. La esfera, el mol y la ciudad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Neira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoyándonos en la noción de "esfera" de Slotedijk, analizamos la protección constituida por los moles. La libertad de elegir en el mol no tiene relación con la libertad individual propuesta por John Stuart Mill; ni con la anarco-individualista propuesta por Henry David Thoreau o incluso por Aldo Leopold en el elogio que éste realiza de la autonomía del pionero estadounidense. En la libertad de elegir en el mol han caducado todas las aventuras y las relaciones humanas se convierten en lo que Sloterdijk denomina "relaciones cristalizadas", bajo el proyecto del aburrimiento normativo poshistórico. La expresión económico-filosófica del mundo poshistórico es la idea de libertad de elegir, enunciada por Milton Friedman. El mol, actual Palacio de Cristal, es como una enciclopedia ilustrada, que exhibe, en orden y sin peligros, el conjunto, ya no del saber, sino de los bienes disponibles. Con ello, se modifica la condición humana.Based on the Sloterdijk's concept of sphere, we analyse the protection provided by the malls. Nevertheless, the freedom of choosing in a mall does not have any relation to liberty as it was proposed by John Stuart Mill, neither to the anarcho-individualist one proposed by Henry David Thoreau, nor even to that one proposed by Aldo Leopold, when he praises the authonomy of American pioneer. In the freedom process of choosing in the mall, all adventures perish and human relations become what Sloterdijk denominated "crystalised relations", under a post-historic normative boring project. The economic-philosophical expression of post-historic world is the idea of freedom of choosing, conceived by Milton Friedman. The mall, the current Crystal Palace, is like an enlightened encyclopaedia, which shows, in order and without dangers, the totality, no longer of knowledge, but of available goods. In this way, human condition has modified.

  17. XPS study of U, UNi5, UCu5 and UNisub(0.5)Cusub(4.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohs, H.; Hoechst, H.; Steiner, P.; Huefner, S.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Core and valence band spectra of U metal and the intermetallic compounds UNi 5 , UCu 5 and UNisub(0.5)Cusub(4.5) have been measured by X-ray excited photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The data indicate that in UNi 5 the configuration is 5f 3 , and in UCu 5 and UNisub(0.5)Cusub(4.5) a mixed valence configuration with fewer 5f electrons than in UNi 5 is present. (author)

  18. Competitiveness of nuclear power in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, G.; Gillon, J.P.; Delvoye, J.

    1995-01-01

    In Belgium, the power utilities have to draw up periodically, for the Belgium Government, a national equipment plan so as to substantiate the investments planned for the ten year period that follows the publication of the plan. The justification of this plan is mainly based on the cost of the kilowatt-hour produced by the different types of power units. The most recently published plan covers the period 1988-1998. The three power generation means considered in Belgium for comparison are nuclear, coal and gas. Taking into account the official calculation criteria (discount rate of 8.6% and book-keeping life of 20 years), nuclear generation is clearly situated between the low and high hypotheses for gas, while coal is more costly. By using more realistic values of the book-keeping life, nuclear and gas are at the same level. Nuclear power generation can be an economic option for base load generation, especially if gas prices go up. This may be the case in the coming years, since 'a dash for gas' is currently being experienced and since the nuclear fuel costs are lower than the conservative price level adopted in the equipment plant in 1988. Despite the advantages of nuclear energy (economic advantages as a result of price stability, ecological advantages with respect to the greenhouse effect and carbon dioxide production, political advantages in terms of energy independence, and industrial advantages in terms of benefits to the domestic economy), it can only be developed in a favourable context if it is accepted by the citizens. This is the reason why the utilities are waiting for a national political consensus before introducing officially new nuclear plants in their planning proposals. (author). 7 figs, 4 tabs

  19. 3-Nitro-phenol-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-tri-amine (2/1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, V; Kanagathara, N; Chakkaravarthi, G; Marchewka, M K; Anbalagan, G

    2013-06-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C3H6N6·2C6H5NO3, contains one melamine and two 3-nitro-phenol mol-ecules. The mean planes of the 3-nitro-phenol mol-ecules are almost orthogonal to the plane of melamine, making dihedral angles of 82.77 (4) and 88.36 (5)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via O-H⋯N, N-H⋯N and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. The crystal also features weak C-H⋯π and π-π inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.9823 (9) Å].

  20. meso-4,5-Diphenylimidazolidin-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Lough

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure determination of the title compound, C15H14N2O, confirms the cis relationship between the phenyl groups at the 4- and 5-positions on the imidazolidine ring. The dihedral angle between the two phenyl rings is 48.14 (6°. In the crystal structure, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link molecules into centrosymmetric dimers. These dimers are, in turn, linked into a two-dimensional network via weak N—H...π(arene interactions and π–π stacking interactions with centroid–centroid distances of 3.6937 (11 Å.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of new 3-(4,5-dihydro-5-arylisoxazol-3-yl-4-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H-ones and 3-(4-styrylisoxazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4(5H-one derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarveswari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 4-hydroxy-3-(3-arylacryloylquinolin-2(1H-ones were synthesized from 3-acetyl-4-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H-one by microwave assisted synthesis, which in turn converted into their corresponding 3-(4,5-dihydro-5-arylisoxazol-3-yl-4-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H-ones and 3-(4-styrylisoxazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4(5H-one derivatives.

  2. 4-Diethylamino-3,5-diisopropylbenzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Wink

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The title benzaldehyde, C17H27NO, was prepared via lithiation of bromoaniline and reaction with DMF. In the crystal, the molecule adopts a C2-symmetrical conformation; nevertheless, two modes of disorder are present: the orientation of the aldehyde group (occupancy ratio 0.5:0.5 and of symmetry-equivalent ethyl groups [occupancy ratio 0.595 (7:0.405 (7]. The phenylene ring and the carbonyl group are essentially coplanar [C—C—C—O torsion angle = −179.0 (4°] but the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the phenylene ring and the amino group = 67.5 (2°. This and the long [1.414 (3 Å] aniline C—N bond indicate electronic decoupling between the carbonyl and amino groups. The angle sum of 359.9 (2° around the N atom results from steric compression-induced rehybridization.

  3. CCQM-K90, formaldehyde in nitrogen, 2 μmol mol-1 Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Joële; Flores, Edgar; Idrees, Faraz; Moussay, Philippe; Wielgosz, Robert Ian; Kim, D.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, S.; Persijn, S.; Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Malginov, A. V.; Chubchenko, I. K.; Klimov, A. Y.; Efremova, O. V.; Zhou, Z.; Possolo, A.; Shimosaka, T.; Brewer, P.; Macé, T.; Ferracci, Valerio; Brown, Richard J. C.; Aoki, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    The CCQM-K90 comparison is designed to evaluate the level of comparability of national metrology institutes (NMI) or designated institutes (DI) measurement capabilities for formaldehyde in nitrogen at a nominal mole fraction of 2 μmol mol-1. The comparison was organised by the BIPM using a suite of gas mixtures prepared by a producer of specialty calibration gases. The BIPM assigned the formaldehyde mole fraction in the mixtures by comparison with primary mixtures generated dynamically by permeation coupled with continuous weighing in a magnetic suspension balance. The BIPM developed two dynamic sources of formaldehyde in nitrogen that provide two independent values of the formaldehyde mole fraction: the first one based on diffusion of trioxane followed by thermal conversion to formaldehyde, the second one based on permeation of formaldehyde from paraformaldehyde contained in a permeation tube. Two independent analytical methods, based on cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for the assignment procedure. Each participating institute was provided with one transfer standard and value assigned the formaldehyde mole fraction in the standard based on its own measurement capabilities. The stability of the formaldehyde mole fraction in transfer standards was deduced from repeated measurements performed at the BIPM before and after measurements performed at participating institutes. In addition, 5 control standards were kept at the BIPM for regular measurements during the course of the comparison. Temporal trends that approximately describe the linear decrease of the amount-of-substance fraction of formaldehyde in nitrogen in the transfer standards over time were estimated by two different mathematical treatments, the outcomes of which were proposed to participants. The two treatments also differed in the way measurement uncertainties arising from measurements performed at the BIPM were propagated to the

  4. 3-Benzyl-4-ethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarzyk, Zbigniew; Pitucha, Monika; Wysocki, Waldemar; Pachuta-Stec, Anna; Stańczuk, Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    The title compound, C(11)H(13)N(3)S, exists in the 5-thioxo tautomeric form. The benzene ring exhibits disorder with a refined ratio of 0.77 (2):0.23 (2) for components A and B with a common bridgehead C atom. The 1,2,4-triazole ring is essentially planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.002 (3) Å for the benzyl-substituted C atom, and forms dihedral angles of 88.94 (18) and 86.56 (49)° with the benzene rings of components A and B, respectively. The angle between the plane of the ethyl chain and the mean plane of 1,2,4-triazole ring is 88.55 (15)° and this conformation is stabilized by an intra-molecular C-H⋯S contact. In the crystal, pairs of N-H⋯S hydrogen bonds link mol-ecules into inversion dimers. π-π inter-actions are observed between the triazole and benzene rings, with centroid-centroid separations of 3.547 (4) and 3.544 (12) Å for components A and B, and slippages of 0.49 (6) and 0.58 (15) Å, respectively.

  5. 5-Methyl-4-oxo-4,6-dihydro-3H-pyridazino[4,5-b]carbazole-1-carbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Haider

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound was prepared in excellent yield from 5-methyl-4-oxo-4,6-dihydro-3H-pyridazino[4,5-b]carbazole-1-carbaldehyde by treatment with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in formic acid without isolation of the intermediate oxime.

  6. Springer Publishing Booth | 4-5 October

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    In the spirit of continuation of the CERN Book Fairs of the past years, Springer Nature will be present with a book and journal booth on October 4th and 5th, located as usual in the foyer of the Main Building. Some of the latest titles in particle physics and related fields will be on sale.   You are cordially invited to come to the booth to meet Heike Klingebiel (Licensing Manager / Library Sales), Hisako Niko (Publishing Editor) and Christian Caron (Publishing Editor). In particular, information about the new Nano database – nanomaterial and device profiles from high-impact journals and patents, manually abstracted, curated and updated by nanotechnology experts – will be available. The database is accessible here: http://nano.nature.com/. 

  7. Ultrasonics Promoted Synthesis of 5-(Pyrazol-4-yl-4,5-Dihydropyrazoles Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Nogueras

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of new 1,3-diaryl-5-(1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-chloropyrazol-4-yl-4,5-dihydropyrazole derivatives have been synthesized under sonication conditions in ethanol or methanol/glacial acetic acid mixture (5/1 ratio with two equivalents of hydrazines and seven kinds of chalcone-like heteroanalogues obtained from 5-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde. The structures were established on the basis of NMR, IR, MS and element analysis. This method provides several advantages over current reaction methodologies, including a simple work-up procedure, shorter reaction times (2–20 min and good yields (65%–80%.

  8. J e (4.2?K, 31.2 T) beyond 1?kA/mm2 of a ~3.2??m thick, 20?mol% Zr-added MOCVD REBCO coated conductor

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, A.; Zhang, Y.; Gharahcheshmeh, M. Heydari; Yao, Y.; Galstyan, E.; Abraimov, D.; Kametani, F.; Polyanskii, A.; Jaroszynski, J.; Griffin, V.; Majkic, G.; Larbalestier, D. C.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2017-01-01

    A main challenge that significantly impedes REBa2Cu3Ox (RE?=?rare earth) coated conductor applications is the low engineering critical current density J e because of the low superconductor fill factor in a complicated layered structure that is crucial for REBa2Cu3Ox to carry supercurrent. Recently, we have successfully achieved engineering critical current density beyond 2.0?kA/mm2 at 4.2?K and 16 T, by growing thick REBa2Cu3Ox layer, from ?1.0??m up to ?3.2??m, as well as controlling the pin...

  9. Implementation of a Care Pathway for Primary Palliative Care in 5 research clusters in Belgium: quasi-experimental study protocol and innovations in data collection (pro-SPINOZA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leysen, Bert; Van den Eynden, Bart; Gielen, Birgit; Bastiaens, Hilde; Wens, Johan

    2015-09-28

    Starting with early identification of palliative care patients by general practitioners (GPs), the Care Pathway for Primary Palliative Care (CPPPC) is believed to help primary health care workers to deliver patient- and family-centered care in the last year of life. The care pathway has been pilot-tested, and will now be implemented in 5 Belgian regions: 2 Dutch-speaking regions, 2 French-speaking regions and the bilingual capital region of Brussels. The overall aim of the CPPPC is to provide better quality of primary palliative care, and in the end to reduce the hospital death rate. The aim of this article is to describe the quantitative design and innovative data collection strategy used in the evaluation of this complex intervention. A quasi-experimental stepped wedge cluster design is set up with the 5 regions being 5 non-randomized clusters. The primary outcome is reduced hospital death rate per GPs' patient population. Secondary outcomes are increased death at home and health care consumption patterns suggesting high quality palliative care. Per research cluster, GPs will be recruited via convenience sampling. These GPs -volunteering to be involved will recruit people with reduced life expectancy and their informal care givers. Health care consumption data in the last year of life, available for all deceased people having lived in the research clusters in the study period, will be used for comparison between patient populations of participating GPs and patient populations of non-participating GPs. Description of baseline characteristics of participating GPs and patients and monitoring of the level of involvement by GPs, patients and informal care givers will happen through regular, privacy-secured web-surveys. Web-survey data and health consumption data are linked in a secure way, respecting Belgian privacy laws. To evaluate this complex intervention, a quasi-experimental stepped wedge cluster design has been set up. Context characteristics and involvement

  10. Measuring and validation for isothermal solubility data of solid 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxychromen-4-one (nobiletin) in supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, Adolfo L.; Toledo, Alma R.; Valle, José M. del; Fuente, Juan C. de la

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of nobiletin in supercritical carbon dioxide was obtained. • Measured at T = (313, 323, and 333) K and at (17.97 to 31.40) MPa. • Correlated with empirical equation expressed in terms of SC-CO_2 density. • Binary interaction parameters were fitted from experimental data using PR-EOS with Wong–Sandler mixing rule. • Thermodynamic consistency of phase equilibria data was evaluated using the G–D equation. - Abstract: Isothermal solubility of 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxychromen-4-one (nobiletin) in supercritical carbon dioxide at temperatures of (313, 323 and 333) K and pressures from (18 to 31) MPa was measured using an analytic-recirculation methodology, with direct determination of the molar composition of the carbon dioxide-rich phase by using high performance liquid chromatography. Results indicated that the range of the measured solubility of nobiletin was from 107 · 10"−"6 mol · mol"−"1 at T = 333 K and 18.35 MPa to 182 · 10"−"6 mol · mol"−"1 at T = 333 K and 31.40 MPa, with a temperature crossover around 18 MPa. The validation of the experimental solubility data was carried out by using three approaches, namely, estimation of combined expanded uncertainty for each solubility data point from experimental parameters values (⩽77 · 10"−"6 mol · mol"−"1); thermodynamic consistency, verified utilizing a test adapted from tools based on Gibbs–Duhem equation and solubility modelling results; and, self-consistency, proved by correlating the solubility data with a semi-empirical model as a function of temperature, pressure and pure CO_2 density.

  11. Rhenium(5) and molybdenum(5) complexes with 4',4[sup (]5[sup )]-divaleryldibenzo-18-crown-6. Kompleksnye soedineniya reniya(5) i molibdena(5) s 4',4[sup (]5[sup )]-divalerildibenzo-18-kraun-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashurova, N Kh; Yakubov, K G; Tashmukhamedova, A K; Basitova, S M [Tadzhikskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Dushanbe (Tajikistan)

    1993-02-01

    Methods for synthesizing oxohalide complexes of rhenium and molybdenum with +5 oxidation degree with 4',4[sup (5)]-divaleryldibenzo-18-crown-6 were developed. Content and composition of prepared compounds were investigated by the methods of element analysis, crystal optics, conductometry, IR spectroscopy in the near and far regions, thermogravimetry. Oxidation degree of the complex-forming metal was determined. It was established that composition of the compounds coressponded to the general formula MOLX [sub [center dot

  12. Rhenium (5) and molybdenum (5) complexes with 4',4''(5'')-ditretbutyldibenzo-24-crown-8. Kompleksnye soedineniya reniya (5) i molibdena (5) s 4',4''(5'')-ditretbutildibenzo-24-kraun-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashurova, N Kh; Yakubov, K G; Basitova, S M; Tashmukhamedova, A K; Sajfullina, N Zh [Tadzhikskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Dushanbe (USSR)

    1989-10-01

    Rhenium and molybdenum complexes in +5 oxidation degree with 4',4''(5'')-ditretbutyldibenzo-24-crown-8 (L) are synthesized with 75-95 % yield. Composition and structure of compounds produced are investigated using element analysis, conductometry, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry methods. Oxidation degree of complexer metal is determined. It is ascertained that the compound composition corresponds to the MOLX{sub 3} formula, where M-Re, Mo; X-Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -}.

  13. 3,5-Dimethyl-4-nitroso-1H-pyrazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safyanova, Inna; Dudarenko, Nikolay M.; Pavlenko, Vadim A.; Iskenderov, Turganbay S.; Haukka, Matti

    2011-01-01

    In the unit cell of the title compound, C5H7N3O, there are two conformers (A and B) which differ in the position of the oxime group with respect to the protonated pyrazole nitro­gen (trans in the A conformer and cis in the B conformer) and in the geometric parameters. The oxime group exists in the nitroso form in both conformers. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by inter­molecular N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds into zigzag-like chains along the b axis. PMID:22059058

  14. Structural analysis of xSrO–(50 − x)CaO–50P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses with x = 0, 5, or 10 mol% for potential use in a local delivery system for osteomyelitis treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comeau, P.A. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada); Filiaggi, M.J., E-mail: mark.filiaggi@dal.ca [School of Biomedical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada); Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Dalhousie University, 5981 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of ions into a local delivery matrix is one method of managing degradation and subsequent release of the incorporated therapeutic agents. Of interest in this study was whether we could modify the structural nature of calcium polyphosphate (CPP) glass and the subsequent therapeutic potential of this local delivery matrix with inclusion of strontium (Sr). We found that adding 10 mol% Sr significantly increased the density and chain length of the glass. There was no significant impact of Sr doping on the subsequent loading of vancomycin into the matrix, or the matrix porosity. The noted differences in structural stability, ion release, and vancomycin release between the un-doped CPP matrices and 10 mol% Sr-doped CPP matrices in vitro are likely a result of a decrease in glass disorder upon Sr addition to the glass and preferential retention of Sr over Ca during matrix degradation. This study has provided further evidence that Sr incorporation may serve to both manipulate antibiotic release from the amorphous CPP matrix and provide a potential source of therapeutic ions for enhanced bone regeneration. - Highlights: • A strontium-doped CPP glass was fabricated with a novel calcine-melt protocol. • The density and chain length of CPP glass increased upon 10 mol% Sr addition to CPP. • The phosphorous ion released in vitro was not dependent on 10 mol% Sr addition. • Doping CPP with 10 mol% Sr improved matrix short-term structural stability in vitro.

  15. Nuclear emergency planning in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeesters, P.; Van Bladel, L.

    1995-01-01

    After a small presentation of the international recommendations supporting decision-making, this paper presents the limits of them. For example, particular groups such as pregnant women, are not taken into account. As a matter of fact, the belgium approach is as follows: take into account the more recent risk evaluation for radiation-induced effects, give priority to protecting public health (instead of purely financial cost/benefit analysis), integrate countermeasures aiming at preventive protection of the food chain... But, it should be stressed that those measures present several problems. The main one concerns the information of the public, which should be given as fast as possible. (TEC)

  16. Microstructural examination of V-(4-5%) Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in X530

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Chung, H.M. [Argonne Natinonal Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Microstructural examination results are reported for two heats of V-(4-5%)Cr-(4-5%)Ti irradiated in the X530 experiment to {approximately}400{degrees}C to provide an understanding of the microstructural evolution that may be associated with degradation of mechanical properties. Fine precipitates were observed in high density intermixed with small defect clusters for all conditions examined following the irradiation. The irradiation-induced precipitation does not appear to be affected by preirradiation heat treatment at 950-1125{degrees}C. There was no evidence for a significant density of large (diameter >10 nm) dislocation loops or network dislocations.

  17. Summary of the Mol electrolysis cell test program in the CRL tritium laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.; Keyes, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The development of electrolysis technology for highly tritiated water at the Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire (SCK/CEN), Mol, Belgium, focused on A Low Inventory Capillary Electrolyser (ALICE). The key characteristic of ALICE is its low liquid inventory, a key feature for the radio-toxicity of tritiated water. A program to test this electrolytic cell design with highly tritiated water in the Chalk River Tritium Laboratory was initiated in 1988 and extended through to early 1995. The activities conducted at CRL and associated with the experimental program-design, installation, licensing and commissioning activities- are described in this report along with the results of the test program conducted on the experimental system with non-tritiated heavy water. The installation in the CRL Tritium Laboratory consisted of three main sections: the electrolysis section, the tritium storage and supply section, and the recombination section. 16 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs

  18. Measurement of fission gases released by HTR irradiation samples in the BR 2 reactor (Mol/Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koetter, H.; Mueller, H.B.

    1975-04-01

    During the irradiation of HTR-test fuel (coated particles resp. compacts) the release rate of fission gases is measured automatically. For that purpose the γ-spectrum of the sweep gas is analyzed with respect to the isotopes Xe-133, Xe-135, Xe-135sup(m), Xe-137, Xe-138, Kr-85sup(m), Kr-87, Kr-88, Kr-89. Gas sampling, spectral analysis, data handling and evaluation are controlled by computer. (orig.) [de

  19. Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Maeyaert, Stijn; Judo, Frank; Vandeburie, Aurelien; Lindemans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The Government Procurement Review brings together contributions from procurement lawyers across five continents and provides real insight to the key issues in government procurement across the different jurisdictions.This publication brings together even wider geographic coverage than the first edition, now covering six continents and 24 national chapters (including the EU chapter) and providing real insight to the key issues in government procurement across the different jurisdictions.

  20. NbCl 5 and CrCl 3 catalysts effect on synthesis and hydrogen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two kinds of novel materials, Mg–1.6 mol% Ni–0.4 mol% NiO–2 mol% MCl (MCl = NbCl5, CrCl3), along with Mg–1.6 mol% Ni–0.4 mol% NiO for comparison, were examined for their potential use in hydrogen storage applications, having been fabricated via cryomilling. The effects of NbCl5 and CrCl3 on hydrogen storage ...

  1. Evaluating the Early Benefit of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine on Genital Warts in Belgium: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak-Felden, Geraldine; Gobbo, Corrado; Simondon, François

    2015-01-01

    Genital warts (GWs) are common, with about 5% to 10% of people having at least one episode in their lifetime. They develop about 2–3 months after infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6 and 11. The prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), protects against HPV6/11 infections and diseases. In Belgium, HPV vaccines started to be reimbursed in 2007 and have been fully reimbursed since December 2008 for women 12 to 18 years old. This study aimed at evaluating the real-life benefit of qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium on GWs by measuring both vaccine impact (VI) at a population level and the direct effect of the qHPV vaccine at an individual level (vaccine effectiveness (VE)), using data from a large sick-fund (MLOZ) reimbursement database. A first reimbursement for imiquimod (most common first-line GWs treatment in Belgium) was used as a surrogate for a first GWs episode; reimbursement of qHPV vaccine was used as surrogate for vaccination. VI was estimated by comparing the incidence of GWs before and after qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium (ecologic evaluation). VE was assessed by comparing GWs incidences in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women, among women eligible for HPV vaccination. VI was evaluated in 9,223,384 person-years. Overall, GWs incidence rates decreased significantly between the pre- and post-vaccination periods (-8.1% (95% CI: -15.3; -0.3) for men and women aged 18–59 years. This decrease was highest in women targeted by the HPV vaccination programme (-72.1% (95% CI: -77.9; -64.7) in women aged 16–22 years, with a 43% vaccine uptake in 2013). A significant decrease was also observed in men aged 16-22 years (-51.1%, 95%CI: -67.6; -26.2), suggesting herd-protection. VE was evaluated in 369,881 person-years. Age-adjusted VE for fully vaccinated women was 88.0% (95% CI: 79.4; 93.0). VE was higher when the first dose was given younger and remained high for over 4 years post-vaccination in all ages. High VI and VE of the q

  2. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure

  3. Comparison of measurement capability with 100 μmol/mol of carbon monoxide in nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongsoon; Lee, JinBok; Lim, Jeongsik; Tarhan, Tanıl; Liu, Hsin-Wang; Aggarwal, Shankar G.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) in nitrogen was one of the first types of gas mixtures used in an international key comparison. The comparison dates back to 1998 (CCQMK1a) [1]. Since then, many National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) have developed calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) for these mixtures. Recently, NMIs in the APMP region have actively participated in international comparisons to provide domestic services. At the 2013 APMP meeting, several NMIs requested a CO comparison to establish CO/N2 certification for industrial applications, which was to be coordinated by KRISS. Consequently, this comparison provides an opportunity for APMP regional NMIs to develop CO/N2 CMC claims. The goal of this supplementary comparison is to support CMC claim for carbon monoxide in the N2 range of 50–2000 μmol/mol. An extended range may be supported as described in the GAWG strategy for comparisons and CMC claims. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. Advances in Astroparticle Physics (4/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Astroparticle physics is in an era of rapid progress. New observations challenge theory on several different fronts. We will analyze a few prominent examples, putting special emphasis on the connection with fundamental particle physics. Session 4. Interpreting IceCube’s neutrinos

  5. 2-Fluoro-5-(4-fluorophenylpyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Elahi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H7F2N, the fluorobenzene and the 2-fluoropyridine rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 37.93 (5°. In the crystal, only van der Waals interactions occur.

  6. Cyclopropanation of 5-(1-Bromo-2-phenyl-vinyl-3-methyl-4-nitro-isoxazoles under Phase Transfer Catalysis (PTC Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Piras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavily substituted cyclopropane esters were prepared in high yields, complete diastereoselection and average (up to 58% enantioselectivity. The reaction described herein entailed reacting 4-nitro-5-bromostyrylisoxazoles, a class of powerful Michael acceptors with malonate esters under the catalysis of 5 mol% of a chincona derived phase-transfer catalyst.

  7. Morphological and physiological profile of elite basketball players in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, Jan; Bourgois, Jan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study aimed to gain insight into the physiological profile of elite basketball players in Belgium in relation to their position on the field. METHODS: The group consisted of 144 players, divided into 5 groups according to position (point guards [PG], shooting guards [SG], small forwards [SF], power forwards [PF] and centers [C]). The anthropometrics were measured and the subjects underwent fitness tests (incremental running test, 10m-sprint,5x10m,Squat and Counter Move...

  8. LAURA Users Manual: 5.4-54166

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Kleb, Bil

    2011-01-01

    This users manual provides in-depth information concerning installation and execution of Laura, version 5. Laura is a structured, multi-block, computational aerothermodynamic simulation code. Version 5 represents a major refactoring of the original Fortran 77 Laura code toward a modular structure afforded by Fortran 95. The refactoring improved usability and maintainability by eliminating the requirement for problem dependent re-compilations, providing more intuitive distribution of functionality, and simplifying interfaces required for multi-physics coupling. As a result, Laura now shares gas-physics modules, MPI modules, and other low-level modules with the Fun3D unstructured-grid code. In addition to internal refactoring, several new features and capabilities have been added, e.g., a GNU-standard installation process, parallel load balancing, automatic trajectory point sequencing, free-energy minimization, and coupled ablation and flowfield radiation.

  9. The Sorrows of Belgium. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Wouters

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On the surface one might assume Martin Conway’s The Sorrows of Belgium. Liberation and political reconstruction 1944-1947 (Oxford, 2012 is exactly what its title implies - a book about the difficult early post-war years in Belgium, and in part this book is exactly that. Conway does offer a detailed cross-sectional analysis of the post-war transition years, ending his story with the Communist departure from the Belgian government in 1947. This book does a lot more than that however, as it attempts to use Belgium to better understand how European state restorations after World War Two in general took shape. In his book Conway confidently merges political, social and economic history that are often still detached schools of research. He brings together elements of institutional reform and the agenda of state elites, social class agency, the fluid dynamics of collective national and regional (or local identities, changing political norms and cultural values, and the role of several key individuals such as the head of state and the prime minister. Such a holistic approach is a rather un-Belgian one, unfortunately. Perhaps this partly explains why the book – although universally well-received – caused debate among some Belgian historians, for example in a debate session on 6thSeptember 2012 at the Brussels based CEGESOMA, where ten Belgian historians and two non-Belgian specialists (Peter Romijn from NIOD and Robert Gerwarth from University College Dublin, who had previously worked with Conway on these issues discussed the book with the author. Some Belgian specialists encountered problems accepting the label ‘conservative’ used by Conway to define Belgian society in 1945-1947, or to understand why he consciously leaves out the post-war purges (the so-called ‘repression’ in Belgium, or accepting that Conway uses 1947 as a terminus instead of 1950-1951 (the formal end of the Belgian Royal Question. This last point loomed over the debate

  10. Health care reform in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schokkaert, Erik; Van de Voorde, Carine

    2005-09-01

    Curbing the growth of public sector health expenditures has been the proclaimed government objective in Belgium since the 1980s. However, the respect for freedom of choice for patients and for therapeutic freedom for providers has blocked the introduction of microeconomic incentives and quality control. Therefore--with some exceptions, particularly in the hospital sector--policy has consisted mainly of tariff and supply restrictions and increases in co-payments. These measures have not been successful in curbing the growth of expenditures. Moreover, there remains a large variation in medical practices. While the structure of health financing is relatively progressive from an international perspective, socioeconomic and regional inequalities in health persist. The most important challenge is the restructuring of the basic decision-making processes; i.e. a simplification of the bureaucratic procedures and a re-examination of the role of regional authorities and sickness funds. Copyright (c) 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Euthanasia for Detainees in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devolder, Katrien

    2016-07-01

    In 2011, Frank Van Den Bleeken became the first detainee to request euthanasia under Belgium's Euthanasia Act of 2002. This article investigates whether it would be lawful and morally permissible for a doctor to accede to this request. Though Van Den Bleeken has not been held accountable for the crimes he committed, he has been detained in an ordinary prison, without appropriate psychiatric care, for more than 30 years. It is first established that Van Den Bleeken's euthanasia request plausibly meets the relevant conditions of the Euthanasia Act and that, consequently, a doctor could lawfully fulfill it. Next, it is argued that autonomy-based reasons for euthanizing him outweigh complicity-based reasons against doing so, and that, therefore, it is also morally permissible for a doctor to carry out the euthanasia request.

  12. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux, E.

    1984-01-01

    The first part of this paper briefly describes the nuclear industry in Belgium and the problem of radioactive wastes with regard to their quality and quantity. The second part emphasizes the recent guidelines regarding the management of the nuclear industry in general and the radioactive wastes in particular. In this respect, important tasks are the reinforcement of administrative structures with regard to the supervision and the control of nuclear activities, the establishment of a mixed company entrusted with the covering of the needs of nuclear plants in the field of nuclear fuels and particularly the setting up of a public autonomous and specialized organization, the 'Public Organization for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials', in short 'O.N.D.R.A.F.'. This organization is in charge of the management of the transport, the conditioning, the storage and the disposal of radioactive wastes. (Auth.)

  13. Methyl 4-(butyrylamino-5-methyl-2-nitrobenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yao

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H16N2O5, is useful as an intermediate in the field of agrochemicals. Intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds result in the formation of one six- and one five-membered nearly planar ring; the six-membered ring is also nearly coplanar with the adjacent benzene ring. In the crystal structure, intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules.

  14. 5-Bromo-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylthiazol-2-amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. Ghabbour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H11BrN2O2S, the thiazole ring makes a dihedral angle of 53.16 (11° with the adjacent benzene ring. The two methoxy groups are slightly twisted from the attached benzene ring with C—O—C—C torsion angles of −9.2 (3 and −5.5 (3°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by a pair of N—H...N hydrogen bonds into an inversion dimer with an R22(8 ring motif. The dimers are further connected by N—H...O hydrogen bonds into a tape along [-110].

  15. N-(2,5-Dimethylphenyl-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C15H17NO2S, the conformation of the N—C bond in the C—SO2—NH—C segment has gauche torsions with respect to the S=O bonds. The molecule is bent at the S atom with a C—SO2—NH—C torsion angle of −61.0 (2°. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 49.4 (1°. The crystal structure features inversion-related dimers linked by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  16. 4-Hydroxy-5-(4-methoxyphenylpyrrolidin-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchada Chantrapromma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H13NO3, the pyrrolidin-2-one ring is in an envelope conformation with the hydroxyl and 4-methoxyphenyl substituents mutually cis. The methoxy group is slighty twisted away from the mean plane of the attached benzene ring. The molecules are arranged into screw chains along the c axis. These chains are interconnected via intermolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds into sheets parallel to the ac plane. The crystal structure is further stabilized by weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...π interactions.

  17. 3-Methyl-4,5-dihydrooxazolium tetraphenylborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tiritiris

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title salt, C4H8NO+·C24H20B−, the C—N bond lengths are 1.272 (2, 1.4557 (19 and 1.4638 (19 Å, indicating double- and single-bond character, respectively. The C—O bond length of 1.3098 (19 Å shows that double-bond character and charge delocalization occurs within the NCO plane of the cation. In the crystal, a C—H...π interaction is present between the methylene H atom of the cation and one phenyl ring of the tetraphenylborate ion. The latter forms an aromatic pocket in which the cation is embedded.

  18. Systematic study of the phosphate industry in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poffijn, A.

    2002-01-01

    Three major phosphate-processing industries have been investigated in Belgium. In one of them the activity concentration of 226 Ra in the ore was quite high, almost 1,100 Bq/kg, and the concentration in the silt waste was exceeding 7,000 Bq/kg. The radon concentration at ground level in the silt basin was more than 500 Bq/m 3 and in some of the buildings radon levels of up to 800 Bq/m 3 were measured. Gamma radiation levels from 0.1 to 4.4 μSv/h were found. The area downstream from one of the plants is being investigated. The riverbanks have been found to be highly contaminated up to 5 to 10m from the river. The radium concentration at 30 cm depth ranged between 400 to 4,000 Bq/kg and in river sediments between 400 to 2,000 Bq/kg. The gamma radiation levels reached 2 μSv/h

  19. The Belgium debate on tactical nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumoulin, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This publication proposes a discussion about the opinions and positions of the various Belgium political actors and authorities regarding nuclear weapons. After a synthesis of several interviews with different actors, the author analyses the debate content, and more precisely the positions of peace movements, of the government, and of political parties. Several documents are proposed in appendix: a presentation of the evolution on Belgium nuclear missions, a government's answer to parliamentary resolutions regarding non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament, and a working paper submitted by Belgium, Norway and the Netherlands in the perspective of the 2005 Conference of Parties on the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  20. 3-Ethyl-5-(4-methoxyphenoxy-2-(pyridin-4-yl-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ranjith

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H18N4O2, the imidazopyridine fused ring system is almost perpendicular to the benzene ring [dihedral angle = 87.6 (5°]. The pyridine ring makes a dihedral angle of 35.5 (5° with the mean plane of the imidazopyridine fragment. The crystal structure is stabilized by an aromatic π–π stacking interaction between the phenyl rings of neighbouring molecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.772 (2 Å, interplanar distance = 3.546 (2 Å and slippage = 1.286 (2 Å].

  1. Water availability change in central Belgium for the late 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Hossein; Taye, Meron Teferi; Willems, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the potential impact of climate change on water availability in central Belgium. Two water balance components being precipitation and potential evapotranspiration are initially projected for the late 21st century (2071-2100) based on 30 Coupled Models Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models relative to a baseline period of 1961-1990, assuming forcing by four representative concentration pathway emission scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5). The future available water is then estimated as the difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration projections. The number of wet days and mean monthly precipitation for summer season is projected to decrease in most of the scenarios, while the projections show an increase in those variables for the winter months. Potential evapotranspiration is expected to increase during both winter and summer seasons. The results show a decrease in water availability for summer and an increase for winter, suggesting drier summers and wetter winters for the late 21st century in central Belgium.

  2. Recent trends in Belgium's gas activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuijpers, Ch.; Woitrin, D.

    2010-01-01

    This article brings various recent trends together to provide a view of the natural gas activities in Belgium. Belgium has a strategic position as an important nodal point in the North-Western European gas grids. This is illustrated by the high interconnection rate with adjacent networks. Gas volumes are attracted for international transit from border point to border point and to supply the national market. Natural gas represents more than a quarter of Belgium's energy mix and is completely dependent on foreign gas supplies. The Belgian gas market and transmission grid are broken down for H-gas (high calorific value, average of 11,630 kWh/m 3 (n)) and for L-gas (low calorific value, average of 9,769 kWh/m 3 (n)). This article is intended to disclose some statistics in order to contribute to the understanding and benchmarking of Belgium's gas flows, gas consumption, supply diversification and import capacity. (authors)

  3. Quantum chemical calculations and molecular docking studies of 5-(4-chlorobenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione(CTD) and its mannich product 5-(4-chlorobenzylidene)-3-(morpholinomethyl)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CMTD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatma, Shaheen; Bishnoi, Abha; Verma, Anil Kumar; Singh, Vineeta; Srivastava, Krishna

    2018-04-01

    This work presents the synthesis of 5-(4-chlorobenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CTD) by Claisen condensation of thiazolidine-2,4-dione and mannich product of CTD, 5-(4-chlorobenzylidene)-3-(morpholinomethyl)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (CMTD). The static first hyperpolarizability values for thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives have been calculated as 10.28 × 10-30 esu for CTD and 19.42 × 10-30 esu for CMTD. The gradual increase in hyperpolarizability values of synthesized thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives from CTD to CMTD is due to the blockage of sbnd NH group on CTD by mannich reaction. The structures of these compounds have been derived by spectroscopic(IR, UV, Mass, 1H and 13C NMR) analysis as well as with the help of theoretical studies. The high values of first static hyperpolarizability indicate that the synthesized derivatives are suitable as non-linear optical (NLO) material. CTD with MIC value of 12.5 μg/mL can be developed as an alternative drug for the treatment of enteric fever. Calculated frontier orbital gap values suggest that the CMTD is a soft molecule with high chemical reactivity and is more polarizable as compared to the CTD. Molecular electrostatic potential is calculated for the optimized geometry of the molecules to estimate their chemical reactivity. The inhibitor CTD forms a stable complex with 3-dehydroquinase enzyme of Salmonella typhi. It is evident from the ligand receptor interactions and a binding affinity value of -5.88 kcal/mol and an inhibition constant of 49.22 μM. This is further confirmed by the experimental biological data. The molecular docking studies are supportive of the antibacterial activity of CTD exhibiting high inhibition constant and binding energy.

  4. Trace elements in home-produced eggs in Belgium: Levels and spatiotemporal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Hoenig, Michel; Goeyens, Leo; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in home-produced eggs, soils and kitchen waste samples of private chicken owners in Belgium, and to determine spatiotemporal differences in trace element contents in eggs. Eggs were sampled in all provinces of Belgium in autumn 2006 and spring 2007. A total number of 59 private chicken owners participated in the study. Trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry except for mercury, which was determined by atomic absorption of mercury vapour. The mean fresh weight concentrations in eggs in autumn and spring respectively were < 8.0 and < 8.0 μg/kg for arsenic, 0.5 and < 0.5 μg/kg for cadmium, 116 and 74 μg/kg for lead, 0.43 and 0.52 mg/kg for copper, 20.3 and 19.2 mg/kg for zinc, and 3.15 and 4.44 μg/kg for mercury. Analysis of variance determined significant differences in some trace element concentrations in eggs among seasons and regions in Belgium. Average concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and mercury corresponded well with values measured in other countries, while copper and zinc concentrations were within the same order of magnitude as in other countries. Average lead concentrations were high compared to concentrations in eggs from other countries and correlated well with lead concentrations in soil, indicating that the soil is an important source. Other sources of trace elements in eggs might be home-grown vegetables and forage (grass and herbs), and indirectly, air pollution.

  5. Characteristics of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl distribution among lipoproteins in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vomachka, M.S.; Vodicnik, M.J.; Lech, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The uptake, distribution, and transfer of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB) were examined in vitro with human and rat whole blood, plasma, and lipoprotein fractions. 6-CB distribution between plasma and erythrocytes as well as among lipoproteins was determined following sedimentation of erythrocytes and ultracentrifugal fractionation of plasma. In both rat and human whole blood, 70 to 75% of 6-CB partitioned into plasma and 25 to 30% into erythrocytes. The uptake of 6-CB into plasma was extremely rapid and the rate of uptake was found to be dependent upon temperature. The distribution of 6-CB among lipoproteins was relatively homogeneous with 20 to 30% being distributed in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL, d . 0.95-1.006 g/ml), 15 to 20% in low-density lipoproteins (LDL, d . 1.006-1.063 g/ml), and 15 to 25% in high-density lipoproteins (HDL, d . 1.063-1.21 g/ml). Over 25% of 6-CB was found in the remaining bottom fraction. In addition, each isolated fraction when incubated alone with 6-CB was shown capable of uptake. The relative proportion of 6-CB among the lipoproteins was independent of the level taken up by plasma. 6-CB was also found to transfer among lipoproteins. This exchange of 6-CB proved to be dependent upon the concentrations of both protein and triacylglycerol in the incubations. Two proteins in the bottom fraction (Bf), albumin and a steroid binding globulin, were capable of competing with the lipoproteins for 6-CB uptake

  6. Crystal structure of 2-diazo-imidazole-4,5-dicarbo-nitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Damon A; Kramer, Stephanie; Windler, G Kenneth; Chavez, David E; Leonard, Philip W

    2015-07-01

    In the title compound, C5N6, all the atoms are approximately coplanar. In the crystal, mol-ecules are packed with short contact distances of 2.885 (2) (between the diazo N atom connected to the ring and a cyano N atom on a neighboring mol-ecule) and 3.012 (2) Å (between the terminal diazo N atom and an N atom of a neighboring imidazole ring).

  7. Climate index for Belgium - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Belgium. (J.S.)

  8. Phosphorylation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate analogues by 3-kinase and dephosphorylation of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate analogues by 5-phosphatase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, Peter van; Lammers, Aleida A.; Ozaki, Shoichiro; Potter, Barry V.L.; Erneux, Christophe; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1994-01-01

    A series of P-32-labeled D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P-4] analogues was enzymically prepared from the corresponding D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P-3] analogues using recombinant rat brain Ins(1,4,5)P-3 3-kinase and [gamma-P-32]ATP. Ins(1,4,5)P-3 analogues

  9. 45 CFR 4.5 - Effect of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of regulations. 4.5 Section 4.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 4.5 Effect of regulations. The regulations in this part are intended solely to identify Department officials who are...

  10. Spectrophotometric Determination of Zinc Using 7-(4-Nitrophenylazo-8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-Sulfonic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korn Maria das Graças Andrade

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method is proposed for the rapid determination of zinc(II using an 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative, 7-(4-nitrophenylazo-8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (p-NIAZOXS, as a new spectrophotometric reagent. The reaction between the p-NIAZOXS and zinc(II is instantaneous at pH 9.2 (borax buffer and the absorbance remains stable for over 24 h. The method allows the determination of zinc over the range of 0.05-1.0 mug mL-1 with a molar absorptivity of 3.75x10(4 L mol-1 cm-1 and features a detection limit of 15 ng mL-1. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of zinc in several pharmaceutical preparations and copper alloys. The precision (R.S.D. < 2% and the accuracy obtained were satisfactory.

  11. Antibiotic prescribing in dental practice in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, A; D'Hoore, W; Vanheusden, A; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J-P

    2009-12-01

    To assess the types and frequency of antibiotic prescriptions by Belgian dentists, the indications for antibiotic prescription, and dentists' knowledge about recommended practice in antibiotic use. In this cross-sectional survey, dental practitioners were asked to record information about all antibiotics prescribed to their patients during a 2-week period. The dental practitioners were also asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire regarding demographic data, prescribing practices, and knowledge about antibiotic use. A random sample of 268 Belgian dentists participated in the survey. During the 2-week period, 24 421 patient encounters were recorded; 1033 patients were prescribed an antibiotic (4.2%). The median number of prescriptions per dentist for the 2 weeks was 3. Broad spectrum antibiotics were most commonly prescribed: 82% of all prescriptions were for amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and clindamycin. Antibiotics were often prescribed in the absence of fever (92.2%) and without any local treatment (54.2%). The most frequent diagnosis for which antibiotics were prescribed was periapical abscess (51.9%). Antibiotics were prescribed to 63.3% of patients with periapical abscess and 4.3% of patients with pulpitis. Patterns of prescriptions were confirmed by the data from the self-reported practice. Discrepancies between observed and recommended practice support the need for educational initiatives to promote rational use of antibiotics in dentistry in Belgium.

  12. New wheat-rye 5DS-4RS·4RL and 4RS-5DS·5DL translocation lines with powdery mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shulan; Ren, Zhenglong; Chen, Xiaoming; Yan, Benju; Tan, Feiquan; Fu, Tihua; Tang, Zongxiang

    2014-11-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the serious diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2 n = 6 × = 42, genomes AABBDD). Rye (Secale cereale L., 2 n = 2 × = 14, genome RR) offers a rich reservoir of powdery mildew resistant genes for wheat breeding program. However, extensive use of these resistant genes may render them susceptible to new pathogen races because of co-evolution of host and pathogen. Therefore, the continuous exploration of new powdery mildew resistant genes is important to wheat breeding program. In the present study, we identified several wheat-rye addition lines from the progeny of T. aestivum L. Mianyang11 × S. cereale L. Kustro, i.e., monosomic addition lines of the rye chromosomes 4R and 6R; a disomic addition line of 6R; and monotelosomic or ditelosomic addition lines of the long arms of rye chromosomes 4R (4 RL) and 6R (6 RL). All these lines displayed immunity to powdery mildew. Thus, we concluded that both the 4 RL and 6 RL arms of Kustro contain powdery mildew resistant genes. It is the first time to discover that 4 RL arm carries powdery mildew resistant gene. Additionally, wheat lines containing new wheat-rye translocation chromosomes were also obtained: these lines retained a short arm of wheat chromosome 5D (5 DS) on which rye chromosome 4R was fused through the short arm 4 RS (designated 5 DS-4 RS · 4 RL; 4 RL stands for the long arm of rye chromosome 4R); or they had an extra short arm of rye chromosome 4R (4 RS) that was attached to the short arm of wheat chromosome 5D (5 DS) (designated 4 RS-5 DS · 5 DL; 5 DL stands for the long arm of wheat chromosome 5D). These two translocation chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably, and the wheat lines containing 5 DS-4 RS · 4 RL chromosome also displayed immunity to powdery mildew. The materials obtained in this study can be used for wheat powdery mildew resistant breeding program.

  13. MolProbity for the masses–of data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Vincent B. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, Biochemistry Department (United States); Wedell, Jonathan R.; Wenger, R. Kent; Ulrich, Eldon L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, BioMagResBank, Biochemistry Department (United States); Markley, John L., E-mail: markley@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison, Biochemistry Department (United States)

    2015-09-15

    MolProbity is a powerful software program for validating structures of proteins and nucleic acids. Although MolProbity includes scripts for batch analysis of structures, because these scripts analyze structures one at a time, they are not well suited for the validation of a large dataset of structures. We have created a version of MolProbity (MolProbity-HTC) that circumvents these limitations and takes advantage of a high-throughput computing cluster by using the HTCondor software. MolProbity-HTC enables the longitudinal analysis of large sets of structures, such as those deposited in the PDB or generated through theoretical computation—tasks that would have been extremely time-consuming using previous versions of MolProbity. We have used MolProbity-HTC to validate the entire PDB, and have developed a new visual chart for the BioMagResBank website that enables users to easily ascertain the quality of each model in an NMR ensemble and to compare the quality of those models to the rest of the PDB.

  14. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality. © 2016 Poultry

  15. Neodymium-doped Sr5(PO4)3F and Sr5(VO4)3F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corker, D.L.; Nicholls, J.; Loutts, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    Neodymium-doped Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F [neodymium strontium fluoride phosphate, (Nd,Sr) 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F] and neodymium-doped Sr 5 (VO 4 ) 3 F [neodymium strontium fluoride vanadate, (Nd,Sr) 5 (VO 4 ) 3 F] crystallize in space group P6 3 /m and are isostructural with calcium fluorophosphate, Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F. There are two different Sr sites in Sr 5 (XO 4 ) 3 F, denoted Sr(1) and Sr(2). Using single-crystal X-ray diffraction the two structures were refined to R factors of 2.3 and 2.2%, respectively, showing that Nd is present at both Sr sites in (Sr,Nd) 5 (VO 4 ) 3 F but only at the Sr(2) site in (Sr,Nd) 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F. (orig.)

  16. The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeyer, F. de; Van Dyck, E.; Janssens, J.P.; Duliere, A.; Fondaire, D.; Bodart, O.

    2005-01-01

    In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established

  17. The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeyer, F. de; Van Dyck, E. [OVAM, Mechelen (Belgium); Janssens, J.P.; Duliere, A. [BIM, Brussel (Belgium); Fondaire, D. [DGRNE, Liege (Belgium); Bodart, O. [Governement Wallon, Namur (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate optical uncaging potentiates exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Alexander M; Müller, Rainer; Tawfik, Bassam

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] is essential for exocytosis. Classical ways of manipulating PI(4,5)P2 levels are slower than metabolism, making it difficult to distinguish effects of PI(4,5)P2 from those of its metabolites. We developed a membrane-permeant, photoactivatable PI(4......,5)P2, which is loaded into cells in an inactive form and activated by light, allowing sub-second increases in PI(4,5)P2 levels. By combining this compound with electrophysiological measurements in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells, we show that PI(4,5)P2 uncaging potentiates exocytosis and identify...... synaptotagmin-1 (the Ca(2+) sensor for exocytosis) and Munc13-2 (a vesicle priming protein) as the relevant effector proteins. PI(4,5)P2 activation of exocytosis did not depend on the PI(4,5)P2-binding CAPS-proteins, suggesting that PI(4,5)P2 uncaging bypasses CAPS-function. Finally, PI(4,5)P2 uncaging...

  19. Synthesis of N-(5-(Substitutedphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amine from 4-Amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin D. Panchal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available N-(4H-1,2,4-Triazol-4-ylacetamide (2 were prepared by reaction of 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole (1 with acetyl chloride in dry benzene. It has been reacted with various aromatic aldehyde to afford 3-(substitutedphenyl-N-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylacrylamide (3a-e. The synthesis of N-(5-substitutedphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amine (4a-e is achieved by the cyclisation of 3a-e with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol. The structures of synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H NMR and IR spectroscopic studies. The purity of the compounds was checked by thin layer chromatography.

  20. 4-({[6-(4-Chlorobenzyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl]sulfanyl}acetyl-3-phenylsydnone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title syndone (1,2,3-oxadiazol-3-ylium-5-olate compound, C21H16ClN5O4S, the dihedral angle between the benzene and oxadiazole rings is 55.62 (11° and that between the triazine and the chloro-substituted phenyl rings is 82.45 (9°. There is an intramolecular C—H...S hydrogen bond, which generates an S(5 ring motif. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C—H...O hydrogen bonds generate R22(20 loops. The dimers are connected by C—H...N and C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  1. The foundation for climate services in Belgium: CORDEX.be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; Termonia, Piet; De Ridder, Koen; Fettweis, Xavier; Gobin, Anne; Luyten, Patrick; Marbaix, Philippe; Pottiaux, Eric; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Van Lipzig, Nicole; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal; Willems, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    According to the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) there are four pillars required to build climate services. As the first step towards the realization of a climate center in Belgium, the national project CORDEX.be focused on one pillar: research modelling and projection. By bringing together the Belgian climate and impact modeling research of nine groups a data-driven capacity development and community building in Belgium based on interactions with users. The project is based on the international CORDEX ("COordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment") project where ".be" indicates it will go beyond for Belgium. Our national effort links to the regional climate initiatives through the contribution of multiple high-resolution climate simulations over Europe following the EURO-CORDEX guidelines. Additionally the same climate simulations were repeated at convection-permitting resolutions over Belgium (3 to 5 km). These were used to drive different local impact models to investigate the impact of climate change on urban effects, storm surges and waves, crop production and changes in emissions from vegetation. Akin to international frameworks such as CMIP and CORDEX a multi-model approach is adopted allowing for uncertainty estimation, a crucial aspect of climate projections for policy-making purposes. However, due to the lack of a large set of high resolution model runs, a combination of all available climate information is supplemented with the statistical downscaling approach. The organization of the project, together with its main results will be outlined. The proposed coordination framework could serve as a demonstration case for regions or countries where the climate-research capacity is present but a structure is required to assemble it coherently. Based on interactions and feedback with stakeholders different applications are planned, demonstrating the use of the climate data.

  2. Burden of blood transfusion in knee and hip surgery in the US and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Christopher M; Joshi, Ashish V; Szpalski, Marek; Gunzburg, Robert; Du Bois, Mark; Donceel, Peter; Saunders, William B

    2009-09-01

    Transfusion services in orthopaedic surgery can lead to unnecessary complications and increased healthcare costs. The objective of this study was to assess treatments and costs associated with blood and blood product transfusions in a historical cohort of 189,457 inpatients in the US and 34,987 inpatients in Belgium undergoing knee or hip surgery. Descriptive analysis, logistic regression and ordinary least squares regression were used to describe the factors associated with the use and cost of allogeneic blood transfusion. Hospitalisation costs for joint replacement surgery totalled $12,718 (SD=6,356) and averaged 4.33 days in the US, while costs in Belgium were $6,526 (SD=3,192) and averaged 17.1 days. The use of low molecular weight heparin and tranexamic acid was much higher in Belgium than the US (36% and 99% compared to 0% and 40%, respectively). Patients in the US spent 12.7 (pcosts per hospitalisation than patients in Belgium. While hospital costs for patients were greater in the US, length of stay was shorter and patients were less likely to have transfusion services than those patients in Belgium. While this study is limited by factors inherent to observational studies, such as omitted variable bias, misclassification, and disease comorbidity, there are substantial differences in the use of blood products between Belgium and the US.

  3. eMolTox: prediction of molecular toxicity with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Changge; Svensson, Fredrik; Zoufir, Azedine; Bender, Andreas

    2018-03-07

    In this work we present eMolTox, a web server for the prediction of potential toxicity associated with a given molecule. 174 toxicology-related in vitro/vivo experimental datasets were used for model construction and Mondrian conformal prediction was used to estimate the confidence of the resulting predictions. Toxic substructure analysis is also implemented in eMolTox. eMolTox predicts and displays a wealth of information of potential molecular toxicities for safety analysis in drug development. The eMolTox Server is freely available for use on the web at http://xundrug.cn/moltox. chicago.ji@gmail.com or ab454@cam.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. 5-(2-amimo-4-styryl pyrimidine-4-yl-4-methoxybenzofuran-6-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atteyat A Labib

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the organic synthesis of 5-(2-amimo-4-styryl pyrimidine-4-yl-4-methoxy benzofuran-6-ol (SPBF as an example of a benzofuran derivative used as a new series of amyloid imaging agents. These benzofuran derivatives may be useful amyloid imaging agents for detecting B-amyloid plagues in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease. The precursor is 1-[6-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzofuran-5-yl]-phenyl butadiene ketone, which react with guanidine hydrochloride. The purification process was done via crystallization using solvent ethanol. The overall yield was 75% and the structure of the synthesized compound was confirmed by correct analytical and spectral data. Also, The synthesized compound was labeled with radioactive iodine -125 via electrophilic substitution reaction, in the presence of iodogen as an oxidizing agent, the labeling process was carried out at 95oC for 20min. The radiochemical yield was determined by using a thin layer chromatography and the yield was equal to 80%. Preliminary an in-vivo study examined normal mice after intravenous injection through the tail vein and the data showed the labeling compound was quickly cleared from most body organs. The radioiodinated compound showed high brain uptake.The results of this study suggest that radioiodinated (SPBF may be useful as a brain imaging agents.

  5. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 4 Receptor in the Endothelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Profirovic, Jasmina; Vardya, Irina; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana

    2006-01-01

    39 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE 4 RECEPTOR IN THE ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. J. Profirovic, I. Vardya, T. Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is an important neurotransmitter that regulates multiple events in the ce......39 5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE 4 RECEPTOR IN THE ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. J. Profirovic, I. Vardya, T. Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is an important neurotransmitter that regulates multiple events...... gap formation in HUVECs. We are currently investigating the mechanism underlying 5-HT4 receptor-induced actin cytoskeleton changes in the endothelial cells. These data suggest that by activating 5-HT4 receptor, serotonin could be involved in regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in the endothelial...

  6. 2-[(4-Bromophenylimino)methyl]-5-pentadecylphenol

    OpenAIRE

    Basavaraj Padmashali; Patchanita Thamyongkit; Amorn Petsom; Gadada Naganagowda

    2012-01-01

    2-[(4-Bromophenylimino)methyl]-5-pentadecylphenol has been synthesized by reaction of 2-hydroxy-4-pentadecylbenzaldehyde with 4-bromoaniline in 1,4-dioxane and its IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS spectroscopic data are presented.

  7. Synthesis of New Unsymmetrical 4,5-Dihydroxy-2-imidazolidinones. Dynamic NMR Spectroscopic Study of the Prototropic Tautomerism in 1-(2-Benzimidazolyl-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-imidazolidinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Salimi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The acid-catalyzed cyclocondensation in refluxing acetonitrile of aqueousglyoxal with N-heteroaryl-N'-phenylureas 4a-f (heteroaryl = 2-thiazolyl, 2-pyrimidinyl,2-pyrazinyl, 2-pyridinyl, 3-pyridinyl and 2-benzimidazolyl led to the formation of thecorresponding 1-heteroaryl-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-imidazolidinones 5a-f. All theproducts were characterized by elemental and spectroscopic analyses. The free-energybarrier (∆GP≠ for prototropic tautomerism in 1-(2-benzimidazolyl-3-phenyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-imidazolidinone (5f was determined by dynamic NMR studies to be 81 ± 2KJ molP-1

  8. A Typology of Interprofessional Teamwork in Acute Geriatric Care: A Study in 55 units in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piers, Ruth D; Versluys, Karen J J; Devoghel, Johan; Lambrecht, Sophie; Vyt, André; Van Den Noortgate, Nele J

    2017-09-01

    To explore the quality of interprofessional teamwork in acute geriatric care and to build a model of team types. Cross-sectional multicenter study. Acute geriatric units in Belgium. Team members of different professional backgrounds. Perceptions of interprofessional teamwork among team members of 55 acute geriatric units in Belgium were measured using a survey covering collaborative practice and experience, managerial coaching and open team culture, shared reflection and decision-making, patient files facilitating teamwork, members' belief in the power of teamwork, and members' comfort in reporting incidents. Cluster analysis was used to determine types of interprofessional teamwork. Professions and clusters were compared using analysis of variance. The overall response rate was 60%. Of the 890 respondents, 71% were nursing professionals, 20% other allied health professionals, 5% physicians, and 4% logistic and administrative staff. More than 70% of respondents scored highly on interprofessional teamwork competencies, consultation, experiences, meetings, management, and results. Fewer than 55% scored highly on items about shared reflection and decision-making, reporting incidents from a colleague, and patient files facilitating interprofessional teamwork. Nurses in this study rated shared reflection and decision-making lower than physicians on the same acute geriatric units (P teamwork in acute geriatric units is satisfactory, but shared reflection and decision-making needs improvement. Four types of interprofessional teamwork are identified and can be used to benchmark the teamwork of individual teams. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Benedicte; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Gannedahl, Mia

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting data on resource consumption and work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity, from the societal perspective, in EUR 2015. A total of 1856 patients (mean age: 54 years) participated in Belgium; 66% were below retirement age, and of these, 44% were employed. Employment was related to disease severity, and MS affected productivity at work in 85% of the patients. Overall, 95% and 72% of the patients experienced fatigue and cognitive difficulties, respectively, as a problem. Mean utility and annual costs were 0.703 and €26,400 at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.478 and €45,300 at EDSS 4-6.5, and 0.193 and €62,000 at EDSS 7-9. The mean cost of a relapse was estimated to be €3000. This study provides current data on MS in Belgium that are important for development of health policies and for estimating the value of current and future treatments.

  10. 2-[(2,4,4,6,6-Pentachloro-1,3,5,2λ5,4λ5,6λ5-triazatriphosphinin-2-ylazanidyl]pyridinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa A. Ahmed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C5H5Cl5N5P3, crystallizes as a zwitterion in which the pyridine N atom is protonated. An S(6 ring motif is formed via an intramolecular C—H...N hydrogen bond. The triazatriphosphinine ring adopts an envelope conformation, with one N atom displaced by 0.145 (1 Å from the other atoms. In the crystal, N—H...N and C—H...N hydrogen bonds link the molecules into centrosymmetric dimers containing one R22(7 ring motif and two R22(8 ring motifs.

  11. ExoMol molecular line lists - XXVI: spectra of SH and NS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Bond, Wesley; Gorman, Maire N.; Lodi, Lorenzo; McKemmish, Laura K.; Nunn, William; Shah, Rohan; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2018-07-01

    Line lists for the sulphur-containing molecules SH (the mercapto radical) and NS are computed as part of the ExoMol project. These line lists consider transitions within the X2Π ground state for 32SH, 33SH, 34SH,36SH and, 32SD, and 14N32S, 14N33S, 14N34S, 14N36S, and 15N32S. Ab initio potential energy (PEC) and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) curves are computed and then improved by fitting to experimentally observed transitions. Fully ab initio dipole moment curves (DMCs) computed at high level of theory are used to produce the final line lists. For SH, our fit gives a root-mean-square (rms) error of 0.03 cm-1 between the observed (vmax = 4, Jmax = 34.5) and calculated transitions wavenumbers; this is extrapolated such that all X2Π rotational-vibrational-electronic (rovibronic) bound states are considered. For 32SH the resulting line list contains about 81 000 transitions and 2300 rovibronic states, considering levels up to vmax = 14 and Jmax = 60.5. For NS the refinement used a combination of experimentally determined frequencies and energy levels and led to an rms-fitting error of 0.002 cm-1. Each NS-calculated line list includes around 2.8 million transitions and 31 000 rovibronic states with a vibrational range up to v = 53 and rotational range up to J = 235.5, which covers up to 23 000 cm-1. Both line lists should be complete for temperatures up to 5000 K. Example spectra simulated using this line list are shown and comparisons made to the existing data in the CDMS data base. The line lists are available from the CDS (http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr) and ExoMol (www.exomol.com) data bases.

  12. ExoMol molecular line lists - XXVI: spectra of SH and NS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Bond, Wesley; Gorman, Maire N.; Lodi, Lorenzo; McKemmish, Laura K.; Nunn, William; Shah, Rohan; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    Line lists for the sulphur-containing molecules SH (the mercapto radical) and NS are computed as part of the ExoMol project. These line lists consider transitions within the X 2Π ground state for 32SH, 33SH, 34SH and 32SD, and 14N32S, 14N33S, 14N34S, 14N36S and 15N32S. Ab initio potential energy (PEC) and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) curves are computed and then improved by fitting to experimentally observed transitions. Fully ab initio dipole moment curves (DMCs) computed at high level of theory are used to produce the final line lists. For SH, our fit gives a root-mean-square (rms) error of 0.03 cm-1 between the observed (vmax = 4, Jmax = 34.5) and calculated transitions wavenumbers; this is extrapolated such that all X 2Π rotational-vibrational-electronic (rovibronic) bound states are considered. For 32SH the resulting line list contains about 81 000 transitions and 2 300 rovibronic states, considering levels up to vmax = 14 and Jmax = 60.5. For NS the refinement used a combination of experimentally determined frequencies and energy levels and led to an rms fitting error of 0.002 cm-1. Each NS calculated line list includes around 2.8 million transitions and 31 000 rovibronic states with a vibrational range up to v = 53 and rotational range to J = 235.5, which covers up to 23 000 cm-1. Both line lists should be complete for temperatures up to 5000 K. Example spectra simulated using this line list are shown and comparisons made to the existing data in the CDMS database. The line lists are available from the CDS (http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr) and ExoMol (www.exomol.com) data bases.

  13. Report on the application of INES in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The report on the application of INES in Belgium discusses the following topics: historical aspects; communication organization; communication policy in Belgium; events with difficulties or learning opportunities; public acceptance of INES issues; problems with the current systems

  14. The radon anomaly of Porcheresse (Ardennes, Belgium). A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlet, J.M.; Zhu, H.C.; Poffijn, A.

    1999-01-01

    From a very high radon concentration in a dwelling of the village of Porcheresse (Belgium), the paper discusses on of the significance of the numerous radon indoor anomalies detected in the Southern part of Belgium

  15. Syntheses of two potential dopamine D{sub 4} receptor radioligands: {sup 18}F labelled chromeno[3,4-c]pyridin-5-ones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu-Cai Li; Duan-Zhi Yin; Ming-Wei Wang; Deng-Feng Cheng; Yong-Xian Wang [Research Center of Radiopharmaceuticals, Shanghai Inst. of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2006-07-01

    The dopamine D{sub 4} receptor is hypothesized to relate with the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia while its level in brain regions is much lower and to date no suitable tracer is available for the study of D{sub 4} receptor in vivo. Therefore, selective imaging agents for the D{sub 4} subtype are badly needed. Based on the structure-activity analysis of chromeno[3,4-c]pyridin-5-ones as dopamine D{sub 4} receptor ligands, two fluorine-18 labelled chromeno[3,4-c] pyridin-5-one derivatives, 3-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzyl)-8-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrochromeno[3,4-c]pyridin-5-one and 3-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzyl)-8,9-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrochromeno[3,4-c]pyridin-5-one were synthesized through a two-step one-pot method. Their radiochemical yields were around 19.7% (decay-corrected) and radiochemical purities were higher than 95% with specific activities of about 120 GBq/{mu}mol. (orig.)

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure and DFT studies of N-(4-acetyl-5,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)acetamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, P.; Gautam, D.; Chaudhary, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    The title compound N-(4-acetyl-5,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)acetamide ( III) was obtained from the reaction of 2-(propan-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide ( II) with acetic anhydride instead of formation of the desired thiosemcarbazide derivative of Meldrum acid. The structures of II and III were established by elemental analysis, IR, NMR, Mass and X-ray crystallographic studies. II crystallizes in triclinic system, sp. gr. Z = 2; III crystallizes in the monoclinic system, sp. gr. P21/ c, Z = 8. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out for III. 1H and 13C NMR of III has been calculated and correlated with experimental results.

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure and DFT studies of N-(4-acetyl-5,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)acetamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, P.; Gautam, D.; Chaudhary, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound N-(4-acetyl-5,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)acetamide (III) was obtained from the reaction of 2-(propan-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide (II) with acetic anhydride instead of formation of the desired thiosemcarbazide derivative of Meldrum acid. The structures of II and III were established by elemental analysis, IR, NMR, Mass and X-ray crystallographic studies. II crystallizes in triclinic system, sp. gr. P-bar1 Z = 2; III crystallizes in the monoclinic system, sp. gr. P2 1 /c, Z = 8. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out for III. 1 H and 13 C NMR of III has been calculated and correlated with experimental results

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure and DFT studies of N-(4-acetyl-5,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)acetamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, P.; Gautam, D.; Chaudhary, R. P., E-mail: rpchaudhary65@gmail.com [Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2013-12-15

    The title compound N-(4-acetyl-5,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)acetamide (III) was obtained from the reaction of 2-(propan-2-ylidene)hydrazinecarbothioamide (II) with acetic anhydride instead of formation of the desired thiosemcarbazide derivative of Meldrum acid. The structures of II and III were established by elemental analysis, IR, NMR, Mass and X-ray crystallographic studies. II crystallizes in triclinic system, sp. gr. P-bar1 Z = 2; III crystallizes in the monoclinic system, sp. gr. P2{sub 1}/c, Z = 8. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out for III. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR of III has been calculated and correlated with experimental results.

  19. Bis(tetramethylcyclopentadienyl)titanium chemistry. Molecular structures of [(C(5)HMe(4))(mu-eta(1) : eta(5)-C(5)Me(4))Ti](2) and [(C(5)HMe(4))(2)Ti]N-2(2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deWolf, JM; Blaauw, R; Meetsma, A; Teuben, JH; Gyepes, R; Varga, [No Value; Mach, K; Veldman, N; Spek, AL

    1996-01-01

    Thermolysis of bis(tetramethylcyclopentadienyl)-stabilized titanium(III) compounds (C(5)HMe(4))(2)TiR (R = Me (2), Ph (3)) yields, in marked contrast with the bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) analog, the dimeric product [(C(5)HMe(4))(mu-eta(1):eta(5)-C(5)Me(4))Ti](2) (4), With a bridging metalated

  20. 1 CFR 5.4 - Publication not authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Publication not authorized. 5.4 Section 5.4... Publication not authorized. (a) Chapter 15 of title 44, United States Code, does not apply to treaties...) Chapter 15 of title 44, United States Code, prohibits the publication in the Federal Register of comments...

  1. 15 CFR 4a.5 - Duration of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of classification. 4a.5 Section 4a.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION..., except as provided in § 1.6(d) of E.O. 12958. Under E.O. 12958, information may be exempted from...

  2. 1,5-Bis(4-chlorophenyl-3-[4-(dimethylaminophenyl]pentane-1,5-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C25H23Cl2NO2, the central benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 81.88 (7 and 89.22 (7° with the two 4-chlorophenyl fragments. The crystal packing exhibits weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance 3.724 (3 Å].

  3. 4'-Methyl derivatives of 5-MOP and 5-MOA: synthesis, photoreactivity, and photobiological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gia, O; Anselmo, A; Conconi, M T; Antonello, C; Uriarte, E; Caffieri, S

    1996-10-25

    The synthesis and photobiological activity of four new 4'-methyl derivatives of 5-MOP (5-methoxypsoralen) and 5-MOA (5-methoxyangelicin), i.e., 4,4'-dimethyl-5-methoxypsoralen, 3,4'-dimethyl-5-methoxypsoralen, 4,4'-dimethyl-5-methoxyangelicin, and 3,4'-dimethyl-5-methoxyangelicin, are described. All these compounds photobind efficiently to DNA. The DNA-photobinding process was investigated using various nucleic acid structures such as double-helix DNA, bacterial DNA, and synthetic polydeoxyribonucleotides. Photoreaction experiments showed that, unlike 8-MOP (8-methoxypsoralen) and 5-MOP, both angular derivatives bind thymine and cytosine with the same efficiency. The principal nucleoside-psoralen monoadducts were isolated and characterized after enzymatic digestion or acid hydrolysis. Biological activity studies revealed a good correlation with the extent of covalent photoaddition. Moreover, the two angular derivatives and the 4,4'-dimethyl-5-methoxypsoralen were unable to induce skin erythema, in striking contrast with the reference drugs, 8-MOP and 5-MOP; only the 3,4'-dimethyl-5-methoxypsoralen caused erythema, although to a substantially lower extent than that induced by the two parent compounds.

  4. Solution Structure of LC4 Transmembrane Segment of CCR5

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Togiya, Kayo

    2011-01-01

    CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a specific co-receptor allowing the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The LC4 region in CCR5 is required for HIV-1 entry into the cells. In this study, the solution structure of LC4 in SDS micelles was elucidated by using standard 1H two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and fluorescdence quenching. The LC4 structure adopts two helical structures, whereas the C-terminal part remains unstructured. The positions in which LC4 ...

  5. Magnetoelastic behaviour of Gd sub 5 Ge sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Magen, C; Algarabel, P A; Marquina, C; Ibarra, M R

    2003-01-01

    A complete investigation of the complex magnetic behaviour of Gd sub 5 Ge sub 4 by means of linear thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements (5-300 K, 0-120 kOe) has been carried out. Our results support the suggested existence in this system of a coupled crystallographic-magnetic transition from a Gd sub 5 Ge sub 4 -type Pnma (antiferromagnetic) to a Gd sub 5 Si sub 4 -type Pnma (ferromagnetic) state. Strong magnetoelastic effects are observed at the field-induced first-order magnetic-martensitic transformation. A revised magnetic and crystallographic H- T phase diagram is proposed.

  6. Zr doping effect with low-cost solid-state reaction method to synthesize submicron Li4Ti5O12 anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Inseok; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Kim, Jae-Kwang

    2017-09-01

    To improve the electrochemical properties, fine Zr-doping Li4Ti5O12 anode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries with a uniform particle size distribution were synthesized by a modified solid-state reaction using fine Li2CO3 and TiO2 (anatase) powders as precursors with a Li:Ti molar ratio of 4:5. The use of fine Li2CO3 and TiO2 (anatase) powders as precursors prevented the formation of ZrO2 at 0.1 mol Zr-doping. XRD analysis revealed that the substitution of Zr for Ti leads to the increase of lattice parameters, allowing improved Li diffusion. The discharge capacity retention increased slightly with Zr-doping and the 0.1 mol Zr-doped Li4Ti5O12 electrode achieved 99% retention of discharge capacity.

  7. Solution structure of LC4 transmembrane segment of CCR5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhide Miyamoto

    Full Text Available CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 is a specific co-receptor allowing the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. The LC4 region in CCR5 is required for HIV-1 entry into the cells. In this study, the solution structure of LC4 in SDS micelles was elucidated by using standard 1H two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and fluorescence quenching. The LC4 structure adopts two helical structures, whereas the C-terminal part remains unstructured. The positions in which LC4 binds to the HIV-1 inhibitory peptide LC5 were determined by docking calculations in addition to NMR data. The poses showed the importance of the hydrophobic interface of the assembled structures. The solution structure of LC4 elucidated in the present work provides a structural basis for further studies on the HIV-1 inhibitory function of the LC4 region.

  8. Solution structure of LC4 transmembrane segment of CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Togiya, Kayo

    2011-01-01

    CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a specific co-receptor allowing the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The LC4 region in CCR5 is required for HIV-1 entry into the cells. In this study, the solution structure of LC4 in SDS micelles was elucidated by using standard 1H two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and fluorescence quenching. The LC4 structure adopts two helical structures, whereas the C-terminal part remains unstructured. The positions in which LC4 binds to the HIV-1 inhibitory peptide LC5 were determined by docking calculations in addition to NMR data. The poses showed the importance of the hydrophobic interface of the assembled structures. The solution structure of LC4 elucidated in the present work provides a structural basis for further studies on the HIV-1 inhibitory function of the LC4 region.

  9. (1R,4R,6S,7R-5,5-Dibromo-1,4,8,8-tetramethyltricyclo[5.4.1.04,6]dodecan-12-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H24Br2O, was synthesized from the reaction of β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-benzocycloheptene, which was isolated from Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica. The asymmetric unit contains two independent molecules with similar conformations. Each molecule is built up from two fused seven-membered rings and an additional three-membered ring. In both molecules, one of the seven-membered rings has a chair conformation, whereas the other displays a screw-boat conformation.

  10. 5-(4-Methylphenylsulfonyl-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-c]pyrrole-2-thione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-Juan Zheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C12H9NO2S4, contains one half-molecule with the N, two S amd four C atoms lying on a mirror plane. The molecule exhibits a V-shaped conformation, with a dihedral angle of 87.00 (7° between the benzene and dithiolopyrrole rings. The methyl group was treated as rotationally disordered between two orientations in a 1:1 ratio. In the crystal, weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into chains in [010].

  11. 3,5-Bis(4-methoxyphenyl-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Baktır

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C23H22N2O2, the central pyrazole ring is nearly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.046 Å and it makes a dihedral angle of 18.5 (2° with the phenyl ring. The dihedral angles between the phenyl and the two methoxy-substituted phenyl rings are 26.2 (2 and 80.6 (2°. The crystal structure is stabilized by C—H...π stacking interactions and weak π–π interactions [centriod–centroid distance = 3.891 (2 Å].

  12. 5-Ene-4-thiazolidinones - An efficient tool in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskyy, Danylo; Kryshchyshyn, Anna; Lesyk, Roman

    2017-11-10

    The presented review is an attempt to summarize a huge volume of data on 5-ene-4-thiazolidinones being a widely studied class of small molecules used in modern organic and medicinal chemistry. The manuscript covers approaches to the synthesis of 5-ene-4-thiazolidinone derivatives: modification of the C5 position of the basic core; synthesis of the target compounds in the one-pot or multistage reactions or transformation of other related heterocycles. The most prominent pharmacological profiles of 5-ene derivatives of different 4-thiazolidinone subtypes belonging to hit-, lead-compounds, drug-candidates and drugs as well as the most studied targets have been discussed. Currently target compounds (especially 5-en-rhodanines) are assigned as frequent hitters or pan-assay interference compounds (PAINS) within high-throughput screening campaigns. Nevertheless, the crucial impact of the presence/nature of C5 substituent (namely 5-ene) on the pharmacological effects of 5-ene-4-thiazolidinones was confirmed by the numerous listed findings from the original articles. The main directions for active 5-ene-4-thiazolidinones optimization have been shown: i) complication of the fragment in the C5 position; ii) introduction of the substituents in the N3 position (especially fragments with carboxylic group or its derivatives); iii) annealing in complex heterocyclic systems; iv) combination with other pharmacologically attractive fragments within hybrid pharmacophore approach. Moreover, the utilization of 5-ene-4-thiazolidinones in the synthesis of complex compounds with potent pharmacological application is described. The chemical transformations cover mainly the reactions which involve the exocyclic double bond in C5 position of the main core and correspond to the abovementioned direction of the 5-ene-4-thiazolidinone modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. 28 CFR 55.5 - Coverage under section 4(f)(4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.5 Coverage under section 4(f)(4). (a) Coverage formula. Section 4(f)(4) applies to any State or political subdivision in...) Coverage may be determined with regard to section 4(f)(4) on a statewide or political subdivision basis. (1...

  14. 4 CFR 25.5 - Conformity with signs and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conformity with signs and directions. 25.5 Section 25.5 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.5 Conformity with signs and directions. Persons in the GAO...

  15. Projected reduction in healthcare costs in Belgium after optimization of iodine intake: impact on costs related to thyroid nodular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Annemans, Lieven; Van Oyen, Herman; Tafforeau, Jean; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2010-11-01

    Several surveys in the last 50 years have repeatedly indicated that Belgium is affected by mild iodine deficiency. Within the framework of the national food and health plan in Belgium, a selective, progressive, and monitored strategy was proposed in 2009 to optimize iodine intake. The objective of the present study was to perform a health economic evaluation of the consequences of inadequate iodine intake in Belgium, focusing on undisputed and measurable health outcomes such as thyroid nodular disease and its associated morbidity (hyperthyroidism). For the estimation of direct, indirect, medical, and nonmedical costs related to thyroid nodular diseases in Belgium, data from the Federal Public Service of Public Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, the National Institute for Disease and Disability Insurance (RIZIV/INAMI), the Information Network about the prescription of reimbursable medicines (FARMANET), Intercontinental Marketing Services, and expert opinions were used. These costs translate into savings after implementation of the iodization program and are defined as costs due to thyroid nodular disease throughout the article. Costs related to the iodization program are referred to as program costs. Only figures dating from before the start of the intervention were exploited. Only adult and elderly people (≥18 years) were taken into account in this study because thyroid nodular diseases predominantly affect this age group. The yearly costs due to thyroid nodular diseases caused by mild iodine deficiency in the Belgian adult population are ∼€38 million. It is expected that the iodization program will result in additional costs of ∼€54,000 per year and decrease the prevalence of thyroid nodular diseases by 38% after a 4-5-year period. The net savings after establishment of the program are therefore estimated to be at least €14 million a year. Optimization of iodine intake in Belgium should be quite cost effective, if only considering its impact on

  16. Deoxyfluoroketohexoses: 4-deoxy-4-fluoro-D-sorbose and -tagatose and 5-deoxy-5-fluoro-L-sorbose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G V; Que, L; Hall, L D; Fondy, T P

    1975-04-01

    4-Deoxy-4-fluoro-alpha-D-sorbose (6) was prepared in crystalline form by the action of potassium hydrogen fluoride on 3,4-anhydro-1,2-O-isopropylidene-beta-D-psicopyranose (3) followed by deacetonation. Under identical conditions, 3,4-anhydro-1,2-O-isopropylidene-beta-D-tagatopyranose (7) underwent epoxide migration to give 4,5-anhydro-1,2-O-isopropylidene-beta-D-fructopyranose (12), which after deacetonation yielded 4-deoxy-4-fluoro-D-tagatose (15) and 5-deoxy-5-fluoro-alpha-L-sorbopyranose (16), the latter as the crystalline, free sugar. The action of glycol-cleavage reagents on the isopropylidene acetals of the deoxyfluoro sugars was consistent with the assigned structures. The structures were established by 13-C n.m.r. studies of the free deoxyfluoro sugars 6 and 16 and of the isopropylidene acetal 13, and by 1-H n.m.r. studies on the acetylated isopropylidene acetals 5 diacetate, 13 diacetate, and 14 diacetate. 5-Deoxy-5-fluoro-L-sorbose (16) was biologically active, producing in mice effects characteristic of deoxyfluorotrioses and of fluoroacetate. 4-Deoxy-4-fluoro-D-tagatose (15) and 4-deoxy-4-fluoro-D-sorbose (6) produced no apparent effects in mice up to a dose of 500mg/kg. The implications of these findings with respect to transport, phosphorylation, and the action of aldolase on ketohexoses are discussed.

  17. Euthanasia in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Each of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands) has enacted legislation that partially decriminalises euthanasia, defined as an act that intentionally terminates someone's life at their request. In the Netherlands and Luxembourg, but not in Belgium, the legislation partially decriminalised assisted suicide at the same time. In all three countries, euthanasia can only be performed by a doctor, in response to the patient's voluntary and well-considered request, and for patients who have an incurable disease that causes unbearable suffering, without any prospect of relief. In the Netherlands, minors can request euthanasia as of the age of 12 years. In 2011, reported euthanasia accounted for about 1% of deaths in Belgium and 3% in the Netherlands. In 75% of cases, cancer was the disease leading to a request for euthanasia. In the Netherlands, the number of cases of euthanasia reported by doctors in surveys matches the number that is officially declared. In Belgium, it is thought that there are as many unreported as reported cases of euthanasia. Since the enactment of euthanasia legislation, fewer deaths involve the intentional administration of lethal drugs without an explicit request from the patient.

  18. Wingas in natural gas supply in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Recently Wingas has become active in the transport and supply of natural gas in Belgium and succeeded in entering contracts for the supply of natural gas which cover 6% of the Belgian market. Wingas is a German-Russian joint venture between BASF-daughter Wintershall and OAO Gasprom [nl

  19. Elementary Particle Physics in Belgium Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The experimental activities of the Belgian Universities and Institutes are performed within the framework of large international collaborations. Moreover, the universities whose name is colored in light blue with * on the map of Belgium also take part into theoretical work. (All these activities are mainly supported by the FNRS-FWO research foundations.)

  20. Health and social inequities in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, R; Humblet, P C; Lenaerts, A; Godin, I; Moens, G F

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents two different yet complementary on-going studies related to the understanding of the mechanisms leading to social inequalities in health. The first part is devoted to a differential morbidity survey held in southern Belgium. It confirms that striking differences exist in the period around birth between social categories, and between the three districts under study. In a multivariate approach, differences remain between the social categories and between the district samples, which classically studied socio-demographical, behavioural and medical characteristics cannot fully explain. The role of cultural factors is analysed and discussed through the concept of 'health culture' and alternative hypotheses are reviewed in the light of the results. The second part reviews the studies conducted on the so-called avoidable mortality in the EEC and more specifically in Belgium. The concept of avoidable mortality is discussed, as well as its utility from the standpoint of the present concern on social inequalities. Differences between EEC countries are large, and even within Belgium there are important disparities between the districts. The role of health care supply has not been demonstrated yet in these two contexts. For Belgium, it appears that a major part of the unequally distributed mortality is constituted by causes of death considered as avoidable. Moreover, the most discriminating causes of death are overrepresented in socially deprived districts. The two perspectives are confronted in order to delineate perspectives for future research and operational outcomes for policy making and interventions.

  1. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Uranium occurrences and resources - To date the uranium identified in Belgium is limited to a number of occurrences and none of these have as yet proved significant from a reserve or resource viewpoint. The main uranium occurrences ares (1) In the Upper Cambrian graphite schists corresponding to the culm of Sweden small zones are found (30 - 50 cm thick) with an average of 20 ppm uranium. (2) Near Vise at the base of the Carboniferous the Visean formation is discordantly superimposed on the Permian (Frasnian) and overlain by shales and phyllites. Solution pockets at the boundary contain phosphatic lenses that contain uranium values of up to 200 ppm. Autunite and Torbernite are the main uranium minerals associated with a number of complex phosphatic minerals. Within the Chalk (Maestrichtien) of the Mons basin, that is mainly in the Ciply - St. Symphorien and Baudow district. Here is found enrichment of uranium up to 140 ppm over large areas related to phosphatic chalk. The thickness of the zone varies from a few to 20 metres. However, as the P 2 O 5 content is not high enough for the deposits to be exploited at present for phosphate there is little possibility of the uranium being concentrated at high enough levels to be exploited for itself alone. (4) Near to Vielsalm (in the Stavelot Massif) are some thin quartz veins containing small amounts of copper and uranium minerals (Torbornite). Values of up to 70 ppm are recorded. (5) A number of low uranium values are recorded associated with phosphatic nodules and zones in the Lower Pleistocene and Tertiary

  2. Spatial analysis of extreme precipitation deficit as an index for atmospheric drought in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Sepideh; Van De Vyver, Hans; Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    The growing concern among the climate scientists is that the frequency of weather extremes will increase as a result of climate change. European society, for example, is particularly vulnerable to changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as heat waves, heavy precipitation, droughts, and wind storms, as seen in recent years [1,2]. A more than 50% of the land is occupied by managed ecosystem (agriculture, forestry) in Belgium. Moreover, among the many extreme weather conditions, drought counts to have a substantial impact on the agriculture and ecosystem of the affected region, because its most immediate consequence is a fall in crop production. Besides the technological advances, a reliable estimation of weather conditions plays a crucial role in improving the agricultural productivity. The above mentioned reasons provide a strong motivation for a research on the drought and its impacts on the economical and agricultural aspects in Belgium. The main purpose of the presented work is to map atmospheric drought Return-Levels (RL), as first insight for agricultural drought, employing spatial modelling approaches. The likelihood of future drought is studied on the basis of precipitation deficit indices for four vegetation types: water (W), grass (G), deciduous (D) and coniferous forests (C) is considered. Extreme Value Theory (EVT) [3,4,5] as a branch of probability and statistics, is dedicated to characterize the behaviour of extreme observations. The tail behaviour of the EVT distributions provide important features about return levels. EVT distributions are applicable in many study areas such as: hydrology, environmental research and meteorology, insurance and finance. Spatial Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distributions, as a branch of EVT, are applied to annual maxima of drought at 13 hydro-meteorological stations across Belgium. Superiority of the spatial GEV model is that a region can be modelled merging the individual time series of

  3. OSp(5|4) superconformal symmetry of N=5 Chern–Simons theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fa-Min

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the general D=3, N=5 Chern–Simons matter theory possesses a full OSp(5|4) superconformal symmetry, and construct the corresponding superconformal currents. The closure of the superconformal algebra is verified in detail. We also show that the conserved OSp(6|4) superconformal currents in the general N=6 theory can be obtained as special cases of the OSp(5|4) currents by enhancing the R-symmetry of the N=5 theory from USp(4) to SU(4)

  4. Preliminary analysis of construction of the test drift in boom clay at Mol using plasticity solutions and finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, R.J.; Taylor, R.N.; Higgins, K.G.; Potts, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses have been undertaken on an advancing tunnel heading at great depth in a clay formation corresponding to the test drift construction at Mol. Belgium. Simplifying assumptions enable plasticity solutions to be used to model the behaviour of a tunnel heading in a linear elastic-perfectly plastic soil. Finite element analysis with the same soil model has been undertaken of the test drift construction, assuming axisymmetric conditions. The results are compared with the plasticity solutions and with the measurements of lining stresses, soil movements and pore pressures by SCK/CEN. Good agreement is obtained between the plasticity solutions and finite element analysis. The measured immediate build-up of stress on the linings is well-predicted and reasonable agreement is obtained between predicted and measured soil movements. The measured pore-pressure changes are poorly predicted by the analyses

  5. Belgium: National approach to ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In Belgium, the licenses for operation of the nuclear power plants granted by Royal Decree do not specify a fixed lifetime. The oldest plants, Doel 1&2 and Tihange 1, have been operational since 1975. The 2003 law regarding the exit from nuclear power limits the operation of nuclear power plants to 40 years. However, in October 2009, the Belgian government declared that they intended to make it legally possible for Doel 1&2 and Tihange 1 to operate until 2025, which would mean a total lifetime of 50 years (this statement was confirmed by the Belgian government in June 2012, only for the Tihange 1 plant). The Belgian Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) published in 2009 a strategic note regarding the requirements of long-term operation for Doel 1&2 and Tihange 1. Electrabel GDF SUEZ started its LTO programme in order to respond to these requirements. The LTO programme consisted of the following areas of concern, identified in the FANC strategic note: − Preconditions for long-term operation considering the IAEA expectations; − Ageing management; − Design re-evaluation; − Knowledge, competence and behaviour management. The note also stated that the long-term operation of the plants should be evaluated within the framework of the fourth ten-yearly PSR, based upon IAEA NS-G-2.10. As such a license renewal was not required for LTO and the LTO approval will be integrated in the approval process of the 4th PSR. In its strategic note, the Belgian Federal Agency for Nuclear Control explicitly states that the AMP has to be in conformity with the USNRC 10CFR54 and IAEA SRS 57

  6. Comparison of maxillary first molar occlusal outlines of Neandertals from the Meuse River Basin of Belgium using elliptical Fourier analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Frank L’Engle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Several Neandertals derive from the karstic caves of the Meuse river tributaries of Belgium, including Engis 2, Scladina 4A-4 and Spy 1. These may form a group that is distinct in maxillary first molar occlusal outlines compared to La Quina 5 from Southwest France. Alternatively, chronological differences may separate individuals given that Scladina 4A-4 from MIS 5 is older than the others from MIS 3. Neolithic samples (n = 42 from Belgium (Maurenne Caverne de la Cave, Hastière Caverne M, Hastière Trou Garçon, Sclaigneaux and Bois Madame dated to 4.6–3.9 kyr provide a context for the Neandertals. Dental casts were prepared from dental impressions of the original maxillary molars. Crown and occlusal areas as well as mesiodistal lengths were measured by calibrated Motic 3.0 microscope cameras. Occlusal outlines of the casts were captured through photostereomicroscopy and non-landmark smooth tracing methods. Occlusal outlines were processed using elliptical Fourier analysis within SHAPE v1.3 which reduced amplitudes of the harmonics into principal components (PC axes. The first two PC axes group the Neandertals, although Scladina 4A-4 falls nearly outside the convex hull for the Neolithic sample. Neandertals are imperfectly separated from the Neolithic sample on PC3 and PC4, and completely distinct on PC5 and PC6. Scladina 4A-4 differs from the other Neandertals on most PC axes. Chronology may best explain the separation of Scladina 4A-4 from the more recent fossils, and particularly Spy 1 and La Quina 5 which are the most similar in maxillary first molar occlusal outline shape.

  7. Hyperfine structure in 5s4d 3D-5snf transitions of 87Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushaw, B.A.; Kluge, H.J.; Lantzsch, J.; Schwalbach, R.; Stenner, J.; Stevens, H.; Wendt, K.; Zimmer, K.

    1993-01-01

    The hyperfine spectra of the 5s4d 3 D 1 -5s20f, 5s4d 3 D 2 -5s23f, and 5s4d 3 D 3 -5s32f transitions of 87 Sr (I=9/2) have been measured by collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy. The structure in the upper configurations is highly perturbed by fine structure splitting that is of comparable size to the hyperfine interaction energy. These perturbations can be adequately treated with conventional matrix diagonalization methods, using the 5s-electron magnetic dipole interaction term a 5s and the unperturbed fine structure splittings as input parameters. Additionally, hyperfine constants for the lower 5s4d 3 D configurations, including the A- and B-factors and a separation of the individual s- and d-electron contributions to these factors, are derived. (orig.)

  8. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.4Mn1.5Cr0.1O4 and Li4Ti5O12

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Liu, GQ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinel compound LiNi0.4Mn1.5Cr0.1O4 (LNMCO) and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) were synthesized by the sol-gel method and the solid-state method, respectively. The particle sizes of the products LiNi0.4Mn1.5Cr0.1O4 and Li4Ti5O12 were 0.5 to 2 um and 0.5 to 0.8 um...

  9. C4.5 programs for machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Quinlan, J Ross

    1992-01-01

    Classifier systems play a major role in machine learning and knowledge-based systems, and Ross Quinlan's work on ID3 and C4.5 is widely acknowledged to have made some of the most significant contributions to their development. This book is a complete guide to the C4.5 system as implemented in C for the UNIX environment. It contains a comprehensive guide to the system's use , the source code (about 8,800 lines), and implementation notes. The source code and sample datasets are also available for download (see below). C4.5 starts with large sets of cases belonging to known classes. The cases,

  10. Radiochemical synthesis of 3-(4-[18F] Fluorophenyl)-8-hydroxy-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydrochromeno [3, 4-c] pyridin-5-one: A putative dopamine D$4 receptor PET imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.C.; Yin, D.Z.; Wang, M.W.; Cheng, D.F.; Wang, Y.X.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The dopamine D 4 receptor has lately received increasing interest since it has been hypothesized to be involved in the pathology and pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia. While this receptor is expressed in lower density in various extrastriatal brain regions and its distribution is still unclear due to the lack of suitable imaging agent and its level change in schizophrenia is controversial. Herein, based on the structure-activity analysis of chromeno[3, 4-c]pyridine- 5-ones as potential dopamine D 4 receptor ligands, a putative D 4 subtype positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand, 3-(4-[ 18 F]fluorophenyl)-8-hydroxy-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydrochromeno [3, 4-c]pyridin-5-one ([ 18 F]FHTP), was designed and synthesized. Methods: The radiochemical synthesis route was shown in Figure 1. [ 18 F]Fluoride was produced with a Cyclone-30 (IBA, Belgium) by 18 O(p, n) 18 F reaction using enriched 18 O-H 2 O and eluted from a Dowex 1-X8 anion-exchange column with aqueous potassium carbonate (20 mg/mL). 4-[ 18 F]Fluorobenzaldehyde was prepared according to the method reported by Alan A. Wilson and et al.. Then, 8-hydroxy-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydrochromeno [3, 4-c]pyridin-5-one, sodium cyanoborohydride, methanol and acetic acid were added to the dry residue, The mixture was then sealed and heated at 120 degree C for 12 min. At the end of the reaction, the mixture was cooled, diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with water. The extracted organic layer was passed through a small anhydrous magnesium sulfate column. After removal of the solvents in the mixture at 50 degree C under a stream of nitrogen, the obtained residue was redissolved in methanol and purified with a semi-preparative HPLC system, then the desired product was collected. Results: The radiochemical synthesis of [ 18 F]FHTP took around 110 min at EOS with an overall radiochemical yield 19% (decay-corrected) and its radiochemical purity was higher than 95%. Conclusion: A presumed dopamine D 4 receptor PET

  11. Topological wave functions and the 4D-5D lift

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Peng; Pioline, Boris

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the holomorphic anomaly equations satisfied by the topological string amplitude from the perspective of the 4D-5D lift, in the context of ''magic'' N=2 supergravity theories. In particular, we interpret the Gopakumar-Vafa relation between 5D black hole degeneracies and the topological string amplitude as the result of a canonical transformation from 4D to 5D charges. Moreover we use the known Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of 5D black holes to constrain the asymptotic behavior of the t...

  12. Synthesis, characterization, thermal properties and theoretical investigation on Bis(guanidinium) 4,4‧- Azo-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wen-li; Guo, Jia-jia; Chen, Xiang; Ding, Zi-mei; Xu, Kang-zhen; Song, Ji-rong; Fan, An; Huang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Bis(guanidinium) 4,4‧-Azo-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-one [G2(ZTO)] was synthesized and characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, elemental analyzer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. The result from X-ray single crystal diffraction indicates that G2(ZTO) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with parameters of a = 4.779(2) Å, b = 9.081(4) Å, c = 14.676(6) Å, α = 90.00°, β = 92.43(7)°, γ = 90.00°, V = 636.4(5) Å3, Z = 2, μ(Mo Kα) = 0.131, F(000) = 328, S = 1.071, Dc = 1.640 g·cm-3, R1 = 0.0510 and wR2 = 0.1389. Interestingly enough, its structure does not contain crystallization water, which is a unique characteristic in this material. Besides, the molecular geometry of the compound was optimized by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) method at B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level in the ground state, revealing that the obtained geometric parameters are in accordance with the X-ray result of the structure. The experimental vibrational spectrum was compared with the calculated spectrum. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) of G2(ZTO) was computed with the same method in gas phase, theoretically. The thermal properties of this compound were investigated by DSC, TG/DTG and micro-DSC methods. The results manifest that its thermal behavior can be divided into two main decomposition stages, the first intense decomposition peak temperature is 248.11 °C at the heating rate of 10 °C·min-1, which is higher than that of RDX (219 °C) but slightly lower than that of G(ZTO)·H2O (252.08 °C). The constant-volume combustion heat (ΔcU) of G2(ZTO), G(ZTO)·H2O and ZTO were determined and then the enthalpy of formation were calculated. The results show that G2(ZTO) possesses the highest standard molar enthalpy of formation, which may be explained by the fact that G2(ZTO) contains no water and possesses the highest nitrogen content in all guanidine salts. Moreover, the apparent activation energy (E), thermal stability and safety

  13. MolTalk--a programming library for protein structures and structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemand, Alexander V; Scheib, Holger

    2004-04-19

    ) macro-molecular structures, i.e. H-bonds, salt bridges, contacts between amino acids and ligands or at the interface between two chains.3) To programme more complex structural bioinformatics software and to implement demanding algorithms through its portability to Objective-C, e.g. iMolTalk.4) To be used as a front end to databases, e.g. PDBChainSaw.

  14. MolTalk – a programming library for protein structures and structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemand, Alexander V; Scheib, Holger

    2004-01-01

    number of) macro-molecular structures, i.e. H-bonds, salt bridges, contacts between amino acids and ligands or at the interface between two chains. 3) To programme more complex structural bioinformatics software and to implement demanding algorithms through its portability to Objective-C, e.g. iMolTalk. 4) To be used as a front end to databases, e.g. PDBChainSaw. PMID:15096277

  15. MolTalk – a programming library for protein structures and structure analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemand Alexander V

    2004-04-01

    quickly retrieve information for (a limited number of macro-molecular structures, i.e. H-bonds, salt bridges, contacts between amino acids and ligands or at the interface between two chains. 3 To programme more complex structural bioinformatics software and to implement demanding algorithms through its portability to Objective-C, e.g. iMolTalk. 4 To be used as a front end to databases, e.g. PDBChainSaw.

  16. 1,4-Disilacyclohexa-2,5-diene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibbelin, Julius; Wallner, Andreas; Emanuelsson, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    2,3,5,6-Tetraethyl-1,4-disilacyclohexa-2,5-dienes with either four chloro (1a), methyl (1b), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) (1c) substituents at the two silicon atoms were examined in an effort to design rigid compounds with strong neutral cross-hyperconjugation between π- and σ-bonded molecular segments......). Furthermore, 1,4-disilacyclohexadiene 1c absorbs strongly at 273 nm (4.55 eV), whereas 1a and 1b have no symmetry allowed excitations above 215 nm (below 5.77 eV). Thus, suitably substituted 1,4-disilacyclohexa-2,5-dienes could represent novel building blocks for the design of larger cross...

  17. Fitness and Your 4-to 5-Year Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fitness and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old KidsHealth / ... the risk of serious illnesses later in life. Fitness for Preschoolers Physical activity guidelines for preschoolers recommend ...

  18. Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old ... pain, such as from an ear infection Common Medical Problems Problems often found in this age group ...

  19. Treatment outcome of intravenous artesunate in patients with severe malaria in the Netherlands and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreeftmeijer-Vegter Annemarie R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous (IV artesunate is the treatment of choice for severe malaria. In Europe, however, no GMP-manufactured product is available and treatment data in European travellers are scarce. Fortunately, artesunate became available in the Netherlands and Belgium through a named patient programme. This is the largest case series of artesunate treated patients with severe malaria in Europe. Methods Hospitalized patients treated with IV artesunate between November 2007 and December 2010 in the Netherlands and Belgium were retrospectively evaluated. Patient characteristics, treatment and clinical outcome were recorded on a standardized form and mortality, parasite clearance times and the occurrence of adverse events were evaluated. Results Of the 68 treated patients, including 55 with severe malaria, two patients died (2/55 = 3.6%. The mean time to 50% parasite clearance (PCT50, 90% and 99% were 4.4 hours (3.9 - 5.2, 14.8 hours (13.0 - 17.2, and 29.5 hours (25.9 - 34.4 respectively. Artesunate was well tolerated. However, an unusual form of haemolytic anaemia was observed in seven patients. The relationship with artesunate remains uncertain. Conclusions Data from the named patient programme demonstrate that IV artesunate is effective and well-tolerated in European travellers lacking immunity. However, increased attention needs to be paid to the possible development of haemolytic anaemia 2-3 weeks after start of treatment. Treatment of IV artesunate should be limited to the period that IV treatment is required and should be followed by a full oral course of an appropriate anti-malarial drug.

  20. Organ donation and transplantation statistics in Belgium for 2012 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desschans, B; Evrard, P

    2014-11-01

    The 2012 and 2013 solid organ transplantation statistics were presented during the annual meeting of the Belgian Transplant Society. All data presented were collected from Eurotransplant International Foundation and/or from all individual Belgian transplant centers. It was demonstrated that the highest number of deceased donors detected (1310) from which 47.8% were an effective organ donor that corresponded to 29 per million inhabitants (pmi) in 2012 and 27.4 pmi in 2013. Out of 626 effective deceased organ donors, 491 (79%) were donors after brain death (DBD) and 135 (21%) donors after circulatory death (DCD), respectively. The majority (125/135; 93%) of DCD donors were DCD Maastricht category III donors and there were 7 (5%) donations following euthanasia. Family refusal tended to be lower for DCD (10.4%) compared to DBD donors (13.4%). Despite the increasing DCD donation rate, DBD donation remains stable in Belgium. The donor age is still increasing, reaching a median age of 53 years (range 0-90). Spontaneous intracranial bleeding (39.3%) and cranio-cerebral trauma (25%) remained the most frequent reasons of death. The number of living related kidney transplantations (57 in 2012 and 63 in 2013) followed the international trend albeit in Belgium it is still very limited. Nevertheless this activity could explain that the number of patients waiting for kidney transplantation (770) reached an absolute minimum in 2013. Except the reduced waiting list for lung transplantation (from 119 patients in 2011 to 85 in 2013), the waiting list remained stable for the other organs but almost 200 patients still died while on the waiting list. Belgium demonstrated the highest number of effective organ donors that corresponded to 29 per million inhabitants (pmi) in 2012 and 27.4 pmi in 2013. Thus far, and in contrast with other countries, there is no erosion of DBD in the DCD donor organ pool, but it is the important responsibility of all transplant centers and donor hospitals to

  1. 2,5-Bis[(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctylsulfanyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Partl

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H8F26N2S3, was obtained by double S-perfluorohexylethylation of dipotassium 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiolate in methanol. The molecule exhibits twofold rotational symmetry, with the S atom lying on the rotation axis. The fluorocarbon chains adopt helical conformations and the F atoms of the two terminal C atoms are disordered over two sets of sites. No directional intermolecular interactions occur in the crystal.

  2. Electric conductivity of PCl5-ZrCl4, PCl5-TaCl5, and PCl5-MoCl5 molten mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, A.B.; Red'kin, A.A.; Moskalenko, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    When mixing individual molecular melts of PCl 5 with ZrCl 4 , TaCl 5 or with MoCl 5 , an essential (by several orders) increase in electric conductivity (up to 0.02-0.1 Ohm -1 ·cm -1 ), which stems, in all probability, from the appearance of complex ions PCl 4 + , ZrCl 5 - , ZrCl 6 2- , TaCl 5 - and MoCl 6 - in the molten mixtures as a result of chemical interaction

  3. Trigonal bipyramidal 5d-4f molecules with SMM behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Mohamed R; Dunbar, Kim R

    2014-02-28

    A family of trigonal bipyramidal (TBP) 5d-4f cyanide bridged aggregates were synthesized that exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization below 4 K as indicated by a signal in the out-of-phase ac susceptibility data under zero field.

  4. 5 CFR 4.1 - Prohibition against political activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... political campaigns, except as may be provided by or pursuant to statute. All such persons shall retain the... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against political activity. 4... PRACTICES (RULE IV) § 4.1 Prohibition against political activity. No person employed in the executive branch...

  5. 5 CFR 1302.4 - Requests to amend records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests to amend records. 1302.4 Section 1302.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT...) The decision of the Office of Management and Budget whether to grant in whole, or deny any part of the...

  6. Acid-base properties of 1-methyl-1,4-dilhydroborabenzene, CH3BC5H6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.A.; Sandford, H.; Beauchamp, J.L.; Ashe, A.J. III

    1978-01-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance techniques are employed to determine the gas-phase Bronsted and Lewis acidities as well as the Bronsted basicity of 1-methyl-1,4-dihydroborabenzene, CH 3 BC 5 H 6 . The ring proton is found to be highly acidic with PA(CH 3 BC 5 H 5 - ) = 337 +- 3 kcal/mol. This acidity results from the formation of 6π electron aromatic anion CH 3 BC 5 H 5 - , which is isoelectronic with toluene. Both the Lewis acidity toward F - as a reference base and the proton basicity of the parent molecule suggest that there is little interaction between the diene π system and the electron-deficient boron. This is further confirmed by the similarity of both negative and positive ion chemistry of the borabenzene to that of aliphatic boranes

  7. PdTe: a 4.5 K type-II BCS superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Brajesh; Goyal, Reena; Jha, Rajveer; Awana, V P S; Dixit, Ambesh

    2015-01-01

    We report on the structure and physical properties of the polycrystalline PdTe superconductor, which is synthesized by the solid state reaction route via the quartz vacuum encapsulation technique at 750 °C. The as synthesized compound is crystallized in hexagonal crystal structure with P63/mmc space group. Both transport and magnetic measurements showed that PdTe is a bulk superconductor below 4.5 K. Isothermal magnetization (MH) and magneto-transport (R(T)H) measurements provided the values of the lower (H c1 ) and upper (H c2 ) critical fields as 250 Oe and 1200 Oe respectively at 2 K, establishing that the compound is clearly a type-II superconductor. The coherence length (ξ 0 ) and Ginzburg–Landau parameter (κ) are estimated from the experimentally determined upper and lower critical fields, and are 449 Å and 1.48 respectively. Thermodynamic heat capacity measurements under different magnetic fields, i.e. C p (T)H, showed a clear transition at 4.5 K (T c ), which shifts gradually to lower temperatures with application of field. The values of Debye temperature (Θ D ) and electronic specific heat coefficient (γ) obtained from C p (T) data are found to be 203 K and 6.01 mJ mol −1 K −2 . The observed specific heat jump (ΔC/γT c ) is 1.33, thus suggesting a possible weak coupling case for the PdTe superconductor. (paper)

  8. Experimental and computational thermochemistry of 6,7-dihydro-4(5H)-benzofuranone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Clara C.S.; Morais, Victor M.F.; Matos, M. Agostinha R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Standard molar enthalpy of formation of 6,7-dihydro-4(5H)-benzofuranone was obtain. ► Computational estimative of the standard molar enthalpy of formation. ► Computational and experimental values agree. ► Estimates of the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the isomers were obtain. - Abstract: The standard (p = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of 6,7-dihydro-4(5H)-benzofuranone was measured, at T = 298.15 K, by static bomb calorimetry and the standard molar enthalpy of vaporization, at T = 298.15 K, was obtained using Calvet microcalorimetry. These values were combined together to derive the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the title compound in gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, −(226.0 ± 2.8) kJ · mol −1 . Additionally, density functional theoretical calculations using the B3LYP hybrid exchange-correlation energy functional with extended basis sets and also other higher-level ab initio quantum calculations have been performed.

  9. 2,2',3,4-Tetrahydroxy-3'-sulpho-5'-nitroazobenzene for spectrophotometric determination of aluminium in pharmaceutical suspensions and granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guray, Tufan; Uysal, Uelkue Dilek; Gedikbey, Tevfik; Huseyinli, A. Ali

    2005-01-01

    A selective and sensitive new spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of aluminium. 2,2',3,4-Tetrahydroxy-3'-sulpho-5'-nitroazobenzene (tetrahydroxyazon SN) formed an orange chelate with aluminium at pH 4. Molar absorptivity of the complex in 1:2 is 5.46 x 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1 at 479 nm. The method obeys Beer's law in the range of 0.005-1.079 μg ml -1 . The determination of aluminium is not interfered with by earth alkaline, alkaline elements, rare earth elements, halides, phosphates, sulphates, urea, ascorbic acid, Sn 2+ , Sr 2+ , Cr 3+ , Cd 2+ , Hg 2+ , or Mn 2+ . The proposed method is rapid and simple, and it has been successfully applied to the determination of aluminium in certified pharmaceutical suspension and granite

  10. Synthesis 1, 3-bis (4-bromophenyl-5-isopropyl-1, 3, 5-triazacyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. LEFRADA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of an isopropylamine and an 4-bromoaniline with formaline in basic solution to give 1, 3-bis (4-bromophenyl-5- (isopropyl- 1, 3, 5- triazicyaclohexane. Through the interaction of rapid Schiff base, Structures of this compound have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods; IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR. Their purities were confirmed by elemental analyses.

  11. ExoMol line list - XXI. Nitric Oxide (NO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andy; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Bernath, Peter; Müller, Holger S. P.; McConkey, Stephanie; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Line lists for the X 2Π electronic ground state for the parent isotopologue of nitric oxide (14N16O) and five other major isotopologues (14N17O, 14N18O, 15N16O, 15N17O and 15N18O) are presented. The line lists are constructed using empirical energy levels (and line positions) and high-level ab initio intensities. The energy levels were obtained using a combination of two approaches, from an effective Hamiltonian and from solving the rovibronic Schrödinger equation variationally. The effective Hamiltonian model was obtained through a fit to the experimental line positions of NO available in the literature for all six isotopologues using the programs spfit and spcat. The variational model was built through a least squares fit of the ab initio potential and spin-orbit curves to the experimentally derived energies and experimental line positions of the main isotopologue only using the duo program. The ab initio potential energy, spin-orbit and dipole moment curves (PEC, SOC and DMC) are computed using high-level ab initio methods and the marvel method is used to obtain energies of NO from experimental transition frequencies. The line lists are constructed for each isotopologue based on the use of the most accurate energy levels and the ab initio DMC. Each line list covers a wavenumber range from 0 to 40 000 cm-1 with approximately 22 000 rovibronic states and 2.3-2.6 million transitions extending to Jmax = 184.5 and vmax = 51. Partition functions are also calculated up to a temperature of 5000 K. The calculated absorption line intensities at 296 K using these line lists show excellent agreement with those included in the HITRAN and HITEMP data bases. The computed NO line lists are the most comprehensive to date, covering a wider wavenumber and temperature range compared to both the HITRAN and HITEMP data bases. These line lists are also more accurate than those used in HITEMP. The full line lists are available from the CDS http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr and ExoMol www

  12. Influence of 45S5 Bioglass addition on microstructure and properties of ultrafine grained (Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr) alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, K., E-mail: kamil.kowalski@put.poznan.pl [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Jana Pawla II 24, 61-138 Poznan (Poland); Jurczyk, M.U. [Division of Mother’s and Child’s Health, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Polna 33, 60-535 Poznan (Poland); Wirstlein, P.K. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Reproduction, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Polna 33, 60-535 Poznan (Poland); Jakubowicz, J.; Jurczyk, M. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Jana Pawla II 24, 61-138 Poznan (Poland)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Ultrafine grained composites were formed by consolidating mechanically alloyed powders. • Mechanical properties were sensitive to the content of 45S5 Bioglass in Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr alloy. • Fluoride treated composites displayed superior corrosion resistance in Ringer solution. • Composites modified with MgF{sub 2} have a higher degree of biocompatibility in comparison with the unmodified reference material. - Abstract: Bulk samples of an ultrafine grained (Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr)-x wt% 45S5 Bioglass (x = 0, 5) and (Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr)-5 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag composites have been synthesized by consolidating mechanically alloyed powders. The influence of the chemical composition on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of bulk composites were studied. The sintering of (Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr)-5 wt% 45S5 Bioglass powders led to the formation of a bulk composite with grain size of approx. 95 nm. The corrosion behavior of Mg-based composites before and after hydrofluoric acid treatment was also investigated. The ultrafine grained (Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr)-5 wt% 45S5 Bioglass composite was more corrosion resistant than the bulk Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr alloy after HF treatment. The in vitro biocompatibility of synthesized composites was evaluated and compared with microcrystalline magnesium. Magnesium, (Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr)-5 wt% 45S5 Bioglass and (Mg-4Y-5.5Dy-0.5Zr)-5 wt% 45S5 Bioglass-1 wt% Ag composites modified with MgF{sub 2} have a higher degree of biocompatibility in comparison with the unmodified reference material.

  13. 4f-5d hybridization in a high k dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losovyj, Ya.B.; Tang, Jinke; Wang, Wendong; Hong Yuanjia; Palshin, Vadim; Tittsworth, Roland

    2006-01-01

    While intra-atomic f-d hybridization is expected, experimental confirmation of f-d hybridization in the photoemission final state leading to 4f band structure has been limited to 5f systems and compound systems with very shallow 4f levels. We demonstrate that core 4f states can contribute to the valence band structure in a wide band gap dielectric, in this case HfO 2 in the photoemission final state. In spite of the complications of sample charging, we find evidence of symmetry in the shallow 4f levels and wave vector dependent band dispersion, the latter consistent with the crystal structure of HfO 2

  14. 5-Methyl-3,8-di-(2-amino-4-bromophenyl-4,9-dioxa-1,2,6,7-tetraaza-5λ5-phosphaspiro[4.4]nona-2,7-diene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Kasperowicz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 5-Methyl-3,8-di-(2-amino-4-bromophenyl-4,9-dioxa-1,2,6,7-tetraaza-5λ5-phosphaspiro[4.4]nona-2,7-diene was obtained by condensation of 2-amino-5-bromobenzohydrazide and methylphosphonyl dichloride in the presence of triethylamine. An initial biological screening was performed for the resulting product. The synthesized compound showed relatively strong cytotoxic activity, which was, however, similar for cancer and non-cancer cell lines.

  15. 4-[(2-Methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,3-oxazol-4-ylidenemethyl]phenyl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengran Guo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H11NO4, an intramolecular C—H...N interaction helps to establish the conformation. In the crystal, two C—H...O contacts stack adjacent molecules into a one-dimensional double chain running in the a-axis direction.

  16. Report on nuclear energy in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The findings of a Commission set up in 1975 to report to Belgium's Minister of Economic Affairs on the various aspects of the question of nuclear energy are discussed. The Commission is basically in favour of the increased use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity, but emphasises that the main purpose of its Report is to furnish reasoned judgements to serve as the basis for informed debate. It concludes that the matter is essentially political. Economic, technical, public health and environmental aspects are considered. The present nuclear power programme is briefly reviewed, including reactors planned for up to 1982. The main conclusions of the Report are summarised, including economic and financial considerations. The possibilities of alternative sources of energy are considered, and it is concluded that only coal, oil and natural gas could be important for Belgium in the short or medium term. A policy of diversification should be favoured. (U.K.)

  17. Energy policies of IEA countries: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The report contains a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Belgium, including recommendations on future policy. Belgium has been successful in phasing out the exploitation of its high-cost and uncompetitive coal, without major social problems. To enhance its energy supplies, it has developed a nuclear industry based on a high level of technology and promoted natural gas imports. The electricity and gas industries are highly concentrated and integrated, in many cases preventing competition from working to benefit consumers. Structural reforms in the electricity and gas markets are required to create competitive, efficient, and flexible markets. The report also recommends that responsibilities transferred from the federal government to the three governments need to be harmonized, especially those concerning climate change

  18. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Conversion of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to 1,2,4-Benzenetriol, an Overlooked Biobased Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumalaputri, Angela J; Randolph, Caelan; Otten, Edwin; Heeres, Hero J; Deuss, Peter J

    2018-03-05

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a platform chemical that can be produced from renewable carbohydrate sources. HMF can be converted to 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BTO) which after catalytic hydrodeoxygenation provides a route to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. This mixture, known as KA oil, is an important feedstock for polymeric products such as nylons which use benzene as feedstock that is obtained from the BTX fraction produced in oil refineries. Therefore, the conversion of HMF to BTO provides a renewable, alternative route toward products such as nylons. However, BTO is usually considered an undesired byproduct in HMF synthesis and is only obtained in small amounts. Here, we show that Lewis acid catalysts can be utilized for the selective conversion of HMF to BTO in subsuper critical water. Overall, up to 54 mol % yield of BTO was achieved at 89% HMF conversion using ZnCl 2 . ZnCl 2 and similarly effective Zn(OTf) 2 and Fe(OTf) 2 are known as relatively soft Lewis acids. Other Lewis acid like Hf(OTf) 4 and Sc(OTf) 3 gave increased selectivity toward levulinic acid (up to 33 mol %) instead of BTO, a well-known HMF derivative typically obtained by acid catalysis. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of BTO toward cyclohexanone in water was achieved in up to 45% yield using 5 wt % Pd on Al 2 O 3 combined with AlCl 3 or Al(OTf) 3 as catalysts. Additionally, a mild selective oxygen induced dimerization pathway of BTO to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexahydroxybiphenyl (5,5'-BTO dimer) was identified.

  19. Ethyl 2-[4-(benzyloxyanilino]-4-oxo-4,5-dihydrofuran-3-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sriman Narayanan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H19NO5, the dihydrofuran ring is almost planar [maximum deviation of 0.021 (2°] and makes dihedral angles of 28.1 (7 and 54.5 (5° with the benzyl and phenylamino rings, respectively. The molecular packing is stabilized by intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds and intermolecular C—H...O interactions.

  20. 3,4-Dibromo-2,2,5,5-tetraphenyl-2,5-dihydrofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Seidel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C28H20Br2O, was solved in the orthorhombic space group P212121 with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The phenyl rings are nearly planar and inclined at angles of 67.7 (1, 68.8 (1, 79.3 (1 and 62.3 (1° to the plane of the 2,5-dihydrofuran ring. The crystal structure features C—H...π and Br...Br interactions, which connect the molecules to a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  1. Genetic variation in 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter expression causes adaptive changes in 5-HT4 receptor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, Katie Ann; Licht, Cecilie Löe; Bruce, Aynsley

    2012-01-01

    +/+ mice in all brain regions. Compared to wild-type (WT) littermate controls, 5-HTT OE mice had increased 5-HT4 binding density across all brain regions, except amygdala (118-164% of WT) and this difference between genotypes was reduced by the 5-HTT inhibitor, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg twice daily, 3 d...

  2. Actual and Potential Electoral Absenteeism in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    ACKAERT, Johan; DUMONT, P.; DE WINTER, L.

    2007-01-01

    During the eighties and nineties of the 20th century, absenteeism increased in Belgium. This evolution ended for all types of elections at the beginning of the current century. This paper offered a number of potential explanations for this puzzle, but we acknowledge that further examination is necessary to provide a clear answer for this change. We showed that potential absenteeists share specific characteristics. Potential turnout (in case of abolishment of compulsory voting) ...

  3. 4-[(3-Phenyl-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-5-ylmethyl]-2H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazin-3(4H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Kheira Sebbar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C18H16N2O2S, the 5-dihydroisoxazol-5-yl ring and its phenyl substituent are nearly coplanar, with the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.0184 (16 Å. The thiomorpholin-3-one ring adopts a screw-boat conformation and the attached benzene ring makes a dihedral angle of 42.26 (7° with the mean plane through the 3-phenyl-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-5-yl ring system. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of C—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. These dimers are linked via C—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network.

  4. History of health technology assessment in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemput, Irina; Van Wilder, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of health technology assessment (HTA) in Belgium. The information included in the overview is based on legal documents and publicly available year reports of the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). Belgium has a relatively young history in HTA. The principle of evidence-based medicine (EBM) was introduced in the drug reimbursement procedure in 2001, with the establishment of the Drug Reimbursement Committee (DRC). The DRC assesses the efficacy, safety, convenience, applicability, and effectiveness of a drug relative to existing treatment alternatives. For some drugs, relative cost-effectiveness is also evaluated. The activities of the DRC can, therefore, be considered to be the first official HTA activities in Belgium. Later, in 2003, KCE was established. Its mission was to perform policy preparing research in the healthcare and health insurance sector and to give advice to policy makers about how they can obtain an efficient allocation of limited healthcare resources that optimizes the quality and accessibility of health care. This broad mission has been operationalized by activities in three domains of research: HTA, health services research, and good clinical practice. KCE is independent from the policy maker. Its HTAs contain policy recommendations that may inform policy decisions but are not binding. Although the Belgian history of HTA is relatively short, its foundations are strong and the impact of HTA increasing. Nevertheless KCE has many challenges for the future, including continued quality assurance, further development of international collaboration, and further development of methodological guidance for HTA.

  5. Ferrites Ni0,5Zn0,5Fe2O4 doped with samarium: structural analysis, morphological and electromagnetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.F.M.; Diniz, A.P.; Viana, K.M.S.; Cornejo, D.R.; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the sintering at 1200 deg C/2h of Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2-x Sm x O 4 ferrite doped with 0.05; 0.075 e 0.1 mol of Sm synthesized by combustion reaction to evaluate the performance materials as absorbers of electromagnetic radiation. The influence of the concentration of samarium on the structure, morphology and electromagnetic properties of ferrites was studied. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetic measurements and reflectivity measurements in the frequency range between 8-12 GHz. The results showed that increasing the concentration of samarium caused a decrease in particle size of the samples, encouraging, therefore, to obtain materials with better values of magnetization and reflectivity, allowing for use as absorbers in narrow-band frequency between 9-10 GHz. (author)

  6. Synthesis and properties of novel 4,5-diaminonaphthalimides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, I.P.

    1999-07-01

    This thesis presents work carried out into the synthesis and properties of Novel 4,5-diaminonaphthalimides. Previous work had identified that these compounds could be synthesised through a short reaction sequence but a very limited number of examples had been produced. With some modifications, the structure of 4,5-diaminonaphthalimides suggests a number of applications. The diamine functionality suggests the formation of complexes and if chiral amines were used asymmetric synthesis is a possibility. Naphthalimides are known to intercalate into DNA and so compounds of this nature may have interesting anti-cancer activity. Finally diaminonaphthalimides are strongly fluorescent and this in combination with the chelation potential of the diamine functionality may afford ion and molecular sensors. The first section of this thesis reviews these areas of research and demonstrates how diaminonaphthalimides might contribute to these areas. The second section describes the synthesis of 4,5-diaminonaphthalimides and illustrates the variety of compounds that may be synthesised. In addition this section explores the applications to fluorescence sensing and asymmetric synthesis. 4,5-Diaminonaphthalimides are shown to undergo chelation enhanced quenching (CHEQ) and chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF) with various transition metal ions. The precise features are shown to be dependent on the metal ion present. The mass spectroscopic results discussed in this section show 4,5-diaminonaphthalimides to be a new class of supramolecular compound as they show pre-assembly around alkali earth metal ions. 4,5-Diaminonaphthalimides were also used as catalysts in asymmetric reactions where they show some catalytic activity in the addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde. (author)

  7. Crystal structure of 2-amino-4-(4-chlorophenyl-1-(4-methylphenyl-5-oxo-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoline-3-carbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban K. Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C23H20ClN3O, each of the cyclohexene and 1,4-dihydropyridine rings of the 1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoline ring system adopts a twisted-boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 11.52 (7°. In the crystal, molecules are linked through a pair of amino–nitrile N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers. These assemble into a three-dimensional network via C—H...O and C—H...π interactions.

  8. 4-{3-[Hydroxy(phenylmethyl]-5-thioxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl}benzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akkurt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H14N4O3S2, the hydroxy group is disordered over two positions with occupancies of 0.619 (5 and 0.381 (5. The benzene ring attached to the heterocycle makes a dihedral angle of 86.92 (9° with respect to the best plane through the five-membered ring. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O, N—H...S, N—H...N, C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds, and N—H...π and C—H...π interactions.

  9. 4f and 5d magnetism in samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stunault, A.; Bernhoeft, N.; Vettier, C.; Dumesnil, K.; Dufour, C.

    2001-01-01

    We report on resonant magnetic X-ray scattering studies of a samarium epitaxial film at the samarium L 3 edge. We observe one quadrupolar resonance below the edge, reflecting the polarization of the 4f electrons, and two dipolar resonances above the edge, related to the polarization of the 5d band. We demonstrate, by following the thermal evolution of resonant magnetic intensities of both types, that the polarization of the 4f and 5d electrons present exactly the same temperature dependence, even very close to the ordering temperature, in agreement with the RKKY model for long-range magnetic order in rare earths

  10. 5-Bromo-4′,5′-bis(dimethylaminofluorescein: Synthesis and Photophysical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yeon Hwang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three new fluorescein derivatives—5-bromo-4′,5′-dinitrofluorescein (BDNF, 5-bromo-4′,5′-diaminofluorescein (BDAF, and 5-bromo-4′,5′-bis(dimethylaminofluorescein (BBDMAF—were synthesized and their pH-dependent protolytic equilibria were investigated. In particular, BBDMAF exhibited pH-dependent fluorescence, showing strong emission only at pH 3–6. BBDMAF bears a bromine moiety and thus, can be used in various cross-coupling reactions to prepare derivatives and take advantage of its unique emission properties. To confirm this, the Suzuki and Sonogashira reactions of BBDMAF with phenylboronic acid and phenylacetylene, respectively, were performed, and the desired products were successfully obtained.

  11. (E-2-((4R,5R-5-((Benzyloxymethyl-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylbut-2-ene-1,4-diol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Carreras

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of (E-2-((4R,5R-5-((benzyloxymethyl-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylbut-2-ene-1,4-diol by a one-step reduction of the appropriate 2-substituted butenolide is reported. Product characterization was carried out by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, elemental analysis and optical rotation.

  12. Fragrance material review on 1-(2,4,4,5,5-pentamethyl-1-cyclopenten-1-yl)ethan-1-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(2,4,4,5,5-pentamethyl-1-cyclopenten-1-yl)ethan-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(2,4,4,5,5-Pentamethyl-1-cyclopenten-1-yl)ethan-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(2,4,4,5,5-pentamethyl-1-cyclopenten-1-yl)ethan-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, phototoxicity, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients (submitted for publication)) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 5-Isopropylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d][1,3]dithiole-2-thione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Yamashita

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H6S5, contains a 5-ylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d][1,3]dithiole-2-thione framework, which is an important synthetic precursor of multi-dimensional organic superconductors and conductors. The molecular framework is planar with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.012 Å for the non-H atoms. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by short intermolecular S...S interactions [3.501 (5 and 3.581 (4 Å], constructing a zigzag molecular tape network along the c axis.

  14. Complexation and extraction of series 4f, 5f and 4d ions by dialkyldithiophosphoric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, Richard.

    1982-04-01

    A study was carried out on the complexing and extracting properties of various dialkyldithiophosphoric acids towards ions of the 4f, 5f and 4d series. Sulphurated donors complex and extract ions of the 4f and 5f series less strongly than their oxygenated homologues. However the affinity of trivalent actinide ions for dialkythiophosphate ions is shown to be greater than that of lanthanides. The conditions of ruthenium extraction from nitric acid are defined [fr

  15. Household composition and suicidal behaviour in the adult population of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisle, Lydia; Van Oyen, Herman

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of suicidal behaviours, i.e. ideation and attempt, in the adult population of Belgium, and to explore their association with household composition. Data of 4,459 adults (25-64 years) from the 2004 Belgian Health Interview Survey were used for analyses. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to calculate the odds of engaging in suicidal behaviours according to household type, further controlling for age, sex, income, employment status and social support. Lifetime prevalence of ideation and attempts was 14 and 4.7 %, respectively. Current prevalence of ideation was 4.0 % and past year prevalence of attempts was 0.5 %. Compared to other household compositions, living alone (A) and as lone parent (P) increased the odds of lifetime and current suicidal thoughts (ORA 2.3, 95 % CI 1.7-2.9 and ORP 3.8, 95 % CI 1.9-7.7) and lifetime attempts (ORA 2.3, 95 % CI 1.4-3.6 and ORP 4.5, 95 % CI 2.4-8.5). When controlling for confounders, single person and single parent households still presented increased adjusted-odds of lifetime and current suicidal thoughts (a-ORA 1.8, 95 % CI 1.1-2.9 and a-ORP 2.3, 95 % CI 1.0-5.5). The likelihood of ever attempted suicide was also higher among single parent households (a-ORP 4.5, 95 % CI 2.4-8.5) after adjustment, but not among those living alone (a-ORA 1.4, 95 % CI 0.8-2.8). Living alone or as lone parent place adults at higher risk for suicide behaviour, and this is only partly explained by lower socio-economic status or poor perceived support.

  16. The 4p5rd10 and 4d86p configurations of Te VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churilov, S.S.; Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Troitsk; Joshi, Y.N.; Kildiyarova, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    The spectrum of tellurium was photographed in the 100-500 A region on a variety of grazing incidence spectrographs using a triggered spark source. The analysis of the lines in the 117-216 A region has lead to establishing 42 out of 45 levels of the 4d 8 6p configuration of Te VIII. Four levels of the 4d 8 4f configuration were confirmed and their level values revised, and an additional 4d 8 4f level was established. The 4p 5 4d 10 levels reported earlier were found to be erroneous and new values have been found for them. Eighty seven (87) new lines have been classified in the (4d 9 + 4d 8 5s)-(4d 8 4f + 4p 5 4d 10 + 4d 8 6p) transition array. Hartree-Fock with relativistic corrections (HFR) and parametric least-squares-fitted (lSF) calculations were carried out to interpret the present analysis adequately. (orig.)

  17. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-5 - Fee schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-5 Fee schedules. (a... subcontracting, normal contractor services performed by the government or another contractor: (1) The target fee...) The target fee schedule provides for 45 percent of the contract work to be subcontracted for such...

  18. 5 CFR 1630.4 - Request for notification and access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...). (5) No disclosure history will be made when the Department of Labor or the General Accounting Office..., interfund transfers, and withdrawal records Call or write to TSP record keeper. To learn the history of... employing agency within three workdays. (4) No disclosure history will be made when the Board contracts for...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of 4-[(E)-(-2,5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synthesis of 4-[(E)-(-2,5- dimethoxybenzylidene)amino] benzoic acid. Schiff base, SBDAB was carried out inorder to determine its inhibitory efficiency at higher temperature using weight loss and gasometric techniques. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency of the studied Schiff base increased with increase in ...

  20. 43 CFR 4.452-5 - Conduct of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Questions of Fact § 4.452-5 Conduct of hearing. So far as not inconsistent with a prehearing order, the administrative law judge may seek to obtain stipulations as to material facts and the issues involved and may state any other issues on which he may wish to have evidence presented. He may exclude irrelevant issues...

  1. Thermal conductivity of Cu–45 Ti alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The thermal conductivity (TC) of peak aged Cu–45 wt% Ti alloy was measured at different tem- peratures and studied its variation with temperature. It was found that TC increased with increasing tem- perature. Phonon and electronic components of thermal conductivity were computed from the results. The.

  2. Thermal conductivity of Cu–4.5 Ti alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thermal conductivity (TC) of peak aged Cu–4.5 wt% Ti alloy was measured at different temperatures and studied its variation with temperature. It was found that TC increased with increasing temperature. Phonon and electronic components of thermal conductivity were computed from the results. The alloy exhibits an ...

  3. Sahel Medical Journal - Vol 5, No 4 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica Among Diarrhoeal Patients Attending University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AI Omoigberale, PO Abiodun, 182-185. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/smj2.v5i4.12825 ...

  4. Interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertommen, Tine; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Kampen, J.K.; Brackenridge, Celia H.; Rhind, Daniel J.A.; Neels, Karel; Eede, Van Den Filip

    2016-01-01

    The current article reports on the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using a dedicated online questionnaire, over 4,000 adults prescreened on having participated in organized sport before the age of 18 were surveyed

  5. Attosecond relative delay among xenon 5p, 5s, and 4d photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Madjet, Mohamed; Chakraborty, Himadri

    2017-04-01

    Attosecond Wigner-Smith (WS) time delays of the photoemissions of Xe valence 5p, 5s, and core 4d electrons are investigated in details using the time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA). Electron correlations determine the energy-dependent structures in ionization phases of the dipole channels and in the resulting WS delays at various shape resonances, induced by the collective motion of 4d electrons, and at various Cooper minima. We find that our calculation closely agrees with the streaking measurement for the delay of 4d relative to 5s, and predicts accelerated emission of 5p with respect to 4d as was experimentally observed at similar photon energies for Xe atoms adsorbed on the tungsten surface. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  6. 4-Benzyl-6-bromo-2-phenyl-4H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ouzidan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The imidazopyridine fused ring in the title compound, C19H14BrN3, is almost coplanar with the phenyl ring at the 2-position of the five-membered ring [dihedral angle = 2.4 (1. The crystal structure features short Br...Br contacts [3.562 (1 Å].

  7. Optical dating of relict sand wedges and composite-wedge pseudomorphs in Flanders, Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Ghysels, Günther; Murray, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on quartz Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of the infill of 14 relict sand wedges and composite-wedge pseudomorphs at 5 different sites in Flanders, Belgium. A laboratory dose recovery test indicates that the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure is suitable for...

  8. Genotoxic activity of 4,4',5'-trimethylazapsoralen on plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagatolla, C; Dolzani, L; Granzotto, M; Monti-Bragadin, C

    1998-01-01

    The genotoxic activities of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and 4,4',5'-trimethylazapsoralen (4,4',5'-TMAP) on plasmid DNA have been compared. In a previous work, 4,4',5'-TMAP, a methyl derivative of a psoralen isoster, had shown potential photochemotherapeutic activity. The mutagenic activity of mono- and bifunctional lesions caused by these compounds was evaluated both after UVA irradiation, which causes the formation of both kinds of lesions, and after a two-step irradiation procedure of the psoralen-plasmid DNA complex, which allowed monoadducts and interstrand crosslinks to be studied separately. Furthermore, we used a procedure that allowed us to evaluate both the mutagenic and recombinogenic activity of the two compounds. Results indicate that the most important difference between 8-MOP and 4,4',5'-TMAP consists in their mode of photoreaction with DNA rather than in their mutagenic potential. In fact, in all of the experimental procedures, 4,4',5'-TMAP shows a lower ability than 8-MOP to generate interstrand crosslinks. However, when comparable toxicity levels are reached, the two compounds show the same mutagenic potentiality.

  9. Synthesis of diadenosine 5', 5'''-P1, P4-tetraphosphate (AP4A) in sea urchin embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Mizue; Shimada, Hiraku

    1984-01-01

    Sea urchin embryos were labeled with ( 3 H)adenosine at two developmental stages (morula and prism) and the labeled acid-soluble nucleotides were fractionated successively by column chromatography with DEAE-Sephadex and DEAE-cellulose, and by thin-layer chromatography on a PEI-cellulose plate. Significant radioactivity was detected on the PEI-cellulose plate at the region of diadenosine 5', 5'''-P 1 , P 4 -tetraphosphate (AP 4 A). After treatment of this fraction with phosphodiesterase, the radioactivity was all recovered in the AMP region, while alkaline phosphatase had no effect on the AP 4 A fraction. The present result suggests that AP 4 A is actively synthesized in the sea urchin embryos. (author)

  10. Heat treatment effects on tensile properties of V-(4-5) wt.% Cr-(4-5) wt.% Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Effects of thermomechanical treatments on microstructures and mechanical properties are of interest for long term application of V-Cr-Ti alloys in fusion reactor systems. Influence of thermal annealing at 1050{degrees}C on stress/strain behavior, maximum engineering strength, and uniform and total elongation were evaluated. The results show that multiple annealing has minimal effect on the tensile properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys tested at room temperature and at 500{degrees}C.

  11. The Effects of the Addition of Silica Mol Fraction (x = 1.5; 2; 2.5) as a Solid Electrolyte on Ion Conductivity of NASICON (Na1-xZr2SixP3-xO12) Using Solid-State Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, V. M.; Purwaningsih, H.; Widyastuti; Fajarin, R.; Setyawan, H.

    2017-05-01

    Energy is a very important in modern life and need innovations to develop it. One innovation is the application of energyfor storage devices, such as batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, etc. For 30 years, the application of the NASICON (Na1+xZr2SixP3-xO12) into the NASICON gas sensor material was successfully prepared by using solid-state method. The raw materials such as SiO2, Na2CO3, ZrO2, and NaH2PO4 with a little methanol were mixed in Ballmill equipment. The silica powder was made by the extraction of bagasse ash by using sol-gel method. The x-ray diffraction patternshowedthat the result of silica extraction was amorphous and the NASICON structure wassynthesizedto bemonoclinic. The scanning electron microscopy results indicated that silica had non-uniform surface morphology and the NASICON had good surface morphology only on the form of Na3Zr2Si2PO12. The ionic conductivty of NASICON wasshown on LCR Nyquist plot of the three compositions. The highest NASICON conductivity was found inthe composition of x = 2.0, i.e. 1.142x10-8 S/m.

  12. Novel foci of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks infected with Babesia canis and Babesia caballi in the Netherlands and in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongejan, Frans; Ringenier, Moniek; Putting, Michael; Berger, Laura; Burgers, Stefan; Kortekaas, Reinier; Lenssen, Jesse; van Roessel, Marleen; Wijnveld, Michiel; Madder, Maxime

    2015-04-17

    Autochthonous populations of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in the Netherlands were discovered after fatal cases of babesiosis occurred in resident dogs in 2004. The presence of D. reticulatus in the Netherlands has also linked with the emergence of piroplasmosis in the resident horse population. The aim of this study was to put together results of continued surveillance of field sites and hosts for this tick in the Netherlands and also in Belgium and determine their infection status for Babesia and Theileria species. Ticks were collected from the vegetation at 11 locations between 2011 and 2013. D. reticulatus ticks were also collected from different hosts between 2007 and 2013. Ticks were screened by PCR and reverse line blot (RLB). A total of 1368 D. reticulatus ticks were collected from 4 previously known field locations and from 5 new locations in the Netherlands and from 2 sites in Belgium (one old and one new location). A total of 855 ticks collected from 8 locations in the Netherlands and 2 locations in Belgium were tested. Fourteen ticks (1,64%) collected at 4 field locations (Dintelse Gorzen, Rozenburg, Slikken van de Heen and St. Philipsland) were positive for Babesia canis, whereas two ticks were positive for Babesia caballi, one tick in the Dintelse Gorzen in the Netherlands and one tick was found positive in De Panne in Belgium. A further 1092 D. reticulatus ticks were collected between 2007 and 2013 from 40 dogs (132 ticks), two ticks from two humans, 51 ticks from 15 horses, two ticks from two cats, one tick from a roe deer, whereas most ticks (904) were collected from cattle (n = 25). Ticks were found throughout the year on dogs in nearly all provinces of the Netherlands. None of the ticks collected from these hosts were infected. D. reticulatus is continuing its spread into novel areas. The finding that some autochthonous ticks are infected with B. canis and B. caballi poses a threat to the resident dog and horse population and justifies year

  13. Drie nuwe verklaringsopsies in die Jakobusbrief (Jak 2:1; 4:5; 5:6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New options in the understanding of the Epistle of James (Js 2:1; 4:5; 5:6) New methods of interpretation occasionally lead to new options in the understanding of texts. In the case of the Epistle of James, the interpretation has until recently stood under the spell of the 'comparative' method of Dibelius. Greater emphasis on ...

  14. Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. Detail drawings of several assemblies and subassemblies are given. This is the fifth book of volume 4.

  15. Gibbs energy formation of Sr5Nb4O15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samui, Pradeep; Padhi, Anyuna; Agarwal, Renu; Kulkarni, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Ternary oxides of strontium and niobium may form as fission product compounds in an operating nuclear reactor with oxide fuels under certain oxygen potential. Evaluations of thermodynamic stability of these ternary oxides are therefore important for assessment of fission product interactions. Furthermore, thermodynamic data of these oxides are also of relevance because of computation of phase diagram and phase stability of pseudo-ternary systems BaO-SrO-Nb 2 O 5 , SrO-Nb 2 O 5 -TaO 5 etc. in which some of the compounds are potential candidate materials for microwave ceramics with high dielectric constant, electro-optic, pyroelectric and piezoelectric devices. The system Sr-Nb-O contains many ternary oxides out of which we have investigated the thermodynamic parameters for the compound Sr 5 Nb 4 O 15 in the present study

  16. 5-[(3,5-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene]-1,3-diethyl-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman A. Khan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, 5-[(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene]-1,3-diethyl-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H-dione, has been synthesized by condensation of 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid and 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazole-4-carbaldehyde in ethanol in the presence of pyridine. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  17. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Agreement of 5 April 1973, and the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article 111(1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons entered into force, pursuant to the first sentence of Article 25(a) thereof, on 21 February 1977 [es

  18. D1/D5 systems in N=4 string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gava, Edi; Hammou, Amine B.; Morales, Jose F.; Narain, Kumar S.

    2001-01-01

    We propose CFT descriptions of the D1/D5 system in a class of freely acting Z 2 orbifolds/orientifolds of type IIB theory, with sixteen unbroken supercharges. The CFTs describing D1/D5 systems involve N=(4,4) or N=(4,0) sigma models on (R 3 xS 1 xT 4 x(T 4 ) N /S N )/Z 2 , where the action of Z 2 is diagonal and its precise nature depends on the model. We also discuss D1(D5)-brane states carrying non-trivial Kaluza-Klein charges, which correspond to excitations of two-dimensional CFTs of the type (R 3 xS 1 xT 4 ) N /S N xZ 2 N . The resulting multiplicities for two-charge bound states are shown to agree with the predictions of U-duality. We raise a puzzle concerning the multiplicities of three-charge systems, which is generically present in all vacuum configurations with sixteen unbroken supercharges studied so far, including the more familiar type IIB on K3 case: the constraints put on BPS counting formulae by U-duality are apparently in contradiction with any CFT interpretation. We argue that the presence of RR backgrounds appearing in the symmetric product CFT may provide a resolution of this puzzle. Finally, we show that the whole tower of D-instanton corrections to certain 'BPS saturated couplings' in the low energy effective actions match with the corresponding one-loop threshold corrections on the dual fundamental string side

  19. Crystal structure of 4,4′,4′′-(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyltripyridinium trichloride 2.5-hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Kai Ling

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C18H15N63+·3Cl−·2.5H2O, contains two independent (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyltripyridinium cations. Both cations are approximately planar, the r.m.s. deviations of fitted non-H atoms being 0.045 and 0.051 Å. In the crystal, extensive O—H...Cl, O—H...O, N—H...Cl and N—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...Cl and C—H...O interactions link the organic cations, Cl− anions and water molecules into a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. π–π stacking between the pyridine rings of adjacent cations is also observed, the centroid-to-centroid distance being 3.7578 (8 Å.

  20. Laser and radiofrequency spectroscopy of the 4d55s5Dsub(0,1,2,3,4) and 4d45s5p5Psub(1,2,3) states in Mo I: Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, T.; Fraenkel, L.; Lindgren, I.; Nyberg, A.; Robertsson, L.; Rosen, A.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to determine the hyperfine structure in the metastable 4d 5 5s 5 Dsub(1,2,3,4) states of Mo I by means of the laser radiofrequency double-resonance technique. Furthermore, hyperfine structure splittings and isotope shifts in seven optical transitions connecting the 4d 5 5s 5 Dsub(0,1,2,3,4) and the 4d 4 5s5p 5 Psub(1,2,3) states were resolved with the high-resolution laser spectroscopy technique. Radial hyperfine structure parameters are deduced for the effective operator within the 5 D states using the configurations 4d 4 5s 2 , 4d 5 5s and 4d 6 as a model space. The isotope shifts are also discussed, utilizing an effective operator, with particular emphasis on the J dependence. (orig.)

  1. High resolution emission Fourier transform infrared spectra of the 4p-5s and 5p-6s bands of ArH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskakov, O I; Civis, S; Kawaguchi, K

    2005-03-15

    In the 2500-8500 cm(-1) region several strong emission bands of (40)ArH were observed by Fourier transform spectroscopy through a dc glow discharge in a mixture of argon and hydrogen. Rotational-electronic transitions of the two previously unstudied 4p-5s and 5p-6s,v = 0-0, bands of (40)ArH were measured and assigned in the 6060 and 3770 cm(-1) regions, respectively. A simultaneous fit of the emission transitions of the 4p-5s and 5p-6s bands and an extended set of transitions of the 6s-4p band observed by Dabrowski, Tokaryk, and Watson [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 189, 95 (1998)] and remeasured in the present work yielded consistent values of the spectroscopic parameters of the electronic states under investigation. In the branch of the 4p-5s band with transitions of type (Q)Q(f(3)e) we observed a narrowing in the linewidths with increasing rotational quantum number N. The rotational dependence of the linewidth is caused by predissociation of the 5s state by the repulsive ground 4s state through homogeneous coupling and changes in overlap integrals of the vibrational wave functions with the rotational level. Analysis was based on the Fermi's golden rule approximation model. In the 4p-5s band region a vibrational sequence ofv(')-v(")=1-1, 2-2, and 3-3 were recorded and a number of transitions belonging to the strongest (Q)Q(f(3)e) form branch of the 1-1 band were analyzed.

  2. Photoreaction of 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen with adenosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangchul Shim; Seungju Choi

    1990-01-01

    The near-UV induced photoreaction of 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (TMP) with adenosine was investigated in a dry film state. Four major photoadducts were isolated and purified by reverse-phase liquid chromatography. The structures of the photoproducts were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including UV, FT-IR, mass spectrometry (FAB and EI methods) and 1 H-NMR analysis. These photoproducts were characterized to be TMP-adenosine 1:1 adducts, which resulted from the covalent bond formation between the carbon C(4) of TMP and ribose 1' or 5' carbon of adenosine. Of the photoadducts, one photoadduct (V) was the major product, reflecting some selectivity in the photoreaction of TMP with adenosine in the solid state. (author)

  3. Synthesis of 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from Garcinia nervosa and of its isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'- trimethoxychalcone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.J.; Kapdi, S.G.; Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.P.

    The unambiguous syntheses of the naturally occurring 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 1, a constituent of Garcinia nervosa, and its positional isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 6 are described...

  4. MANIA (276-3/4/5). Nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciolla, C.M.

    1993-11-01

    This report contains the results of the nuclear calculations performed for the MANIA-276 experiment, sample holders 3, 4 and 5. The codes MICROFLUX-2, GAM, HFR-TEDDI and ORIGEN-S have been used for this analysis. Nuclear constants, dpa, reactivity effect and activity of the samples and of the structural materials have been calculated. The results are given in the tables and appendices of the present report. (orig.)

  5. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phase 4 and 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van der Auwera, J.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive refurbishment of the BR-2 materials testing reactor should allow another 10 to 15 years of continued operation. The refurbishment programme is required in order to comply with modern safety standards, to enhance the reliability of operation, and to compensate for the ageing of the installations of a facility that has reached about 35 years of intensive service. The main objectives and achievements of phase 4 and 5 are described

  6. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phases 4 and 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van Der Auwera, J.

    1998-01-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In phase 4 of the refurbishment programme, various activities were performed to allow reactor start-up. In phase 5, remaining refurbishment works were carried out as well as the extra studies and upgradings required by the licensing authorities. Major achievements in 1997 are described and discussed

  7. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phases 4 and 5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P; Dekeyser, J; Van Der Auwera, J

    1998-07-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In phase 4 of the refurbishment programme, various activities were performed to allow reactor start-up. In phase 5, remaining refurbishment works were carried out as well as the extra studies and upgradings required by the licensing authorities. Major achievements in 1997 are described and discussed.

  8. RELAP4/MOD-5-CEA pump coastdown experiment simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, R.C.; Freitas, R.L.

    1988-07-01

    Since is important the theoretical-experimental comparison to evaluate the computer codes, these paper presents the simulation with RELAP4/MOD5 Code of a loss of power energy in the pump of the ''Circuito Experimental de Agua-CEA''. From the results attained, the existing models in the Code showed to be very satisfatory quantitative and qualitative behavior of the attained experimental results. (author) [pt

  9. Wild cervids are host for tick vectors of babesia species with zoonotic capability in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempereur, Laetitia; Wirtgen, Marc; Nahayo, Adrien; Caron, Yannick; Shiels, Brian; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Linden, Annick

    2012-04-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by different species of intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites within the genus Babesia. Different species of Babesia are described as potentially zoonotic and cause a malaria-like disease mainly in immunocompromised humans. Interest in the zoonotic potential of Babesia is growing and babesiosis has been described by some authors as an emergent zoonotic disease. The role of cervids to maintain tick populations and act as a reservoir host for some Babesia spp. with zoonotic capability is suspected. To investigate the range and infection rate of Babesia species, ticks were collected from wild cervids in southern Belgium during 2008. DNA extraction was performed for individual ticks, and each sample was evaluated for the absence of PCR inhibition using a PCR test. A Babesia spp. genus-specific PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene was applied to validated tick DNA extracts. A total of 1044 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected and 1023 validated samples were subsequently screened for the presence of Babesia spp. DNA. Twenty-eight tick samples were found to be positive and identified after sequencing as containing DNA representing: Babesia divergens (3), B. divergens-like (5), Babesia sp. EU1 (11), Babesia sp. EU1-like (3), B. capreoli (2), or unknown Babesia sp. (4). This study confirms the presence of potentially zoonotic species and Babesia capreoli in Belgium, with a tick infection rate of 2.7% (95% CI 1.8,3.9%). Knowledge of the most common reservoir source for transmission of zoonotic Babesia spp. will be useful for models assessing the risk potential of this infection to humans.

  10. Crystal structure of trans-di-chloridobis-[N-(5,5-di-methyl-4,5-di-hydro-3H-pyrrol-2-yl-κN)acetamide]palladium(II) dihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasri, Jamal; Eltayeb, Naser Eltaher; Haukka, Matti; Babgi, Bandar A

    2017-04-01

    The title complex, [PdCl 2 (C 8 H 14 N 2 O) 2 ]·2H 2 O, was obtained by N-O bond cleavage of the oxa-diazo-line rings of the trans -[di-chlorido-bis-(2,5,5-trimethyl-5,6,7,7a-tetra-hydro-pyrrolo-[1,2- b ][1,2,4]oxa-diazole- N 1 )]palladium(II) complex. The palladium(II) atom exhibits an almost square-planar coordination provided by two trans -arranged chloride anions and a nitro-gen atom from each of the two neutral organic ligands. In the crystal, N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link complex mol-ecules into double layers parallel to the bc plane.

  11. Thermodynamic properties and crystal structure refinement of ferricopiapite, coquimbite, rhomboclase, and Fe2(SO4)3(H2O)5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzlan, J.; Navrotsky, A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Alpers, Charles N.

    2006-01-01

    Enthalpies of formation of ferricopiapite [nominally Fe4.67(SO4)6(OH)2 (H2O)20]. coquimbite [Fe2(SO4)3(H2O)9], rhomboclase [(H3O)Fe(SO4)2 (H2O)3], and Fe2(SO4)3(H2O)5 were measured by acid (5 N HCl) solution calorimetry. The samples were characterized by wet chemical analyses and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The refinement of XRD patterns gave lattice parameters, atomic positions, thermal factors, and occupancies of the sites. The calculated formulae differ slightly from the nominal compositions: Fe4.78(SO4)6 (OH)2.34(H2O)20.71 (ferricopiapite), (Fe1.47Al0.53)(SO4)3 (H2O)9.65 (coquimbite), (H3O)1.34Fe(SO4)2.17 (H2O)3.06 (rhomboclase), and Fe2(SO4)3 (H2O)5.03. All thermodynamic data are given per mole of these formulae. The measured standard enthalpies (in kJ/mol) of formation from the elements (crystalline Fe, Al, S, and ideal gases O2 and H2) at T = 298.15 K are -4115.8??4.1 [Fe2(SO4)3 (H2O)5.03], -12045.1??9.2 (ferricopiapite), -5738.4??3.3 (coquimbite), and -3201.1??2.6 (rhomboclase). Standard entropy (S??) was estimated as a sum of entropies of oxide, hydroxide, and sulfate components. The estimated S?? (in J/mol.K) values for the iron sulfates are 488.2 [Fe2(SO4)3 (H2O)5.03], 1449.2 (ferricopiapite), 638.3 (coquimbite), and 380.1 (rhomboclase). The calculated Gibbs free energies of formation (in kJ/mol) are -3499.7??4.2 [Fe2(SO4)3 (H2O)5.03], -10089.8??9.3 (ferricopiapite), -4845.6??3.3 (coquimbite), and -2688.0??2.7 (rhomboclase). These results combined with other available thermodynamic data allow construction of mineral stability diagrams in the FeIII2(SO4)3-FeII SO4-H2O system. One such diagram is provided, indicating that the order of stability of ferric sulfate minerals with decreasing pH in the range of 1.5 to -0.5 is: hydronium jarosite, ferricopiapite, and rhomboclase. ?? 2006 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  12. Comparative study of optical and scintillation properties of YVO4, (Lu0.5Y0.5)VO4, and LuVO4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yokota, Yuui; Chani, Valery; Kochurikhin, Vladimir V.; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Optical and scintillation properties of YVO 4 , (Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 )VO 4 , and LuVO 4 single crystals grown by the Czochralski (CZ) method with RF heating system are compared. All vanadate crystals show high transmittance (∼80%) in the 400-900 nm wavelength range. In both photo- and radio-luminescence spectra, intense peak around 400-500 nm, which was ascribed to the transition from triplet state of VO 4 3- , was clearly observed. The main decay time component was about 38 μs (YVO 4 ), 18 μs ((Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 )VO 4 ), and 17 μs (LuVO 4 ) under 340 nm excitation. The scintillation light yields of YVO 4 , (Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 )VO 4 , and LuVO 4 crystals (obtained from the 137 Cs excited pulse height spectra) were evaluated to be about 11,200, 10,700, and 10,300 ph/MeV, respectively.

  13. [Use of mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Shuntz) in the manufacturing of cereal bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Ugarte, V

    2000-06-01

    Cereal bars with peanut and walnut has shown to be snack foods of good organoleptic characteristics and high caloric value, due to their content of protein, lipids and carbohydrates. Cotyledons of mezquite seeds have a high protein content which biological quality improves with thermal processing like toasting, microwave or moist heat under pressure. The purposes of this research were to study the use of mezquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) in cereal bars with two different levels of peanut or walnut; and to determine the effect of two thermal treatment applied on the cotyledon upon the bar characteristics. Twelve different kind of bars were developed through the combination of two levels of peanut or walnut (15% and 18%); the use of mezquite cotyledon (0% and 6%); and the application of two thermal processing to the cotyledon (microwave and toasting). Cereal bars were analysed for chemical, physical and sensory characteristics: moisture, water activity, proximate chemical composition, sensory quality and acceptability. Moisture content of bars with peanut ranged between 10.4% and 10.9%; and for those with walnut, between 10.5% and 12.3%. Protein content was higher in the bars with mezquite cotiledon, being higher those with peanut. Thermal processing did not have any effect on the chemical composition. Bars with mezquite cotyledon treated by microwave showed a higher acceptability.

  14. Emergency Planning and Preparedness in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, D.; Maris, M.

    1998-01-01

    The present Belgian nuclear emergency planning and preparedness is based on experience cumulated since the early eighties. This paper describes the organisation, actuation process, the emergency planning zones and the applicable intervention guidance levels. The role of AVN as on-site inspector, nuclear emergency adviser and emergency assessor is explained as well as its human and technical resources. Finally the paper presents briefly the experience feedback on emergency exercises and training in Belgium as well as AVN's views on some debatable topics. (author)

  15. Country policy profile - Belgium. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Belgium renewable energy is a regional matter, with exceptions for offshore wind power, hydropower and renewable energy sources used in transport which are governed by national regulations. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted mainly through a quota system based on the trade of certificates. Net metering regulation is in place in the regions Brussels, Flanders and Wallonia. For renewable heating and cooling, companies are eligible for a tax deduction on investment costs. The main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system (RES-Legal Europe, 2014)

  16. The green lacewings in Belgium (Neuroptera : Chrysopidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bozsik, Andras; Mignon, Jacques; Gaspar, Charles

    2002-01-01

    There are merely three published sources of information on the green lacewings in Belgium. The first two were written by a Belgian and a Catalan author at the beginning of the 20th century and the third was published in 1980. Interestingly, the most recent study reported the fewest species (11), the most previous contained 12 and the second one showed 17 species, This confused situation and the paucity of data initiated the authors to identify the green lacewing collection of the Gembloux Uni...

  17. Hantavirus disease (nephropathia epidemica) in Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersago, K.; Verhagen, R.; Servais, A.

    2009-01-01

    vole (Myodes glareolus) abundance peaks. In Western Europe, these abundance peaks are often related to high tree seed production, which is supposedly triggered by specific weather conditions. We evaluated the relationship between tree seed production, climate and NE incidence in Belgium and show...... that NE epidemics are indeed preceded by abundant tree seed production. Moreover, a direct link between climate and NE incidence is found. High summer and autumn temperatures, 2 years and 1 year respectively before NE occurrence, relate to high NE incidence. This enables early forecasting of NE outbreaks...

  18. Yb3+:Sr5(VO4)3F: Crystal growth, spectroscopic characterization and laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, Andrea Nora Pino

    1999-01-01

    Crystal growth, spectroscopic characterization and laser development of Yb 3+ :SVAP [Sr 5 (VO 4 ) 3 F] was performed to demonstrate for the first time, operation of tunable laser emission centered at 1120 nm. Initially, SVAP crystals were grown with high dopant concentrations, up to 6.0 mol % of Yb 2 O 3 in the melt, in order to investigate the material for potential laser operation at a new laser wavelength. Additional research was performed to alleviate highly doped SVAP crystals of defects previously observed. Basic spectroscopic characterization including absorption and luminescent properties were measured to better understand the behavior of Yb 3+ ions in SVAP. Based upon these studies, discussion of the 1120 nm laser transition is presented as it arises from a ground state vibrational level. Investigations of the charge compensation process and the optical parameters as a function of dopant concentration are also presented. The laser development of Yb 3+ :SVAP included continuous and pulsed modes of operation of the 1044 nm and 1120 nm transitions. Initial laser action of the 1044 nm transition was achieved using a Yi: Saphire laser pump source in order to compare with previously results. Further development of a diode-pumped Yb 3+ :SVAP laser system demonstrated continuously tunable laser operation from 1103 nm for the first time. The laser investigations also proved that this high gain media does provide continuous wave laser action at 1044 nm and 1120 simultaneously without significant gain depletion. (author)

  19. Butane-1,4-diaminium bis[3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(methoxycarbonylbenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu Pei Liang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C4H14N2+·2C9H3Cl4O4−, the cation lies on an inversion center. In the anion, the mean planes of methoxycarbonyl and carboxylate groups form dihedral angles of 64.9 (3 and 58.5 (3°, respectively, with the benzene ring. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds connect the components into sheets parallel to (100.

  20. Serotonin(4) (5-HT(4)) receptor agonists are putative antidepressants with a rapid onset of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Guillaume; Rymar, Vladimir V; Du, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    parameters considered to be key markers of antidepressant action, but that are observed only after 2-3 week treatments with classical molecules: desensitization of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors, increased tonus on hippocampal postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors, and enhanced phosphorylation of the CREB protein...... intake consecutive to a chronic mild stress. These findings point out 5-HT(4) receptor agonists as a putative class of antidepressants with a rapid onset of action. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep-6...

  1. Regioselective Synthesis of 3-Amino-4-arylisoxazol-5(4H)-ones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong Won; Lee, Ihl Young Choi; Lim, Hee Jong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We have demonstrated a new and efficient method for the synthesis of 3-substituted aminoisoxazoles from readily available thiocarbamoyl esters. Mercury (II) chloride appeared to be a Lewis acid of choice among the metals tested in this cyclodesulfurization reaction. Application of this method for the synthesis of substituted aminopyrazoles is now under investigation in our laboratory. 3-Aminoisoxazol-5(4H)-one is an important building block of many biologically active compounds including antimicrobial and antioxidant, K channel opener, and kinase inhibitors. Besides, it could be transformed to fused heterocyclic compounds such as indoles, imidazopyridines, and isoxazolopyrimidines. Condensation reaction of α-cyanoacetate with hydroxylamine was a well known method to access either 3-aminoisoxazol-5(4H)-one or isomeric 5-aminoisoxazol-3(4H)-one depending upon condition. For instance, reaction under the neutral condition provided 3-aminoisoxazolone isomer via acetamidoxime intermediate, whereas 5-aminoisoxazolone isomer was obtained under the alkaline condition.

  2. Regioselective Synthesis of 3-Amino-4-arylisoxazol-5(4H)-ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Won; Lee, Ihl Young Choi; Lim, Hee Jong

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated a new and efficient method for the synthesis of 3-substituted aminoisoxazoles from readily available thiocarbamoyl esters. Mercury (II) chloride appeared to be a Lewis acid of choice among the metals tested in this cyclodesulfurization reaction. Application of this method for the synthesis of substituted aminopyrazoles is now under investigation in our laboratory. 3-Aminoisoxazol-5(4H)-one is an important building block of many biologically active compounds including antimicrobial and antioxidant, K channel opener, and kinase inhibitors. Besides, it could be transformed to fused heterocyclic compounds such as indoles, imidazopyridines, and isoxazolopyrimidines. Condensation reaction of α-cyanoacetate with hydroxylamine was a well known method to access either 3-aminoisoxazol-5(4H)-one or isomeric 5-aminoisoxazol-3(4H)-one depending upon condition. For instance, reaction under the neutral condition provided 3-aminoisoxazolone isomer via acetamidoxime intermediate, whereas 5-aminoisoxazolone isomer was obtained under the alkaline condition

  3. Oxalates in oca (New Zealand yam) (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A B; Savage, G P; Martin, R J; Vanhanen, L

    1999-12-01

    Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) or New Zealand yam, in common with other members of this genus, contains oxalate, an antinutritive factor. Twelve South American and two New Zealand cultivars of oca were analyzed for total and soluble oxalate contents of the tubers. The range of total oxalate levels was 92-221 mg/100 g of fresh weight. Levels of soluble and total oxalate extracted from the tubers were not significantly different, suggesting that no calcium oxalate is formed in the tubers. The oxalate concentrations obtained in this study for oca suggest that previously reported values are too low and that oca is a moderately high oxalate-containing food. This is the first report of a tuber crop containing moderate to high levels of soluble oxalates in the tubers and no insoluble oxalates.

  4. Anatomia foliar de Maytenus Mol. emend Mol. (Celastraceae, ocorrente no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Leaf anatomy of the Maytenus Mol. emend Mol. (Celastraceae in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Joffily

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda o estudo anatômico de cinco espécies do gênero Maytenus Mol. emend. Mol. (Celastraceae. O gênero é o maior da família, e está representado no Brasil por aproximadamente 80 espécies. Maytenus é um gênero polifilético, necessitando de trabalhos adicionais para nova circunscrição. Maytenus ardisiaefolia Reiss., M. brasiliensis Mart., M. cestrifolia Reiss., M. communis Reiss. e M. obtusifolia Mart. são de difícil identificação, devido à semelhança dos verticilos reprodutivos, e pela variação na forma e no tamanho das folhas. As estruturas anatômicas observadas nas diversas partes da folha mostraram-se muito semelhantes nas espécies estudadas, sendo de valor taxonômico e de provável importância filogenética para o gênero Maytenus. A organização da epiderme e estratos subepidérmicos em M. obtusifolia demonstrou ser caráter diagnóstico importante na comparação com M. ardisiaefolia, e a ocorrência de cristais aciculares nas células epidérmicas de M. communis e de M. ardisiaefolia, que as separam de M. cestrifolia, que não apresenta cristais, apontaram a anatomia como importante ferramenta a ser explorada nos estudos taxonômicos das demais espécies do gênero. A observação e descrição das verrugas suberosas na epiderme da lâmina foliar poderá contribuir para a taxonomia das Celastraceae.This paper describes anatomical approaches to study the Genus Maytenus Mol. Emnd. Mol. (Celastraceae. The genus is the largest in the family Celastraceae, and in Brazil is represented by approximately 80 species. Maytenus is a polyphyletic genus and additional research is required to better understand its taxonomy. Maytenus ardisiaefolia Reiss., M. brasiliensis Mart., M. cestrifolia Reiss., M. communis Reiss. and M. obtusifolia Mart. are difficult to identify because of similarities in their reproductive structures and variations in the size and shape of their leaves. The anatomical structures observed

  5. New antiferromagnetic semiconductor CuCr1.5Sb0.5S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, Ya.A.; Koroleva, L.I.; Mikheev, M.G.; Odintsov, A.G.; Filimonov, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    New halcogenide compound with spinel-antiferromagnetic semiconductor CuCr 1.5 Sb 0.5 S 4 are obtained and studied for the first time. Magnetic properties of this compound, namely, magnetization linear dependence, maximum on PHI(T) curve in the low-temperature area and realization of the Curie-Weis law for paramagnetic susceptibility with negative paramagnetic temperature testiby to the fact that this compound is antiferromagnetic

  6. Concepciones de los profesores acerca del concepto mol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida Matute

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste estudio analiza las concepciones del concepto de mol que tienen los docentes que administran la asignatura de química a nivel de bachillerato del municipio Bruzual-Yaracuy (periodo escolar 2012-2013. La muestra está representada por sesenta docentes que respondieron la encuesta. Los resultados indican que la mayoría de ellos tienen buena información en relación con el átomo y masa atómica de un elemento. En lo que se refiere al mol, como se atribuye su significado a la unidad individual de masa, de porción de sustancia y de número de partículas (número de Avogadro, se detecta que no tienen conocimiento de la definición que le dio la Iupac, lo que induce a pensar su desconocimiento acerca de dicha definición. AbstractThis study analyzes the conceptions of the term “mole” according to Chemistry teachers in Secondary school in the municipality of Yaracuy Bruzual (School year 2012-2013. The sample is represented by sixty teachers who responded to the survey. The results indicate that most of them have good information regarding atom and atomic weight of an element. With regard to the term “mol”, it was determined that they lack of knowledge on the definition given by Iupac, since its meaning is related to the individual unit of mass, portion of substance and number of particles (Avogadro’s number.

  7. (E-5-[3-Cyano-2-(dicyanomethylene-1-oxaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-4-yl]-3-(1-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridin-4-ylidenepent-4-en-1-yl 3,5-bis(benzyloxybenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Kay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C45H40N4O5, the cyclohexane entity on the (3-cyano-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-ylidenepropanedinitrile group, which replaces the usual dimethyl substituents, has not perturbed the delocalization geometry significantly. Weak intermolecular interactions, viz. C—H...N(cyano, C—H...O(ether, C—H...π and π–π [between the aromatic rings with the shortest centroid–centroid distance of 3.603 (3 Å], consolidate the crystal packing, which exhibits voids of 57 Å3.

  8. The path to CAM6: coupled simulations with CAM5.4 and CAM5.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Peter A.; Gettelman, Andrew; Hannay, Cecile; Larson, Vincent E.; Neale, Richard B.; Craig, Cheryl; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2018-01-01

    This paper documents coupled simulations of two developmental versions of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) towards CAM6. The configuration called CAM5.4 introduces new microphysics, aerosol, and ice nucleation changes, among others to CAM. The CAM5.5 configuration represents a more radical departure, as it uses an assumed probability density function (PDF)-based unified cloud parameterization to replace the turbulence, shallow convection, and warm cloud macrophysics in CAM. This assumed PDF method has been widely used in the last decade in atmosphere-only climate simulations but has never been documented in coupled mode. Here, we compare the simulated coupled climates of CAM5.4 and CAM5.5 and compare them to the control coupled simulation produced by CAM5.3. We find that CAM5.5 has lower cloud forcing biases when compared to the control simulations. Improvements are also seen in the simulated amplitude of the Niño-3.4 index, an improved representation of the diurnal cycle of precipitation, subtropical surface wind stresses, and double Intertropical Convergence Zone biases. Degradations are seen in Amazon precipitation as well as slightly colder sea surface temperatures and thinner Arctic sea ice. Simulation of the 20th century results in a credible simulation that ends slightly colder than the control coupled simulation. The authors find this is due to aerosol indirect effects that are slightly stronger in the new version of the model and propose a solution to ameliorate this. Overall, in these early coupled simulations, CAM5.5 produces a credible climate that is appropriate for science applications and is ready for integration into the National Center for Atmospheric Research's (NCAR's) next-generation climate model.

  9. Behaviour of Fe4O5-Mg2Fe2O5 solid solutions and their relation to coexisting Mg-Fe silicates and oxide phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenver-Thiele, Laura; Woodland, Alan B.; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Ballaran, Tiziana Boffa; Frost, Daniel J.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments at high pressures and temperatures were carried out (1) to investigate the crystal-chemical behaviour of Fe4O5-Mg2Fe2O5 solid solutions and (2) to explore the phase relations involving (Mg,Fe)2Fe2O5 (denoted as O5-phase) and Mg-Fe silicates. Multi-anvil experiments were performed at 11-20 GPa and 1100-1600 °C using different starting compositions including two that were Si-bearing. In Si-free experiments the O5-phase coexists with Fe2O3, hp-(Mg,Fe)Fe2O4, (Mg,Fe)3Fe4O9 or an unquenchable phase of different stoichiometry. Si-bearing experiments yielded phase assemblages consisting of the O5-phase together with olivine, wadsleyite or ringwoodite, majoritic garnet or Fe3+-bearing phase B. However, (Mg,Fe)2Fe2O5 does not incorporate Si. Electron microprobe analyses revealed that phase B incorporates significant amounts of Fe2+ and Fe3+ (at least 1.0 cations Fe per formula unit). Fe-L2,3-edge energy-loss near-edge structure spectra confirm the presence of ferric iron [Fe3+/Fetot = 0.41(4)] and indicate substitution according to the following charge-balanced exchange: [4]Si4+ + [6]Mg2+ = 2Fe3+. The ability to accommodate Fe2+ and Fe3+ makes this potential "water-storing" mineral interesting since such substitutions should enlarge its stability field. The thermodynamic properties of Mg2Fe2O5 have been refined, yielding H°1bar,298 = - 1981.5 kJ mol- 1. Solid solution is complete across the Fe4O5-Mg2Fe2O5 binary. Molar volume decreases essentially linearly with increasing Mg content, consistent with ideal mixing behaviour. The partitioning of Mg and Fe2+ with silicates indicates that (Mg,Fe)2Fe2O5 has a strong preference for Fe2+. Modelling of partitioning with olivine is consistent with the O5-phase exhibiting ideal mixing behaviour. Mg-Fe2+ partitioning between (Mg,Fe)2Fe2O5 and ringwoodite or wadsleyite is influenced by the presence of Fe3+ and OH incorporation in the silicate phases.

  10. Consortia for Electronic Library Provision in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Van Borm

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available E-libraries just like the former paper-based libraries will become increasingly essential and indispensable tools in research and education. Library consortia seem to be the way to get e-libraries started all over the world. However, it is unclear yet whether this is going to be a longlasting workable model. The Belgian research libraries follow the international pattern and are rapidly becoming hybrid libraries especially in business, science, applied sciences and biomedicine (the STM disciplines. Still they have large paper bound collections on board and no library is willing to replace these in the near future by a purely electronic collection of journals. The fear of losing the content and thus the „raison d’être“ of the library and the concern for users not yet familiar with e-information sources are the cornerstone for a prudent, yet conservative policy. Increasingly e-information and e-journals are being taken on board. Paper and electronic go side by side in new hybrid libraries partly also due to the market policy set by the publishers in combining paper and electronic in an attempt to keep or improve the annual turnover reached during the past paper period. The transition from paper to electronic occurred in Belgium somewhat later than in other Western European countries. This confirms the position of Belgium often taking up an average position in Western Europe.

  11. Barium aluminides BaxAl5(x=3,3.5,4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehle, Michael; Scherer, Harald; Wendorff, Marco; Roehr, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Three aluminides of the series Ba x Al 5 (x=3,3.5,4) were synthesized from stoichiometric ratios of the elements in Ta crucibles. The crystal structure of the new compound Ba 7 Al 10 was determined using single crystal X-ray data (space group R3-barm, a=604.23(9), c=4879.0(12)pm, Z=3, R1=0.0325). The compound exhibits Al Kagome (3.6.3.6.) nets in which half of the triangles form the basis of trigonal bipyramids Al 5 . The apical Al are thus three-bonded assuming a charge of -2 ( 27 Al-NMR chemical shift δ=660pm), whereas the Al atoms of the basal triangle (i.e. of the Kagome net) are four-bonded and thus of formal charge -1(δ=490ppm). The total charge of the anion is thus exactly compensated by the Ba cations, i.e. the compound can be interpreted as an electron precise Zintl phase, exhibiting a distinct pseudo-band gap at the Fermi level of the calculated tDOS. According to the total formula, the structure displays a combination the stacking sequences of Ba 3 Al 5 and Ba 4 Al 5 , the structures of which have been redetermined with current methods (both hexagonal with space group P6 3 /mmc; Ba 3 Al 5 : a=606.55(7), c=1461.8(2)pm, Z=2, R1=0.0239; Ba 4 Al 5 : a=609.21(7), c=1775.8(3)pm, Z=2, R1=0.0300). These three compounds with slightly different electron counts but similar polyanions allow to compare the bond lengths, the electronic structures and the overall bonding situation in dependence of positive or negative deviation of the electron count in relation to the novel formally electron precise Zintl compound Ba 7 Al 10 . - Al 5 layers of Kagome nets in the new binary electron precise Zintl compound Ba 3.5 Al 5 , also found in Ba 3 Al 5 and Ba 4 Al 5 .

  12. On the inhibition of mild steel corrosion by 4-amino-5-phenyl-4H-1, 2, 4-trizole-3-thiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, Ahmed Y.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Takriff, Mohd Sobri; Daud, Abdul Razak; Kamarudin, Siti Kartom

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in a 2.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution by 4-amino-5-phenyl-4H-1, 2, 4-trizole-3-thiol (APTT) was studied at different temperatures, utilising open circuit potential, potentiodynamic and impedance measurements. The results indicate that APTT performed as an excellent mixed-type inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in a 2.5 M H 2 SO 4 solution and that the inhibition efficiencies increased with the inhibitor concentration but decreased proportionally with temperature. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for adsorption of APTT on the mild steel surface were calculated. A chemisorption mechanism of APTT molecules on the mild steel surface was proposed based on the thermodynamic adsorption parameters.

  13. Ground movement analysis in the north of Belgium by radar interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Declercq, Pierre-Yves; Devleeschouwer, Xavier; Brassinnes, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the frame of the long-term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) presently investigates the plastic clays (i.e., Boom Clay and the Ypresian clays) occurring in the northern part of Belgium as a potential host-rock for geological disposal. Boom Clay is a Rupelian (i.e., 34-28 Ma) silici-clastic sediment deposited in an open marine environment at the southern border of the epi-continental North Sea Basin. The Ypresian clays refer to the nearly continuous sequence of the clay-rich sediments deposited early in the Ypresian stage (i.e., 56-48 Ma) in a similar basin configuration. The investigated area (6400 km 2 extents E-W from the Roer valley graben in The Netherlands to Antwerpen and N-S from Tilburg to Diest) is characterized by a succession of sub-horizontal (1-2 deg. dip towards N to NE) layers of Cenozoic clays and sands; this thick sedimentary cover overlies an old Palaeozoic basement and is covered by some Quaternary sediments. Moreover, the northern end of the region of interest (ROI) is characterized by the famous Roer Valley Graben. At Mol, a reference site for the research, development and demonstration of the safety and the feasibility of geological disposal, the Boom Clay is present at a depth of approximately 190 to 290 meters below a thick Neogene sandy sequence. At Doel, another reference site for the RD and D, Boom Clay is present at shallow depth (from 56 m to 113 m) whereas Ypresian clays occur at depth relevant for geological disposal (i.e., 340-440 m). Both clay units are separated by a mid to latest Eocene intercalation of sands, clayey sands and clay layers. Boom clay at the Doel site is overlain by Neogene deposits and by the alluvium of the Quaternary Flemish Valley. The aim of the study is to determine, quantify and cartography ground movements, if any, in the region of

  14. SUSY S4×SU(5) revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagedorn, Claudia; King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Following the recent results from Daya Bay and RENO, which measure the lepton mixing angle θ 13 l ≈0.15, we revisit a supersymmetric (SUSY) S 4 ×SU(5) model, which predicts tri-bimaximal (TB) mixing in the neutrino sector with θ 13 l being too small in its original version. We show that introducing one additional S 4 singlet flavon into the model gives rise to a sizable θ 13 l via an operator which leads to the breaking of one of the two Z 2 symmetries preserved in the neutrino sector at leading order (LO). The results of the original model for fermion masses, quark mixing and the solar mixing angle are maintained to good precision. The atmospheric and solar mixing angle deviations from TB mixing are subject to simple sum rule bounds.

  15. N,N′-Dicyclohexylnaphthalene-1,8;4:5-dicarboximide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Rajeswaran

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H26N2O4, synthesized by the reaction of naphthalene-1,4,5,8-tetracarboxylic acid anhydride and cyclohexylamine, exhibits good n-type semiconducting properties. Accordingly, thin-film transistor devices comprising this compound show n-type behavior with high field-effect electron moblity ca 6 cm2/Vs [Shukla, Nelson, Freeman, Rajeswaran, Ahearn, Meyer & Carey(2008. Chem. Mater. Submitted]. The asymmetric unit comprises one-quarter of the centrosymmetric molecule in which all but two methylene C atoms of the cyclohexane ring lie on a mirror plane; the point-group symmetry is 2/m. The naphthalenediimide unit is strictly planar, and the cyclohexane rings adopt chair conformations with the diimide unit in an equatorial position on each ring.

  16. Evaluation of Yonggwang unit 4 cycle 5 using SPNOVA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Cha, K. H.; Lee, E. K.; Park, M. K.

    2004-01-01

    Core follow calculation of Yonggwang (YGN) unit 4 cycle 5 is performed to evaluate SPNOVA code if it can be applicable or not to Korean standard nuclear power plant (KSNP). SPNOVA code consists of BEPREPN and ANC code to represent incore detector and neutronics model, respectively. SPNOVA core deflection model is compared and verified with ANC depletion results in terms of critical boron concentration (CBC), peaking factor (Fq) and radial power distribution. In YGN4, SPNOVA predicts 30 ppm lower than that of ROCS predicting CBC. Fq and radial power distribution behavior of SPNOVA calculation have conservatively higher than those of ROCS predicting values. And also SPNOVA predicting results are compared with measurement data from snapshot and CECOR core calculation. It is reasonable to accept SPNOVA to analyze KSNP. The model of SPNOVA for KSNP will be used to develop the brand-new incore detector of platinum and vanadium

  17. Purple vests. The origins of plural policing in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.

    2015-01-01

    This article increases the body of knowledge on the origins of plural policing in a continental setting, more specifically in Belgium. Compared to other European countries, Belgium occupies a unique position, which can be explained by its particular constitutional setting. While non-police public

  18. Refurbishment of BR2 (Phases 4 and 5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P.; Dekeyser, J.; Van Der Auwera, J

    1998-07-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In phase 4 of the refurbishment programme, various activities were performed to allow reactor start-up. In phase 5, remaining refurbishment works were carried out as well as the extra studies and upgradings required by the licensing authorities. Major achievements in 1997 are described and discussed.

  19. Electromagnetics and Antenna Technology, Chapters 4 and 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-07

    wavelength cylindrical monopole over an infinite perfectly conducting ground plane is 5.1 dBi compared to the peak gain of a one-half wavelength dipole...in free space which is 2.1 dBi. Referring to Figure 4.3, for an infinite perfectly conducting ground plane the monopole peak gain occurs at θ = 90...When an infinite ground plane has a finite conductivity such as the earth’s surface, the monopole radiated field is attenuated to a null in the far

  20. 2-Hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehyde 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H9N5O7, one of the nitro groups is twisted away from the attached benzene ring by 16.21 (8°. The dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 4.63 (1°. The molecular structure is stabilized by intramolecular N—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds which generate an S(6 ring motif. The molecules pack as layers parallel to the ab plane; molecules of adjacent layers are linked into chains along the [101] direction through N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  1. OpenMP 4.5 Validation and Verification Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-15

    OpenMP, a directive-based programming API, introduce directives for accelerator devices that programmers are starting to use more frequently in production codes. To make sure OpenMP directives work correctly across architectures, it is critical to have a mechanism that tests for an implementation's conformance to the OpenMP standard. This testing process can uncover ambiguities in the OpenMP specification, which helps compiler developers and users make a better use of the standard. We fill this gap through our validation and verification test suite that focuses on the offload directives available in OpenMP 4.5.

  2. CASMO5 JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1beta4 libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, J.; Gheorghiu, N.; Ferrer, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the generation of neutron data libraries for the CASMO5 lattice physics code based on the recently released JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1beta4 nuclear data evaluations. This data represents state-of-the-art nuclear data for late-2011. The key features of the new evaluations are briefly described along with the procedure for processing of this data into CASMO5, 586-energy group neutron data libraries. Finally some CASMO5 results for standard UO 2 and MOX critical experiments for the two new libraries and the current ENDF/B-VII.0 CASMO5 library are presented including the B and W 1810 series, DIMPLE S06A, S06B, TCA reflector criticals with iron plates and the PNL-30-35 MOX criticals. The results show that CASMO5 with the new libraries is performing well for these criticals with a very slight edge in results to the JENDL-4.0 nuclear data evaluation over the ENDF/B-VII.1beta4 evaluation. Work is currently underway to generate a CASMO5 library based on the final ENDF/B-VII.R1 evaluation released Dec. 22, 2011. (authors)

  3. Regulatory aspects of underground radioactive waste disposal in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    In Belgium, the underground disposal of radioactive waste is subject to two sets of regulations. The licensing system for the construction and operation of a mine includes, notably, consultation with the local authorities involved. Nuclear installations are governed by a Regulation of 28 February 1963 and, in particular, waste management facilities require a licence from either the provincial authorities or the Crown, as appropriate. Applications must be accompanied by detailed plans, and a licence will be granted only if all safety and other regulations have been complied with. Inspections are provided for to ensure continued compliance. Under a law of 5 August 1978, the Government is enabled to take a preponderant part in the management of radioactive waste and to undertake, alone, its storage. (NEA) [fr

  4. Drie nuwe verklaringsopsies in die Jakobusbrief (Jak 2:1, 4: 5; 5: 6)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van die bogenoemde drie verse in Jakobus het daar in die onlangse navorsing wel ..... schengeist — das ist der Sinn des Zitats' (1921: 268, 1976: 224). Calvyn ... liefde van God (vgl Eks 20: 5, 34: 14; Deut 4: 24; Jos 24: 19; Jes 26: 11) word in die ... word, waarop nie 'n direkte Skrifaanhaling hoef te volg nie. Davids.

  5. Dual band monopole antenna for WLAN 2.4/5.2/5.8 with truncated ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandan, Bharti, Gagandeep; Srivastava, Toolika; Rai, B. S.

    2018-04-01

    A dual-band mono-pole antenna is proposed for Wireless LAN applications. The WLAN band is obtained by cutting a rectangular ring and a circular slot in the radiating patch. The overall dimension of antenna is 17×16.5×0.8 mmł. The frequency bands obtained are 2.38-2.9 GHz and 4.7-6.1 GHz with ≤ - 10 dB return loss which covers WLAN 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz bands. The behavior of the antenna is analyzed in terms of radiation pattern, peak realized gain, radiation efficiency and surface current density. It has dipole like radiation pattern with gain of 2.33 - 4.31 dBi for lower frequency band and 4.29 - 5.16 dBi for upper frequency band with radiation efficiency of 95-98% and 93-96% respectively. The parametric analysis is carried out to understand the consequence of the various shape parameters and to get an optimum design. The simulation and measurement gave the results having close agreement.

  6. Time trend of clinical cases of Lyme disease in two hospitals in Belgium, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keukeleire, Mathilde; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Kabamba, Benoît; Belkhir, Leila; Pierre, Philippe; Luyasu, Victor; Robert, Annie

    2017-12-05

    As several studies indicated an increase in Lyme disease (LD), notably in neighbouring countries, concerns have arisen regarding the evolution of Lyme disease in Belgium. In order to confirm or infirm the increase of LD in Belgium, we focused on hospital admissions of patients diagnosed with LD between 2000 and 2013 based on hospital admission databases from two hospitals in Belgium. Hospital databases are a stable recording system. We did a retrospective analysis of the medical files of patients hospitalized with Lyme disease in two Belgian hospitals between 2000 and 2013. The annual number of cases of LD for the two studied Belgian hospitals remained stable between 2000 and 2013, ranging from 1 for the Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc to 15 for the the Clinique Saint-Pierre. No increasing trend were noted in the estimated annual incidence rate but the average estimated annual incidence rate was higher for the hospital Saint-Pierre (8.1 ± 3.7 per 100,000 inhabitants) than Saint-Luc (2.2 ± 1.5 per 100,000 inhabitants). The number of hospital cases of LD peaked between June and November. Based on hospital admissions with LD, no increasing trend was observed for the period 2000-2013 in the two studied Belgian hospitals. This is in line with other studies carried out in Belgium.

  7. {1-[(3,5-Dimethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylimino]ethyl}ferrocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Ping Song

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Fe(C5H5(C11H13N4], the triazolyl and Cp ring form a dihedral angle of 76.6 (3°. In the crystal structure, there are both intra- and intermolecular C—H...π interactions, forming a one-dimensional chain structure along [010].

  8. Consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities outside the NDS service area: Austria, Belgium, Greece, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    A consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the following countries and institutes is presented: Austria: Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Hochschulen, Vienna; Institut fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik; Oesterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie, Seibersdorf; Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Kernenergie, Graz; Belgium: University of Ghent, Ghent; University of Louvain, Louvain; Nuclear Energy Center, Mol; Greece: N.R.C. ''Demokritos'', Athens; Spain: Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid; Universidad Complutense, Madrid; Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid; Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia; Universidad de Valladolid; Universidad de Zaragoza; Switzerland: University of Neuchatel, Neuchatel; University of Fribourg, Fribourg; University of Zuerich, Zuerich; Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zuerich; Institute for Reactor Research, Wuerenlingen; Turkey: Cekmece Nuclear Research Center, Istanbul

  9. Electric conductivity of PCl{sub 5}-ZrCl{sub 4}, PCl{sub 5}-TaCl{sub 5}, and PCl{sub 5}-MoCl{sub 5} molten mixtures; Ehlektroprovodnost` rasplavlennykh sistem PCl{sub 5}-ZrCl{sub 4}, PCl{sub 5}-TaCl{sub 5}, i PCl{sub 5}-MoCl{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, A B; Red` kin, A A; Moskalenko, N I [Inst. Vysokotemperaturnoj Ehlektrokhimii UrO RAN, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-05-01

    When mixing individual molecular melts of PCl{sub 5} with ZrCl{sub 4}, TaCl{sub 5} or with MoCl{sub 5}, an essential (by several orders) increase in electric conductivity (up to 0.02-0.1 Ohm{sup -1}{center_dot}cm{sup -1}), which stems, in all probability, from the appearance of complex ions PCl{sub 4}{sup +}, ZrCl{sub 5}{sup -}, ZrCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}, TaCl{sub 5}{sup -} and MoCl{sub 6}{sup -} in the molten mixtures as a result of chemical interaction. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Synthesis of Schiff and Mannich Bases of Isatin Derivatives with 4-Amino-4,5-Dihydro-1H-1,2,4-Triazole-5-Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Bektas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl imidate hydrochlorides 1 were prepared by passing HCl gas through solutions of substituted benzyl cyanides and absolute ethanol. Ethoxycarbonylhydrazones 2 were synthesized from the reaction of compounds 1 with ethyl carbazate. Treatment of 2 with hydrazine hydrate leads to the formation of substituted 4-amino-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ones 3. Isatin and 5-chloroisatin were added to 3 to form Schiff bases 4 and N-Mannich bases 5 of these compounds were synthesized by reacting with formaldehyde and piperidine. Their chemical structures were confirmed by means of IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR data and by elemental analysis.

  11. Synthesis of carbon-14 labelled (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-2(5H)-furanone:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, T.; Johansen, S.K.; Martiny, L.

    2004-01-01

    The potent quorum sensing inhibitor (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-2(5H)-[2-C-14]furanone has been prepared in five steps in 7.7% overall yield starting from bromo[1-C-14]acetic acid. Condensation of ethyl bromo[1-C-14]acetate with ethyl acetoacetate followed by decarboxylation was accelerated...... by microwave heating to afford [1-C-14]levulinic acid. Subsequently, bromination and oxidation gave the targeted furan-2-one with a radiochemical purity of > 97% and a specific activity of 57 mCi/mmol....

  12. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF NOVEL 1-(MORPHOLINE-4-YL-METHYL-3-ALKYL(ARYL-4-[4-(DIMETHYLAMINO-BENZYLIDENAMINO]-4,5-DIHYDRO-1H-1,2,4-TRIAZOL-5-ONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Gürsoy Kol

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, eight novel 1-(morpholine-4-yl-methyl-3-alkyl(aryl-4-[4-(dimethylamino-benzylidenamino]-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ones (2 were obtained by the reactions of 3-alkyl(aryl-4-[4-(dimethylamino-benzylidenamino]-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ones (1 with formaldehyde and morpholine. The novel synthesized compounds were identified by IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral data. Besides, the newly synthesized compounds were analysed for their in vitro potential antioxidant capacities in three different assays. All of the compounds demonstrated significant activity for metal chelating effect.

  13. 4-[4-(4-Fluorophenyl-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide–4-[3-(4-fluorophenyl-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydroisoxazol-4-yl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide (0.6/0.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Margutti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C16H16FN2O2+·I−, was determined as part of a study of the biological activity of isoxazolone derivatives as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors. The X-ray crystal structure of 4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide showed the presence of the regioisomer 4-[3-(4-fluorophenyl-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydroisoxazol-4-yl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide. The synthesis of the former compound was achieved by reacting 4-(4-fluorophenyl-3-(4-pyridylisoxazol-5(2H-one after treatment with Et3N in dimethylformamide, with iodomethane. The unexpected formation of the regioisomer could be explained by a rearrangement occurring via aziridine of the isoxazolone compound. The regioisomers have site occupancies of 0.632 (4/0.368 (4. The two six members rings make a dihedral angle of 66.8 (2°.

  14. Three-spin Strings on AdS_5 x S^5 from N=4 SYM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansen, C.

    2004-01-01

    Using the integrable spin chain picture we study the one-loop anomalous dimension of certain single trace scalar operators of N=4 SYM expected to correspond to semi-classical string states on AdS_5 x S^5 with three large angular momenta (J_1,J_2,J_3) on S^5. In particular, we investigate the anal......Using the integrable spin chain picture we study the one-loop anomalous dimension of certain single trace scalar operators of N=4 SYM expected to correspond to semi-classical string states on AdS_5 x S^5 with three large angular momenta (J_1,J_2,J_3) on S^5. In particular, we investigate...... the analyticity structure encoded in the Bethe equations for various distributions of Bethe roots. In a certain region of the parameter space our operators reduce to the gauge theory duals of the folded string with two large angular momenta and in another region to the duals of the circular string with angular...... momentum assignment (J,J',J'), J>J'. In between we locate a critical line. We propose that the operators above the critical line are the gauge theory duals of the circular elliptic string with three different spins and support this by a perturbative calculation....

  15. Training effects in Gd5Ge4: role of microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manekar, Meghmalhar; Chattopadhyay, M K; Kaul, R; Pecharsky, V K; Jr, K A Gschneidner

    2006-01-01

    Detailed optical metallographic studies at room temperature on polycrystalline Gd 5 Ge 4 are presented for two cases: (a) a sample in the as-cast condition and (b) the same sample subjected to a known number of temperature and magnetic field cycles. A herringbone- (criss-cross-) like pattern whose characteristic feature size extends to ∼20 μm is observed in the as-cast sample. The herringbone pattern at room temperature is interpreted as arising due to a long-lived (kinetically arrested) metastable phase. This herringbone pattern can be trained to form a pattern having a different morphology by cycling the sample through the low-temperature field induced magneto-structural transition. Training effects are also observed in magneto-transport and magnetization measurements as the sample is subjected to temperature and field cycles. Based on heuristic arguments, a model is proposed which self-consistently explains anomalies in transport and magnetization properties in terms of changes occurring in the microstructure of the sample. These results highlight the need for analysing the interesting properties of Gd 5 Ge 4 and its family of alloys with microstructure as an important component

  16. Dissociation of 5' proximal helical regions in messenger RNAs by eukaryotic initiation factors 4F, 4A, and 4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thach, R.E.; Lawson, T.G.; Lee, K.A.; Abramson, R.D.; Merrick, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Ray, et al. demonstrated that the susceptibility of mRNAs to cleavage by ribonucleases is greatly increased by eIF-4A and eIF-4F in an ATP-dependent reaction, and that this reaction is enhanced by the presence of eIF-4B. They now report direct evidence for the dissociation of helical regions at the 5' ends of mRNAs by these factors. Helices were generated at the 5' ends of reovirus and rabbit globin mRNAs by hybridizing to them 32 P-labeled cDNA pentadecamers. The dissociation of the cDNAs from the mRNAs was monitored by Sephadex gel filtration. Addition of eIF-4F to hybrids caused the dissociation of small amounts of cDNAs, and this dissociation required ATP. Addition of eIF-4B stimulated this activity. Neither eIF-4B nor eIF-4A alone caused significant ATP-dependent dissociation, but they did so in combination. Interestingly, cDNAs that were hybridized to 5' distal regions were dissociated with efficiencies and rates similar to those of 5' proximal cDNAs. The presence of unlabelled cDNAs hybridized 5' proximally did not affect distal cDNA dissociation. These results confirm the earlier suggestion that eIF-4A, eIF-4B and eIF-4F play important roles in the disruption of mRNA secondary structure during initiation

  17. A Silsesquioxane Organically Modified with 4-Amino-5-(4-pyridyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol: Thermal Behavior and Its Electrochemical Detection of Sulfhydryl Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The octakis(3-chloropropylsilsesquioxane (SS was organofunctionalized with 4-amino-5-4(pyridyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol. The product formed (SA was undergo another reactions in two steps, first with copper and so hexacyanoferrate (III to form CuHSA. The organofunctionalized silsesquioxane was characterized by the following techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR in solid state, and thermogravimetric analysis in air and nitrogen atmosphere. The composite CuHSA was incorporated into a graphite paste electrode and the electrochemical behavior studies were conducted with cyclic voltammetry. The cyclic voltammogram of the modified graphite paste electrode with CuHSA showed one redox couple with formal potential Eθ′=0.75 V versus Ag/AgCl(sat (KCl 1.0 mol L−1; v = 20 mV s−1 attributed to the redox process Fe(II(CN6/Fe(III(CN6 of the binuclear complex formed. The redox couple presents an electrocatalytic response of sulfhydryl compounds such as n-acetylcysteine and l-cysteine. For determination of n-acetylcysteine and l-cysteine the modified graphite paste electrode showed a linear region in the concentration range of 2 to 20 mmol L−1. The modified electrode was chemically and electrochemically stable and showed good reproducibility.

  18. Radiosynthesis of 7-chloro-N, N-dimethyl-5-[11C] methyl-4-oxo-3-phenyl-3, 5-dihydro-4H pyridazino [4, 5-b]indole-1-acetamide, [11C]SSR180575, a novel radioligand for imaging the TSPO (peripheral benzodiazepine receptor) with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thominiaux, C.; Damont, A.L.; Kuhnast, B.; Demphel, St.; Le Helleix, St.; Chauveau, F.; Boutin, H.; Van Camp, N.; Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B.; Dolle, F.; Boisnard, S.; Rivron, L.; Roy, S.; Allen, J.; Chauveau, F.; Boutin, H.; Van Camp, N.; Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B.; Rooney, T.; Benavides, J.; Hantraye, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    SSR180575 (7-chloro-N, N, 5-trimethyl-4-oxo-3-phenyl-3, 5-dihydro-4H-pyridazino [4, 5-b]indole-1-acetamide) is the lead compound of an original pyridazino-indole series of potent and highly selective TSPO (peripheral benzodiazepine receptor) ligands. Isotopic labeling of SSR180575 with the short-lived positron-emitter carbon-11 (T1/2: 20.38 min) at its 5-methyl-pyridazino[4, 5-b]indole moiety as well as at its N, N-dimethylacetamide function by methylation of the corresponding nor-analogues was investigated. Best results in terms of radiochemical yields and purities were obtained for the preparation of [indole-N-methyl- 11 C]SSR180575, where routine production batches of 4.5-5.0 GBq of radiochemically pure (499%) i.v. injectable solutions (specific radioactivities: 50-90 GBq/μmol) could be prepared within a total synthesis time of 25 min (HPLC purification included) starting from a 55 GBq [ 11 C]CO 2 cyclotron production batch (non decay-corrected overall radiochemical yields: 8-9%). The process comprises (1) trapping at -10 C of [ 11 C]methyl triflate in DMF (300 μl) containing 0.2-0.3 mg of the indole precursor for labeling and 4 mg of K 2 CO 3 (excess); (2) heating at 120 C for 3 min; (3) dilution of the residue with 0.5 ml of the HPLC mobile phase and (4) purification using semi-preparative reversed phase HPLC (Zorbax R SB-C-18). In vivo pharmacological properties of [indole-N-methyl- 11 C]SSR180575 as a candidate for imaging neuro-inflammation with positron emission tomography are currently evaluated. (authors)

  19. Methyl 3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybiphenyl-4-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Nummelin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H18O5, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 31.23 (16°. In the crystal, the molecules are packed in an antiparallel fashion in layers along the a axis. In each layer, very weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds occur between the methoxy and methyl ester groups. Weak C—H...π interactions between the 4′- and 5′-methoxy groups and neighbouring benzene rings [methoxy-C–ring centroid distances = 4.075 and 3.486 Å, respectively] connect the layers.

  20. Ferrites Ni{sub 0,5}Zn{sub 0,5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} doped with samarium: structural analysis, morphological and electromagnetic; Ferritas Ni{sub 0,5}Zn{sub 0,5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} dopada com samario: analise estrutural, morfologica e eletromagnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.C.F.M.; Diniz, A.P., E-mail: anacristina@dema.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academinca de Engenharia de Materiais; Viana, K.M.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, PE (Brazil). Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Cornejo, D.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Kiminami, R.H.G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the sintering at 1200 deg C/2h of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2-x}Sm{sub x}O{sub 4} ferrite doped with 0.05; 0.075 e 0.1 mol of Sm synthesized by combustion reaction to evaluate the performance materials as absorbers of electromagnetic radiation. The influence of the concentration of samarium on the structure, morphology and electromagnetic properties of ferrites was studied. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetic measurements and reflectivity measurements in the frequency range between 8-12 GHz. The results showed that increasing the concentration of samarium caused a decrease in particle size of the samples, encouraging, therefore, to obtain materials with better values of magnetization and reflectivity, allowing for use as absorbers in narrow-band frequency between 9-10 GHz. (author)

  1. Nuclear engineering in Belgium and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaube, M.

    1992-01-01

    The new facilities for the treatment and storage of radioactive waste in Mol/Dessel are described. In 1985 - 1990 the Doel-1 and Doel-2 nuclear power stations were fitted with new safety systems. These are presented briefly as is Belgian work for Poland (assessment of the Zarnowiec Project) and Taiwan (data bank system for radioactive waste). 2 figs

  2. ExoMol molecular line lists - XXIII. Spectra of PO and PS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapat, Laxmi; Jagoda, Pawel; Lodi, Lorenzo; Gorman, Maire N.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Comprehensive line lists for phosphorus monoxide (31P16O) and phosphorus monosulphide (31P32S) in their X 2Π electronic ground state are presented. The line lists are based on new ab initio potential energy (PEC), spin-orbit (SOC) and dipole moment (DMC) curves computed using the MRCI+Q-r method with aug-cc-pwCV5Z and aug-cc-pV5Z basis sets. The nuclear motion equations (i.e. the rovibronic Schrödinger equations for each molecule) are solved using the program DUO. The PECs and SOCs are refined in least-squares fits to available experimental data. Partition functions, Q(T), are computed up to T = 5000 K, the range of validity of the line lists. These line lists are the most comprehensive available for either molecule. The characteristically sharp peak of the Q-branches from the spin-orbit split components gives useful diagnostics for both PO and PS in spectra at infrared wavelengths. These line lists should prove useful for analysing observations and setting up models of environments such as brown dwarfs, low-mass stars, O-rich circumstellar regions and potentially for exoplanetary retrievals. Since PS is yet to be detected in space, the role of the two lowest excited electronic states (a 4Π and B 2Π) are also considered. An approximate line list for the PS X-B electronic transition, which predicts a number of sharp vibrational bands in the near ultraviolet, is also presented. The line lists are available from the CDS (http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr) and ExoMol (www.exomol.com) data bases.

  3. Radiochemical synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-[4-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzyl)piperazin-1-ylmethyl]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine as dopamine D{sub 4} receptor radioligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gu-Cai; Zhang, Ru; Jiang, Kai-Jun; Chen, Bo [Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan (China). College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2014-09-01

    A potential dopamine D{sub 4} receptor radioligand, 3-[4-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzyl)piperazin-1-ylmethyl]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine was synthesized through a one-pot two-step procedure with total yield 18.5% (decay corrected). The molar radioactivity was 115 GBq/μmol and the radiochemical purity was greater than 95.5%. Its affinity and selectivity for dopamine D{sub 2}-like receptors were measured through in vitro receptor binding experiments and the K{sub i} for D{sub 4} receptor was determined to be 17 ± 0.5 nM. The partition coefficient (Log P) of it was determined to be 2.80 ± 0.10 through octanol experiment. The in vivo biodistribution of it in rat brain exposed that the radioligand penetrates through blood-brain- barrier (BBB) and may specifically bind to dopamine D{sub 4} receptor. The results indicated that the radioligand shows promise for the in vivo study of dopamine D{sub 4} receptor. (orig.)

  4. Structural and theoretical investigations of 3,4,5-triamino-1,2,4-triazolium salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Gregory W. [Propulsion Research Laboratory XD22, Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35812 (United States); Hawkins, Tommy W.; Hall, Leslie A.; Boatz, Jerry A.; Brand, Adam J. [AFRL/PRSP Space and Missile Propulsion Division, 10 East Saturn Boulevard, Edwards AFB, CA 93524 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Reactions using the high nitrogen heterocycle 3,4,5-triamino-1,2,4-triazole (guanazine) with strong acids (HNO{sub 3}, HClO{sub 4}, and ''HN(NO{sub 2}){sub 2}'') resulted in a family of highly stable salts. All of the salts were characterized using spectroscopic as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The X-ray structures were compared to that obtained from theoretical calculations (MP2/6-311+G(d, p) level). Initial safety testing (impact, friction) was carried out on all of the new materials. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Novel 5-Fluorouracil Derivatives: Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of 2-Butoxy-4-Substituted 5-Fluoropyrimidines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Weixiao; Shan, Shang; Zhang, Shijie; Li, Haibo

    2013-01-01

    Twenty two new 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) derivatives, 2-butoxy-4-substituted 5-fluoropyrimidines, were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1 H NMR, MS, HRMS. All compounds were preliminarily evaluated by MTT assay on human liver BEL-7402 cancer cell line in vitro. Ten compounds were selected to test their cytotoxic activity against A549, HL-60 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. These compounds were more sensitive to BEL-7402 than other cell lines, particularly, cytotoxic activity of compounds 6b, 6d-f, 6p, 6s-u were in sub-micromolar scale. The highest cytotoxic potency against A549, HL-60 and MCF-7 was shown by 2-butoxy-4-chloro-5-fluoropyrimidine (5) with IC 50 values of 0.10, 1.66 and 0.59 μM, respectively. Compounds 6d and 6e were effective against MCF-7 with IC 50 9.73 μM and HL-60 with IC 50 8.83 μM, respectively

  6. A new three-dimensional cobalt phosphate: Co 5(OH 2) 4(HPO 4) 2(PO 4) 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhangang; Tian, Aixiang; Peng, Jun; Zhai, Xueliang

    2006-10-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) cobalt phosphate: Co 5(OH 2) 4(HPO 4) 2(PO 4) 2 ( 1), has been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and magnetic techniques. The title compound is a template free cobalt phosphate. Compound 1 exhibits a complex net architecture based on edge- and corner-sharing of CoO 6 and PO 4 polyhedra. The magnetic susceptibility measurements indicated that the title compound obeys Curie-Weiss behavior down to a temperature of 17 K at which an antiferromagnetic phase transition occurs.

  7. 3-Ethyl-4-[(E-(4-fluorobenzylideneamino]-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H-thione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonsus D'souza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H11FN4S, the dihedral angle between the 1,2,4-triazole ring and the benzene ring is 25.04 (12° and an intramoleuclar C—H...S interaction leads to an S(6 ring. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H...S hydrogen bonds generate R22(8 loops.

  8. Effect of radioiodine irradiation of thyroid gland in vitro with a dose of 4-5 Gy on iodide transport in thyrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paster, Yi.P.

    2000-01-01

    We study the influence of ouabain on the basal and thyrotropin-stimulated iodide uptake in thyroid gland preliminarily irradiated by radioiodine (absorbed dose: 4-5 Gy) in vitro. Newborn pig thyroid tissue was incubated in a medium, containing 37 kBq/ml of 131-iodine (absorbed dose: 4-5 Gy), washed and achieved by collagenase dissociation. Thyrocytes were incubated with thyrotropin (100.0 mE/ml), ouabain (0.1 mol/l), and 125-iodide (0.4 kBq/ml). Then cells were washed, stored at 4 degree C for 60 days, and the 125-iodide uptake was assessed. Ouabain depressed both the basal and thyrotropin-stimulated iodide uptakes by thyrocytes in vitro. After preliminary radioiodine irradiation of the thyroid tissue (absorbed dose: 4-5 Gy), ouabain stimulated both the basal and thyrotropin-stimulated iodide uptakes by thyrocytes

  9. Structural Elucidation of Z- and E- Isomers of 5-Alkyl-4-ethoxycarbonyl-5-(4`-chlorophenyl-3-oxa-4-pentenoic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. F. Madkour

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Z- and E-isomers of 5-alkyl-4-ethoxycarbonyl-5-(4`-chlorophenyl-3-oxa-4-pentenoic acids were prepared via the condensation of p-chloroacetophenone and/or pchloropropiophenone with diethyl-2,2`-oxydiacetate in the presence of sodium hydride as a basic catalyst. The Z-isomers of 2a and 2b were found to be predominant. The behaviour of the corresponding anhydrides towards the action of hydrazine, phenylhydrazine, primary aromatic amines, hydrocarbons and ethanolysis has also been investigated. The structures and configurations of the products have been elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic means.

  10. Identification and characterization of NORM industries in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, Hans; Paridaens, Johan; Froment, Pascal; Van Cauteren, Jef; Timmermans, Cor; Cosemans, Christian; Sassi, Fiore

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the Norm issue in the Belgium industry is given, mainly based on a study on behalf of Offender/Nitras, the Belgian agency for radioactive waste. The phosphate industry, which was identified as the main source of enhanced natural radioactivity, is mainly located in F landers, the northern part of Belgium. The five Flemish phosphate plants handled, from 1920 to 2006, 60 M ton of phosphate ore containing 72 TBq of uranium-238 (radium-226) and 3.5 TBq of thorium-232. This resulted in a vast legacy of 500 ha of contaminated sites. In the non-ferro industry high activity-concentrations of the thorium decay series were identified with careerist (tin ore). Zircon sands with high uranium concentrations are applied for the production of precision casting molds. Almost every industry with a large turnover of materials has some problems with Norm, because of the selective concentration of certain radionuclides in by-products, residues or product streams. Examples of a blast furnace and a coal-fired power plant are given. In these cases the natural radioactivity is concentrated in blast furnace slag or fly ash, both of which are used as input material in the cement industry. The extraction and purification of ground water was also identified as a potential source for generating Norm sludges. Finally, ample remains from past Norm practices exist. A number of historical sites, including a former mining area of alum shale in the valley of the Meuse, several coal mining sites, a col tan processing site in Ghent and a radium facility in Olen were contaminated before present standards of radiological protection were developed. (author)

  11. Beginning ASP.NET 4.5 in C#

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This book is the most comprehensive and up to date introduction to ASP.NET ever written. Focussing solely on C#, with no code samples duplicated in other languages, award winning author Matthew MacDonald introduces you to the very latest thinking and best practices for the ASP.NET 4.5 technology.Assuming no prior coding experience, you'll be taught everything you need to know from the ground up.  Starting from first principals, you'll learn the skills you need to be an effective ASP.NET developer who is ready to progress to more sophisticated projects and professional work. You'll be taught ho

  12. 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid as chelating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, M.D.; Bhandari, C.S.; Dixit, M.K.; Sogani, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    Stability constants of praseodymium chelates of 3,4,5-trihydroxy sodium benzoate are determined by using Bjerrum-Calvin pH titration techniques at constant ionic strength 0.1M-sodium perchlorate and at 28+-0.1 0 C. Values calculated by different methods are in good agreement. The study reveals that during complexation only one proton of the ligand molecule is replaced by the metal and oxygen of adjacent phenolic group acts as a coordinating atom. IR and NMR spectral studies of the ligand reveal that one of the OH groups (in meta position to carboxylic group) remains free while two other phenolic groups are involved in intramolecular hydrogen bonding. One water molecule is found attached in crystalline gallic acid. (author)

  13. Synthesis of (E-2,4-Dinitro-N-((2E,4E-4-phenyl-5-(pyrrolidin-1-ylpenta-2,4-dienylideneaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Fesanghari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available (E-2,4-Dinitro-N-((2E,4E-4-phenyl-5-(pyrrolidin-1-ylpenta-2,4-dienylidene aniline dye was prepared in one pot by reaction of premade N-2,4-dinitrophenyl-3-phenylpyridinium chloride (DNPPC and pyrrolidine in absolute MeOH.

  14. The 39th CERN School of Computing goes to Belgium: apply now!

    CERN Multimedia

    Alberto Pace, CSC Director

    2016-01-01

    Applications are now open for CERN’s 39th School of Computing. The CSC:2016 (see here) will take place from 28 August to 10 September 2016 in Mol, Belgium, in collaboration with SCK•CEN and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.   The two-week programme consists of more than 50 hours of lectures and hands-on exercises, all on advanced, interesting and challenging computing topics. It covers three main themes: data technologies, base technologies and physics computing. In particular, we will explore: Many-core performance optimisation Concurrent programming Key aspects of multi-threading Writing code for tomorrow’s hardware today Storage technologies, reliability and performance Cryptography, authentication, authorisation and accounting Data replication, caching, monitoring, alarms and quota Writing secure software Observing software with an attacker's eyes Software engineering for physics computing Statistical methods and pr...

  15. Oxidative degradation of 2,4-dioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine in aqueous medium: a radiation and photochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, J.M.; Jacob, T.A.; Manoj, V.M.; Aravindakumar, C.T.; Hari Mohan

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics and spectral nature of the intermediates resulting from the reaction of OH with 2,4-dioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (DHT) have been studied by pulse radiolysis. The degradation leading to a complete disappearance of DHT induced by OH in aqueous medium was also studied using steady state radiolysis technique. The rate constant, determined by competitive kinetic methods, was 1.6 x 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 at pH 6. The complete degradation in N 2 O was observed with an absorbed dose of 7 kGy. The complete degradation in presence of ferricperchlorate using UV light was observed within 6 minute. (author)

  16. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Belgium consists of three regions: Brussels, Flanders and Wallonia, each with much autonomy in determining renewable support policies, except for support to offshore wind and hydro power which fall under the competence of the federal government. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted at regional and federal levels mainly through a quota system based on the trade of certificates, complemented by regional support measures. In the three regions small PV installations benefit from net metering. The federal government supports renewable heating and cooling by way of a tax deduction on investment costs. The main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system under the competence of the federal government

  17. Process Monitoring by combining several signal-analysis results using fuzzy logic[Proceedings of the 2nd International FLINS Workshop (Mol, Belgium, September 25-27, 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoonwelle, H.; Van der Hagen, T.H.J.J.; Hoogenboom, J.E

    1996-07-01

    In order to improve reliability in detecting anomalies in nuclear power plant performance, a method is presented which is based on acquiring various characteristics of signal data using autoregressive, wavelet and fractal-analysis techniques. These characteristics are combined using a decision making approach based on fuzzy logic. This approach is able to detect and distinguish several system states.

  18. Self-tuning fuzzy logic nuclear reactor controller[Proceedings of the 2nd International FLINS Workshop (Mol, Belgium, September 25-27, 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif Heger, A; Alang-Rashid, N K

    1996-07-01

    We present a method for self-tuning of fuzzy logic controllers based on the estimation of the optimum value of the centroids of its output fuzzy set. The method can be implemented on-line and does not require modification of membership functions and control rules. The main features of this method are: the rules are left intact to retain the operator's expertise in the FLC rule base, and the parameters that require any adjustment are identifiable in advance and their number is kept at a minimum. Therefore, the use of this method preserves the control statements in the original form. Results of simulation and actual tests show that this tuning method improves the performance of fuzzy logic controllers in following the desired reactor power level trajectories. In addition, this method demonstrates a similar improvement for power up and power down experiments, based on both simulation and actual case studies. For these experiments, the control rules for the fuzzy logic controller were derived from control statements that expressed the relationships between error, rate of error change, and duration of direction of control rod movements.

  19. Clustering and retrieving information in nuclear science for decision-support techniques[Proceedings of the 2nd International FLINS Workshop (Mol, Belgium, September 25-27, 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulin, S.K.; Kiselev, I.A

    1996-07-01

    This paper covers the problem of storing and retrieving information from big data bases, where the information does not have an exact structure and different object have very thin (or weak) relations each with other. It is one of the biggest problems in decision-support systems, especially in those environments, where the information is complicated and very changeable. One of the way to solve this problem could be the building a semiotic model of the environment according to our goals. One of the important parts of systems based on semiotic modelling is the active knowledge base supplied with the special concordance mechanism of structural consistency. This paper deals with an active knowledge base condition considered by means of connections structure analysis of knowledge base components. Thereby the dominant attribute of any component is supposed to be the connections structure of knowledge base component (object). A set of objects with connections that have a binary existence estimate is examined. Consonant, dissonant and assonant sets are distinguished, depending on the satisfiability of the consonance criterion. An algorithm is proposed and realised for reducing assonant and dissonant sets to a consonance state with minimum expenditures in the sense of the general number variable estimates of the connections. This way of decision has been applied to arrays of variable information stored on CD-ROM disks.

  20. 5-(4-Bromophenyl-2-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H15BrO3S, crystallizes with four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The 4-bromophenyl rings are rotated out of the benzofuran planes, with dihedral angles for the four molecules of 20.8 (2, 17.8 (2, 23.5 (4 and 23.9 (4°. The dihedral angles between the 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl ring and the benzofuran plane are 13.5 (2, 7.1 (2, 18.6 (3 and 14.2 (3° in the four molecules. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak nonclassical intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure also exhibits intermolecular aromatic π–π interactions between the benzene and furan rings and between the 4-bromophenyl and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl rings from molecules of the same type; the centroid–centroid distances are 3.92 (1 and 3.79 (1, 3.91 (1, 3.77 (1 and 3.77 (1, and 3.79 (1 and 3.75 (1Å in the four molecules.

  1. Altair Lander Life Support: Design Analysis Cycles 4 and 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Curley, Su; Rotter, Henry; Stambaugh, Imelda; Yagoda, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Life support systems are a critical part of human exploration beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Altair Lunar Lander team is pursuing efficient solutions to the technical challenges of human spaceflight. Life support design efforts up through Design Analysis Cycle (DAC) 4 focused on finding lightweight and reliable solutions for the Sortie and Outpost missions within the Constellation Program. In DAC-4 and later follow on work, changes were made to add functionality for new requirements accepted by the Altair project, and to update the design as knowledge about certain issues or hardware matured. In DAC-5, the Altair project began to consider mission architectures outside the Constellation baseline. Selecting the optimal life support system design is very sensitive to mission duration. When the mission goals and architecture change several trade studies must be conducted to determine the appropriate design. Finally, several areas of work developed through the Altair project may be applicable to other vehicle concepts for microgravity missions. Maturing the Altair life support system related analysis, design, and requirements can provide important information for developers of a wide range of other human vehicles.

  2. Actoprotective properties of 7'-((3-thio-4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylmethyltheophylline derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Gotsulya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the study of actoprotective activity of compounds, which combine sintons of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and theophylline. Materials and methods. The first time synthesized 7'-((3-thio-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylmethyltheophylline derivatives have been used for the research. The systemic toxicity and the acute toxicity of the studied compounds have been performed by the rapid method of Prozorovskiy to determine the optimal conditions for dispensing substances. Experiments have been conducted on a group of white nonlinear rats, 159–221 g weight. During the study of actoprotective activity the method of forced immersion in water with a load of 10% by weight of the rats has been used. The substances were administered at a dose 1/10 of LD50, and the reference drug «Riboxin» at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The swim time was recorded in seconds. The control group of animals was used for comparison; these animals received saline solution intraperitoneally 20 minutes before immersion. The obtained results were statistically processed using the standard software package of Microsoft Office 2007 and «STATISTICA@ for Windows 6.0». Results. According to the results of conducted researches it has been established that the most active compound among the studied was 7'-((5-(2-hydroxyethylthio-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylmethyltheophylline, which increased the duration of swimming by 14.31% comparing to control group, whereas the reference drug increased it by 20.57%. It has been established that 2-((5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyl-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio-N'-(3,4-difluorobenzylideneacetohydrazide also increases the duration of swimming. Conclusion. The study of actoprotective activity of 13 first time synthesized compounds has been conducted. 7'-((5-(2-Hydroxyethylthio-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylmethyltheophylline has been detected as the most active compound among the studied ones.

  3. Study on mechanism controlling {sup 5}D{sub 3}/{sup 5}D{sub 4}emissions of Tb{sup 3+} in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Siyuan; Mao, Jiayi; Li, Xinxi; Li, Lei; Zeng, Huidan; Chen, Guorong, E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn

    2017-05-15

    Tb{sup 3+} doped SiO{sub 2}-ZnO-BaO glasses are prepared by melting quenching method and their unique photoluminescent properties for the UV excitation are studied by using emission/excitation spectra and decay curves. Glasses in the composition (mol%) of 60SiO{sub 2}-xZnO-(40-x)BaO-0.2Tb{sup 3+}(x=30, 20, 10) show the strongest emission peaking at 436 nm which is different from majority of other reported work. Lower content of the free OH groups mainly contribute to this phenomenon due to the decreased probability of the multi-phonon aided non-radiative relaxation process from {sup 5}D{sub 3} to {sup 5}D{sub 4} energy levels of Tb{sup 3+} ions. The Tb{sup 3+} concentration also affects the {sup 5}D{sub 3}/{sup 5}D{sub 4} emissions as a result of the cross-relaxation effect on two nearby Tb{sup 3+} ions ({sup 5}D{sub 3}-{sup 5}D{sub 4}⇒{sup 7}F{sub 6}-{sup 7}F{sub 0}). Moreover, by adjusting Tb{sup 3+} concentration and/or ZnO/BaO concentration ratio of the host glass we obtained the adjustable emission with the required CIE chromaticity from blue to green, suggesting that the present Tb{sup 3+}-doped SiO{sub 2}-ZnO-BaO glasses are potential as blue/green dual-color luminescent materials for different applications.

  4. (μ-3-Acetyl-5-carboxyl­ato-4-methyl­pyrazolido-1:2κ4 N 2,O 3:N 1,O 5)-μ-chlorido-tetra­pyridine-1κ2 N,2κ2 N-chlorido-1κCl-dicopper(II) propan-2-ol solvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinkin, Sergey; Penkova, Larisa; Pavlenko, Vadim A.; Haukka, Matti; Fritsky, Igor O.

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Cu2(C7H6N2O3)Cl2(C5H5N)4]·C3H8O, is a binuclear pyrazolate complex, in which the two CuII atoms have different coordination numbers and are connected by a bridging Cl atom. One CuII atom has a distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment formed by two pyridine N atoms, one bridging Cl atom and an N,O-chelating pyrazolate ligand. The other CuII atom adopts an octa­hedral geometry defined by two pyridine N atoms at the axial positions, two Cl atoms and the coordinated pyrazolate ligand in the equatorial plane. An O—H⋯O hydrogen bond connects the complex mol­ecules and propan-2-ol solvent mol­ecules into pairs. These pairs form columns along the a axis. PMID:21577764

  5. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries.

  6. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, DFT Study and Antifungal Activity of 4-(5-((4-Bromobenzyl thio-4-Phenyl-4H-1,2,4-Triazol-3-ylpyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Xia Mu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound 4-(5-((4-bromobenzylthio-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylpyridine (C20H15BrN4S was synthesized, and its structure was confirmed by 1H NMR, MS and elemental analyses and single-crystal X-ray structure determination. It crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with a = 7.717(3, b = 9.210(3, c = 13.370(5 Å, α = 80.347(13, β = 77.471(13, γ = 89.899(16°, V = 913.9(6 Å3, Z = 2 and R = 0.0260 for 3145 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I. A Density functional theory (DFT (B3LYP/6-31G calculation of the title molecule was carried out. The full geometry optimization was carried out using a 6-31G basis set, and the frontier orbital energy. Atomic net charges are discussed. Calculated bond lengths and bond angles were found to differ from experimental values, and the compound exhibits moderate antifungal activity.

  7. Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts in the chemo selective bioreduction of (1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadien-3-one in biphasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Cesar A.; Silva, Vanessa D.; Nascimento, Maria da G.; Stambuk, Boris U.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the chemoselective bioreduction of (1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)- 1,4-pentadien-3-one (1) mediated by baker’s yeast (BY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells) in an aqueous/organic solvent biphasic system. The biotransformation of this compound was chemoselective and formed only the corresponding saturated ketone 1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)- 3-pentanone (2). The influence of various factors which may alter the bioreduction of 1, such as the type and percentage of co-solvents, use of six different S. cerevisiae yeast samples (four commercial and two industrial), variations in the substrate and yeast concentrations, temperature, pH and volume of aqueous and organic phases, was investigated. The best reaction conditions were 66.7 g L −1 of Fleischmann BY, 8.3 × 10 −3 mol L −1 of substrate, pH 6.5 at 35 deg C in the presence of 2.5% (v/v) of N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as an additive and a V aq /V org ratio of 70/30. Under these conditions, the product 2 was recovered in conversions of 82% in 5 h reaction. (author)

  8. Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts in the chemo selective bioreduction of (1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadien-3-one in biphasic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Cesar A.; Silva, Vanessa D.; Nascimento, Maria da G., E-mail: maria.nascimento@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis-SC (Brazil); Stambuk, Boris U. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis-SC (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    This work describes the chemoselective bioreduction of (1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)- 1,4-pentadien-3-one (1) mediated by baker's yeast (BY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells) in an aqueous/organic solvent biphasic system. The biotransformation of this compound was chemoselective and formed only the corresponding saturated ketone 1,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)- 3-pentanone (2). The influence of various factors which may alter the bioreduction of 1, such as the type and percentage of co-solvents, use of six different S. cerevisiae yeast samples (four commercial and two industrial), variations in the substrate and yeast concentrations, temperature, pH and volume of aqueous and organic phases, was investigated. The best reaction conditions were 66.7 g L{sup -1} of Fleischmann BY, 8.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mol L{sup -1} of substrate, pH 6.5 at 35 deg C in the presence of 2.5% (v/v) of N,N-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as an additive and a V{sub aq}/V{sub org} ratio of 70/30. Under these conditions, the product 2 was recovered in conversions of 82% in 5 h reaction. (author)

  9. (1S*,3R*,5S*,7S*-4,4,8,8-Tetrachloro-1-isopropyl-5-methyltricyclo[5.1.0.03,5]octane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblandy M. Turdybekov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H16Cl4, is a derivative of the natural product 1-isopropyl-4-methylcyclohexa-1,4-diene, and represents a diastereomer with two trans-fused cyclopropane rings. Both enantiomers are present in the non-centrosymmetric polar space group Pna21. The central cyclohexane ring is planar within 0.02 (1 Å. The C atoms of dichloromethylene groups deviate from this plane by 1.19 (1 and −1.26 (1 Å, whereas the isopropyl and methyl groups are oriented more equatorially, deviating by 0.71 (1 and −0.87 (1 Å, respectively.

  10. Dark and photoreactivity of 4'-aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen with T7 phage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, K; Csik, G; Rontó, G

    1990-04-15

    The dark and photoreactions of 4'-aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (AMT) with T7 phage were investigated from biological and structural points of view. The dark reaction leads to the structural destabilization of the double helix of the DNA as is shown by optical melting measurements. The genotoxicity of AMT in the dark is comparable with that of known genotoxic drugs as determined by phage inactivation. The photoreaction with UVA light leads to the formation of mono- and di-adducts depending on the wavelength and dose used. Mono- and di-adducts influence DNA stability differently; biologically both types of adducts are genotoxic as measured by action spectra.

  11. Synthesis and investigation of the physicochemical properties of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyl-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio-acetic acid salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Gotsulya

    2014-02-01

    spectrometer “Mercury 400” (solvent - DMSO-d6 or DMSO-d6 + CCl4, the internal standard - tetramethylsilane. Chromatography-mass spectral researches were performed on the instrument Agilent 1100 Series LC/MSD System, method of ionization - chemical ionization at the atmospheric pressure (APCI. Propyl ester of the theophylline-7-acetic acid. To the 0,055 mol of sodium hydrogencarbonate in 150 ml of DMF adds 0,05 mole of the theophylline and heated with stirring 5 - 10 minutes. To the reaction compound adds 0,055 mole of the monochloracetate acid propyl ester and boil with constant stirring 5 - 6 hours. After cooling to the reaction mixture with stirring, adds an equal volume of water. The precipitate dissolves, then falles again. Ester precipitate is filtered, washed with water, then with a small amount of methanol and dried. White crystalline solid, insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents (alcohols, dioxane, DMF, DMSO. For the analysis is purified from 1-propanol. Yield 82%. Hydrazide of the theophylline -7-acetic acid. To the heated 0,03 mole solution of the propyl ester theophylline -7- acetic acid in 200 ml of ethanol adds 0.3 mole of hydrazine hydrate. Reactionary compound leave at room temperature for 12 hours. Hydrazide precipitate is filtered, washed with water, acetone and dried. Output 79%. White, amorphous substance, insoluble in water, acetone, soluble in alcohols, dioxane, soluble in DMF, DMSO. Crystallized from a mixture DMF-water (1:1. Tm. = 210-211 ºC. 2-(2-(theophylline-7'-ylacetyl-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide. 0,05 mol of phenylisothiocyanate, 130 ml of dioxane and 90 ml of water heated up to boiling for 1 hour, cooled, add 100 ml of water, the precipitate is filtered, washed with water, 2-propanol and crystallized from a mixture water- dioxane, dimethylformamide. Output - 71 %. Tm . = 262-265 ºC. 7-((5-mercapto-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazoles-3-ylmethyltheophylline. 0,01 mol of compound 2 -(2-(theophyllineacetyl-N-phenylhydrazyncarbothio-amide, 0

  12. Dietary fibre concentrate from Chilean algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) pods: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana María; Figuerola, Fernando; Bernuy, Enrique; Sáenz, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Prosopis species are generally fast-growing, drought-resistant, nitrogen-fixing trees or shrubs. Fruits of Prosopis spp are indehiscent pods, where pericarp is formed by the epicarp, light brown in colour, and fibrous nature; the mesocarp known as pulp, which is rich in sugars; and the endocarp. The aim of this work was to obtain a fibre concentrate from the pods of Prosopis chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) and to determine the chemical, physical, and technological properties of the pod flour (PF) and of a fibre concentrate or pod purified flour (PPF). Acetone, ethanol, and water at different conditions of time and temperature were used in the purification process. PF showed 53.7 g/100 g of total sugar content, 4.2 g/100 g of reducing sugar content, 41.8 g/100 g of total dietary fibre, 35.8 g/100 g of insoluble fibre, and 6.0 g/100 g of soluble fibre content. The PPF has a total sugar content of 3.8 g/100 g, reducing sugar content of 2.2 g/100 g, total dietary fibre content of 80.8 g/100 g, insoluble fibre content of 75.1 g/100 g, and soluble fibre content of 5.7 g/100 g. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed the existence of voids in the structure of PPF flour, which reveals the efficiency of the purification process with a high decrease in the total sugar content. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. 4-Benzyl-6-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-4H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Bourichi; Youssef Kandri Rodi; Jerry P. Jasinski; Manpreet Kaur; Younes Ouzidan; El Mokhtar Essassi

    2017-01-01

    In the title compound, C19H13BrClN3, the chlorophenyl ring occupies an equatorial position with respect to the mean plane of the imidazopyridine unit, while the other phenyl ring is twisted by 4.1 (2)° with respect to the mean plane of the imidazopyridine unit. In the crystal, pairwise C—H...Br interactions link the molecules into dimers, forming an R22(16) ring motif. In addition, weak π–π stacking interactions stabilize the crystal packing.

  14. 4-Benzyl-6-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl-4H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Bourichi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H13BrClN3, the chlorophenyl ring occupies an equatorial position with respect to the mean plane of the imidazopyridine unit, while the other phenyl ring is twisted by 4.1 (2° with respect to the mean plane of the imidazopyridine unit. In the crystal, pairwise C—H...Br interactions link the molecules into dimers, forming an R22(16 ring motif. In addition, weak π–π stacking interactions stabilize the crystal packing.

  15. Lithiation of prochiral 2,2'-dichloro-5,5'-dibromo-4,4'-bipyridine as a tool for the synthesis of chiral polyhalogenated 4,4'-bipyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamane, Victor; Aubert, Emmanuel; Peluso, Paola; Cossu, Sergio

    2013-08-02

    Lithiation of the achiral tetrahalogenated 4,4'-bipyridine 1 with alkyllithiums was investigated. n-BuLi was found to induce either the chlorine-directed deprotolithiation reaction alone or with a concomitant halogen-lithium exchange furnishing after iodine trapping chiral 4,4'-bipyridines 2 and 6, respectively. The role of n-BuLi in the deprotolithiation process of 1 was elucidated on the basis of isolated secondary derivatives. After deprotolithiation, the lithiated species could be trapped by different electrophiles such as MeI, TMSCl, MeSSMe, R3SnCl (R = Me or n-Bu), and PPh2Cl. Moreover, 4,4'-bipyridine 2 was submitted to cross-coupling reactions (Suzuki and Sonogashira) which occurred selectively at the carbon-iodine bond. All compounds of this new family of atropisomeric 4,4'-bipyridines were separated by chiral HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), and the absolute configurations of obtained enantiomers were mainly assigned by XRD (X-ray diffraction) using anomalous dispersion.

  16. Functional diversity for biomass deconstruction in family 5 subfamily 5 (GH5_5) of fungal endo-β1,4-glucanases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingyao; Walton, Jonathan D

    2017-05-01

    Endo-β1,4-glucanases in glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5) are ubiquitous enzymes in the multicellular fungi and are common components of enzyme cocktails for biomass conversion. We recently showed that an endo-glucanase of subfamily 5 of GH5 (GH5_5) from Sporotrichum thermophile (StCel5A) was more effective at releasing glucose from pretreated corn stover, when part of an eight-component synthetic enzyme mixture, compared to its closely related counterpart from Trichoderma reesei, TrCel5A. StCel5A and TrCel5A belong to different clades of GH5_5 (GH5_5_1 and GH5_5_2, respectively). To test whether the superior activity of StCel5A was a general property of all enzymes in the GH5_5_2 clade, StCel5A, TrCel5A, and two additional members of each subfamily were expressed in a common host that had been engineered to suppress its native cellulases (T. reesei Δxyr1) and compared against each other alone on pure substrates, in synthetic mixtures on pure substrates, and against each other in synthetic mixtures on real biomass. The results indicated that superiority is a unique property of StCel5A and not of GH5_5_2 generally. The six Cel5A enzymes had significant differences in relative activities on different substrates, in specific activities, and in sensitivities to mannan inhibition. Importantly, the behavior of the six endo-glucanases on pure cellulose substrates did not predict their behavior in combination with other cellulolytic enzymes on a real lignocellulosic biomass substrate.

  17. THE NATURE OF EXTREMELY RED H - [4.5] > 4 GALAXIES REVEALED WITH SEDS AND CANDELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputi, K. I.; Dunlop, J. S.; McLure, R. J.; Cirasuolo, M. [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Huang, J.-S.; Fazio, G. G.; Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Castellano, M.; Fontana, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Almaini, O. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Donley, J. L.; Ferguson, H. C.; Grogin, N. A.; Koekemoer, A. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, D. D.; Koo, D. C. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Giavalisco, M., E-mail: karina@astro.rug.nl [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed a sample of 25 extremely red H - [4.5] > 4 galaxies, selected using 4.5 {mu}m data from the Spitzer SEDS survey and deep H-band data from the Hubble Space Telescope CANDELS survey, over {approx}180 arcmin{sup 2} of the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey field. Our aim is to investigate the nature of this rare population of mid-infrared (mid-IR) sources that display such extreme near-to-mid-IR colors. Using up to 17-band photometry (U through 8.0 {mu}m), we have studied in detail their spectral energy distributions, including possible degeneracies in the photometric redshift/internal extinction (z{sub phot}-A{sub V} ) plane. Our sample appears to include sources of very different nature. Between 45% and 75% of them are dust-obscured, massive galaxies at 3 < z{sub phot} < 5. All of the 24 {mu}m detected sources in our sample are in this category. Two of these have S(24 {mu}m)>300 {mu}Jy, which at 3 < z{sub phot} < 5 suggests that they probably host a dust-obscured active galactic nucleus. Our sample also contains four highly obscured (A{sub V} > 5) sources at z{sub phot} < 1. Finally, we analyze in detail two z{sub phot} {approx} 6 galaxy candidates, and discuss their plausibility and implications. Overall, our red galaxy sample contains the tip of the iceberg of a larger population of z > 3 galaxies to be discovered with the future James Webb Space Telescope.

  18. TRANS 2004 festival on 4 and 5 September 2004

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This French-Swiss cross-border festival offers a mixture of group and individual activities calling on both the mental and the physical prowess of its participants. This year, the second day of the festival will be held at CERN's Meyrin site in celebration of the Organization's fiftieth anniversary. The programme for this second day of events on Sunday, 5 September includes a cycle ride of about thirty kilometres from Versoix to CERN through all the participating communes, as well as petanque, quizzes, children's games, a lunch comprising dishes from all over Europe and a whole host of other things. In addition, Microcosm will be open in the afternoon and the 'Fun with Physics' presenters will offer the opportunity to sample their special liquid-nitrogen icecream. The programme for Saturday, 4 September comprises a football tournament in Saint-Genis, a dictation competition in Versoix or a cross-border tennis competition. For more details (in French), see last week's Bulletin (No. 36/2004).

  19. The radioprotective potential of 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Mary Judith Q.; Gomez, Marlyn O.

    1999-03-01

    The radioprotective potential of 3,5,4'trihydroxystilbene or resveratrol, a compound abundant in grapes, was investigated using the micronucleus test. Gamma radiation (6 Gy) was used to induce micronucleus formation in 12-week old Swiss-Webster mice. Five groups with five mice each were used. Three groups were given corresponding treatments (low, normal, high doses of reservatrol) via oral gavage for one week. The negative control group was not given any radiation nor any compound while the positive control group was exposed to radiation but was not given any compound. The mean micronucleus frequencies arranged from highest to lowest are as follows: low dose, positive control, normal dose, high dose and negative control. Using the analysis of variance-complete random design followed by the Duncan multiple range test, it was proven that resveratrol was able to inhibit micronucleus formation in polychromatic erythrocytes of 12-week old Swiss-Webster mice at the normal (60 micrograms) and high (120 micrograms) concentrations assigned. This suggests that its radioprotective potential may follow a dose-dependent pattern. (Author)

  20. Poly[[aqua(μ5-3,4,5,6-tetracarboxycyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylatostrontium] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Cheng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Sr(C12H10O12(H2O]·H2O}n, the SrII ion is coordinated by six O atoms of five symmetry-related 3,4,5,6-tetracarboxycyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate ligands and one water molecule in a slightly distorted monocapped trigonal–prismatic environment. The ligands bridge the SrII ions, forming a two-dimensional structure. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds further connect the structure into a three-dimensional network. The H atoms of two of the carboxyl groups were refined as half-occupancy.

  1. {2-[(4-Nitrobenzylideneamino]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothiophen-3-yl}(phenylmethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Kaur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C22H18N2O3S, disorder is found in the benzoyl group (A and B, as well as for four C atoms of the cyclohexene ring. Two orientations were modeled in a 0.583 (5:0.417 (5 ratio. The cyclohexene ring is in a distorted chair conformation. The dihedral angles between the mean plane of the thiophene ring and the 4-nitrobenzene and phenyl rings are 30.9 (8 and 64.8 (3 (A and 62.4 (7° (B. The mean planes of the 4-nitrobenzene and the phenyl rings are almost perpendicular to each other, with dihedral angles of 85.4 (1 (A and 83.9 (8° (B. An extensive array of weak C—H...O interactions consolidate molecules into a three-dimensional architecture, forming chains along [001] and [010] and layers parallel to (011.

  2. 4-Benzyl-6-bromo-2-(4-methoxyphenyl-4H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ouzidan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The imidazopyridine fused ring in the title compound, C20H16BrN3O·H2O, is coplanar with the aromatic ring at the 2-position [dihedral angle = 5.2 (1°]. In the five-membered imidazo portion, the C—N bond whose C atom is also connected to the pyridine N atom has predominantly double-bond character [1.334 (2 Å] whereas the C—N bond whose atom is connected to the pyridine C atom has predominantly single-bond character [1.371 (2 Å]. The water molecule engages in hydrogen bonding with the latter N atom; it is also connected to a symmetry-related water molecule, generating a linear chain structure.

  3. Effect of temperature on the electronic/ionic transport properties of porous LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} with high voltage for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yongli, E-mail: lilyshuoxu@163.com; Wang, Mingzhen; Wang, Jiali; Zhuang, Quanchao, E-mail: zhuangquanchao@126.com

    2016-09-01

    Porous spinel LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} microspheres were successfully synthesized by a facile method with microspheres MnCO{sub 3} template, and characterized by XRD and SEM. The as-synthesized porous LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} microspheres exhibit high rate capability and good cycle performance, with the specific discharge capacity of 125.5, 125.4, 121 and 97.6 mA h/g at 1, 2, 3 and 5 C, respectively, and the capacity retention of 85.6% at 5 C after 100 cycles, which are attributed to the porous structure. It is found that the EIS features of spinel LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} cathode are related to the temperature, and the middle to high frequency arc is observed in the Nyquist diagram at temperatures below zero, which is attributed to the electronic properties of the electrode material. In 1 mol/L LiPF{sub 6}-EC:DEC:DMC electrolyte solutions, the energy barriers for the ion jump related to migration of lithium ions through the SEI film of the spinel LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} cathode are determined to be 16.89 kJ/mol, the thermal activation energy of the electronic conductivity to be 0.348 eV, and the intercalation-deintercalation reaction activation energies to be 0.619 eV, respectively. - Highlights: • Porous spinel LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} microspheres cathode were synthesized. • Porous LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} microspheres show high rate and excellent cycle characteristic. • The EIS features of spinel LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} have related to temperature. • Three different energies of kinetic characterization at 4.7 V are calculated.

  4. Synthesis of high aspect ratio of Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 platelets for electromagnetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallynck, Sylvain; Pourroy, Geneviève; Vilminot, Serge; Jacquart, Pierre-Marie; Autissier, Denis; Vukadinovic, Nicolas; Pascard, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 ferrite platelets of 5 to 300 μm have been obtained by reaction in a molten salt between hematite platelets, NiO and ZnO powders. The hematite platelets are obtained by a hydrothermal treatment in an alkaline medium between 180 and 270 °C through a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism from maghemite which crystallizes first. The key parameter for size control is the mixture alkalinity. The largest platelets are obtained for [Fe 3+] = 2.0 mol dm -3 and [OH -] = 15.3 N. The size distribution is narrow and the aspect ratio about 30. The reaction with nickel and zinc oxides yields the formation of polycrystalline platelets through a topotactic reaction allowing the platelet morphology, initial shape and size to be conserved. SEM observations reveal the ferrite platelets are made of adjacent micronic ferrite crystals with their [111] faces parallel to the platelet surface. Increasing the reaction temperature promotes an enlargement of the [111] faces. The respective solubilities of oxides and ferrites in the molten salts control the ferrite stoichiometry. KCl as a flux gives better results than NaCl with no modification of the crystal shape and no ZnO loss.

  5. 1-[3-(4-Chlorophenyl-5-(4-methoxyphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]ethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C18H17ClN2O2, the benzene rings form dihedral angles of 6.69 (6 and 74.88 (5° with the 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole ring. The benzene rings form a dihedral angle of 76.67 (5° with each other. In the crystal, molecules are linked via bifurcated (C,C–H...O hydrogen bonds into chains along [010]. The crystal structure is further consolidated by C—H...π interactions.

  6. Production of sup 5 sup 5 Co via the sup 5 sup 4 Fe(d, n)-process and excitation functions of sup 5 sup 4 Fe(d, t) sup 5 sup 3 Fe and sup 5 sup 4 Fe(d, alpha) sup 5 sup 2 sup m Mn reactions from threshold up to 13.8 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, M R; Qaim, S M

    2003-01-01

    For production of the medically interesting beta; sup + -emitter sup 5 sup 5 Co (T sup 1 sup / sup 2 = 17.6 h) via the sup 5 sup 4 Fe(d, n)-reaction, 91.6% enriched sup 5 sup 4 Fe sub 2 O sub 3 , mixed with Al powder, was pressed to a pellet which could be irradiated with 14 MeV deuterons at 4 mu A in a water-cooled target system. A separation method was developed which led to > 99.9% pure sup 5 sup 5 Co and allowed a recovery of the enriched target material. For a target thickness of E sub d = 12.6 -> 5 MeV, the experimental thick target yield of sup 5 sup 5 Co after chemical separation amounted to about 13 MBq/mu A.h, which is about 60% of the theoretical value. In a 3 h irradiation at 4 mu A, the batch yield of sup 5 sup 5 Co achieved was 160 MBq (4.3 mCi). An 8 h irradiation could lead to a batch yield of about 400 MBq. The sup 5 sup 4 Fe(d, n) reaction leads to the highest purity sup 5 sup 5 Co but it is essential that the isotopic enrichment of the target is not less than 90%. In addition to the product...

  7. Recent developments of and future prospects for nuclear power plant instrumentation and control in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naisse, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The production of electricity in Belgium is covered for almost 70% by seven nuclear power plants all of pressurized water reactor type. Four major topics are representative of the evolution of nuclear power production in Belgium: The suspentions of the studies for the new Belgian PWR unit (DOEL 5), the commissioning of the simulators in DOEL and TIHANGE, the revamping of the oldest nuclear units, the studies of new storage installations for radioactive waste. The delay imposed on the construction of DOEL 5 will allow to go further into the examination of the implications arising from the new technologies in I and C. The use modern I and C systems for modifications in existing plants will allow a better estimation of their advantages and disadvantages. (author)

  8. 2-(4-Methylphenyl-5-[({[5-(4-methylphenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]sulfanyl}methylsulfanyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-wen Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H16N4S4, the molecules exhibit a butterfly conformation, where the thiadiazole and attached benzene rings in two wings are almost coplanar, with dihedral angles of 0.8 (3 and 0.9 (3°, respectively, while the two thiadiazole rings form a dihedral angle of 46.3 (3°.

  9. Synthesis and biological activity of benzo-fused 7-deazaadenosine analogues. 5-and 6-substituted 4-amino- or 4-alkylpyrimido [4,5-b]indole ribonucleosides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, Michal; Pohl, Radek; Tloušťová, Eva; Weber, Jan; Bahador, G.; Lee, Y. J.; Hocek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 17 (2013), s. 5362-5372 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0344 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : nucleosides * pyrimido[4,5-b]indoles * Suzuki and Stille cross - coupling * anti-dengue virus activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.951, year: 2013

  10. Theoretical studies on molecular and explosive properties of 4,4',5,5'-Tetranitro-2,2'-bi-1H-imidazole (TNBI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo Gyeong; Goh, Eun Mee; Cho, Jin Rai; Kim, Jeong Kook [High Explosives Team, Agency for Defense Development, P. O. Box 35-5, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea)

    2006-02-15

    We performed theoretical studies to predict the molecular structure, molecular properties, and explosive performance of 4,4',5,5'-tetranitro-2,2'-bi-1H-imidazole (TNBI). High levels of ab initio and density functional theories were employed to predict the molecular structure of TNBI. Predicted TNBI structure was in good agreement with that observed by X-ray crystallography. Heat of formation in the solid phase at 298 K was predicted to be 270.3 kJ/mol. Density of TNBI was predicted to be 1.919-1.956 g/cm{sup 3} depending upon the parameter sets of group additivity method. By using these values as input data, we estimated detonation velocity and C-J pressure to be 8.69-8.80 km/s and 34.5-36.1 GPa, respectively. Impact sensitivity of TNBI was predicted to be 33 cm. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. 4p-5s transitions in In XIII, In XIV and In XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, P.K.; Costello, J.T.; O'Sullivan, G.

    1986-01-01

    The spectrum of an indium plasma produced by a 1.5 J, 25 ns ruby laser was recorded in the XUV. At wavelengths below 100 A, the spectrum is dominated by 4p-5s transitions in a number of ion stages. Many lines arising from 4p 6 4d-4p 5 4d5s, 4p 6 -4p 5 5s and 4p 5 -4p 4 5s transitions in In XIII, In XIV and In XV have been identified by isoelectronic extrapolation and Dirac-Fock calculations. (orig.)

  12. Quasirelativistic calculation of 4s24p5, 4s24p44d and 4s4p6 configuration spectroscopic parameters for the W39+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanovich, P; Karpuškienė, R; Kisielius, R

    2015-01-01

    The ab initio quasirelativistic Hartree–Fock method developed specifically for the calculation of spectral parameters of heavy atoms and highly charged ions is used to derive spectral data for the 4s 2 4p 5 , 4s 2 4p 4 4d and 4s4p 6 configurations of the multicharged tungsten ion W 39+ . The relativistic effects are taken into account in the Breit–Pauli approximation for the quasirelativistic Hartree–Fock radial orbitals. The configuration interaction method is applied to include the electron correlation effects. Produced data are compared with existing experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. (paper)

  13. Assessing Dutch and English Immersion Education in French-Speaking Belgium: Linguistic, Cognitive and Educational Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Hiligsmann, Philippe; Van Mensel, Luk; American Association for Applied Linguistics

    2016-01-01

    Our paper aims to present a 5-year multidisciplinary research project on immersion education in French-speaking Belgium. Our project starts from the premise that although recently published surveys have confirmed that immersion learners outperform traditional L2 learners as far as target language test scores are concerned, it nonetheless remains largely unclear to what extent, in what respect and thanks to which (internal and external) processes and factors immersion students show increased l...

  14. Zinc(II PVC-based membrane sensor based on 5,6-benzo-4,7,13,16,21,24- hexaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8,8,8]hexacos-5-ene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Hassan Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The 5,6-benzo-4,7,13,16,21,24-hexaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8,8,8]hexacos-5-ene (BHDE was used as an excellent ionophore in construction of a Zn(II PVC-based membrane sensor. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 30% poly(vinyl chloride, 64.5% nitrobenzen (NB, 2.5% BHDE and 3% sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB. This sensor shows very good selectivity and sensitivity towards zinc ion over a wide variety of cations, including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The sensor revealed a great enhancement in selectivity coefficients for zinc ions, in comparison to the previously reported zinc sensors. The proposed sensor exhibits a Nernstian behavior (with slope of 29.1 ? 0.4 mV per decade over a wide concentration range (1.0 10-6-1.0 10-1 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 6.3 x10-7 mol L-1 (41.2 ng mL-1. It shows relatively fast response time, in the whole concentration range (< 10s, and can be used for at least 10 weeks in a pH range of 2.8-7.3. The proposed sensor was successfully used in direct determination of zinc ions in wastewater of industrial zinc electroplating companies, and also as an indicator electrode in titration with EDTA.

  15. Ionic conductivity ageing behaviour of 10 mol.% Sc2O3–1 mol.% CeO2–ZrO2 ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Shobit; Bonanos, Nikolaos

    2010-01-01

    The long-term ionic conductivity behaviour of samples of zirconia co-doped with 10 mol.% of Sc2O3 and 1 mol.% CeO2 is evaluated in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres at 600 °C. After 3,000 h, the sample kept in reducing atmospheres exhibits 20% loss in the ionic conductivity, while the sample kep...

  16. Alternatives to detention: open family units in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Schockaert

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary outcomes of an alternative to detention programme in Belgium, based on case management and individual ‘coaches’ for families, are positive and merit consideration by other countries.

  17. Effect on fast neutron irradiation to 4 dpa at 400{degrees}C on the properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Alexander, D.J.; Robertson, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Tensile, Charpy impact and electrical resistivity measurements have been performed at ORNL on V-4Cr-4Ti and V-5Cr-5Ti specimens that were prepared at ANL and irradiated in the lithium-bonded X530 experiment in the EBR-II fast reactor. All of the specimens were irradiated to a damage level of about 4 dpa at a temperature of {approximately}400{degrees}C. A significant amount of radiation hardening was evident in both the tensile and Charpy impact tests. The irradiated V-4Cr-4Ti yield strength measured at {approximately}390{degrees}C was >800 MPa, which is more than three times as high as the unirradiated value. The uniform elongations of the irradiated tensile specimens were typically {approximately}1%, with corresponding total elongations of 4-6%. The ductile to brittle transition temperature of the irradiated specimens was less than the unirradiated resistivity, which suggests that hardening associated with interstitial solute pickup was minimal.

  18. 3,5-Bis[1-acetyl-5-(4-chlorophenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]-2,6-dimethylpyridine tetrahydrofuran solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Qian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C29H27Cl2N5O2·C4H8O, the polycyclic system is composed of three parts: one central pyridine ring substituted by two functionalized pyrazoline rings. The dihedral angles between the central pyridine plane and pyrazoline planes are 5.11 (1 and 13.99 (1°, whereas the dihedral angles between each chlorophenyl plane and the attached pyrazoline planes are 88.65 (1 and 83.87 (1°. Molecules are linked by intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  19. The crystal structures of two isomers of 5-(phenyl-iso-thia-zol-yl)-1,3,4-oxa-thia-zol-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuguang; Schriver, Melbourne J; Hendsbee, Arthur D; Masuda, Jason D

    2017-11-01

    The syntheses and crystal structures of two isomers of phenyl iso-thia-zolyl oxa-thia-zolone, C 11 H 6 N 2 O 2 S 2 , are described [systematic names: 5-(3-phenyl-iso-thia-zol-5-yl)-1,3,4-oxa-thia-zol-2-one, (I), and 5-(3-phenyl-iso-thia-zol-4-yl)-1,3,4-oxa-thia-zol-2-one, (II)]. There are two almost planar (r.m.s. deviations = 0.032 and 0.063 Å) mol-ecules of isomer (I) in the asymmetric unit, which form centrosymmetric tetra-mers linked by strong S⋯N [3.072 (2) Å] and S⋯O contacts [3.089 (1) Å]. The tetra-mers are π-stacked parallel to the a -axis direction. The single mol-ecule in the asymmetric unit of isomer (II) is twisted into a non-planar conformation by steric repulsion [dihedral angles between the central iso-thia-zolyl ring and the pendant oxa-thia-zolone and phenyl rings are 13.27 (6) and 61.18 (7)°, respectively], which disrupts the π-conjugation between the heteroaromatic iso-thia-zoloyl ring and the non-aromatic oxa-thia-zolone heterocycle. In the crystal of isomer (II), the strong S⋯O [3.020 (1) Å] and S⋯C contacts [3.299 (2) Å] and the non-planar structure of the mol-ecule lead to a form of π-stacking not observed in isomer (I) or other oxa-thia-zolone derivatives.

  20. Silsesquioxane organofunctionalized with 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole: Preparation and subsequent reaction with silver and potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) for detection of L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, Devaney R. do; Silvestrini, Daniela R.; Silveira, Tayla F.S. da; Cumba, Loanda R.; Dias Filho, Newton L.; Soares, Layciane A.

    2015-01-01

    The octakis(3-chloropropyl)octasilsesquioxane (SS) was organofunctionalized with 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (Purpald). The functionalized silsesquioxane with Purpald (SP) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After functionalized, silsesquioxane can interact with silver nitrate and subsequently with potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) (AgHSP). The novel hybrid composite formed (AgHSP) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). AgHSP was electrochemically characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using graphite paste electrode. The AgHSP incorporated into a graphite paste electrode (20% w/w) was tested for detection of L-cysteine. The modified electrode showed a linear response from 9.0 × 10 −5 to 5.0 × 10 −3 mol L −1 with the corresponding equation Y(A) = 0.01315 + 1.865 [L-cysteine], and a correlation coefficient of r 2 = 0.9995. The method showed a detection limit of 1.76 × 10 −4 mol L −1 with a relative standard deviation of ± 2% (n = 3) and amperometric sensitivity of 1.865 A/mol L −1 . - Highlights: • Functionalization of silsesquioxane with Purpald compound • Characterization of silsesquioxane was done with FT-IR, NMR, SEM, EDX and VC. • The modified silsesquioxane was interacted with AgNO 3 and K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]. • The composite was tested by cyclic voltammetry for detection of L-cysteine

  1. Silsesquioxane organofunctionalized with 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole: Preparation and subsequent reaction with silver and potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) for detection of L-cysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Devaney R. do, E-mail: docarmo@dfq.feis.unesp.br; Silvestrini, Daniela R.; Silveira, Tayla F.S. da; Cumba, Loanda R.; Dias Filho, Newton L.; Soares, Layciane A.

    2015-12-01

    The octakis(3-chloropropyl)octasilsesquioxane (SS) was organofunctionalized with 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (Purpald). The functionalized silsesquioxane with Purpald (SP) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After functionalized, silsesquioxane can interact with silver nitrate and subsequently with potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) (AgHSP). The novel hybrid composite formed (AgHSP) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). AgHSP was electrochemically characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using graphite paste electrode. The AgHSP incorporated into a graphite paste electrode (20% w/w) was tested for detection of L-cysteine. The modified electrode showed a linear response from 9.0 × 10{sup −5} to 5.0 × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1} with the corresponding equation Y(A) = 0.01315 + 1.865 [L-cysteine], and a correlation coefficient of r{sup 2} = 0.9995. The method showed a detection limit of 1.76 × 10{sup −4} mol L{sup −1} with a relative standard deviation of ± 2% (n = 3) and amperometric sensitivity of 1.865 A/mol L{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Functionalization of silsesquioxane with Purpald compound • Characterization of silsesquioxane was done with FT-IR, NMR, SEM, EDX and VC. • The modified silsesquioxane was interacted with AgNO{sub 3} and K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]. • The composite was tested by cyclic voltammetry for detection of L-cysteine.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Na(Gd0.5Lu0.5)F4: Nd3+,a core-shell free multifunctional contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimun, L Christopher; Ajithkumar, G; Rightsell, Chris; Langloss, Brian W; Therien, Michael J; Sardar, Dhiraj K

    2017-02-25

    Compared to conventional core-shell structures, core-shell free nanoparticles with multiple functionalities offer several advantages such as minimal synthetic complexity and low production cost. In this paper, we present the synthesis and characterization of Nd 3+ doped Na(Gd 0.5 Lu 0.5 )F 4 as a core-shell free nanoparticle system with three functionalities. Nanocrystals with 20 nm diameter, high crystallinity and a narrow particle size distributions were synthesized by the solvothermal method and characterized by various analytical techniques to understand their phase and morphology. Fluorescence characteristics under near infrared (NIR) excitation at 808 nm as well as X-ray excitation were studied to explore their potential in NIR optical and X-ray imaging. At 1.0 mol% Nd concentration, we observed a quantum yield of 25% at 1064 nm emission with 13 W/cm 2 excitation power density which is sufficiently enough for imaging applications. Under 130 kVp (5 mA) power of X-ray excitation, Nd 3+ doped Na(Gd 0.5 Lu 0.5 )F 4 shows the characteristic emission bands of Gd 3+ and Nd 3+ with the strongest emission peak at 1064 nm due to Nd 3+ . Furthermore, magnetization measurements show that the nanocrystals are paramagnetic in nature with a calculated magnetic moment per particle of ~570 μB at 2T. These preliminary results support the suitability of the present nanophosphor as a multimodal contrast agent with three imaging features viz. optical, magnetic and X-ray.

  3. Non power applications of nuclear technology: The case of Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaumotte, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The historical review and oversight of Belgium activities in applications of nuclear technologies has been presented. Especially attention have been paid on industrial applications as sterilization of surgical tools, medical supplies, drugs, food; radiation induced polymerization and composite materials production; nondestructive testing and application of sealed sources in industry. The detailed review has been done on nuclear medicine development in Belgium covering the range of therapeutic applications as well as diagnostic techniques

  4. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy Caparros Megido; Sandrine Desmedt; Christophe Blecker; François Béra; Éric Haubruge; Taofic Alabi; Frédéric Francis

    2017-01-01

    Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crick...

  5. Na2SO4-based solid electrolytes for SOx sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, N.; Schoonman, J.; Toft Sørensen, O.

    1992-01-01

    on the phases present and the structure of the specimens. From a point of view of practical application as SOx sensor material, the Na2SO4 + 5 mol% Y2(SO4)3 + Na2WO4 and Na2SO4+ 4 mol% La2(SO4)3 + Na2WO4 materials are better than undoped Na2SO4 because of their higher conductivity, and absence of a phase...

  6. rac-6-Hydroxy-4-(4-nitrophenyl-5-(2-thienylcarbonyl-6-(trifluoromethyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2(1H-one monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Li Zhang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H12F3N3O5S·H2O, was prepared by reaction of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(thiophen-2-ylbutane-1,3-dione and urea. The asymmetric unit contains two independent molecules, with essentially identical geometries and conformations. The dihydropyrimidine rings adopt a half-chair conformation. The dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the thiophene ring are 54.82 (8 and 58.72 (8° in the two molecules. The molecular conformation of one of the molecules is stabilized by two intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating an S(6 ring. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of the novel rare earth orthophosphates Y0.5Er0.5PO4 and Y0.5Yb0.5PO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildhammer, Daniel; Petschnig, Lucas L.; Fuhrmann, Gerda; Heymann, Gunter; Schottenberger, Herwig; Huppertz, Hubert; Tribus, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The new mixed rare earth (RE) orthophosphates Y 0.5 Er 0.5 PO 4 and Y 0.5 Yb 0.5 PO 4 were synthesized by a classical solid state reaction in an electrical furnace at 1200 C. As starting materials, the corresponding rare earth oxides and diammonium hydrogen phosphate were used. The powder diffraction analyses revealed that the new compounds Y 0.5 Er 0.5 PO 4 and Y 0.5 Yb 0.5 PO 4 crystallize in a zircon-type structure being isostructural with the rare earth orthophosphate YPO 4 . Y 0.5 Er 0.5 PO 4 and Y 0.5 Yb 0.5 PO 4 crystallize in the tetragonal space group I4 1 /amd (no. 141) with four formula units in the unit cell. The structural parameters based on Rietveld refinements are a = 687.27(2), c = 601.50(2) pm, V = 0.28412(1) nm 3 , R p = 0.0143, and R wp = 0.0186 (all data) for Y 0.5 Er 0.5 PO 4 and a = 684.61(2), c = 599.31(2) pm, V = 0.28089(2) nm 3 , R p = 0.0242, and R wp = 0.0313 (all data) for Y 0.5 Yb 0.5 PO 4 . Furthermore, the structure of Y 0.5 Er 0.5 PO 4 was refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data: a = 687.78(5), c = 601.85(4) pm, V = 0.28470(5) nm 3 , R 1 = 0.0165, and wR 2 = 0.0385 (all data). In both compounds, the rare earth metal ions are eightfold coordinated by oxygen atoms, forming two unique interlocking tetrahedra with two individual RE-O distances. The tetrahedral phosphate groups [PO 4 ] 3- are slightly distorted in both compounds. The individual rare earth ions share a common position (Wyckoff site 4a). The presence of two rare earth ions in the structures of the new orthophosphates Y 0.5 Er 0.5 PO 4 and Y 0.5 Yb 0.5 PO 4 was additionally confirmed by single-crystal EDX spectroscopy revealing a ratio of 1:1.

  8. N-(3-Chloro-4-ethoxy-1-methyl-1H-indazol-5-yl-4-methoxybenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakima Chicha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The indazole ring system of the title compound, C17H18ClN3O4S, is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0113 Å and forms dihedral angles of 32.22 (8 and 57.5 (3° with the benzene ring and the mean plane through the 4-ethoxy group, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are connected by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds into inversion dimers, which are further linked by π–π interactions between the diazole rings [intercentroid distance = 3.4946 (11 Å], forming chains parallel to [101].

  9. Moléstias em tomateiro cultivado em estufas plásticas em quatro municípios da região central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blume Elena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Moléstias podem atacar severamente hortaliças cultivadas em cultivos protegidos e, para o manejo integrado dessas moléstias, o conhecimento das condições climáticas que favorecem sua incidência nesses cultivos é fundamental. O trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar as moléstias em tomateiro cultivado em estufas plásticas em quatro municípios na região central do Rio Grande do Sul e as condições de temperatura e umidade relativa (UR do ar nas quais elas ocorrem. O estudo foi realizado nos municípios de São Pedro do Sul, São Sepé, Ivorá e Santa Maria (RS, no período de março a outubro de 1998. A temperatura e umidade relativa do ar foram medidas diariamente com um psicrômetro. As moléstias observadas e sua incidência máxima foram: requeima (Phytophthora infestans: 100,0%, pinta-preta (Alternaria solani: 98,1%, mofo cinzento (Botrytis cinerea: 55,4%, cladosporiose (Cladosporuim fulvum: 48,9%, septoriose (Septoria lycopersici: 37,5%, talo-oco (Erwinia spp.: 33,0%, murcha de fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici: 8,4% e podridão de esclerotínia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: 1,3%. Valores de UR superiores a 80%, de maneira geral, aumentaram a incidência das moléstias, em sua maioria de origem fúngica. A incidência de moléstias varia entre municípios de uma mesma região climática de acordo com os fatores meteorológicos e práticas de manejo da cultura.

  10. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in Belgium: a useful indicator for detecting mild iodine deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Vandevijvere

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period 2009-2011 (n = 377713 were included in the study, except those suffering from congenital hypothyroidism and premature neonates. The frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L from 2009 to 2011 in Belgium fluctuated between 2.6 and 3.3% in the centres using the same TSH assay. There was a significant inverse association between neonatal TSH level and birth weight. The longer the duration between birth and screening, the lower the TSH level. Neonatal TSH levels were significantly lower in winter than in spring or autumn and significantly lower in spring and summer than in autumn while significantly higher in spring compared to summer. In conclusion, despite that pregnant women in Belgium are mildly iodine deficient, the frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L was very low, suggesting that the neonatal TSH threshold proposed for detecting iodine deficiency needs to be re-evaluated. Although neonatal TSH is useful to detect severe iodine deficiency, it should not be recommended presently for the evaluation of iodine status in mildly iodine deficient regions.

  11. First Total Synthesis of 4,5-Secoeudesmane-type and Iphionane-type Compounds- Synthesis of 4,5-Dioxo-seco-γ-eudesmol and 5β ,11-Dihydroxyiphionan-4-one

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ 4, 5-Secoeudesmane-type and iphionane-type compounds are sesquiterpenes with new carbon skeletons found in natrual sources in recent years.1-6 The co-occurence of 4, 5-secoeudesmanes, iphionanes and eudesmanes as natrual products suggests that 4, 5-secoeudesmanes, iphionanes most likely are generated biogenetically from eudesmanes, and iphionanes are formed biogenetically by aldol reaction of 4, 5-dioxosecoeudesmanes1,4,6,7. The study on the synthesis of this two kind of new sesquiterpenes has not been reported in the literature.

  12. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activities of Novel 4-(4-(5-methyl-3-arylisoxazol-4-ylthiazol-2-ylpiperidyl Carboxamides and Thiocarboxamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Dong Zhang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel 4-(4-(5-methyl-3-arylisoxazol-4-ylthiazol-2-ylpiperidyl carboxamides and thiocarboxamides were synthesized as potential lead compounds of inhibitors targeting D1 protease in plants. These compounds were designed on the basis of a D1 protease inhibitor hit structure identified by homology modeling and virtual screening. The syntheses of these compounds were accomplished via a four-step procedure including the isoxazole ring formation, a-bromination of acetyl group, thiazole ring formation, and carboxamide/thiocarboxamide attachment. The in vivo herbicidal activity tests show that most compounds possess moderate to good herbicidal activities. The enzyme activity of one compound against the native spinach D1 protease exhibits a competitive inhibition. The results suggest that these compounds are indeed potential inhibitors for targeting D1 protease in plants.

  13. Euthanasia and palliative sedation in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael; Ely, E Wesley

    2018-01-04

    The aim of this article is to use data from Belgium to analyse distinctions between palliative sedation and euthanasia. There is a need to reduce confusion and improve communication related to patient management at the end of life specifically regarding the rapidly expanding area of patient care that incorporates a spectrum of nuanced yet overlapping terms such as palliative care, sedation, palliative sedation, continued sedation, continued sedation until death, terminal sedation, voluntary euthanasia and involuntary euthanasia. Some physicians and nurses mistakenly think that relieving suffering at the end of life by heavily sedating patients is a form of euthanasia, when indeed it is merely responding to the ordinary and proportionate needs of the patient. Concerns are raised about abuse in the form of deliberate involuntary euthanasia, obfuscation and disregard for the processes sustaining the management of refractory suffering at the end of life. Some suggestions designed to improve patient management and prevent potential abuse are offered. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The state of psychiatry in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Marc H M; de Witte, Nele; Dom, Geert

    2012-08-01

    Belgium, at the crossroads of different cultures, developed complex governmental structures hindering the development of comprehensive mental health policies. A total of 10.2% of the gross domestic product is spent on healthcare but only 6.1% of this total expenditure goes to mental health. Although mental healthcare is largely accessible and offers high levels of quality, it is questionable whether this can be maintained, given the economic climate. The collection of epidemiological data is problematic due to the different ways registration takes place within different care systems and the complexity of the state structure and its consecutive constitutional reforms. Coming from a largely hospital-driven psychiatric care, mental healthcare reforms of past decades have created more community-based care and new care pathways, still an on-going process. Psychiatry as a profession is currently challenged. Teaching mental health issues remains extremely limited within medical schools, resources for research are disproportionally limited, and working conditions less favourable, all this compared with other specialisms. Hence few graduates choose a career in psychiatry. Changing the public perception of what psychiatry is about, redefining the identity of psychiatrists as medical specialists, and their work have become important challenges for the next future.

  15. A survey of medical informatics in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, F H; Behets, M; Andre, J; de Moor, G; Sevens, C; Willems, J L

    1987-01-01

    The Belgian Society for Medical Informatics (MIM) organized a survey in 1986 in order to assess the present state of development of medical informatics in Belgium. Questionnaires were sent to hospitals, laboratories, private practitioners and pharmacists, as well as to social security organizations and software industries. The response rate was higher in hospitals (93%) than in any other category. Results showed a large number of computerized hospitals (93% of general acute care hospitals and 91% of psychiatric hospitals). There has been a sharp increase (+ 15%) in computerization of the admission, accounting and billing procedures since 1985, most likely in relation with administrative rules issued by the Belgian Government. The same trend (+ 20%) has been observed for computer applications in clinical laboratories, between 1984 and 1985. There is almost one computer terminal for ten beds in the hospitals with more than 200 beds in 1986. This figure exemplifies the present trend to on-line access to data. Computerized instrumental aids to medicine such as text processing, imaging or computerized interpretation of signals have known a rapid extension during recent years, although less comprehensive than administrative applications in hospitals and in social security organizations. The present state of other applications in medicine (general practice, pharmacy, etc.) was more difficult to assess as those information systems remain more pinpointed. In all medical fields, there appears to be a new rise in computer programs offered by software companies.

  16. Selection of potential sites in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damme, R. van den

    1976-01-01

    The construction of two nuclear power plants of 1000 MW is planned. In the framework of the characteristics of the country (lack of big rivers, population density, etc.) and because of the thermal saturation of the Scheldt and Meuse rivers the two units if installed along these rivers will be cooled in closed circuit. For economic considerations Belgium thought to site them along the coast in open-circuit cooling but for ecological and touristic reasons some opposition arose. A new possible siting could be Doel on the same site of the existing three units with a final concentration of 3000 MW. For the second unit different possible sites exist with some preference for Tihange, where two other units are installed. For the 1985 generation of nuclear power units the siting conditions remain the same: inland siting using cooling towers and coastal sites with open-circuit cooling, with a new possibility of creating artificial islands along the Belgian coast. The technical aspects of this alternative are reviewed. (A.F.)

  17. Mass spectrometric determination of stability of gaseous BaMoO2, Ba2MoO4, Ba2MoO5, Ba2Mo2O8 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudin, L.S.; Balduchchi, Dzh.; Dzhil'i, G.; Gvido, M.

    1982-01-01

    During the mass spectrometric investigation of BaCrO 4 evaporation Cr + , Ba + , BaO + main ions are recorded as well as BaMoO 4 + , BaMoO 3 + , BaMoO 2 + , BaMoO + , BaMoO 4 + , Ba 2 MoO 5 + , BaMo 2 O 8 + ions - the products of ionization of three-component (Ba, Mo, M) molecules, forming as a result of substance chemical interaction with the material of an effusion cell (Mo). Heats of formation of BaMoO 2 , Ba 2 MoO 4 , Ba 2 MoO 5 and Ba 2 Mo 2 O 8 molecules which constituted - 577+-70, -1343+-115, -1464+-70, -2393+-90 k J/mol respectively are determined on the base of the analysis of curves of ionisation efficiency and of reaction heats Ba 2 MoO 5 =BaO+BaMoO 4 , ΔH 0 0 =322+-60 kJ/mol Ba 2 Mo 2 O 8 =2BaMoO 4 , ΔH 0 0 =351+-80 kJ/mol calculated with the use of third low of thermodynamics [ru

  18. Elastic scattering of polarized protons by 20Ne between 4.5 Mev and 5.5 Mev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila A, O.L.

    1979-01-01

    Starting with the study of 20 Ne(p,p) 20 nuclear reaction, we obtained information about the nuclear structure of 21 Na. The experiment was made at Notre Dame University; a target of 20 Ne was bombarded with polarized protons, changing the incident energy of them between 4.5 Mev and 5.5 Mev at intervals of 10 keV. Fourteen detectors were set covering angles from 35 degrees until 165 degrees, with intervals of 10 degrees each. In this form measurements for computing polarization and differential sections were obtained, with them an analysis of runnings of phase was made, and the parameters associated with two of the excited levels of the composed formed nucleous 21 Na, that are viewed as resonances in the section were settled; those resonances correspond to a level Psub(3/2) of energy excitation 6.877, a total width of 36 keV, and a level Fsub(7/2) of energy excitation 6.992 and total width of 48 keV. I hope that these results will be part of a set of values that will be utilized in order to confront them with the existent nuclear models. (author)

  19. Ethyl (E)-2-(2,7-dimethyl-5-oxo-4H,5H-pyrano[4,3-b]pyran-4-ylidene)acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Oulemda Bassou; Hakima Chicha; Latifa Bouissane; El Mostapha Rakib; Mohamed Saadi; Lahcen El Ammari

    2017-01-01

    In the title compound, C14H14O5, the two heterocyclic rings are coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.008 Å), with the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.012 (1) Å. The mean plane through the acetate group is inclined slightly with respect to the oxopyrano[4,3-b]pyran-4-yl system, as indicated by the dihedral angle of 1.70 (7)° between them. Two intramolecular hydrogen bonds, completing S(6) ring motifs, are observed in the molecule. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O hy...

  20. Synthesis and muscarinic receptor pharmacology of a series of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisothiazolo[4,5-c]pyridine bioisosteres of arecoline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H; Bräuner-Osborne, H; Ball, R G

    1999-01-01

    A series of O- and ring-alkylated derivatives of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisothiazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-3-ol was synthesized via treatment of appropriately substituted 4-benzylamino-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carboxamides with hydrogen sulfide and subsequent ring closure by oxidation with bromine. The mus...

  1. Application of 1-ethyl-3-(2,5-dihydro-4-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) -5-oxo-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)thiourea as sensing material for construction of Tm3+-PVC membrane sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali; Feizyzadeh, Babak; Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    A thulium(III) membrane sensor was made using 2% sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB), 65% dibutylphthalate (DBP), 30% poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and 3% 1-ethyl-3-(2,5-dihydro-4-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) -5-oxo-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)thiourea (ET) as an ionophore. Conductometric study shows selectivity of the Et toward Tm 3+ ions. Nernstian response of 19.6 ± 0.4 mV per decade of thulium concentration was observed, and the electrode worked well in concentration range of 1.0 x 10 -6 to 1.0 x 10 -2 mol L -1 with a lower detection limit (LDL) of 7.2 x 10 -7 mol L -1 , in a pH range of 4.3-10.4. The selectivity of the sensor over alkaline, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions was also found to be in a satisfactory range. To check the analytical applicability of the proposed Tm 3+ sensor, it was successfully used as an indicator electrode in analysis of thulium in certified reference materials. - Research highlights: → This work reports development of polymeric membrane sensor for Tm3+ determination in certified reference materials. → The novelty of this work is based on the high affinity of the ionophore toward the Tm3+ ions which causes the high selectivity of the sensor. → The newly developed sensor is superior to the formerly reported Tm3+ sensors in terms of selectivity and detection limit.

  2. Application of 1-ethyl-3-(2,5-dihydro-4-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) -5-oxo-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)thiourea as sensing material for construction of Tm{sup 3+}-PVC membrane sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali, E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Quchan branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Feizyzadeh, Babak [Department of Applied Chemistry, Quchan branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-10

    A thulium(III) membrane sensor was made using 2% sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB), 65% dibutylphthalate (DBP), 30% poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and 3% 1-ethyl-3-(2,5-dihydro-4-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl) -5-oxo-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)thiourea (ET) as an ionophore. Conductometric study shows selectivity of the Et toward Tm{sup 3+} ions. Nernstian response of 19.6 {+-} 0.4 mV per decade of thulium concentration was observed, and the electrode worked well in concentration range of 1.0 x 10{sup -6} to 1.0 x 10{sup -2} mol L{sup -1} with a lower detection limit (LDL) of 7.2 x 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1}, in a pH range of 4.3-10.4. The selectivity of the sensor over alkaline, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions was also found to be in a satisfactory range. To check the analytical applicability of the proposed Tm{sup 3+} sensor, it was successfully used as an indicator electrode in analysis of thulium in certified reference materials. - Research highlights: {yields} This work reports development of polymeric membrane sensor for Tm3+ determination in certified reference materials. {yields} The novelty of this work is based on the high affinity of the ionophore toward the Tm3+ ions which causes the high selectivity of the sensor. {yields} The newly developed sensor is superior to the formerly reported Tm3+ sensors in terms of selectivity and detection limit.

  3. Methyl 6-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-oxo-4-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Veizerová

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H16N2O5, belongs to the class of monastrol-type anti-cancer agents and was selected for crystal structure determination in order to determine the conformational details needed for subsequent structure–activity relationship studies. The central tetrahydropyrimidine ring has a flat-envelope conformation. The 4-phenyl group occupies a pseudo-axial position and is inclined at an angle of ca 90° to the mean plane of the heterocyclic ring. Of the two methyl ester groups, one (in the 5-position is in a coplanar and the other (in the 6-position in a perpendicular orientation with respect to the heterocyclic plane. The coplanar 5-ester group has its carbonyl bond oriented cis with respect to the pyrimidine C=C double bond. By comparison of the structural results for the present compound with those determined previously for its diethyl analogue, we have identified the molecular factors which control the dual course of the Biginelli reaction with salicylaldehyde. The crystal structure is dominated by two hydrogen bonds which link the molecules into chains of dimers.

  4. Influence of degree of methyl methacrylate polymerization on spectroscopic properties of ethyl 5-(4-aminophenyl)- and 5-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-3-amino-2,4-dicyanobenzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Józefowicz, M.; Bajorek, A.; Pietrzak, M.; Jędrzejewska, B.; Heldt, J.R.; Heldt, J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of degree of methyl methacrylate (MM) polymerization on the both emission modes (LE—locally excited and ICT—intramolecular charge transfer) of the fluorescence spectrum of ethyl 5-(4-aminophenyl)-3-amino-2,4-dicyanobenzoate (EAADCy) and ethyl 5-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-3-amino-2,4-dicyanobenzoate (EDMAADCy) has been studied using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic technique. The purpose of these studies was to find a relationship between the changes in the spectroscopic characteristics (fluorescence intensity, wavelength of maximum intensity, fluorescence full-width at half maximum, emission anisotropy, fluorescence decay time) of the tested compounds and degree of monomer conversion into polymer. On the basis of the experimental results, it was shown that the ICT fluorescence full-width at half maximum for EDMAADCy shows a linear dependence on the time of MM polymerization. Our findings predestine the molecule EDMAADCy to be used as fluorescence probe for monitoring the polymerization process of MM. - Highlights: ► The fluorescence excitation and emission spectra in MM possess a complex nature. ► Fluorescence decay kinetics for different degrees of polymerization of MM were investigated. ► The ICT fluorescence FWHM for EDMAADCy shows a linear dependence on the time of polymerization. ► EDMAADCy can be used as fluorescence probe for monitoring the polymerization process of MM

  5. ejesm.v10i4.5

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-05-25

    May 25, 2017 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 10(4): 472 – 481, 2017. ISSN:1998- ..... the fundamental principles of modern ... culmination of a trend earlier in evidence .... levy was introduced, collection logistics.

  6. 4 CFR 2.5 - Prohibited personnel practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791); or (5) On the basis of marital status or political affiliation, as... evaluation of the work performance, ability, aptitude, or general qualifications of such individual, or (2...

  7. 5 CFR 2413.4 - Closing of meetings; reasons therefor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... otherwise involving a determination on the record after opportunity for a hearing, or any court proceedings... confidential trade secrets and commercial or financial information); (c)(5) (matters of alleged criminal...

  8. 76 FR 66271 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... production facilities, supplier relationships, management, and customer base of Aperam are substantially... facilities; (3) supplier relationships; and (4) customer base. See, e.g., Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire... Belgium N.V. resulted in little or no change in management, production facility, supplier relationships...

  9. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of KPb{sub 4−x}Ca{sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5) for oxidation of cadmium at graphite electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahrich, Sara [Univ Hassan 1, Laboratoire de Chimie et Modélisation Mathématique, Faculté Polydisciplinaire, 25000 Khouribga (Morocco); Univ Hassan 1, Laboratoire Sciences des Matériaux, des Milieux et de la Modélisation, Faculté Polydisciplinaire, 25000 Khouribga (Morocco); Manoun, Bouchaib [Univ Hassan 1, Laboratoire Sciences des Matériaux, des Milieux et de la Modélisation, Faculté Polydisciplinaire, 25000 Khouribga (Morocco); El Mhammedi, Moulay Abderrahim, E-mail: elmhammedi@yahoo.fr [Univ Hassan 1, Laboratoire de Chimie et Modélisation Mathématique, Faculté Polydisciplinaire, 25000 Khouribga (Morocco)

    2017-02-15

    Chemically modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) for cadmium (II) analysis has been constructed by mixing KPb{sub 4−x}Ca{sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5) (CaLA) and graphite powder. The lacunar apatite was synthesized using solid reaction and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Raman spectroscopy. The refinement study was carried out using Rietveld method where the obtained results show a good agreement between the observed and calculated patterns. The detection of cadmium (II) was investigated in acetate buffer (pH 4.5) using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). The limit of detection obtained under the optimized experimental conditions was 5.35 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1} with a relative standard deviation of 2.37%. Possible interferences were tested and evaluated in 5.0 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1} cadmium (II) in the presence of other inorganic ions. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine cadmium (II) in seawater and mussel samples. Hence, the satisfactory results confirm the applicability of this sensor in practical analysis. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of new lacunar apatites KPb{sub 4−x}Ca{sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5). • Structural refinement of these compounds using Rietveld method. • A study of Ca doping effect in lacunar apatites for detecting Cd (II). • The electrochemical oxidation of Cd (II) was performed at CaLA-CPE using DPASV. • The proposed method was evaluated to detect cadmium in seawater and mussel samples.

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of KPb_4_−_xCa_x(PO_4)_3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5) for oxidation of cadmium at graphite electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahrich, Sara; Manoun, Bouchaib; El Mhammedi, Moulay Abderrahim

    2017-01-01

    Chemically modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) for cadmium (II) analysis has been constructed by mixing KPb_4_−_xCa_x(PO_4)_3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5) (CaLA) and graphite powder. The lacunar apatite was synthesized using solid reaction and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Raman spectroscopy. The refinement study was carried out using Rietveld method where the obtained results show a good agreement between the observed and calculated patterns. The detection of cadmium (II) was investigated in acetate buffer (pH 4.5) using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). The limit of detection obtained under the optimized experimental conditions was 5.35 × 10"−"7 mol L"−"1 with a relative standard deviation of 2.37%. Possible interferences were tested and evaluated in 5.0 × 10"−"5 mol L"−"1 cadmium (II) in the presence of other inorganic ions. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine cadmium (II) in seawater and mussel samples. Hence, the satisfactory results confirm the applicability of this sensor in practical analysis. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of new lacunar apatites KPb_4_−_xCa_x(PO_4)_3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5). • Structural refinement of these compounds using Rietveld method. • A study of Ca doping effect in lacunar apatites for detecting Cd (II). • The electrochemical oxidation of Cd (II) was performed at CaLA-CPE using DPASV. • The proposed method was evaluated to detect cadmium in seawater and mussel samples.

  11. Landslides in Flanders (Belgium): Where science meets public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Vandekerckhove, L.

    2009-04-01

    Although scientific research on landslides in the Flemish Ardennes (710 km²; Belgium), has been conducted over the last decades, the Flemish Government only took account of slope failure as a soil degradation process after the occurrence of several damaging landslides in the beginning of the 21st century. Here we aim to present the successful collaboration between the Physical and Regional Geography Research Group (FRG; Dept. Earth and Environmental Sciences K.U.Leuven) and the Environment, Nature and Energy Department (LNE; Flemish Government) in landslide management. We will demonstrate how geomorphologists produced practical tools for landslide management which can be directly applied by LNE as well as other local and regional authorities and planners. Since 2004 three projects on landslide inventory mapping and susceptibility assessment in the Flemish Ardennes have been funded by LNE, and a fourth one on landslide susceptibility assessment in remaining hilly regions in Flanders west of Brussels recently started. Together with a steering committee composed of stakeholders, persons from LNE supervise the research carried out by geomorphologists experienced in landslide studies. For the establishment of the landslide inventory map of the Flemish Ardennes we combined the analysis of LIDAR-derived hillshade and contour line maps with detailed field controls. Additional information was collected through interviews with local authorities and inhabitants and from analysis of newspaper articles and technical reports. Then, a statistical model, logistic regression, was applied to produce a high quality classified landslide susceptibility map. The unique part of this collaboration is that all end products are online available at user-friendly websites designed by LNE. The scientific report containing (1) general information on landslides, (2) a description of the study area, (3) an explanation of the materials and methods used, (4) a presentation of the resulting

  12. High trait aggression in men is associated with low 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4 receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Fisher, Patrick MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    of 5-HT, we here test the hypothesis in healthy men and women that brain 5-HT levels, as indexed by cerebral 5-HT4R, are inversely correlated with trait aggression and impulsivity. Sixty-one individuals (47 men) underwent positron emission tomography scanning with the radioligand [(11)C]SB207145......Impulsive aggression has commonly been associated with a dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system: many, but not all, studies point to an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression. As cerebral 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) binding has recently been recognized as a proxy for stable brain levels...... for quantification of brain 5-HT4R binding. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used for assessment of trait aggression and trait impulsivity. Among male subjects, there was a positive correlation between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ total score (P = 0.037) as well...

  13. Hot corrosion behavior of nanostructured Gd2O3 doped YSZ thermal barrier coating in presence of Na2SO4 + V2O5 molten salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiong Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-based superalloy DZ125 was first sprayed with a NiCrAlY bond coat and followed with a nanostructured 2 mol% Gd2O3−4.5 mol% Y2O3-ZrO2 (2GdYSZ topcoat using air plasma spraying (APS. Hot corrosion behavior of the as-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs were investigated in the presence of 50 wt% Na2SO4 + 50 wt% V2O5 as the corrosive molten salt at 900 °C for 100 h. The analysis results indicate that Gd doped YVO4 and m-ZrO2 crystals were formed as corrosion products due to the reaction of the corrosive salts with stabilizers (Y2O3, Gd2O3 of zirconia. Cross-section morphology shows that a thin layer called TGO was formed at the bond coat/topcoat interface. After hot corrosion test, the proportion of m-ZrO2 phase in nanostructured 2GdYSZ coating is lower than that of nano-YSZ coating. The result reveals that nanostructured 2GdYSZ coating exhibits a better hot corrosion resistance than nano-YSZ coating.

  14. 3-(4-Fluorophenylsulfinyl-5-iodo-2-methyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H10FIO2S, the O atom and the 4-fluorophenyl group of the 4-fluorophenylsulfinyl substituent are located on opposite sides of the plane through the benzofuran fragment; the 4-fluorophenyl ring is nearly perpendicular to this plane, making a dihedral angle of 83.37 (7°. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds and an I...O interaction [I...O = 3.255 (2 Å]. The crystal structure also exhibits intermolecular C—F...π interactions [3.068 (2 Å], and aromatic π–π interactions between the furan and benzene rings of neighbouring benzofuran fragments [centroid–centroid distance = 3.636 (2 Å].

  15. Data on short-term effect of nitrogen dioxide on cardiovascular health in Wallonia, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Collart

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Data presented in this article are related to the research paper entitled “Short-term effects of nitrogen dioxide on hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Wallonia, Belgium.” (Collart et al., in press [1].Nitrogen dioxide concentrations showed a strong seasonal pattern with higher levels in the cold period than in the warm period. A minimum of 13.1 µg/m3 in July and a maximum of 26.9 µg/m3 in January were observed. The coldest months are December, January and February and the hottest months are June, July and August. Temperature and nitrogen dioxide were negatively correlated in the cold period and positively correlated in the warm period.For the period 2008–2011 there were 113 147 hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. Forty-five percent of patients were women and 66.5% were 65 and older. Heart rhythm disorders account for the majority of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. Our data confirms the existence of an association between NO2 and cardiovascular disease. Apart from haemorrhagic stroke, the strongest association between NO2 concentrations and number of hospital admissions is observed at lag 0. For haemorrhagic stroke, the association is strongest with a delay of 2 days. All associations calculated without stratification are statistically significant and range from an excess relative risk of 2.8% for myocardial infarction to 4.9% for haemorrhagic strokes.

  16. The synthesis of 7-chloro-5-pentadeuteriophenyl-1-methyl-1H-1, 5-benzodiazepine-2,4(3H, 5H)dione ([2H5]clobazam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borel, A.G.; Abbott, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    Pentadeuteriophenyl clobazam was synthesized in essentially quantitative isotopic purity, and characterized by 1 H-NMR and mass spectroscopy. The title compound was found to be >98% pure by HPLC, and its retention time (t R 6.17 min) was less than that of an authentic clobazam standard (t R 6.32 min). Of the five steps in the synthesis of clobazam, the most susceptible to deuterium exchange was the nucleophilic substitution of 2,4-dichloronitrobenzene by aniline-d 7 to form N-(5-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)penta-deuteriophenylamine. In this step, the isotopic impurity aniline-2,3,4,5-d 5 introduced protons from nitrogen into the ortho and para positions of the deuteriophenyl ring of N-(5-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)pentadeuteriophenylamine. (author)

  17. High trait aggression in men is associated with low 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4 receptor binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; MacDonald Fisher, Patrick; Jensen, Peter Steen; Svarer, Claus; Moos Knudsen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Impulsive aggression has commonly been associated with a dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) system: many, but not all, studies point to an inverse relationship between 5-HT and aggression. As cerebral 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) binding has recently been recognized as a proxy for stable brain levels of 5-HT, we here test the hypothesis in healthy men and women that brain 5-HT levels, as indexed by cerebral 5-HT4R, are inversely correlated with trait aggression and impulsivity. Sixty-one individuals (47 men) underwent positron emission tomography scanning with the radioligand [11C]SB207145 for quantification of brain 5-HT4R binding. The Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used for assessment of trait aggression and trait impulsivity. Among male subjects, there was a positive correlation between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ total score (P = 0.037) as well as BPAQ physical aggression (P = 0.025). No main effect of global 5-HT4R on trait aggression or impulsivity was found in the mixed gender sample, but there was evidence for sex interaction effects in the relationship between global 5-HT4R and BPAQ physical aggression. In conclusion we found that low cerebral 5-HT levels, as indexed by 5-HT4R binding were associated with high trait aggression in males, but not in females. PMID:26772668

  18. Tradable green certificates in Flanders (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides details on green certificate systems in Belgium. The Flemish region has established a system and the Walloon region is preparing a slightly different one. The lack of uniformity and consequently of transparency in one country emphasises the need for more EU leadership in the field. The main part of the article analyses the established Flemish system. Green certificates are complementary to other instruments that promote renewable electricity, e.g. direct subventions on the feed-in price of green electricity or direct subventions on capital investments. Certificates execute a forcing effect on the actual development of green power if the imposed shares of green power in total sales are significant and if the fine level is at the height to enforce the quota. If the fine is too low the incentive effect turns into a financing tax effect. When the green certificate system does the job it is designed for, i.e. operating at the edge of the RES-E development and organise the transition from a non-sustainable to a sustainable power system, certificate prices will be high and reduce end-use consumption of electricity. A segmentation of the RES-E sector along the various RES-E technologies is a necessity to keep any certificate system affordable, effective and efficient. One can segment the tradable certificate market or one can assign a different number of certificates to a different RES-E technology project. Both solutions require an intensive follow-up of cost structures and of other policy measures (subventions), but given the infant state of understanding and experience segmenting markets may be best in the nearby years. (Author)

  19. IDF-curves for precipitation In Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohymont, Bernard; Demarde, Gaston R.

    2004-01-01

    The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves for precipitation constitute a relationship between the intensity, the duration and the frequency of rainfall amounts. The intensity of precipitation is expressed in mm/h, the duration or aggregation time is the length of the interval considered while the frequency stands for the probability of occurrence of the event. IDF-curves constitute a classical and useful tool that is primarily used to dimension hydraulic structures in general, as e.g., sewer systems and which are consequently used to assess the risk of inundation. In this presentation, the IDF relation for precipitation is studied for different locations in Belgium. These locations correspond to two long-term, high-quality precipitation networks of the RMIB: (a) the daily precipitation depths of the climatological network (more than 200 stations, 1951-2001 baseline period); (b) the high-frequency 10-minutes precipitation depths of the hydro meteorological network (more than 30 stations, 15 to 33 years baseline period). For the station of Uccle, an uninterrupted time-series of more than one hundred years of 10-minutes rainfall data is available. The proposed technique for assessing the curves is based on maximum annual values of precipitation. A new analytical formula for the IDF-curves was developed such that these curves stay valid for aggregation times ranging from 10 minutes to 30 days (when fitted with appropriate data). Moreover, all parameters of this formula have physical dimensions. Finally, adequate spatial interpolation techniques are used to provide nationwide extreme values precipitation depths for short- to long-term durations With a given return period. These values are estimated on the grid points of the Belgian ALADIN-domain used in the operational weather forecasts at the RMIB.(Author)

  20. Electrical analysis of inter-growth structured Bi4Ti3O12-Na0.5Bi4.5Ti4O15 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangping; Jiang, Yalin; Jiang, Xingan; Chen, Chao; Tu, Na; Chen, Yunjing

    2017-06-01

    Inter-growth bismuth layer-structured ferroelectrics (BLSFs), Bi4Ti3O12-Na0.5Bi4.5Ti4O15 (BIT-NBT), were successfully synthesized using the traditional solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) Rietveld refinements were conducted using GSAS software. Good agreement and low residual are obtained. The XRD diffraction peaks can be well indexed into I2cm space group. The inter-growth structure was further observed in the high-resolution TEM image. Dielectric and impedance properties were measured and systematically analyzed. At the temperature range 763-923 K (below {T}{{c}}), doubly ionized oxygen vacancies (OVs) are localized and the short-range hopping leads to the relaxation processes with an activation energy of 0.79-1.01 eV. Above {T}{{c}}, the doubly charged OVs are delocalized and become free ones, which contribute to the long-range dc conduction. The reduction in relaxation species gives rise to a higher relaxation activation energy ˜1.6  eV. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51562014, 51262009, and 51602135).

  1. Provisional PDF Published 5 March 2010 Research, volume 4, issue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cqq1a

    2010-03-05

    Mar 5, 2010 ... prothrombotic state, microalbuminuria, higher systolic hypertension, increased body mass index, fasting serum lipids and blood sugar levels [12-15]. Left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass index more than two standard deviations of normal is defined as Echo LVH. One of the echocardiographic ...

  2. 5 CFR 2430.4 - Allowable fees and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....00 per hour, indexed to reflect cost of living increases as follows: ER28FE00.001 (ii) The cost of living index to be used is the Consumer Price Index, All Urban Consumers, U.S. City Average, All Items... complexity of the issues in the proceeding; and (5) Such other factors as may bear on the value of the...

  3. Synthesis, physical and chemical properties, antihypoxic activity of some 5-[((5-(adamantane-1-yl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiomethyl]-N-R1-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-amines and 5-[((5-(adamantane-1-yl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiomethyl]-4-R1-4H-1,2,4-t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Odyntsova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, an increase of natural and technogenic situations leads to the disorders of the central nervous system, functional-metabolic processes, vascular diseases, in particular, acute cerebral blood flow disorders. In addition, the changes occurring on the molecular and cellular levels are in the basis of the functional violations of individual systems and the organism as a whole. Hypoxia not only complicates the disease course, but in most cases, determines its outcome. The important role in the fight against hypoxia belongs to antioxidants, which improve the circulating oxygen utilization by the body, reduce its need for the organs and tissues, which is not only expedient but necessary for the treatment of many acute and chronic pathological processes. So, the frequency of the hypoxic states and a wide range of factors causing them determine the relevance of new ways and methods finding to overcome the oxygen deficiency. The aim of this work is the purposeful search of some 5-[((5-(adamantane-1-yl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiomethyl]-N-R1-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-amines and 5-[((5-(adamantane-1-yl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiomethyl]-4-R1-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols, the study of their physical and chemical properties and pharmacological screening of the antihypoxic activity of the obtained compounds. Materials and methods. The study of physical and chemical properties was conducted on certified and licensed modern equipment. Antihypoxic activity was studied during the modeling process of hypoxia with hypercapnia. Mexidol was used as a comparison drug in studies at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Results. As the result of the study, it was found that the synthesized compounds and the comparison drug influenced on rats’ life span differently. Compounds, the antihypoxic activity of which exceeded control have been discovered, and others’ were at the level of Mexidol. A number of compounds showed a somewhat less activity in comparison with control, and two

  4. 5-Bromo-3-(4-chlorophenylsulfinyl-2-methyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H10BrClO2S, the 4-chlorophenyl ring is oriented approximately perpendicular to the mean plane of the benzofuran ring [dihedral angle = 89.55 (9°]. In the crystal, molecules are linked through weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds and and a Br...Br contact [3.783 (3 Å].

  5. 5-Diethylamino-2-[(E-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyliminomethyl]phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esen Nur Kantar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The title Schiff base, C19H24N2O3, exists in the crystal structure in the phenol–imine tautomeric form with an intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond. The planes of the aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 36.8 (8°. The crystal packing is characterized by C—H...O hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.478 (4Å].

  6. FDS5 Simulation of PRISME INTEGRAL Test, PRSINT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Seok

    2012-01-01

    The reliance on fire modeling has playing a key role in the risk-informed and performance-based fire protection field. The ability to accurately predict fire behavior using the fire models is of high utility for hazard assessment, investigations and performance based design. Validation is the process of determining the degree of agreement between fire model outputs and real world events for one or more results of interest. The goal of validation is to quantify confidence in the predictive capability of the model. Validation in NUREG-1824 entails comparing the model prediction with full-scale fire experiments and quantifying the results. The objectives of this study, focused on the fire model validation, are to compare the FDS5 prediction results with the PRISME INTEGRAL test data and to validate FDS5 model

  7. Ethyl 2-(3,4-dimethyl-5,5-dioxo-1H,4H-benzo[e]pyrazolo[4,3-c][1,2]thiazin-1-ylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Aslam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C15H17N3O4S, the heterocyclic thiazine ring adopts a twist-boat conformation, which differs from that in related compounds, with adjacent S and C atoms displaced by 0.981 (4 and 0.413 (5 Å, respectively, on the same side of the mean plane formed by the remaining ring atoms. The mean plane of the benzene ring makes a dihedral angle of 23.43 (14° with the mean plane of the pyrazole ring. In the crystal, molecules are connected by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional network. The H atoms of the methyl group attached to the pyrazole ring were refined over six sites with equal occupancies.

  8. Synthesis and biological activity of novel series of 4-methoxy, and 4,9-dimethoxy-5-substituted furo[2,3-g]-1,2,3-benzoxathiazine-7,7-dioxide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sawy, Eslam R; Ebaid, Manal S; Abo-Salem, Heba M; El-Hallouty, Salwa; Kassem, Emad M; Mandour, Adel H

    2014-05-01

    A novel series of 4-methoxy, and 4,9-dimethoxy-5-substituted furo[2,3-g]-1,2,3-benzoxathiazine-7,7-dioxide derivatives 3a,b, 10a-g and 11a-g were prepared in good yields via the reaction of 4-methoxy (1a) and 4,7-dimethoxy-5-acetyl-6-hydroxybenzofurans (1b) and their α,β-unsaturated keto derivatives 6a-g and 7a-g with chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI). On the other hand, N-chlorosulfonyl carbamate derivatives 4a,b, 12a,b and 13a,b were prepared and allowed to react with piperidine to give the corresponding N-piperidinosulfonyl carbamate derivatives 5a,b, 14a,b and 15a,b, respectively. Sixteen new target compounds 3a,b, 10a-g, and 11a-g were tested for their DPPH radical-scavenging, and in vitro antiproliferative activity against A-549, MCF7 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines. Compounds 10a, 11c, 11e, and 11g showed moderate DPPH radical-scavenging activity compared to ascorbic acid at 100 μg/mL. 4,9-Dimethoxy-5-substituted styrylfuro[3,2-g]-1,2,3-benzoxathiazine-7,7-dioxides 11a, 11b, and 11c were found to be highly active against A-549 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.02 to 0.08 μmol/mL compared to doxorubicin with IC50 = 0.04 and 0.06 μmol/mL, respectively.

  9. Crystal structure of 2-diazoimidazole-4,5-dicarbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon A. Parrish

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C5N6, all the atoms are approximately coplanar. In the crystal, molecules are packed with short contact distances of 2.885 (2 (between the diazo N atom connected to the ring and a cyano N atom on a neighboring molecule and 3.012 (2 Å (between the terminal diazo N atom and an N atom of a neighboring imidazole ring.

  10. Ethyl (E-2-(2,7-dimethyl-5-oxo-4H,5H-pyrano[4,3-b]pyran-4-ylideneacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oulemda Bassou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C14H14O5, the two heterocyclic rings are coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.008 Å, with the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.012 (1 Å. The mean plane through the acetate group is inclined slightly with respect to the oxopyrano[4,3-b]pyran-4-yl system, as indicated by the dihedral angle of 1.70 (7° between them. Two intramolecular hydrogen bonds, completing S(6 ring motifs, are observed in the molecule. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the same acceptor atom, forming chains propagating along the c-axis direction and enclosing R21(6 ring motifs. The chains are linked via offset π–π interactions [intercentroid distance = 3.622 (1 Å], involving inversion-related oxopyrano[4,3-b]pyran-4-yl ring systems, forming slabs parallel to the bc plane.

  11. (4Z-4-[1-(2-Aminoanilinoethylidene]-3-methyl-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Samba

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The conformation of the title compound, C18H18N4O, is partly determined by an intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond that imposes planarity on the central aminoethylidene-3-methylpyrazol-5-one segment of the molecule. In the crystal, N—H...O hydrogen and N—H...N hydrogen bonds both form centrosymmetric dimers that enclose R22(18 rings. These, together with C—H...N and π–π stacking interactions between centrosymmetrically related pyrazalone rings, stack the molecules along the b-axis direction.

  12. Mineralization of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) and Mixtures of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, J. S.; Reddy, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence is presented for mineralization of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in nutrient-rich media (high-nitrogen and malt extract media) by wild-type Phanerochaete chrysosporium and by a peroxidase-negative mutant of this organism. Mass balance analysis of [U-ring-14C]2,4-D mineralization in malt extract cultures showed 82.7% recovery of radioactivity. Of this, 38.6% was released as 14CO2 and 27.0, 11.2, and 5.9% were present in the aqueous, methylene chloride, and mycelial fractions, respectively. 2,4-D and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) were simultaneously mineralized when presented as a mixture, and mutual inhibition of degradation was not observed. In contrast, a relatively higher rate of mineralization of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T was observed when these compounds were tested as mixtures than when they were tested alone. PMID:16349039

  13. 3-Benzyl-4-ethyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H-thione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Karczmarzyk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H13N3S, exists in the 5-thioxo tautomeric form. The benzene ring exhibits disorder with a refined ratio of 0.77 (2:0.23 (2 for components A and B with a common bridgehead C atom. The 1,2,4-triazole ring is essentially planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.002 (3 Å for the benzyl-substituted C atom, and forms dihedral angles of 88.94 (18 and 86.56 (49° with the benzene rings of components A and B, respectively. The angle between the plane of the ethyl chain and the mean plane of 1,2,4-triazole ring is 88.55 (15° and this conformation is stabilized by an intramolecular C—H...S contact. In the crystal, pairs of N—H...S hydrogen bonds link molecules into inversion dimers. π–π interactions are observed between the triazole and benzene rings, with centroid–centroid separations of 3.547 (4 and 3.544 (12 Å for components A and B, and slippages of 0.49 (6 and 0.58 (15 Å, respectively.

  14. The BINA collaboration: science at the Royal Observatory of Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cat, Peter; Cuypers, Jan; Blomme, Ronny; Frémat, Yves; Groenewegen, Martin; Lampens, Patricia; Lobel, Alex; Pauwels, Thierry; Van de Steene, Griet; van Hoof, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The Belgo-Indian Network for Astronomy and Astrophysics (BINA) is a collaboration between Indian and Belgian astronomical institutes with the main aim to optimize the scientific output of the Indo-Belgian telescopes, being the 4.0-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope and the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope. These new facilities are both located at the Devasthal Observatory near Nainital, India. In this contribution, we introduce projects that are of scientific interest for colleagues of the department "Astronomy and Astrophysics" of the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB). It serves as an invitation for Indian astronomers to participate. We highlight how these projects could benefit from observations with the Indo-Belgian telescopes by using instruments from the first-generation (currently offered) and/or the next-generation (development or design phase). We show that, from an ROB point-of-view, the BINA would be the most successful if the 3.6-m DOT would be equipped with an efficient optical high-resolution spectrograph.

  15. Miniaturized printed K shaped monopole antenna with truncated ground plane for 2.4/5.2/5.5/5.8 wireless lan applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandan, Bharti, Gagandeep; Srivastava, Toolika; Rai, B. S.

    2018-04-01

    A novel truncated ground plane monopole antenna is proposed for wide band wireless local area network (WLAN) applications. The antenna contains a rectangular patch with a rectangular ring, a circular slot and a truncated ground plane printed on opposite sides of a low cost substrate FR4. The operating frequency bands for the antenna are band1 (2.4-2.88 GHz) and band 2 (4.8-6.3 GHz) with ≤ - 10 dB return loss which covers 2.4/5.2/5.5/5.8 GHz WLAN bands. The antenna is compact with overall dimension 26×40×0.8 mmł and with the dimension of patch 16×16×0.8 mm3. The two bands of antenna is obtained by cutting a rectangular ring and a circular slot in the patch and return loss is improved by cutting two rectangular slot in the ground plane. Performance measures of the antenna are shown in terms of return loss, current distribution, radiation pattern and gain. To verify the simulated results, the antenna is also fabricated and tested. The simulated and fabricated results have been found in good agreement.

  16. Climate policy in Belgium and the Flemish District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereno, M.

    2001-01-01

    According to the agreement of the Environment Ministers' Council of the European Union Belgium will have to reduce its overall greenhouse gas emissions by 7,5 % during the first commitment period (2008-2012) in relation to the reference year 1990. International climate change policy is implemented by Belgian federal authorities responsible for fiscal, labelling and product policies and regional authorities (Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels) responsible for energy, environmental and agricultural policies. This article discusses the important issues raised by Belgian federal and Flemish regional climate change policy. It focuses onto the Belgian national climate change plan' and the Flemish Region's policies as laid down in its regional Environmental Policy Plan. The overall context of this article is given in by the international climate change negotiations in The Hague during the sixth Conference of the Parties in execution of the United Nation's Framework on Climate Change. In conclusion of this article a brief overview of the Belgian point of view on the failed negotiations in The Hague is given. 6 refs

  17. 3-Ethylsulfinyl-2-(4-iodophenyl-5-methyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H15IO2S, the 4-iodophenyl ring makes a dihedral angle of 35.39 (8° with the plane of the benzofuran fragment. In the crystal, molecules are linked by intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...π interactions, and an I...O contact [3.378 (2 Å]. The crystal structure also exhibits aromatic π–π interactions between the benzene rings of neighbouring molecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.495 (3 Å].

  18. Triphenylbis(2,4,5-trifluoro-3-methoxybenzoatoantimony(V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqi Wang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Sb(C6H53(C8H4F3O32], the Sb atom lies on an inversion centre and exhibits a trigonal bipyramidal geometry with the axial positions occupied by the O atoms of two carboxylate groups and the equatorial positions occupied by C atoms of the phenyl groups. Intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds stabilize the molecular conformation. In the crystal structure, molecules are connected by intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions, forming a layer structure parallel to (overline{2}01.

  19. Methyl 3′,5′-dimethoxybiphenyl-4-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Nummelin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H16O4, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 28.9 (2°. In the crystal, molecules are packed in layers parallel to the b axis in which they are connected via weak intermolecular C—H...O contacts. Face-to-face π–π interactions also exist between the benzene rings of adjacent molecules, with centroid–centroid and plane-to-plane shift distances of 3.8597 (14 and 1.843 (2 Å, respectively.

  20. 3,5-Dimethoxy-4′-methylbiphenyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Lahtinen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H16O2, crystallizes with three independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. The intramolecular torsion angle between the aromatic rings of each molecule are −36.4 (3, 41.3 (3 and −37.8 (3°. In the crystal, the complicated packing of the molecules forms wave-like layers along the b and c axes. The molecules are connected via extensive methoxy–phenyl C—H...π interactions. A weak C—H...O hydrogen-bonding network also exists between methoxy O atoms and aromatic or methoxy H atoms.

  1. 5-Acetamido-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhoussaine El Ghayati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are two independent molecules of the title carboxamide compound, C6H8N4O2·H2O, as well as two independent water molecules in the asymmetric unit. The two independent carboxamide molecules differ primarily in the relative orientations of the peripheral methyl and amino groups. Intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds assist in determining the orientations of the acetamido substituents. The three-dimensional crystal packing is directed by a large network of O—H...O, N—H...O, C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds.

  2. 3,5-Dimethyl-4-nitroso-1H-pyrazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Safyanova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the unit cell of the title compound, C5H7N3O, there are two conformers (A and B which differ in the position of the oxime group with respect to the protonated pyrazole nitrogen (trans in the A conformer and cis in the B conformer and in the geometric parameters. The oxime group exists in the nitroso form in both conformers. In the crystal, molecules are linked by intermolecular N—H...O and N—H...N hydrogen bonds into zigzag-like chains along the b axis.

  3. Correlations between transmembrane 4 L6 family member 5 (TM4SF5, CD151, and CD63 in liver fibrotic phenotypes and hepatic migration and invasive capacities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkyung Kang

    Full Text Available Transmembrane 4 L6 family member 5 (TM4SF5 is overexpressed during CCl4-mediated murine liver fibrosis and in human hepatocellular carcinomas. The tetraspanins form tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs consisting of large membrane protein complexes on the cell surface. Thus, TM4SF5 may be involved in the signal coordination that controls liver malignancy. We investigated the relationship between TM4SF5-positive TEMs with liver fibrosis and tumorigenesis, using normal Chang hepatocytes that lack TM4SF5 expression and chronically TGFβ1-treated Chang cells that express TM4SF5. TM4SF5 expression is positively correlated with tumorigenic CD151 expression, but is negatively correlated with tumor-suppressive CD63 expression in mouse fibrotic and human hepatic carcinoma tissues, indicating cooperative roles of the tetraspanins in liver malignancies. Although CD151 did not control the expression of TM4SF5, TM4SF5 appeared to control the expression levels of CD151 and CD63. TM4SF5 interacted with CD151, and caused the internalization of CD63 from the cell surface into late lysosomal membranes, presumably leading to terminating the tumor-suppressive functions of CD63. TM4SF5 could overcome the tumorigenic effects of CD151, especially cell migration and extracellular matrix (ECM-degradation. Taken together, TM4SF5 appears to play a role in liver malignancy by controlling the levels of tetraspanins on the cell surface, and could provide a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of liver malignancies.

  4. 4-Phenethylthio-2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazin-7(6H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Smolnikov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the pharmacologically important pyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazin-7(6H-one scaffold for the construction of new bioactive compounds, we developed a synthesis of 4-phenethylthio-2-phenylpyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazin-7(6H-one (4 via S-alkylation of 2-phenyl-4-thioxopyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazine-7(6H-one (3, prepared by the double ring closure of pyrazole and triazine rings upon the treatment of 1-cyanoacetyl-4-benzoylthiosemicarbazide (2 with alkali. The antiproliferative activity of 4 against human lung cancer (A549 and human breast cancer (MDA-MB231 cell lines was investigated. Compound 4 was found to be more active against lung cancer cells than breast cancer cells.

  5. Ab initio/GIAO-CCSD(T) study of structures, energies, and 13C NMR chemical shifts of C4H7(+) and C5H9(+) ions: relative stability and dynamic aspects of the cyclopropylcarbinyl vs bicyclobutonium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Surya Prakash, G K; Rasul, Golam

    2008-07-16

    The structures and energies of the carbocations C 4H 7 (+) and C 5H 9 (+) were calculated using the ab initio method. The (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the carbocations were calculated using the GIAO-CCSD(T) method. The pisigma-delocalized bisected cyclopropylcarbinyl cation, 1 and nonclassical bicyclobutonium ion, 2 were found to be the minima for C 4H 7 (+) at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level. At the MP4(SDTQ)/cc-pVTZ//MP2/cc-pVTZ + ZPE level the structure 2 is 0.4 kcal/mol more stable than the structure 1. The (13)C NMR chemical shifts of 1 and 2 were calculated by the GIAO-CCSD(T) method. Based on relative energies and (13)C NMR chemical shift calculations, an equilibrium involving the 1 and 2 in superacid solutions is most likely responsible for the experimentally observed (13)C NMR chemical shifts, with the latter as the predominant equilibrating species. The alpha-methylcyclopropylcarbinyl cation, 4, and nonclassical bicyclobutonium ion, 5, were found to be the minima for C 5H 9 (+) at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level. At the MP4(SDTQ)/cc-pVTZ//MP2/cc-pVTZ + ZPE level ion 5 is 5.9 kcal/mol more stable than the structure 4. The calculated (13)C NMR chemical shifts of 5 agree rather well with the experimental values of C 5H 9 (+).

  6. (E-4-(2,5-Dimethoxybenzylidene-2-phenyl-1,3-oxazol-5(4H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohamed Asiri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The central azalactone ring in the title compound, C18H15NO4, is planar (r.m.s. deviation 0.05, 0.12 Å in both independent molecules comprising the asymmetric unit. The benzylidene substituent is coplanar with this ring [dihedral angle between the planes = 1.8 (1° in the first molecule and 2.8 (1° in the second], as is the phenyl substitutent [dihedral angle between rings = 4.6 (1 and 9.7 (1°, respectively].

  7. 3-Isobutyl-4-phenylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Shahani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C13H16N2OS, contains two independent molecules (A and B. The pyrazole ring [maximum deviations = 0.0049 (17 Å in molecule A and 0.0112 (19 Å in molecule B] makes a dihedral angle of 70.23 (11 and 73.18 (12° with the phenyl ring in molecules A and B, respectively. The isobutyl group in molecule B is disordered over two sets of sites with a ratio of refined occupancies of 0.858 (5:0.142 (5. In the crystal, molecules A and B are linked via a pair of intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating an R22(8 ring motif. These ring motifs are further linked into two-dimensional arrays parallel to the bc plane by intermolecular N—H...O and weak C—H...S hydrogen bonds. The crystal is further stablized by weak π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.5698 (13 and 3.5287 (12 Å].

  8. Total Synthesis of Two 4, 5-Dioxo-seco-eudesmane Sesquiterpenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jing FANG; Chen Xi ZHANG; Jin Chun CHEN; Guo Jun ZHENG; Yu Lin LI

    2005-01-01

    A facile synthetic route to two seco-eudesmane, 4, 5-dioxo-10-epi-4, 5-seco-γeudesmane (1) and 4, 5-dioxo-10-epi-4, 5-seco-γ-eudesmol (2) from (+)-dihydrocarvone has been described. Avoiding expensive reagents, this highly economic method especially suits for the synthesis of 4, 5-seco-eudesman-type and ophianon-type sesquiterpenes with a double bond at position 11 and 12.

  9. 2-(4-Bromophenyl-5-fluoro-3-phenylsulfinyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H12BrFO2S, the O atom and the phenyl group of the phenylsulfinyl substituent lie on opposite sides of the plane through the benzofuran fragment; the phenyl ring is nearly perpendicular to this plane [dihedral angle = 86.98 (6°]. The 4-bromophenyl ring is rotated slightly out of the benzofuran plane, making a dihedral angle of 1.56 (8°. The crystal structure features aromatic π–π interactions between the furan and phenyl rings of neighbouring molecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.506 (3 Å], and an intermolecular C—H...π interaction. The crystal structure also exhibits a short intermolecular S...S contact [3.2635 (8 Å].

  10. Methyl 4-[N-(5-bromopyrimidin-2-ylcarbamoyl]benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ling Hu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H10BrN3O3, the pyrimidine and benzene rings are twisted with an interplanar angle of 58.4 (1°. The secondary amide group adopts a cis conformation with an H—N—C—O torsion angle of 14.8 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are connected into inversion dimers via pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, generating an R22(8 motif. The dimers are further connected through a C—Br...O interaction [3.136 (1 Å and 169.31 (1°] into a chain along [110]. Weak C—H...N hydrogen bonds between the methyl benzoate groups and pyrimidine rings are also observed in the crystal structure.

  11. Ca2+-mediated generation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in pancreatic islets. Studies with K+, glucose, and carbamylcholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biden, T.J.; Peter-Riesch, B.; Schlegel, W.; Wollheim, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of Ca2+ in the generation of inositol phosphates was investigated using rat pancreatic islets after steady state labeling with myo-[2- 3 H]inositol. Depolarizing K+ concentrations (24 mM) evoked early (2 s) increases in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins-1,4,5-P3) and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins-1,3,4,5-P4) as measured by high performance anion-exchange chromatography. The increase in Ins-1,4,5-P3 was transient and was followed by a more pronounced rise in Ins-1,3,4-P3. These effects were dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ but were not secondary to release of either neurotransmitters or metabolites of arachidonic acid. K+ also promoted the breakdown of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2) and of the other phosphoinositides. Glucose (16.7 mM) was less marked in its effects but still promoted rapid increases in Ins-1,3,4,5-P4 (2 s) and Ins-1,4,5-P3 (10 s) and a slower rise in Ins-1,3,4-P3 (30 s). The levels of all three metabolites rose steadily over 10 min stimulation. These responses to glucose could be largely, although not entirely, inhibited by depletion of extracellular Ca2+ or by Ca2+ channel blockade with verapamil (20 microM). Carbamylcholine (0.5 mM) was the most potent stimulus used evoking early rises in Ins-1,4,5-P3 and Ins-1,3,4,5-P4 (2 s) followed by Ins-1,3,4-P3 (10 s), effects which were only partially dependent on extracellular Ca2+. The results suggest that a Ca2+-mediated PtdIns-4,5-P2 hydrolysis accounts for most of the Ins-1,4,5-P3 generated in response to glucose but not carbamylcholine

  12. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 4. The Neutrino

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". It's the most populous particle in the universe. Millions of these subatomic particles are passing through each one of us. With no charge and virtually no mass they can penetrate vast thicknesses of matter without any interaction - indeed the sun emits huge numbers that pass through earth at the speed of light. Neutrinos are similar to the more familiar electron, with one crucial difference: neutrinos do not carry electric charge. As a result they're extremely difficult to detect . But like HG Wells' invisible man they can give themselves away by bumping into things at high energy and detectors hidden in mines are exploiting this to observe these rare interactions.

  13. 5-Pentyl-4-phenylsulfonyl-1H-pyrazol-3-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Shahani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C14H18N2O3S, the 1H-pyrazole ring is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.005 (1 Å. The dihedral angle formed between the 1H-pyrazole and phenyl rings is 79.09 (5°. Pairs of intermolecular N—H...O and O...H...N hydrogen bonds form dimers between neighboring molecules, generating R22(10 ring motifs. These dimers are further linked byintermolecular N—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds into a two-dimensional array parallel to the ac plane. The crystal structure is also stabilized by C—H...π interactions.

  14. 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 and 5.1 5-day Harmonic Climatologies (1982-2008) (NODC Accession 0071182)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a global, 4km 5-day sea surface temperature climatology derived from harmonic analysis of the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 and 5.1 sea...

  15. One-pot synthesis of 4,8-dibromobenzo[1,2-c;4,5-c']bis[1,2,5]thiadiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Teck Lip; Li, Hairong; Wei, Fengxia; Tan, Ke Jie; Kloc, Christian; Lam, Yeng Ming; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Grimsdale, Andrew C

    2010-08-06

    A one-step synthesis of 4,8-dibromobenzo[1,2-c;4,5-c']bis[1,2,5]thiadiazole with use of 1,2,4,5-tetraaminobenzene tetrahydrobromide and thionyl bromide in good yield is reported. This unit can then be used in the synthesis of low bandgap materials via palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions. The approach offers a quick and easy way to prepare low bandgap materials as compared to the current literature methods.

  16. Synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of 5-benzylidene-2-[(pyridine-4-ylmethylenehydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-one and 2-[(pyridine-4-ylmethylene hydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danniel Delmondes Feitoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of 5-benzylidene-2-[(pyridine-4-ylmethylenehydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-ones 4a-l have been synthesized. These compounds were designed by a molecular hybridization approach. 2-[(Pyridine-4-ylmethylenehydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-ones 3a-d were also obtained and used as intermediates to give the target compounds. The in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were evaluated for both series. The intermediate 3b showed considerable antibiotic activity against B. subtilis and C. albicans. In the cytotoxic activity compounds 3b (IC50= 4.25 ± 0.36 µg/mL and 4l (IC50= 1.38 ± 0.04 µg/mL were effective for inhibition of human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K-562 and human lung carcinoma (NCI-H292 cell lines, respectively.

  17. Synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of 5-benzylidene-2-[(pyridine-4-ylmethylene)hydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-one and 2-[(pyridine-4-ylmethylene) hydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitoza, Danniel Delmondes; Alves, Antonio Jose; Lima, Jose Gildo de, E-mail: jgildolima@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife - PE (Brazil); Araujo, Janete Magali; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Rodrigues, Maria do Desterro; Silva, Teresinha Goncalves; Nascimento, Silene Carneiro do; Goes, Alexandre Jose da Silva [Departamento de Antibioticos, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife - PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    A new series of 5-benzylidene-2-[(pyridine-4-ylmethylene)hydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-ones 4a-l have been synthesized. These compounds were designed by a molecular hybridization approach. 2-[(Pyridine-4-ylmethylene)hydrazono]-thiazolidin-4-ones 3a-d were also obtained and used as intermediates to give the target compounds. The in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were evaluated for both series. The intermediate 3b showed considerable antibiotic activity against B. subtilis and C. albicans. In the cytotoxic activity compounds 3b (IC{sub 50} = 4.25 +- 0.36 {mu}g/mL) and 4l (IC{sub 50} = 1.38 +- 0.04 {mu}g/mL) were effective for inhibition of human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K-562) and human lung carcinoma (NCI-H292) cell lines, respectively. (author)

  18. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs – PI(4,5P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5P2 pool accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eRjasanow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids.Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs turn over PI(4,5P2 to PI(4P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5P2. Because cellular PI(4,5P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential.Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K+ channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5P2 and PI(4P was insensitive to VSP.Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs.

  19. Overview of radium legacies in Belgium - 59367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehandschutter, B.; Jadoul, L.; Mannaerts, K.; Pepin, S.; Poffijn, A.; Blommaert, W.; Sonck, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Belgian metallurgical company, Union Miniere, has been a key-player in the sector of radium production between 1922 and 1969. The factory based in Olen has extracted radium from minerals and produced radium sources during that period. The radium production facilities have been dismantled in the 70's but legacies of the former production have still to be remediated. An overview of these legacies and of their radiological characteristics will be given. Next to the sites related to radium production, other radium legacies are related to NORM industries, essentially from the phosphate sector (phosphogypsum and CaF 2 stacks). The issue of radium legacies in Belgium encompasses a variety of concrete situations. Next to the issue of the legacies of the former radium production, the other radium contaminated sites are related to current or former NORM industries, especially from the phosphate sector. The methodological and regulatory approaches towards these sites have been described elsewhere in these proceedings. The outcome differs according to the specificities of the site: it will not be the same for the legacies of former radium production where the inventory of radioactivity includes materials which have to be considered and treated as radioactive waste (for example, disused radium sources) than for phosphogypsum stacks where a sufficient level of protection may be brought by relatively simple measures such as restrictions on the use of the site. For these sites, like PG stacks, where radon is the most important exposure pathway in case of intrusion scenario, regulatory measures similar to the ones applied to 'radon-prone areas' (restrictions in the construction of buildings, compulsory radon monitoring in workplaces present on the site,...) may be implemented. In all cases, the radiological risk-assessment will be crucial for the decision-making process. The examples given showed that the probability of occurrence of 'intrusion scenario' (like construction of

  20. In situ and laboratory migration experiments through boom clay at Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preter, P. de; Put, M.; Canniere, P. de

    1993-01-01

    Physico-chemical characterization and migration studies in the Boom clay, envisaged as a potential host sediment for high level waste disposal in Belgium, were started some 15 years ago. A synthesis study of this experimental work has recently been conducted to compile all available data. From a comparison of the available migration data and the data requirements as derived from the performance assessment studies PAGIS (1988) and PACOMA (1991) the new migration programme (1991-1995) was defined. The critical radionuclides, both with relation to dose rates to man and to missing or unreliable migration data, turned out to be 14 C, 99 Tc. 135 Cs and 237 Np. A second group of radionuclides was found to be possibly critical: 79 Se, 93 Zr, 107 Pd, U - , Am - , Cm - , and Pu-isotopes. This report concentrates on the experimental results as obtained from the migration experiments started in the previous migration programme. Some of the reported radionuclides e.g. 90 Sr) have lost their critical character and will not be further studied within the new programme. New experimental data from laboratory tests have become available for Np, Cs, Sr and C (as HC0 3 - ) and the first results on the migration of organic molecules dissolved in the interstitial Boom clay water are reported. The hydraulic parameters (the hydraulic conductivity K and the storage coefficient S o ) were calculated from both laboratory percolation experiments and in situ piezometric measurements. Conclusions concerning Boom clay anisotropy are drawn. Finally, a short description of the ongoing in situ HTO injection experiment is given and the experimental data are analyzed and discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab